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 UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period to
Commission file number: 001-36290
mbuu-20210630_g1.jpg
MALIBU BOATS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware5075 Kimberly Way,Loudon,Tennessee3777446-4024640
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Address of principal executive offices,
including zip code)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

(865)458-5478
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 MBUUNasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
  Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by a check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).Yes
No
As of December 31, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $1,271.4 million, based on the number of shares of Class A common stock held by non-affiliates as of December 31, 2020 and the closing price of the registrant’s Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on December 31, 2020. Shares held by each executive officer, director and by each person who owns 10% or more of the outstanding Class A common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and Class B common stock, par value $0.01, as of August 24, 2021 was 20,847,019 and 10, respectively.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended June 30, 2021.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Form 10-K are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on us; demand for our products and expected industry trends, our business strategy and plans, our prospective products or products under development, our vertical integration initiatives, our acquisition strategy and management’s objectives for future operations. In particular, many of the statements under the headings “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 1. Business” constitute forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” the negative of these terms, or by other similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes to identify these forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions, involving known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Such factors include, but are not limited to: the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on us; our ability to execute our manufacturing strategy successfully; our large fixed cost base; increases in the cost of, or unavailability of, raw materials, component parts and transportation costs; disruptions in our suppliers’ operations; our reliance on third-party suppliers for raw materials and components and any interruption of our informal supply arrangements; our reliance on certain suppliers for our engines and outboard motors; our ability to meet our manufacturing workforce needs; exposure to workers' compensation claims and other workplace liabilities; our ability to grow our business through acquisitions and integrate such acquisitions to fully realize their expected benefits; our growth strategy which may require us to secure significant additional capital; our ability to protect our intellectual property; disruptions to our network and information systems; our success at developing and implementing a new enterprise resource planning system; risks inherent in operating in foreign jurisdictions; a natural disaster, global pandemic or other disruption at our manufacturing facilities; increases in income tax rates or changes in income tax laws; our dependence on key personnel; general industry, economic and business conditions; our ability to enhance existing products and market new or enhanced products; the continued strength of our brands; the seasonality of our business; intense competition within our industry; increased consumer preference for used boats or the supply of new boats by competitors in excess of demand; competition with other activities for consumers’ scarce leisure time; changes in currency exchange rates; an increase in energy and fuel costs; our reliance on our network of independent dealers and increasing competition for dealers; the financial health of our dealers and their continued access to financing; our obligation to repurchase inventory of certain dealers; our exposure to claims for product liability and warranty claims; changes to U.S. trade policy, tariffs and import/export regulations; any failure to comply with laws and regulations including environmental, workplace safety and other regulatory requirements; our holding company structure; covenants in our credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan which may limit our operating flexibility; our variable rate indebtedness which subjects us to interest rate risk; our obligation to make certain payments under a tax receivables agreement; and any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls or procedures.
We discuss many of these factors, risks and uncertainties in greater detail under the heading “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. These factors expressly qualify as forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Actual results may differ materially from those suggested by the forward-looking statements for various reasons, including those discussed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this Form 10-K to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations.

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PART I.
Item 1. Business
Unless otherwise expressly indicated or the context otherwise requires, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
we use the terms “Malibu Boats,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or similar references to refer (1) prior to the consummation of our initial public offering, or "IPO" on February 5, 2014, to Malibu Boats Holdings, LLC, or the LLC, and its consolidated subsidiaries and (2) after our IPO, to Malibu Boats, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries;
we refer to the owners of membership interests in the LLC immediately prior to the consummation of the IPO, collectively, as our “pre-IPO owners”;
we refer to owners of membership interests in the LLC (the "LLC Units"), collectively, as our “LLC members”;
references to “fiscal year” refer to the fiscal year of Malibu Boats, which ends on June 30 of each year;
we refer to our Malibu branded boats as "Malibu", our Axis Wake Research branded boats as "Axis", our Pursuit branded boats as "Pursuit", our Maverick Boat Group branded boats as "Maverick Boat Group", and our Cobalt branded boats as "Cobalt";
we use the term “recreational powerboat industry” to refer to our industry group, which includes performance sport boats, sterndrive and outboard boats;
we use the term “performance sport boat category” to refer to the industry category, consisting primarily of fiberglass boats equipped with inboard propulsion and ranging from 19 feet to 26 feet in length, which we believe most closely corresponds to (1) the inboard ski/wakeboard category, as defined and tracked by the National Marine Manufacturers Association, or NMMA, and (2) the inboard ski boat category, as defined and tracked by Statistical Surveys, Inc., or SSI;
we use the terms “sterndrive” and “outboard” to refer to the industry category, consisting primarily of sterndrive and outboard boats ranging from 20 feet to 40 feet, which most closely corresponds to the sterndrive and outboard categories, as defined and tracked by NMMA, and the sterndrive and outboard propulsion categories, as defined and tracked by SSI; in some instances, we provide market information based on specific boat lengths or boat types within the sterndrive or outboard categories to reflect our performance in those specific markets in which we offer products; and
references to certain market and industry data presented in this Form 10-K are determined as follows: (1) U.S. boat sales and unit volume for the overall powerboat industry and any powerboat category during any calendar year are based on retail boat market data from the NMMA; (2) U.S. market share and unit volume for the overall powerboat industry and any powerboat category during any fiscal year ended June 30 or any calendar year ended December 31 are based on comparable same-state retail boat registration data from SSI, as reported by the 50 states for which data was available as of the date of this Form 10-K; and (3) market share among U.S. manufacturers of exports to international markets of boats in any powerboat category for any period is based on data from the Port Import Export Reporting Service, available through March 31, 2021, and excludes such data for Australia and New Zealand.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes our trademarks, such as “ Monsoon,” “Surf Gate,” “Wakesetter,” “Surf Band,” and “Swim Step,” which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws and are the property of Malibu Boats. This Form 10-K also contains trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Form 10-K may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names.
Our Company
We are a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of a diverse range of recreational powerboats, including performance sport boats, sterndrive and outboard boats under eight brands—Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick, Cobia, Pathfinder, Hewes and Cobalt. We have the #1 market share position in the United States in the performance sport boat category through our Malibu and Axis brands and the #1 market share position in the United States in the 24’—29’ segment of the sterndrive category through our Cobalt brand, and we are among the leading market share positions in the fiberglass outboard fishing boat market with our Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group brands. Our product portfolio of premium brands are used for a broad range of recreational boating activities including, among others, water sports such as water skiing,
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wakeboarding and wake surfing, as well as general recreational boating and fishing. Our passion for consistent innovation, which has led to propriety technology such as Surf Gate, has allowed us to expand the market for our products by introducing consumers to new and exciting recreational activities. We design products that appeal to an expanding range of recreational boaters and water sports enthusiasts whose passion for boating and water sports is a key aspect of their lifestyle and provide consumers with a better customer-inspired experience. With performance, quality, value and multi-purpose features, our product portfolio has us well positioned to broaden our addressable market and achieve our goal of increasing our market share in the expanding recreational boating industry.
Our flagship Malibu boats are designed for consumers seeking a premium performance sport boat experience and offer our latest innovations in performance, comfort and convenience. Our Axis boats appeal to consumers who desire a more affordable performance sport boat product but still demand high performance, functional simplicity and the option to upgrade key features. Our Pursuit boats expand our product offerings into the saltwater outboard fishing market and include center console, dual console and offshore models. Our Maverick Boat Group family of boats, including Maverick, Cobia, Pathfinder and Hewes, are highly complementary to Pursuit and its saltwater outboard offerings with a focus in length segments under 30 feet. Our Cobalt boats consist of mid to large-sized luxury cruisers and bowriders that we believe offer the ultimate experience in comfort, performance and quality.
Our boats are constructed of fiberglass, available in a range of sizes, hull designs and propulsion systems (i.e., inboard, sterndrive and outboard). We employ experienced product development and engineering teams that enable us to offer a range of models across each of our brands while consistently introducing innovative features in our product offerings. Our engineering teams closely collaborate with our manufacturing personnel in order to improve product quality and process efficiencies. The results of this collaboration are reflected in our receipt of numerous industry awards, including;
the WakeWorld 2020 Riders Choice Award for Wakesurfing and Wakeboarding Boat of the Year for the Malibu Wakesetter 23 LSV,
the WakeWorld 2019 Innovation of the Year for the Power Wedge III,
the Boating Industry Magazine's "Top Product" award for the new Malibu M220 in 2021, Malibu M240 in 2020, Pursuit S 378 in 2020, Malibu 25 LSV in 2019, Surf Band in 2018 and for our Integrated Surf Platform ("ISP") in 2016,
the Boating Industry's Best New and Innovative Products in 2019 for the Cobalt A29,
the Sounding Trade Only Today’s “Top Most Innovative Marine Companies" for 2020 and 2019, and
the "WSIA Innovation of Year" award for our Malibu M240 M-Line Hull with Surf Gate Fusion in 2020, Malibu Monsoon Engines in 2019 and our Malibu Command Center in 2017.
We sell our boats through a dealer network that we believe is the strongest in the recreational powerboat industry. As of July 1, 2021, our distribution channel consisted of over 400 dealer locations globally. Our dealer base is an important part of our consumers’ experience, our marketing efforts and our brands. We devote significant time and resources to find, develop and improve the performance of our dealers and believe our dealer network gives us a distinct competitive advantage.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our operations and financial results since the third quarter of fiscal year 2020 and continues to have an impact on us. We elected to suspend operations at all of our facilities from March 2020 until late April and early May 2020, depending on the facility. During the first half of fiscal 2021, we constrained our production levels in an attempt to allow our supply chain to more fully recover from the impacts of COVID-19 in preparation of higher wholesale manufacturing volumes that we planned for the second half of fiscal 2021. While our net sales for fiscal year 2021 were impacted by our lower production levels, retail sales improved during fiscal year 2021 as consumers turned to boating as a form of outdoor, socially distanced recreation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in retail sales during fiscal 2021 combined with our lower wholesale shipment levels during the second half of fiscal year 2020 and constrained production in the first half of fiscal 2021 resulted in lower inventory levels at our dealers as of June 30, 2021 compared to last year. We expect these lower inventory levels, while having the potential to impact retail sales in the near-term, will provide us strong order flow for our model year 2022 product, unless broader economic activity meaningfully contracts and negatively impacts customer demand.
For more information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted us and may continue to impact us, see the risk factor “Our operations and sales have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we must successfully manage the demand, supply, and operational challenges associated with the actual or perceived effects of COVID-19 and the related
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widespread public health crisis..” under Part I. Item 1A. of this Form 10- K, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations-- Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic” under Part I., Item 7. of this Form 10-K.
Our Market Opportunity
During calendar year 2020, retail sales of new recreational powerboats in the United States totaled $13.9 billion. Of the recreational powerboat categories defined and tracked by the NMMA, we serve the top three categories of outboard, sterndrive and performance sport boat representing an addressable market of nearly $11.7 billion in retail sales through our Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt brands. The following table illustrates the size of our addressable market in units and retail sales for calendar year 2020:
Recreational Powerboat CategoryUnit SalesRetail Sales
(Dollars in millions)
Outboard197,500 $9,046 
Sterndrive10,750 1,071 
Performance sport boat13,600 1,606 
Jet boat6,900 391 
Cruisers1,700 1,807 
     Total addressable market230,450 $13,921 
Our Strengths
Leading Market Share Positions. We maintain a leading market share position in a number of recreational boating categories with our various brands. According to SSI, in 2020 we held the number one market share position in the United States for performance sport boats with our Malibu and Axis brands, the number one market share position in the United States for the 24’—29’ segment of the sterndrive boat category through our Cobalt brand, and the number two market share position in the outboard fiberglass fishing market that our Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group brands serve, in each case based on unit volume. We have grown our U.S. market share in the performance sports boat category from 24.5% in 2010 to 31.7% in 2020 and we have expanded our market share in the 24’-29’ segment of the sterndrive boat category from 14.2% in 2010 to 36.1% in 2020. Our Pursuit brand has gained share within its market since our acquisition of Pursuit and we are positioned to gain a broader share of the overall outboard fiberglass fishing market with our Maverick Boat Group brands.
Industry-leading Product Design and Innovation. We believe that our innovation in the design of new boat models and new features has been a key to our success, helping us increase our market share within our categories and generally broaden the appeal of our products among recreational boaters. As a result of the features we have introduced, such as our Integrated Surf Platform which includes patented Surf Gate and Power Wedge technology along with tailored swim steps and hard tank ballast, our boats can be used for an increasingly wide range of activities. At the same time they are increasingly easier to use, while maintaining the highest level of performance characteristics that consumers expect. Additionally, by introducing new boat models across our portfolio of brands in a range of price points, sizes, bow and hull designs, engine propulsion, and optional performance features, we believe we have enhanced consumers’ ability to select a boat suited to their individual preferences. Our commitment to developing new boat models and introducing new features are reflected in the fact we consistently and successfully bring multiple new model introductions year after year.
Focus on Vertical Integration Opportunities. We have vertically integrated a number of key components of our manufacturing process, including the manufacturing of our own engines, boat trailers, towers and tower accessories, machined and billet parts, and soft grip flooring. We began including our engines, branded as Malibu Monsoon engines, in our Malibu and Axis boats for model year 2019. We believe our engine marinization initiative will reduce our reliance on our previous engine suppliers for our Malibu and Axis brands while reducing the risk that a change in cost or production from any engine supplier for such brands could adversely affect our business. Recently we began producing soft grip flooring for our Malibu, Axis and new Cobalt models. Vertical integration of key components of our boats gives us the ability to increase incremental margin per boat sold by reducing our cost base and improving the efficiency of our manufacturing process. Additionally, it allows us to have greater control over design, consumer customization options, construction quality, and our supply chain. We continually review our manufacturing process to identify opportunities for additional vertical integration investments across our portfolio of premium brands.
Intellectual Property. A key element of our growth and increased market share has been our intellectual property, which we believe is the best in our industry. Among the most innovative and sought after features on our boats has been Surf Gate. Together with Power Wedge and Surf Band, we believe that these patented technologies will continue to drive demand for our
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products and increase margins across our brands. In fiscal 2018 we acquired Swim Step, through our acquisition of Cobalt, which further increases the appeal of our product portfolio. Consequently, there is an increased need to vigorously defend our patents and other intellectual property to ensure we maintain our competitive edge. Because of the appeal of these technologies, we have entered into agreements to license them to other manufacturers within the performance sport boat category. We believe licensing our products provides us with a significant strategic advantage over our competitors by allowing us to expand into other markets and broadening the appeal of these technologies into segments that would not otherwise have them, thereby eventually creating a path to a Malibu purchase.
Strong Dealer Network. We have worked diligently with our dealers to cultivate one of the strongest distribution networks in the recreational powerboat industry. We believe that our distribution network allows us to distribute our products more broadly and effectively than our competitors. We continually review our geographic coverage to identify opportunities for expansion and improvement, and will, where necessary, add dealer locations to address previously underserved markets or replace underperforming dealers.
Highly Recognized Brands. We believe our Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt brands are widely recognized in the recreational powerboat industry, which helps us reach a growing number of target consumers. For over 30 years, our Malibu brand has generated a loyal following of recreational boaters and water sports enthusiasts who value the brand’s premium performance and features, while our Axis brand has grown rapidly as consumers have been drawn to its more affordable price point and available optional features. We also have acquired six well-known brands in Pursuit, Cobia, Pathfinder, Maverick, Hewes and Cobalt. For the past 35 years, Pursuit has established a premium brand in the saltwater outboard fishing market through its extensive dealer network and longstanding commitment to customers and Maverick Boat Group has developed a strong reputation for saltwater outboard product offerings with its brands of center console and bay boats. Cobalt has developed into one of the industry’s most recognizable and respected large-sized luxury cruiser brands over its 50-year history. We build on our brand recognition and support through a series of marketing initiatives coordinated with our dealers or executed directly by us. Our marketing efforts are conducted using an array of strategies, which include digital advertising, social media engagement, advertisements in endemic media and the sponsorship of grass-roots boating and watersport events. Additionally, our boats, their innovative features, our sponsored athletes and our dealers all frequently win industry awards, which we believe further boosts our brand recognition and reputation for excellence. We believe our marketing strategies and accomplishments enhance our profile in the industry, strengthen our credibility with consumers and dealers, and increase the appeal of our brands.
Diverse Product Offering. We are able to engage consumers across multiple categories within the recreational powerboat industry. Malibu and Axis are market leaders in the performance sport boat category, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group compete in the saltwater outboard fishing boat market with center console, dual console, offshore models, flats and bay boats, and Cobalt operates in the sterndrive category and has also expanded into wake surfing and outboard product lines.
Our Strategy
We intend to grow our leading market share positions within recreational powerboat industry through the following strategies:
Continue to Develop New and Innovative Products in Our Categories. We intend to continue developing and introducing new and innovative products—both new boat models to better address a broader range of consumers and new features to deliver better performance, functionality, convenience, comfort and safety to our consumers. We believe that new products and features are important to the growth of our market share, the continued expansion of our categories and our ability to maintain attractive margins.
Our product development strategy consists of a two-pronged approach. First, we seek to introduce new boat models to target unaddressed or underserved segments of the recreational powerboat industry, while also updating and refreshing our existing boat models regularly. Second, we seek to develop and integrate innovative new or enhanced optional feature offerings into our boats. For our Malibu and Axis brands, this includes Surf Gate, Malibu Command Center with Wireless Charging, Power Wedge III, Tower Mister, Fast Fill Ballast System, G5 and the power actuated Gx Towers, integrated Garmin touch screens on all new model Axis, and integrated flip down Swim Step, including the electric version on some new Malibu models. For Cobalt, it includes outboard propulsion models to expand its addressable market. Cobalt has been able to achieve growth in recent years partly by expanding its presence in the sterndrive surfing category through its Cobalt Surf series, which now features Surf Gate. In addition, other new features have included Splash and Stow, the hydraulic submersible swim platform and a new electronic flip down Swim Step. For the Pursuit brand, the focus has been on expanding our award winning Dual Console and Sport product offerings that continue to combine innovative features and dependable performance in refined designs that accommodate a broad array of activities on the water, including the Electric Sliding Entertainment Center on the S 378 and the sliding second row center console seating on the S 428. We intend to continue releasing new products and features
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multiple times during the year, which we believe enhances our reputation as a leading innovator in boat manufacturing and provides us with a competitive advantage. We are in the early stages of developing enhanced product development roadmaps for our Maverick Boat Group brands and believe our experience driving innovation at our other brands will translate to enhanced innovation there.
Further Strengthen Our Dealer Network. Our goal is to achieve and maintain leading market share in each of the categories in which we operate. We continually assess our distribution network and believe we take the actions necessary to achieve our goal. We intend to strengthen our current footprint by selectively recruiting market-leading dealers who currently sell our competitors’ products. In addition, we plan to continue expanding our dealer network in certain geographic areas to increase consumer access and service in strategic markets. We believe our targeted initiatives to enhance and grow our dealer network across all of our brands will increase unit sales in the future.
Continue to Seek Vertical Integration Opportunities. Over the past several years, we have focused on expanding our vertical integration capabilities, having brought in-house the production of towers and tower accessories, trailers, machined and billet parts, and, most recently, producing our own engines for our Malibu and Axis boats and soft grip flooring for our Malibu, Axis and new Cobalt models. Additional vertical integration opportunities exist across our product portfolio and we are aggressively monitoring these opportunities.
Selectively Pursue Strategic Acquisitions. One of our growth strategies is to drive growth in our business through targeted acquisitions that add value while considering our existing brands and product portfolio. We acquired Maverick Boat Group in December 2020, Pursuit in October 2018, and Cobalt in July 2017. The primary objectives of our acquisitions are to expand our presence in new or adjacent categories, to expand into other product lines that may benefit from our operating strengths, and to increase the size of our addressable market. When we identify potential acquisitions, we attempt to target companies with a leading market share, strong cash flows, and an experienced management team and workforce that provide a fit with our existing operations. After completing an acquisition, we focus on integrating the company with our existing business to provide additional value to the combined entity through cost savings and revenue synergies, such as the optimization of manufacturing operations, improved processes around product development, enhancement of our existing dealer distribution network, accelerated innovation, administrative cost savings, shared procurement, vertical integration and cross-selling opportunities.
Our Products and Brands
We design, manufacture and sell recreational powerboats, including performance sport boats, sterndrive and outboard boats across eight world-renowned brands: Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick, Cobia, Pathfinder, Hewes, and Cobalt. We believe we deliver superior performance for general recreational purposes with a significant focus on water sports, including
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wakeboarding, water skiing and wake surfing as well as general recreational boating and fishing. In addition, we also offer various accessories and aftermarket parts. The following table provides an overview of our product offerings by brand:
Reportable SegmentBrandNumber of
Models
LengthsRetail Price
Range
(In thousands)
Description
MalibuMalibu1220'-25'$65-$215Founded in 1982, Malibu targets consumers seeking a premium boating experience with our latest innovations in performance, comfort and convenience. Across our three product lines, we offer a variety of products to customers from our Response Series tailored for high-performance water ski to highly customizable options in our Wakesetter series to our ultra premium models in the M Series.
Axis520’-24’$70-$120Launched in 2009, Axis was formed to target a younger demographic by providing a more affordably priced, high quality, entry-level boat with high performance, functional simplicity and the option to upgrade key features such as Surf Gate.
Saltwater FishingPursuit1424'-44'$100-$1,200Launched in 1977, Pursuit is a premium brand of saltwater outboard fishing boats available in three product lines including our sports center consoles, dual consoles and our offshore series to provide customers with options for ideal fishing as well as casual cruising and luxury entertainment.
Cobia1420'-35'$55-$475Founded in 1985, and acquired by Maverick Boat Group in 2005, Cobia models consist of center console and dual console vessels that are designed to promote ease of boating and fishing for all levels of anglers and boaters.
Pathfinder820'-27'$50-$220Launched in 1984, by the Maverick Boat Group, Pathfinder provides the most versatile inshore fishing boat. The product of bay boats provides for dedicated anglers to fish and do so with comfort, safety and proven technology.
Maverick and Hewes616'-21'$45-$105
Maverick, since 1984 and Hewes for 60 years have been designed to tailor to shallow inshore flats anglers. These boats, with vacuum infused (VARIS) construction and enhanced performance, provide a legacy of dependability, unmatched ride, and exceptional craftsmanship.
CobaltCobalt1622’-36’$65-$500Founded in 1967, Cobalt is a premium luxury sterndrive and outboard boat manufacturer available in five product lines. Our products tailor sterndrive from entry level to premium with options to expand some models with the patented SurfGate, as well as our outboard series for increased saltwater use.
