0001104659-21-143397.txt : 20211124 0001104659-21-143397.hdr.sgml : 20211124 20211124112508 ACCESSION NUMBER: 0001104659-21-143397 CONFORMED SUBMISSION TYPE: 485BPOS PUBLIC DOCUMENT COUNT: 50 FILED AS OF DATE: 20211124 DATE AS OF CHANGE: 20211124 EFFECTIVENESS DATE: 20211130 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Ark ETF Trust CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001579982 IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 0831 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 485BPOS SEC ACT: 1940 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 811-22883 FILM NUMBER: 211443144 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 155 WEST 19TH STREET, FIFTH FLOOR CITY: NEW YORK STATE: NY ZIP: 10011 BUSINESS PHONE: 212.426.7040 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 155 WEST 19TH STREET, FIFTH FLOOR CITY: NEW YORK STATE: NY ZIP: 10011 FILER: COMPANY DATA: COMPANY CONFORMED NAME: Ark ETF Trust CENTRAL INDEX KEY: 0001579982 IRS NUMBER: 000000000 STATE OF INCORPORATION: DE FISCAL YEAR END: 0831 FILING VALUES: FORM TYPE: 485BPOS SEC ACT: 1933 Act SEC FILE NUMBER: 333-191019 FILM NUMBER: 211443143 BUSINESS ADDRESS: STREET 1: 155 WEST 19TH STREET, FIFTH FLOOR CITY: NEW YORK STATE: NY ZIP: 10011 BUSINESS PHONE: 212.426.7040 MAIL ADDRESS: STREET 1: 155 WEST 19TH STREET, FIFTH FLOOR CITY: NEW YORK STATE: NY ZIP: 10011 0001579982 S000042975 ARK Genomic Revolution ETF C000133119 ARK Genomic Revolution ETF ARKG 0001579982 S000042976 ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF C000133120 ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF ARKQ 0001579982 S000042977 ARK Innovation ETF C000133121 ARK Innovation ETF ARKK 0001579982 S000042978 ARK Next Generation Internet ETF C000133122 ARK Next Generation Internet ETF ARKW 0001579982 S000052298 The 3D Printing ETF C000164426 The 3D Printing ETF PRNT 0001579982 S000052299 ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF C000164427 ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF IZRL 0001579982 S000064752 ARK Fintech Innovation ETF C000209702 ARK Fintech Innovation ETF ARKF 0001579982 S000071318 ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF C000226276 ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF ARKX 485BPOS 1 tm2133188-2_485bpos.htm 485BPOS

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 24, 2021

No. 333-191019

No. 811-22883

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM N-1A

 

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
  Pre-Effective Amendment No. 
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 30
and/or

 

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
  Amendment No. 35
  (Check appropriate box or boxes)  

 

ARK ETF Trust

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

c/o ARK Investment Management LLC
200 Central Avenue
Suite 1850
St. Petersburg, FL 33701

(Address of Principal Executive Office)

 

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code:  (212) 426-7040

 

  With a copy to With a copy to:
Corporation Service Company Kellen Carter, Esq. Allison Fumai, Esq.
2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400 Chief Compliance Officer Dechert LLP
Wilmington, DE 19808 ARK Investment Management LLC

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10036

(Name and Address of Agent for
Service)
200 Central Avenue
Suite 1850
 
St. Petersburg, FL 33701  

 

IT IS PROPOSED THAT THIS FILING WILL BECOME EFFECTIVE (CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX)

 

Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
  On November 30, 2021 pursuant to paragraph (b)
  60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  On _______________ pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
  75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
  On _______________ pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of rule 485

 

IF APPROPRIATE, CHECK THE FOLLOWING BOX:

 

  This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[MISSING IMAGE: lg_ark-bw.jpg]
Prospectus
November 30, 2021
ARK ETF Trust Thematic Actively-Managed ETFs
ETF
NYSE Arca, Inc.
Ticker Symbol
ARK Innovation ETF
ARKK
ARK Next Generation Internet ETF
ARKW
ARK Fintech Innovation ETF
ARKF
ETF
Cboe BZX
Exchange, Inc.
Ticker Symbol
ARK Genomic Revolution ETF
ARKG
ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF
ARKQ
ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF
ARKX
ARK ETF Trust Thematic Index ETFs
ETF
Cboe BZX
Exchange, Inc.
Ticker Symbol
The 3D Printing ETF
PRNT
ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF
IZRL
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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SUMMARY INFORMATION
ARK Innovation ETF (ARKK)
Investment Objective
The ARK Innovation ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.75%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“ARK” or “Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 77
3 $ 240
5 $ 417
10 $ 930
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 71% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 65% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of companies that are relevant to the Fund’s investment theme of disruptive innovation. The Adviser defines “disruptive innovation” as the introduction of a technologically enabled new product or service that potentially changes the way the world works. The Adviser believes that companies relevant to this theme are those that rely on or benefit from the development of new products or services, technological improvements and advancements in scientific research relating to the areas of genomics* (“Genomic Revolution Companies”); innovation in automation and manufacturing (“Automation Transformation Companies”), transportation, energy (“Energy Transformation Companies”), artificial intelligence (“Artificial Intelligence Companies”) and materials; the increased use of shared technology, infrastructure and services (“Next Generation Internet Companies”); and technologies that make financial services more efficient (“Fintech Innovation Companies”).
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are relevant to a particular investment theme, the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation or that are enabling the further development of a theme in the markets in which they operate. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries. The types of companies that the Adviser believes are Genomic Revolution Companies, Automation Transformation Companies, Energy Transformation Companies, Artificial Intelligence Companies, Next Generation Internet Companies or Fintech Innovation Companies are described below:

Genomic Revolution Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are substantially focused on and are expected to substantially benefit from extending and enhancing the quality of human and other life by incorporating technological and scientific developments, improvements and advancements in genomics into their business, such as by offering new products or services that rely on genomic sequencing,** analysis, synthesis or instrumentation. These companies may include ones across multiple sectors, such as healthcare, information technology, materials, energy and consumer discretionary. These companies may also develop, produce, manufacture or significantly rely on or enable bionic devices, bio-inspired computing, bioinformatics,*** molecular medicine and agricultural biotechnology.

Automation Transformation Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are focused on man capitalizing on the productivity of machines, such as through the automation of functions, processes or activities previously performed by human labor, such as transportation through an emphasis on mobility as a service, or the use of robotics to perform other functions, activities or processes.

Energy Transformation Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes seek to capitalize on innovations or evolutions in: (i) ways that energy is stored or used; (ii) the discovery, collection and/or implementation of new sources of energy, including unconventional sources of oil or natural gas; and/or (iii) the production or development of new materials for use in commercial applications of energy production, use or storage.

Artificial Intelligence Companies.   Companies that the Adviser considers to be Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) Companies include a company that: (i) designs, creates, integrates, or
*
The Adviser defines “genomics” as the study of genes and their functions, and related techniques (e.g., genomic sequencing).
**
The Adviser uses the term “genomic sequencing” to refer to techniques that allow researchers to read and decipher the genetic information found in the DNA (i.e., the exact sequence of bases A, C, G and T in a DNA molecule), including the DNA of bacteria, plants, animals and human beings.
***
The Adviser defines “bioinformatics” as the science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data such as genetic codes.
 
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delivers robotics, autonomous technology, and/or AI in the form of products, software, or systems; (ii) develops the building block components for robotics, autonomous technology, or AI, such as advanced machinery, semiconductors and databases used for machine learning; (iii) provides its own value-added services on top of such building block components, but are not core to the company’s product or service offering; and/or (iv) develops computer systems that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

Next Generation Internet Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are focused on and expected to benefit from shifting the bases of technology infrastructure from hardware and software to the cloud, enabling mobile and local services, such as companies that rely on or benefit from the increased use of shared technology, infrastructure and services. These companies may include mail order houses which generate the entirety of their business through websites and which offer internet-based products and services, such as streaming media or cloud storage in addition to traditional physical goods. These companies may also include ones that develop, use or rely on innovative payment methodologies, big data, the “internet of things*,” machine learning, and social distribution and media.

Fintech Innovation Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are focused on and expected to benefit from the shifting of the financial sector and economic transactions to technology infrastructure platforms, and technological intermediaries. Fintech Innovation Companies may also develop, use or rely on innovative payment platforms and methodologies, point of sale providers, e-commerce, transactional innovations, business analytics, fraud reduction, frictionless funding platforms, peer-to-peer lending, blockchain technologies,** intermediary exchanges, asset allocation technology, cryptocurrency,*** mobile payments, and risk pricing and pooling aggregators. The Fund may have exposure to cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, indirectly through an investment in a grantor trust. The Fund’s exposure to cryptocurrency may change over time and, accordingly, such exposure may not always be represented in the Fund’s portfolio.
The Adviser will select investments for the Fund that represent its highest-conviction investment ideas within the theme of disruptive innovation, as described above, in constructing the Fund’s portfolio. The Adviser’s process for identifying Genomic Revolution Companies, Automation Transformation Companies, Energy Transformation Companies, Artificial Intelligence Companies, Next Generation Internet Companies and Fintech Innovation Companies uses both “top down” (thematic research sizing the potential total available market, and surfacing the prime beneficiaries) and “bottom up” ​(valuation, fundamental and quantitative measures) approaches. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations
*
The Adviser defines the “internet of things” as a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, or physical objects that are provided unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
**
The term “blockchain” refers to a peer-to-peer distributed ledger that is secured using cryptography. A distributed ledger is a shared electronic database where information is recorded and stored across multiple computers; a blockchain is one type of distributed ledger. A blockchain may be open and permissionless or private and permissioned. The Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains are examples of open, public, permissionless blockchains.. Blockchain derives its name from the way it stores transaction data in “blocks” that are linked together to form a chain. As the number of transactions grows, so does the blockchain. Blocks record and confirm the time and sequence of transactions, which are then logged into the blockchain network, which is, with respect to public blockchains, governed by rules agreed on by the network participants.
***
Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin.
 
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into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities.
Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Communications Sector Risk.   The Fund will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Consumer Discretionary Risk.   The consumer discretionary sector may be affected by changes in domestic and international economies, exchange and interest rates, competition, consumers’ disposable income and consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns.
Cryptocurrency Risk.   Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is
 
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bitcoin. The Fund may have exposure to bitcoin indirectly through an investment in the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (“GBTC”), a privately offered, open-end investment vehicle that invests in bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government, corporation, or other entity. Cryptocurrency is not generally accepted as legal tender. Regulation of cryptocurrency is still developing. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the development, use, or exchange of cryptocurrency.
The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. The price of bitcoin could fall sharply (potentially to zero) for various reasons, including, but not limited to, regulatory changes, issues impacting the bitcoin network, events involving entities that facilitate transactions in bitcoin, or changes in user preferences in favor of alternative cryptocurrencies. Furthermore, events that impact one cryptocurrency may lead to a decline in the value of other cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated. Therefore, cryptocurrency exchanges may be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges may not have the same features as traditional exchanges to enhance the stability of trading on the exchange, such as measures designed to prevent sudden price swings such as “flash crashes.” As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies on exchanges may be subject to more volatility than traditional assets traded on regulated exchanges. Cryptocurrency exchanges are also subject to cyber security risks. Cryptocurrency exchanges have experienced cyber security breaches in the past and may be breached in the future, which could result in the theft and/or loss of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and impact the value of bitcoin. Furthermore, cyber security events, legal or regulatory actions, fraud, and technical glitches, may cause a cryptocurrency exchange to shut down temporarily or permanently, which may also affect the value of bitcoin.
The Fund’s investments in GBTC expose the Fund to all of the risks related to cryptocurrencies described above and also expose the Fund to risks related to GBTC directly. Shares of GBTC may trade at a significant premium or discount to NAV. To the extent GBTC trades at a discount to NAV, the value of the Fund’s investment in GBTC would typically decrease. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. If GBTC experiences theft, loss, or destruction of its bitcoin holdings, the Fund’s investments in GBTC could be harmed. Furthermore, because there is no guarantee that an active trading market for GBTC will exist at any time, the Fund’s investments in GBTC may also be subject to liquidity risk, which can impair the value of the Fund’s investments in GBTC. Investors may experience losses if the value of the Fund’s investments in GBTC decline.
Cryptocurrency Tax Risk.   Many significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of investments in bitcoin are uncertain and an investment in bitcoin may produce income that is not treated as qualifying income for purposes of the income test applicable to regulated investment companies, such as the Fund. GBTC is expected to be treated as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and therefore an investment by the Fund in GBTC will generally be treated as a direct investment in bitcoin for such purposes. See “Taxes” in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information for more information.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from
 
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external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of
 
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securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Financial Technology Risk.   Companies that are developing financial technologies that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Fintech Innovation Companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A Fintech Innovation Company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, Fintech Innovation Companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Future Expected Genomic Business Risk.   The Adviser may invest some of the Fund’s assets in Genomics Revolution Companies that do not currently derive a substantial portion of their current revenues from genomic-focused businesses and there is no assurance that any company will do so in the future, which may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective.
Health Care Sector Risk.   The health care sector may be affected by government regulations and government health care programs, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, increases or decreases in the cost of medical products and services and product liability claims, among other factors. Many health care companies are: (i) heavily dependent on patent protection and intellectual property rights and the expiration of a patent may adversely affect their profitability; (ii) subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims; and (iii) subject to competitive forces that may make it difficult to raise prices and, in fact, may result in price discounting. Many health care products and services may be subject to regulatory approvals.
 
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The process of obtaining such approvals may be long and costly, and delays or failure to receive such approvals may negatively impact the business of such companies. Additional or more stringent laws and regulations enacted in the future could have a material adverse effect on such companies in the health care sector. In addition, issuers in the health care sector include issuers having their principal activities in the biotechnology industry, medical laboratories and research, drug laboratories and research and drug manufacturers, which have the additional risks described below.

Biotechnology Company Risk.   A biotechnology company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products and can accordingly be greatly affected if one of its products proves, among other things, unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. Biotechnology companies are subject to regulation by, and the restrictions of, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state and local governments, and foreign regulatory authorities.

Pharmaceutical Company Risk.   Companies in the pharmaceutical industry can be significantly affected by, among other things, government approval of products and services, government regulation and reimbursement rates, product liability claims, patent expirations and protection and intense competition.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.

Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.
 
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Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in approximately 40 to 50 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.    Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and
 
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economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Next Generation Internet Companies Risk.   The risks described below apply, in particular, to the Fund’s investment in Next Generation Internet Companies.

Internet Information Provider Company Risk.   Internet information provider companies provide Internet navigation services and reference guide information and publish, provide or present proprietary advertising and/or third party content. Such companies often derive a large portion of their revenues from advertising, and a reduction in spending by or loss of advertisers could seriously harm their business. This business is rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and is subject to changing technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. The research and development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment, as well as the accurate anticipation of technology, market trends and consumer needs. The number of people who access the Internet is increasing dramatically and a failure to attract and retain a substantial number of such users to a company’s products and services or to develop products and technologies that are more compatible with alternative devices, could adversely affect operating results. Concerns regarding a company’s products, services or processes that may compromise the privacy of users or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage a company’s reputation and adversely affect operating results.

