S-1 1 c3ais-1.htm S-1 Document

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 13, 2020.

Registration No. 333-              
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
C3.ai, Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware737226-3999357
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
1300 Seaport Blvd, Suite 500
Redwood City, CA 94063
(650) 503-2200
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Thomas M. Siebel
Chief Executive Officer
C3.ai, Inc.
1300 Seaport Blvd, Suite 500
Redwood City, CA 94063
(650) 503-2200
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Eric Jensen
Calise Y. Cheng
Sepideh Mousakhani
Cooley LLP
3175 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA 94304
(650) 843-5000
Brady Mickelsen
General Counsel
C3.ai, Inc.
1300 Seaport Blvd, Suite 500
Redwood City, CA 94063
(650) 503-2200
Michael Nordtvedt
Richard Blake
Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati,
Professional Corporation
650 Page Mill Road
Palo Alto, CA 94304
(650) 493-9300
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☐
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities To Be Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering Price(1)(2)
Amount of
Registration Fee
Class A Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share$100,000,000.00$10,910.00
(1)Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(2)Includes the aggregate offering price of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase, if any.
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.



The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)
Issued                 , 2020
                  Shares
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Class A Common Stock
C3.ai, Inc. is offering                        shares of our Class A common stock. This is our initial public offering, and no public market currently exists for our shares of common stock. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between $                   and $                     per share.
We have two classes of authorized common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote per share. Each share of Class B common stock is entitled to 50 votes per share and is convertible into one share of Class A common stock.
Outstanding shares of Class B common stock will represent approximately                     % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock immediately following this offering. Our founder, Chief Executive Officer, and Chairman of the Board, Thomas M. Siebel, will hold or have the ability to control approximately                % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock immediately following this offering. We believe we are eligible for but do not intend to take advantage of the “controlled company” exemption to the corporate governance rules for New York Stock Exchange-listed companies.
We have applied to list our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AI.”
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the federal securities laws. Investing in our Class A common stock involves risks. See the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15.
PRICE $                          A SHARE
Price to
Public
Underwriting
Discounts and
Commissions(1)
Proceeds to
C3.ai, Inc.
Per Share$$$
Total$$$
__________________
(1)See the section titled “Underwriters” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.
We have granted the underwriters the right to purchase up to an additional                                shares of Class A common stock.
The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved of these securities, or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of Class A common stock to purchasers on or about                     ,          .
MORGAN STANLEYJ.P. MORGANBofA SECURITIES
DEUTSCHE BANK SECURITIES
CANACCORD GENUITYJMP SECURITIESKEYBANC CAPITAL MARKETSNEEDHAM & COMPANYPIPER SANDLER
                                  , 2020



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C3.ai, Inc.
Letter from the Chief Executive Officer
This is my fourth decade in the information technology industry.
After completing my graduate work in Computer Science, specifically relational database theory, I was recruited to the then start-up Oracle. The relational database market was nascent when I joined Larry Ellison and Bob Miner at Oracle in 1983. The global market for information technology was $224 billion, and, as I recall, the RDBMS market was less than $20 million. I was satisfied that the fundamental economics of application development and information processing assured the ascendance of RDBMS. That turned out to be a pretty good bet.
A decade later, Oracle grew to exceed $1 billion in revenue. The information technology market had grown to exceed $510 billion. We established a clear market leadership position in the RDBMS market.
In the mid-1990s, the industry experienced a step function of innovative information technology that proved to dramatically accelerate IT market growth. This included graphical user interface technology, popularized by Microsoft Windows 95, nomadic laptop computers, first introduced by Compaq, broad bandwidth communications, and the post-Mosaic browser ubiquitous internet.
As of 1993, as an industry we had successfully applied information technology to automate many business processes including accounting, manufacturing automation, and general office productivity. And yet the business processes of sales, marketing, and customer service were still analog and manual, largely untouched by information technology.
In July of 1993, convinced that this presented a huge unserved market opportunity, I founded Siebel Systems, a computer software company committed to successfully applying this new step function of information and communications technology to the business processes of sales, marketing, and customer service. That too turned out to be a good idea.
Six years later, Siebel Systems exceeded $2 billion in revenue with 8,000 employees in 29 countries, becoming one of the fastest growing enterprise software companies in history. At Siebel Systems, I believe we invented the CRM market as you know it today, and established a clear global market leading position in that market. Siebel Systems merged with Oracle in 2006. The CRM market is now a $60+ billion software industry.
From 1983 through 2006, we saw one wave after another of new technologies: mainframes, minicomputers, personal computers, the internet, relational database technology, enterprise application software, and client-server computing. Each technology breakthrough represented a replacement market for its predecessor, fueling a $1.3 trillion industry by 2006.
Assessing the IT landscape at the beginning of the 21st century, it became apparent that a new set of technologies was destined to constitute another step function that would change everything about the information processing world, dramatically accelerating the growth of IT markets. This step function of technologies – substantially more impactful than anything we had seen before – included: elastic cloud computing, big data, the internet of things, and AI or predictive analytics. Today, at the confluence of these technology vectors we find the phenomenon of Enterprise AI and Digital Transformation, mandates that are rising to the top of every CEO’s agenda. The global IT market exceeds $2.3 trillion today.
These technologies were largely nascent in January 2009 when we founded C3.ai with the goal of developing a comprehensive unified software development and enterprise applications solution designed to enable organizations to exploit these new technologies.
We succeeded at that task. And in the process, we developed a set of inventions we believe are fundamental to any enterprise AI application, and that are proprietary and patented. We succeeded at deploying high-value Enterprise AI applications at small scale, at medium scale, and at the largest industrial scale. We succeeded across a diverse range of industries and across a wide range of AI use cases.
We serve a large and rapidly growing market, estimated to be $174 billion in 2020, growing to $271 billion in 2024. Our goal is to establish a global market-leading position in this market as we did at Oracle and at Siebel Systems. The difference being that this market is an order of magnitude larger than either of those opportunities.
I believe we are well-positioned to succeed. The market is large and rapidly growing. We have succeeded at developing a highly differentiated and efficacious AI development platform and an associated family of AI applications. We have



manageable competitive risk compared to others, including – (1) companies attempting to build the application from scratch – with little to no success – and (2) a plethora of AI point solutions each of which addresses a small slice of the problem.
It boils down to execution risk. Does the C3.ai team have the skills and experience to succeed? Can they manage a rapidly growing business? Can they successfully implement mission critical extraprise application deployments? Can they attract, retain, and motivate the top people in the industry? Can they establish rewarding strategic partnerships with customers and market partners? Can they effectively scale and manage business sales, marketing, and support infrastructures globally? Can they accelerate and maintain technology leadership? I believe that the strength and experience of management and human capital at C3.ai is our strongest asset. This is unquestionably the most talented and experienced team that I have worked with in my career.
I believe C3.ai is uniquely qualified to tackle these challenges. But clearly, as an investor, you will need to resolve these questions to your satisfaction.
You can expect us to operate a highly disciplined, professional business that is engineered to become structurally profitable and structurally cash-positive in the long term. We will focus on maintaining continuing technology leadership. We will strive to attract, retain, and motivate high performance teams. We will focus on top-line growth to establish market leadership. We will work to establish and enhance brand equity and thought leadership. We will strive to assure that each and every one of our customers is delighted. We will focus on building a high-performance corporate culture known for excellence in execution. We will strive for high levels of predictability in our technology roadmap, our customer engagements, and our financial results.
We have seen many changes in the information technology markets in the past few decades: Disruptive technologies. The diversity and motivation of human capital. Increased accountability. Increased regulatory rigor. The expectations – indeed the demands – of customers, markets, employees, investors, and regulators have been in a constant state of change. I expect the rate of change in such expectations will only accelerate in the coming decades. We are here to serve our stakeholders and to be a good member of the communities in which we operate. You can expect that as these expectations of stakeholders continue to change in the coming years, we will be attentive to those changes and modify our business practices accordingly.
Our singular focus is to leverage our technology leadership, first-mover advantage, and management leadership to establish and maintain a global leadership position in Enterprise AI. Should we succeed at that objective, we will have built C3.ai into one of the world’s great software companies.
Sincerely,
Thomas M. Siebel
Founder and CEO



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Neither we, nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. Neither we, nor any of the underwriters take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our Class A common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future growth prospects may have changed since that date.
Through and including               (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.
For investors outside the United States: Neither we, nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside of the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of our Class A common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.



PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our Class A common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our fiscal year ends on April 30. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” and “C3.ai” refer to C3.ai, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated, references to our “common stock” include our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
OVERVIEW
C3.ai
C3.ai is an Enterprise AI software company.
We provide software-as-a-service, or SaaS, applications that enable the rapid deployment of enterprise-scale AI applications of extraordinary scale and complexity that offer significant social and economic benefit.
All C3.ai software applications can be deployed on Azure, Amazon Web Services, or AWS, the IBM Cloud, Google Cloud Platform, or on-premise.
Enterprise AI Software Solutions
We provide two primary families of software solutions:
The C3 AI Suite, our core technology, is a comprehensive application development and runtime environment that is designed to allow our customers to rapidly design, develop, and deploy Enterprise AI applications of any type.
C3 AI Applications, built using the C3 AI Suite, include a large and growing family of industry-specific and application-specific turnkey AI solutions that can be immediately installed and deployed.
Large Total Addressable Market
We serve a large and rapidly growing market, estimated to be $174 billion in 2020, growing to $271 billion in 2024, a 12% compound annual growth rate, or CAGR. Our solutions address use cases across:
Enterprise AI Software. $18 billion in 2020, $44 billion in 2024, a 24% CAGR.1
Enterprise Infrastructure Software. Application Development, Infrastructure, and Middleware; Data Integration and Quality Tools, and Master Data Management Products: $63 billion in 2020, $82 billion in 2024, a 7% CAGR.2
Enterprise Applications. Analytics, Business Intelligence and Customer Relationship Management, or CRM: $93 billion in 2020, $145 billion in 2024, a 12% CAGR.3
By any standards, this is a large and rapidly growing addressable market opportunity.
First-Mover Advantage
We believe we enjoy a significant first-mover advantage in Enterprise AI, based on our significant investment in our products and technology over the last decade of development. We are not aware of others who have made as much progress as we have in this space. We believe that we have the world’s most extensive Enterprise AI production footprint. Our goal is to establish and maintain a global leadership position in Enterprise AI across all market segments including large enterprises, small and medium businesses, and government entities.
1 Source: IDC, Worldwide Artificial Intelligence Systems Spending Guide, September 2019
2 Source: Gartner, Forecast: Enterprise Infrastructure Software, Worldwide, 2018-2024, 3Q20 Update
3 Source: Garter, Forecast: Enterprise Application Software, Worldwide, 2018-2024, 3Q20 Update
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Rapid Revenue Growth
We are growing rapidly, with total revenue of $156.7 million in the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 compared to $91.6 million in the fiscal year ended April 30, 2019, representing year-over-year growth of 71%. Over the same period, our subscription revenue grew to $135.4 million from $77.5 million, a 75% increase. The bulk of our revenue accrues from subscription software, accounting for roughly 86% of our total revenue. We incurred net losses of $69.4 million and $33.3 million in the fiscal years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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Lighthouse Customers
Our market-entry strategy has been to establish high-value customer engagements with large global early adopters, or lighthouse customers, in Europe, Asia, and the United States across a range of industries. These lighthouse customers serve as proof points for other potential customers in their particular industries. We have established strategic relationships with our customers that include many of the world’s iconic organizations, demonstrating the utility of our Enterprise AI software solutions across geographies, cultures, vertical markets, and a wide range of use-cases at small, medium, and even the largest industrial scale. We work to replicate those deployments across similar companies within each vertical market.
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High-Value Outcomes
We are enabling the digital transformation of many of the world’s leading organizations and, in the process, helping them to attain short time-to-value and exceptionally high economic returns. At some companies, based on feedback from our customers, we estimate our solutions have resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars in annual economic benefit.4 We estimate, based on our production C3.ai roadmaps, that we may enable billions of dollars in annual economic benefit for our customers.5
Rapid Time to Value
The key to our market success to date, and our primary competitive differentiator, is our ability to leverage the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications to bring high-value Enterprise AI applications into production use rapidly. We have deployed Enterprise AI applications into production use in as little as four weeks.
Outsized Average Total Contract Value
As a result of the high-value outcomes that we enable, we enjoy uncommonly high total contract values for software subscriptions. Our average total contract value for contracts entered into in fiscal years 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 was $1.2 million, $11.7 million, $10.8 million, $16.2 million, and $12.1 million, respectively. We believe this is a high-water mark for the applications software industry.6 We are able to drive these extraordinary contract values because of the high-value outcomes we provide to our customers—we enable some of the largest companies in the world to succeed in their most
4 Management estimates based on results from trials or deployments using customer data from more than 20 projects across 15 customers. Data and feedback were collected from 2016 to 2020. See the section titled “Market, Industry, and Other Data” for additional information.
5 Based on actual results achieved in trials or deployments using actual customer data and business processes as provided by our customers. These estimates are limited by the scaling factors of extrapolating these results from the specific project scope of each trial or deployment across the customer’s entire business. These estimates are based on more than 20 projects across 15 customers, and the data and feedback were collected from customer engagements occurring in the years 2016 to 2020.
6 Based on our review of the estimated contract values of approximately 100 representative applications software companies from publicly available sources. See the section titled “Market, Industry, and Other Data” for additional information.
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mission-critical digital transformation projects. We expect the average total contract value to decrease as we expand our customer base beyond a small number of large lighthouse customers to a larger number of smaller customers.
Land and Expand
After their initial contract with us, our customers tend to expand the use of our products and, as a result, may purchase additional applications, additional developer seats, additional software products, additional runtime usage, and additional services. We define a Customer as a separate buying entity that has an active contract to deploy the C3 AI Suite or one or more C3 AI Applications. We often provide our software to a distinct department, business unit, or group within such single buying entity and define a customer as each distinct department, unit, or group within a Customer. The average initial contract value with our largest 15 customers was $12.8 million. On average, each of these customers has purchased an additional $26.1 million in product subscriptions and services from us to date as they expanded existing use cases and added additional use cases to their roadmaps.
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Extensive Partner Ecosystem
We have established strategic relationships with technology leaders including AWS, Baker Hughes, Fidelity National Information Services, or FIS, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and Raytheon, marshalling tens of thousands of talented resources from the world’s leading technology companies to establish and serve C3.ai customer relationships at global scale.
Leveraged Go-to-Market Model
Our market entry growth strategy has been to employ a direct sales organization organized in a traditional geographic/industry market matrix, partnered with C3.ai technical experts in our forward deployed engineering organization, to establish and expand customer relationships with large lighthouse customers with a diversity of AI use cases across a range of industry segments. Our sales and engagement efforts are frequently closely coordinated with our marketing partners including AWS, Baker Hughes, FIS, Google, IBM, and Microsoft.
Having established the scalability of our product offerings and their utility across a wide range of AI use cases at large-enterprise scale, we will now (1) expand those same use cases across similar companies, (2) establish middle market sales organizations, including telesales and online sales, and (3) leverage our marketing partners as enterprise and mid-market distribution channels.
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Revenue Model
The bulk of our revenue is generated from subscriptions to our software, accounting for roughly 86% of our total revenue. We currently have four primary revenue sources:
Term subscriptions of the C3 AI Suite, usually three years in duration.
Term subscriptions of C3 AI Applications, usually three years in duration.
Monthly runtime fees of the C3 AI Applications and customer-developed applications built using the C3 AI Suite, usage-based upon CPU-hour consumption.
Professional services fees associated with training and assisting our customers.
Recognized AI-Industry Leadership
We have won many industry recognitions, including CNBC Disruptor 50 (2020, 2019, 2018), BloombergNEF Pioneer (2020), Forbes Cloud 100 (2020, 2019, 2018, 2017), Deloitte Technology Fast 500 (2019), and EY Entrepreneur of the Year (2018, 2017), and have been named a leader by Forrester Wave: Industrial IoT Software Platforms (2019, 2018).
Our Secret Sauce: C3.ai Model-Driven Architecture
The C3 AI Suite, with its proprietary model-driven architecture, addresses the requirements for the digital transformation software stack, providing a low-code/no-code AI and Internet of Things, or IoT, platform that accelerates software development, reduces cost and risk, and delivers applications that are flexible enough to meet evolving needs.
We believe Enterprise AI applications require a new digital transformation software stack. The traditional approach to developing AI and IoT enterprise software—i.e., using structured programming to build applications by assembling and integrating various open source components and cloud services—can be slow, costly, and ineffective. Due to daunting technical requirements, among other reasons, a recent study has shown that 84% of Enterprise AI deployments have not scaled.
Enabled by our proprietary model-driven architecture, the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications allow organizations to dramatically simplify and accelerate Enterprise AI adoption. Compared to the structured programming approach that most organizations typically attempt, we estimate that our model-driven architecture speeds development by a factor of 26, while reducing the amount of code that must be written by up to 99%.
We enjoy a rich patent portfolio that presents a substantial competitive advantage in the Enterprise AI market—most notably, our recently issued U.S. patents (No. 10,817,530 and No. 10,824,634) which were granted for systems, methods, and devices for an enterprise AI and internet-of-things platform.
The C3 AI Suite enables us to rapidly and successfully deploy functionally rich, high-value Enterprise AI applications even at the largest enterprise scale.
Competition
Our primary competition is largely do-it-yourself, custom-developed, company-specific AI platforms and applications. These tend to be very costly complex software engineering projects, often fail, and, if successful, usually require many years to realize economic return.
We are unaware of any end-to-end Enterprise AI development platforms that are directly competitive with the C3 AI Suite.
Sales Alliances
Strategic partnerships are core to our growth strategy with market-leading companies offering highly leveraged distribution channels to various markets.
To date, we have established such a partnership with Baker Hughes to address the needs of the global oil and gas market, with FIS to address needs in the financial services market, with Raytheon to serve the U.S. defense and intelligence communities, and with Microsoft and Adobe to address the next generation of CRM.
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In addition, we have announced global alliances with AWS, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft to jointly market, sell, and service our combined solutions across industry verticals.
In the majority of our sales opportunities we are aligned with one or more of these partners.
Thought Leadership
Our Chief Executive Officer, Tom Siebel, and our Chief Technology Officer, Ed Abbo, are recognized leaders in information technology, facilitating broad market validation by media, analysts, and industry groups. Their decades of technology leadership in enterprise software position them well to engage strategically with the executive leadership of leading corporations and government entities.
University Relations: C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute
Established in February 2020, the C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute, or C3.ai DTI, is a research consortium dedicated to accelerating the benefits of artificial intelligence for business, government, and society. C3.ai DTI engages the world’s leading scientists to conduct research and train practitioners in the new Science of Digital Transformation, which operates at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, cloud computing, internet of things, big data analytics, organizational behavior, public policy, and ethics.
C3.ai DTI is a coalition of some of the world’s leading research institutions including Princeton, Carnegie Mellon, MIT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Chicago, UC Berkeley, Stanford, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, and Lawrence Berkeley Labs, in partnership with Microsoft and C3.ai.
C3.ai DTI provides organization and funding for wide-ranging fundamental research to develop advanced AI techniques, methods, and processes to accelerate the Science of Digital Transformation. Funding, computing resources, Azure resources, and unlimited use of the C3 AI Suite are being provided to these researchers and institutions as the AI research platform. C3.ai DTI has initially funded 26 research projects to develop new AI techniques to address the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.
In addition to contributing to the public good, C3.ai DTI exposes the capabilities of our AI Suite and AI Applications to potentially thousands of researchers, undergraduates, and graduate students at these world-renowned institutions. This helps to further build the community of C3.ai users and to establish C3.ai as the standard for developing and deploying large-scale Enterprise AI applications to solve the world’s hardest problems.
Growth Strategy
We are substantially investing in the expansion of our direct enterprise sales and service organization both geographically and across vertical markets to expand the use of C3.ai solutions within existing customers and establish new customer relationships.
We will continue to focus on the success of our customers to increase penetration of our existing customer base.
We will continue to expand our major account sales organization to focus on large enterprise software agreements.
We will continue to expand our enterprise sales organization globally, focused on divisions of Fortune 500 companies as well as with smaller and medium-sized businesses.
We will expand our leveraged distribution channel with additional strategic partners like Baker Hughes, FIS, Microsoft, and Raytheon.
We will continue to develop high volume distribution channels including digital marketing, telesales, and strategic distributors, particularly to address the needs of small and medium businesses.
We are bringing new product families to market that we believe will develop into substantial recurring revenue streams for C3.ai.
We expect to enter into additional strategic development and distribution agreements, like those we have in place with Baker Hughes, FIS, Microsoft, and Raytheon, that we expect will provide us highly leveraged access to other vertical and horizontal markets.
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Rich Human Capital
Our strongest asset is unquestionably the human capital we have been able to attract, retain, and motivate. We have won the Glassdoor Best Place to Work award, were named a WayUp Top 100 Internship Program, and are consistently ranked amongst the best places to work. We attract exceptionally talented, highly educated, experienced, motivated employees. We hired 214 new employees in the past year. We received approximately 52,000 applications for those positions. Approximately 10,000 of those were engaged in rigorous skill evaluation and interview cycles for a final selection of 214. Fifty-seven percent of our employees have advanced degrees, many from the world’s most prestigious institutions.
Veteran Disciplined Management
Our executive leadership team, led by our CEO, Tom Siebel, has individually and collectively managed some of the world’s most successful and rapidly growing software companies, including Oracle and Siebel Systems. This is a team that has created markets and has a demonstrated history of responsible management and commitment to employees, customers, and investors. We enjoy exceptional levels of experience, discipline and rigor in our management practices that transcend market cycles and market bubbles. We are focused on building a rapidly growing, professional, structurally cash-positive, and structurally profitable company in the long term with the singular focus of establishing a global leadership position in Enterprise AI with a long trail of satisfied customers.
Our CEO, Tom Siebel, is a seasoned software innovator who has and continues to receive broad industry recognition for his leadership. A sample of his honors and awards include:
Entrepreneur of the Year – EY, 2018
Glassdoor Top CEO – 2018
Honorary Ph.D. – Politecnico di Torino, 2018
Entrepreneur of the Year – EY, 2017
Best Places to Work, 100% CEO approval rating – Glassdoor, 2017
Most Admired CEO Lifetime Achievement Award – San Francisco Business Times, 2016
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Elected Member – April 2013
#3 of the World’s Top 25 Philanthropists – Barron’s, November 2010
Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship
Engineering at Illinois Hall of Fame – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010
#5 of the World’s Top 25 Philanthropists – Barron’s, 2009
Top 50 Philanthropists – BusinessWeek 2007, 2008
Honorary Ph.D. Engineering – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006
Thomas M. Siebel, Master Entrepreneur of the Year – Ernst & Young, 2003
Entrepreneurial Company of the Year – Harvard Business School, 2003
Hall of Fame – CRM Magazine, 2003
CEO of the Year – Industry Week, 2002
Top 25 Managers in Global Business – BusinessWeek, 1999 to 2002
Top 10 CEOs of 2000 – Investor’s Business Daily, 2000
The World’s Most Influential Software Company – BusinessWeek, 2000
The Most Influential Company in IT – Intelligent Enterprise, 2000
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Fastest Growing Technology Company – Deloitte & Touche, 1999
Fastest Growing Company in America – Fortune, 1999
C3.ai Investment Thesis
Enterprise AI is a huge addressable market.
We have a highly experienced CEO and management team with an established track record of identifying large technology markets in their nascent stage, developing innovative, superior solutions to meet the needs of those markets, assembling and organizing high-performance organizations, and building rapidly growing, financially sound, cash-positive, profitable, professionally managed, market-leading companies that accrue substantial value to customers, employees, partners, and investors.
We have developed a patented Enterprise AI suite enabling the successful digital transformation of leading corporations and government entities. First-mover advantage. Technology leadership. Substantial market eco-system. Recognized Enterprise AI market leadership. A high-performance corporate culture. Focused on excellence in execution.
We are in this for the long run, with the singular focus of establishing and maintaining recognized technology innovation and global market leadership in the Enterprise AI application software market.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk because our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, as fully described in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this summary. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
we have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future results of operations;
historically, a limited number of customers have accounted for a substantial portion of our revenue. If existing customers do not renew their contracts with us, or if our relationships with our largest customers are impaired or terminated, our revenue could decline, and our results of operations would be adversely impacted;
our business depends on our ability to attract new customers and on our existing customers purchasing additional subscriptions from us and renewing their subscriptions;
we have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
we face intense competition and could lose market share to our competitors, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, particularly with respect to large subscriptions, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense;
if the market for our AI Suite and AI Applications fails to grow as we expect, or if businesses fail to adopt our AI Suite and AI Applications, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected;
if we fail to respond to rapid technological changes, extend our AI Suite and AI Applications or develop new features and functionality, our ability to remain competitive could be impaired;
if we were to lose the services of our Chief Executive Officer or other members of our senior management team, we may not be able to execute our business strategy; and
the COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our partners, and customers operate.
Corporate Information
We were initially formed in 2009 as C3, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company. In June 2012, we incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware under the name C3, Inc. In July 2016, we changed our name to C3 IoT, Inc., and, in June 2019, we changed our name to C3.ai, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 1300 Seaport Blvd, Suite 500, Redwood City, California 94063. Our telephone number is (650) 503-2200. Our website address is C3.ai. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.
The C3.ai design logo, “C3.ai,” and our other registered or common law trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of C3.ai, Inc. Other trade names, trademarks, and service marks used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
We believe we are eligible for but do not intend to take advantage of the “controlled company” exemption to the corporate governance rules for New York Stock Exchange-listed companies.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012. An emerging growth company may take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements. These provisions include, but are not limited to:
not being required to comply for a certain period of time with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
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reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements, and registration statements; and
exemptions from the requirements of holding a stockholder advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our Class A common stock in this offering. However, if certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if (1) we become a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (2) our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion; or (3) we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period.
We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period under the JOBS Act. Accordingly, our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of public companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards.
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THE OFFERING
Class A common stock offered by us                    shares
Class A common stock to be outstanding after this offering
                    shares
Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering
 21,000,000 shares
Option to purchase additional shares of Class A common stock offered by us
                    shares
Total Class A and Class B common stock to be outstanding after this offering
                    shares (or approximately                    shares if the underwriters option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock is exercised in full).
Voting rights
We have two classes of authorized common stock, Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. The holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share and the holders of Class B common stock are entitled to 50 votes per share on all matters that are subject to stockholder vote. Each share of Class B common stock may be converted into one share of Class A common stock at the option of the holder thereof, and will be converted into one share of Class A common stock upon transfer thereof, subject to certain exceptions.
The holders of our outstanding Class B common stock will hold                    % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following this offering, with our directors, executive officers and 5% stockholders and their respective affiliates holding                    % in the aggregate. These holders will have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of our directors and the approval of any change of control transaction. See the section titled “Description of Capital Stock” for additional information.
Use of proceeds
We estimate that our net proceeds from the sale of our Class A common stock that we are offering will be approximately $                    million (or approximately $                    million if the underwriters option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock is exercised in full), assuming an initial public offering price of $                    per share, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.
The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, and create a public market for our Class A common stock. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. However, we currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, services or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments to enter into any acquisitions at this time. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.
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Proposed trading symbolWe have applied to list our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AI.”
Risk factorsSee the section titled “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our Class A common stock.
_________________
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on                    shares of our Class A common stock (including preferred stock, other than the Series A* Preferred Stock, on an as-converted basis) and 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock (including the Series A* Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of July 31, 2020 and excludes:
193,621,256 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2012 Plan, outstanding as of July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $0.5659 per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our 2012 Plan after July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $                    per share;
47,146,302 shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, becomes effective;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after July 31, 2020 under our 2020 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $                    per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering; and
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering.
Upon the execution and delivery of the underwriting agreement related to this offering, any remaining shares available for issuance under our 2012 Plan will become reserved for future issuance as Class A common stock under our 2020 Plan, and we will cease granting awards under our 2012 Plan. See the section titled “Executive Compensation—Employee Benefit and Stock Plans” for additional information.
Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus assumes:
a                    -for-                    stock split of our common stock to be effected prior to the completion of this offering;
the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the effectiveness of our amended and restated bylaws, each of which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;
the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our convertible preferred stock as of July 31, 2020, other than shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock, into                    shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;
the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock as of July 31, 2020, into 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;
no exercise of the outstanding options described above; and
no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase up to an additional                    shares of Class A common stock in this offering.
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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of July 31, 2020 are derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. We have included, in our opinion, all adjustments necessary to state fairly our financial position as of July 31, 2020 and the results of operations for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any other period in the future and the results of operations for the three months ended July 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any other period in the future. You should read the consolidated financial data set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, the information in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and other financial information contained elsewhere in this prospectus.
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
 