Innovative Features
In addition to the standard features included on all of our boats, we offer consumers a full selection of innovative optional features designed to enhance performance, functionality and the overall boating experience. We believe our innovative features drive our high average selling prices. Among our most successful and most innovative has been Surf Gate. Introduced in July 2012 and initially patented in September 2013, Surf Gate is available as an optional feature on all Malibu, Axis and certain Cobalt models. Surf Gate has revolutionized the increasingly popular sport of wake surfing. Prior to Surf Gate, boaters needed to empty ballast tanks on one side of the boat and shift passengers around to lean the boat to create a larger, more pronounced surf-quality wake. By employing precisely engineered and electronically controlled panels, Surf Gate alleviates this time-consuming and cumbersome process, allowing boaters to easily surf behind an evenly weighted boat without the need to wait for ballast changes. We have also developed our patented Surf Band technology that allows the rider to control the surf wave, shape, size and side. Some of our other notable innovations include Power Wedge III, G5 and the power actuated GX Tower, Electronic Dashboard Controls, Swim Step, Tower Mister, Splash and Stow and TrueWave. We won the Boating Industry Magazine's "Top Product" award for the Malibu M220 in 2021, Malibu M240 in 2020, Pursuit S 378 in 2020, Malibu 25 LSV in 2019, Surf Band in 2018 and for our Integrated Surf Platform ("ISP") in 2016, as well as the Boating Industry's Best New and Innovative Products in 2019 for the Cobalt A29. We have also been recognized as Sounding Trade Only Today’s “2020 and 2019 Top Most Innovative Marine Companies,” and we earned the honors of "WSIA Innovation of Year" award for the
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Malibu M240 M-Line Hull with Surf Gate Fusion in 2020, Malibu Monsoon Engines in 2019 and our Malibu Command Center in 2017.
We also offer an array of less technological, but nonetheless value-added boat features such as gelcoat upgrades, upholstery upgrades, engine drivetrain enhancements (such as silent exhaust tips, propeller upgrades and closed cooling engine configuration), sound system upgrades, bimini tops, boat covers and trailers which further increase the level of customization afforded to consumers.
Our Dealer Network
We rely on independent dealers to sell our products. We establish performance criteria that our dealers must meet as part of their dealer agreements to ensure our dealer network remains the strongest in the industry. As a member of our network, dealers may qualify for floor plan financing programs, rebates, seasonal discounts, promotional co-op payments and other allowances. We believe our dealer network is the most extensive in the market.
North America
As of July 1, 2021, our dealer network consisted of over 300 dealer locations servicing the performance sport boat, sterndrive, and outboard markets strategically located throughout the U.S. and Canada. Approximately 50% of our dealer locations have been with us, or with Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group or Cobalt, prior to our acquisition of them, for over ten years. Our top ten dealers represented 38.7%, 38.5% and 39.6%, of our net sales for fiscal year 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The top ten dealers for each of Malibu, Saltwater Fishing and Cobalt represented approximately 47.6%, 64.0% and 52.3%, respectively, of net sales in fiscal year 2021. The top ten dealers for each segment are not the same across all segments. Sales to our dealers under common control of OneWater Marine, Inc. represented approximately 16.3%, 15.2% and 15.1% of consolidated net sales in fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019 respectively including approximately 14.0%, 31.8% and 19.0% of consolidated sales in fiscal year 2021 for Malibu, Saltwater Fishing and Cobalt, respectively.
We consistently review our distribution network to identify opportunities to expand our geographic footprint and improve our coverage of the market. We believe that our diverse product offering and strong market position in each region of the United States helped us capitalize on growth opportunities as our industry recovered from the economic downturn. We have the ability to opportunistically add new dealers and new dealer locations to previously underserved markets and use data and performance metrics to monitor dealer performance. We believe our outstanding dealer network allows us to distribute our products more efficiently than our competitors.
International
We have an extensive international distribution network for our Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt brands. As of July 1, 2021, our dealer network consisted of over 100 dealer locations throughout Europe, Asia, Middle East, South America, South Africa, and Australia/New Zealand.
Dealer Management
Our relationship with our dealers is governed through dealer agreements. Each dealer agreement has a finite term lasting between one and three years. Our dealer agreements also are typically terminable without cause by the dealer with 60 days’ prior notice and by us for a dealer failing to meet performance criteria. We may also generally terminate these agreements immediately for cause upon certain events. Pursuant to our dealer agreements, the dealers typically agree to, among other things:
represent our products at specified boat shows;
market our products only to retail end users in a specific geographic territory;
promote and demonstrate our products to consumers;
place a specified minimum number of orders of our products during the term of the agreement in exchange for rebate or discount eligibility that varies according to the level of volume they commit to purchase;
provide us with regular updates regarding the number and type of our products in their inventory;
maintain a service department to service our products, and perform all appropriate warranty service and repairs; and
indemnify us for certain claims.
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Our dealer network, including all additions, renewals, non-renewals or terminations, is managed by our sales personnel. Our sales teams operate using a semi-annual dealer review process involving our senior management team. Each individual dealer is reviewed semi-annually with a broad assessment across multiple key elements, including the dealer’s geographic region, market share and customer service ratings, to identify underperforming dealers for remediation and to manage the transition process when non-renewal or termination is a necessary step.

We have developed a system of financial incentives for our dealers based on customer satisfaction and achievement of best practices. Our brands employ dealer incentive programs that have been refined through decades of experience at each brand and may, from time to time, include the following elements:
Rebates. Our domestic dealers agree to volume commitments that are used to determine applicable rebates. The structure of the dealer incentive depends on the brand represented. If a dealer meets its volume commitments as well as other terms of the dealer performance program, the dealer is entitled to the specified amounts subject to full compliance with our programs. Failure to meet the commitment volume or other terms of the program may result in partial or complete forfeiture of the dealer’s rebate.
Co-op. Dealers of the Malibu, Axis, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group product line may earn certain co-op reimbursements upon reaching a specified level of qualifying expenditures.
Free flooring. Our dealers that take delivery of current model year boats in the offseason, typically July through April, are entitled to have us pay the interest to floor the boat until the earlier of (1) the retail sale of the unit or (2) a date near the end of the current model year. This program is an additional incentive to encourage dealers to order in the offseason and helps us balance our seasonal production.
Our dealer incentive programs are structured to promote more evenly distributed ordering throughout the fiscal year, which allows us to achieve better level-loading of our production and thereby generate plant operating efficiencies. In addition, these programs may offer further rewards for dealers who are exclusive to our brands.
Floor Plan Financing
Our North American dealers often purchase boats through floor plan financing programs with third-party floor plan financing providers. During fiscal year 2021, approximately 80% of our North American shipments were made pursuant to floor plan financing programs through which our dealers participate. These programs allow dealers across our brands to establish lines of credit with third-party lenders to purchase inventory. Under these programs, a dealer draws on the floor plan facility upon the purchase of our boats and the lender pays the invoice price of the boats. As is typical in our industry, we have entered into repurchase agreements with certain floor plan financing providers to our dealers. Under the terms of these arrangements, in the event a lender repossesses a boat from a dealer that has defaulted on its floor financing arrangement and is able to deliver the repossessed boat to us, we are obligated to repurchase the boat from the lender. Our obligation to repurchase such repossessed products for the unpaid balance of our original invoice price for the boat is subject to reduction or limitation based on the age and condition of the boat at the time of repurchase, and in certain cases by an aggregate cap on repurchase obligations associated with a particular floor financing program.
Our exposure under repurchase agreements with third-party lenders is mitigated by our ability to reposition inventory with a new dealer in the event that a repurchase event occurs. The primary cost to us of a repurchase event is any margin loss on the resale of a repurchased unit. Historically, we have been able to resell repurchased boats at an amount that exceeds our cost. In addition, the historical margin loss on the resale of repurchased units has often been below 10% of the repurchased amount. For fiscal year 2021, we did not repurchase any boats under our repurchase agreements. For fiscal year 2020, we repurchased two units from a lender of one of our former dealers and those units were subsequently resold in fiscal year 2020 above their cost and at a minimal margin loss. For fiscal year 2019, we repurchased eight units from a lender of two of our former dealers and those units were subsequently resold in fiscal year 2020 above their cost and at minimal margin loss.
Marketing and Sales
We believe that providing a high level of service to our dealers and end consumers is essential to maintaining our reputation. Our sales personnel receive training on the latest Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt products and technologies, as well as training on our competitors’ products and technologies, and attend trade shows to increase their market knowledge. This training is then passed along to our dealers to ensure a consistent marketing message and leverage our marketing expenditures. Malibu, Axis, Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt enjoy strong brand awareness, as evidenced by our substantial market share in their respective categories.
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Our marketing strategy focuses on building brand awareness and loyalty in the inboard towboat market with Malibu and Axis brands and the outboard and sterndrive markets with Pursuit, Maverick Boat Group and Cobalt brands. Activating the marketing strategy involves creating custom content to be utilized in outbound marketing campaigns and social media to engage owners and prospects. In addition to retail websites developed for each of those brands and their unique consumers, the brands also manage all other aspects of marketing including traditional print advertising and trade shows.
Product Development and Engineering
We are strategically and financially committed to innovation, as reflected in our dedicated product development and engineering teams located in Tennessee, Kansas, California, and Florida and evidenced by our track record of new product introduction. These individuals bring to our product development efforts significant expertise across core disciplines, including boat design, trailer design, computer-aided design, electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. They are responsible for execution of all facets of our new product strategy, including designing new and refreshed boat models and new features, engineering these designs for manufacturing and integrating new features into our boats. In addition, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Operating Officer are actively involved in the product development process and integration into manufacturing.
We take a disciplined approach to the management of our product development strategy. We use a formalized phase gate process, overseen by a dedicated project manager, to develop, evaluate and implement new product ideas for both boat models and innovative features. Application of the phase gate process requires management to establish an overall timeline that is sub-divided into milestones, or “gates,” for product development. Setting milestones at certain intervals in the product development process ensures that each phase of development occurs in an organized manner and enables management to become aware of and address any issues in a timely fashion, which facilitates on-time, on-target release of new products with expected return on investment. Extensive testing and coordination with our manufacturing group are important elements of our product development process, which we believe enable us to minimize the risk associated with the release of new products. Our phase gate process also facilitates our introduction of new boat models and features throughout the year, which we believe provides us with a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Finally, in addition to our process for managing new product introductions in a given fiscal year, we also engage in longer-term product life cycle and product portfolio planning.
Manufacturing
Malibu has six manufacturing facilities located in four U.S. states and Australia. We produce performance sport boats through our Malibu and Axis brands at our Tennessee and Australia manufacturing facilities; we produce sterndrive and outboard boats through our Cobalt brand at our Kansas manufacturing facility; and we produce saltwater outboard boats under our Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group brands in Fort Pierce, Florida. We completed expansion projects at our facilities in Kansas (Cobalt) and Florida (Pursuit) during fiscal year 2020 and we are currently expanding in Florida (Maverick Boat Group) with expected completion in the first half of calendar 2022. For our Malibu and Axis brands, we manufacture towers, tower accessories and stainless steel and aluminum billet at our California facility and engines and trailers at our Tennessee facility.
Our boats are built through a continuous flow manufacturing process that encompasses fabrication, assembly, quality management and testing. Each boat is produced on an established cycle depending on model that includes the fabrication of the hull and deck through gelcoat application and fiberglass lamination, grinding and hole cutting, installation of components, rigging, finishing, detailing and on-the-water testing. Production of cruisers occurs on a dedicated line that allows for the increased time needed to add the additional content required for production of larger boats. Our trailers are produced in a continuous flow manufacturing process involving cutting and bending of the main frame from raw top grade carbon steel, painting using our state of the art system and installation of components. We also vertically integrated the production of our engines for Malibu and Axis and began installing our Malibu Monsoon Engines into our Malibu and Axis brand boats for model year 2019. We manufacture certain components and subassemblies for our boats, such as upholstery, stainless steel and aluminum billet and towers, and soft grip flooring. We procure other components, such as electronic controls, from third-party vendors and install them on the boat. We are marinizing our own engines for our Malibu and Axis brands. Our tower-related manufacturing in California uses multiple computer-controlled machines to cut all of the aluminum parts required for tower assembly. We are the only performance sport boat company that manufacturers towers in-house. We believe that the vertical integration of these components is a distinct competitive advantage that allows us to control key design elements of our boats and generate higher margins.
We are committed to continuous improvement in our operations, and we believe our efforts in this regard have resulted in higher gross margins. Specifically, we have increased labor efficiency and reduced cost of materials. Our production engineers evaluate and seek to optimize the configuration of our production line given our production volumes and model mix. We use disciplined mold maintenance procedures to maintain the usable life of our molds and to reduce surface defects that would require rework. We have instituted scrap material reduction and recovery processes, both internally and with our supplier base,
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helping to manage our material costs. Finally, we have implemented a quality management system to ensure that proper procedures and control measures are in place to deliver consistent, high-quality product, especially as our production volumes have increased.
Suppliers
We purchase a wide variety of raw materials from our supplier base, including resins, fiberglass, hydrocarbon feedstocks and steel, as well as product parts and components, such as engines and electronic controls, through a sales order process. The most significant component used in manufacturing our boats, based on cost, are engines. Through our vertical integration initiative to marinize our own engines, we entered into an engine supply agreement with General Motors LLC (“General Motors”) in November 2016 for the supply of engine blocks to use in our Malibu and Axis brand boats which began in our model year 2019 and will continue through model year 2023. We adopted this strategy in order to more directly control product path (design, innovation, calibration and integration) of our largest dollar procured part, to differentiate our product from our competitors, and to increase our ability to respond to ongoing changes in the marketplace.
Pursuant to the engine supply agreement, we will submit purchase orders for engines to General Motors and, so long as we are not in breach of the engine supply agreement, General Motors will deliver engines pursuant to the purchase orders. No minimum amount of engines is required to be ordered by us and the parties must discuss any potential capacity increases above 7,000 engines annually. The engine supply agreement will expire on November 14, 2023, unless terminated earlier by either party as permitted under the terms of the agreement. General Motors may terminate the engine supply agreement due to market conditions with at least eighteen (18) months’ advanced written notice. Either party may terminate the agreement as a result of a change of control of Malibu Boats, Inc., as defined in the agreement, with at least eighteen (18) months’ advanced written notice. Either party may also terminate the engine supply agreement due to breach of the other party upon written notice and after providing 60 days to cure any breach. General Motors may also suspend engine deliveries to Malibu Boats in the event of a force majeure, as defined in the engine supply agreement. General Motors will provide up to a one-year warranty on the engines supplied to us and we have agreed to indemnify General Motors for claims and costs arising from or relating to the engines resulting from our actions.
We also have two joint marketing agreements with Yamaha Motor Corporation, U.S.A., or Yamaha, that require us to supply most of our boats that are pre-rigged with outboard motors with Yamaha outboard engines. In August 2018, we entered into a joint marketing agreement with Yamaha that became effective upon completion of our acquisition of Pursuit. Under our agreement with Yamaha, in exchange for certain incentives, we have agreed to purchase Yamaha outboard engines for use in all Pursuit and Cobalt branded boats that are pre-equipped with outboard motors when sold by us, except for up to 10% of Pursuit and Cobalt branded boats for sale in the United States. In addition, Maverick Boat Group has an agreement with Yamaha that we assumed when we acquired Maverick Boat Group. Under that agreement, Maverick Boat Group, in exchange for certain incentives, has agreed to purchase Yamaha outboard engines for use in all Maverick Boat Group branded boats that are pre- equipped with outboard motors when sold by us, except for up to 15% of Maverick Boat Group branded boats for sale in the United States and certain other limited exceptions. Our agreements with Yamaha that cover our Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group branded boats are scheduled to expire on June 30, 2023, unless extended by the parties to such agreement.
We have experienced intermittent supply chain delays throughout the pandemic and also as a result of severe winter weather in certain parts of the United States. Limited parts availability led us to limit our production levels during the first half of fiscal 2021 in an attempt to allow our supply chain to partially recover in preparation for higher manufacturing volumes that we planned for the second half of fiscal 2021. We continue to see supply chain disruptions that we believe are caused by the dislocation in the labor and logistics markets as well as upstream supply challenges.
Insurance and Product Warranties
We carry various insurance policies, including policies to cover general products liability, workers’ compensation and other casualty and property risks, to protect against certain risks of loss consistent with the exposures associated with the nature and scope of our operations. Our policies are generally based on our safety record as well as market trends in the insurance industry and are subject to certain deductibles, limits and policy terms and conditions.
Our Malibu and Axis brand boats have a limited warranty for a period up to five years. Our Cobalt brand boats have (1) a structural warranty of up to ten years which covers the hull, deck joints, bulkheads, floor, transom, stringers, and motor mount, and (2) a five year bow-to-stern warranty on all components manufactured or purchased (excluding hull and deck structural components), including canvas and upholstery. Gelcoat is covered up to three years for Cobalt and one year for Malibu and Axis. Pursuit brand boats have a (1) limited warranty for a period of up to five years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom, and (2) a bow-to-stern warranty of two years (excluding hull and deck structural components). Maverick, Pathfinder and Hewes brand boats have (1) a limited warranty for a period of up to five years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom and (2) a bow to stern
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warranty of one year (excluding hull and deck structural components). Cobia brand boats have (1) a limited warranty for a period of up to ten years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom and (2) a bow to stern warranty of three years (excluding hull and deck structural components). For each boat brand, there are certain materials, components or parts of the boat that are not covered by our warranty and certain components or parts that are separately warranted by the manufacturer or supplier (such as the engine). Our Malibu Monsoon engines that we manufacture for Malibu and Axis models have a limited warranty of up to five years or five-hundred hours.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of patent, trademark and copyright protection, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our rights in our brand, products and proprietary technology. This is an important part of our business and we intend to continue protecting our intellectual property. By law, our patent rights have limited lives and expire periodically. Our boat patent rights relate to boat design, features and components that we feel are important to our competitive position in our business. Some of our well known patents include our Surf Gate and Swim Step for our Malibu and Cobalt segments and Power Wedge for our Malibu segment.
Our trademarks which are registered in the U.S. and various countries around the world, generally may endure in perpetuity on a country-by-country basis, provided that we comply with all statutory maintenance requirements, including continued use of each trademark in each such country. Some of our well known trademarks include: (i) for our Malibu segment, Malibu, Axis, Monsoon, Power Wedge, Surf Band, Surf Gate, and Wakesetter; (ii) for our Saltwater Fishing Segment, Pursuit, Cobia, Maverick, and Redfisher; and (iii) for our Cobalt segment, Cobalt and Splash & Stow.
Competition
The recreational powerboat industry, including the performance sport boat, sterndrive and outboard categories, is highly competitive for consumers and dealers. Competition affects our ability to succeed in the markets we currently serve and new markets that we may enter in the future. We compete with several large manufacturers that may have greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do. We compete with large manufacturers who are represented by dealers in the markets in which we now operate and into which we plan to expand. We also compete with a wide variety of small, independent manufacturers. Competition in our industry is based primarily on brand name, price and product performance.
Safety and Regulatory Matters
Our operations and products are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety regulation under various federal, commonwealth, state, and local statutes, ordinances, rules and regulations in the United States and Australia where we manufacture our boats, and in other foreign jurisdictions where we sell our products. We believe we are in material compliance with those requirements. However, we cannot be certain that costs and expenses required for us to comply with such requirements in the future, including for any new or modified regulatory requirements, or to address newly discovered environmental conditions, will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or cash flow. The regulatory programs to which we are subject include the following:
Hazardous Materials and Waste
Certain materials used in our manufacturing, including the resins used in production of our boats, are toxic, flammable, corrosive or reactive and are classified as hazardous materials by the national, state and local governments in those jurisdictions where we manufacture our products. The handling, storage, release, treatment and recycling or disposal of these substances and wastes from our operations are regulated in the United States by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“USEPA”), and state and local environmental agencies. The handling, storage, release, treatment and recycling or disposal of these substances and wastes from our operations are regulated in Australia by the Australian Department of Environment and Energy, the New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency and other state and local authorities. Failure by us to properly handle, store, release, treat, recycle or dispose of our hazardous materials and wastes could result in liability for us, including fines, penalties, or obligations to investigate and remediate any contamination originating from our operations or facilities. We are not aware of any material contamination at our current or former facilities for which we could be liable under environmental laws or regulations, and we currently are not undertaking any remediation or investigation activities in connection with any contamination. Future spills or accidents or the discovery of currently unknown conditions or non-compliance could, however, could give rise to investigation and remediation obligations or related liabilities.
Air Quality
In the United States, the federal Clean Air Act (“CAA”) and corresponding state and local laws and rules regulate emissions of air pollutants. Because our manufacturing operations involve molding and coating of fiberglass materials, which
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involves the emission of certain volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and particulate matter, we are required to maintain and comply with a CAA operating permit (Title V permit) for our Tennessee, Kansas and Florida facilities and local air permits for our California facilities. Our air permits generally require us to monitor our emissions and periodically certify that our emissions are within specified limits. To date, we have not had material difficulty complying with those limits.
The USEPA and the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) have adopted regulations stipulating that many marine propulsion engines and watercraft meet certain air emission standards. Some of these standards require fitting a catalytic converter to the engine. These regulations also require, among other things, that engine manufacturers provide a warranty that their engines meet USEPA and CARB emission standards. The engines used in our products are subject to these regulations. CARB has adopted an evaporative emissions regulation that applies to all spark-ignition marine watercraft with permanently installed fuel tanks sold in California. This regulation requires subject boat manufacturers to use specific CARB-certified components for the fuel systems in their boats, or to certify the boat meets a related performance standard. While we believe that our boats meet all applicable emission standards, the USEPA and CARB emissions regulations have increased the cost to manufacture our products.
OSHA
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) standards address workplace safety generally, and limit the amount of emissions to which an employee may be exposed without the need for respiratory protection or upgraded plant ventilation. Our facilities are regularly inspected by OSHA and by state and local inspection agencies and departments. We believe that our facilities comply in all material aspects with these regulations. Although capital expenditures related to compliance with environmental and safety laws are expected to increase, we do not currently anticipate any material expenditure will be required to continue to comply with existing OSHA environmental or safety regulations in connection with our existing manufacturing facilities.
At our New South Wales, Australia (“NSW”) facility, employee health and safety is regulated by SafeWork NSW, which also has requirements that limit the amount of certain emissions to which an employee may be exposed without the need for respiratory protection or upgraded plant ventilation. In addition, SafeWork NSW provides licensing and registration for potentially dangerous work, investigates workplace incidents, and enforces work health and safety laws in NSW. Our NSW facilities can be routinely inspected by SafeWork NSW. We believe that our facilities comply in all material aspects with these requirements.
Boat Design and Manufacturing Standards
Powerboats sold in the United States must be manufactured to meet the standards of certification required by the United States Coast Guard. In addition, boats manufactured for sale in the European Community must be certified to meet the European Community’s imported manufactured products standards. These certifications specify standards for the design and construction of powerboats. We believe that all of our boats meet these standards. In addition, safety of recreational boats in the United States is subject to federal regulation under the Boat Safety Act of 1971, which requires boat manufacturers to recall products for replacement of parts or components that have demonstrated defects affecting safety. We have instituted recalls for defective component parts produced by certain of our third-party suppliers, including a recall on our fuel pumps supplied by a third party during fiscal year 2019. None of our recalls have had a material adverse impact on us.
