10-K 1 a12312017-documentfy1710xk.htm 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
þ Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of
the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017
OR
¨ Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of
the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission file number: 001-36053
Frank’s International N.V.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
The Netherlands
 
98-1107145
 
 
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer
Identification number)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mastenmakersweg 1
 
 
 
 
1786 PB Den Helder, the Netherlands
 
Not Applicable
 
 
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +31 (0)22 367 0000
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title of each class
 
Name of exchange on which registered
 
 
Common Stock, €0.01 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
þ
Non-accelerated filer
¨ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
 
 
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No þ
As of June 30, 2017, the aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $473.4 million.
As of February 19, 2018, there were 223,390,309 shares of common stock, €0.01 par value per share, outstanding.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement in connection with the 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Form 10-K relates, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.




FRANK'S INTERNATIONAL N.V.
FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
Item 1.
Business
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Properties
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and
 
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
Item 7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and
 
 
Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.
Form 10–K Summary
 
 
 
Signatures
 
 
 



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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Form 10-K") includes certain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). Forward-looking statements include those that express a belief, expectation or intention, as well as those that are not statements of historical fact. Forward-looking statements include information regarding our future plans and goals and our current expectations with respect to, among other things:

our business strategy and prospects for growth;
our cash flows and liquidity;
our financial strategy, budget, projections and operating results;
the amount, nature and timing of capital expenditures;
the availability and terms of capital;
competition and government regulations; and
general economic conditions.

Our forward-looking statements are generally accompanied by words such as "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "expect," "goal," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," or other terms that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes, although not all forward-looking statements contain such identifying words. The forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K speak only as of the date of this report; we disclaim any obligation to update these statements unless required by law, and we caution you not to rely on them unduly. Forward-looking statements are not assurances of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and assumptions about future events. While our management considers these expectations and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently subject to significant business, economic, competitive, regulatory and other risks, contingencies and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. These risks, contingencies and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

the level of activity in the oil and gas industry;
further or sustained declines in oil and gas prices, including those resulting from weak global demand;
the timing, magnitude, probability and/or sustainability of any oil and gas price recovery;
unique risks associated with our offshore operations;
political, economic and regulatory uncertainties in our international operations;
our ability to develop new technologies and products;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
our ability to employ and retain skilled and qualified workers;
the level of competition in our industry;
operational safety laws and regulations;
weather conditions and natural disasters; and
policy changes domestically in the United States.

These and other important factors that could affect our operating results and performance are described in (1) Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and in Part II, Item 7 "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Form 10-K, and elsewhere within this Form 10-K, (2) our other reports and filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") from time to time and (3) other announcements we make from time to time. Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described in the documents above or in this Form 10-K occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results, performance, achievements or plans could differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statements. All such forward-looking statements in the Form 10-K are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements in this section.


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PART I

Item 1. Business

General

Frank’s International N.V. ("FINV") is a Netherlands limited liability company (Naamloze Vennootschap) and includes the activities of Frank’s International C.V. ("FICV"), Blackhawk Group Holdings, LLC ("Blackhawk") and their wholly owned subsidiaries (either individually or together, as context requires, the "Company," "we," "us" and "our"). We were established in 1938 and are an industry-leading global provider of highly engineered tubular services, tubular fabrication and specialty well construction and well intervention solutions to the oil and gas industry. We provide our services to leading exploration and production companies in both offshore and onshore environments, with a focus on complex and technically demanding wells. We believe that we are one of the largest global providers of tubular services to the oil and gas industry.

Our Operations

Tubular services involve the handling and installation of multiple joints of pipe to establish a cased wellbore and the installation of smaller diameter pipe inside a cased wellbore to provide a conduit for produced oil and gas to reach the surface. The casing of a wellbore isolates the wellbore from the surrounding geologic formations and water table, provides well structure and pressure integrity, and allows well operators to target specific zones for production. Given the central role that our services play in the structural integrity, reliability and safety of a well, and the importance of efficient tubular services to managing the overall cost of a well, we believe that our role is vital to the overall process of producing oil and gas.

In addition to our services offerings, we design and manufacture certain products that we sell directly to external customers, including large outside diameter (“OD”) pipe connectors. We also provide specialized fabrication and welding services in support of deepwater projects in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, including drilling and production risers, flowlines and pipeline end terminations, as well as long-length tubulars (up to 300 feet in length) for use as caissons or pilings. Finally, we distribute large OD pipe manufactured by third parties, and generally maintain an inventory of this pipe in order to support our pipe sales and distribution operations.

On November 1, 2016, we completed our acquisition of Blackhawk, the ultimate parent company of Blackhawk Specialty Tools, LLC, a leading provider of well construction and well intervention services and products. The merger consideration was comprised of a combination of $150.4 million of cash on hand and the issuance of 12.8 million shares of our common stock, for total consideration of $294.6 million (based on our closing share price on October 31, 2016 of $11.25 and including the working capital adjustments). The acquisition of this company resulted in a new segment for us and will allow us to combine Blackhawk’s cementing tool expertise and well intervention services with our global tubular services. We will be able to offer our customers an integrated well construction solution across land, shelf and deepwater.

We offer our tubular services, tubular sales, and other well construction and well intervention services and products through our four operating segments: (1) International Services, (2) U.S. Services, (3) Tubular Sales and (4) Blackhawk, each of which is described in more detail in "Description of Business Segments."



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The table below shows our consolidated revenue and each segment's external revenue and percentage of consolidated revenue for the periods indicated (revenue in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Revenue
 
Percent
 
Revenue
 
Percent
 
Revenue
 
Percent
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
International Services
$
206,746

 
45.5%
 
$
237,207

 
48.7
%
 
$
442,107

 
45.3
%
U.S. Services
118,815

 
26.1%
 
152,827

 
31.3
%
 
326,437

 
33.5
%
Tubular Sales
58,210

 
12.8%
 
87,515

 
18.0
%
 
206,056

 
21.2
%
Blackhawk (1)
71,024

 
15.6%
 
9,982

 
2.0
%
 

 
%
   Total
$
454,795

 
100.0%
 
$
487,531

 
100.0
%
 
$
974,600

 
100.0
%
 
 
(1) We purchased Blackhawk in November 2016, which resulted in a new segment for us. As such, 2016 revenues are for the two months ended December 31, 2016.

Our Corporate Structure

We are a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE"). As part of our initial public offering ("IPO") in August 2013, we issued 52,976,000 shares of our Series A convertible preferred stock (the “Preferred Stock”) and a 25.7% limited partnership interest in FICV, our subsidiary, to Mosing Holdings, LLC ("Mosing Holdings"), a Delaware limited liability company and affiliate of the Company with Mosing family entities as its shareholders. Under our Amended Articles of Association in effect at time of the IPO, upon the written election of Mosing Holdings, each Preferred Share, together with a unit in FICV, our subsidiary, was convertible into a share of our common stock on a one-for-one basis.

On August 19, 2016, we received notice from Mosing Holdings exercising its right to exchange (the “Exchange Right”) for an equivalent number of each of the following securities for common shares: (i) 52,976,000 Preferred Shares and (ii) 52,976,000 units in FICV. We issued 52,976,000 common shares to Mosing Holdings on August 26, 2016. As a result, there are no remaining issued Preferred Shares and the Mosing family beneficially owns approximately 68% of our common shares as of February 19, 2018. Mosing Holdings no longer has a minority interest holding in FICV.

Description of Business Segments

International Services

The International Services segment provides tubular services in international offshore markets and in several onshore international regions in approximately 50 countries on six continents. Our customers in these international markets are primarily large exploration and production companies, including integrated oil and gas companies and national oil and gas companies, and other oilfield services companies.

U.S. Services

The U.S. Services segment provides tubular services in the active onshore oil and gas drilling regions in the U.S., including the Permian Basin, Eagle Ford Shale, Haynesville Shale, Marcellus Shale, Niobrara Shale and Utica Shale, as well as in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.

Tubular Sales

The Tubular Sales segment designs, manufactures and distributes large OD pipe, connectors and casing attachments and sells large OD pipe originally manufactured by various pipe mills. We also provide specialized fabrication and welding services in support of offshore projects, including drilling and production risers, flowlines and pipeline end terminations, as well as long-length tubulars (up to 300 feet in length) for use as caissons or pilings. This segment also designs and manufactures proprietary equipment for use in our International Services and U.S. Services segments.



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Blackhawk

The Blackhawk segment provides well construction and well intervention services and products, in addition to cementing tool expertise, in the U.S. and Mexican Gulf of Mexico, onshore U.S. and other select international locations. Blackhawk’s customer base consists primarily of major and independent oil and gas companies as well as other oilfield services companies.

Financial Information About Segment and Geographic Areas

Segment financial and geographic information is provided in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", Note 21 - Segment Information of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Suppliers and Raw Materials

We acquire component parts, products and raw materials from suppliers, including foundries, forge shops, and original equipment manufacturers. The prices we pay for our raw materials may be affected by, among other things, energy, steel and other commodity prices, tariffs and duties on imported materials and foreign currency exchange rates. Certain of our product lines (primarily pipe) are only available from a limited number of suppliers (primarily in the Tubular and Blackhawk segments).

Our ability to source low cost raw materials and components, such as steel castings and forgings, is critical to our ability to manufacture our casing products competitively and, in turn, our ability to provide onshore and offshore casing services. In order to purchase raw materials and components in a cost effective manner, we have developed a broad international sourcing capability and we maintain quality assurance and testing programs to analyze and test these raw materials and components.
    
Patents

We currently hold multiple U.S. and international patents and have a number of pending patent applications. Although in the aggregate our patents and licenses are important to us, we do not regard any single patent or license as critical or essential to our business as a whole.

Seasonality

A substantial portion of our business is not significantly impacted by changing seasons. We can be impacted by hurricanes, ocean currents, winter storms and other disruptions.

Customers

Our customers consist primarily of oil and gas exploration and production companies, both domestic and international, including major and independent companies, national oil companies and, on occasion, other service companies that have contractual obligations to provide casing and handling services or comparable services. Demand for our services depends primarily upon the capital spending of oil and gas companies and the level of drilling activity in the U.S. and internationally. We do not believe the loss of any of our individual customers would have a material adverse effect on our business. In 2017 and 2016, one customer accounted for 10% and 13% of our revenues, respectively. For both years, all four of our segments generated revenue from this customer. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Competition

The markets in which we operate are competitive. We compete with a number of companies, some of which have financial and other resources greater than ours. The principal competitive factors in our markets are the quality, price and availability of products and services and a company’s responsiveness to customer needs and its reputation for safety. In general, we face a larger number of smaller, more regionally-specific customers in the U.S. onshore market as compared to offshore markets, where larger competitors dominate.

We believe several factors give us a strong competitive position. In particular, we believe our products and services in each segment fulfill our customer’s requirements for international capability, availability of tools, range of services provided, intellectual property, technological sophistication, quality assurance systems and availability of equipment, along with reputation and safety record. We seek to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by providing a rapid response to the needs of our customers, a high level of customer service and innovative product development initiatives. Although we have


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no single competitor across all of our product lines, we believe that Weatherford International represents our most direct competitor across our segments for providing tubular services, specialty well construction and well intervention services and products on an aggregate, global basis.

Market Environment

Despite a meaningful improvement in commodity prices and increases in U.S. onshore activity and profitability, our customers have not yet allocated material levels of capital toward deepwater projects, particularly in the markets of West Africa and the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. For 2018, we expect to see some improvement in activity levels offshore, but pricing of our services offshore is unlikely to increase materially during the year. International markets are showing signs of stabilization or improvement in some regions, but lower pricing is expected to offset activity increases. We expect to see strong growth in our Blackhawk segment both in the U.S. onshore and in select international markets during the next several quarters as we expand its operational footprint. In order to offset some of the lower realized pricing, we continue to look for ways to optimize our operational footprint and improve efficiency. We also continue to evaluate potential acquisitions which introduce new technologies that broaden our portfolio of products and services and seek to improve efficiency and profitability.