2019
2020 
2019
2020 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:  
Revenue
Subscription$77,472 $135,394 $30,976 $35,695 
Professional services14,133 21,272 3,914 4,788 
Total revenue91,605 156,666 34,890 40,483 
Cost of revenue
Subscription(1)
24,560 31,479 6,643 $8,587 
Professional services(1)
5,826 7,308 1,575 1,912 
Total cost of revenue30,386 38,787 8,218 10,499 
Gross profit61,219 117,879 26,672 29,984 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing(1)
37,882 94,974 11,637 14,358 
Research and development(1)
37,318 64,548 10,918 13,264 
General and administrative(1)
22,061 29,854 5,080 5,687 
Total operating expenses97,261 189,376 27,635 33,309 
Loss from operations(36,042)(71,497)(963)(3,325)
Interest income3,508 4,251 979 580 
Other (expense) income, net(546)(1,752)(252)3,018 
Net income (loss) before provision for income taxes(33,080)(68,998)(236)273 
Provision for income taxes266 380 87 123 
Net income (loss)
$(33,346)$(69,378)$(323)$150 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(2)
$(0.22)$(0.32)(0.00)$0.00 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(2)
151,973 214,799 194,613 223,746 
Pro forma net income (loss) per share, basic and diluted(2)
 
Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net income (loss) per share, basic and diluted(2)
 