Human Capital Management
Employee Profile
As of July 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we had approximately 2,645, 1,795 and 1,835 employees worldwide, respectively. None of our team members are party to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe in working diligently to establish ourselves as an employer of choice.
Employee Well Being
We recognize employees are the heart of our organization and support them by offering a range of competitive pay, recognition and benefit programs. We provide market-competitive pay and benefits to encourage performance that creates sustainable and long-term employment. We believe in internal promotion where possible and are committed to developing our current team members to become the next generation of leaders throughout the organization. Approximately 70% of our production leaders are internal promotions. We provide tuition assistance programs and take advantage of leadership development where possible. We hire students from across the country in our Engineering Internship Program and many come to work for us after attaining their degree.
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Safety is a core value of our organization and we are committed to fostering a culture where safety is a number one priority. The success of our business depends, in part, upon the prevention of accidents, the reduction and/or prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses, and compliance with established safety and health policies and requirements. Dependent upon job tasks, some personnel will be required to have OSHA training and/or documentation to satisfy job requirements. Workplace safety is a fundamental organizational-wide value, and we are committed to running an efficient program. We remain focused on building a safer workplace for our employees and will continue to work toward an injury free workplace through the implementation of training and other industry-leading safety initiatives.
Culture and Values
Our mission statement is a formal summary of our core purpose and focus and clearly communicates who we are. Our mission is to create the ultimate on the water lifestyle. Our core values are the guiding principles that dictate how we make decisions and interact with each other daily. We are committed to our core values of Safety, Integrity, People, Quality, Innovation, Customer Focus, and Continuous Improvement. We design products that appeal to an expanding range of recreational boaters, fisherman and water sports enthusiasts whose passion for boating is a key component of their active lifestyle. With our many awards and honors, we cultivate a culture of excellence and premier boat building.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are committed to maintaining an employee-first culture. We are dedicated to protecting the well-being of our employees while creating a culture that promotes inclusivity, acceptance, equality and diversity. Our employees bring a blend of diverse backgrounds to promote an inclusive workforce and the opportunity for career growth for all employees. We seek to hire the best qualified individuals and do not discriminate on the basis of race, creed, color, religion, national origin, citizenship status, age, disability, marital status, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity and similar classification. We continually are evaluating our internal processes and programs to further build on our diverse, equitable and inclusive culture. We value our team and are committed to treating all employees with dignity and respect.
Community Involvement
We continually strive to make an impact on our local communities and serve them with gratitude. Each year, we partner with community organizations where our facilities are located and support local schools. In Tennessee, we partner with Toys for Tots and Angel Tree each holiday season. Our corporate sponsorship with the local Kiwanis Club has allowed us to give back to children with disabilities while also helping students prepare for the upcoming school year. We partner with the local Family Resources center each year to assist local students with cold-weather clothing fund and participates in additional local school initiatives to promote manufacturing trade jobs. In Kansas, we support our community though recreational leagues as well as donations to local libraries, events and school fundraisers, among other initiatives. In Florida, we give back to our local communities through the Treasure Coast Food Bank, Pet Food Drive for the Humane Society, Ready to Work Boot Camp, and the Everglades Foundation, Recreational Fishing Alliance and Coastal Conservation Association. Additionally, we are proud participants in and sponsors of the Making Strides Against Breast Cancer walk every year. We are proud of our partnerships with these outstanding organizations, and of the funds raised by our employees for children and families in the communities within which we operate.
Organizational Structure
Malibu Boats, Inc. was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on November 1, 2013 in anticipation of our IPO to serve as a holding company that owns only an interest in Malibu Boats Holdings, LLC. Immediately after the completion of our IPO and the recapitalization we completed in connection with our IPO, Malibu Boats, Inc. held approximately 49.3% of the economic interest in the LLC, which has since increased to approximately 97.2% of the economic interest in the LLC as of June 30, 2021.
The certificate of incorporation of Malibu Boats, Inc. authorizes two classes of common stock, Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock. Holders of our Class A Common Stock and our Class B Common Stock have voting power over Malibu Boats, Inc., the sole managing member of the LLC, at a level that is consistent with their overall equity ownership of our business. In connection with our IPO and the recapitalization we completed in connection with our IPO, Malibu Boats, Inc. issued to each pre-IPO owner, for nominal consideration, one share of Class B Common Stock of Malibu Boats, Inc., each of which provides its owner with no economic rights but entitles the holder to one vote on matters presented to stockholders of Malibu Boats, Inc. for each LLC Unit held by such holder. Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, each share of Class A Common Stock entitles the holder to one vote with respect to each matter presented to our stockholders on which the holders of Class A Common Stock are entitled to vote. Each holder of Class B Common Stock is entitled to the number of votes equal to the total number of LLC units held by such holder multiplied by the exchange rate specified in the exchange agreement with respect to each matter presented to our stockholders on which the holders of Class B Common Stock are entitled to vote. Accordingly, the holders of LLC Units collectively have a number of votes that is equal to the aggregate number of LLC Units
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that they hold. As the LLC members sell LLC Units to us or subsequently exchange LLC Units for shares of Class A Common Stock of Malibu Boats, Inc. pursuant to the exchange agreement described below, the voting power afforded to them by their shares of Class B Common Stock is automatically and correspondingly reduced. Subject to any rights that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, our Class A and Class B Common Stock vote as a single class on all matters presented to our stockholders for their vote or approval, except as otherwise provided in our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or required by applicable law. In addition, subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our Class A Common Stock are entitled to share equally, identically and ratably in any dividends or distributions (including in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs) that our board of directors may determine to issue from time to time, while holders of our Class B Common Stock do not have any right to receive dividends or other distributions.
As noted above, Malibu Boats, Inc. is a holding company with a controlling equity interest in the LLC. Malibu Boats, Inc., as sole managing member of the LLC, operates and controls all of the business and affairs and consolidates the financial results of the LLC. The limited liability company agreement of the LLC provides that it may be amended, supplemented, waived or modified by the written consent of Malibu Boats, Inc., as managing member of the LLC, in its sole discretion without the approval of any other holder of LLC Units, except that no amendment may materially and adversely affect the rights of a holder of LLC Units, other than on a pro rata basis with other holders of LLC Units, without the consent of such holder (unless more than one holder is so affected, then the consent of a majority of such affected holders is required). Pursuant to the limited liability company agreement of the LLC, Malibu Boats, Inc. has the right to determine when distributions (other than tax distributions) will be made to the members of the LLC and the amount of any such distributions. If Malibu Boats, Inc. authorizes a distribution, such distribution will be made to the members of the LLC (including Malibu Boats, Inc.) pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective LLC Units.
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The diagram below depicts our current organizational structure, as of June 30, 2021:
mbuu-20210630_g2.jpg
Our organizational structure allows the LLC members to retain their equity ownership in the LLC, an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of LLC Units. Holders of Class A Common Stock, by contrast, hold their equity ownership in Malibu Boats, Inc., a Delaware corporation that is a domestic corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in the form of shares of Class A Common Stock. The holders of LLC Units, including Malibu Boats, Inc., will incur U.S. federal, state and local income taxes on their proportionate share of any taxable income of the LLC. Net profits and net losses of the LLC will generally be allocated to the LLC’s members (including Malibu Boats, Inc.) pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective limited liability company interests. The limited liability company agreement provides for cash distributions to the holders of LLC Units if Malibu Boats, Inc. determines that the taxable income of the LLC will give rise to taxable income for its members. In accordance with the limited liability company agreement, we intend to cause the LLC to make cash distributions to the holders of LLC Units for purposes of funding their tax obligations in respect of the income of the LLC that is allocated to them. Generally, these tax distributions will be computed based on our estimate of the taxable income of the LLC allocable to such holder of LLC Units multiplied by an assumed tax rate equal to the highest effective marginal combined U.S. federal, state and local income tax rate prescribed for an individual or corporate resident in Los Angeles, California (taking into account the nondeductibility of certain expenses and the character of our income). For purposes of determining the taxable income of the LLC, such determination will be made by generally disregarding any adjustment to the taxable income of any member of the LLC that arises under the tax basis adjustment rules of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code and is attributable to the acquisition by such member of an interest in the LLC in a sale or exchange transaction.
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Exchanges and Other Transactions with Holders of LLC Units
In connection with our IPO and the recapitalization we completed in connection with our IPO, we entered into an exchange agreement with the pre-IPO owners of the LLC under which (subject to the terms of the exchange agreement) each pre-IPO owner (or its permitted transferee) has the right to exchange its LLC Units for shares of our Class A Common Stock on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassifications, or, at our option, except in the event of a change in control, for a cash payment equal to the market value of the Class A Common Stock. The exchange agreement provides, however, that such exchanges must be for a minimum of the lesser of 1,000 LLC Units, all of the LLC Units held by the holder, or such amount as we determine to be acceptable. The exchange agreement also provides that an LLC member will not have the right to exchange LLC Units if Malibu Boats, Inc. determines that such exchange would be prohibited by law or regulation or would violate other agreements with Malibu Boats, Inc. to which the LLC member may be subject or any of our written policies related to unlawful or insider trading. The exchange agreement also provides that Malibu Boats, Inc. may impose additional restrictions on exchanges that it determines to be necessary or advisable so that the LLC is not treated as a “publicly traded partnership” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In addition, pursuant to the limited liability company agreement of the LLC, Malibu Boats, Inc., as managing member of the LLC, has the right to require all members of the LLC to exchange their LLC Units for Class A Common Stock in accordance with the terms of the exchange agreement, subject to the consent of the holders of a majority of outstanding LLC Units other than those held by Malibu Boats, Inc.
As a result of exchanges of LLC Units into Class A Common Stock and purchases by Malibu Boats, Inc. of LLC Units from holders of LLC Units, Malibu Boats, Inc. will become entitled to a proportionate share of the existing tax basis of the assets of the LLC at the time of such exchanges or purchases. In addition, such exchanges and purchases of LLC Units are expected to result in increases in the tax basis of the assets of the LLC that otherwise would not have been available. These increases in tax basis may reduce the amount of tax that Malibu Boats, Inc. would otherwise be required to pay in the future. These increases in tax basis may also decrease gains (or increase losses) on future dispositions of certain capital assets to the extent tax basis is allocated to those capital assets. We have entered into a tax receivable agreement with the pre-IPO owners (or their permitted assignees) that provides for the payment by Malibu Boats, Inc. to the pre-IPO owners (or their permitted assignees) of 85% of the amount of the benefits, if any, that Malibu Boats, Inc. is deemed to realize as a result of (1) increases in tax basis and (2) certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the tax receivable agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. These payment obligations are obligations of Malibu Boats, Inc. and not of the LLC.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act are available on our web site at www.malibuboats.com, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after the electronic filing of these reports with, or furnishing of these reports to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. In addition, the SEC maintains a web site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following describes the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those presented in our forward-looking statements. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face but do represent those risks and uncertainties that we believe are material to us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also harm our business.
Risks Related to our Business and Operations
Our operations and sales have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we must successfully manage the demand, supply, and operational challenges associated with the actual or perceived effects of COVID-19 and the related widespread public health crisis.
Our business has been, and may continue to be, negatively impacted by the fear of exposure to or actual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States and other countries where we operate or our dealers or suppliers are located. The impacts of the pandemic on our operations have included:
The temporary shutdown of our facilities between March and May of 2020, limiting our ability to ship boats to our dealers during the period of shut-down, which negatively impacted our net sales for the second half of fiscal year 2020.
Supply chain disruptions created by the temporary shutdown of facilities of our suppliers, which led us to limit our production levels during the first half of fiscal 2021 in an attempt to allow our supply chain to partially recover in preparation of higher manufacturing volumes that we planned for the second half of fiscal 2021.
Lower production levels that, coupled with strong retail demand, contributed to lower inventory levels at our dealers as of June 30, 2021 compared to June 30, 2020.
These factors impacted our ability to meet our dealers’ and consumers’ demands during the second half of fiscal year 2021. While we experienced increased demand for our products in fiscal 2020 resulting in part from effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, there can be no assurance that we can maintain or continue to expand demand for our products. Furthermore, COVID-19 has impacted and may further impact the general economy, including negatively impacting economic growth, the proper functioning of financial and capital markets, foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, and liquidity. Despite our efforts to manage and remedy COVID-19 related impacts to us, their ultimate impact also depends on factors beyond our knowledge or control, including any resurgences of the COVID-19 virus, third-party actions taken to contain its spread and mitigate its public health effects, and the related impact on consumer confidence and spending.
We may not be able to execute our manufacturing strategy successfully, which could cause the profitability of our products to suffer.
Our manufacturing strategy is designed to improve product quality and increase productivity, while reducing costs and increasing flexibility to respond to ongoing changes in the marketplace. To implement this strategy, we must be successful in our continuous improvement efforts, which depend on the involvement of management, production employees and suppliers. Any inability to achieve our objectives under our manufacturing strategy could adversely impact the profitability of our products and our ability to deliver desirable products to our consumers.
We have a large fixed cost base that will affect our profitability if our sales decrease.
The fixed cost levels of operating a recreational powerboat manufacturer can put pressure on profit margins when sales and production decline. Our profitability depends, in part, on our ability to spread fixed costs over a sufficiently large number of products sold and shipped, and if we make a decision to reduce our rate of production, gross or net margins could be negatively affected. Consequently, decreased demand or the need to reduce production can lower our ability to absorb fixed costs and materially impact our financial condition or results of operations.
Increases in the cost of raw materials, component parts and transportation costs and shortages of certain raw materials could negatively impact our business.
The primary raw materials used in manufacturing our boats are petroleum-based resins, fiberglass and vinyl. Our profitability is affected by significant fluctuations in the prices of the raw materials and commodities that we use in our products and in the cost of freight and shipping to source materials, commodities, and other component parts necessary to assemble our products. In addition, our suppliers could face increased costs or an inability to meet required production levels due to their own limited market supply and, the tariffs the U.S. has imposed on certain foreign goods, including raw materials
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and components used in our manufacturing process. This could negatively impact our cost of sales, by increasing the price of raw materials and components used in our supply chain.
Any disruption in our suppliers’ operations could disrupt our production schedule.
Our ability to maintain production is dependent upon our suppliers delivering sufficient quantities of components, raw materials and parts to manufacture our products and on time to meet our production schedules. In some instances, we purchase components, raw materials and parts that are ultimately derived from a single source and we may therefore be at an increased risk for supply disruptions. Historically, we have not entered into long-term agreements with suppliers of our raw materials and components other than for our engines and outboard motors. Any number of factors, including labor disruptions, weather events, the occurrence of a contagious disease or illness, contractual or other disputes, unfavorable economic or industry conditions, delivery delays or other performance problems or financial difficulties or solvency problems, could disrupt our suppliers’ operations and lead to uncertainty in our supply chain or cause supply disruptions for us, which could, in turn, disrupt our operations. If we experience supply disruptions—like those that we experienced in 2020 related to COVID-19 and certain severe weather events—we may not be able to develop alternate sourcing quickly or at all. Any material disruption of our production schedule caused by an unexpected shortage of components, raw materials or parts could cause us not to be able to meet customer demand, to alter production schedules or suspend production entirely, which could cause a loss of revenues, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
We rely solely on General Motors for the supply of Malibu and Axis engines, which we integrate into our products for marine use.
The availability and cost of engines used in the manufacture of our boats are critical. We purchase engines from General Motors LLC that we then prepare for marine use for our Malibu and Axis boats. Our current agreement with General Motors LLC provides us with engines through model year 2023. If we are required to replace General Motors as our engine supplier for Malibu and Axis boats for any reason, it could cause a decrease in such boats available for sale or an increase in our cost of sales, either of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For instance, in fiscal year 2020 we experienced interruption to our engine supply as a result of the United Auto Workers’ strike against General Motors. During the UAW strike, General Motors suspended delivery of engine blocks to us and we incurred $2.6 million in costs by entering into purchase agreements with two suppliers for additional engines to supplement our inventory of engine blocks for Malibu and Axis boats.
We have agreed to purchase substantially all of our outboard motors from Yamaha, which makes us reliant on Yamaha for our supply of outboard engines.
We have two joint marketing agreements with Yamaha Motor Corporation, U.S.A., or Yamaha, that require us to supply most of our boats that are pre-rigged with outboard motors with Yamaha outboard engines. In August 2018, we entered into a joint marketing agreement with Yamaha that became effective upon completion of our acquisition of Pursuit. Under our agreement with Yamaha, in exchange for certain incentives, we have agreed to purchase Yamaha outboard engines for use in all Pursuit and Cobalt branded boats that are pre-equipped with outboard motors when sold by us, except for up to 10% of Pursuit and Cobalt branded boats for sale in the United States. In addition, Maverick Boat Group has an agreement with Yamaha that we assumed when we acquired Maverick Boat Group. Under that agreement, Maverick Boat Group, in exchange for certain incentives, has agreed to purchase Yamaha outboard engines for use in all Maverick Boat Group branded boats that are pre-equipped with outboard motors when sold by us, except for up to 15% of Maverick Boat Group branded boats for sale in the United States and certain other limited exceptions.
While we believe that these agreements with Yamaha will provide the engines we need for our boats that use outboard motors, Yamaha could potentially exert significant bargaining power over quality, warranty claims, or other terms relating to the outboard engines we use. We also must pay penalties to Yamaha under each agreement if we do not achieve pre-determined purchase volume targets for each year of the agreement and for the entire term of the agreement. We may not be able to meet the purchase volume targets, which would require us to pay penalties to Yamaha. Our agreements with Yamaha that cover our Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group branded boats are scheduled to expire on June 30, 2023, unless extended by the parties to such agreement.
Termination or interruption of informal supply arrangements could have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
We have informal supply arrangements with many of our suppliers of components, raw materials and parts. In the event of a termination of the supply arrangement, there can be no assurance that alternate supply arrangements will be made on satisfactory terms. If we need to enter into supply arrangements on unsatisfactory terms, or if there are any delays to our supply arrangements, it could adversely affect our business and operating results.
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Our ability to meet our manufacturing workforce’s needs is crucial to our results of operations and future sales and profitability.
We rely on the existence of an available hourly workforce to manufacture our boats. We cannot assure you that we will be able to attract and retain qualified employees to meet current or future manufacturing needs at a reasonable cost, or at all. For instance, even when there are high unemployment rates in the regions where we have manufacturing facilities, it can be difficult to retain skilled employees. Although none of our employees are currently covered by collective bargaining agreements, we cannot assure you that our employees will not elect to be represented by labor unions in the future. Additionally, competition for qualified employees could require us to pay higher wages to attract a sufficient number of employees. Significant increases in manufacturing workforce costs could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The nature of our business exposes us to workers' compensation claims and other workplace liabilities.
Certain materials we use require our employees to handle potentially hazardous or toxic substances. While our employees who handle these and other potentially hazardous or toxic materials receive specialized training and wear protective clothing, there is still a risk that they, or others, may be exposed to these substances. Exposure to these substances could result in significant injury to our employees and damage to our property or the property of others, including natural resource damage. Our personnel are also at risk for other workplace-related injuries. We have in the past been, and may in the future be, subject to fines, penalties, and other liabilities in connection with any such injury or damage. While we have implemented safety precautions at our facilities to mitigate contagious diseases, such as a pandemic, we may also be subject to possible lawsuits or regulatory actions or suffer from reputational risk if we experience spread in our workplace. We may be unable to maintain insurance for these potential liabilities on acceptable terms or such insurance may not provide adequate protection against potential liabilities.
We have grown our business through acquisitions; however we may not be successful in completing future acquisitions or integrating future acquisitions in a way that fully realizes their expected benefits to our business.
A key part of our growth strategy, as shown by our acquisition of Maverick Boat Groups in 2020, Pursuit in 2018, Cobalt in 2017 and our Australian licensee in 2014, has been to acquire other companies that expand our consumer base, enter new product categories or obtain other competitive advantages. We expect to continue to acquire companies as an element of our growth strategy; however, we may not be able to identify future acquisition candidates or strategic partners as part of our growth strategy that are suitable to our business, or we may not be able to obtain financing on satisfactory terms to complete such acquisitions.
Acquisitions also involve special risks, including risks associated with unanticipated challenges, liabilities and contingencies, and diversion of management attention and resources from our existing operations. If we fail to conduct due diligence on our potential targets effectively, we may, for example, not identify problems at target companies, or fail to recognize incompatibilities or other obstacles to successful integration.
Further, our inability to successfully integrate future acquisitions within the intended time frames or at all could impede us from realizing all of the benefits of those acquisitions and could severely weaken our business operations. For example, we continue to integrate the operations of Maverick Boat Group, which we acquired on December 31, 2020, into our business. We may not be able to maintain the levels of revenue, earnings or operating efficiency that we and Maverick Boat Group have achieved or might achieve separately. Our ability to integrate Maverick Boat Group into our business will require additional time from our management team and require the monitoring of additional operations with its associated increased costs and complexity. The integration process with any acquisition may disrupt our business and, if implemented ineffectively, may preclude realization of the full benefits expected by us and could harm our results of operations. In addition, the overall integration of the combining companies may result in unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities and competitive responses and may cause our stock price to decline. Even if the operations of an acquisition are integrated successfully, we may not realize the full benefits of the acquisition, including the synergies, cost savings or growth opportunities that we expect.
Our growth strategy may require us to secure significant additional capital, the amount of which will depend upon the size, timing, and structure of future acquisitions or vertical integrations and our working capital and general corporate needs.
Our growth strategy includes the possible acquisition of other businesses, such as our acquisitions of Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick, and the potential integration of new product lines or related products to our boats, such as our initiatives to integrate the production of engines and trailers for our Malibu and Axis models. These actions may require us to secure significant additional capital through the borrowing of money or the issuance of equity. Any borrowings made to finance future strategic initiatives could make us more vulnerable to a downturn in our operating results, a downturn in economic conditions, or increases in interest rates on borrowings that are subject to interest rate fluctuations. If our cash flow from operations is insufficient to meet our debt service requirements, we could then be required to sell additional equity securities, refinance our
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obligations or dispose of assets in order to meet our debt service requirements. Adequate financing may not be available if and when we need it or may not be available on terms acceptable to us. The failure to obtain sufficient financing on favorable terms and conditions could have a material adverse effect on our growth prospects.
Further, we could choose to finance acquisitions or other strategic initiatives, in whole or in part through the issuance of our Class A Common Stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for our Class A Common Stock. If we do so, existing stockholders will experience dilution in the voting power of their Class A Common Stock and earnings per share could be negatively impacted. The extent to which we will be able and willing to use our Class A Common Stock for acquisitions and other strategic initiatives will depend on the market value of our Class A Common Stock and the willingness of potential third parties to accept our Class A Common Stock as full or partial consideration. Our inability to use our Class A Common Stock as consideration, to generate cash from operations, or to obtain additional funding through debt or equity financings in order to pursue our strategic initiatives could materially limit our growth.
Our reliance upon patents, trademark laws and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient to protect our intellectual property from others who may sell similar products and may lead to costly litigation. We are currently, and may be in the future, party to lawsuits and other intellectual property rights claims that are expensive and time-consuming.