Inventories and Working Capital

An important consideration for many of our customers in selecting a vendor is timely availability of the product or service. Often customers will pay a premium for earlier or immediate availability because of the cost of delays in critical operations. We aim to stock certain of our consumable products in regional warehouses around the world so we can have these products available for our customers when needed. This availability is especially critical for our proprietary products, causing us to carry inventories for these products. For critical capital items for which demand is expected to be strong, we often build certain items before we have a firm order. Having such goods available on short notice can be of great value to our customers.

Inventories are required to be stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. During 2017, we recorded an impairment of $51.2 million related to a lower of cost or net realizable value adjustment for our pipe and connectors inventory, which is included in the financial statement line item severance and other charges on our consolidated statements of operations. The factors that led to this impairment included new technology (external and internal), oil and gas prices below levels necessary for our customers to sanction a significant amount of new offshore projects in the near-term and a change in customers' preferences for newer technologies, all of which significantly impacted the net realizable value of our connectors inventory.

We cannot accurately predict what or how many products our customers will need in the future. Orders are placed with our suppliers based on forecasts of customer demand and, in some instances, we may establish buffer inventories to accommodate anticipated demand. If we overestimate customer demand, we may allocate resources to the purchase of material or manufactured products that we may not be able to sell when we expect to, if at all.

Environmental, Occupational Health and Safety Regulation

Our operations are subject to numerous stringent and complex laws and regulations governing the emission and discharge of materials into the environment, occupational health and safety aspects of our operations, or otherwise relating to environmental protection. Failure to comply with these laws or regulations or to obtain or comply with permits may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, imposition of remedial or corrective action requirements, and the imposition of orders or injunctions to prohibit or restrict certain activities or force future compliance.

Numerous governmental authorities, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), analogous state agencies and, in certain circumstances, citizens’ groups, have the power to enforce compliance with these laws and regulations and the permits issued under them. Certain environmental laws may impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. The trend in environmental regulation has been to impose increasingly stringent restrictions and limitations on activities that may impact the environment, and thus, any changes in environmental laws and regulations or in enforcement policies that result in more stringent and costly waste handling, storage, transport, disposal, or remediation requirements could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial position. Moreover, accidental releases or spills of regulated substances may occur in the course of our operations, and we cannot assure that we will not incur significant costs and liabilities as a result of such releases or spills, including any third-party claims for damage to property, natural resources or persons.



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The following is a summary of the more significant existing environmental, health and safety laws and regulations to which our business operations are subject and for which compliance could have a material adverse impact on our capital expenditures, results of operations or financial position.

Hazardous Substances and Waste

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes, regulate the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, disposal and cleanup of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. Under the auspices of the EPA, the individual states administer some or all of the provisions of RCRA, sometimes in conjunction with their own, more stringent requirements. We are required to manage the transportation, storage and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes in compliance with RCRA. Certain petroleum exploration and production wastes are excluded from RCRA’s hazardous waste regulations. However, it is possible that these wastes will in the future be designated as hazardous wastes and therefore be subject to more rigorous and costly disposal requirements. For example, in December 2016, the EPA and environmental groups entered into a consent decree to address EPA’s alleged failure to timely assess its RCRA Subtitle D criteria regulations exempting certain exploration and production related oil and gas wastes from regulation as hazardous wastes. The consent decree requires EPA to propose a rulemaking no later than March 15, 2019 for any revisions relating to oil and gas wastes or to sign a determination that revision of the regulations is not necessary. Any such changes in the laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our operating expenses or the operating expenses of our customers, which could result in decreased demand for our services.

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as the Superfund law, imposes joint and several liability, without regard to fault or legality of conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment. These persons include the owner or operator of the site where the release occurred, and anyone who disposed or arranged for the disposal of a hazardous substance released at the site. We currently own, lease, or operate numerous properties that have been used for manufacturing and other operations for many years. We also contract with waste removal services and landfills. These properties and the substances disposed or released on them may be subject to CERCLA, RCRA and analogous state laws. Under such laws, we could be required to remove previously disposed substances and wastes, remediate contaminated property, or perform remedial operations to prevent future contamination. In addition, it is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by hazardous substances released into the environment.

Water Discharges

The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (the “Clean Water Act”) and analogous state laws impose restrictions and strict controls with respect to the discharge of pollutants, including spills and leaks of oil and other substances, into waters of the United States. The discharge of pollutants into regulated waters is prohibited, except in accordance with the terms of a permit issued by the EPA or an analogous state agency. A responsible party includes the owner or operator of a facility from which a discharge occurs. The Clean Water Act and analogous state laws provide for administrative, civil and criminal penalties for unauthorized discharges and, together with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, impose rigorous requirements for spill prevention and response planning, as well as substantial potential liability for the costs of removal, remediation, and damages in connection with any unauthorized discharges. Pursuant to these laws and regulations, we may be required to obtain and maintain approvals or permits for the discharge of wastewater or storm water from our operations and may be required to develop and implement spill prevention, control and countermeasure plans, also referred to as “SPCC plans,” in connection with on-site storage of significant quantities of oil, including refined petroleum products.

Air Emissions

The federal Clean Air Act and comparable state laws regulate emissions of various air pollutants through air emissions permitting programs and the imposition of other emission control requirements. In addition, the EPA has developed, and continues to develop, stringent regulations governing emissions of toxic air pollutants at specified sources. Non-compliance with air permits or other requirements of the federal Clean Air Act and associated state laws and regulations can result in the imposition of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, as well as the issuance of orders or injunctions limiting or prohibiting non-compliant operations. Over the next several years, we may be required to incur certain capital expenditures for air pollution control equipment or other air emissions related issues. For example, in October 2015, the EPA lowered the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, or NAAQS, for ozone from 75 to 70 parts per billion. State implementation of the revised NAAQS could result in stricter air emissions permitting requirements, delay or prohibit our ability to obtain such permits, and result in increased expenditures for pollution control equipment, the costs of which could be significant. We do not believe that any of our operations are subject to the federal Clean Air Act permitting or regulatory requirements for major


9


sources of air emissions, but some of our facilities could be subject to state “minor source” air permitting requirements and other state regulatory requirements applicable to air emissions, such as source registration and recordkeeping requirements.

Climate Change

The EPA has determined that emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other “greenhouse gases” present an endangerment to public health and the environment because emissions of such gases are contributing to warming of the Earth’s atmosphere and other climatic changes. Based on these findings, the EPA has begun adopting and implementing regulations to restrict emissions of greenhouse gases under existing provisions of the federal Clean Air Act. The EPA has proposed various measures regulating the emission of greenhouse gases, including proposed performance standards for new and existing power plants, and pre-construction and operating permit requirements for certain large stationary sources already subject to the Clean Air Act. The EPA has also adopted rules requiring the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from specified large greenhouse gas emission sources in the United States, as well as onshore and offshore oil and gas production facilities, on an annual basis.

While the U.S. Congress has yet to adopt legislation to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, many of the states have already taken legal measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. For example, the state of California has adopted a "cap and trade program" that requires major sources of greenhouse gas emissions to acquire and surrender emission allowances. The number of allowances available for purchase is reduced each year in an effort to achieve the overall greenhouse gas emission reduction goal.

The adoption of legislation or regulatory programs in the U.S. or abroad designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could require us or our customers to incur increased operating costs, such as costs to purchase and operate emissions control systems, to acquire emissions allowances, pay carbon taxes, or comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements. For example, the EPA had previously finalized standards in June 2016 designed to reduce methane emissions from certain oil and gas facilities. However, in June 2017, the EPA published a proposed rule to stay certain portions of these 2016 standards for two years and reconsider the entirety of the 2016 standards. As a result of these actions, the 2016 methane standards are currently in effect but future implementation of the standards is uncertain at this time. The federal Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) finalized similar rules in November 2016 but, following the change in U.S. Presidential Administrations, finalized a rule in December 2017 delaying implementation of the BLM methane rules for one year. Environmental groups and some states have announced their intent to challenge the actions of both the EPA and BLM, and future implementation of methane rules at the federal level is uncertain at this time. These rules, to the extent implemented have the potential to impose significant costs on our customers. Also, new legislation or regulatory programs related to the control of greenhouse gas emissions could encourage the use of alternative fuels or otherwise increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, the oil and gas produced by our customers. Consequently, legislation and regulatory programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Finally, it should be noted that some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other extreme weather events. Offshore operations are particularly susceptible to damage from extreme weather events. If any of the potential effects of climate change were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice in the oil and gas industry. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into a formation to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production of hydrocarbons. While we may provide supporting products through Blackhawk, we do not perform hydraulic fracturing, but many of our onshore customers utilize this technique. Certain environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies have suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process, and have made claims that hydraulic fracturing techniques are harmful to surface water and drinking water resources and may cause earthquakes. Various governmental entities (within and outside the United States) are in the process of studying, restricting, regulating or preparing to regulate hydraulic fracturing, directly or indirectly. For example, the EPA has already begun to regulate certain hydraulic fracturing operations involving diesel under the Underground Injection Control program of the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. In December 2016, the EPA released its final report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, which concluded "water cycle" activities associated with hydraulic fracturing may impact drinking water sources "under some circumstances," noting that the following hydraulic fracturing water cycle activities and local - or regional - scale factors are more likely than others to result in more frequent or more severe impacts: water withdrawals for fracturing in times or areas of low water availability; surface spills during the management of fracturing fluids, chemicals or produced water; injection of fracturing fluids into wells with inadequate


10


mechanical integrity; injection of fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources; discharge of inadequately treated fracturing wastewater to surface waters; and disposal or storage of fracturing wastewater in unlined pits. Based on the report's findings, additional regulation of hydraulic fracturing by the EPA appears unlikely at this time. In addition, the BLM finalized rules in March 2015 that impose new or more stringent standards for performing hydraulic fracturing on federal and American Indian lands, but this rule was repealed in December 2017. The adoption of legislation or regulatory programs that restrict hydraulic fracturing could adversely affect, reduce or delay well drilling and completion activities, increase the cost of drilling and production, and thereby reduce demand for our services.

Employee Health and Safety

We are subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act ("OSHA") and comparable state statutes, establishing requirements to protect the health and safety of workers. In addition, the OSHA hazard communication standard, the EPA community right-to-know regulations under Title III of the federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act and comparable state statutes require that information be maintained concerning hazardous materials used or produced in our operations and that this information be provided to employees, state and local government authorities and the public. Substantial fines and penalties can be imposed and orders or injunctions limiting or prohibiting certain operations may be issued in connection with any failure to comply with laws and regulations relating to worker health and safety.

We also operate in non-U.S. jurisdictions, which may impose similar legal requirements. We do not believe that compliance with existing environmental laws and regulations will have a material adverse impact on us. However, we also believe that it is reasonably likely that the trend in environmental legislation and regulation will continue toward stricter standards and, thus, we cannot give any assurance that we will not be adversely affected in the future.

Operating Risk and Insurance

We maintain insurance coverage of types and amounts that we believe to be customary and reasonable for companies of our size and with similar operations. In accordance with industry practice, however, we do not maintain insurance coverage against all of the operating risks to which our business is exposed. Therefore, there is a risk our insurance program may not be sufficient to cover any particular loss or all losses.

Currently, our insurance program includes, among other things, general liability, umbrella liability, sudden and accidental pollution, personal property, vehicle, workers’ compensation, and employer’s liability coverage. Our insurance includes various limits and deductibles or retentions, which must be met prior to or in conjunction with recovery.

Employees

At December 31, 2017, we had approximately 2,900 employees worldwide. We are a party to collective bargaining agreements or other similar arrangements in certain international areas in which we operate, such as Brazil, Asia Pacific, Africa and Europe. We consider our relations with our employees to be satisfactory.

Available Information

Our principal executive offices are located at Mastenmakersweg 1, 1786 PB Den Helder, the Netherlands, and our telephone number at that address is +31 (0)22 367 0000. Our primary U.S. offices are located at 10260 Westheimer Rd., Houston, Texas 77042, and our telephone number at that address is (281) 966-7300. Our website address is www.franksinternational.com, and we make available free of charge through our website our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Proxy Statements, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website also includes general information about us, including our Corporate Governance Guidelines and charters for the Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominating and Governance Committee of our Board of Supervisory Directors. We may from time to time provide important disclosures to investors by posting them in the investor relations section of our website, as allowed by SEC rules. Information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference herein and does not constitute a part of this report.

