159600000183600000P4YP1Y0.064false--09-27trueFY2019false00015845091890000052000006600000526820004956600070000000.010.016000000006000000002793142972829195362467444382477560917490000040000058700000144000001400000319000000268000000.0575000.04P10YP3Y87000000155100000180500000P1Y00.900.750.60P3YP1YP10YP4Y5000000.01210.01110.01110.01030.01440.01170.02200.02940.03020.02140.02250.01623256985935163445600000<div style="font-family:Times New Roman;font-size:10pt;"><div style="line-height:120%;padding-bottom:4px;padding-top:6px;text-align:center;font-size:10pt;"><div style="padding-left:0px;text-indent:0px;line-height:normal;padding-top:10px;"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="font-family:Times New Roman;font-size:10pt;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;width:100%;border-collapse:collapse;text-align:left;"><tr><td colspan="12" rowspan="1"></td></tr><tr><td style="width:51%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:14%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:14%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:13%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="11" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:9px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">Capital Expenditures and Other</font><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;"><sup style="vertical-align:top;line-height:120%;font-size:5pt">(1)</sup></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="11" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">Fiscal Year Ended</font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:9px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">September&#160;27, 2019</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:9px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">September 28, 2018*</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:9px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">September&#160;29, 2017</font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;padding-left:16px;text-indent:-16px;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">FSS United States</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">375.9</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">494.3</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">420.4</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;padding-left:16px;text-indent:-16px;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">FSS International</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">69.4</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">84.1</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">66.1</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;padding-left:16px;text-indent:-16px;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">Uniform</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">61.0</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">332.5</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">67.5</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">Corporate</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">0.1</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">1.2</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="2" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">1.0</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">506.4</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">912.1</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;background-color:#cceeff;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">$</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:right;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">555.0</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:3px double #000000;background-color:#cceeff;border-top:1px solid #000000;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;"><br clear="none"/></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:top;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="text-align:left;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;">* Includes amounts acquired in business combinations</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="3" style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td></tr></table></div></div></div><div style="font-family:Times New Roman;font-size:10pt;"><div style="line-height:120%;padding-bottom:4px;padding-top:6px;text-align:center;font-size:10pt;"><div style="padding-left:0px;text-indent:0px;line-height:normal;padding-top:10px;"><table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="font-family:Times New Roman;font-size:10pt;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;width:100%;border-collapse:collapse;text-align:left;"><tr><td colspan="12" rowspan="1"></td></tr><tr><td style="width:51%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:14%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:14%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:13%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td><td style="width:1%;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="11" style="vertical-align:bottom;border-bottom:1px solid #000000;padding-left:9px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;" rowspan="1"><div style="text-align:center;font-size:8pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;">Depreciation and Amortization</font><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:8pt;font-weight:bold;"><sup style="vertical-align:top;line-height:120%;font-size:5pt">(1)</sup></font></div></td></tr><tr><td style="vertical-align:bottom;padding-left:2px;padding-top:2px;padding-bottom:2px;padding-right:2px;" rowspan="1" colspan="1"><div style="overflow:hidden;font-size:10pt;"><font style="font-family:inherit;font-size:10pt;">&#160;</font></div></td><td colspan="11" 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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
___________________________________________
For the fiscal year ended September 27, 2019 Commission File Number: 001-36223
image2a03.jpg
Aramark
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
20-8236097
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2400 Market Street
19103
Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(215) 238-3000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock,
par value $0.01 per share
ARMK
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of March 29, 2019, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $7,400.3 million.
As of November 22, 2019, the number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding is 249,431,095.
___________________________________________



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A relating to the registrant's 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be held on January 29, 2020, will be incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K in response to portions of Part III. The definitive proxy statement will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the registrant's fiscal year ended September 27, 2019.



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Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements
This report includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that reflect our current views as to future events and financial performance with respect to, without limitation, conditions in our industry, our operations, our economic performance and financial condition, including, in particular, with respect to, without limitation, anticipated effects of our adoption of new accounting standards, the expected impact of strategic portfolio actions, the benefits and costs of our acquisitions of each of Avendra, LLC ("Avendra") and AmeriPride Services, Inc. ("AmeriPride"), as well as statements regarding these companies' services and products and statements relating to our business and growth strategy. These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They use words such as "outlook," "aim," "anticipate," "are or remain or continue to be confident," "have confidence," "estimate," "expect," "will be," "will continue," "will likely result," "project," "intend," "plan," "believe," "see," "look to" and other words and terms of similar meaning or the negative versions of such words.
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made. All statements we make relating to our estimated and projected earnings, costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates, financial results and our estimated benefits and costs of our acquisitions are forward-looking statements. In addition, we, through our senior management, from time to time make forward-looking public statements concerning our expected future operations and performance and other developments. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may change at any time, and, therefore, our actual results may differ materially from those that we expected. We derive many of our forward-looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and, of course, it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements. Some of the factors that we believe could affect our results or the costs and benefits of the acquisitions include without limitation: unfavorable economic conditions; natural disasters, global calamities, sports strikes and other adverse incidents; the failure to retain current clients, renew existing client contracts and obtain new client contracts; a determination by clients to reduce their outsourcing or use of preferred vendors; competition in our industries; increased operating costs and obstacles to cost recovery due to the pricing and cancellation terms of our food and support services contracts; the inability to achieve cost savings through our cost reduction efforts; our expansion strategy; our ability to successfully integrate the businesses of Avendra and AmeriPride and costs and timing related thereto; the risk of unanticipated restructuring costs or assumption of undisclosed liabilities; the risk that we are unable to achieve the anticipated benefits (including tax benefits) and synergies of the acquisition of AmeriPride and Avendra including whether the transactions will be accretive and within the expected timeframes; the availability of sufficient cash to repay certain indebtedness and our decision to utilize the cash for that purpose; the disruption of the transactions to each of Avendra and AmeriPride and their respective managements; the effect of the transactions on each of Avendra's and AmeriPride's ability to retain and hire key personnel and maintain relationships with customers, suppliers and other third parties the failure to maintain food safety throughout our supply chain, food-borne illness concerns and claims of illness or injury; governmental regulations including those relating to food and beverages, the environment, wage and hour and government contracting; liability associated with noncompliance with applicable law or other governmental regulations; new interpretations of or changes in the enforcement of the government regulatory framework; currency risks and other risks associated with international operations, including Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-corruption law compliance; continued or further unionization of our workforce; liability resulting from our participation in multiemployer defined benefit pension plans; risks associated with suppliers from whom our products are sourced; disruptions to our relationship with, or to the business of, our primary distributor; the inability to hire and retain sufficient qualified personnel or increases in labor costs; healthcare reform legislation; the contract intensive nature of our business, which may lead to client disputes; seasonality; disruptions in the availability of our computer systems or privacy breaches; failure to maintain effective internal controls; our leverage; the inability to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness; debt agreements that limit our flexibility in operating our business; our ability to attract new or maintain existing customer and supplier relationships at reasonable cost, our ability to retain key personnel and other factors set forth under the headings Item 1A "Risk Factors," Item 3 "Legal Proceedings" and Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as such factors may be updated from time to time in our other periodic filings with the SEC, which are accessible on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov and which may be obtained by contacting Aramark's investor relations department via its website www.aramark.com. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual outcomes or results to differ materially from those indicated in these statements. These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read in conjunction with the other cautionary statements that are included in this report and in our other filings with the SEC. As a result of these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements included herein or that may be made elsewhere from time to time by, or on behalf of, us. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, changes in our expectations, or otherwise, except as required by law.



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PART I
Item 1.     Business
Overview
Aramark (the “Company,” “we” or “us”) is a leading global provider of food, facilities and uniform services to education, healthcare, business & industry, and sports, leisure & corrections clients. Our core market is the United States, which is supplemented by an additional 18-country footprint. Based on total revenue in fiscal 2019, we hold the #2 position in North America in food, facilities and uniform services. Internationally, we hold a top 3 position in food and facilities services based on total revenue in fiscal 2019 in most countries in which we have significant operations. Our approximately 283,500 employees partner with thousands of education, healthcare, business and sports, leisure & corrections clients to serve millions of consumers including students, patients, employees, sports fans and guests worldwide.
We operate our business in three reportable segments that share many of the same operating characteristics: Food and Support Services United States ("FSS United States"), Food and Support Services International ("FSS International") and Uniform and Career Apparel ("Uniform"). The following chart shows a breakdown of our revenue and operating income by our reportable segments:
 
 
 
 
image2a03.jpg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable Segments:
FSS United States
 
FSS International
 
Uniform
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FY 2019 Revenue(a):
 
$
9,898.6

 
 
$
3,742.9

 
 
$
2,585.8

FY 2019 Operating Income(a):
 
$
716.8

 
 
$
142.7

 
 
$
191.3

Services:
Food, hospitality and facilities
 
Food, hospitality and facilities
 
Rental, sale and maintenance of uniform apparel and other items
Sectors:
Business & industry, sports, leisure & corrections, education, healthcare and facilities and other
 
Business & industry, sports, leisure & corrections, education, healthcare and facilities and other
 
Business, public institutions, manufacturing, transportation and service industries
(a)
Dollars in millions. Operating income excludes $159.6 million related to corporate expenses.
In fiscal 2019, we generated $16.2 billion of revenue, $891.2 million of operating income and $448.5 million of net income.
Our History
Since our founding in 1959, we have broadened our service offerings and expanded our client base through a combination of organic growth and acquisitions, with the goal of further developing our food, facilities and uniform capabilities, as well as growing our international presence. In 1984, we completed a management buyout, after which our management and employees increased their Company ownership to approximately 90% of our equity capital leading up to our December 2001 public offering. On January 26, 2007, we delisted from the NYSE in conjunction with a going-private transaction executed with investment funds affiliated with Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, CCMP Capital Advisors, J.P. Morgan Partners, Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P. and Warburg Pincus LLC as well as approximately 250 senior management personnel.
On December 17, 2013, we completed an initial public offering of 41,687,500 shares of our common stock, including 13,687,500 shares of common stock sold by our selling stockholders.
Recent Developments
CEO and Governance Matters
On August 25, 2019, Eric Foss stepped down from his role as our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer. On October 6, 2019, we appointed John Zillmer as our Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Zillmer also joined the Board on that date.
Also, on October 6, 2019, we entered into a Stewardship Framework Agreement (the “Stewardship Framework Agreement”) with MR BridgeStone Advisor LLC (“Mantle Ridge”), on behalf of itself and its affiliated funds (such funds, together with Mantle Ridge, collectively, the “Mantle Ridge Group”). The Mantle Ridge Group has a combined beneficial ownership interest in approximately 9.7% of our outstanding common stock as of November 22, 2019 and an additional economic interest of

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approximately 10%. The Stewardship Framework Agreement contains a number of provisions relating to our governance, including the composition of the Board.
Avendra, LLC ("Avendra") Acquisition
On December 11, 2017, we completed the acquisition of Avendra, a leading hospitality procurement services provider in North America that manages purchasing spend for over 650 companies at more than 8,500 locations. Avendra, headquartered in Rockville, Maryland, was founded in 2001 by five hospitality organizations: Marriott, Hyatt, Fairmont Hotels, ClubCorp and IHG. The acquisition of Avendra significantly expanded our capabilities and client reach in the procurement services area.
The total consideration paid for Avendra was $1,386.4 million, partially offset by $87.3 million of cash and restricted investments acquired. Avendra's financial results since acquisition are included within the FSS United States reporting segment.
AmeriPride Services, Inc. ("AmeriPride") Acquisition
On January 19, 2018, we completed the acquisition of AmeriPride, a uniform and linen rental and supply company headquartered in Minneapolis with 6,000 employees and serving 150,000 customers in the U.S. and Canada. The acquisition of AmeriPride added scale and capabilities to our uniforms business in the U.S. while immediately establishing Aramark as a leading uniform services provider in Canada, where our existing operations were very limited.
The total consideration paid for AmeriPride was $995.4 million, partially offset by $84.9 million of cash acquired. AmeriPride's financial results since acquisition are included within the Uniform segment.
Food and Support Services
Our Food and Support Services segments manage a number of interrelated services-including food, hospitality, procurement and facility services-for school districts, colleges & universities, healthcare facilities, businesses, sports, entertainment & recreational venues, conference & convention centers, national & state parks and correctional institutions.
We are the exclusive provider of food and beverage services at most of the locations we serve and are responsible for hiring, training and supervising the majority of the food service personnel in addition to ordering, receiving, preparing and serving food and beverage items sold at those facilities. Our facilities services capabilities are broad, and include plant operations and maintenance, custodial/housekeeping, energy management, grounds keeping, and capital project management. In governmental, business, educational and healthcare facilities (for example, offices and industrial plants, schools and universities and hospitals), our clients provide us with a captive client base through their on-site employees, students and patients. At sports, entertainment and recreational facilities, our clients attract patrons to their site, usually for specific events such as sporting events and conventions.
We manage our FSS business in two geographic reportable segments split between our United States and International operations. In fiscal 2019, our FSS United States segment generated $9,898.6 million in revenue, or 61% of our total revenue, and our FSS International segment generated $3,742.9 million in revenue, or 23% of our total revenue. No individual client represents more than 2% of our total revenue, other than, collectively, a number of U.S. government agencies.
Clients and Services
Our Food and Support Services segments serve a number of sectors across 19 countries around the world. Our Food and Support Services operations focus on serving clients in five principal sectors: Education, Healthcare, Business & Industry, Sports, Leisure & Corrections and Facilities & Other.
Education. Within the Education sector we serve Higher Education and K-12 clients. We deliver a wide range of food and food-related services, as well as procurement services, at more than 1,500 colleges, universities, school systems & districts and private schools. We offer our education clients a single source provider for food-related managed service solutions, including dining, catering, food service management and convenience-oriented retail operations.
Healthcare. We provide a wide range of non-clinical food and food-related support services to approximately 250 healthcare clients and more than 450 facilities across our global footprint. Our food and food-related services include patient food and nutrition, retail food and procurement services.
Business & Industry. We provide a comprehensive range of business dining services, including on-site restaurants, catering, convenience stores and executive dining.
We also provide beverage and vending services to business & industry clients at thousands of locations. Our service and product offerings include a full range of coffee offerings, “grab and go” food operations, convenience stores, micromarkets and a proprietary drinking water filtration system.
Sports, Leisure & Corrections. We administer concessions, banquet and catering services, retail services and merchandise sales, recreational and lodging services and facility management services at sports, entertainment and recreational facilities. We serve 145 professional (including minor league affiliates) and college sports teams, including 30 teams in Major League Baseball, the