Catalog and Mail Order House Company Risk.   Catalog and mail order house companies may be exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect operating results due to, among other factors: seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, or changes in consumer tastes with respect to products. Demand for products can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. Failure to adequately predict customer demand or otherwise optimize and operate distribution centers could result in excess or insufficient inventory or distribution capacity, result in increased costs, impairment charges, or both. The business of catalog and mail order house companies can be highly seasonal and failure to stock or restock popular products in sufficient amounts during high demand periods could significantly affect revenue and
 
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future growth. Increased website traffic during peak periods could cause system interruptions which may reduce the volume of goods sold and the attractiveness of a company’s products and services.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year, 5 years and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2133188d2-bc_arkkbw.jpg]
The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was -2.64%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
61.42% 6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-18.95% 12/31/2018
 
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Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
 1 Year 
5 Years
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
152.51% 45.40% 36.39%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
151.00% 44.67% 35.64%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
90.44% 38.49% 30.91%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 13.07%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
15.90% 12.19% 9.88%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on October 31, 2014.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Next Generation Internet ETF (ARKW)
Investment Objective
The ARK Next Generation Internet ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.00%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses(b)
0.08%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses(b)
0.83%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
(b)
The Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses may not correlate to the ratio of expenses to average net assets as reported in the “Financial Highlights” section of the Prospectus, which reflects the operating expenses of the Fund and does not include Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses. Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses represent the Fund’s pro rata share of fees and expenses incurred indirectly as a result of investing in other funds, including ETFs and money market funds.
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 85
3 $ 265
5 $ 460
10 $ 1025
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs
 
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and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 120% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 80% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of companies that are relevant to the Fund’s investment theme of next generation internet.
Next generation internet companies are companies that the Adviser believes are focused on and expected to benefit from shifting the bases of technology infrastructure from hardware and software to the cloud, enabling mobile and local services, such as companies that rely on or benefit from the increased use of shared technology, infrastructure and services. These companies may include mail order houses which generate the entirety of their business through websites and which offer internet-based products and services, such as streaming media or cloud storage in addition to traditional physical goods. These companies may also include ones that develop, use or rely on innovative payment methodologies, big data, the “internet of things*,” social distribution and media, and technologies that make financial services more efficient (“Fintech Innovation Companies”).
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are relevant to a particular investment theme, the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation or that are enabling the further development of a theme in the markets in which they operate. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries. The types of companies that the Adviser believes are relevant to this theme are those that are focused on shifting the bases of technology infrastructure from hardware and software to the cloud, enabling mobile and local services, among others. The Adviser believes Fintech Innovation Companies are companies that are focused on and expected to benefit from the shifting of the financial sector and economic transactions to technology infrastructure platforms, and technological intermediaries. Fintech Innovation Companies may also develop, use or rely on innovative payment platforms and methodologies, point of sale providers, transactional innovations, business analytics, fraud reduction, frictionless funding platforms, peer-to-peer lending, blockchain technologies,** intermediary exchanges, asset allocation technology, cryptocurrency,*** mobile payments, and risk pricing and pooling aggregators. The Fund may have exposure to cryptocurrency, such as bitcoin, indirectly through an investment in a grantor trust or in other pooled investment vehicles, such as exchange-traded funds domiciled in Canada.
The Fund’s exposure to cryptocurrency may change over time and, accordingly, such exposure may not always be represented in the Fund’s portfolio.
*
The Adviser defines the “internet of things” as a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, or physical objects that are provided unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
**
The term “blockchain” refers to a peer-to-peer distributed ledger that is secured using cryptography. A distributed ledger is a shared electronic database where information is recorded and stored across multiple computers; a blockchain is one type of distributed ledger. A blockchain may be open and permissionless or private and permissioned. The Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains are examples of open, public, permissionless blockchains. Blockchain derives its name from the way it stores transaction data in “blocks” that are linked together to form a chain. As the number of transactions grows, so does the blockchain. Blocks record and confirm the time and sequence of transactions, which are then logged into the blockchain network, which is, with respect to public blockchains, governed by rules agreed on by the network participants.
***
Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin.
 
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The Adviser’s process for identifying Next Generation Internet Companies uses both “top down” (thematic research sizing the potential total available market, and surfacing the prime beneficiaries) and “bottom up” ​(valuation, fundamental and quantitative measures) approaches. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities.
Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets.
The Fund will be concentrated (i.e., more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets) in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the Internet information provider and catalog and mail order house industry. This concentration limit does not apply to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Blockchain Investments Risk.   An investment in companies actively engaged in blockchain technology may be subject to the following risks:

The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested.   The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is relatively new and untested. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in the Fund. A breach to one blockchain could cause investors, and the public generally, to lose trust in blockchain technology and increase reluctance to issue
 
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and invest in assets recorded on blockchains. Furthermore, blockchain technology is subject to a rapidly-evolving regulatory landscape in the United States and in other countries, which might include security, privacy or other regulatory concerns that could require changes to blockchain networks.

Theft, loss or destruction.   Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.

Competing platforms and technologies.   The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use alternatives to blockchains.

Cyber security incidents.   Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Developmental risk.   Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which the Fund invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.

Intellectual property claims.   A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in the Fund.

Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets.   Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.

Lack of regulation.   Digital commodities and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. Because blockchain works by having every transaction build on every other transaction, participants can self-police any corruption, which can mitigate the need to depend on the current level of legal or government safeguards to monitor and control the flow of business transactions. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.

Third party product defects or vulnerabilities.   Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond
 
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a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.

Reliance on the Internet.   Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect the Fund. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Line of business risk.   Some of the companies in which the Fund may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Communications Sector Risk.   The Fund will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the Internet information provider and catalog and mail order house industry. To the extent that the Fund continues to be concentrated in the Internet information provider and catalog and mail order house industry, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political, or other conditions that have a negative effect on such industry, and likely will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries. Please see also the “Internet Information Provider Company Risk” and “Catalog and Mail Order House Company Risk” disclosures below.
Consumer Discretionary Risk.   The consumer discretionary sector may be affected by changes in domestic and international economies, exchange and interest rates, competition, consumers’ disposable income and consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns.
Cryptocurrency Risk.   Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. The Fund may have exposure to bitcoin indirectly through an investment in the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (“GBTC”), a privately offered, open-end investment vehicle that invests in bitcoin, or other pooled investment vehicles that invest in bitcoin, such as exchange-traded funds that are domiciled and listed for trading in Canada (“Canadian Bitcoin ETFs”).
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government, corporation, or other entity. Cryptocurrency is not generally accepted as legal tender. Regulation of cryptocurrency is still developing. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the development, use, or exchange of cryptocurrency.
 
17

 
The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. The price of bitcoin could fall sharply (potentially to zero) for various reasons, including, but not limited to, regulatory changes, issues impacting the bitcoin network, events involving entities that facilitate transactions in bitcoin, or changes in user preferences in favor of alternative cryptocurrencies. Furthermore, events that impact one cryptocurrency may lead to a decline in the value of other cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated. Therefore, cryptocurrency exchanges may be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges may not have the same features as traditional exchanges to enhance the stability of trading on the exchange, such as measures designed to prevent sudden price swings such as “flash crashes.” As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies on exchanges may be subject to more volatility than traditional assets traded on regulated exchanges. Cryptocurrency exchanges are also subject to cyber security risks. Cryptocurrency exchanges have experienced cyber security breaches in the past and may be breached in the future, which could result in the theft and/or loss of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and impact the value of bitcoin. Furthermore, cyber security events, legal or regulatory actions, fraud, and technical glitches, may cause a cryptocurrency exchange to shut down temporarily or permanently, which may also affect the value of bitcoin.
The Fund’s investments in GBTC or Canadian Bitcoin ETFs expose the Fund to all of the risks related to cryptocurrencies described above and also expose the Fund to risks related to GBTC and the Canadian Bitcoin ETFs directly. Shares of GBTC may trade at a significant premium or discount to NAV. To the extent GBTC trades at a discount to NAV, the value of the Fund’s investment in GBTC would typically decrease. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. If GBTC or a Canadian Bitcoin ETF experience theft, loss, or destruction of its bitcoin holdings, the Fund’s investments in GBTC or the Canadian Bitcoin ETF could be harmed. Furthermore, because there is no guarantee that an active trading market for GBTC will exist at any time, the Fund’s investments in GBTC may also be subject to liquidity risk, which can impair the value of the Fund’s investments in GBTC. Investors may experience losses if the value of the Fund’s investments in GBTC or Canadian Bitcoin ETFs decline.
Cryptocurrency Tax Risk.   Many significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of investments in bitcoin are uncertain and an investment in bitcoin may produce income that is not treated as qualifying income for purposes of the income test applicable to regulated investment companies, such as the Fund. GBTC is expected to be treated as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and therefore an investment by the Fund in GBTC will generally be treated as a direct investment in bitcoin for such purposes. See “Taxes” in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information for more information.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious
 
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software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.
 
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Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Financial Technology Risk.   Companies that are developing financial technologies that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Fintech Innovation Companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A Fintech Innovation Company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, Fintech Innovation Companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry
 
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standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.

Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in between 40 and 50 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.    Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of
 
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certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Next Generation Internet Companies Risk.   The risks described below apply, in particular, to the Fund’s investment in Next Generation Internet Companies.

Internet Information Provider Company Risk.   Internet information provider companies provide Internet navigation services and reference guide information and publish, provide or present proprietary advertising and/or third party content. Such companies often derive a large portion of their revenues from advertising, and a reduction in spending by or loss of advertisers could seriously harm their business. This business is rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and is subject to changing technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. The research and development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment, as well as the accurate anticipation of technology, market trends and consumer needs. The number of people who access the Internet is increasing dramatically and a failure to attract and retain a substantial number of such
 
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users to a company’s products and services or to develop products and technologies that are more compatible with alternative devices, could adversely affect operating results. Concerns regarding a company’s products, services or processes that may compromise the privacy of users or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage a company’s reputation and adversely affect operating results.

Catalog and Mail Order House Company Risk.   Catalog and mail order house companies may be exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect operating results due to, among other factors: seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, or changes in consumer tastes with respect to products. Demand for products can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. Failure to adequately predict customer demand or otherwise optimize and operate distribution centers could result in excess or insufficient inventory or distribution capacity, result in increased costs, impairment charges, or both. The business of catalog and mail order house companies can be highly seasonal and failure to stock or restock popular products in sufficient amounts during high demand periods could significantly affect revenue and future growth. Increased website traffic during peak periods could cause system interruptions which may reduce the volume of goods sold and the attractiveness of a company’s products and services.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year, 5 years and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: tm2133188d2-bc_arkwbw.jpg]
The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was 7.31%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
60.37% 6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-16.62% 12/31/2018
Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
 1 Year 
5 Years
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
157.08% 49.33% 41.46%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
155.75% 47.60% 39.96%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
93.00% 41.29% 35.04%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 13.05%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
15.90% 12.19% 9.62%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on September 30, 2014.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Fintech Innovation ETF (ARKF)
Investment Objective
The ARK Fintech Innovation ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.75%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 77
3 $ 240
5 $ 417
10 $ 930
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 78% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 80% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of companies that are engaged in the Fund’s investment theme of financial technology (“Fintech”) innovation. A company is deemed to be engaged in the theme of Fintech innovation if   (i) it derives a significant portion of its revenue or market value from the theme of Fintech innovation or (ii) it has stated its primary business to be in products and services focused on the theme of Fintech innovation. The Adviser defines “Fintech innovation” as the introduction of a technologically enabled new product or service that potentially changes the way the financial sector works.
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are engaged in the theme of Fintech innovation (“Fintech Innovation Companies”), the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation. Disruptive innovation occurs when a new product or service substantially alters the way a market or industry functions. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries.
Fintech Innovation Companies are companies that may develop, use or rely on innovative payment platforms and methodologies, point of sale providers, e-commerce, transactional innovations, business analytics, fraud reduction, frictionless funding platforms, peer-to-peer lending, blockchain1 technologies, intermediary exchanges, asset allocation technology, mobile payments, and risk pricing and pooling aggregators (insurance). A Fintech Innovation Company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future.
The Adviser will select investments for the Fund that represent the Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas within the theme of Fintech innovation, as defined above, in constructing the Fund’s portfolio.
The Adviser’s process for identifying Fintech Innovation Companies uses both “top down” ​(thematic research sizing the potential total available market, and surfacing the prime beneficiaries) and “bottom up” ​(valuation, fundamental and quantitative measures) approaches. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities.
Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities
1
The term “blockchain” refers to a peer-to-peer distributed ledger that is secured using cryptography. A distributed ledger is a shared electronic database where information is recorded and stored across multiple computers; a blockchain is one type of distributed ledger. A blockchain may be open and permissionless or private and permissioned. The Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains are examples of open, public, permissionless blockchains. Blockchain derives its name from the way it stores transaction data in blocks that are linked together to form a chain. As the number of transactions grows, so does the blockchain. Blocks record and confirm the time and sequence of transactions, which are then logged into the blockchain network, which is, with respect to public blockchains, governed by rules agreed on by the network participants.
 
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will be in both developed and emerging markets. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. The Fund’s portfolio is expected to contain 40 to 55 common stocks (including domestic stocks, ADRs and securities listed on foreign exchanges) that are conviction weighted. The Fund will concentrate (i.e., more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets) in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in the communication, technology and financials group of industries. This concentration limit does not apply to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in groups of industries in the communication, technology and financials group of industries. To the extent that the Fund continues to be concentrated in the communication, technology and financials groups of industries, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political, business or other conditions that have a negative effect on such industry groups will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries. Please see also the “Communications Sector Risk,” “Financial Sector Risk” and “Information Technology Sector Risk” disclosures below.
Blockchain Investments Risk.   An investment in companies actively engaged in blockchain technology may be subject to the following risks:

The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested.   The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is relatively new and untested. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in the Fund. A breach to one blockchain could cause investors, and the public generally, to lose trust in blockchain technology and increase reluctance to issue and invest in assets recorded on blockchains. Furthermore, blockchain technology is subject to a rapidly-evolving regulatory landscape in the United States and in other countries, which might include security, privacy or other regulatory concerns that could require changes to blockchain networks.

Theft, loss or destruction.   Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have
 
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over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.

Competing platforms and technologies.   The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use alternatives to blockchains.

Cyber security incidents.   Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Developmental risk.   Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which the Fund invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.

Intellectual property claims.   A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in the Fund.

Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets.   Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.

Lack of regulation.   Digital commodities and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. Because blockchain works by having every transaction build on every other transaction, participants can self-police any corruption, which can mitigate the need to depend on the current level of legal or government safeguards to monitor and control the flow of business transactions. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.

Third party product defects or vulnerabilities.   Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.

Reliance on the Internet.   Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect the Fund. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open
 
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source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Line of business risk.   Some of the companies in which the Fund may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Communications Sector Risk.   The Fund will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.    Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign
 
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corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Financial Sector Risk.   The factors that impact the financial sector will likely have a greater effect on this Fund than on a fund with less exposure to such sector. Companies in the financial sector are especially subject to the adverse effects of economic recession, decreases in the availability of capital,
 
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volatile interest rates, portfolio concentrations in geographic markets and in commercial and residential real estate loans, and competition from new entrants in their fields of business. These industries are still extensively regulated at both the federal and state level and may be adversely affected by increased regulations.
Financial Technology Risk.   Companies that are developing financial technologies that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Fintech Innovation Companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A Fintech Innovation Company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, Fintech Innovation Companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.
 