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol ("FI").

Materials we file with the SEC may be inspected without charge and copied, upon payment of a duplicating fee, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information on the operation of the Public


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Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding our company that we file electronically with the SEC.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business

You should carefully consider the risks described below together with the other information contained in this Form 10-K. Realization of any of the following risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our business depends on the level of activity in the oil and gas industry, which is significantly affected by oil and gas prices and other factors.

Our business depends on the level of activity in oil and gas exploration, development and production in market sectors worldwide. Oil and gas prices and market expectations of potential changes in these prices significantly affect this level of activity. However, higher commodity prices do not necessarily translate into increased drilling or well construction and completion activity, since customers’ expectations of future commodity prices typically drive demand for our services. The availability of quality drilling prospects, exploration success, relative production costs, the stage of reservoir development and political and regulatory environments also affect the demand for our services. Worldwide military, political and economic events have in the past contributed to oil and gas price volatility and are likely to do so in the future. The demand for our products and services may be affected by numerous factors, including:

the level of worldwide oil and gas exploration and production;
the cost of exploring for, producing and delivering oil and gas;
demand for energy, which is affected by worldwide economic activity and population growth;
the level of excess production capacity;
the discovery rate of new oil and gas reserves;
the ability of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ("OPEC") to set and maintain production levels for oil;
the level of production by non-OPEC countries;
U.S. and global political and economic uncertainty, socio-political unrest and instability or hostilities;
demand for, availability of and technological viability of, alternative sources of energy; and
technological advances affecting energy exploration, production, transportation and consumption.

Demand for our offshore services substantially depends on the level of activity in offshore oil and gas exploration, development and production. The level of offshore activity is historically cyclical and characterized by large fluctuations in response to relatively minor changes in a variety of factors, including oil and gas prices, which have had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A significant amount of our U.S. onshore business is focused on unconventional shale resource plays. The demand for those services is substantially affected by oil and gas prices and market expectations of potential changes in these prices. Commodity prices have gone below a certain threshold for an extended period of time and demand for our services in the U.S. onshore market has been reduced as compared to the historic highs experienced prior to 2015, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Oil and gas prices are extremely volatile and have fluctuated during the year ended December 31, 2017, with average daily prices for New York Mercantile Exchange West Texas Intermediate ranging from a low of approximately $42/Bbl in June 2017 to a high of approximately $60/Bbl in December 2017. Although average daily prices increased through the end of 2017 and the beginning of 2018, any actual or anticipated reduction in oil or gas prices may reduce the level of exploration, drilling and production activities. The current price environment has already resulted in capital budget reductions by our customers compared to prior years. Prolonged lower oil prices have resulted in softer demand for our products and services. Further, we have reduced pricing in some of our customer contracts in light of the volatility of the oil and gas market.



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Furthermore, the oil and gas industry has historically experienced periodic downturns, which have been characterized by reduced demand for oilfield products and services and downward pressure on the prices we charge. A significant downturn in the oil and gas industry has adversely affected the demand for oilfield services and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The downturn in the oil and gas industry has negatively affected and will likely continue to affect our ability to accurately predict customer demand, causing us to potentially hold excess or obsolete inventory and experience a reduction in gross margins and financial results.

We cannot accurately predict what or how many products our customers will need in the future. Orders are placed with our suppliers based on forecasts of customer demand and, in some instances, we may establish buffer inventories to accommodate anticipated demand. Our forecasts of customer demand are based on multiple assumptions, each of which may introduce errors into the estimates. In addition, many of our suppliers, such as those for certain of our standardized valves, require a longer lead time to provide products than our customers demand for delivery of our finished products. If we overestimate customer demand, we may allocate resources to the purchase of material or manufactured products that we may not be able to sell when we expect to, if at all. As a result, we would hold excess or obsolete inventory, which would reduce gross margin and adversely affect financial results. Conversely, if we underestimate customer demand or if insufficient manufacturing capacity is available, we would miss revenue opportunities and potentially lose market share and damage our customer relationships. In addition, any future significant cancellations or deferrals of product orders or the return of previously sold products could materially and adversely affect profit margins, increase product obsolescence and restrict our ability to fund our operations.

Physical dangers are inherent in our operations and may expose us to significant potential losses. Personnel and property may be harmed during the process of drilling for oil and gas.

Drilling for and producing oil and gas, and the associated services that we provide, include inherent dangers that may lead to property damage, personal injury, death or the discharge of hazardous materials into the environment. Many of these events are outside our control. Typically, we provide services at a well site where our personnel and equipment are located together with personnel and equipment of our customers and third parties, such as other service providers. At many sites, we depend on other companies and personnel to conduct drilling operations in accordance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and appropriate safety standards. From time to time, personnel are injured or equipment or property is damaged or destroyed as a result of accidents, failed equipment, faulty products or services, failure of safety measures, uncontained formation pressures, or other dangers inherent in drilling for oil and gas. With increasing frequency, our services are deployed on more challenging prospects, particularly deepwater offshore drilling sites, where the occurrence of the types of events mentioned above can have an even more catastrophic impact on people, equipment and the environment. Such events may expose us to significant potential losses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are vulnerable to risks associated with our offshore operations that could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We conduct offshore operations in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and almost every significant international offshore market, including Africa, Middle East, Latin America, Europe, the Asia Pacific region and several other producing regions. Our operations and financial results could be significantly impacted by conditions in some of these areas because we are vulnerable to certain unique risks associated with operating offshore, including those relating to:

hurricanes, ocean currents and other adverse weather conditions;
terrorist attacks, such as piracy;
failure of offshore equipment and facilities;
local and international political and economic conditions and policies and regulations related to offshore drilling;
unavailability of offshore drilling rigs in the markets that we operate;
the cost of offshore exploration for, and production and transportation of, oil and gas;


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successful exploration for, and production and transportation of, oil and gas from onshore sources;
the availability and rate of discovery of new oil and gas reserves in offshore areas; and
the ability of oil and gas companies to generate or otherwise obtain funds for exploration and production.

While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, any one or more of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our international operations and revenue expose us to political, economic and other uncertainties inherent to international business.

We have substantial international operations, and we intend to grow those operations further. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, international operations accounted for approximately 46%, 49% and 45%, respectively, of our revenue. Our international operations are subject to a number of risks inherent in any business operating in foreign countries, including, but not limited to, the following:

political, social and economic instability;
potential expropriation, seizure or nationalization of assets;
deprivation of contract rights;
increased operating costs;
inability to collect revenues due to shortages of convertible currency;
unwillingness of foreign governments to make new onshore and offshore areas available for drilling;
civil unrest and protests, strikes, acts of terrorism, war or other armed conflict;
import/export quotas;
confiscatory taxation or other adverse tax policies;
continued application of foreign tax treaties;
currency exchange controls;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and devaluations;
restrictions on the repatriation of funds; and
other forms of government regulation which are beyond our control.

Instability and disruptions in the political, regulatory, economic and social conditions of the foreign countries in which we conduct business, including economically and politically volatile areas such as Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region, could cause or contribute to factors that could have an adverse effect on the demand for the products and services we provide. Worldwide political, economic, and military events have contributed to oil and gas price volatility and are likely to continue to do so in the future. Depending on the market prices of oil and gas, oil and gas exploration and development companies may cancel or curtail their drilling programs, thereby reducing demand for our services.

While the impact of these factors is difficult to predict, any one or more of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

To compete in our industry, we must continue to develop new technologies and products to support our tubular and other well construction services, secure and maintain patents related to our current and new technologies and products and protect and enforce our intellectual property rights.

The markets for our tubular and other well construction services are characterized by continual technological developments. While we believe that the proprietary products we have developed provide us with technological advances in providing services to our customers, substantial improvements in the scope and quality of the products in the market we operate may occur over a short period of time. If we are not able to develop commercially competitive products in a timely manner in response, our ability to service our customers’ demands may be adversely affected. Our future ability


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to develop new products in order to support our services depends on our ability to design and produce products that allow us to meet the needs of our customers and third parties on an integrated basis, and obtain and maintain patent protection.

We may encounter resource constraints, technical barriers, or other difficulties that would delay introduction of new services and related products in the future. Our competitors may introduce new products or obtain patents before we do and achieve a competitive advantage. Additionally, the time and expense invested in product development may not result in commercial applications.

We currently hold multiple U.S. and international patents and have multiple pending patent applications for products and processes. Patent rights give the owner of a patent the right to exclude third parties from making, using, selling, and offering for sale the inventions claimed in the patents in the applicable country. Patent rights do not necessarily grant the owner of a patent the right to practice the invention claimed in a patent, but merely the right to exclude others from practicing the invention claimed in the patent. It may also be possible for a third party to design around our patents. Furthermore, patent rights have strict territorial limits. Some of our work will be conducted in international waters and would, therefore, not fall within the scope of any country’s patent jurisdiction. We may not be able to enforce our patents against infringement occurring in international waters and other “non-covered” territories. Also, we do not have patents in every jurisdiction in which we conduct business and our patent portfolio will not protect all aspects of our business and may relate to obsolete or unusual methods, which would not prevent third parties from entering the same market.

We attempt to limit access to and distribution of our technology and trade secrets by customarily entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, customers and potential customers and suppliers. However, our rights in our confidential information, trade secrets, and confidential know-how will not prevent third parties from independently developing similar information. Publicly available information (for example, information in expired issued patents, published patent applications, and scientific literature) can also be used by third parties to independently develop technology. We cannot provide assurance that this independently developed technology will not be equivalent or superior to our proprietary technology.

In addition, we may become involved in legal proceedings from time to time to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights. Third parties from time to time may initiate litigation against us by asserting that the conduct of our business infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates intellectual property rights. We may not prevail in any such legal proceedings related to such claims, and our products and services may be found to infringe, impair, misappropriate, dilute or otherwise violate the intellectual property rights of others. Any legal proceeding concerning intellectual property could be protracted and costly and is inherently unpredictable and could have a material adverse effect on our business, regardless of its outcome. Further, our intellectual property rights may not have the value that management believes them to have and such value may change over time as we and others develop new product designs and improvements.

Our tubular and other well construction services may be adversely affected by various laws and regulations in countries in which we operate relating to the equipment and operation of drilling units, oil and gas exploration and development, as well as import and export activities.

Governments in some foreign countries have been increasingly active in regulating and controlling the ownership of concessions and companies holding concessions, the exploration for oil and gas and other aspects of the oil and gas industries in their countries, including local content requirements for participating in tenders for certain tubular and well construction services. We operate in several of these countries, including Angola, Nigeria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil and Canada. Many governments favor or effectively require that contracts be awarded to local contractors or require foreign contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction. These practices may result in inefficiencies or put us at a disadvantage when we bid for contracts against local competitors.

In addition, the shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations. Our import and export activities are governed by unique customs laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate. Moreover, many countries control the import and export of certain goods, services and technology and impose related import and export recordkeeping and reporting obligations. Governments


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also may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and other entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, and we are also subject to the U.S. anti-boycott law. In addition, certain anti-dumping regulations in the foreign countries in which we operate may prohibit us from purchasing pipe from certain suppliers.

The laws and regulations concerning import and export activity, recordkeeping and reporting, import and export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing. These laws and regulations may be enacted, amended, enforced or interpreted in a manner materially impacting our operations. A global economic downturn may increase some foreign governments’ efforts to enact, enforce, amend or interpret laws and regulations as a method to increase revenue. Materials that we import can be delayed and denied for varying reasons, some of which are outside our control and some of which may result from failure to comply with existing legal and regulatory regimes. Shipping delays or denials could cause unscheduled operational downtime. Any failure to comply with these applicable legal and regulatory obligations also could result in criminal and civil penalties and sanctions, such as fines, imprisonment, debarment from government contracts, seizure of shipments and loss of import and export privileges.