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National Basketball Association, the National Football League and the National Hockey League. We also serve convention and civic centers, national and state parks and other resort operations, plus other popular tourist attractions in the United States. Additionally, we provide correctional food services, operate commissaries, laundry facilities and property rooms and provide food and facilities management services for parks.
Facilities & Other. We provide a variety of support services to approximately 550 facilities clients and more than 1,000 facilities. These services include the management of housekeeping, plant operations and maintenance, energy management, custodial, groundskeeping, landscaping, transportation, capital program management and payment services, and other facility consulting services relating to building operations. We also provide procurement services for a number of clients in a variety of industries.
Our FSS International segment provides a similar range of services as those provided to our FSS United States segment clients and operates in all of our sectors. We have operations in 18 countries outside the United States. Our largest international operations are in Canada, Chile, China, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and in a majority of these countries we are one of the leading food and/or facilities service providers. We also have a strong presence in Japan through our 50% ownership of AIM Services Co., Ltd., which is a leader in providing outsourced food services in Japan. In addition to the core Business & Industry sector, our FSS International segment serves many sports stadiums across Europe, and numerous educational institutions, healthcare institutions and convention centers globally. There are particular risks attendant with our international operations. Please see Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
Purchasing
We negotiate the pricing and other terms for the majority of our purchases of food and related products in the United States and Canada directly with national manufacturers. We purchase these products and other items through Sysco Corporation and other distributors. We have a master distribution agreement with Sysco that covers a significant amount of our purchases of these products and items in the United States and another distribution agreement with Sysco that covers our purchases of these products in Canada. Our distributors are responsible for tracking our orders and delivering products to our specific locations. Due to our ability to negotiate favorable terms with our suppliers, we earn vendor consideration, including discounts, rebates and other applicable credits. See “Types of Contracts” below. Our location managers also purchase a number of items, including bread, dairy products and alcoholic beverages from local suppliers, and we purchase certain items directly from manufacturers.
Our relationship with Sysco is important to our operations—we have had distribution agreements in place for more than 30 years. In fiscal 2019, Sysco distributed approximately 48% of our food and non-food products in the United States and Canada, and we believe that we are one of their largest clients. However, we believe that the products acquired through Sysco can, in significant cases, be purchased through other sources and that termination of our relationship with them or any disruption of their business would cause only short-term disruptions to our operations.
Our agreements with our distributors are generally for an indefinite term, subject to termination by either party after a notice period, which is generally 60 to 120 days. The pricing and other financial terms of these agreements are renegotiated periodically. Our current agreement with Sysco is terminable by either party with 180 days notice.
In the rest of our international segment, our approach to purchasing is substantially similar. On a country-by-country basis, we negotiate pricing and other terms for a majority of our purchases of food and related products with manufacturers operating in the applicable country, and we purchase these products and other items through distributors in that country. Due to our ability to negotiate favorable terms with our suppliers, we receive vendor consideration, including rebates, allowances and volume discounts. See “Types of Contracts” below. As in the United States and Canada, our location managers also purchase a number of items, including bread, dairy products and alcoholic beverages from local suppliers, and we purchase certain items directly from manufacturers. Our agreements with our distributors are subject to termination by either party after a notice period, which is generally 60 days. The pricing and other financial terms of these agreements are renegotiated periodically.
Our relationship with distributors in the countries outside the United States and Canada is important to our operations, but from an overall volume standpoint, no distributor outside the United States and Canada distributes a significant volume of products. We believe that products we acquire from our distributors in countries outside the United States and Canada can, in significant cases, be purchased from other sources, and that the termination of our relationships with our distributors outside the United States and Canada, or the disruption of their business operations, would cause only short-term disruption to our operations.
Sales and Marketing
We maintain selling and marketing excellence by focusing on optimizing resource allocation and deployment. We aim to sell our services to our clients in the same way, regardless of the sector in which such client is located. We have developed consistent tools and training that are used across all of our businesses to train our employees on this selling process. Our business development functions are aligned directly with the sectors and services in which we have leadership positions, and we

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combine our targeted business development strategies with our strong client relationships to deliver differentiated and innovative solutions. We target our business development by aligning our sales efforts directly with the sectors and services in which we operate. We identify individuals at various levels in our organization to match up with individuals in a variety of roles at both existing and potential clients. We believe that these connections throughout various levels within the client organization allow us to develop strong relationships with the client and gain a better understanding of the clients' requirements. Based on the knowledge of the clients' requirements and the sector, our goal is to develop solutions for the client that are unique and that help to differentiate us from our competitors.
Types of Contracts
We use contracts with our customers that allow us to manage our potential upside and downside risk in connection with our various business interactions. Our contracts may require that consent be obtained in order to raise prices on the food, beverages and merchandise we sell within a particular facility. The contracts that we enter into vary in length. Contracts generally are for fixed terms, many of which are in excess of one year. Contracts for education and sports and leisure services typically require larger capital investments, but have correspondingly longer and fixed terms, usually from five to fifteen years.
When we enter into new contracts, or extend or renew existing contracts, particularly those for stadiums, arenas, convention centers, colleges and universities and business dining accounts, we are sometimes contractually required to make some form of up-front or future investment, which often includes capital expenditures to help finance improvement or renovation, typically to the food and beverage facilities of the venue from which we operate. Contractually required capital expenditures typically take the form of investments in leasehold improvements, equipment and/or grants to clients. At the end of the contract term or upon its earlier termination, assets such as equipment and leasehold improvements typically become the property of the client, but generally the client must reimburse us for any undepreciated or unamortized capital investments.
Food and Support Services contracts are generally obtained and renewed either through a competitive process or on a negotiated basis, although contracts in the public sector, including school districts and correctional clients, are frequently awarded on a competitive bid basis, as required by applicable law. Contracts in the private sector may be entered into without a formal bid process, but we and other companies will often compete in the process leading up to the award or the completion of contract negotiations. Typically, after the award, final contract terms are negotiated and agreed upon.
We use two general contract types in our Food and Support Services segments: profit and loss contracts and client interest contracts. These contracts differ in their provision for the amount of financial risk that we bear and, accordingly, the potential compensation, profits or fees we may receive. Payments made to clients and management fees, if any, may vary significantly among contracts based upon various factors, including the type of facility involved, the term of the contract, the services we provide and the amount of capital we invest.
Profit and Loss Contracts. Under profit and loss contracts, we receive all of the revenue from, and bear all of the expenses of, the provision of our services at a client location. Expenses under profit and loss contracts sometimes include payments made to the client, typically calculated as a fixed or variable percentage of various categories of revenue, and, in some cases, require minimum guaranteed payments. We benefit from greater upside potential with a profit and loss contract, although we do consequently bear greater downside risk than with a client interest contract. For fiscal 2019, approximately two-thirds of our Food and Support Services revenue was derived from profit and loss contracts.
Client Interest Contracts. Client interest contracts include management fee contracts, under which our clients reimburse our operating costs and pay us a management fee, which may be calculated as a fixed dollar amount or a percentage of revenue or operating costs. Some management fee contracts entitle us to receive incentive fees based upon our performance under the contract, as measured by factors such as revenue, operating costs and client satisfaction surveys. Client interest contracts also include limited profit and loss contracts, under which we receive a percentage of any profits earned from the provision of our services at the facility and we generally receive no payments if there are losses. As discussed above under “Purchasing,” we earn vendor consideration, including discounts, rebates and other applicable credits that we typically retain except in those cases where the contract and/or applicable law requires us to credit these to our clients. For our client interest contracts, both our upside potential and downside risk are reduced compared to our profit and loss contracts. For fiscal 2019, approximately one-third of our Food and Support Services revenue was derived from client interest contracts.
Competition
There is significant competition in the Food and Support Services business from local, regional, national and international companies, as well as from the businesses, healthcare institutions, colleges and universities, correctional facilities, school districts and public assembly facilities that decide to provide these services themselves. Institutions may decide to operate their own services or outsource to one of our competitors following the expiration or termination of contracts with us. Clients do not necessarily choose the lowest cost provider, and tend to place a premium on the total value proposition offered. In our FSS United States segment, our external competitors include other multi-regional food and support service providers, such as

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Compass Group plc, Delaware North Companies Inc. and Sodexo SA. Internationally, our external food service and support service competitors include Compass Group plc, Elior SA, International Service System A/S and Sodexo SA. We also face competition from many regional and local service providers.
We believe that the following competitive factors are the principal drivers of our success:
quality and breadth of services and management talent;
innovation;
reputation within the industry;
pricing;
financial strength and stability; and
purchasing scale.
Seasonality
Our revenue and operating results have varied, and we expect them to continue to vary, from quarter to quarter as a result of different factors. Within our FSS United States segment, historically there has been a lower level of activity during our first and second fiscal quarters in operations that provide services to sports and leisure clients. This lower level of activity historically has been partially offset during our first and second fiscal quarters by the increased activity in our educational operations. Conversely, historically there has been a significant increase in the provision of services to sports and leisure clients during our third and fourth fiscal quarters, which is partially offset by the effect of summer recess at colleges, universities and schools.
Uniform
Our Uniform segment provides a full service employee uniform solution, including design, sourcing and manufacturing, delivery, cleaning and maintenance on a contract basis. We directly market personalized uniforms and accessories, provide managed restroom services and rent uniforms, work clothing, outerwear, particulate-free garments and non-garment items and related services, including mats, shop towels and first aid supplies, to clients in a wide range of industries in the United States, Puerto Rico, Canada and through a joint venture in Japan, including the manufacturing, transportation, construction, restaurant and hotel, healthcare and pharmaceutical industries.We hold the #2 position in the North America uniform services market. We operate approximately 4,000 routes, giving us a broad reach to service our clients' needs.
Clients use our uniforms to meet a variety of needs, including:
establishing corporate identity and brand awareness;
projecting a professional image:
protecting workers—work clothes can help protect workers from difficult environments such as heavy soils, heat, flame or chemicals; and
protecting products—uniforms can help protect products against contamination in the food, pharmaceutical, electronics, health care and automotive industries.
In fiscal 2019, our Uniform segment generated $2,585.8 million in revenue, or 16% of our total revenue.
Clients and Services
We serve businesses of all sizes in many different industries. We have a diverse client base from approximately 374 service locations and distribution centers across North America. None of our clients individually represents a material portion of our revenue. We typically visit our clients' sites weekly, delivering clean, finished uniforms and, at the same time, removing the soiled uniforms or other items for cleaning, repair or replacement. We also offer products for direct sale.
Our cleanroom service offers advanced static dissipative garments, barrier apparel, sterile garments and cleanroom application accessories for clients with contamination-free operations in the technology, healthcare and pharmaceutical industries.
We conduct our direct marketing business through three primary brands - WearGuard, Crest and Aramark. We design, source or manufacture and distribute distinctive image apparel to workers in a wide variety of industries through the internet at www.shoparamark.com, dedicated sales representatives and telemarketing sales channels. We customize and embroider personalized uniforms and logos for clients through an extensive computer assisted design center and distribute work clothing, outerwear, business casual apparel and footwear throughout the United States, Puerto Rico and Canada.

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Operations
We operate our uniform rental business as a network of 136 laundry plants and 238 satellite plants, depots, distribution centers and manufacturing plants supporting approximately 4,000 pick-up and delivery routes. We operate a fleet of service vehicles that pick up and deliver uniforms for cleaning and maintenance. We conduct our direct marketing activities principally from our facilities in Salem, Virginia; Norwell and Rockland, Massachusetts; and Reno, Nevada. We market our own brands of apparel and offer a variety of customized personalization options such as embroidery and logos. We also source uniforms and other products to our specifications from a number of domestic and international suppliers and also manufacture a significant portion of our uniform requirements. We purchase uniform and textile products as well as equipment and supplies from domestic and international suppliers. The loss of any one supplier would not have a significant impact on us. We operate cutting and sewing plants in Mexico, which satisfy a substantial amount of our standard uniform inventory needs.
Sales and Marketing
Our sales representatives and route sales drivers are responsible for selling our services to current and potential clients and developing new accounts through the use of an extensive, proprietary database of pre-screened and qualified business prospects. We build our brand identity through local advertising, promotional initiatives and through our distinctive service vehicles. Our clients frequently come to us through client referrals, either from our uniform rental business or from our other service sectors. Our customer service representatives generally interact on a weekly basis with their clients, while our support personnel are charged with expeditiously handling client requirements regarding the outfitting of new client employees and other customer service needs.
Types of Contracts
We typically serve our rental clients under written service contracts for an initial term of three to five years. While clients are not required to make an up-front investment for their uniforms, in the case of nonstandard uniforms and certain specialty programs, clients typically agree to reimburse us for our costs if they terminate their agreement early. With the exception of certain governmental bid business, most of our direct marketing business is conducted under invoice arrangement with repeat clients.
Competition
Although the United States rental industry has experienced some consolidation, there is significant competition in all the areas that we serve, and such competition varies across geographies. Although many competitors are smaller local and regional firms, we also face competition from other large national firms such as Cintas Corporation and UniFirst Corporation. We believe that the primary competitive factors that affect our operations are quality, service, design, consistency of product, distribution capability, particularly for large multi-location clients, and price. We believe that our ability to compete effectively is enhanced by the quality and breadth of our product line as well as our nationwide reach.
Employees of Aramark
As of September 27, 2019, we had a total of approximately 283,500 employees, including seasonal employees, consisting of approximately 183,300 full-time and approximately 100,200 part-time employees. The number of part-time employees varies significantly from time to time during the year due to seasonal and other operating requirements. We generally experience our highest level of employment during the fourth fiscal quarter. The approximate number of employees by segment is as follows: FSS United States: 147,050; FSS International: 118,600; Uniform: 17,200. In addition, the Aramark corporate staff is approximately 650 employees. Approximately 43,000 employees in the United States are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We have not experienced any material interruptions of operations due to disputes with our employees and consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.
Governmental Regulation
Our business is subject to various federal, state, international, national, provincial and local laws and regulations, in areas such as environmental, labor, employment, immigration, privacy and data security, tax codes, health and safety laws and liquor licensing and dram shop matters. In addition, our facilities and products are subject to periodic inspection by federal, state, local and international authorities. We have established, and periodically update, various internal controls and procedures designed to maintain compliance with these laws and regulations. Our compliance programs are subject to legislative changes, or changes in regulatory interpretation, implementation or enforcement. From time to time both federal and state government agencies have conducted audits of certain of our practices as part of routine investigations of providers of services under government contracts, or otherwise. Like others in our business, we receive requests for information from governmental agencies in connection with these audits. If we fail to comply with applicable laws, we may be subject to investigations, criminal sanctions or civil remedies, including fines, penalties, damages, reimbursement, injunctions, seizures, disgorgements, debarments from government contracts or loss of liquor licenses.