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Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in approximately 40 to 55 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other
 
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trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes)
 
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is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2133188d2-bc_arkfbw.jpg]
The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was 7.60%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
54.12% 6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-14.46% 3/31/2020
Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
 1 Year 
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
107.92% 62.21%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
107.64% 61.67%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
63.92% 49.26%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
18.40% 21.00%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
15.90% 17.99%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on February 4, 2019.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Genomic Revolution ETF (ARKG)
Investment Objective
The ARK Genomic Revolution ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.75%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 77
3 $ 240
5 $ 417
10 $ 930
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 45% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 80% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of companies across multiple sectors, including healthcare, information technology, materials, energy and consumer discretionary, that are relevant to the Fund’s investment theme of the genomics* revolution (“Genomics Revolution Companies”), which is described below:

Genomic Revolution Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are substantially focused on and are expected to substantially benefit from extending and enhancing the quality of human and other life by incorporating technological and scientific developments, improvements and advancements in genomics into their business, such as by offering new products or services that rely on genomic sequencing,** analysis, synthesis or instrumentation. These companies may include ones across multiple sectors, such as healthcare, information technology, materials, energy and consumer discretionary. These companies may also develop, produce, manufacture or significantly rely on or enable bionic devices, bio-inspired computing, bioinformatics,*** molecular medicine and agricultural biotechnology.
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are relevant to a particular investment theme, the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation or that are enabling the further development of a theme in the markets in which they operate. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries. The Adviser’s process for identifying Genomic Revolution Companies uses both “top down” ​(thematic research sizing the potential total available market, and surfacing the prime beneficiaries) and “bottom up” ​(valuation, fundamental and quantitative measures) approaches. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities. The Fund may invest in certain companies that the Adviser believes are well-positioned to capitalize on and expected to devote substantial efforts to business lines enabled by disruptive genomic innovation, even if such companies do not currently derive a substantial portion of their revenues from genomics related activities.
Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets.
The Fund will be concentrated (i.e., more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets) in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in any industry or group of industries in the health
*
The Adviser defines “genomics” as the study of genes and their functions, and related techniques (e.g.genomic sequencing).
**
The Adviser uses the term “genomic sequencing” to refer to techniques that allow researchers to read and decipher the genetic information found in the DNA (i.e., the exact sequence of bases A, C, G and T in a DNA molecule), including the DNA of bacteria, plants, animals and human beings.
***
The Adviser defines “bioinformatics” as the science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data such as genetic codes.
 
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care sector, including issuers having their principal business activities in the biotechnology industry. Other industries in the health care sector include medical laboratories and research and drug manufacturers. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in any industry or group of industries in the health care sector, including issuers having their principal business activities in the biotechnology industry. To the extent that the Fund continues to be concentrated in the health care sector or biotechnology industry (or any other related health care sector or industry), the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political or other conditions that have a negative effect on that sector will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries. Please see also the “Health Care Sector Risk” disclosures below.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated
 
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with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities.
 
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Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Future Expected Genomic Business Risk.   The Adviser expects to invest at least 80% of the Fund’s assets in Genomics Revolution Companies. However, certain of these companies do not currently derive a substantial portion of their current revenues from genomic-focused businesses and there is no assurance that any company will do so in the future, which may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective.
Health Care Sector Risk.   The health care sector may be affected by government regulations and government health care programs, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, increases or decreases in the cost of medical products and services and product liability claims, among other factors. Many health care companies are: (i) heavily dependent on patent protection and intellectual property rights and the expiration of a patent may adversely affect their profitability; (ii) subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims; and (iii) subject to competitive forces that may make it difficult to raise prices and, in fact, may result in price discounting. Many health care products and services may be subject to regulatory approvals. The process of obtaining such approvals may be long and costly, and delays or failure to receive such approvals may negatively impact the business of such companies. Additional or more stringent laws and regulations enacted in the future could have a material adverse effect on such companies in the health care sector. In addition, issuers in the health care sector include issuers having their principal activities in the biotechnology industry, medical laboratories and research, drug laboratories and research and drug manufacturers, which have the additional risks described below.

Biotechnology Company Risk.   A biotechnology company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products and can accordingly be greatly affected if one of its products proves, among other things, unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. Biotechnology companies are subject to regulation by, and the restrictions of, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state and local governments, and foreign regulatory authorities.

Pharmaceutical Company Risk.   Companies in the pharmaceutical industry can be significantly affected by, among other things, government approval of products and services, government regulation and reimbursement rates, product liability claims, patent expirations and protection and intense competition.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and
 
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stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in approximately 35 to 50 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations.
 
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The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year, 5 years and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the NASDAQ Healthcare Index, the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The NASDAQ Healthcare Index contains securities of NASDAQ-listed companies classified according to the Industry Classification Benchmark as Health Care. They include health care providers, medical equipment, medical supply companies, biotechnology companies, and pharmaceutical companies. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2133188d2-bc_arkgbw.jpg]
The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was -19.45%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
65.99% 6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-26.51% 12/31/2018
 
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Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
1 Year
5 Years
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
180.50% 36.94% 29.85%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
179.73% 36.24% 29.31%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
107.04% 30.84% 25.09%
NASDAQ Healthcare Index (reflects no deduction for fees,
   expenses or taxes)
30.04% 9.59% 9.15%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 13.07%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
15.90% 12.19% 9.88%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on October 31, 2014.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF (ARKQ)
Investment Objective
The ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.75%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 77
3 $ 240
5 $ 417
10 $ 930
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 86% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 80% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of autonomous technology and robotics companies that are relevant to the Fund’s investment theme of disruptive innovation.
Autonomous technology and robotics companies are companies that the Adviser believes are expected to focus on and benefit from the development of new products or services, technological improvements and advancements in scientific research related to, among other things, disruptive innovation in automation and manufacturing (“Automation Transformation Companies”), transportation, energy (“Energy Transformation Companies”), artificial intelligence (“Artificial Intelligence Companies”) and materials. These types of companies are described below:

Automation Transformation Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes are focused on man capitalizing on the productivity of machines, such as through the automation of functions, processes or activities previously performed by human labor, such as transportation through an emphasis on mobility as a service, or the use of robotics to perform other functions, activities or processes.

Energy Transformation Companies.   Companies that the Adviser believes seek to capitalize on innovations or evolutions in: (i) ways that energy is stored or used; (ii) the discovery, collection and/or implementation of new sources of energy, including unconventional sources of oil or natural gas; and/or (iii) the production or development of new materials for use in commercial applications of energy production, use or storage.

Artificial Intelligence Companies.   Companies that the Adviser considers to be Artificial Intelligence (“AI”) Companies include a company that: (i) designs, creates, integrates, or delivers robotics, autonomous technology, and/or AI in the form of products, software, or systems; (ii) develops the building block components for robotics, autonomous technology, or AI, such as advanced machinery, semiconductors and databases used for machine learning; (iii) provides its own value-added services on top of such building block components, but are not core to the company’s product or service offering; and/or (iv) develops computer systems that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are relevant to a particular investment theme, the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation or that are enabling the further development of a theme in the markets in which they operate. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries.
The Adviser’s process for identifying Automation Transformation Companies, Energy Transformation Companies and Artificial Intelligence Companies uses both “top down” ​(thematic research sizing the potential total available market, and surfacing the prime beneficiaries) and “bottom up” ​(valuation, fundamental and quantitative measures) approaches. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities.
 
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Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-, medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets.
The Fund will be concentrated (i.e., more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets) in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in groups of industries in the industrials or information technology sectors, although it will not concentrate in any specific industry. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs ”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in groups of industries in the (i) industrials sector or (ii) information technology sector. However, the Fund will not concentrate in any specific industry. To the extent that the Fund continues to be concentrated in groups of industries in the industrials sector or the information technology sector, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political, business or other conditions that have a negative effect on such industry groups will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries. Please see also the “Industrials Sector Risk” and “Information Technology Sector Risk” disclosures below.
Consumer Discretionary Risk.   The consumer discretionary sector may be affected by changes in domestic and international economies, exchange and interest rates, competition, consumers’ disposable income and consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from
 
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external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers , trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.    Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of
 
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securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Industrials Sector Risk.   The industrials sector includes companies engaged in aerospace and defense, electrical engineering, machinery, and professional services. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions. In addition, companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by environmental damages, product liability claims and exchange rates.

Aerospace and Defense Company Risk.   Companies in the aerospace and defense industry rely to a large extent on U.S. (and other) Government demand for their products and services and may be significantly affected by changes in government regulations and spending, as well as economic conditions and industry consolidation.

Professional Services Company Risk.   Professional services companies may be materially impacted by economic conditions and related fluctuations in client demand for marketing, business, technology and other consulting services. Professional services companies’ success depends in large part on attracting and retaining key employees and a failure to do so could adversely affect a company’s business. There are relatively few barriers to entry into the professional services market, and new competitors could readily seek to compete in one or more market segments, which could adversely affect a professional services company’s operating results through pricing pressure and loss of market share.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally,
 
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which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.

Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
 
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Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in approximately 35 to 50 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
 
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Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year, 5 years and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2133188d2-bc_arkqbw.jpg]
The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was 11.37%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
42.04%   6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-15.76%
12/31/2018
Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
 1 Year 
5 Years
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
106.70% 33.30% 25.07%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
106.01% 32.87% 24.69%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
63.20% 27.81% 20.94%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
18.40% 15.22% 13.05%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or
   taxes)
15.90% 12.19% 9.62%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on September 30, 2014.
 
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(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.   ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.   The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF (ARKX)
Investment Objective
The ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF’s (“Fund”) investment objective is long-term growth of capital.
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.75%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)(b)
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses(b)
0.75%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“ARK” or “Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses (except where attributable to management fees of affiliated underlying exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) in which the Fund invests), taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
(b)
Other Expenses and Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses are based on estimated expenses for the current fiscal year.
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 77
3 $ 240
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate for the period from commencement of operation on March 30, 2021 through July 31, 2021 was 46%.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund is an actively-managed exchange-traded fund (“ETF”) that will invest under normal circumstances primarily (at least 80% of its assets) in domestic and foreign equity securities of companies that are engaged in the Fund’s investment theme of Space Exploration and Innovation. The Adviser defines “Space Exploration” as leading, enabling, or benefitting from technologically enabled products and/or services that occur beyond the surface of the Earth. The Adviser defines Innovation, including the investment theme of   “disruptive innovation,” as the introduction of a technologically enabled new product or service that the Adviser expects to change an industry landscape. The Adviser’s internal research and analysis leverages insights from diverse sources, including external research, to develop and refine its investment themes and identify and take advantage of trends that have ramifications for individual companies or entire industries.
In selecting companies that the Adviser believes are engaged in the theme of Space Exploration, the Adviser seeks to identify, using its own internal research and analysis, companies capitalizing on disruptive innovation. The Adviser believes that Space Exploration related companies can be grouped into four overarching categories, each of which contains relevant sub-elements. Orbital Aerospace Companies are companies that launch, make, service, or operate platforms in the orbital space, including satellites and launch vehicles. Suborbital Aerospace Companies are companies that launch, make, service, or operate platforms in the suborbital space, but do not reach a velocity needed to remain in orbit around a planet. Enabling Technologies Companies are companies that develop technologies used by Space Exploration related companies for successful value-add aerospace operations. These operations include artificial intelligence, robotics, 3D printing, materials and energy storage. For example, 3D printing companies create value-add for space and aerospace exploration related companies by accelerating innovation thanks to low-costs and rapid prototyping, and by lowering the weight of low volume, highly complex parts. Aerospace Beneficiary Companies are companies whose operations stand to benefit from aerospace activities, including agriculture, internet access, global positioning system (GPS), construction, imaging, drones, air taxis and electric aviation vehicles. For example, agriculture companies utilize technologies advanced by space exploration and innovation, such as satellite imagery. Space exploration is possible due to the convergence of a number of themes. Many of the companies the Fund invests in may only have an indirect and not a substantial involvement in the space industry. A Space Exploration related company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future.
The Adviser will select investments for the Fund that represent the Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas within the theme of Space Exploration, i.e., investment decisions regarded with confidence, in constructing the Fund’s portfolio. The Adviser will analyze potential investments by using both “top down” information (e.g., economy-wide analysis of facts such as rate of growth, cost declines, unit economics, sizing of markets, and price levels as well as business and technology cycle trends) and “bottom up” criteria (e.g., fundamental and quantitative metrics for individual companies such as their revenue growth, profitability and return on invested capital). Based upon its research and analysis, the Adviser will select a portfolio company that it believes presents the best risk-reward opportunities. In both the Adviser’s “top down” and “bottom up” approaches, the Adviser evaluates environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) considerations. In its “top down” approach, the Adviser uses the framework of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to integrate ESG considerations into its research and investment process. The Adviser, however, does not use ESG considerations to limit, restrict or otherwise exclude companies or sectors from the Fund’s investment universe. In its “bottom up” approach, the Adviser makes its investment decisions primarily based on its analysis of the potential of individual companies, while integrating ESG considerations into that process. The Adviser’s highest-conviction investment ideas are those that it believes present the best risk-reward opportunities.
Under normal circumstances, substantially all of the Fund’s assets will be invested in equity securities, including common stocks, partnership interests, business trust shares and other equity investments or ownership interests in business enterprises. The Fund’s investments will include micro-, small-,
 
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medium- and large-capitalization companies. The Fund’s investments in foreign equity securities will be in both developed and emerging markets. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers. The Fund’s portfolio is expected to contain 40 to 55 common stocks (domestic and foreign) that are conviction weighted. The Fund will concentrate (i.e., invest more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s assets) in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in groups of industries in the information technology and industrials sectors. This concentration limit does not apply to securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Communications Sector Risk.   The Fund will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in groups of industries in the (i) industrials sector or (ii) information technology sector. However, the Fund will not concentrate in any specific industry. To the extent that the Fund continues to be concentrated in groups of industries in the industrials sector or the information technology sector, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political, business or other conditions that have a negative effect on such industry groups will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries. Please see also the “Industrials Sector Risk” and “Information Technology Sector Risk” disclosures below.
 
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Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Fund may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less
 
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developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. Certain emerging market countries may be subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping and therefore, material information related to an investment may not be available or reliable. In addition, the Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Industrials Sector Risk.   The industrials sector includes companies engaged in aerospace and defense, electrical engineering, machinery, and professional services. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions. In addition, companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by environmental damages, product liability claims and exchange rates.

Aerospace and Defense Company Risk.   Companies in the aerospace and defense industry rely to a large extent on U.S. (and other) Government demand for their products and services and may be significantly affected by changes in government regulations and spending, as well as economic conditions and industry consolidation.

Professional Services Company Risk.   Professional services companies may be materially impacted by economic conditions and related fluctuations in client demand for marketing, business, technology and other consulting services. Professional services companies’ success depends in large part on attracting and retaining key employees and a failure to do so
 
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could adversely affect a company’s business. There are relatively few barriers to entry into the professional services market, and new competitors could readily seek to compete in one or more market segments, which could adversely affect a professional services company’s operating results through pricing pressure and loss of market share.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.

Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect
 
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to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Investment Strategy Risk.   The Fund is exposed to additional risk due to its policy of investing in accordance with an investment strategy. Although the Fund’s investment strategy is designed to achieve the Fund’s investment objective, the strategy may not prove to be successful. The investment decisions may not produce the intended results and there is no guarantee that the investment objective will be achieved.
Issuer Risk.   Because the Fund may invest in approximately 40 to 55 issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Limited Operating History Risk.   The Fund has limited operating history for investors to evaluate. There can be no assurance that the Fund will grow to or maintain an economically viable size. The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.
Management Risk.   As an actively-managed ETF, the Fund is subject to management risk. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement the Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Fund’s performance. The success of the Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with the Fund.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which
 
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the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The Fund commenced operations on March 30, 2021. Performance history will be available for the Fund after it has been in operation for a full calendar year. Once available, the Fund’s performance information will be accessible on the Fund’s website at http://ark-funds.com.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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The 3D Printing ETF (PRNT)
Investment Objective
The 3D Printing ETF (“Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Total 3D-Printing Index (“Index”).
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.65%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.66%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 67
3 $ 211
5 $ 368
10 $ 822
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 59% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund normally invests at least 80% of its total assets in securities that are included in the Fund’s benchmark Index, depositary receipts representing securities included in the Index or underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in the Index. This 80% investment policy is non-fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ prior written notice to shareholders.
The Index is designed to track the price movements of stocks of companies involved in the 3D printing industry. The Index has been created and licensed to the Fund by ARK’s Index Products Group and is calculated, published and distributed by Solactive AG (“Solactive”). Information regarding the Index is available at http://www.solactive.com. The Index is composed of equity securities and depositary receipts of exchange listed companies from the U.S., non-U.S. developed markets and Taiwan that are engaged in 3D printing related businesses within the following business lines: (i) 3D printing hardware, (ii) computer aided design (“CAD”) and 3D printing simulation software, (iii) 3D printing centers, (iv) scanning and measurement and (v) 3D printing materials. The Index assigns a pre-determined weighting to each business line and all companies within each business line are equally weighted within the business line. As of November 3, 2021, the Index included 54 securities of companies with a market capitalization range of between approximately $184 million and $2.5 trillion and a weighted average market capitalization of $177 billion.
At least 80% of the companies in the Index derive at least 50% of their earnings or revenues or at least 50% of their assets are devoted to the development or distribution of equipment, materials and software primarily used in 3D printing or 3D printed products. In addition, at least 80% of the assets of the Fund will be comprised of companies that derive at least 50% of their earnings or revenues or at least 50% of their assets are devoted to the development or distribution of equipment, materials and software primarily used in 3D printing or 3D printed products.
The Fund, using an indexing investment approach, attempts to approximate, before fees and expenses, the investment performance of the Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the Index. The Fund generally will use a replication strategy. A replication strategy is an indexing strategy that involves investing in the securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may utilize a representative sampling strategy with respect to the Index when it might not be possible or practicable to purchase all of the securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index, such as when there are practical difficulties or substantial costs involved in compiling a portfolio of securities to replicate the Index, in instances in which a security in the Index becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations (such as tax diversification requirements) that apply to the Fund but not the Index. There also may be instances in which the Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Index, purchase securities not in the Index that the Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques in seeking to replicate as closely as possible, before fees and expenses, the performance of the Index. The Fund may sell securities that are represented in the Index in anticipation of their removal from the Index or purchase securities not represented in the Index in anticipation of their addition to the Index. The Fund does not take temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.
If the Fund uses a replication strategy, it can be expected to have greater correlation to the Index than if it uses a representative sampling strategy.
The Fund may concentrate its investments in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index concentrates in an industry or group of industries. Based on the composition of the Index as of November 3, 2021, the Technology Hardware, Storage & Peripherals, Software, and Machinery industries represented a significant portion of the Index. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
 
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The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Concentration/Focused Risk.   The Fund’s assets may be concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries. If the Fund’s assets are concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political or other conditions that have a negative effect on that industry or group of industries will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of industries or sectors.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches.Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
 
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Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market and, if not included in the Index, may negatively affect the Fund’s ability to replicate the performance of the Index. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
Index Tracking Risk.   The Fund’s return may not track the performance of the Index for a number of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs a number of operating expenses not applicable to the Index and incurs costs associated with buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Index. The Fund also bears the costs and risks associated with buying and selling securities while such costs and risks are not factored into the return of the Index. When the Fund’s Index is rebalanced and the Fund in turn rebalances its portfolio to attempt to increase the correlation between the Fund’s portfolio and its Index, any transaction costs and market exposure arising from such portfolio rebalancing will be
 
63

 
borne directly by the Fund and its shareholders. Apart from scheduled rebalances, the Index provider or its agents may carry out additional ad hoc rebalances to the Fund’s Index, which may increase the costs to and the tracking error risk of the Fund. In addition, the Fund may not be able to invest in certain securities included in the Index, or may not be able to invest in them in the exact proportions in which they are represented in the Index, due to legal restrictions or limitations imposed by the governments of certain countries, potential adverse tax consequences or other regulatory reasons. The risk that the Fund may not track the performance of the Index may be magnified during times of heightened market volatility or other unusual market conditions. A lack of liquidity may be due to various events, including markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value and their value may be lower than market price of comparable liquid securities, which would negatively affect the Fund’s performance. To the extent the Fund calculates its NAV based on “fair value” prices for certain securities and the value of the Index is based on securities’ closing prices (i.e., the value of the Index is not based on “fair value” prices), the Fund’s ability to track the Index may be adversely affected. For tax efficiency purposes, the Fund may sell certain securities to realize losses causing it to deviate from the Index. Errors in the construction or calculation of the Index may occur from time to time and any such errors may not be immediately identified and corrected by Solactive, which may have an adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders.
Industrials Sector Risk.   The industrials sector includes companies engaged in aerospace and defense, electrical engineering, machinery, and professional services. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions. In addition, companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by environmental damages, product liability claims and exchange rates.

Machinery Industry Risk.   The machinery industry can be significantly affected by general economic trends, including employment, economic growth, and interest rates; changes in consumer sentiment and spending; overall capital spending levels, which are influenced by an individual company’s profitability and broader factors such as interest rates and foreign competition; commodity prices; technical obsolescence; labor relations legislation; government regulation and spending; import controls; and worldwide competition. Companies in this industry also can be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or
 
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will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Investable Universe of Companies Risk.   The investable universe of companies in which the Fund may invest may be limited. If a company no longer meets the criteria for inclusion in the Index, the Fund may need to reduce or eliminate its holdings in that company from the Fund. The reduction or elimination of the Fund’s holdings in the company may have an adverse impact on the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings and on Fund performance.
Issuer Risk.   The Fund is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
 
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Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Portfolio Turnover Risk.   The Index is adjusted to add or remove companies once per quarter and upon certain extraordinary events or corporate actions affecting a company that is included in the Index. As companies leave and enter the Index, the Fund’s portfolio will be adjusted to match the current Index composition. This process can result in the realization of capital gains or losses and can have adverse tax consequences for you as an investor. Because the Fund will buy and sell securities as needed to maintain its correlation to the Index, portfolio turnover in the Fund may be substantial.
Replication Management Risk.   An investment in the Fund involves risks similar to those of investing in any fund of equity securities traded on an exchange, such as market fluctuations caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in security prices. However, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index through quarterly rebalancing or otherwise because it no longer qualifies to be included in the Index, the Fund generally will not sell a security because the security’s issuer is in financial trouble. Therefore, the Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers.
Sampling Risk.   The Fund’s use of a representative sampling approach may result in it holding a smaller number of securities than are in the Index. As a result, an adverse development respecting an issuer of securities held by the Fund could result in a greater decline in NAV than would be the case if the Fund held all of the securities in the Index. Conversely, a positive development relating to an issuer of securities in the Index that is not held by the Fund could cause the Fund to underperform the Index. To the extent the assets in the Fund are smaller, these risks will be greater. A representative sampling strategy may increase the Fund’s susceptibility to Index Tracking Risk.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
 
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Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the Index, the S&P 500 Index and the MSCI World Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
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The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was 19.02%.
Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
31.83%
12/31/2020
Lowest Return
-23.12%
  3/31/2020
Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
1 Year
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
39.52% 11.42%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
39.52% 11.14%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
23.40% 8.91%
The Total 3D-Printing Index
40.37% 12.57%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
18.40% 15.39%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
15.90% 12.84%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on July 19, 2016.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.  ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.  The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
 
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Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF (IZRL)
Investment Objective
The ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF (“Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that closely correspond, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the ARK Israeli Innovation Index (“Index”).
Fund Fees and Expenses
The table below describes the fees and expenses that you pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). Investors may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the tables and examples below.
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fee
0.48%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
0.00%
Other Expenses(a)
0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.49%
(a)
Pursuant to a Supervision Agreement, ARK Investment Management LLC (“ARK” or “Adviser”) pays all other expenses of the Fund (other than acquired fund fees and expenses, taxes and governmental fees, brokerage fees, commissions and other transaction expenses, certain foreign custodial fees and expenses, costs of borrowing money, including interest expenses, and extraordinary expenses (such as litigation and indemnification expenses)).
Example
This example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. This example does not take into account brokerage commissions that you pay when purchasing or selling Shares.
The example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The example also assumes that your investment has a 5% annual return and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, your costs would be:
Year
Expenses
1 $ 50
3 $ 157
5 $ 274
10 $ 616
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it purchases and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may result in higher transaction costs and higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, may affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 88% of the average value of its portfolio.
 
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Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund normally invests at least 80% of its total assets in securities that are included in the Fund’s benchmark Index, depositary receipts representing securities included in the Index or underlying stocks in respect of depositary receipts included in the Index. This 80% investment policy is non-fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ prior written notice to shareholders.
The Index is designed to track the price movements of exchange listed Israeli Companies (as defined herein) whose main business operations are causing disruptive innovation in the areas of genomics, health care, biotechnology, industrials, manufacturing, the Internet or information technology. The Index has been created and licensed to the Fund by ARK’s Index Products Group and is calculated, published and distributed by Solactive AG (“Solactive”). Information regarding the Index is available at http://www.solactive.com. The Index includes equity securities and depositary receipts of exchange listed companies that are incorporated and/or domiciled in Israel (“Israeli Companies”) and are included in one of the following economic sectors as defined by FactSet Research Systems: (i) health technology, (ii) communications, (iii) technology services, (iv) electronic technology, (v) consumer services or (vi) producer manufacturing. Securities in the Index are equally weighted and weightings are rebalanced quarterly. As of November 3, 2021, the Index included 74 securities of companies with a market capitalization range of between approximately $79 million and $18.5 billion and a weighted average market capitalization of  $2.5 billion.
The Fund, using an indexing investment approach, attempts to approximate, before fees and expenses, the investment performance of the Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the Index. The Fund generally will use a replication strategy. A replication strategy is an indexing strategy that involves investing in the securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. However, the Fund may utilize a representative sampling strategy with respect to the Index when it might not be possible or practicable to purchase all of the securities of the Index in approximately the same proportions as in the Index. Such instances may include when there are practical difficulties or substantial costs involved in compiling a portfolio of securities to replicate the Index, in instances in which a security in the Index becomes temporarily illiquid, unavailable or less liquid, or as a result of legal restrictions or limitations (such as tax diversification requirements) that apply to the Fund but not the Index. There also may be instances in which the Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Index, purchase securities not in the Index that the Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques in seeking to replicate as closely as possible, before fees and expenses, the performance of the Index. The Fund may sell securities that are represented in the Index in anticipation of their removal from the Index or purchase securities not represented in the Index in anticipation of their addition to the Index. The Fund does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued.
If the Fund uses a replication strategy, it can be expected to have greater correlation to the Index than if it uses a representative sampling strategy.
The Fund may concentrate its investments in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index concentrates in an industry or group of industries. Based on the composition of the Index as of November 3, 2021, the health care sector and information technology sector represented a significant portion of the Index. The Fund may invest in foreign securities listed on foreign exchanges as well as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”).
The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), which means that it may invest a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of issuers.
 
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Principal Risks
There is no assurance that the Fund will meet its investment objective. The value of your investment in the Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in the Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in the Fund. The principal risks of investing in the Fund listed below are presented alphabetically to facilitate your ability to find particular risks and compare them with the risks of other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears.
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”) on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to net asset value (“NAV”). The AP risk may be heightened in the case of exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Concentration Risk.   The Fund’s assets may be concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries. If the Fund’s assets are concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund will be subject to the risk that economic, political or other conditions that have a negative effect on that industry or group of industries will negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of industries.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent the Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause the Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to the Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attacks that impair the Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of the Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, the Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which the Fund invests, can also subject the Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which the Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Fund has established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Fund does not directly control the cyber security systems of its third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign
 
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corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market and, if not included in the Index, may negatively affect the Fund’s ability to replicate the performance of the Index. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities the Fund holds may fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of securities the Fund holds participate or factors relating to specific companies in which the Fund invests. These can include stock movements, purchases or sales of securities by the Fund, government policies, litigation and changes in interest rates, inflation, the financial condition of the securities’ issuer or perceptions of the issuer, or economic conditions in general or specific to the issuer. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Fund may invest in stock of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Investments in SPACs and similar entities are subject to a variety of risks beyond those associated with other equity securities. Because SPACs and similar entities do not have any operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Focused Investment Risk.   The Fund’s assets will be focused on Israeli Companies. Therefore, the Fund will be subject to the risk that certain economic, political or other conditions may have a negative effect on Israeli securities or companies. The Fund’s assets may be concentrated in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries. The Fund’s assets also may be focused in a particular sector or sectors to the extent the Index focuses in a certain sector or sectors. Based on the composition of the Index as of November 3, 2021, the health care sector and information technology sector represented a significant portion of the Index. Thus, adverse consequences to companies within the health care sector and information technology sector may negatively impact the Fund to a greater extent than if the Fund’s assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors.
Foreign Securities Risk.   The Fund’s investments in foreign securities can be riskier than U.S. securities investments. Investments in the securities of foreign issuers (including investments in ADRs and GDRs) are subject to the risks associated with investing in those foreign markets, such as heightened risks of inflation or nationalization. The prices of foreign securities and the prices of U.S. securities have, at times, moved in opposite directions. In addition, securities of foreign issuers may lose value due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. During periods of social, political or economic instability in a country or region, the value of a foreign security traded on U.S. exchanges could be affected by, among other things, increasing price volatility, illiquidity, or the closure of the primary market on which the security (or the security underlying the ADR or GDR) is traded. You may lose money due to political, economic and geographic events affecting a foreign issuer or market. The Fund normally will not hedge any foreign currency exposure.
 
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Health Care Sector Risk.   The health care sector may be affected by government regulations and government health care programs, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, increases or decreases in the cost of medical products and services and product liability claims, among other factors. Many health care companies are: (i) heavily dependent on patent protection and intellectual property rights and the expiration of a patent may adversely affect their profitability; (ii) subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims; and (iii) subject to competitive forces that may make it difficult to raise prices and, in fact, may result in price discounting. Many health care products and services may be subject to regulatory approvals. The process of obtaining such approvals may be long and costly, and delays or failure to receive such approvals may negatively impact the business of such companies. Additional or more stringent laws and regulations enacted in the future could have a material adverse effect on such companies in the health care sector. In addition, issuers in the health care sector include issuers having their principal activities in the biotechnology industry, medical laboratories and research, drug laboratories and research and drug manufacturers, which have the additional risks described below.

Biotechnology Company Risk.   A biotechnology company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products and can accordingly be greatly affected if one of its products proves, among other things, unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. Biotechnology companies are subject to regulation by, and the restrictions of, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state and local governments, and foreign regulatory authorities.