We may be exposed to unforeseen risks in our services and product manufacturing, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

We operate a number of manufacturing facilities to support our tubular and other well construction services. In addition, we also manufacture certain products, including large OD pipe connectors that we sell directly to external customers. The equipment and management systems necessary for such operations may break down, perform poorly or fail, resulting in fluctuations in manufacturing efficiencies. Additionally, some of our U.S. onshore business may be conducted under fixed price or “turnkey” contracts. Under fixed price contracts, we agree to perform a defined scope of work for a fixed price. Prices for these contracts are based largely upon estimates and assumptions relating to project scope and specifications, personnel and material needs.

Fluctuations in our manufacturing process and inaccurate estimates and assumptions used in our projects may occur due to factors out of our control, resulting in cost overruns, which we may be required to absorb and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Such fluctuations or incorrect estimates may affect our ability to deliver services and products to our customers on a timely basis and we may suffer financial penalties and a diminution of our commercial reputation and future product orders, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers to sustain or expand our current operations.

The delivery of our tubular and other well construction services requires personnel with specialized skills and experience. Our ability to be productive and profitable will depend upon our ability to employ and retain skilled workers. In addition, our ability to expand our operations depends in part on our ability to increase the size of our skilled labor force. The demand for skilled workers is high, the supply can be limited in certain jurisdictions, and the cost to attract and retain qualified personnel has increased over the past few years. In addition, we are currently a party to collective bargaining or similar agreements in certain international areas in which we operate, which could result in increases in the wage rates that we must pay to retain our employees. Furthermore, a significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our skilled labor force, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both. If any of these events were to occur, our capacity could be diminished, our ability to respond quickly to customer demands or strong market conditions may be inhibited and our growth potential could be impaired, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We operate in an intensively competitive industry, and if we fail to compete effectively, our business will suffer.

Our competitors may attempt to increase their market share by reducing prices, or our customers may adopt competing technologies. The drilling industry is driven primarily by cost minimization, and our strategy is aimed at reducing drilling costs through the application of new technologies. Our competitors, many of whom have a more diverse product line and access to greater amounts of capital than we do, have the ability to compete against the cost


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savings generated by our technology by reducing prices and by introducing competing technologies. Our competitors may also have the ability to offer bundles of products and services to customers that we do not offer. We have limited resources to sustain prolonged price competition and maintain the level of investment required to continue the commercialization and development of our new technologies. Any failure to continue to do so could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Our business depends upon our ability to source low cost raw materials and components, such as steel castings and forgings. Increased costs of raw materials and other components may result in increased operating expenses.

Our ability to source low cost raw materials and components, such as steel castings and forgings, is critical to our ability to manufacture our drilling products competitively and, in turn, our ability to provide onshore and offshore drilling services. Should our current suppliers be unable to provide the necessary raw materials or components or otherwise fail to deliver such materials and components timely and in the quantities required, resulting delays in the provision of products or services to customers could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In particular, we have experienced increased costs in recent years due to rising steel prices. There is also strong demand within the industry for forgings, castings and outsourced coating services necessary for us to make our products. We cannot assure that we will be able to continue to purchase these raw materials on a timely basis or at historical prices. Our results of operations may be adversely affected by our inability to manage the rising costs and availability of raw materials and components used in our products.
 
We are subject to the risk of supplier concentration.
 
Certain of our product lines (in the Tubular Sales Segment - 12.8% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017 and Blackhawk Segment - 15.6% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017) depend on a limited number of third party suppliers. The suppliers for the Tubular Sales Segment are concentrated in Japan (2) and Germany (2) and are vendors for pipe (driven by customer requirements) while the two suppliers for the Blackhawk Segment are concentrated in the U.S. As a result of this concentration in some of our supply chains, our business and operations could be negatively affected if our key suppliers were to experience significant disruptions affecting the price, quality, availability or timely delivery of their products. The partial or complete loss of any one of our key suppliers, or a significant adverse change in the relationship with any of these suppliers, through consolidation or otherwise, would limit our ability to manufacture or sell certain of our products.

Our tubular and other well construction services are provided in connection with operations that are subject to potential hazards inherent in the oil and gas industry, and, as a result, we are exposed to potential liabilities that may affect our financial condition and reputation.

Our tubular and other well construction services are provided in connection with potentially hazardous drilling, completion and production applications in the oil and gas industry where an accident can potentially have catastrophic consequences. This is particularly true in deepwater operations. Risks inherent to these applications, such as equipment malfunctions and failures, equipment misuse and defects, explosions, blowouts and uncontrollable flows of oil, gas or well fluids and natural disasters, on land or in deepwater or shallow water environments, can cause personal injury, loss of life, suspension of operations, damage to formations, damage to facilities, business interruption and damage to or destruction of property, surface water and drinking water resources, equipment and the environment. If our services fail to meet specifications or are involved in accidents or failures, we could face warranty, contract, fines or other litigation claims, which could expose us to substantial liability for personal injury, wrongful death, property damage, loss of oil and gas production, pollution and other environmental damages. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to cover all liabilities. Further, insurance may not be generally available in the future or, if available, insurance premiums may make such insurance commercially unjustifiable. Moreover, even if we are successful in defending a claim, it could be time-consuming and costly to defend.

In addition, the frequency and severity of such incidents will affect operating costs, insurability and relationships with customers, employees and regulators. In particular, our customers may elect not to purchase our services if they view our safety record as unacceptable, which could cause us to lose customers and substantial revenues. In addition,


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these risks may be greater for us because we may acquire companies that have not allocated significant resources and management focus to safety and have a poor safety record requiring rehabilitative efforts during the integration process and we may incur liabilities for losses before such rehabilitation occurs.

The imposition of stringent restrictions or prohibitions on offshore drilling by any governing body may have a material adverse effect on our business.

Events in recent years have heightened environmental and regulatory concerns about the oil and gas industry. From time to time, governing bodies have enacted and may propose legislation or regulations that would materially limit or prohibit offshore drilling in certain areas. If laws are enacted or other governmental action is taken that restrict or prohibit offshore drilling in our expected areas of operation, our expected future growth in offshore services could be reduced and our business could be materially adversely affected.

For example, in April 2016 the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (“BSEE”) finalized more stringent standards relating to well control equipment used in connection with offshore well drilling operations. The standards focus on blowout preventers, along with well design, well control, casing, cementing, real-time well monitoring, and subsea containment requirements. During 2017, however, following the issuance of a Presidential Executive Order, the BSEE has been directed to reconsider a number of regulatory initiatives governing offshore oil and gas safety and performance-related activities, including, for example, the rules relating to blow-out preventers and well control, and provide recommendations on whether such regulatory initiatives should continue to be implemented. In addition, in December 2017, the BSEE published proposed revisions to its regulations regarding offshore drilling safety equipment, which proposal includes the removal of the requirement for offshore operators to certify through an independent third party that their critical safety and pollution prevent equipment (e.g., subsea safety equipment, including blowout preventers) is operational and functioning as designed in the most extreme conditions. The December 2017 proposed rule has not been finalized and there remains substantial uncertainty as to the scope and extent of any revisions to existing oil and gas safety and performance-related regulations and other regulatory initiatives that may ultimately be adopted by the BSEE. If these regulations, to the extent they continue to be implemented, along with any changes in operating procedures and possibility of increased legal liability, are viewed by our current or future customers as a significant increased financial burden on drilling projects in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico for other potentially more profitable regions, drillships and other floating rigs could depart the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, which would likely affect the supply and demand for our equipment and services. In addition, government agencies could issue new safety and environmental guidelines or regulations for drilling in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico that could disrupt or delay drilling operations, increase the cost of drilling operations or reduce the area of operations for drilling. All of these uncertainties could result in a reduced demand for our equipment and services, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

We may not be fully indemnified against financial losses in all circumstances where damage to or loss of property, personal injury, death or environmental harm occur.

As is customary in our industry, our contracts typically provide that our customers indemnify us for claims arising from the injury or death of their employees, the loss or damage of their equipment, damage to the reservoir and pollution emanating from the customer’s equipment or from the reservoir (including uncontained oil flow from a reservoir). Conversely, we typically indemnify our customers for claims arising from the injury or death of our employees, the loss or damage of our equipment, or pollution emanating from our equipment. Our contracts typically provide that our customer will indemnify us for claims arising from catastrophic events, such as a well blowout, fire or explosion.

Our indemnification arrangements may not protect us in every case. For example, from time to time (i) we may enter into contracts with less favorable indemnities or perform work without a contract that protects us, (ii) our indemnity arrangements may be held unenforceable in some courts and jurisdictions or (iii) we may be subject to other claims brought by third parties or government agencies. Furthermore, the parties from which we seek indemnity may not be solvent, may become bankrupt, may lack resources or insurance to honor their indemnities, or may not otherwise be able to satisfy their indemnity obligations to us. The lack of enforceable indemnification could expose us to significant potential losses.



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Further, our assets generally are not insured against loss from political violence such as war, terrorism or civil unrest. If any of our assets are damaged or destroyed as a result of an uninsured cause, we could recognize a loss of those assets.

We may incur liabilities, fines, penalties or additional costs, or we may be unable to provide services to certain customers, if we do not maintain safe operations.

If we fail to comply with safety regulations or maintain an acceptable level of safety in connection with our tubular or other well construction services, we may incur civil fines, penalties or other liabilities or may be held criminally liable. We expect to incur additional costs over time to upgrade equipment or conduct additional training or otherwise incur costs in connection with compliance with safety regulations. Failure to maintain safe operations or achieve certain safety performance metrics could disqualify us from doing business with certain customers, particularly major oil companies. Because we provide tubular and other well construction services to a large number of major oil companies, any such failure could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is dependent on our ability to provide highly reliable and safe equipment. If our equipment does not meet statutory regulations and/or our clients do not accept the quality of our equipment, we could encounter loss of contracts and/or loss of reputation, which could materially impact our operations and profitability. Further, the failure of our equipment could subject us to litigation, regulatory fines and/or adverse customer reaction. In addition, equipment certification requirements vary by region and changes in these requirements could impact our ability to operate in certain markets if our tools do not comply with these requirements.

The industry in which we operate is undergoing continuing consolidation that may impact results of operations.

Some of our largest customers have consolidated in recent years and are using their size and purchasing power to achieve economies of scale and pricing concessions. This consolidation may result in reduced capital spending by such customers or the acquisition of one or more of our other primary customers, which may lead to decreased demand for our products and services. If we cannot maintain sales levels for customers that have consolidated or replace such revenues with increased business activities from other customers, this consolidation activity could have a significant negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We are unable to predict what effect consolidations in our industry may have on prices, capital spending by customers, selling strategies, competitive position, ability to retain customers or ability to negotiate favorable agreements with customers.

Our operations and our customers’ operations are subject to a variety of governmental laws and regulations that may increase our costs, limit the demand for our services and products or restrict our operations.

Our business and our customers’ businesses may be significantly affected by:

federal, state and local and non-U.S. laws and other regulations relating to oilfield operations, worker safety and protection of the environment and natural resources;
changes in these laws and regulations; and
the level of enforcement of these laws and regulations.

In addition, we depend on the demand for our services and products from the oil and gas industry. This demand is affected by changing taxes, price controls and other laws and regulations relating to the oil and gas industry in general. For example, the adoption of laws and regulations curtailing exploration and development drilling for oil and gas for economic or other policy reasons could adversely affect our operations by limiting demand for our products. In addition, some non-U.S. countries may adopt regulations or practices that give advantage to indigenous oil companies in bidding for oil leases, or require indigenous companies to perform oilfield services currently supplied by international service companies. To the extent that such companies are not our customers, or we are unable to develop relationships with them, our business may suffer. We cannot determine the extent to which our future operations and earnings may be affected by new legislation, new regulations or changes in existing regulations.



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Because of our non-U.S. operations and sales, we are also subject to changes in non-U.S. laws and regulations that may encourage or require hiring of local contractors or require non-U.S. contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction. If we fail to comply with any applicable law or regulation, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our business is dependent on capital spending by our customers, and reductions in capital spending could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Any change in capital expenditures by our customers or reductions in their capital spending could directly impact our business by reducing demand for our products and services and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our customers are subject to risks which, in turn, could impact our business, including volatile oil and gas prices, difficulty accessing capital on economically advantageous terms and adverse developments in their own business or operations. With respect to national oil company customers, we are also subject to risk of policy, regime and budgetary changes.