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Our operations are subject to various laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, those governing:
alcohol licensing and service;
collection of sales and other taxes;
minimum wage, overtime, classification, wage payment and employment discrimination;
immigration;
governmentally funded entitlement programs and cost and accounting principles;
false claims, whistleblowers and consumer protection;
environmental protection;
food safety, sanitation, labeling and human health and safety;
customs and import and export controls;
the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-corruption laws;
antitrust, competition, procurement and lobbying;
minority, women and disadvantaged business enterprise statutes;
motor carrier safety; and
privacy and data security.
The laws and regulations relating to each of our food and support services segments are numerous and complex. There are a variety of laws and regulations at various governmental levels relating to the handling, preparation, transportation and serving of food, including in some cases requirements relating to the temperature of food, the cleanliness of food production facilities, and the hygiene of food-handling personnel, which are enforced primarily at the local public health department level. While we attempt to comply with applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that we are in full compliance at all times with all of the applicable laws and regulations or that we will be able to comply with any future laws and regulations. Furthermore, legislation and regulatory attention to food safety is very high. Additional or amended regulations in this area may significantly increase the cost of compliance or expose us to liability.
In addition, various government agencies impose nutritional guidelines and other requirements on us at certain of the healthcare, education and corrections facilities we serve. We may also be subject to laws and regulations that limit or restrict the use of trans fats in the food we serve or other requirements relating to ingredient or nutrient labeling. There can be no assurance that legislation, or changes in regulatory implementation or interpretation of government regulations, would not limit our activities in the future or significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance.
Because we serve alcoholic beverages at many sports, entertainment and recreational facilities, including convention centers and national and state parks, we also hold liquor licenses incidental to our food service operations and are subject to the liquor license requirements of the jurisdictions in which we hold a liquor license. As of September 27, 2019, our subsidiaries held liquor licenses in 42 states and additionally the District of Columbia, 5 Canadian provinces and certain other countries. Typically, liquor licenses must be renewed annually and may be revoked or suspended for cause at any time. Alcoholic beverage control regulations relate to numerous aspects of our operations, including minimum age of patrons and employees, hours of operation, advertising, wholesale purchasing, inventory control and handling, and storage, dispensing and service of alcoholic beverages. We have not encountered any material problems relating to liquor licenses to date. The failure to receive or retain a liquor license in a particular location could adversely affect our ability to obtain such a license elsewhere. Some of our contracts require us to pay liquidated damages during any period in which the liquor license for the facility is suspended as a result of our actions, and most contracts are subject to termination if the liquor license for the facility is lost as a result of our actions. Our service of alcoholic beverages is also subject to alcoholic beverage service laws, commonly called dram shop statutes. Dram shop statutes generally prohibit serving alcoholic beverages to certain persons such as minors or visibly intoxicated persons. If we violate dram shop laws, we may be liable to the patron and/or to third parties for the acts of the visibly intoxicated patron. We sponsor regular training programs designed to minimize the likelihood of such a situation and to take advantage of certain safe harbors and affirmative defenses enacted for the benefit of alcoholic beverage service providers. However, we cannot guarantee that intoxicated or minor patrons will not be served or that liability for their acts will not be imposed on us.
Our uniform rental business and our food and support service business are subject to various environmental protection laws and regulations, including the U.S. Federal Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and similar local, state, federal and international

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laws and regulations governing the use, management, shipping and disposal of chemicals and hazardous materials. In particular, industrial laundries use certain detergents and cleaning chemicals to launder garments and other merchandise. The residues from such detergents and chemicals and residues from soiled garments and other merchandise laundered at our facilities may result in potential discharges to air and to water (through sanitary sewer systems and publicly owned treatment works) and may be contained in waste generated by our wastewater treatment systems. Our industrial laundries are subject to certain volume and chemical air and water pollution discharge limits, monitoring, permitting and recordkeeping requirements. We own or operate aboveground and underground storage tank systems at some locations to store petroleum products for use in our or our clients' operations. Certain of these storage tank systems also are subject to performance standards, periodic monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. We also may use and manage chemicals and hazardous materials in our operations from time to time. We are mindful of the environmental concerns surrounding the use, management, shipping and disposal of these chemicals and hazardous materials, and have taken and continue to take measures to comply with environmental protection laws and regulations. Given the regulated nature of some of our operations, we could face penalties and fines for non-compliance. In the past, we have settled, or contributed to the settlement of, actions or claims relating to the management of underground storage tanks and the handling and disposal of chemicals or hazardous materials, either on or off-site. We may, in the future, be required to expend material amounts to rectify the consequences of any such events. Under environmental laws, we may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous materials located on or in or migrating from our owned or leased property or our clients' properties, as well as related costs of investigation and property damage. Such laws may impose liability without regard to our fault, knowledge or responsibility for the presence of such hazardous substances. We may not know whether our clients' properties or our acquired or leased properties have been operated in compliance with environmental laws and regulations or that our future uses or conditions will not result in the imposition of liability upon us under such laws or expose us to third-party actions such as tort suits.
As of September 27, 2019, we do not anticipate any expenditures for environmental remediation that would have a material effect on our financial condition.
Intellectual Property
We have the patents, trademarks, trade names and licenses that are necessary for the operation of our business. Other than the Aramark brand, which includes our corporate starperson logo design, the Aramark word mark (our name) and the Avendra brand, we do not consider our patents, trademarks, trade names and licenses to be material to the operation of our business.
Available Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). These filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC's web site at http://www.sec.gov.
Our principal Internet address is www.aramark.com. We make available free of charge on www.aramark.com our annual, quarterly and current reports, and amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
Our Business Conduct Policy includes a code of ethics for our principal executive officer, our principal financial officer and our principal accounting officer and applies to all of our employees and non-employee directors. Our Business Conduct Policy is available on the Investor Relations section of our website at www.aramark.com and is available in print to any person who requests it by writing or telephoning us at the address or telephone number set forth below.
You may request a copy of our SEC filings (excluding exhibits) and our Business Conduct Policy at no cost by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:
Aramark
2400 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Attention: Corporate Secretary
Telephone: (215) 238-3000
The references to our web site and the SEC's web site are intended to be inactive textual references only and the contents of those websites are not incorporated by reference herein.

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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Risks related to our business
Unfavorable economic conditions have, and in the future could, adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
In the past, national and international economic downturns have reduced demand for our services and any such downturns in the future could reduce demand for our services in each of our reportable segments, resulting in the loss of business or increased pressure to contract for business on less favorable terms than our generally preferred terms. Economic hardship among our client base can also impact our business. For example, during the period of economic distress following the financial crisis of 2008, certain of our businesses were negatively affected by reduced employment levels at our clients’ locations and declining levels of business and consumer spending. In addition, insolvency experienced by clients, especially larger clients, has in the past made it difficult, and in the future could, make it difficult, for us to collect amounts we are owed and could result in the voiding of existing contracts. Similarly, financial distress or insolvency, if experienced by our key vendors and service providers such as insurance carriers, could significantly increase our costs.
The portion of our food and support services business that provides services in public facilities such as convention centers and tourist and recreational attractions is particularly sensitive to an economic downturn, as expenditures to take vacations or hold or attend conventions are funded to a partial or total extent by discretionary income. A decrease in such discretionary income on the part of potential attendees at our clients' facilities has in the past resulted, and in the future could result, in a reduction in our revenue. Further, because our exposure to the ultimate consumer of what we provide is limited by our dependence on our clients to attract those consumers to their facilities and events, our ability to respond to such a reduction in attendance, and therefore our revenue, is limited. There are many factors that could reduce the numbers of events in a facility or attendance at an event, including labor disruptions involving sports leagues, poor performance by the teams playing in a facility, number of playoff games, inclement weather and adverse economic conditions which would adversely affect revenue and profits.
Natural disasters, global calamities, political unrest, sports strikes and other adverse incidents could adversely affect our revenue and operating results.
Natural disasters, including hurricanes and earthquakes, global calamities, such as an Ebola outbreak or a flu pandemic, or political unrest, such as the recent demonstrations in Chile, have, and in the future could, affect our revenue and operating results. In the past, we experienced lost and closed client locations, business disruptions and delays, the loss of inventory and other assets, asset impairments and the effect of the temporary conversion of a number of our client locations to provide food and shelter to those left homeless by storms. For example, our financial results were particularly impacted in 2018 by wildfires in and around Yosemite National Park and in 2017 by Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico and Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the southern United States. In addition, any terrorist attacks, particularly against venues that we serve, and the national and global military, diplomatic and financial response to such attacks or other threats, also may adversely affect our revenue and operating results. Sports strikes, particularly those that persist for an extended time period, can reduce our revenue and have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Any decrease in the number of games played would mean a loss of revenue and reduced profits at the venues we service.
Our failure to retain our current clients, renew our existing client contracts on comparable terms and obtain new client contracts could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends on our ability to retain our current clients, renew our existing client contracts and obtain new business on commercially-favorable terms. Our ability to do so generally depends on a variety of factors, including the quality, price and responsiveness of our services, as well as our ability to market these services effectively and differentiate ourselves from our competitors. The renewal of business often results in a decrease in the profitability of such business. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain new business, renew existing client contracts at the same or higher levels of pricing or that our current clients will not turn to competitors, cease operations, elect to self-operate or terminate contracts with us. In addition, consolidation by our clients in the industries we serve could result in our losing business if the combined entity chooses a different provider. The failure to renew a significant number of our existing contracts would have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations and the failure to obtain new business could have an adverse impact on our growth and financial results.
We may be adversely affected if clients reduce their outsourcing or use of preferred vendors.
Our business and growth strategies depend in large part on the continuation of a current trend toward outsourcing services. Clients will outsource if they perceive that outsourcing may provide quality services at a lower overall cost and permit them to focus on their core business activities. We cannot be certain that this trend will continue or not be reversed or that clients that have outsourced functions will not decide to perform these functions themselves.

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In addition, labor unions representing employees of some of our current and prospective clients have occasionally opposed the outsourcing trend to the extent that they believed that current union jobs for their memberships might be lost. In these cases, unions typically seek to prevent public sector entities from outsourcing and if that fails, ensure that jobs that are outsourced continue to be unionized, which can reduce our pricing and operational flexibility with respect to such businesses.
We have also identified a trend among some of our clients toward the retention of a limited number of preferred vendors to provide all or a large part of their required services. We cannot be certain that this trend will continue or not be reversed or, if it does continue, that we will be selected and retained as a preferred vendor to provide these services. Unfavorable developments with respect to either outsourcing or the use of preferred vendors could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Competition in our industries could adversely affect our results of operations.
There is significant competition in the food and support services business from local, regional, national and international companies, of varying sizes, many of which have substantial financial resources. Our ability to successfully compete depends on our ability to provide quality services at a reasonable price and to provide value to our clients and consumers. Certain of our competitors have been and may in the future be willing to underbid us or accept a lower profit margin or expend more capital in order to obtain or retain business. Also, certain regional and local service providers may be better established than we are within a specific geographic region. In addition, existing or potential clients may elect to self-operate their food and support services, eliminating the opportunity for us to serve them or compete for the account. We also may face increased competition from offsite food delivery at our clients as online restaurant aggregators and similar businesses and other providers with potentially disruptive business models have been successful at applying technology developments to local food service. While we have a significant international presence, certain of our competitors have more extensive portfolios of services and a broader geographic footprint than we do. Therefore, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage for clients who require multiservice or multinational bids.
We have a number of major national competitors in the uniform rental industry with significant financial resources. In addition, there are regional and local uniform suppliers whom we believe have strong client loyalty. While most clients focus primarily on quality of service, uniform rental also is a price-sensitive service and if existing or future competitors seek to gain clients or accounts by reducing prices, we may be required to lower prices, which would reduce our revenue and profits. The uniform rental business requires investment capital for growth. Failure to maintain capital investment in this business would put us at a competitive disadvantage. In addition, due to competition in our uniform rental business, it has become increasingly important for us to source garments and other products overseas, particularly from China. To the extent we are not able to effectively source such products from China and gain the related cost savings, we may be at a further disadvantage in relation to some of our competitors.
Increased operating costs and obstacles to cost recovery due to the pricing and cancellation terms of our food and support services contracts may constrain our ability to make a profit.
Our profitability can be adversely affected to the extent we are faced with cost increases for food, wages, other labor related expenses (including workers' compensation, state unemployment insurance and federal or state mandated health benefits and other healthcare costs), insurance, fuel, utilities, piece goods, clothing and equipment, especially to the extent we are unable to recover such increased costs through increases in the prices for our products and services, due to one or more of general economic conditions, competitive conditions or contractual provisions in our client contracts. For example, when federal, state, foreign or local minimum wage rates increase, we may have to increase the wages of both minimum wage employees and employees whose wages are above the minimum wage. We may also face increased operating costs resulting from changes in federal, state or local laws and regulations relating to employment matters, including those relating to the classification of employees, employee eligibility for overtime and secure scheduling requirements, which often incorporate a premium pay mandate for scheduling deviations. Oil and natural gas prices have fluctuated significantly in the last several years. Substantial increases in the cost of fuel and utilities have historically resulted in substantial cost increases in our uniform rental business, and to a lesser extent in our food and support services segments. In addition, United States and foreign trade policies, tariffs and other impositions on imported goods, trade sanctions imposed on certain countries, the limitation on the importation of certain types of goods or of goods containing certain materials from other countries could increase costs in our uniform rental business. From time to time we have experienced increases in our food costs. Food prices can fluctuate as a result of permanent or temporary changes in supply, including as a result of incidences of severe weather such as droughts, heavy rains and late freezes or natural disasters. Increasing client and consumer demands relating to sustainability also can result in increased costs for our food and support services segment. We have two main types of contracts in our food and facilities business: profit and loss contracts in which we bear all of the expenses of the contract but gain the benefit of the revenue, and client interest contracts in which our clients share some or all of the expenses and gain some or all of the revenue. Approximately two-thirds of our food and support services revenue in fiscal 2019 is from profit and loss contracts under which we have limited ability to