Pharmaceutical Company Risk.   Companies in the pharmaceutical industry can be significantly affected by, among other things, government approval of products and services, government regulation and reimbursement rates, product liability claims, patent expirations and protection and intense competition.
Index Tracking Risk.   The Fund’s return may not track the performance of the Index for a number of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs a number of operating expenses not applicable to the Index and incurs costs associated with buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the Index. The Fund also bears the costs and risks associated with buying and selling securities while such costs and risks are not factored into the return of the Index. When the Fund’s Index is rebalanced and the Fund in turn rebalances its portfolio to attempt to increase the correlation between the Fund’s portfolio and its Index, any transaction costs and market exposure arising from such portfolio rebalancing will be borne directly by the Fund and its shareholders. Apart from scheduled rebalances, the Index provider or its agents may carry out additional ad hoc rebalances to the Fund’s Index, which may increase the costs to and the tracking error risk of the Fund. In addition, the Fund may not be able to invest in certain securities included in the Index, or may not be able to invest in them in the exact proportions in which they are represented in the Index, due to legal restrictions or limitations imposed by the governments of certain countries, potential adverse tax consequences or other regulatory reasons. The risk that the Fund may not track the performance of the Index may be magnified during times of heightened market volatility or other unusual market conditions. A lack of liquidity may be due to various events, including markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value and their value may be lower than market price of comparable liquid securities, which would negatively affect the Fund’s performance. To the extent the Fund calculates its NAV based on “fair value” prices for certain securities and the value of the Index is based on securities’ closing prices (i.e., the value of the Index is not based on “fair value” prices), the Fund’s ability to track the Index may be adversely affected. For tax efficiency purposes, the Fund may sell certain securities to realize losses causing it to deviate from the Index. Errors in the construction or calculation of the Index may occur from time to time and any such errors may not be immediately identified and corrected by Solactive, which may have an adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders.
Industrials Sector Risk.   The industrials sector includes companies engaged in aerospace and defense, electrical engineering, machinery, and professional services. Companies in the industrials
 
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sector may be adversely affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions. In addition, companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by environmental damages, product liability claims and exchange rates.

Aerospace and Defense Company Risk.   Companies in the aerospace and defense industry rely to a large extent on U.S. and Israel (and other) Government demand for their products and services and may be significantly affected by changes in government regulations and spending, as well as economic conditions and industry consolidation.

Professional Services Company Risk.   Professional services companies may be materially impacted by economic conditions and related fluctuations in client demand for marketing, business, technology and other consulting services. Professional services companies’ success depends in large part on attracting and retaining key employees and a failure to do so could adversely affect a company’s business. There are relatively few barriers to entry into the professional services market, and new competitors could readily seek to compete in one or more market segments, which could adversely affect a professional services company’s operating results through pricing pressure and loss of market share.
Information Technology Sector Risk.   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk.   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.

Semiconductor Company Risk.   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk.   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence.
 
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Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of the Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Innovative Technology Risk.   Companies that are developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. A company may not currently derive any revenue from innovative technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. An innovative technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of an innovative technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Investable Universe of Companies Risk.   The investable universe of companies in which the Fund may invest is limited. If a company no longer meets the criteria for inclusion in the Index, the Fund may need to reduce or eliminate its holdings in that company from the Fund. The reduction or elimination of the Fund’s holdings in the company may have an adverse impact on the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings and on Fund performance.
Israel Risk.   Because the Fund invests in securities of Israeli Companies, the Fund may be exposed to special risks and considerations. There may be less information concerning the securities of Israeli Companies available to the public than the securities of U.S. companies. There is also potential difficulty in obtaining or enforcing a court judgment, and the unique characteristics of securities of Israeli Companies and the Israel stock market may have a negative impact on the Fund. Any major hostilities involving Israel, including hostilities with neighboring countries, or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, could have a negative impact on the Fund. Shares and dividends of Israeli Companies are often Israeli new shekel (“ILS”) denominated. Changes in the relationship of the ILS to the U.S. dollar and other currencies could have a negative impact on the Fund. The government of Israel may change the way in which Israeli Companies are taxed, or may impose taxes on foreign investment. Such actions could have an adverse impact on the overall market for securities of Israeli Companies and on the Fund.
Issuer Risk.   The Fund is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies are generally less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the
 
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value of large-capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of companies with smaller market capitalizations.
Market Risk.   The value of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of the Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of the Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Fund invests. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of the Fund’s investments, increase the Fund’s volatility, negatively impact the Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to the Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. The Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger, more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities.
Non-Diversified Risk.   The Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act. Therefore, the Fund may invest a relatively higher percentage of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on the Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Portfolio Turnover Risk.   The Index is adjusted to add or remove companies once per quarter and upon certain extraordinary events or corporate actions affecting a company that is included in the Index. As companies leave and enter the Index, the Fund’s portfolio will be adjusted to match the current Index composition. This process can result in the realization of capital gains or losses and can have adverse tax consequences for you as an investor. Because the Fund will buy and sell securities as needed to maintain its correlation to the Index, portfolio turnover in the Fund may be substantial.
 
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Replication Management Risk.   An investment in the Fund involves risks similar to those of investing in any fund of equity securities traded on an exchange, such as market fluctuations caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in security prices. However, because the Fund is not “actively” managed, unless a specific security is removed from the Index through quarterly rebalancing or otherwise because it no longer qualifies to be included in the Index, the Fund generally will not sell a security because the security’s issuer is in financial trouble. Therefore, the Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers.
Sampling Risk.   The Fund’s use of a representative sampling approach may result in it holding a smaller number of securities than are in the Index. As a result, an adverse development respecting an issuer of securities held by the Fund could result in a greater decline in NAV than would be the case if the Fund held all of the securities in the Index. Conversely, a positive development relating to an issuer of securities in the Index that is not held by the Fund could cause the Fund to underperform the Index. To the extent the assets in the Fund are smaller, these risks will be greater. A representative sampling strategy may increase the Fund’s susceptibility to Index Tracking Risk.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Small- and medium-capitalization companies may be more volatile and more likely than large-capitalization companies to have narrower product lines, fewer financial resources, less management depth and experience and less competitive strength. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of large-capitalization companies.
Performance
The following bar chart and table provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows changes in the Fund’s performance from year to year. The table shows how the Fund’s average annual returns for 1 year and since the Fund’s inception compare with those of the Index, the S&P 500 Index, the MSCI World Index and the MSCI Israeli Index. The S&P 500 Index is a widely recognized capitalization-weighted index that measures the performance of the large-capitalization sector of the U.S. stock market. The MSCI World Index represents large and mid-cap equity performance across 23 developed markets countries. Returns shown for the MSCI World Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. investors. The MSCI Israeli Index is designed to measure the performance of the large and mid-cap segments of the Israeli equity market. Returns shown for the MSCI Israeli Index are net of foreign withholding taxes applicable to U.S. Investors. The Fund’s past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available at no cost by visiting http://ark-funds.com or by calling (212) 426-7040.
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The Fund’s year-to-date total return as of October 31, 2021 was 4.34%.
 
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Best and Worst Quarter Returns (for the period reflected in the bar chart above)
Return
Quarter/Year
Highest Return
36.59% 6/30/2020
Lowest Return
-21.83%
3/31/2020
Average Annual Total Returns as of December 31, 2020
1 Year
Since
Inception(1)
Returns Before Taxes
32.41% 15.46%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions(2)
32.41% 14.76%
Returns After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares(2)
19.19% 11.81%
ARK Israeli Innovation Index
35.24% 16.55%
S&P 500 Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
18.40% 14.34%
MSCI World Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
15.90% 10.89%
MSCI Israeli Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
15.05% 8.51%
(1)
The Fund commenced operations on December 5, 2017.
(2)
After-tax returns are calculated using the highest historical individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on your tax situation and may differ from those shown and are not relevant if you hold your shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts.
Management of the Fund
Investment Adviser.   ARK Investment Management LLC.
Portfolio Manager.   The following individual has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the inception of the Fund: Catherine D. Wood.
Purchase and Sale of Shares and Tax Information
For important information about the purchase and sale of Shares, tax information and financial intermediary compensation, please turn to “Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries” in this prospectus.
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Summary Information About Purchases and Sales of Fund Shares, Tax Information and Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares at their NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof, and only with APs who have entered into contractual arrangements with the Fund’s distributor (“Distributor”).
Individual Shares (rather than Creation Units) of a Fund may only be purchased and sold on a national securities exchange through a broker or dealer at market price. The prices at which individual Shares may be purchased and sold on a national securities exchange through brokers are based on market prices and, because Shares will trade at market prices rather than at NAV, individual Shares of a Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV. Shares of ARK Innovation ETF, ARK Next Generation Internet ETF and ARK Fintech Innovation ETF are listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Arca”). Shares of ARK Genomic Revolution ETF, ARK Autonomous Technology & Robotics ETF and ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF (together with ARK Innovation ETF, ARK Next Generation Internet ETF and ARK Fintech Innovation ETF, the “Actively-Managed Funds”) are listed on the Cboe BZX Exchange (“Cboe,” and together with Arca, an “Exchange”). Shares of The 3D Printing ETF and of ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF (together, the “Index Funds”) are listed on the Cboe.
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”).
Recent information, including information about the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, is included on the Fund’s website at http://ark-funds.com.
Tax Information
Each Fund’s distributions are taxable and generally will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains.
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
The Adviser and its related companies may pay broker/dealers or other financial intermediaries (such as a bank) for the sale of the Fund Shares and related services. These payments create a conflict of interest by influencing your broker/dealer, sales persons or other intermediary or its employees or associated persons to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your financial adviser or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.
 
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUNDS’ INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS
Investment Objective of each Fund
Each Fund’s investment objective is non-fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Trustees (“Board”) of ARK ETF Trust (“Trust”) without shareholder approval. There is no assurance that a Fund will meet its investment objective.
Principal Investment Strategies
Actively-Managed Funds
The Adviser may cause an Actively-Managed Fund to sell a security when the Adviser believes the issuer is no longer relevant to the applicable investment theme, or the security is overvalued or ceases to be an attractive investment due to, among other reasons, unfavorable sector-, industry- or issuer-specific developments.
Index Funds
The Adviser anticipates that, generally, each Index Fund will hold or gain exposure to all of the securities that constitute that Index Fund’s respective Index in proportion to that Index Fund’s weightings in its Index. However, under various circumstances, it may not be possible or practicable to purchase all of those securities in those weightings. In these circumstances, an Index Fund may purchase a sample of securities in its Index. There also may be instances in which the Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in an Index, purchase securities not in the Index that the Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Index or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques in seeking to replicate as closely as possible, before fees and expenses, the performance of the Index. An Index Fund may sell securities that are represented in its Index in anticipation of their removal from its Index or purchase securities not represented in its Index in anticipation of their addition to its Index. An Index Fund may also, in order to comply with the tax diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Internal Revenue Code”), temporarily invest in securities not included in its Index that are expected to be highly correlated with the securities included in its Index.
Principal Risks
The value of your investment in a Fund, as well as the amount of return you receive on your investment in the Fund, may fluctuate significantly. You may lose part or all of your investment in a Fund or your investment may not perform as well as other similar investments. Therefore, you should consider carefully the following risks before investing in a Fund.
Principal Risks Applicable to All Funds
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk.   A Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs on an agency basis (i.e., on behalf of other market participants). To the extent that those APs exit the business or are unable to process creation and/or redemption orders, and no other AP is able to step forward to create and redeem in either of these cases, Shares may possibly trade at a discount to NAV. The AP risk may be heightened in the case of ETFs investing internationally because international ETFs often require APs to post collateral, which only certain APs are able to do.
Currency Risk.   Changes in currency exchange rates will affect the value of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, the value of dividends and interest earned from such securities, gains and losses realized on the sale of such securities, and derivative transactions tied to such securities. Foreign currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly. They are determined by supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets, the relative merits of investments in different countries,
 
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actual or perceived changes in interest rates, and other complex factors. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention (or the failure to intervene) by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or by currency controls or political developments. A strong U.S. dollar relative to other currencies will adversely affect the value of a Fund’s investments denominated in those other currencies.
Cyber Security Risk.   As the use of Internet technology has become more prevalent in the course of business, funds have become more susceptible to potential operational risks through breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events from external or internal sources that may cause a Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, lose operational capacity, or result in unauthorized access to confidential information. Such events could prevent a Fund from engaging in normal business activities and cause a Fund to incur regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures and/or financial loss. Cyber security breaches may involve, among other things, unauthorized access to a Fund’s digital information systems through “hacking” or malicious software coding, ransomware attaches that impair a Fund’s ability to access its data or systems until a ransom is paid, or denial-of-service attacks that make network services unavailable to intended users. In addition, cyber security breaches of a Fund’s third-party service providers, such as its adviser, administrator, transfer agent or custodian, a Fund’s trading counterparties, and issuers in which a Fund invests, can also subject a Fund to many of the same risks associated with direct cyber security breaches. Cyber security breaches experienced by an issuer in which a Fund invests can also impact the value of the Fund’s investment in that issuer. While the Funds have established business continuity plans and risk management systems designed to reduce the risks associated with cyber security, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems. Additionally, there is no guarantee that such efforts will succeed, especially because the Funds do not directly control the cyber security systems of their third-party service providers, trading counterparties, or issuers.
Depositary Receipts Risk.   Depositary receipts generally involve similar risks to those associated with investments in foreign securities. Depositary receipts are securities that are typically issued by a bank or trust company that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation and entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains that are paid out on the underlying foreign securities. The issuers of certain depositary receipts are under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications to the holders of such receipts, or to pass through to them any voting rights with respect to the deposited securities. Investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market. Depositary receipts may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the underlying securities into which they may be converted. In addition, the issuers of the stock underlying unsponsored depositary receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States. With respect to the Index Funds, investments in depositary receipts may be less liquid than the underlying shares in their primary trading market and, if not included in an Index, may negatively affect an Index Fund’s ability to replicate the performance of the Index. In addition, investments in depositary receipts that are not included in the Index may increase tracking error.
Equity Securities Risk.   The value of the equity securities that a Fund holds will fall due to general market and economic conditions, perceptions regarding the industries in which the issuers of such securities participate or factors relating to specific companies in which a Fund invests. An unfavorable earnings report or a failure to make anticipated dividend payments by an issuer whose securities are held by the Fund may affect the value of the Fund’s investment. Equity securities may also be particularly sensitive to general movements in the stock market, and a decline in the broader market may affect the value of the Fund’s equity investments.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs).   The Funds may invest in stocks of, warrants to purchase stock of, and other interests in SPACs or similar special purposes entities. A SPAC is a publicly traded company that raises investment capital for the purpose of acquiring or merging with an existing company. Because SPACs and similar entities are so-called “blank check companies” and do not have any operating history or ongoing
 