An inability to obtain visas and work permits for our employees on a timely basis could negatively affect our operations and have an adverse effect on our business.

Our ability to provide services worldwide depends on our ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits for our personnel to travel in and out of, and to work in, the jurisdictions in which we operate. Governmental actions in some of the jurisdictions in which we operate may make it difficult for us to move our personnel in and out of these jurisdictions by delaying or withholding the approval of these permits. If we are not able to obtain visas and work permits for the employees we need for conducting our tubular and other well construction services on a timely basis, we might not be able to perform our obligations under our contracts, which could allow our customers to cancel the contracts. If our customers cancel some of our contracts, and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our operations are subject to environmental and operational safety laws and regulations that may expose us to significant costs and liabilities.

Our operations are subject to numerous stringent and complex laws and regulations governing the discharge of materials into the environment, health and safety aspects of our operations, or otherwise relating to occupational health and safety and environmental protection. These laws and regulations may, among other things, regulate the management and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes; require acquisition of environmental permits related to our operations; restrict the types, quantities, and concentrations of various materials that can be released into the environment; limit or prohibit operational activities in certain ecologically sensitive and other protected areas; regulate specific health and safety criteria addressing worker protection; require compliance with operational and equipment standards; impose testing, reporting and record-keeping requirements; and require remedial measures to mitigate pollution from former and ongoing operations. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations or to obtain or comply with permits may result in the assessment of administrative, civil and criminal penalties, imposition of remedial or corrective action requirements and the imposition of injunctions to limit or prohibit certain activities or force future compliance. Certain environmental laws may impose joint and several liability, without regard to fault or legality of conduct, on classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a hazardous substance into the environment.

The trend in environmental regulation has been to impose increasingly stringent restrictions and limitations on activities that may impact the environment. The implementation of new laws and regulations could result in materially increased costs, stricter standards and enforcement, larger fines and liability and increased capital expenditures and operating costs, particularly for our customers.




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Our operations in countries outside of the United States are subject to a number of U.S. federal laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, as well as trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control and the Commerce Department.

We operate internationally and in some countries with high levels of perceived corruption commonly gauged according to the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. We must comply with complex foreign and U.S. laws including the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the UK Bribery Act 2010 and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, which prohibit engaging in certain activities to obtain or retain business or to influence a person working in an official capacity. We do business and may in the future do additional business in countries and regions in which we may face, directly or indirectly, corrupt demands by officials, tribal or insurgent organizations, or by private entities in which corrupt offers are expected or demanded. Furthermore, many of our operations require us to use third parties to conduct business or to interact with people who are deemed to be governmental officials under the anticorruption laws. Thus, we face the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments or other things of value by our employees, contractors or agents. It is our policy to implement compliance procedures to prohibit these practices. However, despite those safeguards and any future improvements to them, our employees, contractors, and agents may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible, regardless of whether such conduct occurs within or outside the United States. We may also be held responsible for any violations by an acquired company that occur prior to an acquisition, or subsequent to the acquisition but before we are able to institute our compliance procedures. In addition, our non-U.S. competitors that are not subject to the FCPA or similar anticorruption laws may be able to secure business or other preferential treatment in such countries by means that such laws prohibit with respect to us. A violation of any of these laws, even if prohibited by our policies, may result in severe criminal and/or civil sanctions and other penalties, and could have a material adverse effect on our business. Actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation, be expensive to defend, and impair our ability to do business.

Compliance with U.S. regulations on trade sanctions and embargoes administered by the United States Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control also poses a risk to us. We cannot provide products or services to certain countries subject to U.S. or other international trade sanctions. Furthermore, the laws and regulations concerning import activity, export recordkeeping and reporting, export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory trading obligations could result in criminal and civil penalties and sanctions, such as fines, imprisonment, debarment from governmental contracts, seizure of shipments and loss of import and export privileges.

Compliance with and changes in laws could be costly and could affect operating results.

We have operations in the U.S. and in approximately 50 countries that can be impacted by expected and unexpected changes in the legal and business environments in which we operate. Political instability and regional issues in many of the areas in which we operate may contribute to such changes with greater significance or frequency. Our ability to manage our compliance costs and compliance programs will impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Compliance-related issues could also limit our ability to do business in certain countries. Changes that could impact the legal environment include new legislation, new regulations, new policies, investigations and legal proceedings and new interpretations of existing legal rules and regulations, in particular, changes in export control laws or exchange control laws, additional restrictions on doing business in countries subject to sanctions and changes in laws in countries where we operate or intend to operate.



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Restrictions on emissions of greenhouse gases could increase our operating costs or reduce demand for our products.

Environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies in the United States and other countries have focused considerable attention on emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other "greenhouse gases" and their potential role in climate change. The EPA has already begun to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under existing provisions of the federal Clean Air Act, and the state of California has established a “cap-and-trade” program requiring state-wide annual reductions in emission of greenhouse gases. For example, in May 2016, the EPA finalized rules that establish new controls for emissions of methane for new, modified or reconstructed sources in the oil and natural gas source category, including production, processing, transmission and storage activities. The rules include first-time standards to address emissions of methane from equipment and processes across the source category, including hydraulically fractured oil and natural gas well completions. However, in June 2017, the EPA published a proposed rule to stay certain portions of these 2016 standards for two years and reconsider the entirety of the 2016 standards. As a result of these actions, the 2016 methane standards are currently in effect but future implementation of the standards is uncertain at this time. The BLM finalized similar rules in November 2016 but, following the change in U.S. Presidential Administrations, finalized a rule in December 2017 delaying implementation of the BLM methane rules for one year. Environmental groups and some states have announced their intent to challenge the actions of both the EPA and BLM and, as a result, future implementation of these federal methane rules remains uncertain at this time. To the extent implemented, these rules have the potential to impose significant costs on our customers. The adoption of additional legislation or regulatory programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could require us to incur increased operating costs to comply with new emissions-reduction or reporting requirements or pay carbon taxes. Also any legislation or regulatory programs related to the control of greenhouse gas emissions could increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, hydrocarbons that our customers produce, which could impact demand for our services. Consequently, legislation and regulatory programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Finally, some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, and floods and other extreme weather events. Offshore operations are particularly susceptible to damage from extreme weather events. If any of the potential effects of climate change were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face risks related to natural disasters and pandemic diseases, which could result in severe property damage or materially and adversely disrupt our operations and affect travel required for our worldwide operations.

Some of our operations involve risks of, among other things, property damage, which could curtail our operations. For example, disruptions in operations or damage to a manufacturing plant could reduce our ability to produce products and satisfy customer demand. In particular, we have offices and manufacturing facilities in Houston, Texas and Houma and Lafayette, Louisiana as well as in various places throughout the Gulf Coast region of the United States. These offices and facilities are particularly susceptible to severe tropical storms and hurricanes, which may disrupt our operations. If one or more manufacturing facilities we own are damaged by severe weather or any other disaster, accident, catastrophe or event, our operations could be significantly interrupted. Similar interruptions could result from damage to production or other facilities that provide supplies or other raw materials to our plants or other stoppages arising from factors beyond our control. These interruptions might involve significant damage to, among other things, property, and repairs might take from a week or less for a minor incident to many months or more for a major interruption.

In addition, a portion of our business involves the movement of people and certain parts and supplies to or from foreign locations. Any restrictions on travel or shipments to and from foreign locations, due to the occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes, or an epidemic or outbreak of diseases, including the H1N1 virus and the avian flu, in these locations, could significantly disrupt our operations and decrease our ability to provide services to our customers. In addition, our local workforce could be affected by such an occurrence or outbreak which could also significantly disrupt our operations and decrease our ability to provide services to our customers.



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Our business could be negatively affected by cybersecurity threats and other disruptions.

We rely heavily on information systems to conduct and protect our business. These information systems are increasingly subject to sophisticated cybersecurity threats such as unauthorized access to data and systems, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), computer viruses, or other malicious code, phishing and cyberattacks, and other similar events. These threats arise from numerous sources, not all of which are within our control, including fraud or malice on the part of third parties, accidental technological failure, electrical or telecommunication outages, failures of computer servers or other damage to our property or assets, or outbreaks of hostilities or terrorist acts.

Given the rapidly evolving nature of cyber threats, there can be no assurance that the systems we have designed and implemented to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks will be sufficient in preventing all such incidents or attacks, or avoiding a material impact to our systems when such incidents or attacks do occur. If we were to be subject to a cyber incident or attack, it could result in the disclosure of confidential or proprietary customer information, theft or loss of intellectual property, damage to our reputation with our customers and the market, failure to meet customer requirements or customer dissatisfaction, theft or exposure to litigation, damage to equipment (which could cause environmental or safety issues) and other financial costs and losses. In addition, as cybersecurity threats continue to evolve, we may be required to devote additional resources to continue to enhance our protective measures or to investigate or remediate any cybersecurity vulnerabilities.

Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations may result in fluctuations in our cash flows and could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, fluctuations in currency exchange rates could be material to us depending upon, among other things, the principal regions in which we provide tubular or well construction services. For the year ended December 31, 2017, on a U.S. dollar-equivalent basis, approximately 25% of our revenue was represented by currencies other than the U.S. dollar. In particular, we are sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and each of the Euro, Norwegian Krone, British Pound, Canadian Dollar and Brazilian Real. There may be instances in which costs and revenue will not be matched with respect to currency denomination. As a result, to the extent that we continue our expansion on a global basis, as expected, we expect that increasing portions of revenue, costs, assets and liabilities will be subject to fluctuations in foreign currency valuations. We may experience economic loss and a negative impact on earnings or net assets solely as a result of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Further, the markets in which we operate could restrict the removal or conversion of the local or foreign currency, resulting in our inability to hedge against these risks.

Seasonal and weather conditions could adversely affect demand for our services and operations.

Weather can have a significant impact on demand as consumption of energy is seasonal, and any variation from normal weather patterns, such as cooler or warmer summers and winters, can have a significant impact on demand. Adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes and ocean currents in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico or typhoons in the Asia Pacific region, may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, cause supply disruptions and result in a loss of revenue and damage to our equipment and facilities, which may or may not be insured. Extreme winter conditions in Canada, Russia or the North Sea may interrupt or curtail our operations, or our customers’ operations, in those areas and result in a loss of revenue.

Legislation or regulations restricting the use of hydraulic fracturing could reduce demand for our services.

Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice in the oil and gas industry. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals under pressure into a formation to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production of hydrocarbons. While we may provide supporting products through Blackhawk, we do not perform hydraulic fracturing, but many of our customers utilize this technique. Certain environmental advocacy groups and regulatory agencies have suggested that additional federal, state and local laws and regulations may be needed to more closely regulate the hydraulic fracturing process, and have made claims that hydraulic fracturing techniques are harmful


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to surface water and drinking water resources and may cause earthquakes. Various governmental entities (within and outside the United States) are in the process of studying, restricting, regulating or preparing to regulate hydraulic fracturing, directly or indirectly. For example, in December 2016, the EPA released its final report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, which concluded that "water cycle" activities associated with hydraulic fracturing may impact drinking water sources "under some circumstances," noting that the following hydraulic fracturing water cycle activities and local- or regional-scale factors are more likely than others to result in more frequent or more severe impacts: water withdrawals for fracturing in times or areas of low water availability; surface spills during the management of fracturing fluids, chemicals or produced water; injection of fracturing fluids into wells with inadequate mechanical integrity; injection of fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources; discharge of inadequately treated fracturing wastewater to surface waters; and disposal or storage of fracturing wastewater in unlined pits. The EPA has also taken steps to regulate certain aspects of hydraulic fracturing. In addition, the BLM finalized rules in March 2015 that impose new or more stringent standards for performing hydraulic fracturing on federal and American Indian lands but this rule was repealed in December 2017. The adoption of legislation or regulatory programs that restrict hydraulic fracturing could adversely affect, reduce or delay well drilling and completion activities, increase the cost of drilling and production, and thereby reduce demand for our services.

Customer credit risks could result in losses.