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pass on cost increases to our clients. Therefore, absent our ability to negotiate contractual changes, including pricing, we may have to absorb cost increases, which may adversely impact our operating results.
The amount of risk that we bear and our profit potential vary depending on the type of contract under which we provide food and support services. We may be unable to fully recover costs on contracts that limit our ability to increase prices. In addition, we provide many of our services under contracts of indefinite term, which are subject to termination on short notice by either party without cause. Some of our profit and loss and client interest contracts contain minimum guaranteed remittances to our client regardless of our revenue or profit at the facility, typically contingent on certain future events. If revenue does not exceed costs under a contract that contains minimum guaranteed payments, we will bear any losses which are incurred, as well as the guaranteed payment. Generally, our contracts also limit our ability to raise prices on the food, beverages and merchandise we sell within a particular facility without the client's consent. In addition, some of our contracts exclude certain events or products from the scope of the contract, or give the client the right to modify the terms under which we may operate at certain events. Guaranteed payments or other guaranteed amounts to a client under a profit and loss contract that is not profitable, the refusal by individual clients to permit the sale of some products at their venues, the imposition by clients of limits on prices which are not economically feasible for us, or decisions by clients to curtail their use of the services we provide could adversely affect our revenue and results of operations. For example, during the most recent economic downturn, certain of our business & industry clients curtailed their employees' use of catering, which had a negative effect on our revenue and profits.
Our inability to achieve cost savings through our cost reduction efforts could impact our results of operations.
The achievement of the goals we set in our plans and our future financial performance is dependent, in part, on our efforts to reduce our cost structure through various cost reduction initiatives. Successful execution of our cost reduction initiatives is not assured and there are several obstacles to success, including our ability to enable the information technology and business processes required for these efforts. In addition, there can be no assurance that our efforts, if properly executed, will result in our desired outcome of improved financial performance.
Our expansion strategy involves risks.
We may seek to acquire companies or interests in companies or enter into joint ventures that complement our business. Our inability to complete acquisitions, integrate acquired companies successfully or enter into joint ventures may render us less competitive. At any given time, we may be evaluating one or more acquisitions or engaging in acquisition negotiations. We cannot be sure that we will be able to continue to identify acquisition candidates or joint venture partners on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we make acquisitions, we also cannot be sure that any benefits anticipated from the acquisitions will actually be realized. Likewise, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain necessary financing for acquisitions. Such financing could be restricted by the terms of our debt agreements or it could be more expensive than our current debt. The amount of such debt financing for acquisitions could be significant and the terms of such debt instruments could be more restrictive than our current covenants. In addition, our ability to control the planning and operations of our joint ventures and other less than majority-owned affiliates may be subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the joint venture agreements and majority stockholders. Our joint venture partners may also have interests which differ from ours.
The process of integrating acquired operations into our existing operations may result in operating, contract and supply chain difficulties, such as the failure to retain existing clients or attract new clients, maintain relationships with suppliers and other contractual parties, or retain and integrate acquired personnel. Also, in connection with any acquisition, we could fail to discover liabilities of the acquired company for which we may be responsible as a successor owner or operator in spite of any investigation we make prior to the acquisition, resulting in additional unanticipated costs. In addition, labor laws in certain countries may require us to retain more employees than would otherwise be optimal from entities we acquire. Such integration difficulties may divert significant financial, operational and managerial resources from our existing operations and make it more difficult to achieve our operating and strategic objectives, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Similarly, our business depends on effective information technology and financial reporting systems. Delays in or poor execution of the integration of these systems could disrupt our operations and increase costs, and could also potentially adversely impact the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting.
Possible future acquisitions also could result in the incurrence of additional contingent liabilities and amortization expenses related to intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, goodwill and other intangible assets resulting from business combinations represent a significant portion of our assets. If the goodwill or other intangible assets were deemed to be impaired, we would need to take a charge to earnings to write down the asset to its fair value. For example, in connection with the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions, we recorded aggregate goodwill of $895.7 million.

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We acquired Avendra on December 11, 2017 and AmeriPride on January 19, 2018. The success of these acquisitions depends, in part, on our ability to successfully integrate these businesses with our current operations and to realize the anticipated benefits, including synergies, from the acquisitions on a timely basis. It may take longer than expected to realize these anticipated benefits and they may ultimately be smaller than we expect. There are a number of challenges and risks involved in our ability to successfully integrate Avendra and AmeriPride with our current businesses and to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions, including all of the risks identified in the paragraphs above. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, there are a number of factors beyond our control that could affect the amount and timing of the integration expenses that we expect to incur in connection with these acquisitions. In addition, in the short term these integration expenses are anticipated to exceed the cost savings that we expect to achieve from the elimination of duplicative expenses, realization of economies of scale and integration of the acquired businesses. During such period, these charges could negatively impact our results of operations.
A failure to maintain food safety throughout our supply chain and food-borne illness concerns may result in reputational harm and claims of illness or injury that could adversely affect us.
Food safety is a top priority for us and we dedicate substantial resources to ensuring that our consumers enjoy safe, quality food products. Claims of illness or injury relating to food quality, food handling or allergens are common in the food service industry, and a number of these claims may exist at any given time. Because food safety issues could be experienced at the source or by food suppliers or distributors, food safety could, in part, be out of our control. Regardless of the source or cause, any report of food-borne illness or other food safety issues such as food tampering or contamination at one of our locations could adversely impact our reputation, hindering our ability to renew contracts on favorable terms or to obtain new business, and have a negative impact on our revenue. Even instances of food-borne illness, food tampering or contamination at a location served by one of our competitors could result in negative publicity regarding the food service industry generally and could negatively impact our revenue. Future food safety issues may also from time to time disrupt our business. In addition, product recalls or health concerns associated with food contamination may also increase our raw materials costs.
Laws and governmental regulations relating to food and beverages may subject us to significant liability.
The laws and regulations relating to each of our food and support services segments are numerous and complex. A variety of laws and regulations at various governmental levels relating to the handling, preparation, transportation and serving of food (including, in some cases, requirements relating to the temperature of food). In addition, the cleanliness of food production facilities and the hygiene of food-handling personnel are enforced primarily at the local public health department level. There can be no assurance that we are in full compliance with all applicable laws and regulations at all times or that we will be able to comply with any future laws and regulations. Furthermore, legislation and regulatory attention to food safety is very high. Additional or amended laws or regulations in this area may significantly increase the cost of compliance or expose us to liabilities.
We serve alcoholic beverages at many facilities, and must comply with applicable licensing laws, as well as state and local service laws, commonly called dram shop statutes. Dram shop statutes generally prohibit serving alcoholic beverages to certain persons, such as an individual who is visibly intoxicated or a minor. If we violate dram shop laws, we may be liable to the patron and/or third parties for the acts of the patron. Although we sponsor regular training programs designed to minimize the likelihood of such a situation and to take advantage of certain safe harbors and affirmative defenses established for the benefit of alcoholic beverages service providers, we cannot guarantee that visibly intoxicated or minor patrons will not be served or that liability for their acts will not be imposed on us. There can be no assurance that additional laws or regulations in this area would not limit our activities in the future or significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance. We must also obtain and comply with the terms of licenses in order to sell alcoholic beverages in the states in which we serve alcoholic beverages. Some of our contracts require us to pay liquidated damages during any period in which the liquor license for the facility is suspended as a result of our actions, and most contracts are subject to termination if the liquor license for the facility is lost as a result of our actions.
If we fail to comply with requirements imposed by applicable law or other governmental regulations, we could become subject to lawsuits, investigations and other liabilities and restrictions on our operations that could significantly and adversely affect our business.
We are subject to governmental regulation at the federal, state, international, national, provincial and local levels in many areas of our business, such as employment laws, wage and hour laws, discrimination laws, immigration laws, human health and safety laws, import and export controls and customs laws, environmental laws, false claims or whistleblower statutes, minority, women and disadvantaged business enterprise statutes, tax codes, antitrust and competition laws, consumer protection statutes, procurement regulations, intellectual property laws, food safety, labeling and sanitation laws, governmentally funded entitlement programs and cost and accounting principles, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, other anti-

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corruption laws, lobbying laws, motor carrier safety laws, data privacy and security laws, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation and California Consumer Privacy Act, and alcohol licensing and service laws.
From time to time, governmental agencies have conducted reviews and audits of certain of our practices as part of routine investigations of providers of services under government contracts, or otherwise. Like others in our business, we also receive requests for information from government agencies in connection with these reviews and audits. While we attempt to comply with all applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that we are in full compliance with all applicable laws and regulations or interpretations of these laws and regulations at all times or that we will be able to comply with any future laws, regulations or interpretations of these laws and regulations.
If we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those referred to above, we may be subject to investigations, criminal sanctions or civil remedies, including fines, penalties, damages, reimbursement, injunctions, seizures, disgorgements or debarments from government contracts or the loss of liquor licenses or the ability to operate our motor vehicles. The cost of compliance or the consequences of non-compliance, including debarments, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, government agencies may make changes in the regulatory frameworks within which we operate that may require either the corporation as a whole or individual businesses to incur substantial increases in costs in order to comply with such laws and regulations. 
Changes in, new interpretations of or changes in the enforcement of the governmental regulatory framework may affect our contracts and contract terms and may reduce our revenue or profits.
A portion of our revenue, estimated to be approximately 13% in fiscal 2019, is derived from business with U.S. federal, state and local governments and agencies. Changes or new interpretations in, or changes in the enforcement of, the statutory or regulatory framework applicable to services provided under government contracts or bidding procedures, including an adverse change in government spending policies or appropriations, budget priorities or revenue levels, particularly by our food and support services businesses, could result in fewer new contracts or contract renewals, modifications to the methods we apply to price government contracts, or in contract terms of shorter duration than we have historically experienced. Any of these changes could result in lower revenue or profits than we have historically achieved, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Environmental regulations may subject us to significant liability and limit our ability to grow.
We are subject to various environmental protection laws and regulations, including the U.S. Federal Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and similar federal, state and local statutes and regulations governing the use, management, and disposal of chemicals and hazardous materials. In particular, industrial laundries in our uniform rental business use certain detergents and cleaning chemicals to launder garments and other merchandise. The residues from such detergents and chemicals and residues from soiled garments and other merchandise laundered at our facilities may result in potential discharges to air and to water (through sanitary sewer systems and publicly owned treatment works) and may be contained in waste generated by our wastewater treatment systems.
Our industrial laundries are subject to certain volume and chemical air and water pollution discharge limits and monitoring, permitting and recordkeeping requirements.
We own or operate aboveground and underground storage tank systems at some locations to store petroleum products for use in our or our clients' operations, including some national parks. Certain of these storage tank systems also are subject to performance standards and periodic monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. We also may use and manage chemicals and hazardous materials in our operations from time to time. In the course of our business, we may be subject to penalties and fines and reputational harm for non-compliance with environmental protection laws and regulations and we may settle, or contribute to the settlement of, actions or claims relating to the management of underground storage tanks and the handling and disposal of chemicals or hazardous materials. We may, in the future, be required to expend material amounts to rectify the consequences of any such events.
In addition, changes to environmental laws may subject us to additional costs or cause us to change aspects of our business. Under U.S. federal and state environmental protection laws, as an owner or operator of real estate we may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous materials located on or in or migrating from our owned or leased property or our client's properties, as well as related costs of investigation and property damage, without regard to our fault, knowledge, or responsibility for the presence of such hazardous materials. There can be no assurance that locations that we own, lease or otherwise operate, either for ourselves or for our clients, or that we may acquire in the future, have been operated in compliance with environmental laws and regulations or that future uses or conditions will not result in the imposition of liability upon us under such laws or expose us to third-party actions such as tort suits. In addition, such regulations may limit our ability to identify suitable sites for new or expanded facilities. In connection with our present or past operations and the present or past