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________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019202020192020
(in thousands)
Cost of subscription$149 $370 $61 $184 
Cost of professional services69 122 33 48 
Sales and marketing1,739 3,074 580 855 
Research and development781 1,223 297 458 
General and administrative1,529 3,521 561 935 
Total stock-based compensation expense$4,267 $8,310 $1,532 $2,480 
(2)See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate our basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.
As of July 31, 2020
Actual
Pro Forma(1)
Pro
Forma As Adjusted(2)
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$128,979 $154,984 $
Short-term investments139,018 139,018 
Working capital(3)
208,836 234,842 
Total assets355,769 381,774 
Deferred revenue, current and non-current107,244 107,244 
Redeemable convertible preferred stock
375,207 — 
Redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock
18,800 — 
Class A common stock
19 
Class B common stock
164 — 
Class C common stock
— 
Class B common stock(4)
— 21 
Additional paid-in capital113,364 
Accumulated deficit(293,486)(293,486)
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity(179,681)240,331 
__________________
(1)Reflects (a) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock, Class C common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock, other than shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock, and redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock, as of July 31, 2020, into shares of our Class A common stock, (b) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock, as of July 31, 2020, into 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (c) the repayment due from our Chief Executive Officer of the outstanding full recourse promissory note in connection with the Series F preferred stock financing, including accrued interest, in the amount of $26.0 million and (d) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
(2)Reflects (a) the pro forma items described in the immediately preceding footnote and (b) our issuance and sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $               per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $               per share of Class A common stock, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, working capital, total assets, and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately $          million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us at the assumed initial public offering price per share would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, working capital, total assets, and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately $          million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $                        per share of Class A common stock remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. The pro forma information discussed above is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of our initial public offering determined at pricing.
(3)Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.
(4)Reflects the Class B common stock to be authorized in connection with the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this prospectus, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our Class A common stock. Our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently believe are not material. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Unless otherwise indicated, references to our business being harmed in these risk factors will include harm to our business, AI Suite, applications, reputation, brand, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects. In such event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Summary Risk Factor
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk because our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, as fully described below. The principal factors and uncertainties that make investing in our Class A common stock risky include, among others:
we have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future results of operations;
historically, a limited number of customers have accounted for a substantial portion of our revenue. If existing customers do not renew their contracts with us, or if our relationships with our largest customers are impaired or terminated, our revenue could decline, and our results of operations would be adversely impacted;
our business depends on our ability to attract new customers and on our existing customers purchasing additional subscriptions from us and renewing their subscriptions;
we have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
we face intense competition and could lose market share to our competitors, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, particularly with respect to large subscriptions, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense;
if the market for our AI Suite and AI Applications fails to grow as we expect, or if businesses fail to adopt our AI Suite and AI Applications, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected;
we may not be able to respond to rapid technological changes, extend our AI Suite and AI Applications or develop new features and functionality;
if we were to lose the services of our Chief Executive Officer or other members of our senior management team, we may not be able to execute our business strategy; and
the COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our partners, and customers operate.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to evaluate our prospects and future results of operations.
We were founded in 2009. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. Further, in future periods, we expect our revenue growth to slow. A number of factors could cause our growth rate to be adversely impacted, including any reduction in demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications, increased competition, contraction of our overall market, our inability to accurately forecast demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications, or our failure, for any reason, to capitalize on growth opportunities. We have encountered and will encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding
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these risks and uncertainties, which we use to plan our business, are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our business would be harmed.
Historically, a limited number of customers have accounted for a substantial portion of our revenue. If existing customers do not renew their contracts with us, or if our relationships with our largest customers are impaired or terminated, our revenue could decline, and our results of operations would be adversely impacted.
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of existing customers. Our top three Customers together accounted for 34% and 44% of our revenue for the years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our top three Customers by revenue for the year ended April 30, 2020, have been with us for an average of 3.3 years. Each of ENGIE Information et Technologie, or Engie, and Caterpillar, Inc. accounted for greater than 10% of our revenue for the year ended April 30, 2019, and each of Baker Hughes Company, or Baker Hughes, and Engie each accounted for greater than 10% of our revenue for the year ended April 30, 2020. In June 2016, we entered into a master license and services agreement with Engie whereby Engie partners with us to support their digital transformation with a non-exclusive, worldwide license to our AI Suite and certain AI Applications. This arrangement was revised in June 2019 to extend the term by an additional three years for a total of six years. Our master license and services agreement with Engie is terminable by either party upon 30 days’ written notice if the other party materially breaches the agreement or applicable order form and does not cure such breach prior to the end of that 30 day period, and under certain circumstances in connection with a change of control of either party. In April 2019, we entered into a professional services agreement with Engie pursuant to which we develop a customized application for Engie on our AI Suite. This arrangement has a three year term and permits Engie to terminate the contract at the start of the third year subject to a wind down fee of approximately €2.5 million payable by Engie. Certain of our customers, including customers that, at the time, represented a significant portion of our business, have in the past reduced their spend with us or decided to not renew their subscriptions with us, which has reduced our anticipated future payments or revenue from these customers. It is not possible for us to predict the future level of demand from our larger customers for our AI Suite and AI Applications.
Our commercial customers typically purchase three-year subscriptions which generally do not provide for a right to terminate the subscription for convenience. Our customers generally have no obligation to renew, upgrade, or expand their subscriptions with us after the terms of their existing subscriptions expire. In addition, our customers may opt to decrease their usage of our AI Suite and AI Applications. As a result, we cannot provide assurance that our customers will renew, upgrade, or expand their subscriptions with us, if they renew at all. If one or more of our customers elect not to renew their subscriptions with us, or if our customers renew their subscriptions with us for shorter time periods, or if our customers decrease their usage of our AI Suite and AI Applications, or if our customers otherwise seek to renegotiate terms of their existing agreements on terms less favorable to us, our business and results of operations would be adversely affected. This adverse impact would be even more pronounced for customers that represent a material portion of our revenue or business operations.
Our business depends on our ability to attract new customers and on our existing customers purchasing additional subscriptions from us and renewing their subscriptions.
To increase our revenue, we must continue to attract new customers. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the widespread adoption of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Although demand for data management, machine learning, analytics, and artificial intelligence platforms and applications has grown in recent years, the market for these platforms and applications continues to evolve. Numerous factors may impede our ability to add new customers, including but not limited to, our failure to compete effectively against alternative products or services, failure to attract and effectively train new sales and marketing personnel, failure to develop or expand relationships with partners and resellers, failure to successfully innovate and deploy new applications and other solutions, failure to provide a quality customer experience and customer support, or failure to ensure the effectiveness of our marketing programs. If we are not able to attract new customers, it will have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, our future success depends on our ability to sell additional subscriptions for our AI Suite and AI Applications to our existing customers, and our customers renewing their subscriptions when the contract term expires. Our customers typically purchase three-year subscriptions which generally do not provide for a right to terminate the subscription for convenience. Our customers generally have no contractual obligation to renew, upgrade, or expand their subscriptions after the terms of their existing subscriptions expire. In addition, our customers may opt to decrease their usage of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Given our limited operating history, we may not be able to accurately predict customer renewal rates. Our customers’ renewal and/or expansion commitments may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including, but not limited to, their satisfaction with our AI Suite, applications and our customer support, the frequency and
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severity of software and implementation errors or other reliability issues, the pricing of our subscriptions or competing solutions, changes in their IT budget, the effects of global economic conditions, and our customers’ financial circumstances, including their ability to maintain or expand their spending levels or continue their operations. In order for us to maintain or improve our results of operations, it is important that our customers renew or expand their subscriptions with us. If our customers do not purchase additional subscriptions or seats or increase their usage or our customers do not renew their subscriptions, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be harmed.
We have limited historical experience with supporting or selling to smaller, non-enterprise customers. We intend to grow our customer base and further contribute to our overall growth by introducing product offerings with a lower entry price point. If we are able to broaden our customer base, if at all, to include smaller or mid-size customers, we will be faced with risks that may not be present or that are present to a lesser extent with respect to sales to large organizations. Because of our limited experience in supporting or selling to smaller, non-enterprise customers, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in our efforts to broaden our customer base or in getting future smaller customers to renew or expand their subscriptions to our offerings. If such customers do not renew their agreements or renew on less favorable terms or for less usage, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be harmed.
Achieving renewal or expansion of usage and subscriptions may require us to engage increasingly in sophisticated and costly sales and support efforts that may not result in additional sales. In addition, the rate at which our customers expand the deployment of our AI Suite and AI Applications depends on a number of factors. If our efforts to expand penetration within our customers are not successful, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be harmed.
Because we derive substantially all of our revenue from our AI Suite and AI Applications, failure of Enterprise AI solutions in general and our AI Suite and AI Applications in particular to satisfy customer demands or to achieve increased market acceptance would adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects.
We derive and expect to continue to derive substantially all of our revenue from our AI Suite and AI Applications. As such, the market acceptance of Enterprise AI solutions in general, and our AI Suite in particular, are critical to our continued success. Market acceptance of an Enterprise AI solution depends in part on market awareness of the benefits that Enterprise AI can provide over legacy products, emerging point products, and manual processes. In addition, in order for cloud-based Enterprise AI solutions to be widely accepted, organizations must overcome any concerns with placing sensitive information on a cloud-based platform. In addition, demand for our platform in particular is affected by a number of other factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include continued market acceptance of our AI Suite, the pace at which existing customers realize benefits from the use of our platform and decide to expand deployment of our platform across their business, the timing of development and release of new products by our competitors, technological change, reliability and security, the pace at which enterprises undergo digital transformation, and developments in data privacy regulations. In addition, we expect that the needs of our customers will continue to rapidly change and increase in complexity. We will need to improve the functionality and performance of our platform continually to meet those rapidly changing, complex demands. If we are unable to continue to meet customer demands or to achieve more widespread market acceptance of Enterprise AI solutions in general or our platform in particular, our business operations, financial results, and growth prospects will be materially and adversely affected.
We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We incurred net losses in each period since our founding in 2009. We generated net losses of approximately $33.3 million and $69.4 million for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and April 30, 2020, respectively, and expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. As a result, we had an accumulated deficit of $293.6 million as of April 30, 2020. These losses and accumulated deficit reflect the substantial investments we made to acquire new customers, commercialize our AI Suite and AI Applications, and continue to develop our AI Suite and AI Applications. While we have experienced revenue growth in recent periods, we do not know whether or when we will generate sufficient revenue to sustain or increase our growth or achieve or maintain profitability in the future. We also expect our costs and expenses to increase in future periods, which could negatively affect our future results of operations if our revenue does not increase. In particular, we intend to continue to expend significant funds to further develop our AI Suite and AI Applications and business, including:
investments in our research and development team and in the development of new features and enhancements of our AI Suite and AI Applications, including the hiring of additional development staff, and fees paid to third parties for related enhancements;
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investments in sales, marketing, and services, including expanding our sales force and our customer service team, increasing our customer base, increasing market awareness of our AI Suite and AI Applications, and development of new technologies;
expanding our operations and infrastructure; and
hiring additional employees.
We will also face increased compliance costs associated with growth, the expansion of our customer base, and being a public company. Our efforts to grow our business may be costlier than we expect, our revenue growth may be slower than we expect, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset our increased operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described herein, and unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications or delays, and other unknown events. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the value of our business and Class A common stock may significantly decrease.
We face intense competition and could lose market share to our competitors, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The market for our products is intensely competitive and characterized by rapid changes in technology, customer requirements, industry standards, and frequent new platform and application introductions and improvements. We anticipate continued competitive challenges from current competitors who address different aspects of our offerings, and in many cases, these competitors are more established and enjoy greater resources than we do. We also expect competitive challenges from new entrants into the industry. If we are unable to anticipate or effectively react to these competitive challenges, our competitive position could weaken, and we could experience a decline in our growth rate and revenue that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our main sources of current and potential competition fall into several categories:
internal IT organizations that develop internal solutions and provide self‑support for their enterprises;
commercial enterprise and point solution software providers;
open source software providers with data management, machine learning, and analytics offerings;
public cloud providers offering discrete tools and micro-services with data management, machine learning, and analytics functionality;
system integrators that develop and provide custom software solutions;
legacy data management product providers; and
strategic and technology partners who may also offer our competitors’ technology or otherwise partner with them, including our strategic partners who may offer a substantially similar solution based on a competitor’s technology or internally developed technology that is competitive with ours.
Many of our existing competitors have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:
greater name recognition, longer operating histories, and larger customer bases;
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources and the capacity to leverage their sales efforts and marketing expenditures across a broader portfolio of products;
broader, deeper, or otherwise more established relationships with technology, channel, and distribution partners and customers;
wider geographic presence or greater access to larger customer bases;
greater focus in specific geographies or industries;
lower labor and research and development costs;
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larger and more mature intellectual property portfolios; and
substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources to provide support, to make acquisitions, hire talent, and to develop and introduce new products.
In addition, some of our larger competitors have substantially broader and more diverse platform and application offerings and may be able to leverage their relationships with distribution partners and customers based on other products or incorporate functionality into existing products to gain business in a manner that discourages potential customers from subscribing to our AI Suite and AI Applications, including by selling at zero or negative margins, bundling with other offerings, or offering closed technology platforms. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of platform or application performance or features. As a result, even if the features of our AI Suite and AI Applications are superior, potential customers may not purchase our offerings. These larger competitors often have broader product lines and market focus or greater resources and may therefore not be as susceptible to economic downturns or other significant reductions in capital spending by customers. If we are unable to sufficiently differentiate our solutions from the integrated or bundled products of our competitors, such as by offering enhanced functionality, performance or value, we may see a decrease in demand for our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Moreover, new innovative start‑up companies, and larger companies that are making significant investments in research and development, may introduce products that have greater performance or functionality, are easier to implement or use, or incorporate technological advances that we have not yet developed or implemented, or may invent similar or superior technologies that compete with ours. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources.
Some of our competitors have made or could make acquisitions of businesses that allow them to offer more competitive and comprehensive solutions. As a result of such acquisitions, our current or potential competitors may be able to accelerate the adoption of new technologies that better address customer needs, devote greater resources to bring these platforms and applications to market, initiate or withstand substantial price competition, or develop and expand their product and service offerings more quickly than we can. These competitive pressures in our market or our failure to compete effectively may result in fewer orders, reduced revenue and gross margins, and loss of market share. In addition, it is possible that industry consolidation may impact customers’ perceptions of the viability of smaller or even mid‑size software firms and consequently customers’ willingness to purchase from such firms.
We may not compete successfully against our current or potential competitors. If we are unable to compete successfully, or if competing successfully requires us to take costly actions in response to the actions of our competitors, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, companies competing with us may have an entirely different pricing or distribution model. Increased competition could result in fewer customer orders, price reductions, reduced operating margins, and loss of market share. Further, we may be required to make substantial additional investments in research, development, marketing, and sales in order to respond to such competitive threats, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully in the future.
Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, particularly with respect to large subscriptions, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense.
Our results of operations may fluctuate, in part, because of the complexity of customer problems that our AI Suite and AI Applications address, the resource‑intensive nature of our sales efforts, the length and variability of the sales cycle for our AI Suite and AI Applications, and the difficulty in making short‑term adjustments to our operating expenses. The timing of our sales is difficult to predict. The length of our sales cycle, from initial evaluation to payment for our subscriptions is generally six to nine months but can vary substantially from customer to customer and can extend over a number of years for some customers. Our sales efforts involve educating our customers about the use, technical capabilities, and benefits of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Customers often undertake a prolonged evaluation process, which frequently involves not only our AI Suite and AI Applications but also those of other companies. In addition, the size of potential customers may lead to longer sales cycles. For instance, we invest resources into sales to large organizations and large organizations typically undertake a significant evaluation and negotiation process due to their leverage, size, organizational structure and approval requirements, all of which can lengthen our sales cycle. We may also face unexpected deployment challenges with large organizations or more complicated deployment of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Large organizations may demand additional features, support services, and pricing concessions or require additional security management or control features. Some organizations may also require an on-premise solution rather than a cloud solution, which potentially requires
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additional implementation time and potentially a longer sales cycle. We may spend substantial time, effort and money on sales efforts to large organizations without any assurance that our efforts will produce any sales or that these customers will deploy our AI Suite and AI Applications widely enough across their organization to justify our substantial upfront investment. As a result, it is difficult to predict exactly when, or even if, we will make a sale to a potential customer or if we can increase sales to our existing customers.
Individual sales tend to be large as a proportion of our overall sales, which impacts our ability to plan and manage cash flows and margins. These large individual sales have, in some cases, occurred in quarters subsequent to those we anticipated, or have not occurred at all. If our sales cycle lengthens or our substantial upfront investments do not result in sufficient revenue to justify our investments, our operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, within each quarter, it is difficult to project which month a deal will close. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether we are achieving our quarterly expectations until near the end of the quarter, and whether we will achieve annual expectations. Most of our expenses are relatively fixed or require time to adjust. Therefore, if expectations for our business are not accurate, we may not be able to adjust our cost structure on a timely basis, and our margins and cash flows may differ from expectations.
Certain revenue metrics such as net dollar-based retention rate or annual recurring revenue may not be accurate indicators of our future financial results.
Other subscription-based software companies often report on metrics such as net dollar-based revenue retention rate, annual recurring revenue or other revenue metrics, and investors and analysts sometimes look to these metrics as indicators of business activity in a period for businesses such as ours. However, given our large average contract value and our dependence on a small number of high-value customer contracts, these metrics are not accurate indicators of future revenue for any given period of time because the gain or loss of even a single high-value customer contract could cause significant volatility in these metrics. If investors and analysts view our business through these metrics, the trading price of our Class A common stock may be adversely affected.
Changes in our subscription or pricing models could adversely affect our operating results.
As the markets for our subscriptions grow, as new competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours or as we enter into new international markets, we may be unable to attract new customers at the same price or based on the same pricing model as we have historically used. Regardless of pricing model used, large customers may demand higher price discounts than in the past. As a result, we may be required to reduce our prices, offer shorter contract durations or offer alternative pricing models, which could adversely affect our revenue, gross margin, profitability, financial position, and cash flow.
We have limited experience with respect to determining the optimal prices for subscriptions for our AI Suite and AI Applications. In the past, we have been able to increase our prices for our AI Suite and AI Applications but we may choose not to introduce or be unsuccessful in implementing future price increases. Our competitors may introduce new products that compete with ours or reduce their prices, or we may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers based on our historical subscription and pricing models. Given our limited operating history and limited experience with our historical subscription and pricing models, we may not be able to accurately predict customer renewal or retention rates. As a result, we may be required or choose to reduce our prices or change our pricing model, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Our revenue growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties, including channel partners, and if we are unable to establish and maintain successful relationships with them, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We seek to grow our partner ecosystem as a way to grow our business. We anticipate that we will continue to establish and maintain relationships with third parties, such as channel partners, resellers, OEMs, system integrators, independent software and hardware vendors, and platform and cloud service providers. For example, in June 2019, we entered into a strategic collaboration with Baker Hughes whereby Baker Hughes operates as the exclusive channel partner and reseller of our AI Suite and AI Applications in the oil and gas industry and a non-exclusive reseller in other industries. This arrangement was revised in June 2020 to extend the term by an additional two years for a total of five years, with an expiration date in the fiscal year ending April 30, 2024. We also have strategic relationships with Fidelity National Information Services, or FIS, IBM, Microsoft, and Raytheon.
We plan to continue to establish and maintain similar strategic relationships in certain industry verticals and otherwise, and we expect our channel partners to become an increasingly important aspect of our business. However, these strategic
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relationships could limit our ability in the future to compete in certain industry verticals and, depending on the success of our third-party partners and the industries that those partners operate in generally, may negatively impact our business because of the nature of strategic alliances, exclusivity provisions, or otherwise. We work closely with select vendors to design solutions to specifically address the needs of certain industry verticals or use cases within those verticals. As our agreements with strategic partners terminate or expire, we may be unable to renew or replace these agreements on comparable terms, or at all. For instance, our AI Suite and AI Applications are marketed in the oil and gas industry on a co-branded basis with Baker Hughes. In the event of any termination, expiration, or renegotiation of the arrangement with Baker Hughes, we may lose the right to continue to co-brand our products in this industry, and it may be difficult for us to arrange for another channel partner to sell our AI Suite and AI Applications in the oil and gas industry in a timely manner, and we could lose brand awareness and sales opportunities during the transition.
Our future growth in revenue and ability to achieve and sustain profitability depends in part on our ability to identify, establish, and retain successful strategic partner relationships in the United States and internationally, which will take significant time and resources and involve significant risk. To the extent we do identify such partners, we will need to negotiate the terms of a commercial agreement with them under which the partner would distribute our AI Suite and AI Applications. We cannot be certain that we will be able to negotiate commercially attractive terms with any strategic partner, if at all. In addition, all channel partners must be trained to distribute our AI Suite and AI Applications. In order to develop and expand our distribution channel, we must develop and improve our processes for channel partner introduction and training. If we do not succeed in identifying suitable strategic partners or maintain our relationships with such partners, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be adversely affected.
Moreover, we cannot guarantee that the partners with whom we have strategic relationships will continue to devote the resources necessary to expand our reach and increase our distribution. In addition, customer satisfaction with services and other support from our strategic partners may be less than anticipated, negatively impacting anticipated revenue growth and results of operations. We cannot be certain that these partners will prioritize or provide adequate resources to selling our AI Suite and AI Applications. Further, some of our strategic partners offer competing platforms and applications or also work with our competitors. As a result of these factors, many of the companies with whom we have strategic alliances may choose to pursue alternative technologies and develop alternative platforms and applications in addition to or in lieu of our AI Suite and AI Applications, either on their own or in collaboration with others, including our competitors. We cannot assure you that our strategic partners will continue to cooperate with us. In addition, actions taken or omitted to be taken by such parties may adversely affect us. Moreover, we rely on our channel partners to operate in accordance with the terms of their contractual agreements with us. For example, our agreements with our channel partners limit the terms and conditions pursuant to which they are authorized to resell or distribute our AI Suite and AI Applications and offer technical support and related services. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, or if our strategic partners do not comply with their contractual obligations to us, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be adversely affected. Even if we are successful in establishing and maintaining these relationships with third parties, we cannot assure you that these relationships will result in increased customer usage of our AI Suite and AI Applications or increased revenue to us.
In addition, some of our sales to government entities have been made, and in the future may be made, indirectly through our channel partners. Government entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with our channel partners for convenience or due to a default, and, in the future, if the portion of government contracts that are subject to renegotiation or termination at the election of the government entity are material, any such termination or renegotiation may adversely impact our future operating results. In the event of such termination, it may be difficult for us to arrange for another channel partner to sell our AI Suite and AI Applications to these government entities in a timely manner, and we could lose sales opportunities during the transition. Government entities routinely investigate and audit government contractors’ administrative processes, and any unfavorable audit could result in the government entity refusing to renew its subscription to our AI Suite and AI Applications, a reduction of revenue, or fines or civil or criminal liability if the audit uncovers improper or illegal activities.
If the market for our AI Suite and AI Applications fails to grow as we expect, or if businesses fail to adopt our AI Suite and AI Applications, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
It is difficult to predict customer adoption rates and demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications, the entry of competitive platforms, or the future growth rate and size of the cloud-based software and software-as-a-service, or SaaS, business software markets. A substantial majority of our revenue has come from sales of our subscription-based software products, which we expect to continue for the foreseeable future. Although demand for data management, machine learning, and analytics platforms and applications has grown in recent years, the market for these platforms and applications continues
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to evolve. We cannot be sure that this market will continue to grow or, even if it does grow, that businesses will adopt our AI Suite and AI Applications. Our future success will depend in large part on our ability to further penetrate the existing market for Enterprise AI software, as well as the continued growth and expansion of what we believe to be an emerging market for Enterprise AI platforms and applications that are faster, easier to adopt, and easier to use. Our ability to further penetrate the Enterprise AI market depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance, and perceived value associated with our AI Suite and AI Applications, as well as customers’ willingness to adopt a different approach to data analysis. We have spent, and intend to keep spending, considerable resources to educate potential customers about digital transformation, artificial intelligence, and machine learning in general and our AI Suite and AI Applications in particular. However, we cannot be sure that these expenditures will help our AI Suite and AI Applications achieve any additional market acceptance. Furthermore, potential customers may have made significant investments in legacy analytics software systems and may be unwilling to invest in new platforms and applications. If the market fails to grow or grows more slowly than we currently expect or businesses fail to adopt our AI Suite and AI Applications, our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected.
If we fail to respond to rapid technological changes, extend our AI Suite and AI Applications or develop new features and functionality, our ability to remain competitive could be impaired.
The market for our AI Suite and AI Applications is characterized by rapid technological change and frequent new platform and application introductions and enhancements, changing customer demands, and evolving industry standards. The introduction of platforms and applications embodying new technologies can quickly make existing platforms and applications obsolete and unmarketable. Data management, machine learning, and analytics platforms and applications are inherently complex, and it can take a long time and require significant research and development expenditures to develop and test new or enhanced platforms and applications. The success of any enhancements or improvements to our existing AI Suite and AI Applications or any new applications depends on several factors, including timely completion, competitive pricing, adequate quality testing, integration with existing technologies, and overall market acceptance.
Our ability to grow our customer base and generate revenue from customers will depend heavily on our ability to enhance and improve our AI Suite and AI Applications, to develop additional functionality and use cases, introduce new features and applications and interoperate across an increasing range of devices, operating systems, and third-party applications. Our customers may require features and capabilities that our current AI Suite and AI Applications do not have or may face use cases that our current AI Suite and AI Applications do not address. We invest significantly in research and development, and our goal is to focus our spending on measures that improve quality and ease of adoption and create organic customer demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications. When we develop a new enhancement or improvement to our AI suite or applications, we typically incur expenses and expend resources upfront to develop, market and promote the new enhancement and improvement. Therefore, when we develop and introduce new enhancements and improvements to our AI Suite and AI Applications, they must achieve high levels of market acceptance in order to justify the amount of our investment in developing and bringing them to market. There is no assurance that our enhancements to our AI Suite and AI Applications or our new application experiences, functionality, use cases, features, or capabilities will be compelling to our customers or gain market acceptance. If our research and development investments do not accurately anticipate customer demand, or if we fail to develop our AI Suite and AI Applications in a manner that satisfies customer preferences in a secure, timely and cost-effective manner, we may fail to retain our existing customers or increase demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications.
Moreover, even if we introduce new C3 AI Suite capabilities and C3 AI Applications, we may experience a decline in revenue from sales of our existing AI Suite and AI Applications that is not offset by revenue from the new C3 AI Suite capabilities or applications. For example, customers may delay ordering subscriptions of new AI Suite capabilities or applications to permit them to make a more thorough evaluation of the C3 AI Suite and AI Applications or until industry and marketplace reviews become widely available. Some customers may hesitate to migrate to new C3 AI Suite and AI Applications due to concerns regarding the complexity of migration and suite or application infancy issues on performance. In addition, we may lose existing customers who choose a competitor’s AI platforms and applications rather than migrate to our new AI Suite capabilities and applications. This could result in a temporary or permanent revenue shortfall and adversely affect our business.
Any failure of our AI Suite and AI Applications to operate effectively with future infrastructure platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications. If we are unable to respond to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner, our AI Suite and AI Applications may become less marketable, less competitive, or obsolete, and our operating results may be adversely affected.
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The introduction of new AI platforms and applications by competitors or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could make our AI Suite and AI Applications obsolete or adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We may experience difficulties with software development, design, or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of new C3 AI Suite or application experiences, features, or capabilities. We have in the past experienced delays in our internally planned release dates of new features and capabilities, and there can be no assurance that new C3 AI Suite or application features or capabilities will be released according to schedule. Any delays could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenue or market acceptance, or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our business. Moreover, new productivity features for our AI Suite and AI Applications may require substantial investment, and we have no assurance that such investments will be successful. If customers do not widely adopt our new AI Suite and AI Application features and capabilities, we may not be able to realize a return on our investment. If we are unable to develop, license, or acquire new features and capabilities to our AI Suite and AI Applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, or if such enhancements do not achieve market acceptance, our business could be harmed.
If we were to lose the services of our CEO or other members of our senior management team, we may not be able to execute our business strategy.
Our success depends in a large part upon the continued service of key members of our senior management team. In particular, our founder and CEO, Thomas M. Siebel, is critical to our overall management, as well as the continued development of our AI Suite and AI Applications, our sales strategy, our culture, our strategic direction, engineering, and operations. All of our executive officers are at-will employees, and we do not maintain any key person life insurance policies. The loss of any member of our senior management team could make it more difficult to execute our business strategy and, therefore, harm our business.
The failure to effectively develop and expand our marketing and sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our AI Suite and AI Applications.
Our ability to expand our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our AI Suite and AI Applications depends to a significant extent on our ability to continue to expand our marketing and sales operations and the ultimate effectiveness of those operations. We plan to continue expanding our sales force and strategic partners, both domestically and internationally.
Identifying and recruiting qualified sales representatives and training them is time consuming and resource intensive, and they may not be fully trained and productive for a significant amount of time. Our AI Suite and AI Applications are complicated and, as such, our sales force and operations require significant time and investment for proper recruitment, onboarding, and training in order for our sales operations to be productive. In addition, as we enter into new markets, expand the capabilities of our AI Suite and offer new applications, we may need to identify and recruit additional sales and marketing efforts specific to such strategic expansion. Our efforts to do so may be increasingly resource intensive, time consuming, and ultimately unsuccessful. We also dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs, including internet and other online advertising. All of these efforts require us to invest significant financial and other resources. In addition, the cost to acquire customers is high due to these marketing and sales efforts. Our business will be harmed if our efforts do not generate a correspondingly significant increase in revenue. We will not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop, and retain talented sales personnel, if our new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.
In addition, our business would be adversely affected if our marketing and sales efforts are not successful and generate increases in revenue that are smaller than anticipated. If our marketing and sales efforts are not effective, our sales and revenue may grow more slowly than expected or materially decline, and our business may be significantly harmed.
If we fail to develop, maintain, and enhance our brand and reputation cost-effectively, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We believe that developing, maintaining, and enhancing awareness and integrity of our brand and reputation in a cost-effective manner are important to achieving widespread acceptance of our AI Suite and AI Applications and are important elements in attracting new customers and maintaining existing customers. We believe that the importance of our brand and reputation will increase as competition in our market further intensifies. Successful promotion of our brand depends on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our ability to provide a reliable and useful AI Suite and AI Applications at competitive prices, the perceived value of our AI Suite and AI Applications, our ability to maintain our customers’ trust, our ability to continue to develop additional functionality and use cases and our ability to differentiate our AI Suite and AI Applications
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and capabilities from competitive offerings. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, the increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building and maintaining our brand and reputation. We also rely on our customer base in a variety of ways, including to give us feedback on our AI Suite and AI Applications. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand successfully or to maintain loyalty among our customers, or if we incur substantial expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract new customers and partners or retain our existing customers and partners and our business and financial condition may be adversely affected. Any negative publicity relating to our employees, partners, or others associated with these parties, may also tarnish our own reputation simply by association and may reduce the value of our brand. Damage to our brand and reputation may result in reduced demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications and increased risk of losing market share to our competitors. Any efforts to restore the value of our brand and rebuild our reputation may be costly and may not be successful.
We also enter into strategic relationships in which we co-brand our products. If these relationships terminate, it may have an adverse effect on our brand. For example, our AI Suite and AI Applications are marketed in the oil and gas industry on a co-branded basis with Baker Hughes. In the event of any termination or expiration of the arrangement with Baker Hughes, we may lose the right to continue using the co-brand to market and sell our AI Suite and AI Applications in the oil and gas industry, and it may be difficult for us to arrange for another channel partner to sell our AI Suite and AI Applications in the oil and gas industry in a timely manner, and we could lose brand awareness and sales opportunities during the transition, which could potentially harm our business.
We may not successfully manage our growth or plan for future growth.
Since our founding in 2009, we have experienced rapid growth. For example, our headcount has grown to 482 full-time employees as of October 31, 2020, with employees located both in the United States and internationally. The growth and expansion of our business places a continuous and significant strain on our management, operational, and financial resources. Further growth of our operations to support our customer base, our expanding third-party relationships, our information technology systems, and our internal controls and procedures may not be adequate to support our operations. Managing our growth will also require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resource, including the challenges of integrating, developing, and motivating a rapidly growing employee base in various countries around the world. Certain members of our management have not previously worked together for an extended period of time, and some do not have experience managing a public company, which may affect how they manage our growth.
In addition, our rapid growth may make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects. Our ability to forecast our future results of operations is subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to effectively plan for and model future growth. We have encountered in the past, and may encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as it grows, or if we are not able to accurately forecast future growth, our business would be harmed.
If we are unable to ensure that our AI Suite and AI Applications interoperate with a variety of software applications that are developed by others, including our partners, we may become less competitive and our results of operations may be harmed.
Our AI Suite and AI Applications must integrate with a variety of hardware and software platforms, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our AI Suite and AI Applications to adapt to changes in hardware and software technologies. In particular, we have developed our AI Suite and AI Applications to be able to easily integrate with key third-party applications, including the applications of software providers that compete with us as well as our partners. We are typically subject to standard terms and conditions of such providers, which govern the distribution, operation, and fees of such software systems, and which are subject to change by such providers from time to time. Our business will be harmed if any provider of such software systems:
discontinues or limits our access to its software;
modifies its terms of service or other policies, including fees charged to, or other restrictions on us, or other platform and application developers;
changes how information is accessed by us or our customers;
establishes more favorable relationships with one or more of our competitors; or
develops or otherwise favors its own competitive offerings over our AI Suite and AI Applications.
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Third-party services and products are constantly evolving, and we may not be able to modify our AI Suite and AI Applications to assure their compatibility with that of other third parties as they continue to develop or emerge in the future or we may not be able to make such modifications in a timely and cost-effective manner. In addition, some of our competitors may be able to disrupt the operations or compatibility of our AI Suite and AI Applications with their products or services, or exert strong business influence on our ability to, and terms on which we, operate our AI Suite. Should any of our competitors modify their products or standards in a manner that degrades the functionality of our AI Suite and AI Applications or gives preferential treatment to our competitors or competitive products, whether to enhance their competitive position or for any other reason, the interoperability of our AI Suite and AI Applications with these products could decrease and our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be harmed. If we are not permitted or able to integrate with these and other third-party applications in the future, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be harmed.
Our ability to sell subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications could be harmed by real or perceived material defects or errors in our AI Suite and AI Applications.
The software technology underlying our AI Suite and AI Applications is inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors, particularly when new applications are first introduced, when new features or capabilities are released, or when integrated with new or updated third-party hardware or software. There can be no assurance that our existing AI Suite and AI Applications and new applications will not contain defects or errors. Any real or perceived errors, failures, vulnerabilities, or bugs in our AI Suite and AI Applications could result in negative publicity or lead to data security, access, retention, or other performance issues, all of which could harm our business. Correcting such defects or errors may be costly and time-consuming and could harm our business. Moreover, the harm to our reputation and legal liability related to such defects or errors may be substantial and would harm our business.
The failure to attract and retain additional qualified personnel or to maintain our company culture could harm our business and culture and prevent us from executing our business strategy.
To execute our business strategy, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for executives, data scientists, engineers, software developers, sales personnel, and other key employees in our industry is intense. In particular, we compete with many other companies for employees with high levels of expertise in designing, developing and managing platforms and applications for data management, machine learning, and analytics technologies, as well as for skilled data scientists, sales, and operations professionals. In addition, we are extremely selective in our hiring process which requires significant investment of time and resources from internal stakeholders and management. At times, we have experienced, and we may continue to experience, difficulty in hiring personnel who meet the demands of our selection process and with appropriate qualifications, experience, or expertise, and we may not be able to fill positions as quickly as desired.
Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have, and some of these companies may offer more attractive compensation packages. Particularly in the San Francisco Bay Area, job candidates and existing employees carefully consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, or if the mix of equity and cash compensation that we offer is unattractive, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. Job candidates may also be threatened with legal action under agreements with their existing employers if we attempt to hire them, which could impact hiring and result in a diversion of our time and resources. Additionally, laws and regulations, such as restrictive immigration laws, or export control laws, may limit our ability to recruit internationally. We must also continue to retain and motivate existing employees through our compensation practices, company culture, and career development opportunities.
We believe that a critical component to our success and our ability to retain our best people is our culture. As we continue to grow and develop a public company infrastructure, we may find it difficult to maintain our company culture.
In addition, many of our employees may be able to receive significant proceeds from sales of our equity in the public markets after our initial public offering, which may reduce their motivation to continue to work for us. Moreover, this offering could create disparities in wealth among our employees, which may harm our culture and relations among employees and our business.
If we fail to attract new personnel or to retain our current personnel, our business would be harmed.
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Our quarterly results and key metrics are likely to fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our quarterly results of operations and key metrics may vary significantly in the future, particularly in light of our dependence on a limited number of high-value customer contracts, and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations and key metrics may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly results of operations and key metrics may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Fluctuation in quarterly results may negatively impact the value of our securities. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations and key metrics include, without limitation, those listed elsewhere in this Risk Factors section and those listed below:
our ability to generate significant revenue from new offerings;
our ability to expand our number of partners and distribution of our AI Suite and AI Applications;
our ability to hire and retain employees, in particular those responsible for the selling or marketing of our AI Suite and AI Applications;
our ability to develop and retain talented sales personnel who are able to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time and provide sales leadership in areas in which we are expanding our sales and marketing efforts;
changes in the way we organize and compensate our sales teams;
the timing of expenses and recognition of revenue;
increased sales to large organizations;
the length of sales cycles and seasonal purchasing patterns of our customers;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations, and infrastructure, as well as international expansion and entry into operating leases;
timing and effectiveness of new sales and marketing initiatives;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the timing and success of new platforms, applications, features, and functionality by us or our competitors;
failures or breaches of security or privacy, and the costs associated with remediating any such failures or breaches;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors;
changes in laws and regulations that impact our business;
any large indemnification payments to our users or other third parties;
the timing of expenses related to any future acquisitions;
health epidemics or pandemics, such as the coronavirus, or COVID-19, pandemic;
civil unrest and geopolitical instability; and
general political, economic, and market conditions.
We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications over the terms of these subscriptions. Consequently, increases or decreases in new sales may not be immediately reflected in our results of operations and may be difficult to discern.
We recognize revenue from subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications over the terms of these subscriptions, which is typically three years. As a result, a portion of the revenue we report in each quarter is derived from the recognition