We hold patents and trademarks relating to various aspects of our products and believe that proprietary technical know- how is important to our business. Proprietary rights relating to our products are protected from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that they are covered by valid and enforceable patents or trademarks or are maintained in confidence as trade secrets. We cannot be certain that we will be issued any patents from any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us or that the claims allowed under any issued patents will be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. In the absence of enforceable patent or trademark protection, we may be vulnerable to competitors who attempt to copy our products, gain access to our trade secrets and know-how or diminish our brand through unauthorized use of our trademarks, all of which could adversely affect our business. Accordingly, we may need to engage in future litigation to enforce intellectual property rights, to protect trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of proprietary rights of others.
We also rely on unpatented proprietary technology. It is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology or otherwise obtain access to our unpatented technology. To protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information, we require employees, consultants, advisors and collaborators to enter into confidentiality agreements. We cannot assure you that these agreements will provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information. If we are unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our technologies, we could be materially adversely affected.
In addition, others may initiate litigation or other proceedings to challenge the validity of our patents, or allege that we infringe their patents, or they may use their resources to design comparable products that do not infringe our patents. We may incur substantial costs if our competitors initiate litigation to challenge the validity of our patents, or allege that we infringe their patents, or if we initiate any proceedings to protect our proprietary rights. If the outcome of any litigation challenging our patents is unfavorable to us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our business operations could be negatively impacted by an outage or breach of our information technology systems, operational technology systems, or a cybersecurity event.
We manage our business operations through a variety of information technology (IT) and operational technology systems which we continually enhance to increase efficiency and security. We depend on these systems for commercial transactions, customer interactions, manufacturing, branding, employee tracking, and other applications. New system implementations, such as the current implementation of our new enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, across the enterprise also pose risks of outages or disruptions, which could affect our suppliers, commercial operations, and customers. We continue to upgrade, streamline, and integrate these systems but, like those of other companies, our systems are susceptible to outages due to natural disasters, power loss, computer viruses, security breaches, hardware or software vulnerabilities, disruptions, and similar events. We exchange information with many trading partners across all aspects of our commercial operations through our IT systems. A breakdown, outage, malicious intrusion, breach, random attack, or other disruption of communications could result in erroneous or fraudulent transactions, disclosure of confidential information, loss of reputation and confidence, and may also result in legal claims or proceedings, penalties, and remediation costs. We have experienced cyber-attacks, but to our knowledge, we have not experienced any material disruptions or breaches of our information technology systems or connected products.
The risk of these systems-related events and security breaches occurring has intensified, in part because we maintain certain information necessary to conduct our businesses in digital form stored on cloud servers. If our security measures are breached or fail, unauthorized persons may be able to obtain access to or acquire personal or other confidential data. Depending
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on the nature of the information compromised, we may also have obligations to notify consumers and/or employees about the incident, and we may need to provide some form of remedy, such as a subscription to a credit monitoring service, for the individuals affected by the incident. This could negatively affect our relationships with customers or trading partners, lead to potential claims against us, and damage our image and reputation. Moreover, the amount and scope of insurance we maintain against losses resulting from any such events or security breaches may not be sufficient to cover our losses or otherwise adequately compensate us for any disruptions to our businesses that may result, and the occurrence of any such events or security breaches could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We have started the implementation of a new enterprise resource planning (ERP) system and if we are not able to successfully develop and manage that implementation, it could adversely affect our business or results of operations.
We have begun the process of designing and implementing a new ERP system. We are currently in the early design phases of the project. This project will require significant capital and human resources, the re-engineering of many processes of our business, and the attention of our management and other personnel who would otherwise be focused on other aspects of our business. The implementation may be more expensive and take longer to fully implement than we originally plan, resulting in increased capital investment, higher fees and expenses of third parties, delayed deployment scheduling, and more on-going maintenance expense once implemented, and, as such, it will be difficult for us to estimate the ultimate costs and schedules. If for any reason portions of the implementation are not successful, we could be required to expense rather than capitalize related amounts.
Our operations and sales in international markets require significant management attention, expose us to difficulties presented by international economic, political, legal and business factors, and may not be successful or produce desired levels of sales and profitability.
We currently sell our products throughout the world and we manufacture boats internationally in Australia. Several factors, including weakened international economic conditions and the strength of the U.S. dollar, could adversely affect our international growth. Expansion in our existing international operations and entry into new international markets require significant management attention. Some of the countries in which we market and our distributors sell our products are, to some degree, subject to political, economic or social instability. Our international operations expose us and our representatives, agents and distributors to risks inherent in operating in foreign jurisdictions.
Doing business on a worldwide basis also requires us to comply with the laws and regulations of various foreign jurisdictions. These laws and regulations place restrictions on our operations, trade practices, partners and investment decisions. In particular, our operations are subject to U.S. and foreign anti-corruption and trade control laws and regulations, such as the FCPA, export controls and economic sanctions programs, including those administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or the OFAC. As a result of doing business in foreign countries and with foreign partners, we are exposed to a heightened risk of violating anti-corruption and trade control laws and sanctions regulations.
A natural disaster, pandemic or other disruption at our facilities could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on the continuous operation of our facilities in Tennessee, Florida, Kansas, California, and Australia. Any natural disaster, pandemic or other serious disruption to our facilities due to fire, flood, earthquake or any other unforeseen circumstances could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If there is a disruption in our business it could result in a reduction of production and cause delays in our ability to meet consumer demand or receive supplies from our vendors. We cannot assure you that we will not have to suspend our operations again, whether voluntarily or as a result of federal, state or local mandates, and such closures could extend for a longer term than the prior shutdown of our facilities relating to COVID-19.
Changes in climate could also adversely affect our operations by limiting or increasing the costs associated with equipment or fuel supplies. In addition, adverse weather conditions, such as increased frequency and/or severity of storms, or floods could impair our ability to operate by damaging our facilities and equipment or restricting product delivery to customers. The occurrence of any disruption at our facilities, even for a short period of time, may have an adverse effect on our productivity and profitability, during and after the period of the disruption. These disruptions may also cause personal injury and loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment and environmental damage. Although we maintain property, casualty and business interruption insurance of the types and in the amounts that we believe are customary for the industry, we are not fully insured against all potential natural disasters or other disruptions to our facilities.
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Increases in income tax rates or changes in income tax laws or enforcement could have a material adverse impact on our financial results.
Changes in domestic and international tax legislation could expose us to additional tax liability and could impact the amount of our tax receivable agreement liability. Although we monitor changes in tax laws and work to mitigate the impact of proposed changes, such changes may negatively impact our financial results. Expected changes in current tax law in fiscal 2022 could impact our financial results in a material way. In addition, any increase in individual income tax rates would negatively affect our potential consumers’ discretionary income and could decrease the demand for our products.
We depend on key personnel and we may not be able to retain them or to attract, assimilate, and retain highly qualified employees in the future.
Our future success will depend in significant part upon the continued service of our senior management and our continuing ability to attract, assimilate, and retain highly qualified and skilled managerial, product development, manufacturing, and marketing and other personnel. The loss of services of any members of our senior management or key personnel or the inability to hire or retain qualified personnel in the future could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Markets and the Recreational Powerboat Industry
Weak general economic conditions, particularly in the United States, can negatively impact our industry, demand for our products, and our business and results of operations.
Demand for new recreational powerboats can be negatively influenced by weak economic conditions, low consumer confidence and high unemployment, especially in the United States, and by increased market volatility worldwide. In times of economic uncertainty and contraction, consumers tend to have less discretionary income and defer or avoid expenditures for discretionary items, such as boats. Sales of our products are highly sensitive to personal discretionary spending levels, and our success depends on general economic conditions and overall consumer confidence and personal income levels, especially in the United States and in the specific regional markets where we sell our products. Any deterioration in general economic conditions that diminishes consumer confidence or discretionary income is likely to reduce our sales and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, consumers often finance purchases of our boats and accordingly, consumer credit market conditions can influence demand for our boats. If credit conditions worsen, and adversely affect the ability of consumers to finance potential purchases at acceptable terms and interest rates, it could result in a decrease in the sales of our products.
If we are unable to continue to enhance existing products and develop and market new or enhanced products that respond to customer needs and preferences, we may experience a decrease in demand for our products and our business could suffer.
Market acceptance of our products depends on our technological innovation and our ability to implement technology in our boats. Our failure to introduce new technologies and product offerings that our markets desire could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, we believe we have been able to achieve higher margins in part as a result of the introduction of new features or enhancements to our existing boat models. If we fail to introduce new features or those we introduce fail to gain market acceptance, our margins may suffer.
In addition, some of our direct competitors and indirect competitors may have significantly more resources to develop and patent new technologies. It is possible that our competitors will develop and patent equivalent or superior technologies and other products that compete with ours. We cannot be certain that our products or technologies have not infringed or will not infringe on the proprietary rights of others, including our competitors. They may assert these patents against us and we may be required to license these patents on unfavorable terms or cease using the technology covered by these patents, either of which would harm our competitive position and may materially adversely affect our business.
Our continued success is dependent on the positive perception of our brands, which, if impaired, could adversely affect our sales.
We believe that our brands are significant contributors to the success of our business and that maintaining and enhancing our brands are important to expanding our consumer and dealer base. The value of our brands is based in large part on perceptions and opinions, and broad access to social media makes it easy for anyone to provide public feedback that can influence perceptions of our company. It may be difficult to control negative publicity, regardless of whether it is accurate. Negative incidents, such as quality and safety concerns, product recalls, severe incidents or injuries related to our products or actions, or statements or actions of our employees or dealers or the athletes associated with our products, could lead to tangible adverse effects on our business, including lost sales or employee retention and recruiting difficulties. Also, public concerns
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about the environmental impact of our products could result in diminished public perception of our brands. If the popularity of the sports and activities for which we design, manufacture and sell our boats were to decrease as a result of these risks or any negative publicity, sales of our products could decrease, which could have an adverse effect on our net revenue, profitability and operating results.
Retail demand for our boats is seasonal and unfavorable weather conditions just before and during spring and summer can have a negative effect on our revenues.
Adverse weather conditions in any year in any particular geographic region may adversely affect sales in that region, especially during the peak boating season. Sales of our products are generally stronger just before and during spring and summer, which represent the peak boating months in most of our markets, and favorable weather during these months generally has a positive effect on consumer demand. Conversely, unseasonably cool weather, excessive rainfall, reduced rainfall levels, or drought conditions during these periods may close area boating locations or render boating dangerous or inconvenient, thereby generally reducing consumer demand for our products. Our annual results would be materially and adversely affected if our net sales were to fall below expected seasonal levels during these periods. We may also experience more pronounced seasonal fluctuation in net sales in the future as we continue to expand our businesses. Additionally, to the extent that unfavorable weather conditions are exacerbated by global climate change or otherwise, our sales may be affected to a greater degree than we have previously experienced. There can be no assurance that weather conditions will not have a material effect on the sales of any of our products.
Our industry is characterized by intense competition, which affects our sales and profits.
The recreational powerboat industry, and in particular the performance sport boat category, is highly competitive for consumers and dealers. Competition affects our ability to succeed in the markets we currently serve, including the saltwater outboard fishing boat market that we recently entered with our acquisitions of Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group, and new markets that we may enter in the future. Competition is based primarily on brand name, price, product selection and product performance. We compete with several large manufacturers that may have greater financial, marketing and other resources than we do and who are represented by dealers in the markets in which we now operate and into which we plan to expand. We also compete with a variety of small, independent manufacturers. We cannot assure you that we will not face greater competition from existing large or small manufacturers or that we will be able to compete successfully with new competitors. Our failure to compete effectively with our current and future competitors would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our sales may be adversely impacted by increased consumer preference for used boats or the supply of new boats by competitors in excess of demand.
During the economic downturn that commenced in 2008, we observed a shift in consumer demand toward purchasing more used boats, primarily because prices for used boats are typically lower than retail prices for new boats. If this were to occur again, it could have the effect of reducing demand among retail purchasers for our new boats. Also, while we have taken steps designed to balance production volumes for our boats with demand, our competitors could choose to reduce the price of their products, which could have the effect of reducing demand for our new boats. Reduced demand for new boats could lead to reduced sales by us, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We compete with a variety of other activities for consumers’ scarce leisure time.
Our boats are used for recreational and sport purposes, and demand for our boats may be adversely affected by competition from other activities that occupy consumers’ leisure time and by changes in consumer life style, usage pattern or taste. Similarly, an overall decrease in consumer leisure time may reduce consumers’ willingness to purchase and enjoy our products.
Changes in currency exchange rates can adversely affect our results.
A portion of our sales are denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar. Consequently, a strong U.S. dollar may adversely affect reported revenues. We also maintain a portion of our manufacturing operations in Australia which partially mitigates the impact of a strengthening U.S. dollar in that country. A portion of our selling, general and administrative costs are transacted in Australian dollars as a result. We also sell U.S. manufactured products into certain international markets in U.S. dollars, including the sale of products into Canada, Europe and Latin America. Demand for our products in these markets may also be adversely affected by a strengthening U.S. dollar. We do not currently use hedging or other derivative instruments to mitigate our foreign currency risks.
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An increase in energy and fuel costs may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Higher energy costs result in increases in operating expenses at our manufacturing facility and in the expense of shipping products to our dealers. In addition, increases in energy costs may adversely affect the pricing and availability of petroleum based raw materials, such as resins and foams, that are used in our products. Also, higher fuel prices may have an adverse effect on demand for our boats, as they increase the cost of ownership and operation.
Risks Related to our Dealers
We depend on our network of independent dealers, face increasing competition for dealers and have little control over their activities.
Substantially all of our sales are derived from our network of independent dealers. Our top ten dealers represented 38.7%, 38.5% and 39.6% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Sales to our dealers under common control of OneWater Marine, Inc. represented approximately 16.3%, 15.2% and 15.1% of consolidated net sales in fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The loss of a significant number of these dealers could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We have agreements with the dealers in our network that typically provide for one-year terms, although some agreements have a term of up to three years.
The number of dealers supporting our products and the quality of their marketing and servicing efforts are essential to our ability to generate sales. Competition for dealers among recreational powerboat manufacturers continues to increase based on the quality, price, value and availability of the manufacturers’ products, the manufacturers’ attention to customer service and the marketing support that the manufacturer provides to the dealers. We face intense competition from other recreational powerboat manufacturers in attracting and retaining dealers. In addition, independent dealers in the recreational powerboat industry have experienced significant consolidation in recent years, which could result in the loss of one or more of our dealers in the future if the surviving entity in any such consolidation purchases similar products from a competitor. A substantial deterioration in the number of dealers or quality of our network of dealers would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends, in part, upon the financial health of our dealers and their continued access to financing.
Because we sell nearly all of our products through dealers, the financial health of our dealers is critical to our success. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected if the financial health of the dealers that sell our products suffers. Their financial health may suffer for a variety of reasons, including a downturn in general economic conditions, rising interest rates, higher rents, increased labor costs and taxes, compliance with regulations and personal financial issues.
Our dealers also require adequate liquidity to finance their operations, including purchases of our boats. Dealers are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that could unfavorably affect their liquidity positions, including, among other things, continued access to adequate financing sources on a timely basis on reasonable terms. These sources of financing are vital to our ability to sell products through our distribution network. Access to floor plan financing generally facilitates our dealers’ ability to purchase boats from us, and their financed purchases reduce our working capital requirements. If floor plan financing were not available to our dealers, our sales and our working capital levels would be adversely affected.
We may be required to repurchase inventory of certain dealers.
Many of our dealers have floor plan financing arrangements with third-party finance companies that enable the dealers to purchase our products. In connection with these agreements, we may have an obligation to repurchase our products from a finance company under certain circumstances, and we may not have any control over the timing or amount of any repurchase obligation nor have access to capital on terms acceptable to us to satisfy any repurchase obligation. This obligation is triggered if a dealer defaults on its debt obligations to a finance company, the finance company repossesses the boat and the boat is returned to us. Our obligation to repurchase a repossessed boat for the unpaid balance of our original invoice price for the boat is subject to reduction or limitation based on the age and condition of the boat at the time of repurchase, and in certain cases by an aggregate cap on repurchase obligations associated with a particular floor plan financing program. If boats are returned to us, it would have an adverse impact on our net sales and could result in downward pressure on pricing of our boats. Since fiscal year 2019, we have repurchased a total of ten units from lenders to former dealers and those units were subsequently resold above their cost and at a minimal margin loss.
One or more dealers may default on the terms of a credit line in the future. In addition, applicable laws regulating dealer relations may also require us to repurchase our products from our dealers under certain circumstances, and we may not have any control over the timing or amount of any repurchase obligation nor have access to capital on terms acceptable to us to
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satisfy any repurchase obligation. If we are required to repurchase a significant number of units under any repurchase agreement or under applicable dealer laws, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to our Regulatory, Accounting, Legal and Tax Environment
The manufacture and sale of boats exposes us to product liability risks and a significant adverse determination in any material claim against us could adversely affect our operating results or financial condition.
The manufacture and sale and of our boats expose us to significant risks associated with product liability, economic loss, and other claims. For instance, we are currently in trial in a product liability case alleging defective product design and a failure to warn. See Note 17 of our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If our products are found to be defective or used incorrectly by our customers, bodily injury, property damage or other injury, including death, may result and this could give rise to additional product liability or economic loss claims against us or adversely affect our brand image or reputation. We maintain product and general liability insurance policies, including excess insurance coverage for product liability claims. However, we are not fully insured against all potential claims and we may experience legal claims in excess of our insurance coverage or claims that are not covered by insurance, either of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any losses that we may suffer from any such claims, including any unanticipated adverse determination of a material product liability claim or other material claim (particularly an uninsured matter), could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, and the effect that any such liability may have upon the reputation and marketability of our products may have a negative impact on our business and operating results.
Significant product repair and/or replacement costs due to product warranty claims or product recalls could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
We provide limited warranties for our boats. Although we employ quality control procedures, sometimes a product is distributed that needs repair or replacement. Our standard warranties require us, through our dealer network, to repair or replace defective products during such warranty periods. In addition, if any of our products are, or are alleged to be, defective, we may be required to participate in a recall of that product if the defect or alleged defect relates to safety. For example, in fiscal year 2019 we announced a recall on fuel pumps supplied to us by a third-party vendor and used in certain Malibu and Axis boats. While this recall did not have a material impact on our business, the repair and replacement costs we could incur in connection with a recall could materially and adversely affect our business and could cause consumers to question the safety or reliability of our products.
Changes to U.S. trade policy, tariffs, and import/export regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Changes in laws and policies governing foreign trade could adversely affect our business and trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries. There is significant uncertainty with respect to future trade regulations, including the imposition by the U.S. of tariffs and penalties on products manufactured outside the U.S., and existing international trade agreements, as shown by Brexit in Europe. The institution of global trade tariffs, trade sanctions, new or onerous trade restrictions, embargoes and other stringent government controls have the potential to adversely impact the U.S. economy, our industry, our suppliers, and global demand for our products and, as a result, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We must comply with environmental laws and regulations as a boat manufacturer that could increase the costs of our products and reduce consumer demand.
As with boat construction in general, our manufacturing processes involve the use, handling, storage and contracting for recycling or disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. The failure to manage or dispose of such hazardous substances and wastes properly could expose us to material liability or fines, including liability for personal injury or property damage due to exposure to hazardous substances, damages to natural resources, or for the investigation and remediation of environmental conditions. Under certain environmental laws, we may be liable for remediation of contamination at sites where our hazardous wastes have been disposed or at our current or former facilities, regardless of whether such facilities are owned or leased or whether we caused the condition of contamination. We have not been notified of and are otherwise currently not aware of any contamination at our current or former facilities, or at any other location, for which we could have any material liability under environmental laws or regulations, and we currently are not undertaking any remediation or investigation activities in connection with any contamination. Also, the components in our boats may become subject to more stringent environmental regulations. For example, boat engines and other emission producing components may become subject to more stringent emissions standards, which could increase the cost of our engines, components and products, which, in turn, may reduce consumer demand for our products.
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Our customers use our boats for recreational water and fishing activities. Environmental regulations, permitting and zoning requirements and other commercial policies and practices that limit access to water, including availability of slip locations and/or the ability to transfer boats among different waterways, access to fisheries, or the ability to fish in some areas could negatively affect demand for our boats. Future licensing requirements, including any licenses imposed on recreational boating, may also deter potential customers, thereby reducing our sales. Furthermore, regulations allowing the sale of fuel containing higher levels of ethanol for automobiles, which is not appropriate or intended for use in marine engines, may nonetheless result in increased warranty, service costs, customer dissatisfaction with products, and other claims against us if boaters mistakenly use this fuel in marine engines, causing damage to and the degradation of components in their marine engines.
In addition to environmental regulations, we must also comply with product safety, workforce and other laws and regulations that may increase our costs and could result in harm to our reputation if we fail to comply with such regulations.
We are subject to federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations, including product safety, workforce, and other regulations. For instance, we are subject to laws governing our relationships with employees, including, but not limited to, employment obligations such as employee wage, hour, and benefits issues. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also imposes standards of conduct for and regulates workplace safety, including physical safety and limits on the amount of emissions to which an employee may be exposed without the need for respiratory protection or upgraded plant ventilation. Our facilities are also regularly inspected by OSHA and by state and local inspection agencies and departments.
Any of these laws, rules, or regulations may cause us to incur significant expenses to achieve or maintain compliance, require us to modify our products, or modify our approach to our workforce, adversely affecting the price of or demand for some of our products, and ultimately affect the way we conduct our operations. Failure to comply with any of these laws, rules, or regulations could result in harm to our reputation and/or could lead to fines and other penalties, including restrictions on the importation of our products into, and the sale of our products in, one or more jurisdictions until compliance is achieved. In addition, legal requirements are constantly evolving, and changes in laws, regulations or policies, or changes in interpretations of the foregoing, could result in compliance shortfalls, require additional product development investment, increase consumer pricing, and increase our costs or create liabilities where none exists today.
Risks Related to our Capital Structure
The only material asset of Malibu Boats, Inc. is our interest in the LLC, and therefore Malibu Boats, Inc. is dependent upon distributions from the LLC for any cash obligations of Malibu Boats, Inc..
Malibu Boats, Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of LLC Units in the LLC. Malibu Boats, Inc. has no independent means of generating revenue. We intend to cause the LLC to make distributions to its unit holders in an amount sufficient to cover all applicable taxes at assumed tax rates and payments under the tax receivable agreement. To the extent that Malibu Boats, Inc. need funds, and the LLC is restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of its financing arrangements, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. For example, our credit agreement generally prohibits the LLC, Malibu Boats, LLC, Malibu Australian Acquisition Corp., Cobalt Boats, LLC, PB Holdco, LLC, MBG Holdco, Inc. and Maverick Boat Group, Inc. from paying dividends or making distributions to Malibu Boats, Inc. Our credit agreement permits, however, (i) distributions to members of the LLC, including Malibu Boats, Inc., based on the member’s allocated taxable income, (ii) distributions to fund payments that are required under the our tax receivable agreement, (iii) purchases of stock or stock options of the LLC from former officers, directors or employees of loan parties under the credit agreement or payments pursuant to stock option and other benefit plans up to $3.0 million in any fiscal year, and (iv) distributions to Malibu Boats, Inc. for the repurchase of its capital stock of up to $35.0 million in any fiscal year subject to one-year carry forward and compliance with other financial covenants. In addition, the LLC may make dividends and distributions of up to $10.0 million in any fiscal year, subject to compliance with other financial covenants.
The credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan contains restrictive covenants which may limit our operating flexibility and may impair our ability to access sufficient capital to operate our business.
We rely on our revolving credit facility and term loan to provide us with adequate liquidity to operate our business. Our credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional debt and additional liens on property and make future payments of dividends or distributions on our capital stock. Further, the credit agreement requires compliance with financial covenants, including a minimum ratio of EBITDA to fixed charges and a maximum ratio of total debt to EBITDA.
These covenants may affect our ability to operate and finance our business as we deem appropriate. Violation of these covenants could constitute an event of default under the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan. If there were an event of default under the credit agreement, our lenders could reduce or terminate our access to amounts under
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our credit facilities or declare all of the indebtedness outstanding under our revolving credit facility and term loan immediately due and payable. We may not have sufficient funds available, or we may not have access to sufficient capital from other sources, to continue funding our operations or to repay any accelerated debt. Even if we could obtain additional financing, the terms of the financing may not be favorable to us. In addition, substantially all of our assets are subject to liens securing our revolving credit facility and term loan. If amounts outstanding under the revolving credit facility or term loan were accelerated, our lenders could foreclose on these liens and we could lose substantially all of our assets. Any event of default under the credit agreement governing our revolving credit facility and term loan could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loan are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. Interest rates are currently at relatively low levels. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease.
All of our $144.4 million of debt outstanding under our credit agreement as of June 30, 2021 bears interest at a floating rate that uses LIBOR as the applicable reference rate to calculate the interest. The Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR has announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. However, for U.S dollar LIBOR, the relevant date has been deferred to at least June 30, 2023 for certain tenors, at which time the LIBOR administrator has indicated that it intends to cease publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR. Despite this deferral, the LIBOR administrator has advised that no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. These actions indicate that the continuation of U.S. LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after June 30, 2023. Moreover, it is possible that U.S. LIBOR will be discontinued or modified prior to June 30, 2023. Our credit agreement provides that, if the administrative agent has determined that adequate means do not exist for ascertaining LIBOR or that LIBOR does not adequately and fairly reflect the cost to lenders for making, funding or maintaining their loans, then all of our outstanding loans under the credit agreement will be converted into loans that accrue interest at the alternative base rate on the last day of such interest period that determination is made. Further, the lenders under our credit agreement will no longer be obligated to make loans using LIBOR as the applicable reference rate. In addition, our tax receivable agreement provides that, if for any reason the LLC is not able to make a tax distribution in an amount that is sufficient to make any required payment under the tax receivable agreement or we otherwise lack sufficient funds, interest would accrue on any unpaid amounts at LIBOR plus 500 basis points until they are paid. Our tax receivable agreement, however, does not provide for an alternative reference rate to LIBOR and, while we do not currently anticipate failing to pay any amounts owed under our tax receivable agreement, it is unclear how we would determine interest on any such amounts should we fail to pay as required under our tax receivable agreement.
If the rate used to calculate interest on our outstanding floating rate debt under our credit agreement that currently uses LIBOR were to increase by 1.0% either as a result of an increase in LIBOR or the result of the use of the alternative base rate, we would expect to incur additional interest expense on such indebtedness as of June 30, 2021 of approximately $1.4 million on an annualized basis. While we do not expect the potential impact of any LIBOR transition to have a material effect on our financial results based on our currently outstanding debt, uncertainty as to the nature of potential changes to LIBOR, fallback provisions, alternative reference rates or other reforms could adversely impact our interest expense on our floating rate debt that currently uses LIBOR as the applicable reference rate. In addition, any alternative reference rates to LIBOR may result in interest that does not correlate over time with the payments that would have been made on our indebtedness if LIBOR was available in its current form. Further, the discontinuance or modification of LIBOR and uncertainty of an alternative reference rate may result in the increase in the cost of future indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flow and results of operations. We intend to closely monitor the financial markets and the use of fallback provisions and alternative reference rates in anticipation of the discontinuance or modification of U.S. LIBOR on or before June 30, 2023.
We will be required to pay the pre-IPO owners (or any permitted assignee) for certain tax benefits pursuant to our tax receivable agreement with them, and the amounts we may pay could be significant.
We entered into a tax receivable agreement with the pre-IPO owners (or their permitted assignees) that provides for the payment by us to the pre-IPO owners (or any permitted assignee) of 85% of the tax benefits, if any, that we are deemed to realize as a result of (1) the increases in tax basis resulting from our purchases or exchanges of LLC Units and (2) certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the tax receivable agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. These payment obligations are the obligations of Malibu Boats, Inc. and not of the LLC. For purposes of the agreement, the benefit deemed realized by Malibu Boats, Inc. will be computed by comparing its actual income tax
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liability (calculated with certain assumptions) to the amount of such taxes that it would have been required to pay had there been no increase to the tax basis of the assets of the LLC as a result of the purchases or exchanges, and had we not entered into the tax receivable agreement.
Estimating the amount of payments that may be made under the tax receivable agreement is by its nature imprecise, insofar as the calculation of amounts payable depends on a variety of factors. The actual increase in tax basis, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the agreement, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including:
the timing of purchases or exchanges - for instance, the increase in any tax deductions will vary depending on the fair value, which may fluctuate over time, of the depreciable or amortizable assets of the LLC at the time of each purchase or exchange;
the price of shares of our Class A Common Stock at the time of the purchase or exchange - the increase in any tax deductions, as well as the tax basis increase in other assets, of the LLC is directly related to the price of shares of our Class A Common Stock at the time of the purchase or exchange;
the extent to which such purchases or exchanges are taxable - if an exchange or purchase is not taxable for any reason, increased deductions will not be available; and
the amount and timing of our income - Malibu Boats, Inc. will be required to pay 85% of the deemed benefits as and when deemed realized. If we do not have taxable income, we generally will not be required (absent a change of control or other circumstances requiring an early termination payment) to make payments under the tax receivable agreement for that taxable year because no benefit will have been realized. However, any tax benefits that do not result in realized benefits in a given tax year will likely generate tax attributes that may be utilized to generate benefits in previous or future tax years. The utilization of such tax attributes will result in payments under the tax receivable agreement.
We expect that the payments that Malibu Boats, Inc. may make under the tax receivable agreement may be substantial. Assuming no material changes in the relevant tax law, and that we earn sufficient taxable income to realize all tax benefits that are subject to the agreement, we expect that future payments under the tax receivable agreement relating to the purchases by Malibu Boats, Inc. of LLC Units will be approximately $48.2 million over the next sixteen (16) years. Future payments to pre-IPO owners (or their permitted assignees) in respect of subsequent exchanges or purchases would be in addition to these amounts and are expected to be substantial. The foregoing numbers are estimates and the actual payments could differ materially. It is possible that future transactions or events, such as changes in tax legislation, could increase or decrease the actual tax benefits realized and the corresponding tax receivable agreement payments.
Further, there may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if distributions to Malibu Boats, Inc. by the LLC are not sufficient to permit Malibu Boats, Inc. to make payments under the tax receivable agreement after it has paid taxes. For example, Malibu Boats, Inc. may have an obligation to make tax receivable agreement payments for a certain amount while receiving distributions from the LLC in a lesser amount, which would negatively affect our liquidity. The payments under the tax receivable agreement are not conditioned upon the pre-IPO owners’ (or any permitted assignees’) continued ownership of us.
Malibu Boats, Inc. is required to make a good faith effort to ensure that it has sufficient cash available to make any required payments under the tax receivable agreement. The limited liability company agreement of the LLC requires the LLC to make “tax distributions” which, in the ordinary course, will be sufficient to pay the actual tax liability of Malibu Boats, Inc. and to fund required payments under the tax receivable agreement. If for any reason the LLC is not able to make a tax distribution in an amount that is sufficient to make any required payment under the tax receivable agreement or we otherwise lack sufficient funds, interest would accrue on any unpaid amounts at LIBOR, plus 500 basis points until they are paid.
In certain cases, payments under the tax receivable agreement to the pre-IPO owners (or any permitted assignees) of LLC Units may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the tax receivable agreement.
The tax receivable agreement provides that, in the event that we exercise our right to early termination of the tax receivable agreement, or in the event of a change in control or a material breach by us of our obligations under the tax receivable agreement, the tax receivable agreement will terminate, and Malibu Boats, Inc. will be required to make a lump-sum payment equal to the present value of all forecasted future payments that would have otherwise been made under the tax receivable agreement, which lump-sum payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income. The change in control payment and termination payments to the pre-IPO owners (or any permitted assignees) could be substantial and could exceed the actual tax benefits that Malibu Boats, Inc. receives as a result of acquiring the LLC Units because the amounts of such payments would be calculated assuming that we would have been able to use the potential tax
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benefits each year for the remainder of the amortization periods applicable to the basis increases, and that tax rates applicable to us would be the same as they were in the year of the termination. In these situations, our obligations under the tax receivable agreement could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity. There can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the tax receivable agreement.
Payments under the tax receivable agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine. Although we are not aware of any issue that would cause the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, to challenge a tax basis increase, Malibu Boats, Inc. will not be reimbursed for any payments previously made under the tax receivable agreement. As a result, in certain circumstances, payments could be made under the tax receivable agreement in excess of the benefits that Malibu Boats, Inc. actually realizes in respect of (1) the increases in tax basis resulting from our purchases or exchanges of LLC Units and (2) certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the tax receivable agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement.
Risks Related to our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile and stockholders may be unable to sell shares at or above the price at which they purchased them.
Our stock price ranged from $46.37 per share to $93.00 per share during fiscal year 2021. The market price of our Class A Common Stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to the risk factors listed in this section and others beyond our control. Further, stock markets may experience extreme price and volume fluctuations that can affect the market prices of equity securities. These fluctuations can be unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, could harm the market price of our Class A Common Stock.
Future sales of our Class A Common Stock in the public market could cause our share price to fall; furthermore, you may be diluted by future issuances of Class A Common Stock in connection with our incentive plans, acquisitions or otherwise.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A Common Stock in the public market, in particular sales by our directors, officers or other affiliates, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our Class A Common Stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Furthermore, any Class A Common Stock that we issue in connection with our Long-Term Incentive Plan or other equity incentive plans that we may adopt in the future, our acquisitions or otherwise would dilute the percentage ownership of holders of our Class A Common Stock.
Our governing documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include, without limitation:
a classified board structure;
a requirement that stockholders must provide advance notice to propose nominations or have other business considered at a meeting of stockholders;
supermajority stockholder approval to amend our bylaws or certain provisions in our certificate of incorporation; and
authorization of blank check preferred stock.
In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. These provisions may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding Class A Common Stock, from engaging in certain business combinations without the approval of substantially all of our stockholders for a certain period of time.
These and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our Class A Common Stock in the future and result in the market price being lower than it would be without these provisions.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Tennessee
Our Malibu and Axis boats are manufactured in Loudon, Tennessee. We lease the property where we have our 197,300 square-foot facility that is used to manufacture Malibu and Axis boats. This property also includes warehouse and office space. The property is leased pursuant to a lease agreement that has a term through March 31, 2028, with the option to extend for three additional terms of ten years each.
We also own 112,000 square-feet of space neighboring our manufacturing facility in Loudon, Tennessee that we use for our trailer and engine production. Our Tennessee facilities are used in our Malibu segment.
Kansas
Our Cobalt boats are manufactured in Neodesha, Kansas. We own the property in Neodesha, where we have four manufacturing facilities aggregating to 493,000 square feet of manufacturing space, including the expansion completed in 2020 of 42,000 square feet. Our Neodesha facilities are used in our Cobalt segment.
Florida
Our Pursuit boats are manufactured in Fort Pierce, Florida. We own the property where our Pursuit facilities are located. Our six manufacturing facilities for Pursuit aggregate to 392,100 square feet of manufacturing space, including the expansion completed in 2020 of 181,000 square feet.
Our Maverick Boat Group boats are manufactured at a separate location in Fort Pierce, Florida. We own the property where our Maverick Boat Group facilities are located. Our two manufacturing facilities for Maverick Boat Group aggregate to 242,800 square feet of manufacturing space.
Our Fort Pierce facilities for Pursuit and the Maverick Boat Group are used in our Saltwater Fishing segment.
California
We lease a 172,500 square-foot facility in Merced, California pursuant to a lease agreement that has a term through March 31, 2028, with the option to extend for three additional terms of ten years each. Our Merced site houses both our product development team that focuses on design innovations as well as our tower and tower accessory manufacturing operations. The components assembled at this site are delivered to our facilities in Tennessee and our Australian subsidiary. Our Merced site is used in our Malibu segment.
Australia
We manufacture and test boats at two facilities in Albury, Australia with combined square-footage of 68,200. Each facility is leased pursuant to a lease agreement and each with a term through October 22, 2024, with two five-year options to extend lease term. Our Albury facilities are used in our Malibu segment.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The discussion of legal matters under the section entitled "Legal Proceedings" is incorporated by reference from Note 17 of our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.
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PART II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our Class A Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "MBUU".
On August 24, 2021, the last reported sale price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market of our Class A Common Stock was $80.55 per share. As of August 24, 2021, we had approximately five holders of record of our Class A Common Stock and 10 holders of record of our Class B Common Stock. The actual number of holders of Class A Common Stock is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares of Class A Common Stock are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
Dividends
Malibu Boats, Inc. has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its capital stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain all of our future earnings for use in the expansion and operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable law and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Stock Performance Graph
The stock price performance graph below shall not be deemed soliciting material or to be filed with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under the Exchange Act or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, nor shall it be incorporated by reference into any past or future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically request that it be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
The following graph shows the cumulative total stockholder return of an investment of $100 in cash at market close at the end of each of the years within the five-year period ended June 30, 2021 for (i) our Class A Common Stock, (ii) the Russell 2000 Index and (iii) the Dow Jones Recreational Product Index. Pursuant to applicable SEC rules, all values assume reinvestment of the full amount of all dividends, however no dividends have been declared on our Class A Common Stock to date. The stockholder return shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns.
mbuu-20210630_g3.jpg
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On August 27, 2020, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program to allow for the repurchase of up to $50.0 million of our Class A Common Stock and the LLC's LLC Units (the “ Repurchase Program”) for the period from
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September 2, 2020 to July 1, 2021. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021, no shares have been repurchased under the Repurchase Program. This repurchase program expired on July 1, 2021.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
On April 16, 2021, in connection with the exchange of limited liability company interests of the LLC by a member of the LLC, the Company issued a total of 3,000 shares of its Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share for nominal consideration to such member in reliance on the exemption under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Equity compensation plan information required by this Item 5 will be included in our definitive proxy statement for our annual meeting of stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year ended June 30, 2021 (the "Proxy Statement"), and is incorporated herein by reference.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following table presents our selected financial data. The table should be read in conjunction with "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 Fiscal Year Ended June 30,  
 20212020201920182017
 (Dollars in thousands)
Consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income data:   
Net sales$926,515 $653,163 $684,016 $497,002 $281,937 
Cost of sales690,030 503,893 517,746 376,660 206,899 
Gross profit236,485 149,270 166,270 120,342 75,038 
Operating expenses:   
     Selling and marketing17,540 17,917 17,946 13,718 8,619 
     General and administrative61,915 39,912 44,256 31,359 24,783 
     Amortization7,255 6,131 5,956 5,198 2,198 
Operating income 149,775 85,310 98,112 70,067 39,438 
Other expense (income), net1,514 1,578 6,315 (19,320)(9,230)
Net income before income tax expense 148,261 83,732 91,797 89,387 48,668 
Income tax expense 33,979 19,076 22,096 58,418 17,593 
Net income 114,282 64,656 69,701 30,969 31,075 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest 1
4,441 3,094 3,635 3,356 2,717 
Net income attributable to Malibu Boats, Inc.$109,841 $61,562 $66,066 $27,613 $28,358 
Net income available to Class A Common Stock per share:  
Basic$5.29 $2.98 $3.17  $1.37  $1.59 
Diluted$5.23 $2.95 $3.15  $1.36  $1.58 
Weighted average shares outstanding used in computing net income per share:
Basic20,752,652 20,662,750 20,832,445 20,179,381 17,846,894 
Diluted21,011,087 20,852,361 20,966,539 20,281,210 17,951,332 
Consolidated balance sheet data:     
Total assets$742,784 $477,346 $451,314 $365,768 $223,663 
Total current liabilities134,403 70,163 75,332 65,386 39,185 
Total long-term liabilities227,227 145,656 165,629 160,511 132,242 
Total stockholders' equity381,154 261,527 210,353 139,871 52,236 
Additional financial and other data:     
Unit volume8,185 6,444 7,362 6,292 3,815 
Gross margin25.5 %22.8 %24.3 %24.2 %26.6 %
Adjusted EBITDA 2
$190,103 $110,947 $125,895 $92,718 $55,721 
Net income margin12.3 %9.9 %10.2 %6.2 %11.0 %
Adjusted EBITDA margin 2
20.5 %17.0 %18.4 %18.7 %19.8 %
Adjusted fully distributed net income per share 2
$6.01 $3.29 $3.76 $2.60 $1.56 
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(1)The non-controlling interest represents the portion of earnings or (loss) attributable to the economic interest held by the non-controlling LLC Unit holders. The weighted average non-controlling interest attributable to ownership interests in the LLC was 3.1%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 5.3%, and 7.0% for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. The non-controlling interest was 2.8%, 3.4%, 3.8%, 4.8% and 6.6% as of June 30, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
(2)
Adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin, and adjusted fully distributed net income per share are non-GAAP financial measures. For definitions of adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin, and adjusted fully distributed net income and a reconciliation of each measure to net income for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, 2020, and 2019, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-GAAP Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” For a reconciliation of each measure to net income for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2018 and 2017, see “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-GAAP Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019.


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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Overview
We are a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of a diverse range of recreational powerboats, including performance sport boats, sterndrive and outboard boats. Our product portfolio of premium brands are used for a broad range of recreational boating activities including, among others, water sports, general recreational boating and fishing. Our passion for consistent innovation, which has led to propriety technology such as Surf Gate, has allowed us to expand the market for our products by introducing consumers to new and exciting recreational activities. We design products that appeal to an expanding range of recreational boaters and water sports enthusiasts whose passion for boating and water sports is a key component of their active lifestyle and provide consumers with a better customer-inspired experience. With performance, quality, value and multi-purpose features, our product portfolio has us well positioned to broaden our addressable market and achieve our goal of increasing our market share in the expanding recreational boating industry.
We currently sell our boats under eight brands as shown in the table below, and we report our results of operations under three reportable segments, Malibu, Cobalt and Saltwater Fishing. We revised our segment reporting effective December 31, 2020 to account for our acquisition of Maverick Boat Group and to conform to changes in our internal management reporting based on our boat manufacturing operations. Prior to December 31, 2020, we had three reportable segments, Malibu, Pursuit and Cobalt. All segment information in the accompanying consolidated financial statements has been revised to conform to our current reporting segments for comparison purposes. Additional segment information is contained in Note 19 - Segment Reporting, in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
% of Total Revenues
Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
SegmentBrands202120202019
MalibuMalibu52.2%54.3%54.8%
Axis
Saltwater FishingPursuit26.2%18.9%15.0%
Maverick
Cobia
Pathfinder
Hewes
CobaltCobalt21.6%26.8%30.2%
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Our Malibu segment participates in the manufacturing, distribution, marketing and sale throughout the world of Malibu and Axis performance sports boats. Our flagship Malibu boats offer our latest innovations in performance, comfort and convenience, and are designed for consumers seeking a premium performance sport boat experience. We are the market leader in the United States in the performance sport boat category through our Malibu and Axis Wake Research boat brands. Our Axis boats appeal to consumers who desire a more affordable performance sport boat product but still demand high performance, functional simplicity and the option to upgrade key features. Retail prices of our Malibu and Axis boats typically range from $65,000 to $215,000.
Our Saltwater Fishing segment participates in the manufacturing, distribution, marketing and sale throughout the world of Pursuit boats and the Maverick Boat Group family of boats (Maverick, Cobia, Pathfinder and Hewes). Our Pursuit boats expand our product offerings into the saltwater outboard fishing market and include center console, dual console and offshore models. As noted below, we recently acquired Maverick Boat Group and added Maverick, Cobia, Pathfinder and Hewes to our brands. Our Maverick Boat Group family of boats are highly complementary to Pursuit, expanding our saltwater outboard offerings with a strong focus in length segments under 30 feet. We are among the market leaders in the fiberglass outboard fishing boat category with the brands in our Saltwater Fishing segment. Retail prices for our Saltwater Fishing boats typically range from $45,000 to $1,200,000.
Our Cobalt segment participates in the manufacturing, distribution, marketing and sale throughout the world of Cobalt boats. Our Cobalt boats consist of mid to large-sized luxury cruisers and bowriders that we believe offer the ultimate experience in comfort, performance and quality. We are the market leader in the United States in the 20’ - 40’ segment of the sterndrive boat category through our Cobalt brand. Retail prices for our Cobalt boats typically range from $65,000 to $500,000.
We sell our boats through a dealer network that we believe is the strongest in the recreational powerboat category. As of July 1, 2021, our worldwide distribution channel consisted of over 400 dealer locations globally. Our dealer base is an important part of our consumers’ experience, our marketing efforts and our brands. We devote significant time and resources to find, develop and improve the performance of our dealers and believe our dealer network gives us a distinct competitive advantage.
We achieved fiscal year 2021 net sales, net income and adjusted EBITDA of $926.5 million, $114.3 million and $190.1 million, respectively, which were an increase from $653.2 million, $64.7 million and $110.9 million, respectively, for fiscal year 2020. The increase from 2020 to 2021 resulted primarily from an increase in wholesale demand for our products, limited production caused by COVID related plant shutdowns during fiscal 2020, and the inclusion of the Maverick Boat Group since its acquisition on December 31, 2020. For the definition of adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to net income, see “GAAP Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
Acquisition of Maverick Boat Group, Inc. and Related Financing
On December 31, 2020, we acquired all of the outstanding shares of Maverick Boat Group from its existing stockholders for a purchase price of $150.7 million. The purchase price was subject to customary adjustments for the amounts of cash, indebtedness and working capital in the business at the closing date and subject to adjustment for certain capital expenditures made by Maverick Boat Group prior to closing at our request. With two manufacturing facilities located in Fort Pierce, Florida, Maverick Boat Group designs and manufactures center console, dual console, flats and bay boats under four brand names -- Cobia, Pathfinder, Maverick, and Hewes. We paid the purchase price with cash on hand and $90.0 million of borrowings under our credit facilities following an amendment to increase the amount available under the credit facilities as described below.