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operations of our predecessors or companies that we have acquired, hazardous substances may migrate from properties on which we operate or which were operated by our predecessors or companies we acquired to other properties. We may be subject to significant liabilities to the extent that human health is adversely affected or the value of such properties is diminished by such migration.
Our international business faces risks different from those we face in the United States that could have an effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
A significant portion of our revenue is derived from international business. During fiscal 2019, approximately 23% of our revenue was generated outside of the United States. We currently have a presence in 18 countries outside of the United States with approximately 118,600 personnel. We also provide our services on a more limited basis in several additional countries. Our international operations are subject to risks that are different from those we face in the United States, including the requirement to comply with changing, conflicting and unclear national and local regulatory requirements; Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, U.K. Bribery Act and other anti-corruption law compliance matters; cybersecurity and data protection laws; potential difficulties in staffing and labor disputes; differing local labor laws; managing and obtaining support and distribution for local operations; credit risk or financial condition of local clients; potential imposition of restrictions on investments; potentially adverse tax consequences, including imposition or increase of withholding, VAT and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries; foreign exchange controls; and local political and social conditions. For example, in June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union ("Brexit"). Aramark has operated in the United Kingdom since 1972 and employs approximately 10,000 employees there today. While our operations in the United Kingdom do not represent a significant portion of our revenue, the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union could have a negative effect on our business there if Brexit results in a slow down of the local economy or employment environment. As a country, the United Kingdom imports half of its food supply, and any change in tariffs, customs or tax would impact our supply chain. In addition, the operating results of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars and those results are affected by movements in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar.
We intend to continue to develop our business in emerging countries over the long term. Emerging international operations present several additional risks, including greater fluctuation in currencies relative to the U.S. dollar; economic and governmental instability; civil disturbances; volatility in gross domestic production; and nationalization and expropriation of private assets.
There can be no assurance that the foregoing factors will not have a material adverse effect on our international operations or on our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
Continued or further unionization of our workforce may increase our costs and work stoppages could damage our business.
Approximately 43,000 employees in our North America operations are represented by unions and covered by collective bargaining agreements. The continued or further unionization of a significantly greater portion of our workforce could increase our overall costs at the affected locations and adversely affect our flexibility to run our business in the most efficient manner to remain competitive or acquire new business. In addition, any significant increase in the number of work stoppages at our various operations could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may incur significant liability as a result of our participation in multiemployer defined benefit pension plans.
A number of our locations operate under collective bargaining agreements. Under some of these agreements, we are obligated to contribute to multiemployer defined benefit pension plans. As a contributing employer to such plans, should we trigger either a “complete” or a “partial withdrawal,” we would be subject to withdrawal liability (or partial withdrawal liability) for our proportionate share of any unfunded vested benefits. In addition, if a multiemployer defined benefit pension plan fails to satisfy the minimum funding standards, we could be liable to increase our contributions to meet minimum funding standards. Also, if another participating employer withdraws from the plan or experiences financial difficulty, including bankruptcy, our obligation could increase. The financial status of certain of the plans to which we contribute has deteriorated in the recent past and continues to deteriorate and we proactively monitor the financial status of these and the other multiemployer defined benefit pension plans in which we participate. In addition, any increased funding obligations for underfunded multiemployer defined benefit pension plans could have an adverse financial impact on us.
Risks associated with the suppliers from whom our products are sourced could adversely affect our results of operations.
The raw materials we use in our business and the finished products we sell are sourced from a wide variety of domestic and international suppliers. We seek to require our suppliers to comply with applicable laws and otherwise be certified as meeting our supplier standards of conduct. Our ability to find qualified suppliers who meet our standards, and to access raw materials and finished products in a timely and efficient manner is a challenge, especially with respect to suppliers located and goods sourced outside the United States. Insolvency experienced by suppliers could make it difficult for us to source the items we need to run our business. Political and economic stability in the countries in which foreign suppliers are located, the financial

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stability of suppliers, suppliers' failure to meet our supplier standards, labor problems experienced by our suppliers, the availability of raw materials to suppliers, cybersecurity issues, currency exchange rates, transport availability and cost, tariffs, inflation and other factors relating to the suppliers and the countries in which they are located are beyond our control. United States foreign trade policies, tariffs and other impositions on imported goods, trade sanctions imposed on certain countries, the limitation on the importation of certain types of goods or of goods containing certain materials from other countries and other factors relating to foreign trade are beyond our control. If one of our suppliers were to violate the law, or engage in conduct that results in adverse publicity, our reputation may be harmed simply due to our association with that supplier. These and other factors affecting our suppliers and our access to raw materials and finished products could adversely affect our results of operations.
In fiscal 2019, one distributor distributed approximately 48% of our food and non-food products in the United States and Canada, and if our relationship or their business were to be disrupted, we could experience disruptions to our operations and cost structure.
Although we negotiate the pricing and other terms for the majority of our purchases of food and related products in the U.S. and Canada directly with national manufacturers, we purchase these products and other items through Sysco Corporation and other distributors. Sysco, the main U.S. and Canadian distributor of our food and non-food products, and other distributors are responsible for tracking our orders and delivering products to our specific locations. If our relationship with, or the business of, Sysco were to be disrupted, we would have to arrange alternative distributors and our operations and cost structure could be adversely affected in the short term. Similarly, a sudden termination of the relationship with a significant provider in other geographic areas could in the short term adversely affect our ability to provide services and disrupt our client relationships in such areas.
Our business may suffer if we are unable to hire and retain sufficient qualified personnel or if labor costs increase.
From time to time, we have had difficulty in hiring and retaining qualified management personnel, particularly at the entry management level. We will continue to have significant requirements to hire such personnel. At times when the United States or other geographic regions experience reduced levels of unemployment, there may be a shortage of qualified workers at all levels. Given that our workforce requires large numbers of entry level and skilled workers and managers, low levels of unemployment when such conditions exist or mismatches between the labor markets and our skill requirements can compromise our ability in certain areas of our businesses to continue to provide quality service or compete for new business. We are also impacted by the costs and other effects of compliance with U.S. and international regulations affecting our workforce. These regulations are increasingly focused on employment issues, including wage and hour, healthcare, immigration, retirement and other employee benefits and workplace practices. Compliance and claims of non-compliance with these regulations could result in liability and expense to us. We also regularly hire a large number of part-time and seasonal workers, particularly in our food and support services segments. Any difficulty we may encounter in hiring such workers, including difficulties caused by immigration policies, could result in significant increases in labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Competition for labor has at times resulted in wage increases in the past and future competition could substantially increase our labor costs. Due to the labor intensive nature of our businesses and the fact that two-thirds of our food and support services segments' revenue is from profit and loss contracts under which we have limited ability to pass along cost increases, a shortage of labor or increases in wage levels in excess of normal levels could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our business is contract intensive and may lead to client disputes.
Our business is contract intensive and we are parties to many contracts with clients all over the world. Our client interest contracts provide that client billings, and for some contracts the sharing of profits and losses, are based on our determinations of costs of service. Contract terms under which we base these determinations and, for certain government contracts, regulations governing our cost determinations, may be subject to differing interpretations which could result in disputes with our clients from time to time. Clients generally have the right to audit our contracts, and we periodically review our compliance with contract terms and provisions. If clients were to dispute our contract determinations, the resolution of such disputes in a manner adverse to our interests could negatively affect revenue and operating results. While we do not believe any reviews, audits or other such matters should result in material adjustments, if a large number of our client arrangements were modified in response to any such matter, the effect could be materially adverse to our business or results of operations.
Our operations and reputation may be adversely affected by disruptions to or breaches of our information systems or if our data is otherwise compromised.
We are increasingly utilizing information technology systems, including with respect to administrative functions, financial and operational data, ordering, point-of-sale processing and payment and the management of our supply chain, to enhance the efficiency of our business and to improve the overall experience of our customers. We maintain confidential, proprietary and

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personal information about, or on behalf of, our potential, current and former clients, customers, employees and other third parties in these systems or engage third parties in connection with storage and processing of this information. Such information includes large volumes of employee, client and third party data, including credit card numbers, social security numbers, healthcare information and other personal information. Our systems and the systems of our vendors and other third parties are subject to damage or interruption from power outages, computer or telecommunication failures, computer viruses, catastrophic events and implementation delays or difficulties, as well as usage errors by our employees or third party service providers. These systems are also vulnerable to an increasing threat of rapidly evolving cyber-based attacks, including malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, including through phishing emails, attempts to fraudulently induce employees or others to disclose information, the exploitation of software and operating vulnerabilities, and physical device tampering/skimming at card reader units. The techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently, may be difficult to detect for a long time and often are not recognized until after an attack is launched or occurs. As a result, we and such third parties may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, we or such third parties may decide to upgrade existing information technology systems from time to time to support the needs of our business and growth strategy and the risk of system disruption is increased when significant system changes are undertaken. During the normal course of business, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience attempts to compromise our information systems, although none, to our knowledge, has had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Any damage to, or compromise or breach of our systems or the systems of our vendors could impair our ability to conduct our business, result in transaction errors, result in corruption or loss of accounting or other data, which could cause delays in our financial reporting, and result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, reputational damage, adverse publicity, and a loss of confidence in our security measures. Any such event could cause us to incur substantial costs, including costs associated with systems remediation, client protection, litigation, lost revenue or the failure to retain or attract clients following an attack. The failure to properly respond to any such event could also result in similar exposure to liability. While we maintain insurance coverage that may cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be unavailable or insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise. Further, as cybersecurity risks evolve, such insurance may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The occurrence of some or all of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, business, and reputation.
We are subject to numerous laws and regulations in the U.S. and internationally as well as contractual obligations and other security standards, each designed to protect the information of clients, customers, employees, and other third parties that we collect and maintain, such as the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), which took effect in May 2018, and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the "CCPA"), which is scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2020. A failure to comply with the GDPR could result in fines of up to 4% of annual global revenue. The CCPA provides for significant statutory fines and creates a private right of action for certain data breaches. Because we accept debit and credit cards for payment from clients and customers, we are also subject to various industry data protection standards and protocols, such as payment network security operating guidelines and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. In certain circumstances, payment card association rules and obligations make us liable to payment card issuers if information in connection with payment cards and payment card transactions that we hold is compromised, which liabilities could be substantial. These laws, regulations and obligations are increasing in complexity and number, change frequently and increasingly conflict among the various countries in which we operate. Other jurisdictions, including other states in the U.S., have enacted or are enacting similar data protection laws, and/or are considering data localization laws that require data to stay within their borders. Our systems and the systems maintained or used by third parties and service providers may not be able to satisfy these changing legal and regulatory requirements, or may require significant additional investments or time to do so. If we fail to comply with these laws or regulations, we could be subject to significant litigation, monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions or fines in one or more jurisdictions and we could experience a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and business.
Failure to maintain effective internal controls could adversely affect our business and stock price.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, the effectiveness of which is evaluated based upon criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Internal control over financial reporting is a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting is not intended to provide absolute assurance that we would prevent or detect a misstatement of our financial statements or fraud. Any failure to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting could limit our ability to report our financial results accurately and timely or to detect and prevent fraud. A significant financial reporting failure or material weakness in internal control over financial reporting could cause a loss of investor confidence and decline in the market price of our common stock.

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Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industries, expose us to interest rate risk to the extent of our variable rate debt and prevent us from meeting our obligations.
We are highly leveraged. As of September 27, 2019, our outstanding indebtedness was $6,682.2 million. We had additional availability of $897.8 million under our revolving credit facilities as of that date.
This degree of leverage could have important consequences, including:
exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities and our receivables facility, are at variable rates of interest;
making it more difficult for us to make payments on our indebtedness;
increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions;
requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures and future business opportunities;
restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes;
limiting our ability to adjust to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who are less highly leveraged; and
limiting our ability to benefit from tax deductions for such payments under certain interest expense limitation rules included in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our senior secured credit facilities and the indentures governing our senior notes. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could increase.
On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. It is unclear if at that time whether or not LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. Recent proposals for LIBOR reforms may result in the establishment of new methods of calculating LIBOR or the establishment of one or more alternative benchmark rates. Although our Credit Agreement provides for application of successor rates based on prevailing market conditions, it is not currently possible to predict the effect of any establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR that may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere.
If our financial performance were to deteriorate, we may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. While we believe that we currently have adequate cash flows to service our indebtedness, if our financial performance were to deteriorate significantly, we might be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If, due to such a deterioration in our financial performance, our cash flows and capital resources were to be insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In addition, if we were required to raise additional capital in the current financial markets, the terms of such financing, if available, could result in higher costs and greater restrictions on our business. In addition, although none of our long-term borrowings mature prior to 2021, if we were to need to refinance our existing indebtedness, the conditions in the financial markets at that time could make it difficult to refinance our existing indebtedness on acceptable terms or at all. If such alternative measures proved unsuccessful, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. Our senior secured credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from any disposition of assets and to refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to consummate those

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dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could realize from them and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.
Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.
Our senior secured credit agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes contain various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. These covenants limit our and our restricted subsidiaries' ability to, among other things:
incur additional indebtedness, refinance or restructure indebtedness or issue certain preferred shares;
pay dividends on, repurchase or make distributions in respect of our capital stock, make unscheduled payments on our notes, repurchase or redeem our senior notes or make other restricted payments;
make certain investments;
sell certain assets;
create liens;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates.
In addition, our senior secured revolving credit facility requires us to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios and other financial condition tests. Our ability to meet those financial ratios and tests can be affected by events beyond our control, and in the event of a significant deterioration of our financial performance, there can be no assurance that we will satisfy those ratios and tests. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the senior secured credit agreement. Upon our failure to maintain compliance with these covenants that is not waived by the lenders under the revolving credit facility, the lenders under the senior secured credit facilities could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the senior secured credit facilities to be immediately due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit under such facilities. If we were unable to repay those amounts, the lenders under the senior secured credit facilities could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. We have pledged a significant portion of our assets as collateral under the senior secured credit agreement. If the lenders under the senior secured credit facilities accelerate the repayment of borrowings, there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient assets to repay those borrowings, as well as our unsecured indebtedness. If our senior secured indebtedness was accelerated by the lenders as a result of a default, our senior notes may become due and payable as well. Any such acceleration may also constitute an amortization event under our receivables facility, which could result in the amount outstanding under that facility becoming due and payable.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our share price may change significantly, and you may not be able to resell shares of our common stock at or above the price you paid or at all, and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.
The trading price of our common stock, as reported by the NYSE, could fluctuate due to a number of factors such as those listed in “—Risks Related to Our Business” and include, but are not limited to, the following, some of which are beyond our control:
quarterly variations in our results of operations;
results of operations that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
results of operations that vary from those of our competitors;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates by securities analysts and investors;
announcements by us, our competitors or our vendors of significant contracts, acquisitions, divestitures, joint marketing relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
announcements by third parties of significant claims or proceedings against us;
future sales of our common stock;
general domestic and international economic conditions; and
unexpected and sudden changes in senior management.