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business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the SPAC’s management to identify a merger target and complete an acquisition. An investment in a SPAC or similar entity is subject to a variety of risks, including that (i) a significant portion of the monies raised by the SPAC for the purpose of identifying and effecting an acquisition or merger may be expended during the search for a target transaction; (ii) an attractive acquisition or merger target may not be identified at all and the SPAC will be required to return any remaining monies to shareholders; (iii) any proposed merger or acquisition may be unable to obtain the requisite approval, if any, of SPAC shareholders; (iv) an acquisition or merger once effected may prove unsuccessful and an investment in the SPAC may lose value; (v) the warrants or other rights with respect to the SPAC held by a Fund may expire worthless or may be repurchased or retired by the SPAC at an unfavorable price; (vi) a Fund may be delayed in receiving any redemption or liquidation proceeds from a SPAC to which it is entitled; (vii) an investment in an SPAC may be diluted by additional later offerings of interests in the SPAC or by other investors exercising existing rights to purchase shares of the SPAC; (viii) no or only a thinly traded market for shares of or interests in an SPAC may develop, leaving a Fund unable to sell its interest in an SPAC or to sell its interest only at a price below what the Fund believes is the SPAC interest’s intrinsic value; and (ix) the values of investments in SPACs may be highly volatile and may depreciate significantly over time. Until an acquisition or merger is completed, a SPAC generally invests its assets, less a portion retained to cover expenses, in U.S. government securities, money market securities and cash and does not typically pay dividends in respect of its common stock. As a result, it is possible that an investment in a SPAC may lose value.
Foreign Securities Risk.   Investment in the securities of foreign issuers involves risks beyond those associated with investments in U.S. securities. These additional risks include greater market volatility, the availability of less reliable financial information, higher transactional and custody costs, taxation by foreign governments, decreased market liquidity and political instability. Because many foreign securities markets may be limited in size, the prices of securities that trade in such markets may be influenced by large traders. Certain foreign markets that have historically been considered relatively stable may become volatile in response to changed conditions or new developments. Increased interconnectivity of world economies and financial markets increases the possibility that adverse developments and conditions in one country or region will affect the stability of economies and financial markets in other countries or regions. Foreign issuers are often subject to less stringent requirements regarding accounting, auditing, financial reporting and record keeping than are U.S. issuers, and therefore, not all material information may be available or reliable. Securities exchanges or foreign governments may adopt rules or regulations that may negatively impact a Fund’s ability to invest in foreign securities or may prevent the Fund from repatriating its investments. In addition, a Fund may not receive shareholder communications or be permitted to vote the securities that it holds, as the issuers may be under no legal obligation to distribute shareholder communications.
Certain issuers located in foreign countries in which a Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. Government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer which operates in, or has dealings with, such countries. A Fund, as an investor in such issuers, will be indirectly subject to those risks.
Securities registration, custody, and settlement may in some instances be subject to delays and legal and administrative uncertainties. Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain foreign countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions or controls may at times limit or preclude investment in certain securities and may increase the costs and expenses of a Fund. Because of these restrictions, a Fund may invest in entities that provide economic exposure to specific foreign issuers through contractual arrangements, but do not provide the entities or a Fund with ownership interests in those foreign issuers. Changes in law or regulation could significantly harm the value of a Fund’s investments in such entities. In addition, the repatriation of investment
 
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income, capital or the proceeds of sales of securities from certain of the countries is controlled under regulations, including in some cases the need for certain advance government notification or authority, and if a deterioration occurs in a country’s balance of payments, the country could impose temporary restrictions on foreign capital remittances. A Fund also could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation, as well as by the application to it of other restrictions on investment.
International Closed-Market Trading Risk.   Because certain of a Fund’s underlying securities trade on an exchange that is closed when the securities exchange on which Fund Shares list and trade is open, there are likely to be deviations between the current pricing of an underlying security and stale security pricing (i.e., the last quote from its closed foreign market), likely resulting in premiums or discounts to NAV that may be greater than those experienced by ETFs that do not invest in foreign securities.
Issuer Risk.   Because a Fund may invest in a limited number of issuers, it is subject to the risk that the value of the Fund’s portfolio may decline due to a decline in value of the equity securities of particular issuers. The value of an issuer’s equity securities may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services. The value of an individual security or particular type of security can be more volatile than the market as a whole and can perform differently from the value of the market as a whole. The value of securities of smaller issuers can be more volatile than that of larger issuers. A change in the financial condition, market perception or credit rating of an issuer of securities included in a Fund’s portfolio may cause the value of its securities to decline.
Large-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Large-capitalization companies tend to go in and out of favor based on market and economic conditions. Large-capitalization companies generally are less volatile than companies with smaller market capitalizations. In exchange for this potentially lower risk, the value of large capitalization companies may not rise as much as that of smaller-capitalization companies.
Market Risk.   The value of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate as the markets in which the Fund invests fluctuate. The value of a Fund’s investments may decline, sometimes rapidly and unpredictably, simply because of economic changes or other events, such as inflation (or expectations for inflation), deflation (or expectations for deflation), interest rates, global demand for particular products or resources, market instability, debt crises and downgrades, embargoes, tariffs, sanctions and other trade barriers, regulatory events, other governmental trade or market control programs and related geopolitical events. In addition, the value of a Fund’s investments may be negatively affected by the occurrence of global events such as war, terrorism, environmental disasters, natural disasters or events, political instability, and infectious disease epidemics or pandemics.
For example, the outbreak of COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has negatively affected economies, markets and individual companies throughout the world, including those in which the Funds invest. The effects of this pandemic to public health and business and market conditions, including exchange trading suspensions and closures may continue to have a significant negative impact on the performance of a Fund’s investments, increase a Fund’s volatility, negatively impact a Fund’s arbitrage and pricing mechanisms, exacerbate pre-existing political, social and economic risks to a Fund, and negatively impact broad segments of businesses and populations. A Fund’s operations may be interrupted as a result, which may contribute to the negative impact on investment performance. In addition, governments, their regulatory agencies, or self-regulatory organizations may take actions in response to the pandemic that affect the instruments in which a Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s investment performance. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future epidemics or pandemics, is currently unknown.
Market Trading Risk.   Each Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including disruptions to the creation and redemption processes of the Fund, losses from trading in secondary markets, the existence of extreme market volatility, the potential lack of an active trading market for Shares due
 
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to market stress, or trading halts impacting the Shares or the Fund’s underlying securities, which may result in Shares trading at a significant premium or discount to their NAV. The NAV of Shares will fluctuate with changes in the market value of a Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of Shares will fluctuate in accordance with changes in their NAV and supply and demand on an Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether Shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for Shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time. If a shareholder purchases Shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells Shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses. Any of these factors, discussed above and further below, may lead to Shares trading at a premium or discount to a Fund’s NAV.
While Shares are listed on an exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for the Shares will be maintained. Further, secondary markets may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods in times of market stress because market makers and APs may step away from making a market in the Shares and in executing creation and redemption orders, which could cause a material deviation in a Fund’s market price from its NAV. The Funds’ distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the Shares. Investors purchasing and selling shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those APs creating and redeeming directly with a Fund.
Decisions by market makers or APs to reduce their role or “step away” from these activities in times of market stress could inhibit the effectiveness of the arbitrage process in maintaining the relationship between the underlying value of a Fund’s portfolio securities and the Fund’s market price. This reduced effectiveness could result in Fund Shares trading at a price which differs materially from NAV and also in greater than normal intraday bid/ask spreads for Fund Shares.
Shareholder Risk.   Certain shareholders, including other funds advised by the Adviser, may from time to time own a substantial amount of a Fund’s Shares. In addition, a third-party investor, the Adviser or an affiliate of the Adviser, an AP, a market maker, or another entity may invest in a Fund and hold its investment for a limited period of time. There can be no assurance that any large shareholder would not redeem its investment. Redemptions by shareholders could have a negative impact on a Fund. In addition, transactions by large shareholders may account for a large percentage of the trading volume on an exchange and may, therefore, have a material effect on the market price of the Shares.
Operational Risk.   A Fund is exposed to operational risk arising from a number of factors, including but not limited to, human error, processing and communication errors, errors of the Fund’s service providers, counterparties or other third parties, failed or inadequate processes and technology or system failures. Additionally, the success of a Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with a Fund.
Trading Issues.   Trading in Shares on an Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on an Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to the Exchange’s “circuit breaker” rules. If a trading halt or unanticipated early closing of the Exchange occurs, a shareholder may be unable to purchase or sell Shares of a Fund. There can be no assurance that the requirements of an Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of a Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged.
Micro-Capitalization Companies Risk.   Micro-capitalization companies are subject to substantially greater risks of loss and price fluctuations because their earnings and revenues tend to be less predictable (and some companies may be experiencing significant losses). Their share prices tend to be more volatile and their markets less liquid than companies with larger market capitalizations. The shares of micro-capitalization companies tend to trade less frequently than those of larger,
 
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more established companies, which can adversely affect the pricing of these securities and the future ability to sell these securities. In addition, because these companies are not well-known to the investing public, do not have significant institutional ownership and are followed by relatively few security analysts, there will normally be less publicly available information concerning their securities compared to what is available for the securities of larger companies. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, regardless of whether the perceptions are based on fundamental analysis, can decrease the value and liquidity of securities held by a Fund.
Non-Diversified Risk.   Investment companies are classified as either “diversified” or “non-diversified” under the 1940 Act. Each Fund is classified as a “non-diversified” investment company under the 1940 Act, although each is diversified for Internal Revenue Code purposes. An investment company classified as “diversified” under the 1940 Act is subject to certain limitations with respect to the value of the company’s assets invested in particular issuers. As a non-diversified investment company, each Fund is subject to the risk that it will be more volatile than a diversified fund because the Fund may invest a relatively higher proportion of its assets in a relatively smaller number of issuers or may invest a larger proportion of its assets in a single issuer. As a result, the gains and losses on a single investment may have a greater impact on a Fund’s NAV and may make the Fund more volatile than more diversified funds.
Small- and Medium-Capitalization Companies Risk.   A Fund may invest in small- and medium-capitalization companies and, therefore, will be subject to certain risks associated with small- and medium-capitalization companies. These companies are often subject to less analyst coverage and may be in early and less predictable periods of their corporate existences, with little or no record of profitability. In addition, these companies often have greater price volatility, lower trading volume and less liquidity than larger more established companies. Small- and medium-capitalization companies tend to have smaller revenues, narrower product lines, less management depth and experience, smaller shares of their product or service markets, fewer financial resources and less competitive strength than large-capitalization companies. Returns on investments in securities of small- and medium-capitalization companies could trail the returns on investments in securities of larger capitalization companies.
Sector Risk.   Each Fund may, from time to time, invest more heavily in companies in a particular economic sector or sectors. Economic or regulatory changes adversely affecting such sectors may have more of an impact on a Fund’s performance than if the Fund held a broader range of investments.
Additional Principal Risks Applicable to the Actively-Managed Funds
Disruptive Innovation Risk.   Companies that the Adviser believes are capitalizing on disruptive innovation and developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. These companies may also be exposed to risks applicable to sectors other than the disruptive innovation theme for which they are chosen, and the securities issued by these companies may underperform the securities of other companies that are primarily focused on a particular theme. The Actively-Managed Funds may invest in a company that does not currently derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from disruptive innovations or technologies in the future. A disruptive innovation or technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of a disruptive innovation or technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Emerging Market Securities Risk.   Investment in securities (including depositary receipts) of emerging market issuers may present risks that are greater than or different from those associated with foreign securities due to less developed and liquid markets and such factors as increased social, economic, political, regulatory, or other uncertainties. These risks include: smaller market
 
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capitalization of and less liquidity in securities markets, significant price volatility, restrictions on foreign investment and repatriation, greater social, economic and political uncertainty and instability, civil conflicts and war, more substantial governmental involvement in the economy, less governmental supervision and regulation, sanctions or other measures by the United States or other governments, higher transaction costs, unavailability of currency hedging techniques, less stringent investor protection standards, differences in accounting, auditing, financial reporting and recordkeeping standards, which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers and less developed legal systems. In addition, a Fund is limited in its ability to exercise its legal rights or enforce a counterparty’s legal obligations in certain jurisdictions outside of the United States, in particular, in emerging markets countries. In certain markets where securities and other instruments are not traded “delivery versus payment,” a Fund may not receive timely payment for securities or other instruments it has delivered or receive delivery of securities paid for and may be subject to increased risk that the counterparty will fail to make payments or delivery when due or default completely. In addition, emerging markets may be particularly sensitive to future economic or political crises, which could lead to or exacerbate existing price controls, forced mergers, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization or creation of government monopolies. Emerging market currencies may experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar. Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates have had, and may continue to have, negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain emerging market countries. In addition, emerging securities markets may have different clearance and settlement procedures, which may be unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions or otherwise make it difficult to engage in such transactions. Settlement problems may cause an Actively-Managed Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, hold a portion of its assets in cash pending investment, or be delayed in disposing of a portfolio security. Such a delay could result in possible liability to a purchaser of the security. Events and evolving conditions in certain economies or markets may alter the risks associated with investments tied to countries or regions that historically were perceived as comparatively stable becoming riskier and more volatile. These risks are magnified in emerging markets.
Management Risk.   As actively-managed ETFs, the Actively-Managed Funds are subject to management risk. In managing the Actively-Managed Funds, the Adviser applies investment strategies, techniques and analyses in making investment decisions for the Actively-Managed Funds, but there can be no guarantee that these actions will produce the intended results. The ability of the Adviser to successfully implement an Actively-Managed Fund’s investment strategies will significantly influence the Actively-Managed Fund’s performance. The success of a Fund will depend in part upon the skill and expertise of certain key personnel of the Adviser, and there can be no assurance that any such personnel will continue to be associated with a Fund.
Additional Principal Risks Applicable to the Index Funds:
Index Tracking Risk.   An Index Fund’s return may not track the performance of the Index for a number of reasons. For example, an Index Fund incurs a number of operating expenses not applicable to the applicable Index and incurs costs associated with buying and selling securities, especially when rebalancing the Index Fund’s securities holdings to reflect changes in the composition of the applicable Index. An Index Fund also bears the costs and risks associated with buying and selling securities while such costs and risks are not factored into the return of the applicable Index. When the Index Fund’s Index is rebalanced and the Index Fund in turn rebalances its portfolio to attempt to increase the correlation between the Index Fund’s portfolio and its applicable Index, any transaction costs and market exposure arising from such portfolio rebalancing will be borne directly by the Index Fund and its shareholders. Apart from scheduled rebalances, the Index provider or its agents may carry out additional ad hoc rebalances to the Index Fund’s applicable Index, which may increase the costs to and the tracking error risk of the Index Fund. In addition, the Index Fund may not be able to invest in certain securities included in the applicable Index or may not be able to invest in them in the exact proportions in which they are represented in the applicable Index, due to legal restrictions or limitations imposed by the governments of certain
 
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countries, potential adverse tax consequences or other regulatory reasons. The risk that the Index Fund may not track the performance of the applicable Index may be magnified during times of heightened market volatility or other unusual market conditions. A lack of liquidity may be due to various events, including markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Illiquid securities may be difficult to value and their value may be lower than market price of comparable liquid securities, which would negatively affect the Index Fund’s performance. To the extent the Index Fund calculates its NAV based on “fair value” prices for certain securities and the value of the applicable Index is based on securities’ closing prices (i.e., the value of the Index is not based on “fair value” prices), the Index Fund’s ability to track the applicable Index may be adversely affected. For tax efficiency purposes, the Index Fund may sell certain securities to realize losses causing it to deviate from the applicable Index. Errors in the construction or calculation of the applicable Index may occur from time to time and any such errors may not be immediately identified and corrected by Solactive, which may have an adverse impact on the Index Fund and its shareholders.
Investable Universe of Companies Risk.   The investable universe of companies in which an Index Fund may invest may be limited. If a company no longer meets the criteria for inclusion in an Index, the applicable Index Fund may need to reduce or eliminate its holdings in that company from the Index Fund. The reduction or elimination of the Index Fund’s holdings in the company may have an adverse impact on the liquidity of the Index Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings and on Index Fund performance.
Portfolio Turnover Risk.   An Index is adjusted to add or remove companies once per quarter and upon certain extraordinary events or corporate actions affecting a company that is included in the applicable Index. As companies leave and enter an Index, an Index Fund’s portfolio will be adjusted to match the applicable Index’s current composition. This practice can result in the realization of capital gains or losses and can have adverse tax consequences for you as an investor. Because an Index Fund will buy and sell securities as needed to maintain its correlation to the applicable Index, portfolio turnover in an Index Fund may be substantial.
Replication Management Risk.   An Index Fund is managed to replicate, before fees and expenses, the performance of its Index. Therefore, unless a specific security is removed from an Index on a quarterly basis or otherwise removed from an Index because it no longer qualifies to be included in the Index, an Index Fund generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer is in financial trouble. If a specific security is removed from an Index, it is possible that an Index Fund may be forced to sell such security at an inopportune time or for prices other than at current market values, which could have a negative effect on the Index Fund’s performance. In addition, an Index may not contain an appropriate or a diversified mix of securities for any particular economic cycle. Because the Index Funds seek to replicate the performance of their respective Indices, the Adviser will not use techniques or defensive strategies designed to lessen the effects of market volatility or to reduce the impact of periods of market decline. Thus, based on market and economic conditions, an Index Fund’s performance could be lower than funds that actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline or a decline in the value of one or more issuers. Further, the Index Funds will not invest in money market instruments as part of a temporary defensive strategy to protect against potential securities market declines.
Sampling Risk.   An Index Fund’s use of a representative sampling approach may result in it holding a smaller number of securities than are in its applicable Index. As a result, an adverse development respecting an issuer of securities held by the Index Fund could result in a greater decline in NAV than would be the case if the Index Fund held all of the securities in the applicable Index. Conversely, a positive development relating to an issuer of securities in an Index that is not held by the applicable Index Fund could cause the Index Fund to underperform the applicable Index. To the extent the assets in the Index Fund are smaller, these risks will be greater. A representative sampling strategy may increase the Index Fund’s susceptibility to Index Tracking Risk.
 