On December 30, 2020, our subsidiary, Malibu Boats, LLC, as the borrower, entered into the Third Incremental Facility Amendment and Third Amendment to its existing Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of June 28, 2017 with Truist Bank, as the administrative agent, swingline lender and issuing bank. The third amendment added a $25.0 million incremental term loan facility with a maturity date of July 1, 2024 and increased the borrowing capacity available under the revolving credit facility by $50.0 million from $120.0 million to $170.0 million. The $25.0 million incremental term loan made pursuant to the third amendment is subject to quarterly amortization at a rate of 5.0% per year through December 31, 2022 and at a rate of 7.5% per year through June 30, 2024 and accrues interest at the same rate as other loans under the credit agreement.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our operations and financial results since the third quarter of fiscal year 2020 and continues to have an impact on us. We elected to suspend operations at all of our facilities from March 2020 until late April and early May 2020, depending on the facility. As a result, we were not able to ship boats to our dealers during the period of shut-down, which negatively impacted our net sales for the second half of fiscal year 2020. During the first half of fiscal 2021, we constrained our production levels in an attempt to allow our supply chain to more fully recover from the impacts of COVID-19 in preparation of higher wholesale manufacturing volumes that we planned for the second half of fiscal 2021. While our net
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sales for fiscal year 2021 were impacted by our lower production levels, retail sales improved during fiscal year 2021 as consumers turned to boating as a form of outdoor, socially distanced recreation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increase in retail sales during fiscal year 2021 combined with our lower wholesale shipment levels during the second half of fiscal year 2020 and constrained production in the first half of fiscal year 2021 resulted in lower inventory levels at our dealers as of June 30, 2021 compared to last year. We expect these lower inventory levels, while having the potential to impact retail sales in the near-term, will provide us strong order flow for our model year 2022 product, unless broader economic activity meaningfully contracts and negatively impacts customer demand.
In addition to our operations, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted and continues to impact the operations of our dealers and suppliers. While some of our dealers and suppliers had to suspend their operations during the pandemic, many continued to operate and we are not aware of any of our dealers or suppliers that have closed permanently. Our suppliers have been impacted by COVID-19 and continue to ramp production to meet increased demand for their products. As mentioned, we have successfully managed our production levels to ensure that challenges related to parts procurement have minimal impact on our operations and we have not experienced any significant shortages related to COVID-19.
The future impact of COVID-19 on our financial condition and results of operations, however, will depend on a number of factors, including factors that we may not be able to forecast at this time. In addition, a resurgence of COVID-19 in certain parts of the world, including the United States and parts of Europe, may lead to more restrictions being implemented again to reduce the spread of COVID-19. These measures could result in further interruptions to our operations and potentially a decrease in consumer spending. See the risk factor “Our operations and sales have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we must successfully manage the demand, supply, and operational challenges associated with the actual or perceived effects of COVID-19 and the related widespread public health crisis..” under Part I. Item 1A. of this Form 10- K.
Outlook
Industry-wide marine retail registrations continue to recover from the years following the global financial crisis. According to Statistical Surveys, Inc., domestic retail registration volumes of performance sport boats, fiberglass sterndrive and fiberglass outboards increased at a compound annual growth rate of approximately 5.8% between 2011 and 2020, for the 50 reporting states. Within the recreational powerboat categories, the performance sport boats category, which we primarily serve with our Malibu and Axis brands, has produced a double-digit compound annual growth rate between 2011 and 2020. Outboard boats and fiberglass sterndrive boats have seen their combined market grow at a 5.0% compound annual growth rate between 2011 and 2020. This combined growth has been driven primarily by the outboard market. We target the outboard market with our Pursuit, Cobia, Pathfinder, Maverick and Hewes brands, as well as our Cobalt brand, which is a new entrant to the outboard market, and we plan to meaningfully expand our share of the fiberglass outboard category in the future. We cater to the sterndrive market through our Cobalt brand. While the market for sterndrive propulsion, particularly in lower foot length products, has been challenged, Cobalt’s performance continues to be helped by the higher foot length product market it serves, which has grown and through gains in market share by Cobalt. While retail growth in powerboats was negatively impacted by weak retail sales in March and April 2020 due to COVID-19, domestic retail demand growth for powerboats accelerated during calendar year 2020, in part because consumers turned to boating as a form of outdoor, socially distanced recreation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the impact of COVID-19 early in 2020, the increased demand during 2020 was broad based across recreational powerboat categories. Year-over-year domestic retail growth rates for 2020 in the performance sport boat, fiberglass outboard and sterndrive segments were approximately 22%, 10% and 9%, respectively. The first half of 2021 saw continued strong year-over-year retail growth, however, in May 2021 we saw lower growth and in certain markets year-over-year decreases in retail registrations driven by the lack of available inventory at our dealers and the high growth in those months during 2020. We believe retail registration activity will decline during the third calendar quarter of 2021 versus the comparable period in 2020 given the limited available inventory and the strong sales activity and resulting destocking in 2020. Notwithstanding the impact of limited inventory levels, we believe total 2021 retail registrations will remain strong given the current retail activity. Of new boat orders, we believe over 90% will be retail sold in the first quarter of fiscal 2022, and we anticipate a robust pace to continue throughout the remainder of the year.
As noted, the combination of continued strong retail market activity through 2020 and into early 2021 and the temporary suspension of our operations from March and into May 2020 depleted inventory levels at our dealers below prior year levels. Our planned ramp in manufacturing throughput during the third quarter of fiscal 2021 was well supported by our supply chain. However, our second half performance was negatively impacted by operational challenges and supply chain constraints created by severe winter weather, further delaying our ability to add to depleted inventory levels. As a result of these lower dealer inventory levels, we expect to see meaningful wholesale demand to restock our dealer inventories through fiscal year 2022 and beyond. We expect lower dealer inventory levels will support our wholesale shipments and financial performance through fiscal year 2022. We believe that strength is likely to continue into fiscal year 2023. The duration of our dealer restocking demand may be extended by our suppliers' ability to increase production to match our desired wholesale production targets. We are currently experiencing supply chain disruptions that we believe are driven by numerous factors, including labor shortages,
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logistical disruptions and limited inputs and rising prices to our suppliers. The length and duration of these challenges is unknown and they may meaningfully impact our ability to restock our dealers inventories in a timely manner. Numerous other variables also have the potential to impact our volumes, both positively and negatively. For example, we believe a substantial increase or decrease in the price of oil, strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar and tariffs can result in greater or reduced demand for our boats in certain markets. To date, growth in our domestic market has offset the significantly diminished demand from economies that are driven by the oil industry and international markets. Consumer confidence, expanded or eroded, is a variable that can also impact demand for our products in both directions. Other challenges that could impact demand for recreational powerboats include higher interest rates reducing retail consumer appetite for our product, the availability of credit to our dealers and retail consumers, fuel costs, a meaningful reduction in the value of global or domestic equity markets, the continued acceptance of our new products in the recreational boating market, our ability to compete in the competitive power boating industry, and the costs of labor and certain of our raw materials and key components.
Since 2008, we have increased our market share among manufacturers of performance sport boats with new product development, improved distribution, new models, and innovative features. Our market remains highly competitive however and our competitors have become more aggressive in their product introductions, increased their distribution and launched surf systems competitive with our patented Surf Gate system. Notwithstanding this increasingly competitive environment, we expanded our market share lead in 2019 in the performance sport boats category over our nearest competitors. However, we believe decreased dealer inventory levels driven by strong retail growth in the second half of 2020 led to a reduction in our market share for 2020; however, we continue to maintain the leading market share in the performance sport boat category. In addition, we continue to be the market share leader in both the premium and value-oriented product sub- categories for performance sports boats, we continue to maintain the number one market share position in the United States for the 24’—29’ segment of the sterndrive boat category, and we have the number two market share position in the outboard fiberglass fishing market. Our ability to continue to increase inventory levels at our dealers will be important to maintain and grow our market share across our brands. We believe our new product pipeline, strong dealer network and ability to increase production will allow us to maintain and potentially expand our industry leading market position in performance sports boats.
We believe our track record of expanding our market share with our Malibu and Axis brands due to new product development, improved distribution, new models, and innovative features is directly transferable to our Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group acquisitions. While Cobalt, Pursuit and the Maverick Boat Group brands are market leaders in certain areas, we believe our experience positions us to execute a strategy to drive enhanced share by expanding the Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group product offerings with different foot lengths, different boat types and different propulsion technologies. Our new product development efforts at Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group will take time and our ability to influence near-term model introductions is limited, but we have already begun to execute on this strategy. With respect to Cobalt, we introduced five new models of boats during the first half of fiscal year 2021 and we have included Splash and Stow and a new electronic flip down Swim Step for model year 2021 boats. For the Pursuit brand, our focus has been on expanding the award-winning Dual Console, Sport and Offshore product offerings that continue to combine innovative features and dependable performance in refined designs that accommodate a broad array of activities on the water, including the Electric Sliding Entertainment Center on the new S 378. Our newest acquisition, Maverick Boat Group, is in the very early stages of integration into the business and meaningful product and innovation changes will be developed for coming years. We believe enhancing new product development combined with diligent management of the Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group dealer networks will position us to meaningfully improve our share of the sterndrive and outboard markets over time.
Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
We believe that our results of operations and our growth prospects are affected by a number of factors, which we discuss below.
Economic Environment and Consumer Demand
Our product sales are impacted by general economic conditions, which affect the demand for our products, the demand for optional features, the availability of credit for our dealers and retail consumers, and overall consumer confidence. Consumer spending, especially purchases of discretionary items, tends to decline during recessionary periods and tends to increase during expansionary periods. The recreational powerboat industry has shown continued growth from 2010 through 2020 based on retail sales. While there is still some uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic we believe we are well positioned strategically in the recreational powerboat market with brands that are market leaders in their segments.
New Product Development and Innovation
Our long-term revenue prospects are based in part on our ability to develop new products and technological enhancements that meet the demands of existing and new consumers. Developing and introducing new boat models and features that deliver improved performance and convenience are essential to leveraging the value of our brands. By introducing new boat models,
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we are able to appeal to a new and broader range of consumers and focus on underserved or adjacent segments of the broader powerboat category. To keep product fresh and at the forefront of technological innovation in the boating industry, we aim to introduce a number of new boat models per year. We also believe we are able to capture additional value from the sale of each boat through the introduction of new features, which results in increased average selling prices and improved margins. We allocate most of our product development costs to new model and feature designs, usually with a specific consumer base and market in mind. We use industry data to analyze our markets and evaluate revenue potential from each major project we undertake. Our product development cycle, or the time from initial concept to volume production, can be up to two years. As a result, our development costs, which may be significant, may not be offset by corresponding new sales during the same periods. Once new designs and technologies become available to our consumers, we typically realize revenue from these products from one year up to 15 years. We may not, however, realize our revenue expectations from each innovation. We believe our close communication with our consumers, dealers and sponsored athletes regarding their future product desires enhances the efficiency of our product development expenditures.
Product Mix
Leveraging our robust product offering and features to enhance our sales growth and gross margins. Our product mix, as it relates to our brands, types of boats and features, not only makes our offerings attractive to consumers but also helps drive higher sales and margins. Historically, we have been able to realize higher sales and margins when we sell larger boats compared to our smaller boats, our premium brands compared to our entry-level brands and our boats that are fully-equipped with optional features. We intend to continue to develop new features and models and maintain an attractive product mix that optimizes sales growth and margins.
Ability to Manage Manufacturing Costs, Sales Cycles and Inventory Levels
Our results of operations are affected by our ability to manage our manufacturing costs effectively and to respond to changing sales cycles. Our product costs vary based on the costs of supplies and raw materials, as well as labor costs. We have implemented various initiatives to reduce our cost base and improve the efficiency of our manufacturing process. We are continuously monitoring and reviewing our manufacturing processes to identify improvements and create additional efficiencies. During fiscal year 2020, we expanded our facilities in Kansas and Florida for our Cobalt and Pursuit operations, respectively. We are currently working on expansion projects at Maverick Boat Group in Florida. We expect this expanded facility will allow us to continue improving the manufacturing process and increase volume at this location. We rely on our insights into the market gleaned from dealer inventory levels, industry reports about anticipated demand for our products in the upcoming sales cycle and our own estimates and assumptions in formulating our manufacturing plan for the following fiscal year. Throughout our consumer sales cycle, which reaches its peak from March through August of each year, we adjust our manufacturing activities in order to adapt to variability in demand.
Dealer Network, Dealer Financing and Incentives
We rely on our dealer network to distribute and sell our products. We believe we have developed the strongest distribution network in the performance sport boat category. To improve and expand our network and compete effectively for dealers, we regularly monitor and assess the performance of our dealers and evaluate dealer locations and geographic coverage in order to identify potential market opportunities. Our acquisitions of Cobalt, Pursuit and Maverick Boat Group has allowed us to expand into each of their strong dealer networks as well. We intend to continue to add dealers in new territories in the United States as well as internationally, which we believe will result in increased unit sales.
Our dealers are exposed to seasonal variations in consumer demand for boats. We address anticipated demand for our products and manage our manufacturing in order to mitigate seasonal variations. We also use our dealer incentive programs to encourage dealers to order in the off-season by providing floor plan financing relief, which typically permits dealers to take delivery of current model year boats between July 1 and April 30 on an interest-free basis for a specified period. We also offer our dealers other incentives, including rebates, seasonal discounts, promotional co-op arrangements and other allowances. We facilitate floor plan financing programs for many of our dealers by entering into repurchase agreements with certain third-party lenders, which enable our dealers, under certain circumstances, to establish lines of credit with the third-party lenders to purchase inventory. Under these floor plan financing programs, a dealer draws on the floor plan facility upon the purchase of our boats and the lender pays the invoice price of the boats. We will continue to review and refine our dealer incentive offerings and monitor any exposures arising under these arrangements.
Vertical Integration
We have vertically integrated a number of key components of our manufacturing process, including the manufacturing of boat trailers, towers and tower accessories, machined and billet parts, and soft grip flooring. We began producing our own engines, branded as Malibu Monsoon engines, in our Malibu and Axis boats for model year 2019. We believe our engine
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marinization initiative will reduce our reliance on our previous engine suppliers for our Malibu and Axis brands while reducing the risk that a change in cost or production from any engine supplier for such brands could adversely affect our business. Recently we began producing soft grip flooring for our Malibu, Axis and new Cobalt models.
Vertical integration of key components of our boats gives us the ability to increase incremental margin per boat sold by reducing our cost base and improving the efficiency of our manufacturing process. Additionally, it allows us to have greater control over design, consumer customization options, construction quality, and our supply chain. We believe our engine marinization initiative will reduce our reliance on our previous engine suppliers for our Malibu and Axis brands while reducing the risk that a change in cost or production from any engine supplier for such brands could adversely affect our business. We continually review our manufacturing process to identify opportunities for additional vertical integration investments across our portfolio of premium brands.
Components of Results of Operations
Net Sales
We generate revenue from the sale of boats to our dealers. The substantial majority of our net sales are derived from the sale of boats, including optional features included at the time of the initial wholesale purchase of the boat. Net sales consists of the following:
Gross sales from:
Boat and trailer sales—consists of sales of boats and trailers to our dealer network. Nearly all of our boat sales include optional feature upgrades purchased by the consumer, which increase the average selling price of our boats; and
Parts and other sales—consists of sales of replacement and aftermarket boat parts and accessories to our dealer network; and consists of royalty income earned from license agreements with various boat manufacturers, including Nautique, Chaparral, Mastercraft, and Tige related to the use of our intellectual property.
Net sales are net of:
Sales returns—consists primarily of contractual repurchases of boats either repossessed by the floor plan financing provider from the dealer or returned by the dealer under our warranty program; and
Rebates and free flooring —consists of incentives, rebates and free flooring, we provide to our dealers based on sales of eligible products. For our Malibu and Cobalt segments, if a domestic dealer meets its monthly or quarterly commitment volume, as well as other terms of the dealer performance program, the dealer is entitled to a specified rebate. For our Saltwater Fishing segment, if a dealer meets its quarterly or annual retail volume goals, the dealer is entitled to a specific rebate applied to their wholesale volume purchased. For Malibu, Cobalt and select Saltwater Fishing models, our dealers that take delivery of current model year boats in the offseason, typically July through April in the U.S., are also entitled to have us pay the interest to floor the boat until the earlier of (1) the sale of the unit or (2) a date near the end of the current model year, which incentive we refer to as “free flooring.” From time to time, we may extend the flooring program to eligible models beyond the offseason period. For more information, see "Item 1. Business - Dealer Management."
 Cost of Sales
Our cost of sales includes all of the costs to manufacture our products, including raw materials, components, supplies, direct labor and factory overhead. For components and accessories manufactured by third-party vendors, such costs represent the amounts invoiced by the vendors. Shipping costs and depreciation expense related to manufacturing equipment and facilities are also included in cost of sales. Warranty costs associated with the repair or replacement of our boats under warranty are also included in cost of sales.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses include selling and marketing, and general and administrative costs. Each of these items includes personnel and related expenses, supplies, non-manufacturing overhead, third-party professional fees and various other operating expenses. Further, selling and marketing expenditures include the cost of advertising and various promotional sales incentive programs. General and administrative expenses include, among other things, salaries, benefits and other personnel related expenses for employees engaged in product development, engineering, finance, information technology, human resources and executive management. Other costs include outside legal and accounting fees, investor relations, risk management (insurance)
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and other administrative costs. General and administrative expenses also include product development expenses associated with our engines vertical integration initiative and acquisition or integration related expenses.
Other (Income) Expense, Net
Other (income) expense, net consists of interest expense and other income or expense, net. Interest expense consists of interest charged under our outstanding debt, interest on our interest rate swap arrangement and change in the fair value of our interest rate swap we entered into on July 1, 2015, which matured on March 31, 2020, and amortization of deferred financing costs on our credit facilities. Other income or expense includes adjustments to our tax receivable agreement liability.
Income Taxes
Malibu Boats, Inc. is subject to U.S. federal and state income tax in multiple jurisdictions with respect to our allocable share of any net taxable income of the LLC. The LLC is a pass-through entity for federal purposes but incurs income tax in certain state jurisdictions. Maverick Boat Group is separately subject to U.S. federal and state income tax with respect to its net taxable income.
Net Income Attributable to Non-controlling Interest
As of June 30, 2021 and 2020, we had a 97.2% and 96.6% controlling economic interest and 100% voting interest in the LLC. We consolidate the LLC's operating results for financial statement purposes. Net income attributable to non-controlling interest represents the portion of net income attributable to the LLC members.
Results of Operations
The table below sets forth our consolidated results of operations, expressed in thousands (except unit volume and net sales per unit) and as a percentage of net sales, for the periods presented. Our consolidated financial results for these periods are not necessarily indicative of the consolidated financial results that we will achieve in future periods. Certain totals for the table below will not sum to exactly 100% due to rounding.
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Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
$% Revenue$% Revenue$% Revenue
Net sales926,515 100.0 %653,163 100.0 %684,016 100.0 %
Cost of sales690,030 74.5 %503,893 77.2 %517,746 75.7 %
Gross profit236,485 25.5 %149,270 22.8 %166,270 24.3 %
Operating expenses:
Selling and marketing17,540 1.9 %17,917 2.8 %17,946 2.6 %
General and administrative61,915 6.6 %39,912 6.1 %44,256 6.5 %
Amortization7,255 0.8 %6,131 0.9 %5,956 0.9 %
Operating income149,775 16.2 %85,310 13.0 %98,112 14.3 %
Other (income) expense:
Other(1,015)(0.1)%(2,310)(0.4)%(149)— %
Interest expense2,529 0.3 %3,888 0.6 %6,464 0.9 %
Other (income) expense, net1,514 0.2 %1,578 0.2 %6,315 0.9 %
Net income before provision for income taxes148,261 16.0 %83,732 12.8 %91,797 13.4 %
Income tax provision 33,979 3.7 %19,076 2.9 %22,096 3.2 %
Net income114,282 12.3 %64,656 9.9 %69,701 10.2 %
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest4,441 0.5 %3,094 0.5 %3,635 0.5 %
Net income attributable to Malibu Boats, Inc.109,841 11.8 %61,562 9.4 %66,066 9.7 %
Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
Unit Volumes% TotalUnit Volumes% TotalUnit Volumes% Total
Volume by Segment
Malibu4,841 59.1 %3,980 61.8 %4,547 61.7 %
Saltwater Fishing 1
1,428 17.5 %508 7.9 %406 5.5 %
Cobalt1,916 23.4 %1,956 30.3 %2,409 32.8 %
Total Units8,185 6,444 7,362 
Net sales per unit$113,197 $101,360 $92,912 
(1) We acquired all of the outstanding stock of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020 and substantially all of the assets of Pursuit on October 15, 2018.
Comparison of the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2021 to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2020
Net Sales
Net sales for fiscal year 2021 increased $273.4 million, or 41.9%, to $926.5 million, compared to fiscal year 2020. Unit volume for fiscal year 2021 increased 1,741 units, or 27.0%, to 8,185 units compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in net sales was driven primarily by a favorable model mix in our Malibu and Cobalt segment and increased unit volume in our Malibu and Saltwater fishing segments. The increase in unit volume for our Saltwater Fishing segment was due mostly to our acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020.
Net sales attributable to our Malibu segment increased $128.8 million, or 36.3%, to $483.5 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. Unit volumes attributable to our Malibu segment increased 861 units for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in net sales and unit volumes was driven primarily by strong demand for our new, larger models and optional features.
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Net sales from our Saltwater Fishing segment increased $119.3 million, or 96.5%, to $242.9 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. Unit volumes increased 920 units for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in net sales was driven primarily by the increased volumes at Pursuit and due to the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020.
Net sales from our Cobalt segment increased $25.3 million, or 14.5%, to $200.1 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. Unit volumes attributable to Cobalt decreased 40 units for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in net sales was driven by a favorable product mix of our Cobalt models impacting net sales per unit, offset by lower volume. Our unit volumes for our Cobalt segment decreased during fiscal year 2021 because of lower production levels related to our investment in the Cobalt facilities to optimize efficiency and expand capacity, the introduction of six new Cobalt models during fiscal year 2021 and challenges around labor and supply as a result of the pandemic and severe winter weather.
Our overall net sales per unit increased 11.7% to $113,197 per unit for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020. Net sales per unit for our Malibu segment increased 12.1% to $99,881 per unit for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020, primarily driven by higher sales of new, more expensive models and optional features. Net sales per unit for our Saltwater Fishing segment decreased 30.1% to $170,108 per unit for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020, primarily driven by mix of models due to the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020. Net sales per unit for our Cobalt segment increased 16.9% to $104,424 per unit for fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020, driven by higher sales of larger, more expensive models and optional features.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales for fiscal year 2021 increased $186.1 million, or 36.9%, to $690.0 million compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in cost of sales was driven by higher costs related to higher net sales in our Malibu and Saltwater Fishing segments. In the Malibu segment, higher material and labor costs contributed $70.4 million to the increase in cost of sales and were driven by an increased mix of larger product that corresponded with higher net sales per unit. Within our Saltwater Fishing segment, higher volumes, primarily related to the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group, drove $83.7 million of increase in cost of sales which was also modestly impacted by higher per unit costs. In the Cobalt segment, higher material and labor costs contributed $14.7 million to the increase in cost of sales and were driven by an increased mix of larger product that corresponded with higher net sales per unit.