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Furthermore, the stock market has experienced extreme volatility that, in some cases, has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.
In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
 There can be no assurance that we will continue to pay dividends on our common stock, and our indebtedness could limit our ability to pay dividends on our common stock.
Payment of cash dividends on our common stock is subject to our compliance with applicable law and depends on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, level of indebtedness, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Our senior secured credit facilities and the indentures governing our senior notes contain, and the terms of any future indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur may contain, limitations on our ability to pay dividends. For more information, see Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Although we have paid cash dividends in the past, there can be no assurance that we will continue to pay any dividend in the future.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.
Certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.
These provisions provide for, among other things:
the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;
the removal of directors only upon the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% in voting power of all the then-outstanding common stock of the company entitled to vote thereon, voting together as a single class; and
that certain provisions may be amended only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% in voting power of all the then-outstanding common stock of the company entitled to vote thereon, voting together as a single class.
These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if the third-party's offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, with certain limited exceptions, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including any beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of the Company owed to us or our stockholders, creditors or other constituents, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer of the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Company or any director or officer of the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have received notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder's ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find this choice of forum provision inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not Applicable.
Item 2.    Properties
Our principal executive offices are currently leased at 2400 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. Our principal real estate is primarily comprised of Uniform facilities. As of September 27, 2019, we operated 404 service facilities in our Uniform segment, consisting of industrial laundries, cleanroom laundries, warehouses, distribution centers, satellites, depots, stand alone garages, shared service centers and administrative offices that are located in 43 states, Mexico, Canada and Puerto Rico. Of these, approximately 51% are leased and approximately 49% are owned. We own six buildings that we use in our FSS United States segment, including several office/warehouse spaces, and we lease 134 premises, consisting of offices, office/warehouses and distribution centers. In addition, we own a distribution center, one office and seven other properties and lease 74 facilities throughout the world that we use in our FSS International segment. We also maintain other real estate and leasehold improvements, which we use in the Uniform and FSS segments. No individual parcel of real estate owned or leased is of material significance to our total assets.

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Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
Our business is subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations governing, among other things, the generation, handling, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of water wastes and other substances. We engage in informal settlement discussions with federal, state, local and foreign authorities regarding allegations of violations of environmental laws in connection with our operations or businesses conducted by our predecessors or companies that we have acquired, the aggregate amount of which and related remediation costs we do not believe should have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations as of September 27, 2019.
From time to time, the Company and its subsidiaries are party to various legal actions, proceedings and investigations involving claims incidental to the conduct of their business, including those brought by clients, consumers, employees, government entities and third parties under, among others, federal, state, international, national, provincial and local employment laws, wage and hour laws, discrimination laws, immigration laws, human health and safety laws, import and export controls and customs laws, environmental laws, false claims or whistleblower statutes, minority, women and disadvantaged business enterprise statutes, tax codes, antitrust and competition laws, consumer protection statutes, procurement regulations, intellectual property laws, food safety and sanitation laws, cost and accounting principles, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, other anti-corruption laws, lobbying laws, motor carrier safety laws, data privacy and security laws and alcohol licensing and service laws, or alleging negligence and/or breaches of contractual and other obligations. Based on information currently available, advice of counsel, available insurance coverage, established reserves and other resources, the Company does not believe that any such actions, proceedings or investigations are likely to be, individually or in the aggregate, material to its business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. However, in the event of unexpected further developments, it is possible that the ultimate resolution of these matters, or other similar matters, if unfavorable, may be materially adverse to the Company's business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.
______________________________________

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Information About Our Executive Officers
Our executive officers as of November 26, 2019 are as follows:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
With Aramark Since
John J. Zillmer
 
64
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
2019
Stephen P. Bramlage, Jr.
 
49
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
2015
Lynn B. McKee
 
64
 
Executive Vice President, Human Resources
 
1980
Lauren A. Harrington
 
44
 
Senior Vice President and General Counsel
 
2006
Keith Bethel
 
52
 
Chief Growth Officer
 
1991
Marc A. Bruno
 
48
 
Chief Operating Office, U.S. Food and Facilities
 
1993
John J. Zillmer was appointed Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board in October 2019. Prior to joining us, Mr. Zillmer served as Chief Executive Officer and Executive Chairman of Univar from 2009 to 2012. Prior to that, he served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Allied Waste Industries from 2005 to 2008 and various positions at Aramark, including Vice President of Operating Systems, Regional Vice President, Area Vice President, Executive Vice President Business Dining Services, President of Business Services Group, President of International and President of Global Food and Support Services, from 1986 to 2005. Mr. Zillmer serves on the board of directors as Non-Executive Chairman of CSX Corporation, as well as board of directors of Veritiv Corporation and Ecolab, Inc. Mr. Zillmer was formerly on the board of directors of Performance Food Group (PFG) Company, Inc. and Reynolds American Inc.
Stephen P. Bramlage, Jr. was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in April 2015. Prior to joining us, Mr. Bramlage served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Owens-Illinois, Inc. from 2012 to March 2015. Prior to that, he served as President of Owens-Illinois Asia Pacific from 2011 to 2012; General Manager of Owens-Illinois New Zealand from 2010 to 2011; Vice President of Finance of Owens-Illinois, Inc. from 2008 to 2010; Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Owens-Illinois Europe in 2008; and Vice President and Treasurer of Owens-Illinois, Inc. from 2006 to 2008.
Lynn B. McKee was appointed Executive Vice President, Human Resources in May 2004. From August 2012 to August 2013, Ms. McKee served as Executive Vice President, Human Resources and Communications. From January 2004 to May 2004, Ms. McKee served as our Senior Vice President of Human Resources and from 2001 to 2003, she served as Senior Vice President of Human Resources for our Food and Support Services Group. From 1998 to 2001, she served as our Staff Vice President, Executive Development and Compensation. Ms. McKee serves on the board of directors of Bryn Mawr Bank Co.
Lauren A. Harrington was appointed Senior Vice President and General Counsel in March 2019. From August 2009 to March 2019, Ms. Harrington served as Vice President and Associate General Counsel and from May 2006 to August 2009, she served as Assistant General Counsel. Before joining us, Ms. Harrington was an Associate at WilmerHale LLP.
Keith Bethel was appointed Chief Growth Officer in October 2016. From June 2016 to September 2016, Mr. Bethel served as Executive Vice President, Growth for Facilities, Healthcare and Higher Education, and from October 2013 to May 2016, he served as Executive Vice President, Growth for Higher Education. From February 2011 to October 2013, Mr. Bethel served as Regional Vice President, East for Higher Education. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Compliance for K-12 from 2009 to 2011 and various other positions for our Healthcare Group, including Vice President Operations, District Manager, General Manager, Assistant Director, Retail Manager and Catering Manager, from 1991 to 2009.
Marc A. Bruno was appointed Chief Operating Officer, U.S. Food and Facilities on November 19, 2019.  From 2018 to November 2019, Mr. Bruno served as Chief Operating Officer, Sports, Leisure, Corrections, Facilities and K-12.  From 2014 to 2018, Mr. Bruno served as Chief Operating Officer, Sports, Leisure and Corrections.  From 2008 to 2014, he served as President, Sports and Entertainment, and prior to that he served in various other positions within our food and support services business from 1993 to 2008.  Mr. Bruno serves on the board of directors of United Rentals Inc.


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PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Shares of our common stock began trading on December 12, 2013 and are quoted on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the ticker symbol “ARMK.” Prior to that date, there was no public market for our common stock. As of November 22, 2019, there were approximately 1,021 holders of record of our outstanding common stock. This does not include persons who hold our common stock in nominee or “street name” accounts through brokers or banks.
Stock Price Performance
This performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing of Aramark under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
The following graph shows a comparison from October 3, 2014, the last trading day of fiscal 2014, through September 27, 2019 of the cumulative total return for our common stock, The Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) 500 Stock Index and The Dow Jones Consumer Non-Cyclical Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in the Company’s common stock and in each index at the market close on October 3, 2014 and assumes that all dividends were reinvested. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
chart-6541dadbe973560581e.jpg
 
October 3, 2014
 
October 2, 2015
 
September 30, 2016
 
September 29, 2017
 
September 28, 2018
 
September 27, 2019
Aramark

$100.0

 

$116.6

 

$143.8

 

$153.6

 

$162.7

 

$162.7

S&P 500

$100.0

 

$102.9

 

$110.2

 

$128.0

 

$148.1

 

$150.5

Dow Jones Consumer Non-Cyclical Index

$100.0

 

$115.2

 

$117.9

 

$131.8

 

$169.9

 

$171.7

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the fiscal year ended September 27, 2019 which have not been previously disclosed in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q or a current report on Form 8-K.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
There were no repurchases of equity securities by the Company in the fourth fiscal quarter ended September 27, 2019.

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Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data. This information should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Risk Factors sections, each included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
 
Fiscal Year Ended on or near
September 30(1)
 
 
2019(2)(3)
 
2018(3)(4)
 
2017(4)
 
2016(4)
 
2015(4)
Income Statement Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
 
$
16,227.3

 
$
15,789.6

 
$
14,604.4

 
$
14,415.8

 
$
14,329.1

Depreciation and amortization
 
592.6

 
596.2

 
508.2

 
495.8

 
504.0

Operating income
 
891.2

 
818.4

 
801.6

 
741.4

 
625.2

Interest and Other Financing Costs, net
 
335.0

 
346.6

 
280.9

 
310.5

 
283.2

Net income(5)
 
448.5

 
568.4

 
374.2

 
288.2

 
237.0

Net income attributable to Aramark stockholders(5)
 
448.5

 
567.9

 
373.9

 
287.8

 
235.9

Basic earnings per share attributable to Aramark stockholders(5)
 

$1.82

 

$2.31

 

$1.53

 

$1.19

 

$0.99

Diluted earnings per share attributable to Aramark stockholders(5)
 

$1.78

 

$2.24

 

$1.49

 

$1.16

 

$0.96

Cash dividends declared per common share
 

$0.44

 

$0.43

 

$0.41

 

$0.39

 

$0.35

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Assets
 
$
13,736.3

 
$
13,720.1

 
$
11,006.2

 
$
10,582.1

 
$
10,196.4

Long-Term Borrowings
 
6,612.2

 
7,213.1

 
5,190.3

 
5,223.5

 
5,184.6

Stockholders' Equity
 
3,320.0

 
3,029.6

 
2,459.1

 
2,161.0

 
1,883.4

(1)
Our fiscal year ends on the Friday nearest to September 30th. Fiscal years 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015 refer to the fiscal years ended September 27, 2019, September 28, 2018, September 29, 2017, September 30, 2016 and October 2, 2015, respectively. All periods presented were fifty-two week years.
(2)
Includes impact of the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and the sale of our Healthcare Technologies business in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 (see Notes 7 and 2, respectively, to the audited consolidated financial statements).
(3)
Includes impact of the acquisitions of Avendra and AmeriPride. To finance these acquisitions, we entered into a U.S. dollar denominated term loan due 2025 and issued 5.000% Senior Notes due 2028.
(4)
Operating income and Interest and Other Financing Costs, net were restated to reflect the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (see Note 1 to the audited consolidated financial statements).
(5)
In fiscal 2018, the federal statutory income tax rate decreased from 35.0% to 21.0% through the passage of the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act." This resulted in a non cash tax benefit of approximately $237.8 million recorded in fiscal 2018 to the provision (benefit) for income taxes on the Consolidated Statements of Income.

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Item 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of Aramark's (the "Company, "we," "our" and "us") financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal years ended September 27, 2019 and September 28, 2018 should be read in conjunction with Selected Consolidated Financial Data and our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements. Discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended September 28, 2018 compared to the fiscal year ended September 29, 2017 is included under the heading Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Results of Operations - Fiscal 2018 Compared to Fiscal 2017 and - Liquidity and Capital Resources” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed for the fiscal year ended September 28, 2018 with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") on November 21, 2018.
Our discussion contains forward-looking statements, such as our plans, objectives, opinions, expectations, anticipations, intentions and beliefs, that are based upon our current expectations but that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in those forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors," "Special Note About Forward-looking Statements" and "Business" sections and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Annual Report"). In the following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations, certain financial measures may be considered “non-GAAP financial measures” under SEC rules. These rules require supplemental explanation and reconciliation, which is provided elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a leading global provider of food, facilities and uniform services to education, healthcare, business & industry and sports, leisure & corrections clients. Our core market is the United States, which is supplemented by an additional 18-country footprint. Through our established brand, broad geographic presence and employees, we anchor our business in our partnerships with thousands of education, healthcare, business, sports, leisure and corrections clients. Through these partnerships we serve millions of consumers including students, patients, employees, sports fans and guests worldwide.
We operate our business in three reportable segments:
Food and Support Services United States ("FSS United States") - Food, refreshment, specialized dietary and support services, including facility maintenance and housekeeping, provided to business, educational and healthcare institutions and in sports, leisure and other facilities serving the general public in the United States.
Food and Support Services International ("FSS International") - Food, refreshment, specialized dietary and support services, including facility maintenance and housekeeping, provided to business, educational and healthcare institutions and in sports, leisure and other facilities serving the general public. We have operations in 18 countries outside the United States. Our largest international operations are in Canada, Chile, China, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and in a majority of these countries we are one of the leading food and/or facility services providers. We also have operations in Japan through our 50% ownership of AIM Services Co., Ltd., which is a leader in providing outsourced food services in Japan.
Uniform and Career Apparel ("Uniform") - Provides a full service employee uniform solution, including design, sourcing and manufacturing, delivery, cleaning and maintenance on a contract basis. We directly market personalized uniforms and accessories, provide managed restroom services and rent uniforms, work clothing, outerwear, particulate-free garments and non-garment items and related services, including mats, shop towels and first aid supplies, to clients in a wide range of industries in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and through a joint venture in Japan, including the manufacturing, transportation, construction, restaurant and hotel, healthcare and pharmaceutical industries.
Our Food and Support Services operations focus on serving clients in five principal sectors: Business & Industry, Education, Healthcare, Sports, Leisure & Corrections and Facilities & Other. Our FSS International reportable segment provides a similar range of services as those provided to our FSS United States clients and operates in the same sectors. Administrative expenses not allocated to our three reportable segments are presented separately as corporate expenses.
During fiscal 2018, we acquired Avendra, LLC ("Avendra") and AmeriPride Services, Inc. ("AmeriPride") in separate transactions (see Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements). The Avendra acquisition consideration was $1,386.4 million, partially offset by $87.3 million of cash and restricted investments acquired. The AmeriPride acquisition consideration was $995.4 million, partially offset by $84.9 million of cash acquired. We incurred new debt to finance both the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions. Our earnings have been impacted and we expect to continue to be impacted for some period following