The concentration of our customers in the energy industry may impact our overall exposure to credit risk as customers may be similarly affected by prolonged changes in economic and industry conditions. Those countries that rely heavily upon income from hydrocarbon exports would be hit particularly hard by a drop in oil prices. Further, laws in some jurisdictions in which we operate could make collection difficult or time consuming. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and do not generally require collateral in support of our trade receivables. While we maintain reserves for potential credit losses, we cannot assure such reserves will be sufficient to meet write-offs of uncollectible receivables or that our losses from such receivables will be consistent with our expectations.

Furthermore, some of our customers may be highly leveraged and subject to their own operating and regulatory risks, which increases the risk that they may default on their obligations to us. To the extent one or more of our key customers is in financial distress or commences bankruptcy proceedings, contracts with these customers may be subject to renegotiation or rejection under applicable provisions of the United States Bankruptcy Code and similar international laws. Any material nonpayment or nonperformance by our key customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our long-lived assets, goodwill, other intangible assets and other assets are impaired, we may be required to record significant non-cash charges to our earnings.

We recognize impairments of goodwill when the fair value of any of our reporting units becomes less than its carrying value. Our estimates of fair value are based on assumptions about future cash flows of each reporting unit, discount rates applied to these cash flows and current market estimates of value. Based on the uncertainty of future revenue growth rates, gross profit performance, and other assumptions used to estimate our reporting units’ fair value, future reductions in our expected cash flows could cause a material non-cash impairment charge of goodwill, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We also have certain long-lived assets, other intangible assets and other assets which could be at risk of impairment or may require reserves based upon anticipated future benefits to be derived from such assets. Any change in the valuation of such assets could have a material effect on our profitability.

We may be unable to identify or complete acquisitions or strategic alliances.

We expect that acquisitions and strategic alliances will be an important element of our business strategy going forward. We can give no assurance that we will be able to identify and acquire additional businesses or negotiate with suitable venture partners in the future on terms favorable to us or that we will be able to integrate successfully the assets and operations of acquired businesses with our own business. Any inability on our part to integrate and manage the


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growth of acquired businesses may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our executive officers and certain key personnel are critical to our business, and these officers and key personnel may not remain with us in the future.

Our future success depends in substantial part on our ability to hire and retain our executive officers and other key personnel who possess extensive expertise, talent and leadership and are critical to our success. The diminution or loss of the services of these individuals, or other integral key personnel affiliated with entities that we acquire in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Furthermore, we may not be able to enforce all of the provisions in any agreement we have entered into with certain of our executive officers, and such agreements may not otherwise be effective in retaining such individuals. In addition, we may not be able to retain key employees of entities that we acquire in the future. This may impact our ability to successfully integrate or operate the assets we acquire.

Control of oil and gas reserves by state-owned oil companies may impact the demand for our services and create additional risks in our operations.

Much of the world’s oil and gas reserves are controlled by state-owned oil companies, and we provide tubular and other well construction services for a number of those companies. State-owned oil companies may require their contractors to meet local content requirements or other local standards, such as joint ventures, that could be difficult or undesirable for us to meet. The failure to meet the local content requirements and other local standards may adversely impact our operations in those countries. In addition, our ability to work with state-owned oil companies is subject to our ability to negotiate and agree upon acceptable contract terms.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

We are a holding company and our sole material assets are our direct and indirect equity interests in our operating subsidiaries, and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions from such subsidiaries to pay taxes, make payments under the tax receivable agreement ("TRA"), and pay dividends.

We are a holding company and have no material assets other than our direct and indirect equity interests in our operating subsidiaries. We have no independent means of generating revenue. We intend to cause our subsidiaries to make distributions in an amount sufficient to cover (i) all applicable taxes at assumed tax rates, (ii) payments under the TRA we entered into with Mosing Holdings in connection with the IPO and (iii) dividends, if any, declared by us. To the extent that we need funds and our subsidiaries are restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of their financing or other contractual arrangements, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.



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The Mosing family holds a majority of the total voting power of the Company's common stock (the "FINV Stock") and, accordingly, has substantial control over our management and affairs.

The Mosing family (through Mosing Holdings and the various holding entities of the Mosing family members) currently controls approximately 68% of the total voting power entitled to vote at annual or special meetings. The Mosing family members have entered into a voting agreement with respect to the shares they own. Accordingly, the Mosing family has the ability (but not the requirement) to dictate on an annual basis who will comprise our Board of Supervisory Directors nominated to the shareholders, thus being able to control our management and affairs. Moreover, pursuant to our amended and restated articles of association, our board of directors will consist of no more than nine individuals. The Mosing family has the right to recommend one director for nomination to the supervisory board for each 10% of the outstanding FINV Stock they collectively beneficially own, up to a maximum of five directors. The remaining directors are nominated by our supervisory board. Our supervisory board consists of eight members, three of whom are members of the Mosing family. As a result, members of the Mosing family have meaningful influence over us and potential conflicts may arise. In addition, the Mosing family will be able to determine the outcome of all matters requiring shareholder approval, including mergers, amendments of our articles of association and other material transactions, and will be able to cause or prevent a change in the composition of our supervisory board or a change in control of our company that could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company. The existence of significant shareholders may also have the effect of deterring hostile takeovers, delaying or preventing changes in control or changes in management, or limiting the ability of our other shareholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in the best interests of our company. So long as the Mosing family continues to own a significant amount of the FINV Stock, even if such amount represents less than 50% of the aggregate voting power, it will continue to be able to strongly influence all matters requiring shareholder approval, regardless of whether or not other shareholders believe that the transaction is in their own best interests.

The Mosing family may have interests that conflict with holders of shares of our common stock.

The Mosing family may have conflicting interests with other holders of shares of our common stock. For example, the Mosing family may have different tax positions from us or other holders of shares of our common stock which could influence their decisions regarding whether and when to cause us to dispose of assets, whether and when to cause us to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, especially in light of the existence of the TRA that we entered into in connection with the IPO. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration the Mosing family’s tax or other considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to us.

We are required under the TRA to pay Mosing Holdings or its permitted transferees for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts we may pay could be significant.

We entered into the TRA with FICV and Mosing Holdings in connection with the IPO. This agreement generally provides for the payment by us of 85% of actual reductions, if any, in payments of U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax in periods after the IPO as a result of (i) the tax basis increases resulting from the transfer of FICV interests to us in connection with the conversion of shares of Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock and (ii) imputed interest deemed to be paid by us as a result of, and additional tax basis arising from, payments under the TRA. In addition, the TRA provides for interest earned from the due date (without extensions) of the corresponding tax return to the date of payment specified by the TRA.

The payment obligations under the TRA are our obligations and are not obligations of FICV. The term of the TRA continues until all such tax benefits have been utilized or expired, unless we exercise our sole right to terminate the TRA early.

Estimating the timing of payments that may be made under the TRA is by its nature imprecise, insofar as the calculation of amounts payable depends on a variety of factors. The timing of any payments under the TRA will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the amount and timing of the taxable income we realize in the future and the tax rate then applicable, our use of loss carryovers and the portion of our payments under the TRA constituting imputed interest or depreciable or amortizable basis. We expect that the payments that we will be required to make under the TRA will be substantial. There may be a substantial negative impact on our liquidity if, as a result of timing


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discrepancies or otherwise, (i) the payments under the TRA exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA or (ii) distributions to us by FICV are not sufficient to permit us to make payments under the TRA subsequent to the payment of our taxes and other obligations. The payments under the TRA are not conditioned upon a holder of rights under a TRA having a continued ownership interest in either FICV or us. While we may defer payments under the TRA to the extent we do not have sufficient cash to make such payments, except in the case of an acceleration of payments thereunder occurring in connection with an early termination of the TRA or certain mergers or changes of control, any such unpaid obligation will accrue interest. Additionally, during any such deferral period, we are prohibited from paying dividends on our common stock.

In certain cases, payments under the TRA to Mosing Holdings or its permitted transferees may be accelerated or significantly exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA.

The TRA provides that we may terminate it early. If we elect to exercise our sole right to terminate the TRA early, we are required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits subject to the TRA (based upon certain assumptions and deemed events set forth in the TRA, including the assumption that we have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize such benefits and that any interests in FICV that Mosing Holdings or its transferees own on the termination date are deemed to be exchanged on the termination date). Any early termination payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of such future benefits. In addition, payments due under the TRA are similarly accelerated following certain mergers or other changes of control. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control. For example, if the TRA were terminated on December 31, 2017, the estimated termination payment would be approximately $60.7 million (calculated using a discount rate of 5.58%). The foregoing number is merely an estimate and the actual payment could differ materially. There can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the TRA. If we were unable to finance our obligations due under the TRA, we would be in breach of the agreement. Any such breach could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Payments under the TRA will be based on the tax reporting positions that we will determine. Although we are not aware of any issue that would cause the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) to challenge a tax basis increase or other benefits arising under the TRA, the holders of rights under the TRA will not reimburse us for any payments previously made under the TRA if such basis increases or other benefits are subsequently disallowed, except that excess payments made to any such holder will be netted against payments otherwise to be made, if any, to such holder after our determination of such excess. As a result, in such circumstances, we could make payments that are greater than our actual cash tax savings, if any, and may not be able to recoup those payments, which could adversely affect our liquidity.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Future sales of our common stock in the public market could lower our stock price, and any additional capital raised by us through the sale of equity may dilute your ownership in us.

In August 2016, we received a notice from Mosing Holdings exercising its Exchange Right for an equivalent number of each of the following securities for common shares: (i) 52,976,000 Preferred Shares and (ii) 52,976,000 units in FICV. We issued 52,976,000 common shares to Mosing Holdings on August 26, 2016. As a result, there are no remaining issued Preferred Shares. Mosing Holdings also transferred its limited partnership interest in FICV to FINV as Mosing Holdings has withdrawn as limited partner of FICV and FINV has been admitted in Mosing Holdings' place.

As of February 19, 2018, we had 223,390,309 outstanding shares of our common stock. We may sell additional shares of common stock in subsequent public offerings. Members of the Mosing family own, both directly and indirectly (through Mosing Holdings), approximately 68% of our total outstanding FINV Stock. All of these shares may be sold into the market in the future.

We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of shares of our common stock will have on the market price of our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts


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of our common stock (including shares issued in connection with an acquisition), or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE rules and qualify for and have the ability to rely on exemptions from certain NYSE corporate governance requirements.

Because the Mosing family beneficially owns a majority of our outstanding common stock, we are a “controlled company” as that term is set forth in Section 303A of the NYSE Listed Company Manual. Under the NYSE rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by another person or group of persons acting together is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain NYSE corporate governance requirements, including:

the requirement that a majority of its supervisory board consist of independent directors;
the requirement that its nominating and governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and
the requirement that its compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities.

These requirements will not apply to us as long as we remain a “controlled company.” So long as members of the Mosing family control the outstanding common stock representing at least a majority of the outstanding voting power in FINV, we may utilize these exemptions. Accordingly, you may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the NYSE. Please note that our supervisory board is currently comprised of 50% independent directors, as well as a compensation committee and nominating and governance committee comprised entirely of independent directors. However, the significant ownership interest held by the Mosing family could adversely affect investors’ perceptions of our corporate governance.

Our declaration of dividends is within the discretion of our management board, with the approval of our supervisory board, and subject to certain limitations under Dutch law, and there can be no assurance that we will pay dividends.

Our dividend policy is within the discretion of our management board, with the approval of our supervisory board, and the amount of future dividends, if any, will depend upon various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and investment opportunities. We can provide no assurance that we will pay dividends on our common stock. No dividends on our common stock will accrue in arrears. In addition, Dutch law contains certain restrictions on a company’s ability to pay cash dividends, and we can provide no assurance that those restrictions will not prevent us from paying a dividend in future periods.

As a Dutch company with limited liability, the rights of our shareholders may be different from the rights of shareholders in companies governed by the laws of U.S. agencies.

We are a Dutch company with limited liability (Naamloze Vennootschap). Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association and by the laws governing companies incorporated in the Netherlands. The rights of shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our management board and supervisory board may be different from those in companies governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions.