Gross Profit
Gross profit for fiscal year 2021 increased $87.2 million, or 58.4%, compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in gross profit was driven primarily by higher sales revenue with a more favorable product mix and the contribution of Maverick Boat Group partially offset by the increased cost of sales for the reasons noted above. Gross margin increased 270 basis points from 22.8% in fiscal 2020 to 25.5% in fiscal year 2021.
Operating Expenses
Selling and marketing expense for fiscal year 2021 decreased $0.4 million, or 2.1% to $17.5 million compared to fiscal year 2020. The decrease was driven primarily by decreased travel and promotional events due mostly to restrictions imposed by COVID-19 offset by incremental selling and marketing expenses with the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group. As a percentage of sales, selling and marketing expense decreased 90 basis points from 2.8% for fiscal year 2020 to 1.9% for fiscal year 2021. General and administrative expense for fiscal year 2021 increased $22.0 million, or 55.1%, to $61.9 million compared to fiscal year 2020. The increase in general and administrative expenses was driven primarily by acquisition and integration related costs, compensation, higher legal expenses related to intellectual property litigation and incremental general and administrative expenses due to the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group. As a percentage of sales, general and administrative expenses increased 50 basis points to 6.6% for fiscal year 2021 compared to 6.1% for fiscal year 2020. Amortization expense for fiscal year 2021 increased $1.1 million, or 18.3%, to $7.3 million compared to fiscal year 2020, due to additional amortization from intangible assets acquired as a result of the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020.
Other (Income) Expense, Net
Other expense, net for fiscal year 2021 decreased by $0.1 million, or 4.1% to $1.5 million as compared to fiscal year 2020. In fiscal year 2021, we reduced our tax receivable agreement liability by $0.1 million that resulted in a corresponding amount being recognized as other income during the same period, compared to fiscal year 2020, when we reduced our tax receivable agreement liability by $1.7 million that resulted in a corresponding amount being recognized as other income during fiscal year 2020. Our interest expense decreased by $1.3 million during fiscal year 2021 compared to fiscal year 2020 due to lower interest rates on outstanding debt.
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Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes for fiscal year 2021 increased $14.9 million, or 78.1% to $34.0 million compared to fiscal year 2020. This increase was primarily driven by higher pre-tax earnings and increased U.S. state taxes. For fiscal year 2021, our effective tax rate of 22.9% differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to the impact of U.S. state taxes, and partially offset by the impact of non-controlling interests in the LLC. For fiscal year 2020, our effective tax rate of 22.8% differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to the impact of U.S. state taxes, and partially offset by the impact of non-controlling interests in the LLC.
Non-controlling interest
Non-controlling interest represents the ownership interests of the members of the LLC other than us and the amount recorded as non-controlling interest in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income is computed by multiplying pre-tax income for the applicable fiscal year by the percentage ownership in the LLC not directly attributable to us. For fiscal years 2021 and 2020, the weighted average non-controlling interest attributable to ownership interests in the LLC not directly attributable to us was 3.1% and 3.8%, respectively.
Comparison of the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2020 to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2019
Net Sales
Net sales for fiscal year 2020 decreased $30.9 million, or 4.5%, to $653.2 million, compared to fiscal year 2019. Unit volume for fiscal year 2020 decreased 918 units, or 12.5%, to 6,444 units compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in net sales and unit volumes was driven primarily by the temporary shutdown of our facilities in the second half of fiscal year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of our suspension of operations, we were not able to ship boats to our dealers during the period of shut-down, which negatively impacted our net sales for the second half of fiscal year 2020. In addition to the pandemic, but to a lesser effect, we also had planned lower production rates at Cobalt to reduce wholesale shipments and dealer inventories that negatively impacted sales versus the prior year period. This decrease in net sales was partially offset by a higher average selling price due to model mix and an increase in sales at Pursuit from a full year of results in fiscal year 2020 compared with nine months in fiscal year 2019 since its acquisition date on October 15, 2018.
Net sales attributable to our Malibu segment decreased $19.9 million, or 5.3%, to $354.8 million for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. Unit volumes attributable to our Malibu segment decreased 567 units for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in net sales and unit volumes was driven by the temporary shutdown of our Loudon, Tennessee facility in the second half of fiscal year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This decrease in Malibu net sales was partially offset primarily by our product mix of new, larger Malibu and Axis models.
Net sales from our Saltwater Fishing segment increased $20.8 million, or 20.3%, to $123.6 million for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. Unit volumes attributable to Saltwater Fishing increased 102 units for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. The increase in Saltwater Fishing net sales resulted from a full year of sales from Pursuit in fiscal year 2020 compared to a partial nine months in fiscal year 2019 since our acquisition of Pursuit on October 15, 2018. The increase in net sales and unit volumes were partially offset by the lower average selling price due to the mix of models sold and the temporary shutdown of our Fort Pierce, Florida facility in the second half of fiscal year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Net sales from our Cobalt segment decreased $31.8 million, or 15.4%, to $174.8 million for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. Unit volumes attributable to Cobalt decreased 453 units for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in net sales and unit volumes was driven primarily by the temporary shutdown of our Neodesha, Kansas facility in the second half of fiscal year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to the pandemic, but to a lesser effect, we also had planned lower production rates at Cobalt to reduce wholesale shipments and dealer inventories that negatively impacted sales versus the prior year period. The decrease was partially offset by year-over-year price increases on our Cobalt models.
Our overall net sales per unit increased 9.1% to $101,360 per unit for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. Net sales per unit for our Malibu segment increased 8.2% to $89,138 per unit for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019, primarily driven by higher sales for new, more expensive models and optional features. Net sales per unit for our Saltwater Fishing segment decreased 3.9% to $243,358 per unit for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019, primarily driven by lower average selling price due to the mix of models sold. Net sales per unit for our Cobalt segment increased 4.2% to $89,350 per unit for fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019, driven by year-over-year price increases.

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Cost of Sales
Cost of sales for fiscal year 2020 decreased $13.9 million, or 2.7%, to $503.9 million compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in cost of sales resulted primarily from lower unit volumes for Malibu, Axis and Cobalt. The decrease in costs of sales was partially offset by incremental costs contributed by Pursuit for the full year of fiscal year 2020 compared to only nine months for fiscal year 2019 since its acquisition in October 2018 and increased costs incurred to replace engines during the United Auto Workers’ strike against General Motors.

Gross Profit
Gross profit for fiscal year 2020 decreased $17.0 million, or 10.2%, compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in gross profit was due mainly to lower unit volumes in fiscal year 2020 as described above and increased costs incurred to replace engines during the United Auto Workers’ strike against General Motors. Gross margin decreased 150 basis points from 24.3% in fiscal 2019 to 22.8% in fiscal year 2020.

Operating Expenses
Selling and marketing expense for fiscal year 2020 remained flat at $17.9 million compared to fiscal year 2019. As a percentage of sales, selling and marketing expense increased 20 basis points from 2.6% for fiscal year 2019 to 2.8% for fiscal year 2020. General and administrative expense for fiscal year 2020 decreased $4.3 million, or 9.8%, to $39.9 million compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease in general and administrative expenses was largely due to expenses related to the acquisition of Pursuit in fiscal year 2019 that were not incurred during fiscal year 2020, partially offset by incremental general and administrative expenses attributable to Pursuit during fiscal year 2020. As a percentage of sales, general and administrative expenses decreased 40 basis points to 6.1% for fiscal year 2020 compared to 6.5% for fiscal year 2019. Amortization expense for fiscal year 2020 increased $0.2 million, or 2.9%, compared to fiscal year 2019, due to additional amortization from intangible assets acquired as a result of the Pursuit acquisition for the full year in fiscal year 2020.

Other (Income) Expense, Net
Other expense, net for fiscal year 2020 decreased by $4.7 million, or 75.0% to $1.6 million as compared to fiscal year 2019. The decrease was primarily due to decreased interest expense of $2.6 million and a $1.7 million adjustment to our tax receivable agreement liability, which resulted in us recognizing a corresponding amount as other income during fiscal year 2020. Interest expense decreased due to a lower interest rate and lower average outstanding debt during fiscal year 2020 compared to fiscal year 2019. The adjustment to our tax receivable agreement liability was the result of a decrease in the estimated tax rate used in computing our future tax obligations and, in turn, a decrease in the future tax benefit we expect to pay under our tax receivable agreement to our pre-IPO owners.

Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes for fiscal year 2020 decreased $3.0 million, to $19.1 million compared to fiscal year 2019. This decrease was primarily driven by lower pre-tax earnings and reduced U.S. state taxes. For fiscal year 2020, our effective tax rate of 22.8% differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to the impact of U.S. state taxes, and partially offset by the impact of non-controlling interests in the LLC. For fiscal year 2019, our effective tax rate of 24.1% differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to the impact of U.S. state taxes. This increase was partially offset by the benefits of the foreign derived intangible income deduction, the research and development tax credit and the impact of non-controlling interests in the LLC.

Non-controlling interest
Non-controlling interest represents the ownership interests of the members of the LLC other than us and the amount recorded as non-controlling interest in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income is computed by multiplying pre-tax income for the applicable fiscal year by the percentage ownership in the LLC not directly attributable to us. For fiscal years 2020 and 2019, the weighted average non-controlling interest attributable to ownership interests in the LLC not directly attributable to us was 3.8% and 4.1%, respectively.
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GAAP Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are non-GAAP financial measures that are used by management as well as by investors, commercial bankers, industry analysts and other users of our financial statements.
We define adjusted EBITDA as net income before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation, amortization and non-cash, non-recurring or non-operating expenses, including certain professional fees, acquisition and integration-related expenses, non-cash compensation expense, expenses related to interruption to our engine supply during the labor strike by United Auto Workers ("UAW") against General Motors, expenses attributable to our engine vertical integration initiative and adjustments to our tax receivable agreement liability. We define adjusted EBITDA margin as adjusted EBITDA divided by net sales. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are not measures of net income as determined by GAAP. Management believes adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin allow investors to evaluate the Company’s operating performance and compare our results of operations from period to period on a consistent basis by excluding items that management does not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. Management uses Adjusted EBITDA to assist in highlighting trends in our operating results without regard to our financing methods, capital structure and non-recurring or non-operating expenses. We exclude the items listed above from net income in arriving at adjusted EBITDA because these amounts can vary substantially from company to company within our industry depending upon accounting methods and book values of assets, capital structures, the methods by which assets were acquired and other factors. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered as an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income as determined in accordance with GAAP or as an indicator of our liquidity. Certain items excluded from adjusted EBITDA are significant components in understanding and assessing a company’s financial performance, such as a company’s cost of capital and tax structure, as well as the historical costs of depreciable assets. Our presentation of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin should not be construed as an inference that our results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. Our computations of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies.

The following table sets forth a reconciliation of net income as determined in accordance with GAAP to adjusted EBITDA and presentation of net income margin and adjusted EBITDA margin for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):
Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
Net income$114,282 $64,656 $69,701 
Provision for income taxes33,979 19,076 22,096 
Interest expense2,529 3,888 6,464 
Depreciation15,636 12,249 10,004 
Amortization7,255 6,131 5,956 
Professional fees 1
5,817 1,013 739 
Acquisition and integration related expenses 2
5,112 — 5,245 
Stock-based compensation expense 3.
5,581 3,042 2,607 
UAW strike impact 4
— 2,564 — 
Engine development 5
— — 3,186 
Adjustment to tax receivable agreement liability 6
(88)(1,672)(103)
Adjusted EBITDA$190,103 $110,947 $125,895 
Net Sales$926,515 $653,163 $684,016 
Net Income Margin 7
12.3 %9.9 %10.2 %
Adjusted EBITDA Margin 7
20.5 %17.0 %18.4 %
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(1)For fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, represents legal and advisory fees related to our litigation with Skier's Choice, Inc. For more information, refer to Note 17 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(2)
For fiscal year ended June 30, 2021, represents legal and advisory fees incurred in connection with our acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020. Integration related expenses for fiscal year 2021 include post-acquisition adjustments to cost of goods sold of $0.9 million for the fair value step up of inventory acquired from Maverick Boat Group, which was sold during the third quarter of fiscal year 2021. For fiscal year 2019, represents integration costs and legal, professional and advisory fees incurred in connection with our acquisition of Pursuit on October 15, 2018. Integration related expenses for fiscal year 2019 include post-acquisition adjustments to cost of goods sold of $0.9 million for the fair value step up of Pursuit inventory acquired, most of which was sold during the second quarter of fiscal year 2019.
(3)Represents equity-based incentives awarded to certain of our employees under the Malibu Boats, Inc. Long-Term Incentive Plan and profit interests issued under the previously existing limited liability company agreement of the LLC. For more information, refer to Note 15 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(4)Represents costs incurred in connection with interruption to our engine supply during the UAW strike against General Motors. We purchase engines from General Motors LLC that we then prepare for marine use for our Malibu and Axis boats. During the UAW strike, General Motors suspended delivery of engine blocks to us and we incurred costs by entering into purchase agreements with two suppliers for additional engines to supplement our inventory of engine blocks for Malibu and Axis boats.
(5)Represents costs incurred in connection with our vertical integration of engines including product development costs and supplier transition performance incentives.
(6)
For fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively, we recognized other income from an adjustment in our tax receivable agreement liability as a result of a decrease in the estimated tax rate used in computing our future tax obligations and in turn, a decrease in the future tax benefit we expect to pay under our tax receivable agreement with pre-IPO owners. For fiscal year 2019, the rate decrease was mainly offset by an increase to other expense for tax receivable agreement liability derived by future tax benefits from Tennessee net operating losses at Malibu Boats, Inc. Refer to Note 12 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(7)
We calculate net income margin as net income divided by net sales and we define adjusted EBITDA margin as adjusted EBITDA divided by net sales.
Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income
We define Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income as net income attributable to Malibu Boats, Inc. (i) excluding income tax expense, (ii) excluding the effect of non-recurring or non-cash items, (iii) assuming the exchange of all LLC units into shares of Class A Common Stock, which results in the elimination of non-controlling interest in the LLC, and (iv) reflecting an adjustment for income tax expense on fully distributed net income before income taxes at our estimated effective income tax rate. Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income is a non-GAAP financial measure because it represents net income attributable to Malibu Boats, Inc., before non-recurring or non-cash items and the effects of non-controlling interests in the LLC.
We use Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income to facilitate a comparison of our operating performance on a consistent basis from period to period that, when viewed in combination with our results prepared in accordance with GAAP, provides a more complete understanding of factors and trends affecting our business than GAAP measures alone.
We believe Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income assists our board of directors, management and investors in comparing our net income on a consistent basis from period to period because it removes non-cash or non-recurring items, and eliminates the variability of non-controlling interest as a result of member owner exchanges of LLC Units into shares of Class A Common Stock.
In addition, because Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income is susceptible to varying calculations, the Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income measures, as presented in this Annual Report, may differ from and may, therefore, not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.

The following table shows the reconciliation of the numerator and denominator for net income available to Class A Common Stock per share to Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock for the periods presented (in thousands except share and per share data):
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Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
Reconciliation of numerator for net income available to Class A Common Stock per share to Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock:
Net income attributable to Malibu Boats, Inc.$109,841 $61,562 $66,066 
Provision for income taxes33,979 19,076 22,096 
Professional fees 1
5,817 1,013 739 
Acquisition and integration related expenses 2
10,558 4,262 9,506 
Fair value adjustment for interest rate swap 3
— 68 350 
Stock-based compensation expense 4
5,581 3,042 2,607 
Engine development 5
— — 3,186 
UAW strike impact 6
— 2,564 — 
Adjustment to tax receivable agreement liability 7
(88)(1,672)(103)
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest 8
4,441 3,094 3,635 
Fully distributed net income before income taxes170,129 93,009 108,082 
Income tax expense on fully distributed income before income taxes 9
40,150 21,857 26,048 
Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income$129,979 $71,152 $82,034 

Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
Reconciliation of denominator for net income available to Class A Common Stock per share to Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock:
Weighted average shares outstanding of Class A Common Stock used for basic net income per share:20,752,652 20,662,750 20,832,445 
Adjustments to weighted average shares of Class A Common Stock:
Weighted-average LLC units held by non-controlling unit holders 10
665,217 806,943 880,144 
Weighted-average unvested restricted stock awards issued to management 11
212,579 155,433 130,520 
Adjusted weighted average shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding used in computing Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock:21,630,448 21,625,126 21,843,109 
The following table shows the reconciliation of net income available to Class A Common Stock per share to Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock for the periods presented:
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Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
202120202019
Net income available to Class A Common Stock per share$5.29 $2.98 $3.17 
Impact of adjustments:
Provision for income taxes1.64 0.92 1.06 
Professional fees 1
0.28 0.05 0.04 
Acquisition and integration related expenses 2
0.51 0.21 0.46 
Fair value adjustment for interest rate swap 3
— — 0.02 
Stock-based compensation expense 4
0.27 0.15 0.13 
Engine development 5
— — 0.15 
UAW strike impact 6
— 0.12 — 
Adjustment to tax receivable agreement liability 7
— (0.08)— 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest 8
0.21 0.15 0.17 
Fully distributed net income per share before income taxes8.20 4.50 5.20 
Impact of income tax expense on fully distributed income before income taxes 9
(1.93)(1.06)(1.25)
Impact of increased share count 12
(0.26)(0.15)(0.19)
Adjusted Fully Distributed Net Income per Share of Class A Common Stock$6.01 $3.29 $3.76 
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(1)For fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, represents legal and advisory fees related to our litigation with Skier's Choice, Inc. For more information, refer to Note 17 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(2)For fiscal year 2021, represents legal and advisory fees incurred in connection with the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group and amortization of intangibles acquired in connection with the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group, Pursuit and Cobalt. Integration related expenses for fiscal year 2021 include post-acquisition adjustments to cost of goods sold of $0.9 million for the fair value step up of inventory acquired from Maverick Boat Group, which was sold during the third quarter of fiscal 2021. For fiscal year 2020, represents amortization of intangibles acquired in connection with the acquisition of Pursuit and Cobalt. For fiscal year 2019, represents integration costs and legal, professional and advisory fees incurred in connection with our acquisition of Pursuit on October 15, 2018 and amortization of intangibles acquired in connection with the acquisition of Pursuit and Cobalt. Integration related expenses for fiscal year 2019 include post-acquisition adjustments to cost of goods sold of $0.9 million for the fair value step up of inventory acquired, most of which was sold during the second quarter of fiscal year 2019 and $1.3 million in depreciation and amortization associated with our fair value step up of property, plant and equipment and intangibles acquired in connection with the acquisition of Pursuit.
(3)Represents the change in the fair value of our interest rate swap entered into on July 1, 2015. The swap matured on March 31, 2020.
(4)Represents equity-based incentives awarded to certain of our employees under the Malibu Boats, Inc. Long-Term Incentive Plan and profit interests issued under the previously existing limited liability company agreement of the LLC. For more information, refer to Note 15 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(5)Represents costs incurred in connection with our vertical integration of engines including product development costs and supplier transition performance incentives.
(6)Represents costs incurred in connection with interruption to our engine supply during the UAW strike against General Motors. We purchase engines from General Motors LLC that we then prepare for marine use for our Malibu and Axis boats. During the UAW strike, General Motors suspended delivery of engine blocks to us and we incurred costs by entering into purchase agreements with two suppliers for additional engines to supplement our inventory of engine blocks for Malibu and Axis boats.
(7)
For fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively, we recognized other income from an adjustment in our tax receivable agreement liability as a result of a decrease in the estimated tax rate used in computing our future tax obligations and in turn, a decrease in the future tax benefit we expect to pay under our tax receivable agreement with pre-IPO owners. For fiscal year 2019, the rate decrease was mainly offset by an increase to other expense for tax receivable agreement liability derived by future tax benefits from Tennessee net operating losses at Malibu Boats, Inc. Refer to Note 12 of our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
(8)Reflects the elimination of the non-controlling interest in the LLC as if all LLC members had fully exchanged their LLC Units for shares of Class A Common Stock.
(9)
Reflects income tax expense at an estimated normalized annual effective income tax rate of 23.6% of income before taxes for fiscal year 2021, 23.5% for fiscal year 2020, and 24.1% of income before taxes for fiscal year 2019, in each case assuming the conversion of all LLC Units into shares of Class A Common Stock. The estimated normalized annual effective income tax rate for fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019 is based on the federal statutory rate plus a blended state rate adjusted for the research and development tax credit, the foreign derived intangible income deduction, and foreign income taxes attributable to our Australian subsidiary.
(10)Represents the weighted average shares outstanding of LLC Units held by non-controlling interests assuming they were exchanged into Class A Common Stock on a one-for-one basis.
(11)Represents the weighted average unvested restricted stock awards included in outstanding shares during the applicable period that were convertible into Class A Common Stock and granted to members of management.
(12)Reflects impact of increased share counts assuming the exchange of all weighted average shares outstanding of LLC Units into shares of Class A Common Stock and the conversion of all weighted average unvested restricted stock awards included in outstanding shares granted to members of management.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of funds are cash provided by operating activities and borrowings under our credit agreement. Our primary use of funds has been for capital investments, repayments under our debt arrangements, acquisitions, cash distributions to members of the LLC and cash payments under our tax receivable agreement. The following table summarizes the cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities (dollars in thousands): 
 Fiscal Year Ended June 30,
 202120202019
Total cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$131,314 $94,141 $81,500 
Investment activities(181,095)(40,394)(118,011)
Financing activities57,346 (47,323)2,375 
Impact of currency exchange rates on cash balances127 (29)(95)
Increase (decrease) in cash$7,692 $6,395 $(34,231)

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Comparison of the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2021 to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2020
Operating Activities
Net cash from operating activities was $131.3 million for fiscal year 2021, compared to $94.1 million for the same period in 2020, an increase of $37.2 million. The increase in cash provided by operating activities primarily resulted from an increase of $56.4 million in net income (after consideration of non-cash items included in net income, primarily related to depreciation, amortization, deferred tax assets and non-cash compensation) and a net decrease in operating assets and liabilities of $19.2 million related to the timing of collections of accounts receivables, payments for accruals and payables, and purchases of inventory.