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the closings as a result of these acquisitions, due to, among other factors, merger and integration costs as well as depreciation and amortization resulting from purchase accounting and higher interest expense as a result of the new debt to finance the transactions. As a part of the integration of Avendra and AmeriPride, we have incurred $92 million of charges and expect to incur approximately $25 million to $30 million of additional charges over the next 12 months.
In the second quarter of fiscal 2018, we launched the next phase of our program related to food, labor and selling and general administrative initiatives to generate additional cost savings. These initiatives include a reduction in headcount through reorganization and integration. Efforts related to this phase have resulted in charges of approximately $46 million during fiscal 2019, which includes $8.2 million for the relocation of our headquarters facility. The Company completed this cost savings phase as of September 27, 2019.
On August 26, 2019, we announced that Eric J. Foss stepped down from his role as Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, effective as of August 25, 2019. We recognized $12.1 million of charges related to his separation from us, of which $10.4 million related to cash compensation. These amounts are expected to be paid through fiscal 2021.
Divestiture
On November 9, 2018, we completed the sale of our wholly-owned Healthcare Technologies ("HCT") business for $293.7 million in cash. The transaction resulted in a pretax gain of $156.3 million (tax effected gain of $139.2 million) in the audited Consolidated Statements of Income for the fiscal year ended September 27, 2019. We evaluated the business under the rules for discontinued operations and concluded it did not meet all of the criteria required.
Seasonality
Our revenue and operating results have varied from quarter to quarter as a result of different factors. Historically, within our FSS United States segment, there has been a lower level of activity during our first and second fiscal quarters in operations that provide services to sports and leisure clients. This lower level of activity, historically, has been partially offset during our first and second fiscal quarters by the increased activity levels in our educational operations. Conversely, historically there has been a significant increase in the provision of services to sports and leisure clients during our third and fourth fiscal quarters, which is partially offset by the effect of summer recess at colleges, universities and schools in our educational operations.
Sources of Revenue
Our clients engage us, generally through written contracts, to provide our services at their locations. Depending on the type of client and service, we are paid either by our client or directly by the consumer to whom we have been provided access by our client. We typically use either profit and loss contracts or client interest contracts in our FSS United States and FSS International segments. These contracts differ in their provision for the amount of financial risk we bear and, accordingly, the potential compensation, profits or fees we may receive. Under profit and loss contracts, we receive all of the revenue from, and bear all of the expenses of, the provision of our services at a client location. For fiscal 2019, approximately two-thirds of our FSS United States and FSS International segment revenue was derived from profit and loss contracts. Client interest contracts include management fee contracts, under which our clients reimburse our operating costs and pay us a management fee, which may be calculated as a fixed dollar amount or a percentage of revenue or operating costs. Some management fee contracts entitle us to receive incentive fees based upon our performance under the contract, as measured by factors such as revenue, operating costs and customer satisfaction surveys. For fiscal 2019, approximately one-third of our FSS United States and FSS International segment revenue was derived from client interest contracts.
For our Uniform segment, we typically serve our rental clients under written service contracts for an initial term of three to five years. As the majority of our clients purchase on a recurring basis, our backlog of orders at any given time consists principally of orders in the process of being filled. With the exception of certain governmental bid business, most of our direct marketing business is conducted under invoice arrangement with repeat clients. To a large degree, our direct marketing business is relationship-driven. While we have long-term relationships with our larger clients, we generally do not have contracts with these clients.
Costs and Expenses
Our costs and expenses are comprised of cost of services provided, depreciation and amortization and selling and general corporate expenses. Cost of services provided consists of direct expenses associated with our operations, which includes food costs, wages, other labor-related expenses (including workers' compensation, state unemployment insurance and federal or state mandated health benefits and other healthcare costs), insurance, fuel, utilities, piece goods and clothing and equipment. Depreciation and amortization expenses mainly relate to assets used in generating revenue. Selling and general corporate expenses include sales commissions, share-based compensation and other unallocated costs related to administrative functions including finance, legal, human resources and information technology.

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Interest and Other Financing Costs, net
Interest and other financing costs, net, relates primarily to interest expense on long-term borrowings. Interest and other financing costs, net also includes third-party costs associated with long-term borrowings that were capitalized and are being amortized over the term of the borrowing.
Provision for Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes represents federal, foreign, state and local income taxes. Our effective tax rate differs from the statutory U.S. income tax rate due to the effect of state and local income taxes, tax rates in foreign jurisdictions, tax credits and certain nondeductible expenses. Our effective tax rate will change from quarter to quarter based on recurring and nonrecurring factors including, but not limited to, the geographical mix of earnings, state and local income taxes, tax audit settlements, share-based award exercise activity and enacted tax legislation, including certain business tax credits. Both the fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018 income tax provisions were impacted by U.S. tax reform enacted in the "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" (see Note 9 to the audited consolidated financial statements). Changes in judgment due to the evaluation of new information resulting in the recognition, derecognition or remeasurement of a tax position taken in a prior annual period are recognized separately in the quarter of the change.
Foreign Currency Fluctuations
The impact from foreign currency translation assumes constant foreign currency exchange rates based on the rates in effect for the prior year period being used in translation for the comparable current year period. We believe that providing the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency rates on certain financial results can facilitate analysis of period-to-period comparisons of business performance.
Fiscal Year
Our fiscal year is the fifty-two or fifty-three week period which ends on the Friday nearest to September 30th. The fiscal years ended September 27, 2019 and September 28, 2018 are both fifty-two week periods.

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Results of Operations
Fiscal 2019 Compared to Fiscal 2018
The following tables present an overview of our results on a consolidated and segment basis with the amount of and percentage change between periods for the fiscal years 2019 and 2018 (dollars in millions).
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
 
$
 
%
Revenue
 
$
16,227.3

 
$
15,789.6

 
$
437.7

 
3
 %
Costs and Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services provided
 
14,532.7

 
13,997.9

 
534.8

 
4
 %
Other operating expenses
 
959.7

 
973.3

 
(13.6
)
 
(1
)%
Gain on sale of Healthcare Technologies
 
(156.3
)
 

 
(156.3
)
 
 %
 
 
15,336.1

 
14,971.2

 
364.9

 
2
 %
Operating income
 
891.2

 
818.4

 
72.8

 
9
 %
Interest and Other Financing Costs, net
 
335.0

 
346.6

 
(11.6
)
 
(3
)%
Income Before Income Taxes
 
556.2

 
471.8

 
84.4

 
18
 %
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
 
107.7

 
(96.6
)
 
204.3

 
(212
)%
Net income
 
$
448.5

 
$
568.4

 
$
(119.9
)
 
(21
)%
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
 
 
 
Revenue by Segment(1)
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
 
$
 
%
FSS United States
 
$
9,898.6

 
$
10,137.8

 
$
(239.2
)
 
(2
%)
FSS International
 
3,742.9

 
3,655.8

 
87.1

 
2
%
Uniform
 
2,585.8

 
1,996.0

 
589.8

 
30
%
 
 
$
16,227.3

 
$
15,789.6

 
$
437.7

 
3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
 
Operating Income by Segment(1)
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
 
$
 
%
FSS United States
 
$
716.8

 
$
682.7

 
$
34.1

 
5
%
FSS International
 
142.7

 
142.2

 
0.5

 
%
Uniform
 
191.3

 
181.4

 
9.9

 
5
%
Corporate
 
(159.6
)
 
(187.9
)
 
28.3

 
(15
%)
 
 
$
891.2

 
$
818.4

 
$
72.8

 
9
%
(1) As a percentage of total revenue, FSS United States represented 61% and 64%, FSS International represented 23% and 23% and Uniform represented 16% and 13% for fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018, respectively. The fiscal 2019 percentages were impacted by the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 606 (see Note 7 to the audited consolidated financial statements). Revenue and operating income in fiscal 2019 for the FSS United States segment were also impacted by the sale of HCT in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 (see Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements). Fiscal 2018 operating income was impacted by the adoption of ASU 2017-07, Compensation - Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost (see Note 1 to the audited consolidated financial statements).
Consolidated Overview
Revenue increased by approximately 3% during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase was attributable to:
growth in our FSS International segment (approximately 2%) and our Uniform segment (approximately 1%);
growth in the Sports, Leisure & Corrections sector in our FSS United States segment (approximately 1%);
the adoption of the new revenue recognition standard mainly from certain fees previously recognized as a reduction to “Cost of services provided,” that are now recognized in “Revenue" in our Uniform segment (approximately 2%); and
growth due to the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions (approximately 1%); which more than offset
the effect of the divestiture of HCT (approximately -2%); and
the negative impact of foreign currency translation (approximately -2%).

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The following table presents the cost of services provided by segment and as a percent of revenue for the fiscal years ended September 27, 2019 and September 28, 2018.
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
Cost of services provided
 
$
 
% of Revenue
 
$
 
% of Revenue
FSS United States
 
$
8,851.5

 
89
%
 
$
8,956.9

 
88
%
FSS International
 
3,517.1

 
94
%
 
3,428.8

 
94
%
Uniform
 
2,164.1

 
84
%
 
1,612.2

 
81
%
 
 
$
14,532.7

 
90
%
 
$
13,997.9

 
89
%
The following table presents the percentages attributable to the components in cost of services provided for fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018.
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
Cost of services provided components
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
Food and support service costs
 
28
%
 
26
%
Personnel costs
 
47
%
 
47
%
Other direct costs
 
25
%
 
27
%
 
 
100
%
 
100
%
Operating income increased by approximately $72.8 million during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase in operating income was attributable to:
a gain from the divestiture of the HCT business (approximately $156.3 million);
an increase in profit related to the acquisitions of Avendra and AmeriPride and lower merger and integration costs (approximately $41.1 million);
a decrease in share-based compensation expense primarily related to an increase in the prior year actual and expected attainment percentages related to the fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2017 Performance Stock Unit ("PSU") grants, respectively, and a decrease in the actual and expected attainment percentages in the current year related to the fiscal 2017 and fiscal 2018 PSU grants, respectively, (approximately $33.0 million);
lower severance and consulting costs related to streamlining initiatives (approximately $22.2 million);
an increase in profit in the Sports, Leisure and Corrections sector in our FSS United States segment, including income relating to the recovery of our investment (possessory interest) at one of the National Park Service ("NPS") sites (approximately $16.2 million); partially offset by
higher personnel costs, including employee incentive expenses related to the annual bonus (approximately $87.6 million) and employer retirement matching contributions (approximately $12.4 million) and expenses for employee reinvestments funded by benefits from U.S. tax reform (approximately $74.9 million);
profit decline in the Business & Industry sector and from the divestiture of HCT (approximately $30.2 million);
charges related to certain legal settlements (approximately $27.9 million);
non cash impairment charges related to various assets (approximately $14.8 million);
cash compensation charges related to the retirement of our former chief executive officer (approximately $10.4 million);
closing costs mainly related to customer contracts within our FSS International segment (approximately $10.3 million); and
advisory, legal and other professional fees related to the Mantle Ridge Group (approximately $7.7 million).
Interest and Other Financing Costs, net, decreased 3% during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The decrease for fiscal 2019 was primarily due to lower refinancing activity expenses compared to fiscal 2018 of $15.6 million and an increase in favorable returns on our interest rate swaps of $11.7 million, partially offset by higher borrowings from the financing in fiscal 2018 for the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions.