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of deferred revenue relating to subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any single quarter may only have a small impact on the revenue that we recognize for that quarter. However, such a decline will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and potential changes in our pricing policies or rate of customer expansion or retention may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. In addition, a significant portion of our costs are expensed as incurred. As a result, growth in the number of new customers could continue to result in our recognition of higher costs and lower revenue in the earlier periods of our subscriptions. Finally, our subscription-based revenue model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers or from existing customers that increase their use of our AI Suite and AI Applications must be recognized over the applicable subscription term. These risks are further exacerbated by our dependence on high-value customer contracts.
Any failure to offer high-quality maintenance and support services for our customers may harm our relationships with our customers and, consequently, our business.
Once our AI Suite and AI Applications are deployed, our customers depend on our maintenance and support teams to resolve technical and operational issues relating to our AI Suite and AI Applications. Our ability to provide effective customer maintenance and support is largely dependent on our ability to attract, train, and retain qualified personnel with experience in supporting customers with our AI Suite and AI applications such as ours and maintaining the same. The number of our customers has grown significantly and that has and will continue to put additional pressure on our customer maintenance and support teams. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support or maintenance assistance. We also may be unable to modify the future, scope, and delivery of our maintenance services and technical support to compete with changes in the technical services provided by our competitors. Increased customer demand for maintenance and support services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and negatively affect our operating results. In addition, if we experience increased customer demand for support and maintenance, we may face increased costs that may harm our results of operations. Further, as we continue to grow our operations and support our global customer base, we need to be able to continue to provide efficient support and effective maintenance that meets our customers’ needs globally at scale. Customers receive additional maintenance and support features, and the number of our customers has grown significantly, which will put additional pressure on our organization. If we are unable to provide efficient customer maintenance and support globally at scale or if we need to hire additional maintenance and support personnel, our business may be harmed. Our ability to attract new customers is highly dependent on our business reputation and on positive recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality maintenance and support services, a failure of channel parties to maintain high-quality maintenance and support services or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality maintenance and support services for our customers, would harm our business.
The COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our partners, and customers operate.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused general business disruption worldwide beginning in January 2020. The potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business are difficult to assess or predict. Potential impacts include:
our customer prospects and our existing customers may experience slowdowns in their businesses, which in turn may result in reduced demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications, lengthening of sales cycles, loss of customers, and difficulties in collections;
our employees are working from home significantly more frequently than they have historically, which may result in decreased employee productivity and morale, with increased unwanted employee attrition in addition to the increased risk of a cyberattack;
we continue to incur fixed costs, particularly for real estate, and are deriving reduced or no benefit from those costs;
we may continue to experience disruptions to our growth planning, such as for facilities and international expansion;
we anticipate incurring costs in returning to work from our facilities around the world, including changes to the workplace, such as space planning, food service, and amenities;
we may be subject to legal liability for safe workplace claims;
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our critical vendors or third-party partners could go out of business;
in-person marketing events, including industry conferences, have been canceled and we may continue to experience prolonged delays in our ability to reschedule or conduct in-person marketing events and other sales and marketing activities; and
our marketing, sales, professional services, and support organizations are accustomed to extensive face-to-face customer and partner interactions, and conducting business virtually is unproven.
The impact of any of the foregoing, individually or collectively, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily closed our headquarters and other offices, required our employees and contractors to work remotely, and implemented travel restrictions, all of which represented a significant change in how we operate our business. The operations of our partners and customers have likewise been altered. While the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, it has already had an adverse effect on the global economy and the ultimate societal and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic remains unknown. In particular, the conditions caused by this pandemic are likely to affect the rate of global IT spending and, despite the measures we have taken to limit or mitigate the impact, it could have an adverse effect on the demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications, lengthen our sales cycles, reduce the value or duration of subscriptions, reduce the level of subscription renewals, negatively impact collections of accounts receivable, reduce expected spending from new customers, cause some of our paying customers to go out of business, limit the ability of our direct sales force to travel to customers and potential customers, and affect contraction or attrition rates of our paying customers, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition during fiscal 2021 and future periods.
Moreover, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition, and results of operations, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to, those related to our ability to increase sales to existing and new customers, develop and deploy new offerings and applications and maintain effective marketing and sales capabilities.
Our actual or perceived failure to comply with privacy, data protection and information security laws, regulations, and obligations could harm our business.
We are subject to numerous federal, state, local, and international laws and regulations regarding privacy, data protection, information security and the storing, sharing, use, processing, transfer, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other content, the scope of which is changing, subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among countries, or conflict with other rules. We are also subject to the terms of our privacy policies and obligations to third parties related to privacy, data protection, and information security. We strive to comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, and other legal obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security to the extent possible. However, the regulatory framework for privacy and data protection worldwide is, and is likely to remain, uncertain for the foreseeable future, and it is possible that these or other actual or alleged obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices.
We also expect that there will continue to be new laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security proposed and enacted in various jurisdictions. For example, in May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, went into effect in the European Union, or EU. The GDPR imposed more stringent data protection requirements and provides greater penalties for noncompliance than previous data protection laws, including potential penalties of up to €20 million or 4% of annual global revenues.
Although there are legal mechanisms to allow for the transfer of personal data from the United Kingdom, the European Economic Area, or EEA, and Switzerland to the United States, uncertainty about compliance with such data protection laws remains and such mechanisms may not be available or applicable with respect to the personal data processing activities necessary to research, develop and market our AI Suite and AI Applications. For example, legal challenges in Europe to the mechanisms allowing companies to transfer personal data from the EEA to the United States could result in further limitations on the ability to transfer personal data across borders, particularly if governments are unable or unwilling to reach agreement on or maintain existing mechanisms designed to support cross-border data transfers, such as the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Frameworks, or the Privacy Shield Frameworks. Specifically, on July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union invalidated Decision 2016/1250 which had deemed the protection provided by the EU-U.S.
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Privacy Shield Framework adequate under EU privacy law, specifically under the GDPR. To the extent that we or any of our vendors, contractors, or consultants have been relying on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield Framework, we will not be able to do so in the future, which could increase our costs and may limit our ability to process personal data from the EU. The same decision also cast doubt on the ability to use one of the primary alternatives to the Privacy Shield Frameworks, namely, the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, to lawfully transfer personal data from Europe to the United States and most other countries. At present, there are few if any viable alternatives to the Privacy Shield Frameworks and the Standard Contractual Clauses for the foregoing purposes. On September 8, 2020, Switzerland’s Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner similarly invalidated the use of the Privacy Shield as a vehicle for lawful data transfers from those countries to the United States and authorities in the United Kingdom may likewise invalidate use of the Privacy Shield as a mechanism for lawful data transfers to the United States. As such, our processing of personal data from Europe may not comply with European data protection law, may increase our exposure to the GDPR’s heightened sanctions for violations of its cross-border data transfer restrictions and may reduce demand for our services from companies subject to European data protection laws. Loss of our ability to import personal data from Europe may also require us to increase our data processing capabilities in Europe at significant expense. Additionally, other countries outside of Europe have enacted or are considering enacting similar cross-border data transfer restrictions and laws requiring local data residency, which could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services and operating our business.
Further, following a referendum in June 2016 in which voters in the United Kingdom approved an exit from the EU, the United Kingdom government has initiated a process to leave the EU, known as Brexit. Brexit has created uncertainty with regard to the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom. In particular, while the Data Protection Act of 2018, which implements and complements the GDPR achieved Royal Assent on May 23, 2018 and is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the EEA to the United Kingdom will remain lawful under the GDPR. During the period of “transition” (i.e., until December 31, 2020), EU law will continue to apply in the United Kingdom, including the GDPR, after which the Data Protection Act will substantially convert the requirements of the GDPR into United Kingdom law. However, we cannot fully predict how the Data Protection Act and other United Kingdom data protection laws or regulations may develop in the medium to longer term, affecting how data transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated. We continue to monitor and review the impact of any resulting changes to EU or United Kingdom law that could affect our operations. Beginning in 2021, the United Kingdom will be a “third country” under the GDPR. We may, however, incur liabilities, expenses, costs, and other operational losses under the GDPR and privacy laws of the applicable EU Member States and the United Kingdom in connection with any measures we take to comply with them.
California also recently enacted legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, which affords consumers expanded privacy protections as of January 1, 2020. The potential effects of this legislation are far reaching and may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. For example, the CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and require deletion of their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA also provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that may increase data breach litigation. In addition, the CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state privacy legislation that, if passed, could increase our potential liability, increase our compliance costs and adversely affect our business. Additionally, a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, was passed by voters in California as part of the November 3, 2020 election. The CPRA is expected to significantly modify the CCPA, potentially resulting in further uncertainty and requiring us to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply. The enactment of the CCPA is prompting a wave of similar legislative developments in other states in the United States, which could create the potential for a patchwork of overlapping but different state laws. Some countries also are considering or have passed legislation requiring local storage and processing of data, or similar requirements, which could increase the cost and complexity of operating our AI Suite and AI Applications and other aspects of our business.
With laws and regulations such as the GDPR in the EU and the CCPA in the United States imposing new and relatively burdensome obligations, and with substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these and other laws and regulations, there is a risk that the requirements of these laws and regulations, or of contractual or other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or information security, are interpreted or applied in a manner that is, or is alleged to be, inconsistent with our management and processing practices, our policies or procedures, or the features of our AI Suite and AI Applications. We may face challenges in addressing their requirements and making necessary changes to our policies and practices, and may incur significant costs and expenses in an effort to do so. Although we endeavor to comply with our published policies, certifications, and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance if our employees or vendors to comply with our published policies and documentation. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies,
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our privacy-, data protection-, or information security-related obligations to customers or other third parties or any of our other legal obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or information security may result in governmental investigations or enforcement actions, litigation, claims, or public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others, and could result in significant liability or cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may limit the adoption and use of, and reduce the overall demand for, our AI Suite and AI Applications.
Additionally, if third parties we work with, such as vendors or developers, violate applicable laws or regulations or our policies, such violations may also put our customers’ content at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business. Any significant change to applicable laws, regulations or industry practices regarding the collection, use, retention, security, or disclosure of our customers’ content, or regarding the manner in which the express or implied consent of customers for the collection, use, retention, or disclosure of such content is obtained, could increase our costs and require us to modify our AI Suite and AI Applications, possibly in a material manner, which we may be unable to complete and may limit our ability to store and process customer data or develop new applications and features.
Our application for a PPP Loan could in the future be determined to have been impermissible which could result in damage to our reputation or adversely impact our business.
In May 2020, given the uncertainty caused by COVID-19 and related events we applied for and received proceeds of approximately $6.3 million from a loan under the Paycheck Protection Program, or the PPP Loan, of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or the CARES Act. The PPP Loan had a term of two years, was unsecured, and was guaranteed by the U. S. Small Business Administration, or the SBA. The PPP Loan carried a fixed interest rate of 1.00% per annum, with the first six months of interest deferred. Under the CARES Act, we may have been eligible to apply for forgiveness of all loan proceeds used to pay payroll costs, rent, utilities, and other qualifying expenses, provided that we retained a certain number of employees and maintain compensation within certain regulatory parameters of the Paycheck Protection Program. However, we repaid the entire balance of the PPP Loan in August 2020.
In applying for the PPP Loan, we were required to certify, among other things, that the then-current economic uncertainty made the PPP Loan necessary to support our ongoing operations and that we did not, together with our affiliates, then employ more than 500 employees. We made these certifications in good faith after analyzing, among other things, economic uncertainties created by the COVID-19 pandemic, including its impact on our customers and prospects and the global economic at large, and the potential impact on our business activity. We repaid the entire balance of the PPP Loan in August 2020.
We believe that we satisfied all eligibility criteria for the PPP Loan, and that our receipt of the PPP Loan was consistent with the objectives of the PPP of the CARES Act. The certification regarding necessity described above did not at the time contain any objective criteria and continues to be subject to interpretation. If, despite our good-faith belief that we satisfied all eligibility requirements for the PPP Loan, we are later determined to have violated any of the laws or governmental regulations that apply to us in connection with the PPP Loan, such as the False Claims Act, or it is otherwise determined that we were ineligible to receive the PPP Loan, we may be subject to civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, despite the fact that we elected not to use any of the PPP Loan proceeds and repaid the entire balance of the PPP Loan in August 2020. Any violations or alleged violations may result in adverse publicity and damage to our reputation, a review or audit by the SBA or other government entity, or claims under the False Claims Act. These events could consume significant financial and management resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We rely on third-party service providers to host and deliver our AI Suite and AI Applications, and any interruptions or delays in these services could impair our AI Suite and AI Applications and harm our business.
We currently serve our customers from third-party data center hosting facilities located in the United States, Asia, and Europe. Our operations depend, in part, on our third-party facility providers’ ability to protect these facilities against damage or interruption from natural disasters, power or telecommunications failures, criminal acts, and similar events. In the event that our data center arrangements are terminated, or if there are any lapses of service or damage to a center, we could experience lengthy interruptions in our AI Suite and AI Applications as well as delays and additional expenses in making new arrangements.
We designed our system infrastructure and procure and own or lease the computer hardware used for our AI Suite and AI Applications. Design and mechanical errors, spikes in usage volume, and failure to follow system protocols and procedures
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could cause our systems to fail, resulting in interruptions in our AI Suite and AI Applications. Any interruptions or delays in our service, whether as a result of third-party error, our own error, natural disasters, or security breaches, whether accidental or willful, could harm our relationships with our customers and cause our revenue to decrease and/or our expenses to increase. Also, in the event of damage or interruption, our insurance policies may not adequately compensate us for any losses that we may incur. These factors in turn could further reduce our revenue, subject us to liability and cause us to issue credits or cause customers to fail to renew their subscriptions, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.
We may face exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.
We sell to customers globally and have international operations primarily in Europe. As we continue to expand our international operations, we will become more exposed to the effects of fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Although the majority of our cash generated from revenue is denominated in U.S. dollars, a small amount is denominated in foreign currencies, and our expenses are generally denominated in the currencies of the jurisdictions in which we conduct our operations. For the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, 20% of our revenue and 9% of our expenses were denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars. Because we conduct business in currencies other than U.S. dollars but report our results of operations in U.S. dollars, we also face remeasurement exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could hinder our ability to predict our future results and earnings and could materially impact our results of operations. Therefore, increases in the value of the U.S. dollar and decreases in the value of foreign currencies could result in the dollar equivalent of our revenues being lower. We do not currently maintain a program to hedge exposures to non-U.S. dollar currencies.
Our current AI Suite and AI Applications, as well as applications, features, and functionality that we may introduce in the future, may not be widely accepted by our customers or may receive negative attention or may require us to compensate or reimburse third parties, any of which may lower our margins and harm our business.
Our ability to engage, retain, and increase our base of customers and to increase our revenue will depend on our ability to successfully create new applications, features, and functionality, both independently and together with third parties. We may introduce significant changes to our existing AI Suite and AI Applications or develop and introduce new and unproven applications, including technologies with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. These new applications and updates may fail to engage, retain, and increase our base of customers or may create lag in adoption of such new applications. New applications may initially suffer from performance and quality issues that may negatively impact our ability to market and sell such applications to new and existing customers. The short- and long-term impact of any major change to our AI Suite and AI Applications, or the introduction of new applications, is particularly difficult to predict. If new or enhanced applications fail to engage, retain, and increase our base of customers, we may fail to generate sufficient revenue, operating margin, or other value to justify our investments in such applications, any of which may harm our business in the short term, long term, or both.
In addition, our current AI Suite and AI Applications, as well as applications, features, and functionality that we may introduce in the future, may require us to compensate or reimburse third parties. In addition, new applications that we introduce in the future may similarly require us to compensate or reimburse third parties, all of which would lower our profit margins for any such new applications. If this trend continues with our new and existing AI Suite and AI Applications, it could harm our business.
Sales to government entities and highly regulated organizations are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
We have sold and may sell to U.S. federal, state, and local, as well as foreign, governmental agency customers, as well as to customers in highly regulated industries such as financial services, telecommunications, and healthcare. Sales to such entities are subject to a number of challenges and risks. Selling to such entities can be highly competitive, expensive, and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government contracting requirements may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the government sector. Government demand and payment for our AI Suite and AI Applications are affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our AI Suite and AI Applications.
Further, governmental and highly regulated entities may demand contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements and may be less favorable than terms agreed with private sector customers. In our experience, government entities often require shorter term subscriptions than our private sector customers due to budget cycles, making one-year subscriptions not uncommon. Government entities and highly regulated organizations typically have longer implementation cycles, sometimes require acceptance provisions that can lead to a delay in revenue recognition, can have more complex IT and data environments, and may expect greater payment flexibility from vendors.
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Contracts with governmental entities may also include preferential pricing terms, including, but not limited to, “most favored customer” pricing. In the event that we are successful in being awarded a government contract, such award may be subject to appeals, disputes, or litigation, including but not limited to bid protests by unsuccessful bidders.
As a government contractor or subcontractor, we must comply with laws, regulations, and contractual provisions relating to the formation, administration, and performance of government contracts and inclusion on government contract vehicles, which affect how we and our partners do business with government agencies. As a result of actual or perceived noncompliance with government contracting laws, regulations, or contractual provisions, we may be subject to non-ordinary course audits and internal investigations which may prove costly to our business financially, divert management time, or limit our ability to continue selling our products and services to our government customers. These laws and regulations may impose other added costs on our business, and failure to comply with these or other applicable regulations and requirements, including non-compliance in the past, could lead to claims for damages from our channel partners, downward contract price adjustments or refund obligations, civil or criminal penalties, and termination of contracts and suspension or debarment from government contracting for a period of time with government agencies. Any such damages, penalties, disruption, or limitation in our ability to do business with a government would adversely impact, and could have a material adverse effect on, our business, results of operations, financial condition, public perception and growth prospects.
Governmental and highly regulated entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with us or our partners for convenience or for other reasons. Any such termination may adversely affect our ability to contract with other government customers as well as our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. All these factors can add further risk to business conducted with these customers. If sales expected from a government entity or highly regulated organization for a particular quarter are not realized in that quarter or at all, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business could be adversely affected if our employees cannot obtain and maintain required security clearances, we cannot obtain and maintain a required facility security clearance, or we do not comply with legal and regulatory obligations regarding the safeguarding of classified information.
One of our U.S. government contracts requires our employees to maintain security clearances, and also requires us to comply with U.S. Department of Defense, or DoD, security rules and regulations. The DoD has strict security clearance requirements for personnel who perform work in support of classified programs. In general, access to classified information, technology, facilities, or programs are subject to additional contract oversight and potential liability. In the event of a security incident involving classified information, technology, facilities, or programs, or personnel holding clearances, we may be subject to legal, financial, operational and reputational harm. Obtaining and maintaining security clearances for employees involves a lengthy process, and it is difficult to identify, recruit, and retain employees who already hold security clearances. If our employees are unable to obtain security clearances in a timely manner, or at all, or if our employees who hold security clearances are unable to maintain their clearances or terminate employment with us, then a customer requiring classified work could terminate an existing contract or decide not to renew the contract upon its expiration. To the extent we are not able to obtain or maintain a facility security clearance, we may not be able to bid on or win new classified contracts, and our existing contract (and any future contracts we may subsequently obtain) requiring a facility security clearance could be terminated.
If we are unable to achieve and sustain a level of liquidity sufficient to support our operations and fulfill our obligations, our business, operating results and financial position could be adversely affected.
We actively monitor and manage our cash and cash equivalents so that sufficient liquidity is available to fund our operations and other corporate purposes. In the future, increased levels of liquidity may be required to adequately support our operations and initiatives and to mitigate the effects of business challenges or unforeseen circumstances. If we are unable to achieve and sustain such increased levels of liquidity, we may suffer adverse consequences including reduced investment in our AI Suite and AI Applications, difficulties in executing our business plan and fulfilling our obligations, and other operational challenges. Any of these developments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial position.
We may need additional capital, and we cannot be certain that additional financing will be available on favorable terms, or at all.
Historically, we have funded our operations and capital expenditures primarily through equity issuances and cash generated from our operations. Although we currently anticipate that our existing cash and cash equivalents and cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our cash needs for the foreseeable future, we may require additional financing. We evaluate financing opportunities from time to time, and our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on
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our development efforts, business plans, operating performance, and condition of the capital markets at the time we seek financing. Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase our capital stock could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders. We may sell Class A common stock, convertible securities, and other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, investors may be materially diluted. New investors in such subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our Class A common stock. Any debt financing that we may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. We cannot assure you that additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth, development efforts and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We may acquire other businesses or receive offers to be acquired, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business or dilute stockholder value.
We have in the past made, and may in the future make, acquisitions of other companies, products, and technologies. We have limited experience in acquisitions. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all. If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by customers, developers, or investors. In addition, we may not be able to integrate acquired businesses successfully or effectively manage the combined company following an acquisition. If we fail to successfully integrate our acquisitions, or the people or technologies associated with those acquisitions, into our company, the results of operations of the combined company could be adversely affected. Any integration process will require significant time and resources, require significant attention from management and disrupt the ordinary functioning of our business, and we may not be able to manage the process successfully, which could harm our business. In addition, we may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges.
We may have to pay cash, incur debt, or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. If we incur more debt, it would result in increased fixed obligations and could also subject us to covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to flexibly operate our business.
We have business and customer relationships with certain entities who are stockholders or are affiliated with our directors, or both, and conflicts of interest may arise because of such relationships.
Some of our customers and other business partners are affiliated with certain of our directors or hold shares of our capital stock, or both. For example, in June 2019, we entered into a strategic collaboration agreement with Baker Hughes whereby Baker Hughes had a right to appoint a director. Our director, Lorenzo Simonelli, is an employee of Baker Hughes, and Baker Hughes is a stockholder. We believe that the transactions and agreements that we have entered into with related parties are on terms that are at least as favorable as could reasonably have been obtained at such time from third parties. However, these relationships could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when our board of directors is faced with decisions that could have different implications for us and these other parties or their affiliates. In addition, conflicts of interest may arise between us and these other parties and their affiliates. The appearance of conflicts, even if such conflicts do not materialize, might adversely affect the public’s perception of us, as well as our relationship with other companies and our ability to enter into new relationships in the future, including with competitors of such related parties, which could harm our business and results of operations.
If we or our third-party service providers experience a security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data, or our AI Suite, our AI Suite may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform may be reduced, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our AI Suite and AI Applications process, store, and transmit our customers’ proprietary and sensitive data, potentially including personal information, protected health information, and financial data. Our AI Suite and AI Applications are built to be available on the infrastructure of third-party public cloud providers such as Amazon Web Services, or AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud Platform. We also use third-party service providers to help us deliver services to our customers. These vendors may store or process personal information, protected health information, or other confidential information of our employees, our partners or our customers. We collect such information from individuals located both in the United States and abroad and
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may store or process such information outside the country in which it was collected. While we and our third-party service providers have implemented security measures designed to protect against security breaches, these measures could fail or may be insufficient, resulting in the unauthorized disclosure, modification, misuse, unavailability, destruction, or loss of our or our customers’ data or other sensitive information. Any security breach of our AI Suite, our applications, our operational systems, physical facilities, or the systems of our third-party partners, or the perception that one has occurred, could result in litigation, indemnity obligations, regulatory enforcement actions, investigations, fines, penalties, mitigation and remediation costs, disputes, reputational harm, diversion of management’s attention, and other liabilities and damage to our business. Even though we do not control the security measures of third parties, we may be responsible for any breach of such measures or suffer reputational harm even where we do not have recourse to the third party that caused the breach. In addition, any failure by our partners to comply with applicable law or regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others.
Cyberattacks, denial-of-service attacks, ransomware attacks, business email compromises, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (including phishing) and other malicious internet-based activity are prevalent in our industry and our customers’ industries and continue to increase. In addition, we may experience attacks, unavailable systems, unauthorized access or disclosure due to employee or other theft or misuse, denial-of-service attacks, sophisticated attacks by nation-state and nation-state supported actors, and advanced persistent threat intrusions. We cannot guarantee that our security measures will be sufficient to protect against unauthorized access to or other compromise of the personal information and/or other confidential information of our partners, our customers and our customers’ end-users. The techniques used to sabotage, disrupt or to obtain unauthorized access to our AI Suite, applications, systems, networks, or physical facilities in which data is stored or through which data is transmitted change frequently, and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures or stop security breaches while they are occurring. The recovery systems, security protocols, network protection mechanisms and other security measures that we have integrated into our AI Suite, applications, systems, networks and physical facilities, which are designed to protect against, detect and minimize security breaches, may not be adequate to prevent or detect service interruption, system failure or data loss. Our AI Suite, applications, systems, networks, and physical facilities could be breached or personal information could be otherwise compromised due to employee error or malfeasance, if, for example, third parties attempt to fraudulently induce our employees or our customers to disclose information or user names and/or passwords, or otherwise compromise the security of our AI Suite, networks, systems and/or physical facilities. Third parties may also exploit vulnerabilities in, or obtain unauthorized access to, platforms, applications, systems, networks and/or physical facilities utilized by our vendors. We have previously been, and may in the future become, the target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to our or our customers’ data or to disrupt our operations or ability to provide our services. While we have been successful in preventing such unauthorized access and disruption in the past, we may not continue to be successful against these or other attacks in the future.
We have contractual and legal obligations to notify relevant stakeholders of security breaches. Most jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities, and others of security breaches involving certain types of data. In addition, our agreements with certain customers and partners may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach involving customer or partner data on our systems or those of subcontractors processing customer or partner data on our behalf. Such mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, may cause our customers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures, and require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach may cause us to breach customer contracts. Depending on the facts and circumstances of such an incident, these damages, penalties and costs could be significant and may not be covered by insurance or could exceed our applicable insurance coverage limits. Such an event also could harm our reputation and result in litigation against us. Any of these results could materially adversely affect our financial performance. Our agreements with certain customers may require us to use industry-standard, reasonable, or other specified measures to safeguard sensitive personal information or confidential information, and any actual or perceived breach of such measures may increase the likelihood and frequency of customer audits under our agreements, which is likely to increase the costs of doing business. An actual or perceived security breach could lead to claims by our customers, or other relevant stakeholders that we have failed to comply with such legal or contractual obligations. As a result, we could be subject to legal action or our customers could end their relationships with us. There can be no assurance that any limitations of liability in our contracts, which we have in certain agreements, would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from liabilities or damages.
Litigation resulting from security breaches may adversely affect our business. Unauthorized access to our AI Suite, applications, systems, networks, or physical facilities could result in litigation with our customers or other relevant stakeholders. These proceedings could force us to spend money in defense or settlement, divert management’s time and attention, increase our costs of doing business, or adversely affect our reputation. We could be required to fundamentally
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change our business activities and practices or modify our AI Suite capabilities in response to such litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business. If a security breach were to occur, and the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our data or the data of our partners or our customers was disrupted, we could incur significant liability, or our AI Suite, applications, systems, or networks may be perceived as less desirable, which could negatively affect our business and damage our reputation.
If we fail to detect or remediate a security breach in a timely manner, or a breach otherwise affects a large amount of data of one or more customers, or if we suffer a cyberattack that impacts our ability to operate our AI Suite and AI Applications, we may suffer material damage to our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Further, our insurance coverage may not be adequate for data security, indemnification obligations, or other liabilities. Depending on the facts and circumstances of such an incident, the damages, penalties and costs could be significant and may not be covered by insurance or could exceed our applicable insurance coverage limits. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage and coverage for errors and omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim. Our risks are likely to increase as we continue to expand our AI Suite and AI Applications, grow our customer base, and process, store, and transmit increasingly large amounts of proprietary and sensitive data.
We could suffer disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our AI Suite or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which it relies.
Our business depends on our AI Suite and AI Applications to be available without disruption. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our AI Suite and AI Applications. We have also experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which our AI Suite and AI Applications rely. These problems can be caused by a variety of factors, including introductions of new functionality, vulnerabilities and defects in proprietary and open source software, human error or misconduct, capacity constraints, design limitations, as well as from internal and external security breaches, malware and viruses, ransomware, cyber events, denial or degradation of service attacks or other security-related incidents.
Further, if our contractual and other business relationships with our public cloud providers are terminated, suspended, or suffer a material change to which we are unable to adapt, such as the elimination of services or features on which we depend, we could be unable to provide our AI Suite and AI Applications and could experience significant delays and incur additional expense in transitioning customers to a different public cloud provider.
Any disruptions, outages, defects, and other security performance and quality problems with our AI Suite and AI Applications or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which it relies, or any material change in our contractual and other business relationships with our public cloud providers, could result in reduced use of our AI Suite and AI Applications, increased expenses, including significant, unplanned capital investments and/or service credit obligations, and harm to our brand and reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our International Operations
We are continuing to expand our operations outside the United States, where we may be subject to increased business and economic risks that could harm our business.
We have customers in over 10 countries, and 22% of our revenue in the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 was generated from customers outside of North America. As of July 31, 2020, we had eight international sales locations, and we plan to add local sales support in further select international markets over time. We expect to continue to expand our international operations, which may include opening offices in new jurisdictions and providing our AI Suite and AI Applications in additional languages. Any new markets or countries into which we attempt to sell subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications may not be receptive. For example, we may not be able to expand further in some markets if we are not able to satisfy certain government- and industry-specific requirements. In addition, our ability to manage our business and conduct our operations internationally in the future may require considerable management attention and resources and is subject to the particular challenges of supporting a rapidly growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs, legal and regulatory systems, alternative dispute systems, and commercial markets. Future international expansion will
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require investment of significant funds and other resources. Operating internationally subjects us to new risks and may increase risks that we currently face, including risks associated with:
recruiting and retaining talented and capable employees outside the United States and maintaining our company culture across all of our offices;
potentially different pricing environments, longer sales cycles, and longer accounts receivable payment cycles and collections issues;
compliance with applicable international laws and regulations, including laws and regulations with respect to privacy, data protection, and consumer protection, and the risk of penalties to us and individual members of management or employees if our practices are deemed to be out of compliance;
management of an employee base in jurisdictions that may not give us the same employment and retention flexibility as does the United States;
operating in jurisdictions that do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as does the United States and the practical enforcement of such intellectual property rights outside of the United States;
foreign government interference with our intellectual property that resides outside of the United States, such as the risk of changes in foreign laws that could restrict our ability to use our intellectual property;
integration with partners outside of the United States;
securing our locally operated systems and our data and the data of our customers and partners accessible from such jurisdictions;
compliance by us and our business partners with anti-corruption laws, import and export control laws, tariffs, trade barriers, economic sanctions, anti-money laundering laws and other regulatory limitations on our ability to provide our AI Suite and AI Applications in certain international markets;
foreign exchange controls that might require significant lead time in setting up operations in certain geographic territories and might prevent us from repatriating cash earned outside the United States;
political and economic instability;
COVID-19 or any other pandemics or epidemics that could result in decreased economic activity in certain markets, decreased use of our AI Suite and AI Applications, or in our decreased ability to import, export, or sell our AI Suite and AI Applications to existing or new customers in international markets;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including the imposition of new trade restrictions, trade protection measures, import or export requirements, trade embargoes, and other trade barriers;
generally longer payment cycles and greater difficulty in collecting accounts receivable;
double taxation of our international earnings and potentially adverse tax consequences due to changes in the income and other tax laws of the United States or the international jurisdictions in which we operate; and
higher costs of doing business internationally, including increased accounting, travel, infrastructure, and legal compliance costs.
Some of our business partners also have international operations and are subject to the risks described above. Even if we are able to successfully manage the risks of international operations, our business may be adversely affected if our business partners are not able to successfully manage these risks.
Compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our global operations substantially increases our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. We may be unable to keep current with changes in laws and regulations as they occur. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to support compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that we will always maintain compliance or that all of our employees, contractors, partners, and agents will comply. Any violations could result in enforcement actions, fines, civil and criminal penalties, damages,
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injunctions, or reputational harm. If we are unable to comply with these laws and regulations or manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, we may need to relocate or cease operations in certain foreign jurisdictions.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.
Our AI Suite and AI Applications are subject to various restrictions under U.S. export control and trade and economic sanctions laws and regulations, including the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Export Administration Regulations, or EAR, and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC. U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws and regulations include restrictions or prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain AI platform and applications, services and technologies to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons, and entities. Further, U.S. export laws and regulations include broad licensing requirements, including requiring authorization for the export of certain items. In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain items, including through import permitting and licensing requirements and have enacted or could enact laws that could limit our ability to distribute our AI Suite and AI Applications or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our AI Suite and AI Applications in those countries.
Changes in our AI Suite and AI Applications and, if required, obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale, or changes in export, sanctions, and import laws, may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities, delay the introduction and sale of subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from using our AI Suite and AI Applications or, in some cases, prevent the access or use of our AI Suite and AI Applications to and from certain countries, governments, persons, or entities altogether. Further, any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related laws, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations could result in decreased use of our AI Suite and AI Applications or in our decreased ability to export or sell our AI Suite and AI Applications to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our AI Suite and AI Applications or limitation on our ability to export or sell our AI Suite and AI Applications would likely harm our business.
In addition, if our channel partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export, or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm, as well as other negative consequences, including government investigations and penalties.
Even though we take precautions to ensure that we and our channel partners comply with all relevant regulations, any failure by us or our channel partners to comply with U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws and regulations or other laws could have negative consequences, including reputational harm, government investigations and substantial civil and criminal penalties (e.g., fines, incarceration for responsible employees and managers, and the possible loss of export or import privileges).
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corruption Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to the FCPA, U.S. domestic bribery laws, the UK Bribery Act, and other anti-corruption and similar laws in the countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly to generally prohibit companies, their employees, and their third-party business partners or intermediaries, representatives, and agents from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or other benefits, directly or indirectly, to government officials or others in the private sector in order to influence official action, direct business to any person, gain any improper advantage, or obtain or retain business. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase.
As we increase our international sales and business and sales to the public sector, we may engage with third-party business partners and intermediaries to market our AI Suite and AI Applications and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. In addition, we or our third-party business partners or intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our third-party business partners or intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.
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These laws also require that we keep accurate books and records and maintain internal controls and compliance procedures designed to prevent any such actions. While we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws, we cannot assure you that our third-party business partners or intermediaries, employees, representatives, contractors, and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible.
Detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources, and attention from senior management, as well as significant defense costs and other professional fees. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption, or anti-bribery could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, other civil or criminal penalties or injunctions against us, our officers, or our employees, disgorgement of profits, suspension or debarment from contracting with the U.S. government or other persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal proceeding, our reputation, business, stock price, financial condition, prospects and results of operations could be harmed.
Risks Related to Taxes
Our results of operations may be harmed if we are required to collect sales or other related taxes for our subscriptions in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
We collect sales tax in a number of jurisdictions. One or more states or countries may seek to impose incremental or new sales, use, or other tax collection obligations on us. A successful assertion by a state, country, or other jurisdiction that we should have been or should be collecting additional sales, use, or other taxes could, among other things, result in substantial tax payments, create significant administrative burdens for us, discourage potential customers from subscribing to our AI Suite and AI Applications due to the incremental cost of any such sales or other related taxes, or otherwise harm our business.
We may be subject to liabilities on past sales for taxes, surcharges, and fees.
We currently collect and remit applicable sales tax in jurisdictions where we, through our employees, have a presence and where we have determined, based on legal precedents in the jurisdiction, that sales of our AI Suite and AI Applications are classified as taxable. We do not currently collect and remit other state and local excise, utility, user, and ad valorem taxes, fees or surcharges that may apply to our customers. We believe that we are not otherwise subject to, or required to collect, any additional taxes, fees or surcharges imposed by state and local jurisdictions because we do not have a sufficient physical presence or “nexus” in the relevant taxing jurisdiction or such taxes, fees, or surcharges do not apply to sales of our AI Suite and AI Applications in the relevant taxing jurisdiction. However, there is uncertainty as to what constitutes sufficient physical presence or nexus for a state or local jurisdiction to levy taxes, fees, and surcharges for sales made over the internet, and there is also uncertainty as to whether our characterization of our AI Suite and AI Applications as not taxable in certain jurisdictions will be accepted by state and local taxing authorities. Additionally, we have not historically collected value-added tax, or VAT, or goods and services tax, or GST, on sales of our AI Suite and AI Applications, generally, because we make almost all of our sales through our office in the United States, and we believe, based on information provided to us by our customers, that most of our sales are made to business customers.
Taxing authorities may challenge our position that we do not have sufficient nexus in a taxing jurisdiction or that our AI Suite and AI Applications use, telecommunications, VAT, GST, and other taxes, which could result in increased tax liabilities for us or our customers, which could harm our business.
The application of indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, VAT, GST, business tax, and gross receipt tax) to businesses that transact online, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. Following the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair, Inc., states are now free to levy taxes on sales of goods and services based on an “economic nexus,” regardless of whether the seller has a physical presence in the state. As a result, it may be necessary to reevaluate whether our activities give rise to sales, use, and other indirect taxes as a result of any nexus in those states in which we are not currently registered to collect and remit taxes. Additionally, we may need to assess our potential tax collection and remittance liabilities based on existing economic nexus laws’ dollar and transaction thresholds. We continue to analyze our exposure for such taxes and liabilities. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether in the United States or internationally, could harm our business. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.
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We may have exposure to greater than anticipated tax liabilities, which could harm our business.
While to date we have not incurred significant income taxes in operating our business, we are subject to income taxes in the United States and various jurisdictions outside of the United States. Our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the proportion of our earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates. Our tax expense could also be impacted by changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in excess tax benefits of stock-based or other compensation, changes in the valuation of, or our ability to use, deferred tax assets and liabilities, the applicability of withholding taxes, and effects from acquisitions.
The provision for taxes on our financial statements could also be impacted by changes in accounting principles, changes in U.S. federal, state, or international tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals such as the recent legislation enacted in the United States, other fundamental changes in law currently being considered by many countries and changes in taxing jurisdictions’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies and positions.