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Additional Principal Risks Applicable to Specific Funds
Blockchain Investments Risk (ARKW and ARKF).   An investment in companies actively engaged in blockchain technology may be subject to the following risks:

The technology is new and many of its uses may be untested.   The mechanics of using distributed ledger technology to transact in other types of assets, such as securities or derivatives, is relatively new and untested. There is no assurance that widespread adoption will occur. A lack of expansion in the usage of blockchain technology could adversely affect an investment in ARKW or ARKF. A breach to one blockchain could cause investors, and the public generally, to lose trust in blockchain technology and increase reluctance to issue and invest in assets recorded on blockchains. Furthermore, blockchain technology is subject to a rapidly-evolving regulatory landscape in the United States and in other countries, which might include security, privacy or other regulatory concerns that could require changes to blockchain networks.

Theft, loss or destruction.   Transacting on a blockchain depends in part specifically on the use of cryptographic keys that are required to access a user’s account (or “wallet”). The theft, loss or destruction of these keys impairs the value of ownership claims users have over the relevant assets being represented by the ledger (whether “smart contracts,” securities, currency or other digital assets). The theft, loss or destruction of private or public keys needed to transact on a blockchain could also adversely affect a company’s business or operations if it were dependent on the ledger.

Competing platforms and technologies.   The development and acceptance of competing platforms or technologies may cause consumers or investors to use an alternative to blockchains.

Cyber security incidents.   Cyber security incidents may compromise an issuer, its operations or its business. Cyber security incidents may also specifically target a user’s transaction history, digital assets, or identity, thereby leading to privacy concerns. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Developmental risk.   Blockchain technology may never develop optimized transactional processes that lead to realized economic returns for any company in which ARKW or ARKF invests. Companies that are developing applications of blockchain technology applications may not in fact do so or may not be able to capitalize on those blockchain technologies. The development of new or competing platforms may cause consumers and investors to use alternatives to blockchains.

Intellectual property claims.   A proliferation of recent startups attempting to apply blockchain technology in different contexts means the possibility of conflicting intellectual property claims could be a risk to an issuer, its operations or its business. This could also pose a risk to blockchain platforms that permit transactions in digital securities. Regardless of the merit of any intellectual property or other legal action, any threatened action that reduces confidence in the viability of blockchain may adversely affect an investment in ARKW or ARKF.

Lack of liquid markets, and possible manipulation of blockchain-based assets.   Digital assets that are represented and trade on a blockchain may not necessarily benefit from viable trading markets. Stock exchanges have listing requirements and vet issuers, and perhaps users. These conditions may not necessarily be replicated on a blockchain, depending on the platform’s controls and other policies. The more lenient a blockchain is about vetting issuers of digital assets or users that transact on the platform, the higher the potential risk for fraud or the manipulation of digital assets. These factors may decrease liquidity or volume, or increase volatility of digital securities or other assets trading on a blockchain.
 
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Lack of regulation.   Digital commodities and their associated platforms are largely unregulated, and the regulatory environment is rapidly evolving. Because blockchain works by having every transaction build on every other transaction, participants can self-police any corruption, which can mitigate the need to depend on the current level of legal or government safeguards to monitor and control the flow of business transactions. As a result, companies engaged in such blockchain activities may be exposed to adverse regulatory action, fraudulent activity or even failure.

Third party product defects or vulnerabilities.   Where blockchain systems are built using third party products, those products may contain technical defects or vulnerabilities beyond a company’s control. Open-source technologies that are used to build a blockchain application may also introduce defects and vulnerabilities.

Reliance on the Internet.   Blockchain functionality relies on the Internet. A significant disruption of Internet connectivity affecting large numbers of users or geographic areas could impede the functionality of blockchain technologies and adversely affect ARKW or ARKF. In addition, certain features of blockchain technology, such as decentralization, open source protocol, and reliance on peer-to-peer connectivity, may increase the risk of fraud or cyber-attack by potentially reducing the likelihood of a coordinated response.

Line of business risk.   Some of the companies in which ARKW or ARKF may invest are engaged in other lines of business unrelated to blockchain and these lines of business could adversely affect their operating results. The operating results of these companies may fluctuate as a result of these additional risks and events in the other lines of business. In addition, a company’s ability to engage in new activities may expose it to business risks with which it has less experience than it has with the business risks associated with its traditional businesses. Despite a company’s possible success in activities linked to its use of blockchain, there can be no assurance that the other lines of business in which these companies are engaged will not have an adverse effect on a company’s business or financial condition.
Communications Sector Risk (ARKK, ARKW, ARKF and ARKX).   ARKK, ARKW, ARKF or ARKX will be more affected by the performance of the communications sector than a fund with less exposure to such sector. Communication companies are particularly vulnerable to the potential obsolescence of products and services due to technological advancement and the innovation of competitors. Companies in the communications sector may also be affected by other competitive pressures, such as pricing competition, as well as research and development costs, substantial capital requirements and government regulation. Additionally, fluctuating domestic and international demand, shifting demographics and often unpredictable changes in consumer tastes can drastically affect a communication company’s profitability. While all companies may be susceptible to network security breaches, certain companies in the communications sector may be particular targets of hacking and potential theft of proprietary or consumer information or disruptions in service, which could have a material adverse effect on their businesses.
Concentration Risk (All Funds except ARKK).   The assets of ARKG, ARKQ, ARKW, ARKF, ARKX, PRNT and IZRL will be concentrated in securities of issuers having their principal business activities in a sector or sectors or an industry or group of industries. To the extent that these Funds continue to be concentrated in a sector or sectors or in an industry or group of industries, each will be subject to the risk that economic, political or other conditions that have a negative effect on that sector or sectors or industry or group of industries will negatively impact them to a greater extent than if their assets were invested in a wider variety of sectors or industries.
Consumer Discretionary Risk (ARKK, ARKQ and ARKW).   The consumer discretionary sector may be affected by changes in domestic and international economies, exchange and interest rates, competition, consumers’ disposable income and consumer preferences, social trends and marketing campaigns.
 
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Cryptocurrency Risk (ARKK and ARKW).   Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. ARKK and ARKW may have exposure to bitcoin indirectly through an investment in the Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (“GBTC”), a privately offered, open-end investment vehicle that invests in bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government, corporation, or other entity. Cryptocurrency is not generally accepted as legal tender. Regulation of cryptocurrency is still developing. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the development, use, or exchange of cryptocurrency.
The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations. The price of bitcoin could fall sharply (potentially to zero) for various reasons, including, but not limited to, regulatory changes, issues impacting the bitcoin network, events involving entities that facilitate transactions in bitcoin, or changes in user preferences in favor of alternative cryptocurrencies. Furthermore, events that impact one cryptocurrency may lead to a decline in the value of other cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated. Therefore, cryptocurrency exchanges may be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. Cryptocurrency exchanges may not have the same features as traditional exchanges to enhance the stability of trading on the exchange, such as measures designed to prevent sudden price swings such as “flash crashes.” As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies on exchanges may be subject to more volatility than traditional assets traded on regulated exchanges. Cryptocurrency exchanges are also subject to cyber security risks. Cryptocurrency exchanges have experienced cyber security breaches in the past and may be breached in the future, which could result in the theft and/or loss of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and impact the value of bitcoin. Furthermore, cyber security events, legal or regulatory actions, fraud, and technical glitches, may cause a cryptocurrency exchange to shut down temporarily or permanently, which may also affect the value of bitcoin.
ARKK’s and ARKW’s investments in GBTC expose ARKK and ARKW to all of the risks related to cryptocurrencies described above and also expose ARKK and ARKW to risks related to GBTC directly. Shares of GBTC may trade at a significant premium or discount to NAV. To the extent GBTC trades at a discount to NAV, the value of ARKK’s or ARKW’s investment in GBTC would typically decrease. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. If GBTC experiences theft, loss, or destruction of its bitcoin holdings, ARKK’s or ARKW’s investments in GBTC could be harmed. Furthermore, because there is no guarantee that an active trading market for GBTC will exist at any time, ARKK’s or ARKW’s investments in GBTC may also be subject to liquidity risk, which can impair the value of ARKK’s or ARKW’s investments in GBTC. Investors may experience losses if the value of ARKK’s or ARKW’s investments in GBTC decline.
Cryptocurrency Tax Risk (ARKK and ARKW).   Many significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of investments in bitcoin are uncertain and an investment in bitcoin may produce income that is not treated as qualifying income for purposes of the income test applicable to regulated investment companies. GBTC is expected to be treated as a grantor trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and an investment by ARKK or ARKW in GBTC will generally be treated as a direct investment in bitcoin for such purposes. See “Taxes” in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information for more information.
Financial Sector Risk (ARKF).   The factors that impact the financial sector will likely have a greater effect on ARKF than on a fund with less exposure to such sector. Companies in the financial sector are especially subject to the adverse effects of economic recession, decreases in the availability of
 
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capital, volatile interest rates, portfolio concentrations in geographic markets and in commercial and residential real estate loans, and competition from new entrants in their fields of business. These industries are still extensively regulated at both the federal and state level and may be adversely affected by increased regulations.
Financial Technology Risk (ARKK, ARKW and ARKF).   Companies that are developing financial technologies that seek to disrupt or displace established financial institutions generally face competition from much larger and more established firms. Fintech Innovation Companies may not be able to capitalize on their disruptive technologies if they face political and/or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. Laws generally vary by country, creating some challenges to achieving scale. A Fintech Innovation Company may not currently derive any revenue, and there is no assurance that such company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. Additionally, Fintech Innovation Companies may be adversely impacted by potential rapid product obsolescence, cybersecurity attacks, increased regulatory oversight and disruptions in the technology they depend on.
Future Expected Genomic Business Risk (ARKK and ARKG).   The Adviser may invest some of ARKK’s or ARKG’s assets in Genomics Revolution Companies that do not currently derive a substantial portion of their current revenues from genomic-focused businesses and there is no assurance that any company will do so in the future, which may adversely affect the ability of ARKK or ARKG to achieve its investment objective.
Health Care Sector Risk (ARKK, ARKG and IZRL).   The profitability of companies in the health care sector may be affected by extensive government regulations, restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure, an increased emphasis on outpatient services, limited number of products, product obsolescence due to industry innovation, changes in technologies and other market developments. A major source of revenue for certain companies in the health care sector is payments from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. As a result, such companies are sensitive to legislative changes and reductions in governmental spending for such programs. Failure of health care companies to comply with applicable laws and regulations can result in the imposition of civil and/or criminal fines, penalties and, in some instances, exclusion of participation in government sponsored programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. State or local health care reform measures may also adversely affect health care companies. Health care companies will continue to be affected by the efforts of governments and third-party payors to contain or reduce health care costs. Many health care companies are heavily dependent on patent protection. The expiration of patents may adversely affect the profitability of these companies. Many health care companies are subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims. Health care companies are subject to competitive forces that may make it difficult to raise prices and, in fact, may result in price discounting. Many new products in the health care sector may be subject to regulatory approvals. The process of obtaining such approvals may be long and costly, and delays or failure to receive such approvals may negatively impact the business of such companies. Companies in the health care sector may be thinly capitalized.

Biotechnology Company Risk.   A biotechnology company’s valuation can often be based largely on the potential or actual performance of a limited number of products and can accordingly be greatly affected if one of its products proves, among other things, unsafe, ineffective or unprofitable. Biotechnology companies are subject to regulation by, and the restrictions of, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, state and local governments, and foreign regulatory authorities.

Pharmaceutical Company Risk.   Companies in the pharmaceutical industry can be significantly affected by, among other things, government approval of products and services, government regulation and reimbursement rates, product liability claims, patent expirations and protection and intense competition.
Industrials Sector Risk (ARKQ, ARKX, PRNT and IZRL).   The industrials sector includes companies engaged in aerospace and defense, electrical engineering, machinery, and professional services.
 
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Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by changes in government regulation, world events and economic conditions. In addition, companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by environmental damages, product liability claims and exchange rates.

Aerospace and Defense Company Risk (ARKQ, ARKX and IZRL).   Companies in the aerospace and defense industry rely to a large extent on U.S. (and other) Government demand for their products and services and may be significantly affected by changes in government regulations and spending, as well as economic conditions and industry consolidation.

Machinery Industry Risk (PRNT).   The machinery industry can be significantly affected by general economic trends, including employment, economic growth, and interest rates; changes in consumer sentiment and spending; overall capital spending levels, which are influenced by an individual company’s profitability and broader factors such as interest rates and foreign competition; commodity prices; technical obsolescence; labor relations legislation; government regulation and spending; import controls; and worldwide competition. Companies in this industry also can be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control.

Professional Services Company Risk (ARKQ, ARKX and IZRL).   Professional services companies may be materially impacted by economic conditions and related fluctuations in client demand for marketing, business, technology and other consulting services. Professional services companies’ success depends in large part on attracting and retaining key employees and a failure to do so could adversely affect a company’s business. There are relatively few barriers to entry into the professional services market, and new competitors could readily seek to compete in one or more market segments, which could adversely affect a professional services company’s operating results through pricing pressure and loss of market share.
Information Technology Sector Risk (All Funds except ARKG).   The information technology sector includes companies engaged in internet software and services, technology hardware and storage peripherals, electronic equipment instruments and components, and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on profit margins. Information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face rapid product obsolescence due to technological developments and frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Failure to introduce new products, develop and maintain a loyal customer base, or achieve general market acceptance for their products could have a material adverse effect on a company’s business. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on intellectual property and the loss of patent, copyright and trademark protections may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

Internet Company Risk (All Funds except ARKG and PRNT).   Many Internet-related companies have incurred large losses since their inception and may continue to incur large losses in the hope of capturing market share and generating future revenues. Accordingly, many such companies expect to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future, and may never be profitable. The markets in which many Internet companies compete face rapidly evolving industry standards, frequent new service and product announcements, introductions and enhancements, and changing customer demands. The failure of an Internet company to adapt to such changes could have a material adverse effect on the company’s business. Additionally, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking, telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures by an Internet company to modify or adapt its services or infrastructure, which could have a material adverse effect on an Internet company’s business.
 