Investing Activities
Net cash used for investing activities was $181.1 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to $40.4 million for the same period in 2020, a increase of $140.7 million. The increase in cash used for investing activities was primarily related to the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group on December 31, 2020, partially offset by a reduction in capital expenditures compared to the capital outlays for our expansion activities at our Pursuit and Cobalt plants in fiscal year 2020.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $57.3 million for fiscal year 2021 compared to net cash used by financing activities of $47.3 million for fiscal year 2020, a change of $104.6 million. During fiscal year, 2021, we received proceeds of $25.0 million from a new incremental term loan and $65.0 million from additional borrowings under our revolving credit facility to fund the acquisition of Maverick Boat Group. During fiscal year 2021, we also repaid $28.8 million of borrowings under our revolving credit facility, we repaid $0.6 million on our term loan, paid $1.2 million on taxes for shares withheld upon the vesting of restricted stock awards, paid $0.6 million in deferred financing costs, paid $1.8 million in distributions to LLC unit holders and received $0.3 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options. During fiscal year 2020, we received $103.8 million in proceeds from our credit facility primarily to provide financial flexibility in light of the uncertainty resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. During fiscal year 2020, we repaid $135 million of borrowings under our revolving credit facility, repurchased $13.8 million of our Class A Common Stock under our previously announced stock repurchase program, paid $0.8 million on taxes for shares withheld on restricted stock vestings, paid $1.8 million in distributions to LLC unit holders and we received $0.4 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options.
Comparison of the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2020 to the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2019
Operating Activities
Net cash from operating activities was $94.1 million for fiscal year 2020, compared to $81.5 million for the same period in 2019, an increase of $12.6 million. The increase in cash provided by operating activities primarily resulted from a net increase in operating assets and liabilities of $13.0 million related to the timing of collections of accounts receivables, payments for accruals and payables, and purchases of inventory and an increase of $4.6 million in non-cash items primarily related to depreciation, amortization, deferred tax assets and non-cash compensation offset by a $5.0 million decrease in net income.
Investing Activities
Net cash used for investing activities was $40.4 million for fiscal year 2020 compared to $118.0 million for the same period in 2019, a decrease of $77.6 million. The decrease in cash used for investing activities was primarily related to the purchase price paid for Pursuit in October 2018, partially offset by an increase in capital expenditures in fiscal year 2020 consisting of normal purchases for manufacturing infrastructure, molds, and equipment and expansion activities at Cobalt and Pursuit.
Financing Activities
Net cash used by financing activities was $47.3 million for fiscal year 2020 compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $2.4 million for fiscal year 2019, a change of $49.7 million. During fiscal year 2020, we received $103.8 million in proceeds from our credit facility primarily to provide financial flexibility in light of the current uncertainty resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. We repaid $135 million of revolving debt and we repurchased $13.8 million of our Class A Common Stock under our previously announced stock repurchase program. We also paid $1.8 million in distributions to LLC unit holders and $0.8 million on taxes for shares withheld on restricted stock vestings and we received $0.4 million in proceeds from the exercise of stock options during fiscal year 2020. During fiscal year 2019, we received $55.0 million in proceeds from our credit facility primarily to fund the acquisition of Pursuit, which we subsequently repaid. We also converted $35.0 million from term debt to our revolving credit facility in May 2019. We also paid $1.8 million in distributions to LLC unit holders and $1.2
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million on taxes for shares withheld on restricted stock vestings and we received $0.7 million proceeds from the exercise of stock options.
Loans and Commitments
We amended our existing credit agreement on December 30, 2020 in connection with our acquisition of Maverick Boat Group. As a result of that amendment, we currently have a revolving credit facility with borrowing capacity of up to $170.0 million and a $99.4 million term loan outstanding. As of June 30, 2021, we had $45.0 million outstanding under our revolving credit facility and $1.2 million in outstanding letters of credit, with $123.8 million available for borrowing. Our revolving credit facility matures on July 1, 2024, the incremental term loan made on December 30, 2020 in a principal amount of $25.0 million, of which $24.4 million is outstanding as of June 30, 2021, (which we refer to as the incremental term loan) matures on July 1, 2024, and the remaining $75.0 million of term loans (which we refer to as the existing term loans, and together with the incremental term loan, the term loans) mature on July 1, 2022. The revolving credit facility and term loans are governed by a credit agreement with Boats LLC as the borrower and Truist Bank, as the administrative agent, swingline lender and issuing bank. The obligations of Boats LLC under the credit agreement are guaranteed by the LLC and, subject to certain exceptions, the present and future domestic subsidiaries of Boats LLC, and all such obligations are secured by substantially all of the assets of the LLC, Boats LLC and such subsidiary guarantors. Malibu Boats, Inc. is not a party to the credit agreement.
All borrowings under the credit agreement bear interest at a rate equal to either, at our option, (i) the highest of the prime rate, the Federal Funds Rate plus 0.5%, or one-month LIBOR plus 1% (the “Base Rate”) or (ii) LIBOR, in each case plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.25% to 2.25% with respect to LIBOR borrowings and 0.25% to 1.25% with respect to Base Rate borrowings. The applicable margin will be based upon the consolidated leverage ratio of the LLC and its subsidiaries calculated on a consolidated basis. As of June 30, 2021, the interest rate on the term loans and revolving credit facility was 1.35%. We are required to pay a commitment fee for any unused portion of the revolving credit facility which will range from 0.20% to 0.40% per annum, depending on the LLC’s and its subsidiaries’ consolidated leverage ratio.
The credit agreement permits prepayment of the term loans without any penalties. The existing term loans require an amortization payment of approximately $3.0 million on March 31, 2022 and the balance of the existing term loans are due on the scheduled maturity date of July 1, 2022. The incremental term loan of $25.0 million is subject to quarterly amortization at a rate of 5.0% per year through December 31, 2022, 7.5% per year through June 30, 2024 and the balance of the incremental term loan is due on the scheduled maturity date of July 1, 2024. The credit agreement also requires prepayments from the net cash proceeds received by Boats LLC or any guarantors from certain asset sales and recovery events, subject to certain reinvestment rights, and from excess cash flow, subject to the terms and conditions of the credit agreement.
The credit agreement contains certain customary representations and warranties, and notice requirements for the occurrence of specific events such as the occurrence of any event of default, or pending or threatened litigation. The credit agreement also requires compliance with certain customary financial covenants, including a minimum ratio of EBITDA to fixed charges and a maximum ratio of total debt to EBITDA. The credit agreement contains certain restrictive covenants, which, among other things, place limits on certain activities of the loan parties under the credit agreement, such as the incurrence of additional indebtedness and additional liens on property and limit the future payment of dividends or distributions. For example, the credit agreement generally prohibits the LLC, Boats LLC and the subsidiary guarantors from paying dividends or making distributions, including to us. The credit facility permits, however, (i) distributions based on a member’s allocated taxable income, (ii) distributions to fund payments that are required under the LLC’s tax receivable agreement, (iii) purchase of stock or stock options of the LLC from former officers, directors or employees of loan parties or payments pursuant to stock option and other benefit plans up to $3.0 million in any fiscal year, and (iv) share repurchase payments up to $35.0 million in any fiscal year subject to one-year carry forward and compliance with other financial covenants. In addition, the LLC may make dividends and distributions of up to $10.0 million in any fiscal year, subject to compliance with other financial covenants. As of June 30, 2021, we believe we were in compliance in all material respects with the covenants contained in the credit agreement.
Potential Impact of LIBOR Transition
The Chief Executive of the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, has announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. However, for U.S dollar LIBOR, the relevant date has been deferred to at least June 30, 2023 for certain tenors (including overnight and one, three, six and 12 months), at which time the LIBOR administrator has indicated that it intends to cease publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR. Despite this deferral, the LIBOR administrator has advised that no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. These actions indicate that the continuation of U.S. LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after June 30, 2023. Moreover, it is possible that U.S. LIBOR will be discontinued or modified prior to June 30, 2023.
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All of our $144.4 million of debt outstanding under our credit agreement as of June 30, 2021 bears interest at a floating rate that uses LIBOR as the applicable reference rate to calculate the interest. Our credit agreement provides that, if it is publicly announced that the administrator of LIBOR has ceased or will cease to provide LIBOR, if it is publicly announced by the applicable regulatory supervisor that LIBOR is no longer representative or if either the administrative agent or lenders holding 50% of the aggregate principal amount of our revolving commitments and term loans elect, we and the administrative agent may amend our credit agreement to replace LIBOR with an alternative benchmark rate. This alternative benchmark rate may include a forward-looking term rate that is based on the secured overnight financing rate, also known as SOFR, published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
In addition, our tax receivable agreement provides that, if for any reason the LLC is not able to make a tax distribution in an amount that is sufficient to make any required payment under the tax receivable agreement or we otherwise lack sufficient funds, interest would accrue on any unpaid amounts at LIBOR plus 500 basis points until they are paid. Our tax receivable agreement, however, does not provide for an alternative reference rate to LIBOR and, while we do not currently anticipate
failing to pay any amounts owed under our tax receivable agreement, it is unclear how we would determine interest on any such amounts should we fail to pay as required under our tax receivable agreement.
If the rate used to calculate interest on our outstanding floating rate debt under our credit agreement that currently uses LIBOR were to increase by 1.0% either as a result of an increase in LIBOR or the result of the use of the alternative benchmark rate, we would expect to incur additional interest expense on such indebtedness as of June 30, 2021 of approximately $1.4 million on an annualized basis. While we do not expect the potential impact of any LIBOR transition to have a material effect on our financial results based on our currently outstanding debt, uncertainty as to the nature of potential changes to LIBOR, fallback provisions, alternative reference rates or other reforms could adversely impact our interest expense on our floating rate debt that currently uses LIBOR as the applicable reference rate. In addition, any alternative reference rates to LIBOR may result in interest that does not correlate over time with the payments that would have been made on our indebtedness if LIBOR was available in its current form. Further, the discontinuance or modification of LIBOR and uncertainty of an alternative reference rate may result in the increase in the cost of future indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, cash flow and results of operations. We intend to closely monitor the financial markets and the use of fallback provisions and alternative reference rates in anticipation of the discontinuance or modification of U.S. LIBOR by June 30, 2023.
Future Liquidity Needs and Capital Expenditures
Management believes that our existing cash and cash flows from operations will be sufficient to fund our operations for the next 12 months. We estimate that approximately $3.8 million will be due under the tax receivable agreement within the next 12 months. In accordance with the tax receivable agreement, the next payment is anticipated to occur approximately 75 days after filing the federal tax return which is due on April 15, 2022.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the general economic environment in which we operate and our ability to generate cash flow from operations, which are more uncertain as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the general economy. Our liquidity needs during this uncertain time will depend on multiple factors, including our ability to continue operations and production of boats, the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on our dealers, suppliers and retail customers, the availability of sufficient amounts of financing, and our operating performance.
Stock Repurchase Program
On August 27, 2020, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program for the repurchase of up to $50.0 million of Class A Common Stock and the LLC Units for the period from September 2, 2020 to July 1, 2021. No shares were repurchased under the share repurchase program and it expired on July 1, 2021.
Capital Resources
Management expects our capital expenditures for fiscal year 2022 to be more than our capital expenditures for fiscal year 2021 primarily driven by expansion projects at our Maverick Boat Group facility, investments in new models, capacity enhancements and vertical integration initiatives.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
Repurchase Commitments
In connection with our dealers’ wholesale floor plan financing of boats, we have entered into repurchase agreements with various lending institutions. The repurchase commitment is on an individual unit basis with a term from the date it is financed by the lending institution through payment date by the dealer, generally not exceeding two and a half years. Such agreements
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are customary in the industry and our exposure to loss under such agreements is limited by the resale value of the inventory which is required to be repurchased. Refer to Note 17 to the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report for further information on repurchase commitments.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
As of June 30, 2021, our contractual obligations were as follows:
Payments Due by Period
TotalLess than 1 Year1-3 Years3-5 YearsMore than 5 Years
(In thousands)
Long-term debt 1
$144,375 $4,250 $74,969 $65,156 $— 
Interest expense 2
3,793 1,961 1,832 — — 
Operating leases 3
15,943 2,503 5,113 4,568 3,759 
Purchase obligations 4
141,443 141,443 — — — 
Payments pursuant to tax receivable agreement 5
48,214 3,773 8,006 8,581 27,854 
Total$353,768 $153,930 $89,920 $78,305 $31,613 
(1)Principal payments on our outstanding bank debt per terms of our Credit Agreement, which is comprised of a $100.0 million term loan, of which $99.4 million is outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and $170.0 million revolving credit facility, of which $45.0 million was outstanding as of June 30, 2021. Assumes no additional borrowings or repayments under our revolving credit facility prior to its maturity. The balance of the existing term loans matures on July 1, 2022, the incremental term loan matures on July 1, 2024 and the revolving credit facility matures on July 1, 2024.
(2)Interest payments on our outstanding term loans and revolving credit facility under our credit agreement. Our term loans and revolving credit facility bear interest at variable rates. We have calculated future interest obligations based on the interest rate for our term loan and revolving credit facility as of June 30, 2021.
(3)
Pursuant to the adoption of ASC Topic 842, Leases, as of July 1, 2019 our lease liability for all leases with terms greater than 12 months as represented on the balance sheet respective of maturity.
(4)As part of the normal course of business, we enter into purchase orders from a variety of suppliers, primarily for raw materials, in order to manage our various operating needs. The orders are expected to be purchased throughout fiscal year 2022.
(5)Reflects amounts owed under our tax receivables agreement that we entered into with our pre-IPO owners at the time of our IPO. Under the tax receivables agreement, we pay the pre-IPO owners (or any permitted assignees) 85% of the amount of cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that we actually realize, or in some circumstances are deemed to realize, as a result of an expected increase in our share of tax basis in LLC’s tangible and intangible assets, including increases attributable to payments made under the tax receivable agreement. These obligations will not be paid if we do not realize cash tax savings.
Our dealers have arrangements with certain finance companies to provide secured floor plan financing for the purchase of our products. These arrangements indirectly provide liquidity to us by financing dealer purchases of our products, thereby minimizing the use of our working capital in the form of accounts receivable. A majority of our sales are financed under similar arrangements, pursuant to which we receive payment within a few days of shipment of the product. We have agreed to repurchase products repossessed by the finance companies if a dealer defaults on its debt obligations to a finance company and the boat is returned to us, subject to certain limitations. Our financial exposure under these agreements is limited to the difference between the amounts unpaid by the dealer with respect to the repossessed product plus costs of repossession and the amount received on the resale of the repossessed product. For fiscal year 2021, we did not repurchase any boats under our repurchase agreements. For fiscal year 2020, we repurchased two units from a lender of one of our former dealers and those units were subsequently resold in fiscal year 2020 above their cost and at a minimal margin loss. For fiscal year 2019, we repurchased eight units from a lender of two of our former dealers and those units were subsequently resold in fiscal year 2020 above their cost and at minimal margin loss. An adverse change in retail sales could require us to repurchase repossessed units upon an event of default by any of our dealers, subject to the annual limitation.
Seasonality
Our dealers experience seasonality in their business. Retail demand for boats is seasonal, with a significant majority of sales occurring during peak boating season, which coincides with our first and fourth fiscal quarters. In order to minimize the impact of this seasonality on our business, we manage our manufacturing processes and structure dealer incentives to tie our annual volume rebates program to consistent ordering patterns, encouraging dealers to purchase our products throughout the
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year. In this regard, we may offer free flooring incentives to dealers from the beginning of our model year through April 30 of each year. Further, in the event that a dealer does not consistently order units throughout the year, such dealer’s rebate is materially reduced. We may offer off-season retail promotions to our dealers in seasonally slow months, during and ahead of boat shows, to encourage retail demand.
Inflation
The market prices of certain materials and components used in manufacturing our products, especially resins that are made with hydrocarbon feedstocks, copper, aluminum and stainless steel, can be volatile. Historically, however, inflation has not had a material effect on our results of operations. Significant increases in inflation, particularly those related to wages and increases in the cost of raw materials, could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
New boat buyers often finance their purchases. Inflation typically results in higher interest rates that could translate into an increased cost of boat ownership. Should inflation and increased interest rates occur, prospective consumers may choose to forgo or delay their purchases or buy a less expensive boat in the event credit is not available to finance their boat purchases.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. These principles require us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses and cash flows, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Our estimates include those related to business combinations, revenue recognition, income taxes, tax receivable agreement liability, and warranty claims. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and our actual results, our future financial statements will be affected.
We believe that of our significant accounting policies, which are described in the notes to our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report, the accounting policies listed below involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, we believe these are the most critical to understand and evaluate fully our financial condition and results of operations.
Business Combinations
We account for business acquisitions under ASC 805, Business Combinations. The total purchase consideration for an acquisition is measured as the fair value of the assets given, equity instruments issued and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. Costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets (including intangible assets) and liabilities assumed in an acquisition are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. We recognize goodwill if the fair value of the total purchase consideration and any noncontrolling interests is in excess of the net fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. We include the results of operations of the acquired business in the consolidated financial statements beginning on the acquisition date. We recognized goodwill of $19.8 million as a result of our acquisition of Cobalt in July 2017, goodwill of $19.5 million as a result of our acquisition of Pursuit in October 2018 and goodwill of $49.2 million as a result of our acquisition of Maverick Boat Group in December 2020. We had goodwill outstanding of $101.0 million as of June 30, 2021.
When determining such fair values, we make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Critical estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include but are not limited to projected future cash flows, dealer attrition and discount rates. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates and changes could be significant. Furthermore, our estimates might change as additional information becomes available.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized as performance obligations under the terms of contracts with customers are satisfied; this occurs when control of promised goods (boats, parts, or other) is transferred to the customer. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. We generally manufacture products based on specific orders from dealers and often ship completed products only after receiving credit approval from financial institutions. The amount of consideration we receive and revenue we recognize varies with changes in marketing incentives and rebates we offer to our dealers and their customers.
Dealers generally have no rights to return unsold boats. From time to time, however, we may accept returns in limited circumstances and at our discretion under our warranty policy, which generally limits returns to instances of manufacturing defects. We may be obligated, in the event of default by a dealer, to accept returns of unsold boats under our repurchase
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commitment to floor financing providers, who are able to obtain such boats through foreclosure. We accrue returns when a repurchase and return, due to the default of one of our dealers, is determined to be probable and the return is reasonably estimable. Historically, product returns resulting from repurchases made under the floorplan financing program, have not been material and the returned boats have been subsequently resold above their cost. Refer to Note 9 and Note 17 related to our product warranty and repurchase commitment obligations, respectively.
Revenue from boat part sales is recorded as the product is shipped from our location, which is free on board shipping point. Revenue associated with sales of materials, parts, boats or engine products sold under our exclusive manufacturing and distribution agreement with our Australian subsidiary are eliminated in consolidation. Revenue associated with sales to the independent representative responsible for international sales is recognized in accordance with free on board shipping point terms, the point at which the risks of ownership and loss pass to the representative. A fixed percentage discount is earned by the independent representative at the time of shipment to the representative as a reduction in the price of the boat and is recorded in our consolidated statement of operations as a reduction in sales.
We earn royalties on boats shipped with our proprietary wake surfing technology under licensing agreements with various marine manufacturers. Royalty income is recognized when products are used or sold with our patented technology by these other boat manufacturers and industry suppliers. The usage of our technology satisfies the performance obligation in the contract.
Product Warranties
Our Malibu and Axis brand boats have a limited warranty for a period up to five years. Our Cobalt brand boats have (1) a structural warranty of up to ten years which covers the hull, deck joints, bulkheads, floor, transom, stringers, and motor mount, and (2) a five year bow-to-stern warranty on all components manufactured or purchased (excluding hull and deck structural components), including canvas and upholstery. Gelcoat is covered up to three years for Cobalt and one year for Malibu and Axis. Pursuit brand boats have (1) a limited warranty for a period of up to five years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom and (2) a bow-to-stern warranty of two years (excluding hull and deck structural components). Maverick, Pathfinder and Hewes brand boats have (1) a limited warranty for a period of up to five years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom and (2) a bow to stern warranty of one year (excluding hull and deck structural components). Cobia brand boats have (1) a limited warranty for a period of up to ten years on structural components such as the hull, deck and defects in the gelcoat surface of the hull bottom and (2) a bow to stern warranty of three years (excluding hull and deck structural components). For each boat brand, there are certain materials, components or parts of the boat that are not covered by our warranty and certain components or parts that are separately warranted by the manufacturer or supplier (such as the engine). Engines that we manufacture for Malibu and Axis models have a limited warranty of up to five years or five-hundred hours.
Our standard warranties require us or our dealers to repair or replace defective products during the warranty period at no cost to the consumer. We estimate warranty costs we expect to incur and record a liability for such costs at the time the product revenue is recognized. We utilize historical claims trends and analytical tools to develop the estimate of our warranty obligation on a per boat basis, by brand and warranty year. Factors that affect our warranty liability include the number of units sold, historical and anticipated rates of warranty claims and cost per claim. We assess the adequacy of our recorded warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary. Beginning with model year 2016, we increased the term of our limited warranty for Malibu brand boats from three years to five years and for Axis brand boats from two years to five years. Beginning in model year 2018, we increased the term of our bow-to-stern warranty for Cobalt brand boats from three years to five years. As a result of these changes, all of our Malibu, Axis and Cobalt brand boats with historical claims experience that are no longer covered under warranty had warranty terms shorter than the current warranty term of five years. Accordingly, we have little historical claims experience for warranty years four and five, and as such, these estimates give rise to a higher level of estimation uncertainty. Future warranty claims may differ from our estimate of the warranty liability, which could lead to changes in the Company’s warranty liability in future periods. A hypothetical change of a 10% increase or decrease to our estimate of the warranty liability as of June 30, 2021 would have affected net income for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021 by approximately $3.5 million.
New Accounting Pronouncements    
See "Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 1—Organization, Basis of Presentation, and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—New Accounting Pronouncements.”
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial condition through adverse changes in financial market prices and rates and inflation. Changes in these factors could cause fluctuations in our results of operations and cash flows. In the ordinary course of business, we are primarily exposed to foreign exchange rate and interest rate risks. We manage our exposure to these market risks through regular operating and financing activities. In the past, we have also attempted to reduce our market risks through hedging instruments such as interest rate swaps.
Foreign Exchange Rate Risk
We have operations both within the United States and Australia, and we are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks primarily include foreign exchange rate and inflation risks. Our Australian operations purchase key components from our U.S. operations, as well as other U.S. based suppliers, and pay for these purchases in U.S. dollars. Fluctuations in the foreign exchange rate of the U.S. dollar against the Australian dollar have resulted in a gain of $0.2 million in foreign currency translation in the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021. We had a gain of $0.1 million in foreign currency translation for fiscal year 2020 and were flat for fiscal year 2019. We are also subject to risks relating to changes in the general economic conditions in the countries where we conduct business. To reduce certain of these risks to our Australian operations, we monitor, on a regular basis, the financial condition and position of the subsidiary. We do not use derivative instruments to mitigate the impact of our foreign exchange rate risk exposures.
Additionally, the assets and liabilities of our Australian subsidiary are translated at the foreign exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date. Translation gains and losses are reflected as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in the stockholders’ equity section of the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Revenues and expenses of our foreign subsidiary are translated at the average foreign exchange rate in effect for each month of the quarter. Certain assets and liabilities related to intercompany positions reported on our consolidated balance sheet that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are translated at the foreign exchange rates at the balance sheet date and the associated gains and losses are included in net income.
Interest Rate Risk
We are subject to interest rate risk in connection with borrowings under our revolving credit facility and term loans, which bear interest at variable rates. At June 30, 2021, we had $99.4 million of term loans outstanding under our term loan facility and