We are subject to review and audit by U.S. federal, state, local, and foreign tax authorities. Such tax authorities may disagree with tax positions we take, and if any such tax authority were to successfully challenge any such position, our business could be harmed. We may also be subject to additional tax liabilities due to changes in non-income based taxes resulting from changes in federal, state, or international tax laws, changes in taxing jurisdictions’ administrative interpretations, decisions, policies, and positions, results of tax examinations, settlements, or judicial decisions, changes in accounting principles, changes to our business operations, including acquisitions, as well as the evaluation of new information that results in a change to a tax position taken in a prior period.
Our ability to use our net operating losses and certain other tax attributes to offset future taxable income or taxes may be subject to certain limitations.
As of April 30, 2020, we had net operating loss carryforwards, or NOL, for U.S. federal, state, and foreign purposes of $168.6 million, $73.2 million and $0 million, respectively, which may be available to offset taxable income in the future, and portions of which expire in various years beginning in 2032. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect our ability to utilize these NOLs before they expire. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, or the Tax Act, as modified by the CARES Act, federal NOLs incurred in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal NOLs in tax years beginning after December 31, 2020 is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” (as defined under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code and applicable Treasury Regulations) is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs and certain other tax attributes to offset post-change taxable income or taxes. We may experience a future ownership change (including, potentially, in connection with this offering) under Section 382 of the Code that could affect our ability to utilize our NOLs to offset our income. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we have acquired or may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed. For example, on June 29, 2020, the Governor of California signed into law the 2020 Budget Act which temporarily suspends the utilization of NOLs and limits the utilization of research credits to $5.0 million annually for 2020, 2021, and 2022. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs reflected on our balance sheet, even if we attain profitability, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us and could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We are currently, and may be in the future, party to intellectual property rights claims and other litigation matters, which, if resolved adversely, could harm our business.
We primarily rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of patent, patent licenses, trade secret, domain name protection, trademark, and copyright laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, consultants, and third parties, to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. From time to time, are subject to litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation, or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims, commercial claims, and other assertions against us grows. We have in the past been, and may from time to time in the future become, a party to litigation and disputes related to our intellectual property, our business practices, and our AI Suite and AI Applications. While we intend to defend any lawsuit vigorously, litigation can be costly and time consuming, divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations, and dissuade potential customers from
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subscribing to our AI Suite and AI Applications, which would harm our business. Furthermore, with respect to lawsuits, there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained. We may need to settle litigation and disputes on terms that are unfavorable to us, or we may be subject to an unfavorable judgment that may not be reversible upon appeal. The terms of any settlement or judgment may require us to cease some or all of our operations or pay substantial amounts to the other party. In addition, our agreements with customers or partners typically include certain provisions for indemnifying them against liabilities if our AI Suite and AI Applications infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights, including in the third-party open source software components included in our AI Suite and AI Applications, which indemnification obligations could require us to make payments to our customers. During the course of any litigation or dispute, we may make announcements regarding the results of hearings and motions and other interim developments. If securities analysts and investors regard these announcements as negative, the market price of our Class A common stock may decline. With respect to any intellectual property rights claim, we may have to seek a license to continue practices found to be in violation of third-party rights, which may not be available on reasonable terms and may significantly increase our operating expenses. A license to continue such practices may not be available to us at all, and we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology or practices or discontinue the practices. The development of alternative, non-infringing technology or practices could require significant effort and expense. Our business could be harmed as a result.
Indemnity provisions in various agreements potentially expose us to substantial liability for intellectual property infringement and other losses.
Our agreements with customers and other third parties generally include indemnification provisions under which we agree to indemnify them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our software, services, or other contractual obligations. Large indemnity payments could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Although we normally contractually limit our liability with respect to such indemnity obligations, generally, those limitations may not be fully enforceable in all situations, and we may still incur substantial liability under those agreements. Any dispute with a customer with respect to such obligations could have adverse effects on our relationship with that customer and other existing customers and new customers and harm our business and results of operations.
Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights and proprietary information could diminish our brand and other intangible assets.
As of November 9, 2020, we have six issued patents in the United States, five issued patents in a number of international jurisdictions, 11 patent applications (including one application that has been allowed and one provisional application) pending in the United States, and 26 patent applications pending internationally. Our issued patents expire between February 23, 2033 and April 17, 2037. Other than the one allowed application, which is in process of finalization and issuance, the pending patent applications are presently undergoing examination or expected to undergo examination in the near future. These patents and patent applications seek to protect our proprietary inventions relevant to our business, in addition to other proprietary technologies which are maintained as trade secrets. We intend to pursue additional intellectual property protection to the extent we believe it would be beneficial and cost-effective. We make business decisions about when to seek patent protection for a particular technology and when to rely upon copyright or trade secret protection, and the approach we select may ultimately prove to be inadequate. Even in cases where we seek patent protection, there is no assurance that the resulting patents will effectively protect every significant feature of our AI Suite and AI Applications. In addition, we believe that the protection of our trademark rights is an important factor in AI platform and application recognition, protecting our brand and maintaining goodwill. If we do not adequately protect our rights in our trademarks from infringement and unauthorized use, any goodwill that we have developed in those trademarks could be lost or impaired, which could harm our brand and our business. Third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge our proprietary rights, pending and future patent, trademark and copyright applications may not be approved, and we may not be able to prevent infringement without incurring substantial expense. We have also devoted substantial resources to the development of our proprietary technologies and related processes. In order to protect our proprietary technologies and processes, we rely in part on trade secret laws and confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, and third parties. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets, in which case we would not be able to assert trade secret rights or develop similar technologies and processes. Further, laws in certain jurisdictions may afford little or no trade secret protection, and any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the intellectual property laws in any country in which we operate may compromise our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights. If the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our AI Suite and AI applications, brand, and other intangible assets may be
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diminished, and competitors may be able to more effectively replicate our AI Suite and AI Applications. Any of these events would harm our business.
Our use of third-party open source software could negatively affect our ability to offer and sell subscriptions to our AI Suite and AI Applications and subject us to possible litigation.
A portion of the technologies we use incorporates third-party open source software, and we may incorporate third-party open source software in our solutions in the future. Open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses. From time to time, companies that use third-party open source software have faced claims challenging the use of such open source software and requesting compliance with the open source software license terms. Accordingly, we may be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming non-compliance with the applicable open source licensing terms. Some open source software licenses require end users who use, distribute or make available across a network software and services that include open source software to offer aspects of the technology that incorporates the open source software for no cost. We may also be required to make publicly available source code (which in some circumstances could include valuable proprietary code) for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and/or to license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. Additionally, if a third-party software provider has incorporated open source software into software that we license from such provider, we could be required to disclose any of our source code that incorporates or is a modification of our licensed software. While we employ practices designed to monitor our compliance with the licenses of third-party open source software and protect our valuable proprietary source code, we may inadvertently use third-party open source software in a manner that exposes us to claims of non-compliance with the terms of their licenses, including claims of intellectual property rights infringement or for breach of contract. Furthermore, there exists today an increasing number of types of open source software licenses, almost none of which have been tested in courts of law to provide guidance of their proper legal interpretations. If we were to receive a claim of non-compliance with the terms of any of these open source licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against those allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from offering or selling our solutions that contained the open source software, and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, and we may be required to publicly release certain portions of our proprietary source code. We could also be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some of our software. Any of the foregoing could disrupt and harm our business.
In addition, the use of third-party open source software typically exposes us to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software because open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the functionality or origin of the software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to compromise our AI Suite and AI Applications. Any of the foregoing could harm our business and could help our competitors develop platforms and applications that are similar to or better than ours.
Because of the characteristics of open source software, there may be fewer technology barriers to entry by new competitors and it may be relatively easy for new and existing competitors with greater resources than we have to compete with us.
One of the characteristics of open source software is that the governing license terms generally allow liberal modifications of the code and distribution thereof to a wide group of companies and/or individuals. As a result, others could easily develop new platforms and applications based upon those open source programs that compete with existing open source software that we support and incorporate into our AI Suite and AI Applications. Such competition with use of the open source projects that we utilize can materialize without the same degree of overhead and lead time required by us, particularly if the customers do not value the differentiation of our proprietary components. It is possible for new and existing competitors with greater resources than ours to develop their own open source software or hybrid proprietary and open source software offerings, potentially reducing the demand for, and putting price pressure on, our AI Suite and AI Applications. In addition, some competitors make open source software available for free download and use or may position competing open source software as a loss leader. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors or that competitive pressure and/or the availability of open source software will not result in price reductions, reduced operating margins and loss of market share, any one of which could seriously harm our business.
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If open source software programmers, many of whom we do not employ, or our own internal programmers do not continue to develop and enhance open source technologies, we may be unable to develop new technologies, adequately enhance our existing technologies or meet customer requirements for innovation, quality and price.
We rely to a significant degree on a number of open source software programmers, or committers and contributors, to develop and enhance components of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Additionally, members of the corresponding Apache Software Foundation Project Management Committees, or PMCs, many of whom are not employed by us, are primarily responsible for the oversight and evolution of the codebases of important components of the open source data management ecosystem. If the open source data management committees and contributors fail to adequately further develop and enhance open source technologies, or if the PMCs fail to oversee and guide the evolution of open source data management technologies in the manner that we believe is appropriate to maximize the market potential of our solutions, then we would have to rely on other parties, or we would need to expend additional resources, to develop and enhance our AI Suite and AI Applications. We also must devote adequate resources to our own internal programmers to support their continued development and enhancement of open source technologies, and if we do not do so, we may have to turn to third parties or experience delays in developing or enhancing open source technologies. We cannot predict whether further developments and enhancements to these technologies would be available from reliable alternative sources. In either event, we may incur additional development expenses and experience delays in technology release and upgrade. Delays in developing, completing, or delivering new or enhanced components to our AI Suite and AI Applications could cause our offerings to be less competitive, impair customer acceptance of our solutions, and result in delayed or reduced revenue for our solutions.
Our software development and licensing model could be negatively impacted if the Apache License, Version 2.0 is not enforceable or is modified so as to become incompatible with other open source licenses.
Components of our AI Suite and AI Applications have been provided under the Apache License 2.0. This license states that any work of authorship licensed under it, and any derivative work thereof, may be reproduced and distributed provided that certain conditions are met. It is possible that a court would hold this license to be unenforceable or that someone could assert a claim for proprietary rights in a program developed and distributed under it. Any ruling by a court that this license is not enforceable, or that we may not reproduce or distribute those open source software components as part of our AI Suite and AI Applications, may negatively impact our distribution or development of all or a portion of our solutions. In addition, at some time in the future it is possible that the license terms under which important components of the open source projects in our AI Suite and AI Applications are distributed may be modified, which could, among other consequences, negatively impact our continuing development or distribution of the software code subject to the new or modified license.
Further, full utilization of our AI Suite and AI Applications may depend on software, applications, hardware and services from various third parties, and these items may not be compatible with our AI Suite and AI Applications and their development or available to us or our customers on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, which could harm our business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
An active trading market for our Class A common stock may never develop or be sustained.
We have applied to list our Class A common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AI.” However, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our Class A common stock will develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that any market will be sustained. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the likelihood that an active trading market for our Class A common stock will develop or be maintained, your ability to sell your shares of our Class A common stock when desired or the prices that you may obtain for your shares.
The trading price of our Class A common stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for shares of our Class A common stock. The initial public offering price of our Class A common stock was determined through negotiation between us and the underwriters. This price does not necessarily reflect the price at which investors in the market will be willing to buy and sell shares of our Class A common stock following this offering. In addition, the trading price of our Class A common stock following this offering is likely to be volatile and could be subject to fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our Class A common stock as you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid in this offering. Factors that could cause fluctuations in the trading price of our Class A common stock include the risk factors set forth in this section as well as the following:
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
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volatility in the trading prices and trading volumes of technology stocks;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;
sales of shares of our Class A common stock by us or our stockholders;
failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
changes in our financial, operating or other metrics, regardless of whether we consider those metrics as reflective of the current state or long-term prospects of our business, and how those results compare to securities analyst expectations, including whether those results fail to meet, exceed, or significantly exceed securities analyst expectations;
announcements by us or our competitors of new products, applications, features, or services;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements, and filings with the SEC;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
actual or anticipated changes in our results of operations or fluctuations in our results of operations;
actual or anticipated developments in our business, our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;
litigation involving us, our industry, or both, or investigations by regulators into our operations or those of our competitors;
actual or perceived privacy or data security incidents;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or other proprietary rights;
announced or completed acquisitions of businesses, applications, products, services, or technologies by us or our competitors;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to our business;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;
any significant change in our management; and
general political and economic conditions and slow or negative growth of our markets.
In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a particular company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.
The dual class structure of our common stock as contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation has the effect of concentrating voting control with those stockholders who held our stock prior to this offering, including our executive officers, employees and directors and their affiliates, limiting your ability to influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has 50 votes per share, and our Class A common stock, which is the stock we are offering in this initial public offering, has one vote per share. Mr. Siebel and related entities will control the voting power of all of the outstanding Class B common stock immediately following this offering and will hold approximately          % of our outstanding capital stock but will control approximately           % of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock following the completion of this offering. Therefore, Mr. Siebel will have control over our management and affairs and over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of us or our assets, for the foreseeable future. We believe we are eligible for but do not intend to take advantage of the “controlled company” exemption to the corporate governance rules for New York Stock Exchange-listed companies.
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In addition, the holders of Class B common stock collectively will continue to be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval even if their stock holdings represent less than a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, and, as a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.
Each share of Class B common stock will be automatically converted into one share of Class A common stock upon the earliest of (1)               , (2)               , (3)               , and (4)               . Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, which will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. If, for example, Mr. Siebel retains a significant portion of his holdings of Class B common stock for an extended period of time, he could, in the future, control a majority of the combined voting power of our Class A and Class B common stock. As a board member, Mr. Siebel owes a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As a stockholder, even a controlling stockholder, Mr. Siebel is entitled to vote his shares in his own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.
FTSE Russell and Standard & Poor’s does not allow most newly public companies utilizing dual or multi-class capital structures to be included in their indices. Affected indices include the Russell 2000 and the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Also in 2017, MSCI, a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in certain indices, and as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track these indices will not be investing in our stock. In addition, we cannot assure you that other stock indices will not take similar actions. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indices, exclusion from certain stock indices would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and would make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the trading price and volume of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.
We cannot predict the impact our dual class structure may have on the market price of our Class A common stock.
We cannot predict whether our dual class structure, combined with the concentrated control of our stockholders who held our capital stock prior to the completion of this offering, including our executive officers, employees, and directors and their affiliates, will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A common stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, as mentioned above certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multiple class share structures in certain of their indices. Under the announced policies, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in many indices. Given the sustained flow of investment funds into passive strategies that seek to track certain indexes, exclusion from stock indexes would likely preclude investment by many of these funds and could make our Class A common stock less attractive to other investors. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected
We will have broad discretion in the use of net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return.
We cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering. Our management will have broad discretion over the use of net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Investors may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the proceeds may not yield any return on your investment. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our failure to apply the net proceeds of this offering effectively could impair our ability to pursue our growth strategy or could require us to raise additional capital.
Substantial future sales of shares of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock could cause the market price of our Class A common stock to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock (after automatically converting to Class A common stock) in the public market following the completion of this offering, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our Class A common stock and could impair our ability to raise
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capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our existing equity holders have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold based upon the price of this offering, and therefore they may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure the unrecognized gains on those shares.
Based on shares outstanding as of                     , 2020, upon the completion of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of                     shares of Class A common stock and 21,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares (                    shares assuming exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares in full) and no exercise of outstanding options, after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of our preferred stock into shares of Class B common stock immediately upon the completion of this offering. Of these shares, only the shares of Class A common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable, without restriction, in the public market immediately after the offering. All of our executive officers and directors and the holders of substantially all the shares of our capital stock and securities convertible into or exchangeable for our capital stock have entered into market standoff agreements with us or have entered or will enter into lock-up agreements with the underwriters that restrict their ability to transfer shares of our capital stock during the period ending on, and including, the 180th day after the date of this prospectus, subject to specified exceptions; provided that such restricted period will end with respect to 20% of the shares subject to each lock-up agreement if at any time beginning 90 days after the date of this prospectus (1) we have issued a quarterly earnings release announced by press release through a major news service, or on a report on Form 8-K and (2) the last reported closing price of our Class A common stock is at least 33% greater than the initial public offering price of our Class A common stock for 10 out of any 15 consecutive trading days, including the last day, ending on or after the 90th day after the date of this prospectus; and provided further that, if 90 days after the date of this prospectus occurs within five trading days of a trading black-out period, the above referenced early expiration period will be the sixth trading day immediately preceding the commencement of the trading black-out period. In addition, with respect to shares not released as a result of such early release, if the 180th day after the date of this prospectus occurs within five trading days of a trading black-out period, the lock-up period will expire on the sixth trading day immediately preceding the commencement of the trading black-out period. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may permit our stockholders who are subject to these lock-up agreements to sell shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements, subject to applicable notice requirements. If not earlier released, all of the shares of Class A common stock sold in this offering will become eligible for sale upon expiration of the 180-day lock-up period, except for any shares held by our affiliates as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
In addition, as of July 31, 2020, there were 191,121,256 shares of Class A common stock subject to outstanding options under our Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2012 Plan. We intend to register all of the shares of Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of the shares of Class B common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options and upon exercise or settlement of any options or other equity incentives we may grant in the future for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent such options are exercised, subject to the market standoff and lock-up agreements described above and compliance with applicable securities laws.
As of July 31, 2020, holders of 317,001,986 shares of our Class A common stock, including shares issuable upon the conversion of outstanding shares of preferred stock, have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements for the public resale of the Class A common stock issuable upon conversion of such shares or to include such shares in registration statements that we may file on our behalf or for other stockholders. See the sections titled “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” and “Underwriters.”
Provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law may prevent or frustrate attempts by our stockholders to change our management or hinder efforts to acquire a controlling interest in us, and the market price of our Class A common stock may be lower as a result.
There are provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as they will be in effect following this offering, that may make it difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change in control was considered favorable by our stockholders.
Our charter documents will also contain other provisions that could have an anti-takeover effect, such as:
establishing a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board of directors are elected at one time;
permitting the board of directors to establish the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;
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providing that directors may only be removed for cause;
prohibiting cumulative voting for directors;
requiring super-majority voting to amend some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws;
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;
eliminating the ability of stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, which requires all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders; and
our dual class common stock structure as described above.
Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibit a person who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Any provision in our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our Class A common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our Class A common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States of America as the exclusive forums for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation which will become effective immediately prior to the completion of this offering will provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees to us or our stockholders, (3) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the certificate of incorporation or the amended and restated bylaws or (4) any other action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), in all cases subject to the court having jurisdiction over indispensable parties named as defendants. This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. In addition, to prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will further provide that the U.S. federal district courts will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. However, as Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act, and an investor cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such a provision. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions.
These exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, all of which could seriously harm our business.
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Our Class A common stock market price and trading volume could decline if securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business.
The trading market for our Class A common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. The analysts’ estimates are based upon their own opinions and are often different from our estimates or expectations. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our securities would likely decline. If few securities analysts commence coverage of us, or if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our securities could decrease, which might cause the price and trading volume of our Class A common stock to decline.
We will incur costs and demands upon management as a result of complying with the laws and regulations affecting public companies in the United States, which may harm our business.
As a public company listed in the United States, we will incur significant additional legal, accounting, and other expenses. In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including regulations implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange, may increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, and as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If, notwithstanding our efforts, we fail to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.
Failure to comply with these rules might also make it more difficult for us to obtain certain types of insurance, including director and officer liability insurance, and we might be forced to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. The impact of these events would also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our board of directors, on committees of our board of directors, or as members of senior management.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and we intend to comply only with reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies. As a result, our Class A common stock could be less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, and for as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements applicable to other public companies but not to emerging growth companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of over $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior October 31 and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our Class A common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile.
General Risks
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the rules and regulations of the applicable listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time consuming, and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems, and resources.
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The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight.
Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. In addition, changes in accounting principles or interpretations could also challenge our internal controls and require that we establish new business processes, systems, and controls to accommodate such changes. We have limited experience with implementing the systems and controls that will be necessary to operate as a public company, as well as adopting changes in accounting principles or interpretations mandated by the relevant regulatory bodies. Additionally, if these new systems, controls, or standards and the associated process changes do not give rise to the benefits that we expect or do not operate as intended, it could adversely affect our financial reporting systems and processes, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial reports or the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. Moreover, our business may be harmed if we experience problems with any new systems and controls that result in delays in their implementation or increased costs to correct any post-implementation issues that may arise.
Further, weaknesses in our disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our business or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of periodic management evaluations and annual independent registered public accounting firm attestation reports regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting that we will eventually be required to include in our periodic reports that will be filed with the SEC. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Class A common stock. In addition, if we are unable to continue to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on the New York Stock Exchange. We are not currently required to comply with the SEC rules that implement Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and are therefore not required to make a formal assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for that purpose. As a public company, we will be required to provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting commencing with our second Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting until our first annual report filed with the SEC where we are an accelerated filer or a large accelerated filer. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our internal control over financial reporting is documented, designed or operating. Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could harm our business and could cause a decline in the trading price of our Class A common stock.
Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.
We may become subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial or intellectual property disputes or employment claims made by our current or former employees. Litigation might result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements). A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, potentially harming our business, financial position, and results of operations. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage and coverage for errors and omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim.
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The estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this prospectus, including those we have generated ourselves, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. Not every organization covered by our market opportunity estimates will necessarily buy data management, machine learning, and analytics platforms and applications at all, and some or many of those organizations may choose to continue using legacy analytics methods or solutions offered by our competitors. It is impossible to build every platform or application feature that every customer wants, and our competitors may develop and offer features that our AI Suite and AI Applications do not provide. The variables that go into the calculation of our market opportunity are subject to change over time, and there is no guarantee that any particular number or percentage of the organizations covered by our market opportunity estimates will purchase our solutions at all or generate any particular level of revenue for us. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth forecasts in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow for a variety of reasons outside of our control, including competition in our industry. If any of these risks materialize, it could harm our business and prospects. For more information regarding the estimates of market opportunity and the forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus, see the section titled “Market and Industry Data.”
Our business could be disrupted by catastrophic events.
Occurrence of any catastrophic event, including earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, or other weather event, power loss, telecommunications failure, software or hardware malfunctions, pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), political unrest, geopolitical instability, cyberattack, war, or terrorist attack, could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. In particular, our U.S. headquarters are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity and wild fires, and our insurance coverage may not compensate us for losses that may occur in the event of an earthquake or other significant natural disaster. In addition, acts of terrorism could cause disruptions to the internet or the economy as a whole. Even with our disaster recovery arrangements, our service could be interrupted. If our systems were to fail or be negatively impacted as a result of a natural disaster or other event, our ability to deliver our AI Suite and AI Applications to our customers would be impaired, or we could lose critical data. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after a disaster and to execute successfully on those plans in the event of a disaster or emergency, our business would be harmed.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including our statements regarding the benefits and timing of the roll-out of new technology, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
our expectations regarding our revenue, expenses, and other operating results;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully retain existing customers;
our ability to increase usage our AI Suite and AI Applications;
our ability to achieve or sustain profitability;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures, and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
the costs and success of our sales and marketing efforts, and our ability to promote our brand;
our growth strategies for our AI Suite and AI Applications;
the estimated addressable market opportunity for our AI Suite and AI Applications;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit, and retain skilled personnel;
our ability to effectively manage our growth, including any international expansion;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and any costs associated therewith;
the effects of the coronavirus, or COVID-19, pandemic or other public health crises;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe that such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking
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statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments.
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MARKET, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER DATA
This prospectus contains statistical data, estimates, forecasts, and other information concerning our industry, including market position and the size and growth rates of the markets in which we participate, that are based on industry publications and reports. While we believe this information included in this prospectus is reliable and is based on reasonable assumptions, this information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.
Certain information in the text of this prospectus is contained in independent industry publications. None of the industry publications referred to in this prospectus were prepared on our or on our affiliates’ behalf or at our expense. The source of these independent industry publications is provided below:
IDC, Worldwide Artificial Intelligence Systems Spending Guide, September 2019
IDC, FutureScape: Worldwide CIO Agenda 2021 Predictions, October 2020
Gartner, Forecast: Enterprise Infrastructure Software, Worldwide, 2018-2024, 3Q20 Update*
Gartner, Forecast: Enterprise Application Software, Worldwide, 2018-2024, 3Q20 Update*
Information contained on or accessible through the website(s) referenced above is not a part of this prospectus and the inclusion of the website address referenced above in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
The Gartner content described herein, or the Gartner Content, represent(s) research opinion or viewpoints published, as part of a syndicated subscription service, by Gartner, Inc., or Gartner, and are not representations of fact. Gartner Content speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this prospectus) and the opinions expressed in the Gartner Content are subject to change without notice.
In this prospectus, we estimated the overall potential economic impact of applying AI and machine learning to a broad range of use cases across a company’s operations. To arrive at these estimates, we gathered publicly available financial and operating data regarding a company in each of the four highlighted industries from annual reports, investor calls, and other financial reporting sources. We then estimated the potential improvement, expressed as a percentage, for each of the relevant financial and operational metrics that might be achieved by applying AI and machine learning to the selected use cases. We based our estimates of the potential improvement from a variety of sources, including industry reports, regulatory filings, publicly available consulting firm and analyst reports, as well as our own experience from trials and deployments. We then calculated the potential economic impact by multiplying each of the selected financial and operating metrics by the estimated potential improvement. These estimates of potential outcomes are based on 2019 financial data, estimates of the potential impact of AI from reports published and projects completed over the past five years, and a future potential value capture period of approximately five years. These projections reflect our estimate of the potential economic benefit to the selected companies; the estimate of the potential impact to other companies would depend on numerous variables, including the scale, results and scope of operations of such other companies. Adoption of enterprise AI is still nascent and many of the highlighted use cases have not yet been, and may never be, adopted by any customer. No customer has reviewed our methodology for estimating the potential economic impact of enterprise AI to their businesses and they may not agree with it or the assumptions that we have made. These estimates are subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described above in this section and in the sections titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors.”
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $          million (or approximately $          million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock in full) based on an assumed initial public offering price of $          per share of Class A common stock, the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.
A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $          per share of Class A common stock would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $          million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $          million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $          per share of Class A common stock remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility and create a public market for our Class A common stock. We currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the remaining net proceeds to us from this offering. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses, products, services or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments to enter into any such acquisitions or investments at this time. We will have broad discretion over how to use the net proceeds to us from this offering. We intend to invest the net proceeds to us from the offering that are not used as described above in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, we may enter into agreements in the future that could contain restrictions on payments of cash dividends.
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities and our capitalization as of July 31, 2020 as follows:
on an actual basis;
on a pro forma basis, giving effect to (1) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock, Class C common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock, other than shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock, and redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock as of July 31, 2020 into                    shares of our Class A common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (2) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock as of July 31, 2020 into 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering; (3) the repayment due from our Chief Executive Officer of the outstanding full recourse promissory note in connection with the Series F preferred stock financing, including accrued interest, in the amount of $26.0 million; and (4) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and
on a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to (1) the pro forma items described immediately above and (2) our issuance and sale of shares of Class A common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $              per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
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The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted information below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the completion of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this information set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, the information in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and other financial information contained elsewhere in this prospectus.
As of July 31, 2020
ActualPro Forma
Pro Forma as Adjusted(1)
(in thousands, except share data)
Cash and cash equivalents$128,979 $154,984 $
Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. 233,107,379 shares authorized, 222,773,375 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued, or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted
375,207 — 
Redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock, $0.001 par value per share. 40,000,000 shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted18,800 — 
Stockholders’ deficit (equity):
Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share. 700,000,000 shares authorized, 18,720,399 shares issued and outstanding, actual;                           shares authorized,                      issued and outstanding, pro forma;                shares authorized,                shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted
19 
Class B common stock, $0.001 par value per share. 405,000,000 shares authorized, 167,863,605 shares issued and outstanding, actual;                no shares authorized, issued, or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted164 — 
Class C common stock, $0.001 par value per share. 1,789,159 shares authorized, 1,456,909 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued, or outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted
— 
Class B common stock, $0.001 par value per share. no shares authorized, issued, or outstanding, actual;                        shares authorized, 21,000,000 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted(2)
— 21 
Additional paid-in capital113,364 
Accumulated other comprehensive income257 257 
Accumulated deficit(293,486)(293,486)
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity(179,681)240,331 
Total capitalization$214,326 $240,331 
__________________
(1)Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share of Class A common stock, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity and total liabilities, convertible preferred stock, and stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately $             million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us at the assumed initial public offering price per share would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity and total liabilities, convertible preferred stock, and stockholders’ (deficit) equity by approximately $             million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share of Class A common stock remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
(2)Reflects the Class B common stock to be authorized in connection with the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering.
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The outstanding share information in the table above is based on                           shares of our Class A common stock (including preferred stock, other than the Series A* Preferred Stock, on an as-converted basis) and 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock (including the Series A* Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of July 31, 2020 and excludes:
193,621,256 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2012 Plan, outstanding as of July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $0.5659 per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our 2012 Plan after July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $       per share;
47,146,302 shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, becomes effective;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after July 31, 2020 under our 2020 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $      per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering; and
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering.
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DILUTION
If you invest in our Class A common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock after this offering.
As of July 31, 2020, we had a pro forma net tangible book value of $239.4 million, or $         per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our Class A and Class B common stock outstanding as of July 31, 2020, after giving effect to (1) the automatic conversion of all outstanding shares of our Class B common stock, Class C common stock, redeemable convertible preferred stock, other than shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock, and redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock as of July 31, 2020, into                shares of our Class A common stock, (2) the conversion of all outstanding shares of our Series A* Preferred Stock as of July 31, 2020, into 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock, which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering, and (3) the repayment due from our Chief Executive Officer of the outstanding full recourse promissory note in connection with the Series F preferred stock financing, including accrued interest, in the amount of $26.0 million.
After giving further effect to the sale of shares of Class A common stock that we are offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of July 31, 2020 would have been approximately $                  million, or approximately $          per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma net tangible book value of $             per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma net tangible book value of approximately $           per share to new investors purchasing shares of Class A common stock in this offering.
Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the initial public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution (without giving effect to any exercise by the underwriters of their over-allotment option):
Assumed initial public offering price per share$
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of July 31, 2020
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
Dilution per share to new investors in this offering$
Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $                 , and dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors by approximately $            , assuming that the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions. Each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of Class A common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $          per share and decrease (increase) the dilution to investors participating in this offering by approximately $              per share, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions.
If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $          per share, the increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders would be $             per share and the dilution per share to new investors would be $              per share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $            per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.
The following table summarizes on the pro forma as adjusted basis described above, as of July 31, 2020, the differences between the number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock purchased from us by our existing stockholders and Class A common stock by new investors purchasing shares in this offering, the total consideration paid to us in cash and the average price per share paid by existing stockholders for shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock issued prior to this offering and the price to be paid by new investors for shares of Class A common stock in this offering. The calculation below is based on the assumed initial public offering price of $           per share, the midpoint of
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the price range set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.
Shares PurchasedTotal ConsiderationAverage Price Per Share
NumberPercentAmountPercent
Existing stockholders%$%$
New investors
Total100 %$100 %
The outstanding share information in the table above is based on                    shares of our Class A common stock (including preferred stock, other than the Series A* Preferred Stock, on an as-converted basis) and 21,000,000 shares of our Class B common stock (including the Series A* Preferred Stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of July 31, 2020 and excludes:
193,621,256 shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2012 Plan, outstanding as of July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $0.5659 per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our Class A common stock issued under our 2012 Plan after July 31, 2020, with a weighted-average exercise price of $       per share;
47,146,302 shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2012 Plan, which shares will cease to be available for issuance at the time our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, becomes effective;
                    shares of our Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options granted after July 31, 2020 under our 2020 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of $      per share;
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering; and
                    shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP, which includes an annual evergreen increase and will become effective in connection with this offering.
To the extent any outstanding options are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. If all of such outstanding options had been exercised as of July 31, 2020, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering would be $               , and total dilution per share to new investors would be $              .
If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full, our existing stockholders would own             % and the investors purchasing shares of our Class A common stock in this offering would own               % of the total number of shares of our Class A common stock outstanding immediately after completion of this offering.
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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of April 30, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of July 31, 2020 are derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have prepared the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements. We have included, in our opinion, all adjustments necessary to state fairly our financial position as of July 31, 2020 and the results of operations for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any other period in the future and the results of operations for the three months ended July 31, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any other period in the future. You should read the consolidated financial data set forth below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes, the information in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and other financial information contained elsewhere in this prospectus.
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
 