For example, resolutions of the general meeting of shareholders may be taken with majorities different from the majorities required for adoption of equivalent resolutions in, for example, Delaware corporations. Although shareholders will have the right to approve legal mergers or demergers, Dutch law does not grant appraisal rights to a company’s shareholders who wish to challenge the consideration to be paid upon a legal merger or demerger of a company.

In addition, if a third party is liable to a Dutch company, under Dutch law shareholders generally do not have the right to bring an action on behalf of the company or to bring an action on their own behalf to recover damages sustained as a result of a decrease in value, or loss of an increase in value, of their ordinary shares. Only in the event that the


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cause of liability of such third party to the company also constitutes a tortious act directly against such shareholder and the damages sustained are permanent, may that shareholder have an individual right of action against such third party on its own behalf to recover damages. The Dutch Civil Code provides for the possibility to initiate such actions collectively. A foundation or an association whose objective, as stated in its articles of association, is to protect the rights of persons having similar interests may institute a collective action. The collective action cannot result in an order for payment of monetary damages but may result in a declaratory judgment (verklaring voor recht), for example declaring that a party has acted wrongfully or has breached a fiduciary duty. The foundation or association and the defendant are permitted to reach (often on the basis of such declaratory judgment) a settlement which provides for monetary compensation for damages. A designated Dutch court may declare the settlement agreement binding upon all the injured parties, whereby an individual injured party will have the choice to opt-out within the term set by the court (at least three months). Such individual injured party, may also individually institute a civil claim for damages within the before mentioned term.

Furthermore, certain provisions of Dutch corporate law have the effect of concentrating control over certain corporate decisions and transactions in the hands of our management board and supervisory board. As a result, holders of our shares may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by members of our management board and supervisory board than if we were incorporated in the United States.

In the performance of its duties, our management board and supervisory board will be required by Dutch law to act in the interest of the company and its affiliated business, and to consider the interests of our company, our shareholders, our employees and other stakeholders in all cases with reasonableness and fairness. It is possible that some of these parties will have interests that are different from, or in addition to, interests of our shareholders.

Our articles of association and Dutch corporate law contain provisions that may discourage a takeover attempt.

Provisions contained in our amended and restated articles of association and the laws of the Netherlands could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. Provisions of our articles of association impose various procedural and other requirements, which could make it more difficult for shareholders to effect certain corporate actions. Among other things, these provisions:

authorize our management board, with the approval of our supervisory board, for a period of five years (which ends on May 19, 2022, unless extended) to issue common stock, including for defensive purposes, without shareholder approval; and
do not provide for shareholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a general meeting of shareholders.

These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control of our company or changes in our management.

It may be difficult for you to obtain or enforce judgments against us or some of our executive officers and directors in the United States or the Netherlands.

We were formed under the laws of the Netherlands and, as such, the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and the civil liability of our directors will be governed by the laws of the Netherlands and our amended and restated articles of association.

In the absence of an applicable convention between the United States and the Netherlands providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments (other than arbitration awards and divorce decrees) in civil and commercial matters, a judgment rendered by a court in the United States will not automatically be recognized by the courts of the Netherlands. In principle, the courts of the Netherlands will be free to decide, at their own discretion, if and to what extent a judgment rendered by a court in the United States should be recognized in the Netherlands.

Without prejudice to the above, in order to obtain enforcement of a judgment rendered by a United States court in the Netherlands, a claim against the relevant party on the basis of such judgment should be brought before the competent


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court of the Netherlands. During the proceedings such court will assess, when requested, whether a foreign judgment meets the above conditions. In the affirmative, the court may order that substantive examination of the matter shall be dispensed with. In such case, the court will confine itself to an order reiterating the foreign judgment against the party against whom it had been obtained. Otherwise, a new substantive examination will take place.

In all of the above situations, we note the following rules as applied by Dutch courts:
where all other elements relevant to the situation at the time of the choice are located in a country other than the country whose law has been chosen, the choice of the parties shall not prejudice the application of provisions of the law of that other country which cannot be derogated from by agreement;
the overriding mandatory provisions of the law of the courts remain applicable (irrespective of the law chosen);
effect may be given to overriding mandatory provisions of the law of the country where the obligations arising out of the relevant transaction documents have to be or have been performed, insofar as those overriding mandatory provisions render the performance of the contract unlawful; and
the application of the law of any jurisdiction may be refused if such application is manifestly incompatible with the public policy (openbare orde) of the courts.

Under our amended and restated articles of association, we will indemnify and hold our officers and directors harmless against all claims and suits brought against them, subject to limited exceptions. Under our amended and restated articles of association, to the extent allowed by law, the rights and obligations among or between us, any of our current or former directors, officers and employees and any current or former shareholder will be governed exclusively by the laws of the Netherlands and subject to the jurisdiction of Dutch courts, unless those rights or obligations do not relate to or arise out of their capacities listed above. Although there is doubt as to whether U.S. courts would enforce such provision in an action brought in the United States under U.S. securities laws, this provision could make judgments obtained outside of the Netherlands more difficult to have recognized and enforced against our assets in the Netherlands or jurisdictions that would apply Dutch law. Insofar as a release is deemed to represent a condition, stipulation or provision binding any person acquiring our ordinary shares to waive compliance with any provision of the Securities Act or of the rules and regulations of the SEC, such release will be void.

Tax Risks

Changes in tax laws, treaties or regulations or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our tax returns could adversely affect our financial results.

Our future effective tax rates could be adversely affected by changes in tax laws, treaties and regulations, both in the United States and internationally. Tax laws, treaties and regulations are highly complex and subject to interpretation. Consequently, we are subject to changing tax laws, treaties and regulations in and between countries in which we operate or are resident. Our income tax expense is based upon the interpretation of the tax laws in effect in various countries at the time that the expense was incurred. A change in these tax laws, treaties or regulations, or in the interpretation thereof, could result in a materially higher tax expense or a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings. If any country successfully challenges our income tax filings based on our structure, or if we otherwise lose a material tax dispute, our effective tax rate on worldwide earnings could increase substantially and our financial results could be materially adversely affected.

U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders.

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation’s assets for any taxable year produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than certain rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business, but does not include income derived from the performance of services. U.S. shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a


30


disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC, and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their interests in the PFIC.

We believe that we will not be a PFIC for the current taxable year or for any future taxable year. However, this involves a facts and circumstances analysis and it is possible that the IRS would not agree with our conclusion, or the U.S. tax laws could change significantly.

U.S. “anti-inversion” tax laws could negatively affect our results and could result in a reduced amount of foreign tax credit for U.S. holders.

Under rules contained in U.S. tax law, we would be subject to tax as a U.S. corporation in the event that we acquire substantially all of the assets of a U.S. corporation and the equity owners of that U.S. corporation own at least 80% (calculated without regard for any stock issued in a public offering) of our stock by reason of holding stock in the U.S. corporation.

We acquired the assets of Mosing Holdings (a Delaware limited liability company); however, the ownership of Mosing Holdings in our stock, taking into account common stock that Mosing Holdings is deemed to own under the “stock equivalent” rules, is below the 80% standard for the application of the rules. Accordingly, we do not believe these rules should apply.

There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge our determination that these rules are inapplicable. In the event that these rules were applicable, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our worldwide income, which would negatively impact our cash available for distribution and the value of our common stock. Application of the rules could also adversely affect the ability of a U.S. holder to obtain a U.S. tax credit with respect to any Dutch withholding tax imposed on a distribution.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

In order to design, manufacture and service the proprietary products that support our tubular and other well construction services, as well as those that we offer for sale directly to external customers, we maintain several manufacturing and service facilities around the world. Though our manufacturing and service capabilities are primarily concentrated in the U.S., we currently provide our services in approximately 50 countries.



31


The following table details our material facilities by segment, owned or leased by us as of December 31, 2017.
Location
 
Leased or
Owned
 
Principal/Most Significant Use
 
 
 
 
 
All Segments
 
 
 
 
Houston, Texas
 
Leased
 
Corporate office
Den Helder, the Netherlands
 
Owned
 
Regional operations and administration
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Services and Tubular Sales Segments
 
 
 
 
Lafayette, Louisiana
 
Owned/Leased
 
Regional operations, manufacturing, engineering and administration
 
 
 
 
 
International Services Segment
 
 
 
 
Aberdeen, Scotland
 
Owned
 
Regional operations, engineering and administration
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
 
Owned
 
Regional operations and administration
Norway
 
Owned
 
Local operations and administration
Singapore
 
Owned
 
Regional operations and administration
India
 
Owned
 
Administration
 
 
 
 
 
Blackhawk Segment
 
 
 
 
Houma, Louisiana
 
Leased
 
Regional operations, manufacturing and administration

Our largest manufacturing facility is located in Lafayette, Louisiana, where we manufacture a substantial portion of our tubular handling tools. The facility serves our U.S. Services segment in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and our Tubular Sales segment. The Lafayette facility is our global headquarters for the design and manufacture of our equipment and is situated on a total of 175 acres. The main facility occupies 148 acres and consists of manufacturing, operations, pipe storage, training and administration. The remaining 27 acres located off of the main campus consists of manufacturing, warehousing and administration. There is a total of 16 buildings onsite and 17 buildings offsite. Our manufacturing operations occupy 16 of the 33 buildings, with the remaining buildings dedicated to administration, training and other operational tasks. The main administrative building within the facility is approximately 172,636 square feet. We believe the facilities that we currently occupy are suitable for their intended use.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are the subject of lawsuits and claims arising in the ordinary course of business from time to time. A liability is accrued when a loss is both probable and can be reasonably estimated. We had no material accruals for loss contingencies, individually or in the aggregate, as of December 31, 2017. We believe the probability is remote that the ultimate outcome of these matters would have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. See Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which are incorporated herein by reference to Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K.

We are conducting an internal investigation of the operations of certain of our foreign subsidiaries in West Africa including possible violations of the FCPA, our policies and other applicable laws. In June 2016, we voluntarily disclosed the existence of our extensive internal review to the SEC, the United States Department of Justice and other governmental entities. It is our intent to fully cooperate with these agencies and any other applicable authorities in connection with any further investigation that may be conducted in connection with this matter. While our review has not indicated that there has been any material impact on our previously filed financial statements, we have continued to collect information and cooperate with the authorities, but at this time are unable to predict the ultimate resolution of these matters with these agencies. In addition, during the course of the investigation, we discovered historical business transactions (and bids to enter into business transactions) in certain countries that may have been subject to U.S. and other international sanctions. We have disclosed this information to various governmental entities (including those involved in our ongoing investigation), but at this time are unable to predict the ultimate resolution of these matters with these agencies, including any financial impact to us. Our board and management are committed to continuously enhancing our internal controls that support improved compliance and transparency throughout our global operations.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


32


PART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol "FI". The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sale prices and the dividend payments for our common stock.
 
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends
Per Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
13.00

 
$
9.20

 
$
0.075

Second Quarter
 
10.66

 
7.02

 
0.075

Third Quarter
 
9.15

 
6.04

 
0.075

Fourth Quarter
 
7.80

 
5.79

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
17.07

 
$
12.34

 
$
0.150

Second Quarter
 
17.73

 
14.05

 
0.150

Third Quarter
 
15.44

 
10.91

 
0.075

Fourth Quarter
 
14.86

 
10.47

 
0.075


On February 19, 2018, we had 223,390,309 shares of common stock outstanding. The common shares outstanding at February 19, 2018 were held by approximately 30 record holders. The actual number of shareholders is greater than the number of holders of record.

See Part III, Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters" for discussion of equity compensation plans.

Dividend Policy

The declaration and payment of future dividends will be at the discretion of the Board of Supervisory Directors and will depend upon, among other things, future earnings, general financial condition, liquidity, capital requirements and general business conditions. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will pay dividends. On October 27, 2017, the Board of Managing Directors of the Company, with the approval of the Board of Supervisory Directors of the Company, approved a plan to suspend the Company's quarterly dividend in order to preserve capital for various purposes, including to invest in growth opportunities.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

As part of our IPO in August 2013, we issued 52,976,000 shares of Preferred Stock to Mosing Holdings. Under our Amended Articles of Association, upon the written election of Mosing Holdings, each Preferred Share, together with a unit in FICV, our subsidiary, was convertible into a share of our common stock on a one-for-one basis.