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Semiconductor Company Risk (All Funds except ARKG and PRNT).   Competitive pressures may have a significant effect on the financial condition of semiconductor companies and, as product cycles shorten and manufacturing capacity increases, these companies may become increasingly subject to aggressive pricing, which hampers profitability. Reduced demand for end-user products, under-utilization of manufacturing capacity, and other factors could adversely impact the operating results of companies in the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies typically face high capital costs and may be heavily dependent on intellectual property rights. The semiconductor sector is highly cyclical, which may cause the operating results of many semiconductor companies to vary significantly. The stock prices of companies in the semiconductor sector have been and likely will continue to be extremely volatile.

Software Industry Risk (All Funds except ARKG).   The software industry can be significantly affected by intense competition, aggressive pricing, technological innovations, and product obsolescence. Companies in the software industry are subject to significant competitive pressures, such as aggressive pricing, new market entrants, competition for market share, short product cycles due to an accelerated rate of technological developments and the potential for limited earnings and/or falling profit margins. These companies also face the risks that new services, equipment or technologies will not be accepted by consumers and businesses or will become rapidly obsolete. These factors can affect the profitability of these companies and, as a result, the value of their securities. Also, patent protection is integral to the success of many companies in this industry, and profitability can be affected materially by, among other things, the cost of obtaining (or failing to obtain) patent approvals, the cost of litigating patent infringement and the loss of patent protection for products (which significantly increases pricing pressures and can materially reduce profitability with respect to such products). In addition, many software companies have limited operating histories. Prices of these companies’ securities historically have been more volatile than other securities, especially over the short term.
Innovative Technology Risk (IZRL).   Companies that are developing technologies to displace older technologies or create new markets may not in fact do so. Companies that initially develop a novel technology may not be able to capitalize on the technology. Companies that develop disruptive technologies may face political or legal attacks from competitors, industry groups or local and national governments. A company may not currently derive any revenue from innovative technologies, and there is no assurance that a company will derive any revenue from innovative technologies in the future. An innovative technology may constitute a small portion of a company’s overall business. As a result, the success of an innovative technology may not affect the value of the equity securities issued by the company.
Investment Strategy Risk (ARKX).   ARKX is exposed to additional risk due to its policy of investing in accordance with an investment strategy. Although the Fund’s investment strategy is designed to achieve the Fund’s investment objective, the strategy may not prove to be successful. The investment decisions may not produce the intended results and there is no guarantee that the investment objective will be achieved.
Israel Risk.   Because IZRL invests in securities of Israeli Companies, IZRL may be exposed to special risks and considerations. There may be less information concerning the securities of Israeli Companies available to the public than the securities of U.S. companies. There is also potential difficulty in obtaining or enforcing a court judgment, and the unique characteristics of securities of Israeli Companies and the Israel stock market may have a negative impact on IZRL. Any major hostilities involving Israel, including hostilities with neighboring countries, or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, could have a negative impact on IZRL. Shares and dividends of Israeli Companies are often Israeli new shekel (“ILS”) denominated. Changes in the relationship of the ILS to the U.S. dollar and other currencies could have a negative impact on IZRL. The government of Israel may change the way in which Israeli Companies are taxed, or may impose taxes on foreign investment. Such actions could have an adverse impact on the overall market for securities of Israeli Companies and on IZRL.
 
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Limited Operating History Risk (ARKX).   ARKX has limited operating history for investors to evaluate. There can be no assurance that ARKX will grow to or maintain an economically viable size. ARKX may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.
Next Generation Internet Companies Risk (ARKK and ARKW).   The risks described below apply, in particular, to ARKK’s and ARKW’s investment in Next Generation Internet Companies.

Internet Information Provider Company Risk.   Internet information provider companies provide Internet navigation services and reference guide information and publish, provide or present proprietary advertising and/or third party content. Such companies often derive a large portion of their revenues from advertising, and a reduction in spending by or loss of advertisers could seriously harm their business. This business is rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and is subject to changing technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. The research and development of new, technologically advanced products is a complex and uncertain process requiring high levels of innovation and investment, as well as the accurate anticipation of technology, market trends and consumer needs. The number of people who access the Internet is increasing dramatically and a failure to attract and retain a substantial number of such users to a company’s products and services or to develop products and technologies that are more compatible with alternative devices, could adversely affect operating results. Concerns regarding a company’s products, services or processes that may compromise the privacy of users or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage a company’s reputation and adversely affect operating results.

Catalog and Mail Order House Company Risk.   Catalog and mail order house companies may be exposed to significant inventory risks that may adversely affect operating results due to, among other factors: seasonality, new product launches, rapid changes in product cycles and pricing, defective merchandise, changes in consumer demand and consumer spending patterns, or changes in consumer tastes with respect to products. Demand for products can change significantly between the time inventory or components are ordered and the date of sale. The acquisition of certain types of inventory or components may require significant lead-time and prepayment and they may not be returnable. Failure to adequately predict customer demand or otherwise optimize and operate distribution centers could result in excess or insufficient inventory or distribution capacity, result in increased costs, impairment charges, or both. The business of catalog and mail order house companies can be highly seasonal and failure to stock or restock popular products in sufficient amounts during high demand periods could significantly affect revenue and future growth. Increased website traffic during peak periods could cause system interruptions which may reduce the volume of goods sold and the attractiveness of a company’s products and services.
Additional Investment Strategies
Actively-Managed Funds
An Actively-Managed Fund may use derivative instruments for hedging or risk management purposes or as part of its investment practices. Derivative instruments are contracts whose value depends on, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index. These underlying assets, reference rates or indices may include stocks, interest rates, currency exchange rates and stock indices.
The ARK Fintech Innovation ETF will not directly invest in cryptocurrency and does not currently intend to invest in any entity whose primary business purpose is to provide exposure to cryptocurrency.
The ARK Fintech Innovation ETF will not invest in the loans of peer-to-peer lending platforms, but may invest in the equity securities of companies that facilitate peer-to-peer lending platforms.
 
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Each Actively-Managed Fund may take a temporary defensive position (investments in cash or cash equivalents) in response to adverse market, economic, political or other conditions. Cash equivalents include short-term high quality debt securities and money market instruments such as commercial paper, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, U.S. Government securities, repurchase agreements and shares of short-term fixed income or money market funds.
Index Funds
Each Index Fund is permitted to invest in securities not included in its respective Index but which the Adviser believes will help the Index Fund track the performance of its respective Index, including (i) certain stock index futures, options, options on stock index futures, swap contracts or other derivatives that relate to the Index and component securities, (ii) cash and cash equivalents and (iii) other investment companies.

Certain derivatives not included in an Index are permitted to be used by an Index Fund in seeking performance that corresponds to the Index, and in managing cash flows, and may count towards compliance with the Index Fund’s 80% policy.

An Index Fund is permitted to invest, to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act, in other affiliated and unaffiliated funds, such as open-end or closed-end management investment companies, including other exchange traded funds.
All Funds
Each Fund is permitted to lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and other financial institutions desiring to borrow securities to complete transactions, in pursuing arbitrage opportunities or hedging strategies or for other similar purposes. In connection with such loans, each Fund receives liquid collateral equal to at least 102% (105% for foreign securities) of the value of the portfolio securities being lent. This collateral is marked to market on a daily basis. Each Fund may lend its portfolio securities in an amount up to 33 1/3% of its assets.
Each Fund will not borrow money, except to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act to meet redemptions and only up to 10% of each Fund’s net assets.
Additional Risks
Derivatives Risk.   (Except for ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF) Derivatives involve risks different from, and, in certain cases, greater than, the risks presented by more traditional investments. These include credit risk, liquidity risk, management risk and leverage risk. Derivative products are highly specialized instruments that require an understanding not only of the underlying instrument but also of the derivative itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the derivative under all possible market conditions. In particular, the use and complexity of derivatives require the maintenance of adequate controls to monitor the transactions entered into, the ability to assess the risk that a derivative adds to a Fund’s investment portfolio, and the ability to forecast price, interest rate or currency exchange rate movements correctly. The failure of another party to a derivative to comply with the terms may cause a Fund to incur a loss. The credit risk for exchange-traded or centrally cleared derivatives is generally less than for privately negotiated derivatives through the interposition of a clearinghouse to the exchange-traded or centrally-cleared derivative trade, which provides a guarantee of performance. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid (as is the case with many privately negotiated derivatives), it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous price. Adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, rate or index can result in a loss substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative itself.
In October 2020, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) adopted a final rule related to the use of derivatives, short sales, reverse repurchase agreements and certain other transactions by registered investment companies that will rescind and withdraw the guidance of the SEC and its
 
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staff regarding asset segregation and cover transactions. The final rule requires funds to trade derivatives and other transactions that create future payment or delivery obligations (except reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions) subject to a value-at-risk (“VaR”) leverage limit, certain derivatives risk management program and reporting requirements. Generally, these requirements apply unless a fund qualifies as a “limited derivatives user,” as defined in the final rule. Under the final rule, when a fund trades reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions, including certain tender option bonds, it needs to aggregate the amount of indebtedness associated with the reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions with the aggregate amount of any other senior securities representing indebtedness when calculating the fund’s asset coverage ratio or treat all such transactions as derivatives transactions. Reverse repurchase agreements or similar financing transactions aggregated with other indebtedness do not need to be included in the calculation of whether a fund is a limited derivatives user, but for funds subject to the VaR testing, reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions must be included for purposes of such testing whether treated as derivatives transactions or not. The SEC also provided guidance in connection with the new rule regarding use of securities lending collateral that may limit a fund’s securities lending activities. Compliance with these new requirements will be required after an eighteen-month transition period. Following the compliance date, these requirements may limit the ability of a fund to use derivatives and reverse repurchase agreements and similar financing transactions as part of its investment strategies. These requirements may increase the cost of a fund’s investments and cost of doing business, which could adversely affect investors.
Leverage Risk.   To the extent that a Fund borrows money in the limited circumstances described above under “Additional Investment Strategies,” it may be leveraged. Additionally, certain transactions in which a Fund is permitted to engage may present leverage risk. A Fund may segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover such transactions in an effort to mitigate the leverage risk such transactions present. Leveraging generally exaggerates the effect on NAV of any increase or decrease in the market value of a Fund’s portfolio securities. Leveraging may cause a Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. Leveraging, including borrowing, may cause a Fund to be more volatile than if the Fund had not been leveraged.
Securities Lending Risk.   (Except for ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF) Although a Fund will receive collateral in connection with all loans of its securities holdings, the Fund would be exposed to a risk of loss should a borrower default on its obligation to return the borrowed securities (e.g.the loaned securities may have appreciated beyond the value of the collateral held by the Fund). In addition, the Funds will bear the risk of loss of any cash collateral that they invest.
Short Selling Risk.   Fund Shares, similar to shares of other issuers listed on a stock exchange, may be sold short and are therefore subject to the risk of increased volatility and price decreases associated with short selling.
Additional Risks Applicable to Actively Managed ETFs
Convertible Securities Risk.   Prior to conversion, convertible securities have the same general characteristics as non-convertible debt securities, which generally provide a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than those of equity securities of the same or similar issuers. The price of a convertible security will normally vary with changes in the price of the underlying equity security, although the higher yield tends to make the convertible security less volatile than the underlying equity security. As with debt securities, the market value of convertible securities tends to decrease as interest rates rise and increase as interest rates decline. While convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar quality, they offer investors the potential to benefit from increases in the market prices of the underlying common stock.
 
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Rights and Warrants Risk.   Rights and warrants are option securities permitting their holders to subscribe for other securities. Rights and warrants do not represent an ownership interest in an issuer or carry with them dividend or voting rights with respect to the underlying securities. Investment in rights and warrants may thus be considered more speculative than certain other types of investments. In addition, the value of a right or a warrant does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to expiration.
Preferred Securities Risk.   Preferred securities are contractual obligations that entail rights to distributions declared by the issuer’s board of directors but may permit the issuer to defer or suspend distributions for a certain period of time. Preferred securities may be subject to more fluctuations in market value due to changes in market perceptions of the issuer’s ability to continue to pay dividends. If an Actively-Managed Fund owns a preferred security whose issuer has deferred or suspended distributions, the Actively-Managed Fund may be required to account for the distribution that has been deferred or suspended for tax purposes, even though it may not have received this income. Preferred securities are subordinated to any debt the issuer has outstanding. Accordingly, preferred stock dividends are not paid until all debt obligations are first met. Preferred securities may lose substantial value if distributions are deferred, suspended or not declared. Preferred securities may also permit the issuer to convert preferred securities into the issuer’s common stock. Preferred Securities that are convertible into common stock may decline in value if the common stock to which preferred securities may be converted declines in value. Preferred securities may be less liquid than equity securities.
Temporary Defensive Strategy Risk.   When an Actively-Managed Fund pursues a temporary defensive strategy inconsistent with its principal investment strategies, it may not achieve its investment objective.
Additional Risk Applicable to ARK Israel Innovative Technology ETF
Investing in Other Funds Risk.   The Fund may invest in shares of other funds, including ETFs that track the Index. As a result, the Fund will indirectly be exposed to the risks of an investment in the underlying funds. Shares of other funds have many of the same risks as direct investments in common stocks or bonds. In addition, the market value of a fund’s shares is expected to rise and fall as the value of the underlying index or bond rises and falls. The market value of such funds’ shares may differ from the net asset value of the particular fund. As a shareholder in the Fund (as with ETFs), the Fund would bear its ratable share of that entity’s expenses. At the same time, the Fund would continue to pay its own investment management fees and other expenses. As a result, the Fund and its shareholders will be absorbing additional fees with respect to investments in other funds, including ETFs. Such fees will not, however, be counted towards the Fund’s expense cap.
Additional Risk Applicable to ARK Next Generation Internet ETF
Investing in Other Funds Risk.   The Fund may invest in shares of other funds, including ETFs that are domiciled and listed for trading in Canada (“Canadian Bitcoin ETFs”). As a result, the Fund will indirectly be exposed to the risks of an investment in the underlying funds. Shares of other funds have many of the same risks as direct investments in common stocks or bonds. In the case of a Canadian Bitcoin ETF, these risks would include the same risks as direct investments in bitcoin. See “Cryptocurrency Risk” for more information on those risks. In addition, the market value of a fund’s shares is expected to rise and fall as the value of the underlying fund’s investments rise and fall. The market value of an underlying fund’s shares may differ, however, from the net asset value of the particular underlying fund. As a shareholder of an underlying fund, the Fund would bear its ratable share of the underlying fund’s expenses. At the same time, the Fund would continue to pay its own investment management fees and other expenses. As a result, the Fund and its shareholders will be absorbing additional fees with respect to investments in other funds, including ETFs. Such fees will not, however, be counted towards the Fund’s expense cap. Furthermore, an underlying fund, such as a Canadian Bitcoin ETF, may not be subject to the same laws and regulations as the Fund. In those
 
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situations, any investment in an underlying fund may be subject to risks that are different from or greater than the risks of investing in underlying funds subject to the same laws and regulations as the Fund.
Portfolio Holdings
A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio securities is av