2019
2020
20192020
(in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:  
Revenue
Subscription$77,472 $135,394 $30,976 $35,695 
Professional services14,133 21,272 3,914 4,788 
Total revenue91,605 156,666 34,890 40,483 
Cost of revenue
Subscription(1)
24,560 31,479 6,643 $8,587 
Professional services(1)
5,826 7,308 1,575 1,912 
Total cost of revenue30,386 38,787 8,218 10,499 
Gross profit61,219 117,879 26,672 29,984 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing(1)
37,882 94,974 11,637 14,358 
Research and development(1)
37,318 64,548 10,918 13,264 
General and administrative(1)
22,061 29,854 5,080 5,687 
Total operating expenses97,261 189,376 27,635 33,309 
Loss from operations(36,042)(71,497)(963)(3,325)
Interest income3,508 4,251 979 580 
Other (expense) income, net(546)(1,752)(252)3,018 
Net income (loss) before provision for income taxes(33,080)(68,998)(236)273 
Provision for income taxes266 380 87 123 
Net income (loss)
$(33,346)$(69,378)$(323)$150 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(2)
$(0.22)$(0.32)(0.00)$0.00 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(2)
151,973 214,799 194,613 223,746 
Pro forma net income (loss) per share, basic and diluted(2)
 
Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted(2)
 