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The effective income tax rate for fiscal 2019 was 19.4% compared to (20.5)% in the prior year. The increase in the effective tax rate in fiscal 2019 was driven by prior year one-time benefits resulting from a reduction in the U.S. federal statutory rate from 35% to 21% and the re-measurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities as a result of the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act." A non cash benefit of approximately $237.8 million was recorded to the provision (benefit) for income taxes for fiscal 2018 in the Consolidated Statements of Income as a result of U.S. tax reform, the impact of certain permanently reinvested foreign earnings and certain other tax adjustments. The effective tax rate for fiscal 2019 also includes a tax benefit of approximately $10.4 million, mainly as a result of U.S. tax reform (see Note 9 to the audited consolidated financial statements) and a $17 million tax provision related to the sale of HCT (see Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements).
Segment Results
FSS United States Segment
The FSS United States reportable segment consists of five sectors which have similar economic characteristics and are aggregated into a single operating segment. The five sectors of the FSS United States reportable segment are Business & Industry, Education, Healthcare, Sports, Leisure & Corrections and Facilities & Other.
Revenue for each of these sectors is summarized as follows (in millions):
 
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
Change
 
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
 
%
Business & Industry
 
$
1,587.0

 
$
1,550.6

 
2
 %
Education
 
3,228.8

 
3,239.6

 
 %
Healthcare
 
933.5

 
1,292.1

 
(28
)%
Sports, Leisure & Corrections
 
2,557.5

 
2,445.1

 
5
 %
Facilities & Other
 
1,591.8

 
1,610.4

 
(1
)%
 
 
$
9,898.6

 
$
10,137.8

 
(2
)%
The Healthcare, Education and Facilities & Other sectors generally have high-single digit operating income margins and the Business & Industry and Sports, Leisure & Corrections sectors generally have mid-single digit operating income margins.
FSS United States segment revenue decreased by approximately 2% during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The decrease was attributable to:
a decrease in Healthcare sector revenue resulting from the divestiture of HCT (approximately -29% of Healthcare sector); and
a decrease in Facilities & Other sector revenue resulting from a decline in base business within our facilities business; which more than offset
an increase in Sports, Leisure & Corrections sector revenue resulting from new business and base business growth in stadiums and arenas; and
an increase in Business & Industry sector revenue resulting from new business and base business growth.
Operating income increased by approximately $34.1 million during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase in operating income was attributable to:
a gain from the divestiture of the HCT business (approximately $156.3 million);
an increase in profit in the Sports, Leisure and Corrections sector, including income relating to the recovery of our investment (possessory interest) at one of the NPS sites (approximately $16.2 million);
lower severance charges related to streamlining initiatives (approximately $9.3 million); and
an increase in profit related to the acquisition of Avendra and lower merger and integration costs (approximately $7.9 million); which more than offset
higher personnel costs, including employee incentive expenses related to the annual bonus (approximately $45.0 million) and employer retirement matching contributions (approximately $7.8 million) and expenses for employee reinvestments funded by benefits from U.S. tax reform (approximately $58.7 million);
profit decline in the Business & Industry sector and from the divestiture of HCT (approximately $30.2 million);
charges related to certain legal settlements (approximately $11.1 million); and

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non cash impairment charges related to various assets ($11.1 million).
Revenue and operating income were both negatively impacted during fiscal 2018 by natural disasters, specifically the wildfires at Yosemite National Park. The impact to the FSS United States segment was an approximate $28 million decline in revenue and an approximate $9 million decline in operating income, which includes $5 million of recoveries under our insurance program.
FSS International Segment
FSS International segment revenue increased by approximately 2% during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase was attributable to:
revenue growth across all regions; partially offset by
the negative impact of foreign currency translation (approximately 7%).
During fiscal 2019, the consolidation of a joint venture contributed approximately 1% revenue growth.
Operating income increased by approximately $0.5 million during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase in operating income was attributable to:
profit growth in Germany, Canada, China, South America and our 50% joint venture ownership in AIM Services Co. Ltd. in Japan;
prior year charges related to a joint venture partner liquidation and related acquisition (approximately $7.5 million); and
lower severance costs related to streamlining initiatives (approximately $4.3 million); partially offset by
higher personnel costs, including employee incentive expenses related to the annual bonus (approximately $24.4 million);
closing costs mainly related to customer contracts (approximately $10.3 million); and
the negative impact of foreign currency translation (approximately $3.4 million).
Uniform Segment
Uniform segment revenue increased by approximately 30% during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase was primarily from the adoption of the new revenue recognition standard mainly from certain fees previously recognized as a reduction to “Cost of services provided” that are now recognized in “Revenue” (approximately 19%) and growth within our uniform rental business. The acquisition of AmeriPride contributed approximately 8% to revenue growth in fiscal 2019.
Operating income increased by approximately $9.9 million during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The increase in operating income was attributable to:
profit growth related to the acquisition of AmeriPride and our legacy uniform rental business;
lower merger and integration related costs from the AmeriPride acquisition (approximately $8.0 million); and
a prior year environmental reserve related to a reassessment of the monitoring period of respective sites (approximately $5.0 million); which more than offset
higher personnel costs, including employee incentive expenses related to the annual bonus ($13.6 million) and employer retirement matching contributions (approximately $4.7 million) and expenses for employee reinvestments funded by benefits from U.S. tax reform (approximately $14.4 million);
charges related to certain legal settlements (approximately $5.1 million);
non cash impairment charges (approximately $3.7 million); and
income received in fiscal 2018 as a result of favorable loss experience in older insurance years under our casualty insurance program (approximately $3.4 million).
Corporate
Corporate expenses, those administrative expenses not allocated to the business segments, decreased by approximately $28.3 million during fiscal 2019 compared to the prior year period. The decrease was attributable to:
a decrease in share-based compensation expense primarily related to an increase in the prior year actual and expected attainment percentages related to the fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2017 PSU grants, respectively, and a decrease in the actual

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and expected attainment percentages in the current year related to the fiscal 2017 and fiscal 2018 PSU grants, respectively, (approximately $33.0 million);
lower acquisition related costs from the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions (approximately $25.3 million); and
lower consulting costs (approximately $5.8 million); partially offset by
charges related to certain legal settlements (approximately $11.7 million);
cash compensation charges related to the retirement of our former chief executive officer (approximately $10.4 million);
advisory, legal and other professional fees related to the Mantle Ridge Group (approximately $7.7 million);
banker fees related to the divestiture of HCT (approximately $6.1 million);
higher personnel costs, including employee incentive expenses related to the annual bonus (approximately $4.6 million) and expenses for employee reinvestments funded by benefits from U.S. tax reform (approximately $1.4 million); and
the change in fair value of certain gasoline and diesel agreements (a loss of approximately $5.0 million).
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
Our principal sources of liquidity are cash generated from operating activities, funds from borrowings and existing cash on hand. As of September 27, 2019, we had $246.6 million of cash and cash equivalents and approximately $897.8 million of availability under our senior secured revolving credit facility. A significant portion of our cash and cash equivalents is held in mature, liquid geographies where we have operations. As of September 27, 2019, there was approximately $881.9 million of outstanding foreign currency borrowings.
We believe that our cash generated from operations, cash and cash equivalents and the unused portion of our committed credit availability under the senior secured revolving credit facility will be adequate to meet anticipated cash requirements to fund working capital, capital spending, debt service obligations, refinancings, dividends and other cash needs. As part of our ongoing liquidity assessments, we routinely monitor our cash flow (including the mix of domestic and international inflows and outflows) and the condition of the capital markets in order to be prepared to respond to changing conditions.
On February 5, 2019, we announced as a result of tax savings from U.S. tax reform that we would invest $90 million in our workforce through targeted wage adjustments, retirement contributions and special recognition awards, as well as employee training programs and scholarships. We funded a majority of these investments during fiscal 2019, of which $62.5 million was paid in special recognition awards and employee training programs. We have $12.4 million of accrued retirement contributions in the audited Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 27, 2019, which are expected to be paid during the first quarter of fiscal 2020. We expect to spend approximately $10 million during fiscal 2020 related to the investment in our workforce.
The table below summarizes our cash activity (in millions):
 
Fiscal Year Ended
 
September 27, 2019
 
September 28, 2018
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
984.2

 
$
1,051.9

Net cash used in investing activities
(209.5
)
 
(2,865.3
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(734.9
)
 
1,794.2

Reference to the audited Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows will facilitate understanding of the discussion that follows.
Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
During fiscal 2019, as discussed in "Results of Operations" above, net income and non cash charges decreased during fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018. Fiscal 2019 was impacted by the gain from the divestiture of the HCT business of approximately $139.2 million, partially offset by $74.9 million of employee reinvestments from U.S. tax reform. Fiscal 2018 includes the non cash benefit of approximately $237.8 million recorded to the provision (benefit) to income taxes. The decrease in cash flows provided by operating activities was partially offset by the favorable change in operating assets and liabilities ($173.2 million). The change in operating assets and liabilities compared to the prior year period was primarily due to the following:
Accrued expenses were a source of cash in fiscal 2019 compared to a use of cash in fiscal 2018 primarily due to higher accruals related to the annual bonus, legal settlements and payroll and benefits and the timing of deferred income and

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one-time payments made during fiscal 2018 for certain liabilities assumed related to the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions, partially offset by the timing of insurance and interest payments;
Prepayments were a greater use of cash due to the timing of income tax payments; and
Accounts receivable were a greater use of cash due to the timing of collections and revenue growth.
During fiscal 2019, we paid approximately $62.5 million of special recognition awards and employee training costs funded by benefits from U.S. tax reform. The Company also received income of approximately $14.6 million related to favorable loss experience in older insurance years under our casualty insurance program. We received approximately $18.9 million of comparable proceeds under our casualty insurance program during fiscal 2018. During fiscal 2018, we incurred approximately $58.2 million of acquisition related costs related to Avendra and AmeriPride. As a result of the adoption of the new revenue recognition standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2019, certain payments made to our clients, previously included within "Purchases of property and equipment and other" in Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities, are now included within "Payments made to clients on contracts" in Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities. These client payments were approximately $40.1 million during fiscal 2019. The "Changes in other assets" caption was a greater use of cash during fiscal 2019 mainly from the change in our 50% ownership interest in AIM Services Co., Ltd., as cash distributions received were higher during fiscal 2018 by $25.2 million. The "Other operating activities" caption in both periods reflects adjustments to net income related to non-operating gains and losses.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
The decrease in net cash flows used in investing activities during fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 relates primarily to the proceeds from the sale of HCT in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 of $293.7 million, lower levels of capital expenditures and lower spending for acquisitions for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018, which included the Avendra and AmeriPride acquisitions. The "Proceeds from governmental agencies related to property and equipment" caption includes $16.2 million of proceeds relating to the recovery of our investment (possessory interest) at one of the NPS sites within our Sports, Leisure & Corrections sector and $6.8 million of proceeds from government grants related to our new headquarters.
Cash Flows Provided by (Used In) Financing Activities
During fiscal 2019, cash used by financing activities was impacted by $500.0 million of optional prepayments on term loans borrowings, of which $200.0 million was from the proceeds of the HCT divestiture.
During fiscal 2018, cash provided by financing activities was impacted by the following:
issuance of a new $1.785 billion U.S. Term Loan B due 2025;
issuance of $1.150 billion aggregate principal amount of 5.000% senior unsecured notes due 2028;
repayment of the U.S. dollar denominated term loan to Aramark Services, Inc. ("ASI") due 2022 ($633.8 million of principal);
repayment of borrowings on term loans ($302.6 million, which includes $260.4 million of optional prepayments);
decline in funding under the Receivables Facility ($254.2 million); and
payment of fees related to the U.S. Term Loan B due 2025 and the 5.000% senior unsecured notes due 2028 (approximately $24.7 million).
On August 6, 2019, the Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program providing for purchases up to $200.0 million of Aramark common stock through July 2022. We may utilize various methods to effect repurchases of our common stock under the repurchase program, which could include open market repurchases, privately negotiated transactions, block transactions, accelerated share repurchase or open market solicitations for shares, some of which may be effected through Rule 10b5-1 plans. Repurchases will be made based on ongoing assessments of the capital needs of the business, the market price of our common stock and general market conditions. The program may be suspended or discontinued at any time.
During fiscal 2017, the Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program providing for purchases of up to $250.0 million of Aramark common stock, which expired February 1, 2019. During fiscal 2019, we completed a repurchase of 1.6 million shares of our common stock for $50.0 million under this program. During fiscal 2018, we completed a repurchase of 0.6 million shares of our common stock for $24.4 million.
The "Other financing activities" caption also reflects a use of cash during fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2018, primarily related to taxes paid by us when we withhold shares upon an employee's exercise or vesting of equity awards to cover income taxes.
We intend to continue to pay cash dividends on our common stock, subject to our compliance with applicable law, and depending on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, level of indebtedness, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, restrictions in our debt agreements, business prospects and other factors that our Board of Directors

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may deem relevant. However, the payment of any future dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and our Board of Directors may, at any time, determine not to continue to declare quarterly dividends.
Covenant Compliance
The Credit Agreement contains a number of covenants that, among other things, restrict, subject to certain exceptions, our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to: incur additional indebtedness; issue preferred stock or provide guarantees; create liens on assets; engage in mergers or consolidations; sell assets; pay dividends, make distributions or repurchase our capital stock; make investments, loans or advances; repay or repurchase any subordinated debt, except as scheduled or at maturity; create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our restricted subsidiaries; make certain acquisitions; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; amend material agreements governing our subordinated debt (or any indebtedness that refinances our subordinated debt); and fundamentally change our business. The indentures governing our senior notes contain similar provisions. As of September 27, 2019, we were in compliance with these covenants.
As stated above, the Credit Agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes contain provisions that restrict our ability to pay dividends and repurchase stock (collectively, "Restricted Payments"). In addition to customary exceptions, the Credit Agreement and indentures permit Restricted Payments in the aggregate up to an amount that increases quarterly by 50% of our Consolidated Net Income, as such term is defined in these debt agreements, subject to being in compliance with the interest coverage ratio described below.
Under the Credit Agreement, we are required to satisfy and maintain specified financial ratios and other financial condition tests and covenants. The indentures governing our senior notes also require us to comply with certain financial ratios in order to take certain actions. Our continued ability to meet those financial ratios, tests and covenants can be affected by events beyond our control, and there can be no assurance that we will meet those ratios, tests and covenants.
These financial ratios, tests and covenants involve the calculation of certain measures that we refer to in this discussion as "Covenant Adjusted EBITDA." Covenant Adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of financial performance under U.S. GAAP. Covenant Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) of ASI. and its restricted subsidiaries plus interest and other financing costs, net, provision (benefit) for income taxes, and depreciation and amortization, further adjusted to give effect to adjustments required in calculating covenant ratios and compliance under our Credit Agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes.
Our presentation of these measures has limitations as an analytical tool, and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. You should not consider these measures as alternatives to net income or operating income determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Covenant Adjusted EBITDA, as presented by us, may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies because not all companies use identical calculations.
The following is a reconciliation of net income attributable to ASI stockholder, which is a U.S. GAAP measure of Aramark Services, Inc.'s operating results, to Covenant Adjusted EBITDA as defined in our debt agreements. The terms and related calculations are defined in the Credit Agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes. Covenant Adjusted EBITDA is a measure of ASI and its restricted subsidiaries only and does not include the results of Aramark.