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__________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019202020192020
(in thousands)
Cost of subscription$149 $370 $61 $184 
Cost of professional services69 122 33 48 
Sales and marketing1,739 3,074 580 855 
Research and development781 1,223 297 458 
General and administrative1,529 3,521 561 935 
Total stock-based compensation expense$4,267 $8,310 $1,532 $2,480 
(2)See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate our basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.
As of April 30,As of July 31,
 
2019
2020
2020
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:  
Cash and cash equivalents$98,607 $33,104 $128,979 
Short-term investments57,910 211,874 139,018 
Working capital(1)
121,627 200,166 208,836 
Total assets267,485 305,108 355,769 
Deferred revenue, current and non-current91,225 60,295 107,244 
Redeemable convertible preferred stock299,965 375,207 375,207 
Redeemable convertible Class B-1 common stock18,800 18,880 18,800 
Accumulated deficit(224,259)(293,637)(293,486)
Total stockholders’ deficit
(165,434)(182,697)(179,681)
__________________
(1)Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.
Non-GAAP Financial Measure
In addition to our financial results determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP, we believe free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, is useful in evaluating liquidity and provides information to management and investors about our ability to fund future operating needs and strategic initiatives. We calculate free cash flow as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchases of property and equipment and capitalized software development costs. Free cash flow has limitations as an analytical tool, and it should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of other GAAP financial measures, such as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities. This non-GAAP financial measure may be different than similarly titled measures used by other companies. Additionally, the utility of free cash flow is further limited as it does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balances for a given period. The following table below provides a reconciliation of free cash flow to the GAAP measure of net cash provided by (used in) operating activities for the periods presented.
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019202020192020
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$(34,876)$(61,281)$36,677 $17,062 
Less:
Purchases of property and equipment(6,811)(2,298)(431)(654)
Capitalized software development costs— (581)— — 
Free cash flow(41,687)(64,160)36,246 16,408 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities(96,228)(124,073)18,308 72,135 
Net cash provided by financing activities54,472 119,851 70,226 6,678 
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the information in “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data” and the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the sections titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” for a discussion of forward-looking statements and important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. The last day of our fiscal year is April 30. References to fiscal 2019 and fiscal 2020, for example, refer to the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our fiscal quarters end on July 31, October 31, January 31, and April 30.
Overview
C3.ai is an Enterprise AI software company.
We provide software-as-a-service, or SaaS, applications that enable the rapid deployment of enterprise-scale AI applications of extraordinary scale and complexity that offer significant social and economic benefit.
The C3 AI Suite, C3 AI Applications, and our patented model-driven architecture enable organizations to simplify and accelerate Enterprise AI application development, deployment, and administration. Our software AI Suite enables developers to rapidly build applications by using conceptual models of all the elements required by an Enterprise AI application instead of having to write complex, lengthy, structured programming code to define, control, and integrate the many requisite data and microservices components to work together. We significantly reduce the effort and complexity of the AI software engineering problem.
We have built a single, integrated AI Suite that enables our customers to rapidly develop, deploy, and operate large-scale Enterprise AI applications across any infrastructure. Customers can deploy C3.ai solutions on all major public cloud infrastructures, private cloud or hybrid environments, or directly on their servers and processors. We provide two primary families of software solutions:
The C3 AI Suite, our core technology, is a comprehensive application development and runtime environment that is designed to allow our customers to rapidly design, develop, and deploy Enterprise AI applications of any type.
C3 AI Applications, built using the C3 AI Suite, include a large and growing family of industry-specific and application-specific turnkey AI solutions that can be immediately installed and deployed.
How We Generate Revenue
We generate revenue primarily from the sale of subscriptions to our software, which accounted for 85%, 86%, 89%, and 88% of our total revenue in the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our cloud-native software offerings allow us to manage, update, and monitor the software regardless of whether the software is deployed in our public cloud environment, in our customers’ self-managed private or public cloud environments, or in a hybrid environment. Our subscription contracts are generally non-cancelable and non-refundable. Our customers include a number of large multinational corporations and government entities. Our revenue attributable to government contracts or subcontracts as a percentage of total revenue for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 were 12% and 18%, respectively, and for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020 were 15%, and 18%, respectively.
We commonly enter into enterprise-wide agreements with entities that include multiple operating entities or divisions. We define a Customer as each such buying entity that has an active contract to deploy the C3 AI Suite or one or more C3 AI Applications. We often provide our software to a distinct department, business unit, or group within a Customer, and use customer to mean each distinct department, unit, or group within a Customer. As of September 30, 2020, we had 29 Customers and 59 customers.
Our average total contract value for Customers purchasing the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications together or independently over the two-year period ending fiscal year April 30, 2020 was $14.1 million. We generally invoice our customers annually in advance and primarily recognize revenue over the contract term on a ratable basis. In addition, customers pay a usage-based runtime fee for production use of the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications, which is either paid in advance for specified levels of capacity or paid in arrears based on actual usage. Customers who choose to run the software
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in our cloud environment pay the hosting costs charged by our cloud providers. Our subscriptions also include our maintenance and support services. Additionally, we offer premium stand-ready support services through our C3 Center of Excellence, or COE, which are included as part of the subscription when purchased.
We also generate revenue from professional services, which consist primarily of fees associated with our implementation services for new customer deployments of C3 AI Applications. Professional services revenue represented 15%, 14%, 11%, and 12% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our professional services are provided both onsite and remotely, and can include training, application design, project management, system design, data modeling, data integration, application design, development support, data science, and application and C3 AI Suite administration support. Professional services fees are based on the level of effort required to perform the specified tasks and the services are typically provided under a fixed-fee engagement with defined deliverables and a duration of less than 12 months. We recognize revenue for our professional services over the period of delivery as services are performed.
We are growing rapidly, with total revenue of $156.7 million for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, representing a 71% increase compared to the prior year, and total revenue of $40.5 million for the three months ended July 31, 2020, representing a 16% increase compared to the same period in the prior year. Our subscription revenues grew to $135.4 million for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, representing a 75% increase compared to the prior year, and $35.7 million in the three months ended July 31, 2020, a 15% increase compared to the same period in the prior year.
Go-to-Market Strategy
Our go-to-market strategy is focused on large organizations recognized as leaders in their respective industries or public sectors, and who are attempting to solve complicated business problems by digitally transforming their operations. These organizations include companies and public agencies within the oil and gas, power and utilities, aerospace and defense, industrial products, and financial services industries, among others. This has resulted in C3.ai powering some of the largest and most complex Enterprise AI applications worldwide. As our AI Suite is industry agnostic, we expect to expand into other industries as we grow. For example, for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2018, revenue from customers in the financial services, oil and gas, aerospace and defense, manufacturing, and utilities industries represented 0%, 1%, 3%, 29%, and 67% of our total revenue, respectively, and in the quarter ended July 31, 2020, revenue from these customers represented 10%, 29%, 18%, 19%, and 24% of our total revenue, respectively.
As of September 30, 2020, we had 29 Customers and 59 customers. While almost all our Customers represent large revenue commitments, our top two Customers each represented over 10% of our total revenue for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020.
Acquiring new customers is the intent of our go-to-market effort and a driver of our growth. Making new and existing customers successful is critical to our long-term success. After we help our customers solve their initial use cases, they typically identify incremental opportunities within their operations and expand their use of our products by either purchasing additional C3 AI Applications or by subscribing to the C3 AI Suite to develop their own AI applications.
The size and sophistication of our customers’ businesses demonstrate the flexibility, speed, and scale of our products, and maximize the potential value to our customers. To be a credible partner to our customers, who often are industry leaders, we deploy a motivated and highly educated team of C3 personnel and partners. We go-to-market primarily leveraging our direct sales force, and during the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, we substantially increased the number of direct sales resources. We also complement and supplement our sales force with a number of go-to-market partners.
Strategic Vertical Industry Partners. We have developed an alliance program to partner with recognized leaders in their respective industries, such as Baker Hughes, Fidelity National Information Services, or FIS, and Raytheon, to develop, market, and sell solutions that are natively built on or tightly integrated with the C3 AI Suite.
Consulting and Services Partners. As part of a global industry alliance, we partner with IBM Global Services, as well as a number of systems integrators specializing in Enterprise AI implementations.
Hyperscale Cloud and Infrastructure. We have formed global strategic go-to-market alliances with hyperscale cloud providers including Amazon, FIS, Google, and Microsoft. In addition, we have strategic alliances with leading hardware infrastructure providers to deliver our software optimized for their technology. These partners include Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Intel. These partners supply infrastructure solutions, data management and
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processing services, or hardware and networking devices (e.g. IoT gateways) to support C3.ai product implementations and complement C3.ai’s products.
Key Business Metric
We monitor remaining performance obligations, or RPO, as a key metric to help us evaluate the health of our business, identify trends affecting our growth, formulate goals and objectives, and make strategic decisions. RPO is not necessarily indicative of future revenue growth because it does not account for the timing of customers’ consumption or their consumption of more than their contracted capacity. Moreover, RPO is influenced by several factors, including the timing of renewals, the timing of purchases of additional capacity, average contract terms, and seasonality. Due to these factors, it is important to review RPO in conjunction with revenue and other financial metrics disclosed elsewhere in this prospectus. RPO was $123.3 million, $155.4 million, $137.8 million, and $209.2 million as of July 31, 2018, October 31, 2018, January 31, 2019, and April 30, 2019, respectively, and was $295.5 million, $274.7 million, $262.7 million, and $239.7 million as of July 31, 2019, October 31, 2019, January 31, 2020, and April 30, 2020, respectively. Our RPO has continued to increase to $275.1 million as of July 31, 2020. The increase in RPO from signing new customers and the expansion of existing customers in the year was partially offset by a decrease in RPO related to revenue recognized on existing contracts during the period.
RPO represents the amount of our contracted future revenue that has not yet been recognized, including both deferred revenue and non-cancelable contracted amounts that will be invoiced and recognized as revenue in future periods. Our RPO as of April 30, 2019 is comprised of $91.2 million related to deferred revenue and $118.0 million from non-cancellable contracts and RPO as of April 30, 2020 is comprised of $60.3 million related to deferred revenue and $179.4 million of commitments from non-cancellable contracts. Our RPO as of July 31, 2020 is comprised of $107.2 million related to deferred revenue and $167.9 million of commitments from non-cancellable contracts.
RPO excludes amounts related to performance obligations and usage-based royalties that are billed and recognized as they are delivered. This primarily consists of monthly usage-based runtime and hosting charges in the duration of some revenue contracts. RPO also excludes any future resale commitments by our strategic partners until those end customer contracts are signed. Cancellable backlog, not included in RPO, was $4.3 million, $24.5 million, $22.0 million, $19.2 million, $20.1 million, $8.7 million, $11.0 million, $7.2 million, and $4.4 million as of July 31, 2018, October 31, 2018, January 31, 2019, April 30, 2019, July 31, 2019, October 31, 2019, January 31, 2020, April 30, 2020, and July 31, 2020, respectively.
The duration of our contracts vary by customer. The weighted average contract duration for commercial Customers in the year ended April 30, 2020 was 35 months, while the weighted average contract duration for federal agency Customers was 11 months. Our total RPO as of April 30, 2020 and July 31, 2020 was comprised of approximately 96% non-federal contracts and 4% federal contracts.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that our future success and financial performance depend on a number of factors that present significant opportunities for our business but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section of this prospectus titled “Risk Factors,” that we must successfully address to sustain our growth, improve our results of operations, and establish and maintain profitability.
Customer Acquisition, Retention, and Expansion
We are focused on continuing to grow our customer base, retaining existing customers and expanding customers’ usage of our AI Suite and AI Applications by addressing new use cases across multiple departments and divisions, adding users, and developing and deploying additional applications. All of these factors increase the adoption and relevance of our AI Suite and AI Applications to our customers’ business and, as an outcome, increases their runtime usage.
We believe that the success of our customers is critical to customer retention and expansion, and it contributes to our customer acquisition efforts. Since their initial purchase, our top 15 Customers based on cumulative revenue to us have, on average, made subsequent purchases equal to 2.0x the value of their initial purchase. The average initial purchase among this group was $12.8 million.
We have built a customer-focused culture and have implemented proactive programs and processes designed to drive customer success. These include a robust customer support and success function. For example, as part of our subscription offerings, we provide our customers with the ability to establish a C3.ai COE, accessing our experienced and specialized resources in key technical areas like application development, data integration, and data science to accelerate and ensure our
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customers’ success developing applications on our AI Suite. We closely monitor the health and status of every customer account through multiple activities, including real-time monitoring, daily and weekly reports to management, as well as quarterly reviews with our customers.
We also intend to attract new customers across multiple industries where we have limited meaningful presence today, yet represent very large market opportunities such as telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, smart cities, transportation, and healthcare, among others.
Historically, we have had a relatively small number of customers with large total contract values. As a result, revenue growth can vary significantly based on the timing of customer acquisition, changes in product mix, and contract durations, renewals, or terminations. We expect the number of customers to increase as organizations address the importance of digital transformation and we expect the average total contract value to decrease as we expand our customer base beyond a small number of large lighthouse customers to a larger number of smaller customers.
Technology Innovation
We intend to continue to invest in our research and development capabilities to extend our AI Suite and AI Applications, to expand within existing accounts, and to gain new customers. Our investments in research and development drive core technology innovation and bring new products to market. Our model-driven architecture enables us and our customers to rapidly address new use cases by building new applications and extending and enhancing the features and functionality of current C3 AI Applications. By investing to make it easier to develop applications on our AI Suite, our customers have become active developers. With our support, they have developed and deployed almost two-thirds of the applications currently in production and running on the C3 AI Suite. Research and development spending has fueled enhancements to our existing AI Suite.
We spent $37.3 million, $64.5 million, $10.9 million and $13.3 million on research and development during the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Our research and development spend as a percent of total revenue was 41%, 41%, 31% and 33% during the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. We expect to maintain high levels of investment in product innovation over the coming years as we continue to introduce new applications which address new industry use cases, and new features and functionality for the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications. As our business scales over a longer-term horizon, we anticipate research and development spend as a percent of total revenue to decline.
Brand Awareness
We believe we are in the early stages of a large and expanding new market for AI enabled digital transformation. As a result, we intend to continue to invest in brand awareness, market education, and thought leadership. We engage the market through digital, radio, outdoor, airport, and print advertising; virtual and physical events, including our C3.ai Transform annual customer conference; and C3.ai Live, a bi-weekly series of livestreamed events featuring C3.ai customers, C3.ai partners, and C3.ai experts in AI, machine learning, and data science.
We spent $9.5 million, $34.5 million, $3.8 million and $2.9 million on brand awareness during the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, and anticipate continuing to make significant investments in marketing over the next several years. Over the long term we expect marketing spend to decline as a percent of total revenue as we make ongoing progress establishing C3.ai’s brand and reputation and as our business scales. Any investments we make in our marketing program will occur in advance of experiencing benefits from such investments.
Grow Our Go-to-Market and Partnership Ecosystem
In addition to the activities of our field sales organization, our success in attracting new customers will depend on our ability to expand our ecosystem of strategic partners and the number of industry verticals that they serve. Our strategic go-to-market alliances vastly extend our reach globally. Some of our most notable partners include Baker Hughes, FIS, IBM, and Microsoft. Each strategic partner is a leader in its industry, with a substantial installed customer base and extensive marketing, sales, and services resources that we can leverage to engage and serve customers anywhere in the world. Using our AI Suite as the development suite, we leverage our model-driven architecture to efficiently build new cross-industry and industry-specific applications based on identifying requirements across our customer base of industry leaders and through our industry partners. Our strategy with strategic partners is to establish a significant use case and prove the value of our AI Suite with a flagship customer in each industry in which we participate. We have done this with our strategic vertical industry partner in oil and gas, Baker Hughes, as well as with our iconic global customers, some of whom are deploying C3.ai
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technology to optimize thousands of critical assets globally across their upstream, midstream, and downstream operations. We establish formal sales and marketing plans with each partner, including specific sales goals and dedicated budgets, and we work closely with these partners to identify specific target accounts. We intend to grow the business we do with each partner and to add more partners as we expand the vertical markets we serve. We also offer revenue generating trials of our applications as part of our customer acquisition strategy.
In June 2019, we entered into a three-year arrangement with Baker Hughes as both a leading customer and as a partner in the oil and gas industry. This arrangement included a subscription to our AI Suite for their own operations (which we refer to below as direct subscription fees), the exclusive right for Baker Hughes to resell our offerings worldwide in the oil and gas industry, and the non-exclusive right to resell our offerings in other industries. Under the arrangement, Baker Hughes made minimum, non-cancelable, total revenue commitments to us of $50.0 million, $100.0 million, and $170.0 million, which are inclusive of their direct subscription fees of $39.5 million per year, for each of the fiscal years ending April 30, 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively, with the remainder to be generated from the resale of our solutions by the Baker Hughes sales organization. During the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, we recognized as revenue the full value of the first year of the direct subscription agreement and the value of deals brought in by Baker Hughes through the reseller arrangement. This arrangement was revised in June 2020 to extend the term by an additional two years, for a total of five years, with an expiration date in the fiscal year ending April 30, 2024 and to modify the annual amount of Baker Hughes’ commitments to $53.3 million, $75.0 million, $125.0 million, and $150.0 million, which are inclusive of their revised direct subscription fees of $27.2 million per year over the fiscal years ending April 30, 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024, respectively. Any shortfalls against the total annual revenue commitment made to us by Baker Hughes will be assessed and recorded by us at the end of the fourth quarter of each fiscal year. We are obligated to pay Baker Hughes a sales commission on subscriptions to our products and services offerings it resells in excess of these minimum revenue commitments.
Our RPO related to Baker Hughes, which includes both direct subscriptions and reseller arrangements, is comprised of $19.9 million related to deferred revenue and $20.0 million from non-cancellable contracts as of April 30, 2019, $2.4 million related to deferred revenue and $84.8 million from non-cancellable contracts as of April 30, 2020, and $24.9 million related to deferred revenue and $85.8 million of commitments from non-cancellable contracts as of July 31, 2020.
As of July 31, 2019, October 31, 2019, January 31, 2020, April 30, 2020, July 31, 2020, the total remaining amount of Baker Hughes’ minimum revenue commitments not yet contracted under the direct subscription fee or reseller arrangement, and thus subject to the shortfall annual provisions, under the entire arrangement was $194.0 million, $195.0 million, $190.3 million, $183.8 million, and $270.9 million, respectively.
International Expansion
The international market opportunity for Enterprise AI software is large and growing, and we believe there is a significant opportunity to continue to grow our international customer base. We believe that the demand for our AI Suite will continue growing as international awareness of the benefits of digital transformation and Enterprise AI software grows. We plan to continue to make investments to expand geographically by increasing our direct sales team in international markets and supplementing the direct sales effort with strategic partners to significantly expand our reach and market coverage. We derived approximately 34%, 22%, 25% and 29% of our total revenue for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, from international customers.
Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused general business disruption worldwide beginning in January 2020. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition will depend on future developments that are uncertain.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily closed our headquarters and other offices, required our employees and contractors to work remotely, and implemented travel restrictions, all of which represented a significant change in how we operate our business. The operations of our partners and customers have likewise been altered. While the duration and extent of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, it has already had an adverse effect on the global economy and the ultimate societal and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic remains unknown. In particular, the conditions caused by this pandemic are likely to affect the rate of global IT spending and could adversely affect demand for our AI Suite, lengthen our sales cycles, reduce the value or duration of subscriptions, reduce the level of subscription renewals, negatively impact collections of accounts receivable, reduce expected spending from new customers, cause some of our paying customers to go out of business, limit the ability of our direct sales force to travel to customers and potential
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customers, and affect contraction or attrition rates of our paying customers, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition during fiscal 2021 and potentially future periods.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Subscription Revenue. Our subscription revenue is primarily comprised of term licenses and our software-as-a-service offerings. Sales of our term licenses grant our customers the right to use our software, either on their own cloud instance or their internal hardware infrastructure, over the contractual term. Sales of our software-as-a-service offerings include a right to use our software in a hosted environment over the contractual term. Our subscription contracts are generally non-cancelable and non-refundable, with the majority of contracts with customers approximating three years in duration. We generally invoice annually in advance and recognize revenue over the contract term on a ratable basis. In addition, customers pay a usage-based runtime fee for the C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications, which is either paid in advance for specified levels of capacity or paid in arrears based on actual usage. Our subscriptions also include our maintenance and support services. Our maintenance and support services include critical and continuous updates to the software that are integral to maintaining the intended utility of the software over the contractual term. Our software subscriptions and maintenance and support services are highly interdependent and interrelated and represent a single distinct performance obligation within the context of the contract. We also offer a premium stand-ready service through our COE, and we offer a hosting service. When these services are purchased, they are included as part of the subscription. We currently have a small number of public utility customers that license our offerings under a perpetual license model, and we expect that may continue for the foreseeable future for certain customers due to their specific contractual requirements.
Professional Services Revenue. Our professional services revenue primarily includes implementation services and training. We offer a complete range of professional service support both onsite and remotely, including training, application design, project management, system design, data modeling, data integration, application design, development support, data science, and application and C3 AI Suite administration support. Professional services fees are based on the level of effort required to perform the specified tasks and are typically a fixed-fee engagement with defined deliverables and a duration of less than 12 months. We recognize revenue for our professional services over the period of delivery as services are performed.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of Subscription Revenue. Cost of subscription revenue consists primarily of costs related to compensation, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related expenses for the production environment, support and COE staff, hosting of our AI Suite, including payments to outside cloud service providers, and allocated overhead and depreciation for facilities. For the year ended April 30, 2020 and the three months ended July 31, 2020, our cost of subscription revenue represented 20% and 21% of total revenue and 23% and 24% of subscription revenue, respectively.
Cost of Professional Services Revenue. Cost of professional services revenue consists primarily of compensation, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related costs associated with our professional service personnel, and allocated overhead and depreciation for facilities. For the year ended April 30, 2020 and the three months ended July 31, 2020, our cost of professional services revenue represented 5% and 5% of total revenue and 34% and 40% of professional services revenue, respectively.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit is total revenue less total cost of revenue. Gross margin is gross profit expressed as a percentage of total revenue. Our gross margin has fluctuated historically and may continue to fluctuate from period to period based on a number of factors, including the timing and mix of the product offerings we sell as well as the geographies into which we sell, in any given period. Our gross margins are lower when we provide hosting services to our customers as compared to when a customer hosts our software in their self-managed private or public cloud environments. Our subscription gross margin may experience variability over time as we continue to invest in personnel and continue to scale our AI Suite. Our professional services gross margin may also experience variability from period to period due to the use of our own resources and third-party system integration partners in connection with the performance of our fixed price agreements.
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Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses. We expect our operating expenses as a percentage of total revenue to increase as we continue to invest to grow our business. Over the long-term, we expect those percentages to stabilize and then move lower as our business matures.
Sales and Marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation, and commissions for our employees engaged in sales and marketing activities. Sales and marketing expenses also include expenditures related to advertising, media, marketing, promotional events, brand awareness activities, business development, and corporate partnerships, and allocated overhead and depreciation for facilities.
We expect our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollar amounts as we continue to invest in brand awareness and programmatic spend to generate demand. We also expect to hire additional sales personnel to increase sales coverage of target industry vertical and geographic markets. Consequently, sales and marketing expense as a percent of total revenue will remain high in the near-term. As our business scales through customer expansion and market awareness we anticipate that sales and marketing expense as a percent of total revenue to decline over time.
Research and Development. Our research and development efforts are aimed at continuing to develop and refine our AI Suite and AI Applications, including adding new features and modules, increasing functionality and speed, and enhancing the usability of our AI Suite and AI Applications. Research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation for our employees associated with in our research and development organization. Research and development expenses also include cloud infrastructure costs related to our research and development efforts, and allocated overhead and depreciation for facilities. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Our research and development expense as a percent of total revenue was 41%, 41%, 31% and 33% during the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020 and three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively, of total revenue. We expect research and development expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in our existing and future product offerings. We may experience variations from period to period with our total research and development expense as a percentage of revenue as we develop and deploy new applications targeting new use cases and new industries. Over a longer horizon, we anticipate that research and development expense as a percent of total revenue to decline.
General and Administrative. General and administrative expense consists primarily of employee-related costs, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation and other related costs associated with administrative services such as executive management and administration, legal, human resources, accounting, and finance. General and administrative expense also includes facilities costs, such as depreciation and rent expense, professional fees, and other general corporate costs, including allocated overhead and depreciation for facilities.
We expect our general and administrative expense to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to grow our business. We also expect to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses necessary to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange and related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, as well as higher expenses for general and director and officer insurance, investor relations, and professional services. We expect that general and administrative expense as a percent of total revenue will decline over the long-term as we benefit from the scale of our business infrastructure.
Interest Income
Interest income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, and available-for-sale investments. It also includes amortization of premiums and accretion of discount related to our available-for-sale investments. Interest income varies each reporting period based on our average balance of cash, cash equivalents, and available-for-sale investments during the period and market interest rates.
Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net consists primarily of foreign currency exchange gains and losses, losses from impairment of investments, and realized gains and losses on sales of securities. Our foreign currency exchange gains and losses relate to transactions and asset and liability balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We expect our foreign currency gains and losses to continue to fluctuate in the future due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
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Provision for Income Taxes
Our income tax provision consists of an estimate of federal, state, and foreign income taxes based on enacted federal, state, and foreign tax rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in tax laws. We maintain a full valuation allowance on our federal and state deferred tax assets as we have concluded that it is not more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will be realized.
Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of revenue for those periods. The period-to-period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of future results.
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019202020192020
(in thousands)
Revenue
Subscription$77,472 $135,394 $30,976 $35,695 
Professional services14,133 21,272 3,914 4,788 
Total revenue
91,605 156,666 34,890 40,483 
Cost of revenue
Subscription(1)
24,560 31,479 6,643 $8,587 
Professional services(1)
5,826 7,308 1,575 1,912 
Total cost of revenue
30,386 38,787 8,218 10,499 
Gross profit61,219 117,879 26,672 29,984 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing(1)
37,882 94,974 11,637 14,358 
Research and development(1)
37,318 64,548 10,918 13,264 
General and administrative(1)
22,061 29,854 5,080 5,687 
Total operating expenses97,261 189,376 27,635 33,309 
Loss from operations
(36,042)(71,497)(963)(3,325)
Interest income3,508 4,251 979 580 
Other (expense) income, net(546)(1,752)(252)3,018 
Net income (loss) before provision for income taxes
(33,080)(68,998)(236)273 
Provision for income taxes266 380 87 123 
Net income (loss)
$(33,346)$(69,378)$(323)$150 
__________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019202020192020
(in thousands)
Cost of subscription$149 $370 $61 $184 
Cost of professional services69 122 33 48 
Sales and marketing1,739 3,074 580 855 
Research and development781 1,223 297 458 
General and administrative1,529 3,521 561 935 
Total stock-based compensation expense$4,267 $8,310 $1,532 $2,480 
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The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the periods indicated:
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,Three Months Ended July 31,
2019
2020
20192020
(in thousands)
Revenue
Subscription85 %86 %89 %88 %
Professional services15 14 11 12 
Total revenue
100 100 100 100 
Cost of revenue
Subscription27 20 19 21 
Professional services
Total cost of revenue
33 25 24 26 
Gross profit67 75 76 74 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing41 61 33 35 
Research and development41 41 31 33 
General and administrative
24 19 15 14 
Total operating expenses106 121 79 82 
Loss from operations
(39)(46)(3)(8)
Interest income
Other (expense) income, net
(1)(1)(1)
Net income (loss) before provision for income taxes
(36)(44)(1)— 
Provision for income taxes— — — — 
Net income (loss)
(36)%(44)%(1)%— %
Comparison of the Three Months Ended July 31, 2019 and 2020
Revenue
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Revenue
Subscription$30,976 $35,695 $4,719 15 %
Professional services3,914 4,788 874 22 
Total revenue
$34,890 $40,483 $5,593 
Subscription revenue accounted for 89% and 88% of our total revenue for the three months ended July 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Subscription revenue increased by $4.7 million, or 15%, for the three months ended July 31, 2020, compared to the prior year, predominantly driven by revenue growth of $7.6 million from new C3 AI Suite customers and $1.7 million from new C3 AI Applications customers. The increase was partially offset primarily by a decrease in revenues of $3.6 million related to the Baker Hughes contract modification.
Professional services revenue increased by $0.9 million, or 22%, for the three months ended July 31, 2020, compared to the prior year, predominantly due to the mix of implementation services projects in progress, with one new C3 AI Applications customer accounting for $1.4 million of the growth.
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Cost of Revenue
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
Subscription6,643 $8,587 $1,944 29 %
Professional services1,575 1,912 337 21 
Total cost of revenue
$8,218 $10,499 $2,281 
The increase in cost of subscription revenue was primarily due to a $2.6 million increase in personnel costs for maintenance and support services included with the subscription fees as well as our premium COE support services offering, partially offset by lower cloud service providers costs of $0.8 million.
The increase in cost of professional services revenue was primarily higher third-party outsourcing costs of $0.2 million and increases in personnel costs for implementation services projects for C3 AI Applications of $0.1 million.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Gross profit$26,672 $29,984 $3,312 12 %
Gross margin
Subscription79 %76 %
Professional services60 60 
Total gross margin76 74 
The increases in gross profit was primarily driven by revenue growth which outpaced personnel-related costs to support the revenue growth from new contracts. The decrease in gross margin for subscription revenue was primarily driven by increased personnel-related costs to support the revenue growth from new C3 AI Suite contracts.
Operating Expenses
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing$11,637 $14,358 $2,721 23 %
Research and development10,918 13,264 2,346 21 
General and administrative5,080 5,687 607 12 
Total operating expenses$27,635 $33,309 $5,674 
Sales and Marketing. The increase in sales and marketing expense was primarily due to $3.9 million in higher personnel-related costs as a result of headcount growth to expand sales coverage, partially offset by a temporary decrease in advertising spend of $1.1 million and lower travel-related costs of $0.5 million which were primarily in response to COVID-19.
Research and Development. The increase in research and development expense was primarily due to $2.2 million for higher personnel-related costs due to headcount growth.
General and Administrative. The increase in general and administrative expense was primarily due to increases of $0.5 million for higher personnel-related costs due to headcount growth.
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Interest Income
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Interest income$979 $580 $399 (41)%
The decrease in interest income was primarily due to an investment strategy shift towards more conservative investments such as money market funds and government securities that yield lower returns.
Other (Expense) Income, Net
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Other (expense) income, net$(252)$3,018 $3,270 1298 %
The decrease in other (expense) income, net was primarily due to unrealized foreign currency gains of $2.9 million on the remeasurement of Euro-denominated cash and accounts receivable balances.
Provision for Income Taxes
Three Months Ended July 31,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Provision for income taxes$87 $123 $36 41 %
The increase in provision was primarily related foreign tax expense.
Comparison of Fiscal Years Ended April 30, 2019 and 2020
Revenue
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Revenue
Subscription$77,472 $135,394 $57,922 75 %
Professional services14,133 21,272 7,139 51 
Total revenue
$91,605 $156,666 $65,061 71 %
Subscription revenue accounted for 85% and 86% of our total revenue for the fiscal years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020, respectively. Subscription revenue increased by $57.9 million, or 75%, for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, compared to the prior year, predominantly due to a $51.7 million increase from new C3 AI Suite customers in North America, of which $40.4 million was attributable to the Baker Hughes contract. Other C3 AI Suite and C3 AI Applications customers contributed to the remaining increase in subscription revenue. For the years ended April 30, 2019 and 2020, approximately 11% and 7% of our subscription revenue was realized from usage-based runtime fees, respectively. While usage-based runtime revenue increased year over year, the percentage of our subscription revenue that we earned from usage-based runtime fees decreased due to the growth in the fixed-fee component of our subscription offerings outpacing the usage-based runtime fees during the year ended April 30, 2020.
Professional services revenue increased by $7.1 million, or 51%, for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020, compared to the prior year, predominantly due to a $6.7 million increase in implementation services for C3 AI Applications.
72



Cost of Revenue
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
Subscription$24,560 $31,479 $6,919 28 %
Professional services5,826 7,308 1,482 25 
Total cost of revenue
$30,386 $38,787 $8,401 28 %
The increase in cost of subscription revenue was primarily due to a $5.1 million increase in personnel costs for maintenance and support services included with the subscription fees as well as our premium COE support services offering, and $1.2 million of compensation expense related to a tender offer in 2019.
The increase in cost of professional services revenue was due to a $0.9 million increase in personnel costs for implementation services related to the deployment of C3 AI Applications and $0.4 million of compensation expense related to a tender offer in 2019.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Gross profit$61,219 $117,879 $56,660 93 %
Gross margin
Subscription68 %77 %
Professional services59 66 
Total gross margin67 75 
The increases in gross profit and gross margin were mainly due to total revenue growth of 71%, which temporarily outpaced personnel-related costs to support the revenue growth from new contracts. Our gross margin for subscription for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 was higher due to more efficient use of our resources deployed against large new contracts and a reduction in lower margin hosting. Our gross margin for professional services for the fiscal year ended April 30, 2020 was higher than the previous year due to favorable fixed-fee pricing driving profitability for certain implementation services contracts.
Operating Expenses
Fiscal Year Ended April 30,$ Change% Change
20192020
(in thousands)
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing$37,882 $94,974 $57,092 151 %
Research and development37,318 64,548 27,230 73 
General and administrative22,061 29,854 7,793 35 
Total operating expenses$97,261 $189,376