On August 19, 2016, we received notice from Mosing Holdings exercising its Exchange Right for an equivalent number of each of the following securities for common shares: (i) 52,976,000 Preferred Shares and (ii) 52,976,000 units in FICV. We issued 52,976,000 common shares to Mosing Holdings on August 26, 2016. As a result, there are no remaining issued Preferred Shares and the Mosing family beneficially owns approximately 68% of our common shares.



33


The issuance of the common shares to Mosing Holdings in connection with the exercise of the Exchange Right was exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) thereof.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.



34


Performance Graph

The following performance graph compares the performance of our common stock to the PHLX Oil Service Sector Index, the Russell 1000 Index, Russell 2000 Index and to a peer group established by management. The peer group consists of the following companies: Baker Hughes Inc., Core Laboratories N.V., Diamond Offshore Drilling, Inc., Dril-Quip, Inc., Ensco plc, Forum Energy Technologies, Inc., Halliburton Company, Helmerich & Payne, Inc., Hornbeck Offshore Services, Inc., Nabors Industries Ltd., National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Oceaneering International, Inc., Patterson-UTI Energy, Inc., Rowan Companies plc, Schlumberger N.V., Tesco Corporation, Transocean Ltd. and Weatherford International Ltd.

During 2017, we moved from inclusion in the Russell 1000 Index to inclusion in the Russell 2000 Index. For comparative purposes, both the Russell 2000 and the Russell 1000 indices are reflected in the following performance graph. Going forward, we plan to use the most comparable of these two indices based on our market capitalization and inclusion.

The graph below compares the cumulative total return to holders of our common stock with the cumulative total returns of the PHLX Oil Service Sector Index, the Russell 1000 Index, Russell 2000 Index and our peer group for the period from August 9, 2013, using the closing price for the first day of trading immediately following the effectiveness of our IPO through December 31, 2017. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock was $100 at August 9, 2013 or July 31, 2013 for each index (including reinvestment of dividends) and tracks the return on the investment through December 31, 2017. The shareholder return set forth herein is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
a12312017-_chartx12517a01.jpg
*$100 invested on 8/9/13 in stock or 7/31/13 in index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Fiscal year ending December 31.
The performance graph above and related information shall not be deemed "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate by reference.


35


Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The selected consolidated financial information contained below is derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements and should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our audited Consolidated Financial Statements that are included in this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results to be expected in any future period.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Financial Statement Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
454,795

 
$
487,531

 
$
974,600

 
$
1,152,632

 
$
1,077,722

Income (loss) from continuing operations
(159,457
)
 
(156,079
)
 
106,110

 
229,312

 
308,195

Total assets
1,261,769

 
1,588,061

 
1,726,838

 
1,758,681

 
1,561,195

Debt
4,721

 
276

 
7,321

 
304

 
376

Total equity
1,115,901

 
1,311,319

 
1,451,426

 
1,472,536

 
1,333,327

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings Per Share Information:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.51

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.69

Discontinued operations

 

 

 

 
0.24

Total
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.51

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.93

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diluted income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.50

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.62

Discontinued operations

 

 

 

 
0.23

Total
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.50

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.85

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
222,940

 
176,584

 
154,662

 
153,814

 
132,257

Diluted
222,940

 
176,584

 
209,152

 
207,828

 
185,506

Cash dividends per common share
$
0.225

 
$
0.450

 
$
0.600

 
$
0.450

 
$
0.075

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA (1)
$
5,715

 
$
25,031

 
$
319,086

 
$
451,513

 
$
438,739

 
 
(1) 
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that is used by management and external users of our financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors, lenders and rating agencies. For a definition and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to our income from continuing operations, its most directly comparable financial measure presented in accordance with GAAP, see Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - How We Evaluate Our Operations - Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin."



36


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" included in this Form 10-K.

This section contains forward-looking statements that are based on management's current expectations, estimates and projections about our business and operations, and involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those currently anticipated and expressed in such forward-looking statements because of various factors, including those described in the sections titled "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements," Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

Overview of Business

We are a global provider of highly engineered tubular services, tubular fabrication and specialty well construction and well intervention solutions to the oil and gas industry and have been in business for over 75 years. We provide our services to leading exploration and production companies in both offshore and onshore environments, with a focus on complex and technically demanding wells.

We conduct our business through four operating segments:

International Services. We currently provide our services in approximately 50 countries on six continents. Our customers in these international markets are primarily large exploration and production companies, including integrated oil and gas companies and national oil and gas companies, and other oilfield services companies.

U.S. Services. We service customers in the offshore areas of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we have a presence in the active onshore oil and gas drilling regions in the U.S., including the Permian Basin, Eagle Ford Shale, Haynesville Shale, Marcellus Shale, Niobrara Shale and Utica Shale.

Tubular Sales. We design, manufacture and distribute large OD pipe, connectors and casing attachments and sell large OD pipe originally manufactured by various pipe mills. We also provide specialized fabrication and welding services in support of offshore projects, including drilling and production risers, flowlines and pipeline end terminations, as well as long-length tubulars (up to 300 feet in length) for use as caissons or pilings. This segment also designs and manufactures proprietary equipment for use in our International and U.S. Services segments.

Blackhawk. We provide well construction and well intervention services and products, in addition to cementing tool expertise, in the U.S. and Mexican Gulf of Mexico, onshore U.S. and other select international locations. Blackhawk’s customer base consists primarily of major and independent oil and gas companies as well as other oilfield services companies.

How We Generate Our Revenue

The majority of our services revenues are derived primarily from personnel rates for our specially trained employees who perform tubular and other well construction services for our customers; and rates we charge for the suite of products and equipment that our employees use to perform these services.

In addition, our customers typically reimburse us for transportation costs that we incur in connection with transporting our products and equipment from our staging areas to the customers’ job sites.

In contrast, our Tubular Sales revenues are derived from sales of certain products, including large OD pipe connectors and large OD pipe manufactured by third parties, directly to external customers.

Our Blackhawk revenues are derived from well construction and well intervention services and products. The revenues have historically been split evenly between service revenue and product revenue.

Outlook

In 2018, we expect to see increased customer spending globally on oil and natural gas exploration and production in response to the improvement in commodity prices in recent months. However, much of the anticipated increase in spending


37


will likely continue to be associated with onshore projects that contribute lower revenue and margins to the Company than offshore projects. Activity in the deep and ultra-deep offshore markets is not projected to see significant improvement in 2018 and pricing of newly sanctioned projects is estimated to be approximately in-line with recent trends. In response, we are expanding products and services historically weighted to the U.S. market to international markets, reducing costs through operational efficiency gains and prioritizing projects that improve market share and profitability.

Our offshore businesses, both in the U.S. and internationally, continue to trend toward less predictable, shorter-term projects. We expect to see share gains in certain markets, but competitive pricing is likely to persist that could result in low growth in both revenue and margins.

Our onshore operations are expected to see sequential improvement, particularly in the U.S. onshore market, as drilling activity levels remain strong. The increase in demand for our services combined with a leaner cost structure is expected to result in higher revenues and improved profitability for this business in 2018.

The Tubular Sales segment is primarily driven by specialized needs of our customers and the timing of projects, specifically in the Gulf of Mexico. We expect to benefit from increased sales in select international markets that are predicted to supplement our modest activity growth outlook in the offshore Gulf of Mexico.

The Blackhawk product and service lines are expected to see meaningful improvement in 2018. The U.S. onshore products and services will likely improve from higher activity levels and the expansion of product and services to markets outside of the U.S. should lead to sequential increases in revenue for this segment. However, some of these increases could be at risk if activity levels in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico were to materially decrease as it represents a primary market for revenue generation.

Overall, our market outlook is modestly improved. The onshore markets in the U.S. are expected to continue to grow and we are expecting higher activity and international share growth from Blackhawk and Tubular Sales segments. However, we could face continued headwinds in the global offshore market in the near-term as customers look for commodity prices to remain at current levels for an extended period of time prior to allocating substantial financial resources to these projects. We remain in a very strong position financially with a significant cash balance relative to our debt.

How We Evaluate Our Operations

We use a number of financial and operational measures to routinely analyze and evaluate the performance of our business, including revenue, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin and safety performance.

Revenue

We analyze our revenue growth by comparing actual monthly revenue to our internal projections for each month to assess our performance. We also assess incremental changes in our monthly revenue across our operating segments to identify potential areas for improvement.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin

We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) before interest income, net, depreciation and amortization, income tax benefit or expense, asset impairments, gain or loss on disposal of assets, foreign currency gain or loss, equity-based compensation, unrealized and realized gain or loss, the effects of the TRA, other non-cash adjustments and other charges or credits. Adjusted EBITDA margin reflects our Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of our revenues. We review Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin on both a consolidated basis and on a segment basis. We use Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin to assess our financial performance because it allows us to compare our operating performance on a consistent basis across periods by removing the effects of our capital structure (such as varying levels of interest expense), asset base (such as depreciation and amortization), items outside the control of our management team (such as income tax and foreign currency exchange rates) and other charges outside the normal course of business. Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered as an alternative to net income (loss), operating income (loss), cash flow from operating activities or any other measure of financial performance presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. ("GAAP").



38


The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin to net income (loss) for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(159,457
)
 
$
(156,079
)
 
$
106,110

Interest income, net
(2,309
)
 
(2,073
)
 
(341
)
Depreciation and amortization
122,102

 
114,215

 
108,962

Income tax expense (benefit)
72,918

 
(25,643
)
 
37,319

(Gain) loss on disposal of assets
(2,045
)
 
1,117

 
(1,038
)
Foreign currency (gain) loss
(2,075
)
 
10,819

 
6,358

Derecognition of TRA liability (1)
(122,515
)
 

 

Charges and credits (2)
99,096

 
82,675

 
61,716

Adjusted EBITDA
$
5,715

 
$
25,031

 
$
319,086

Adjusted EBITDA margin
1.3
%
 
5.1
%
 
32.7
%
 
 
(1) Please see Note 13 - Related Party Transactions in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
(2)
Comprised of Equity-based compensation expense (2017: $13,862; 2016: $15,978; 2015: $26,318), Mergers and acquisition expense (2017: $459; 2016: $13,784; 2015: none), Severance and other charges (2017: $75,354; 2016: $46,406; 2015: $35,484), Changes in value of contingent consideration (2017: none; 2016: none; 2015: $(1,532)) Unrealized and realized losses (2017: $2,791; 2016: $110; 2015: none), Investigation-related matters (2017: $6,143; 2016: $6,397; 2015: $1,446) and Other adjustments (2017: $487; 2016: none; 2015: none).

Safety Performance

Safety is our primary core value. Maintaining a strong safety record is a critical component of our operational success. Many of our customers have safety standards we must satisfy before we can perform services. As a result, we continually monitor and improve our safety performance through the evaluation of safety observations, job and customer surveys, and safety data. The primary measure for our safety performance is the tracking of the Total Recordable Incident Rate ("TRIR"). TRIR is a measure of the rate of recordable workplace injuries, normalized on the basis of 100 full time employees for an annual period. The factor is derived by multiplying the number of recordable injuries in a calendar year by 200,000 and dividing this value by the total hours actually worked in the year. A recordable injury includes occupational death, nonfatal occupational illness, and other occupational injuries that involve loss of consciousness, lost time injuries, restriction of work or motion cases, transfer to another job, or medical treatment cases other than first aid.

The table below presents our worldwide TRIR for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 TRIR
0.57

 
0.87

 
0.76




39


Results of Operations

The following table presents our consolidated results for the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Services
$
364,061

 
$
397,369

 
$
766,252

Products
90,734

 
90,162

 
208,348

Total revenue
454,795

 
487,531

 
974,600

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization
 
 
 
 
 
Services (1)
223,222

 
246,652

 
384,842

Products (1)
87,200

 
70,616

 
129,748

General and administrative expenses (1)
163,704

 
171,887

 
174,479

Depreciation and amortization
122,102

 
114,215

 
108,962

Severance and other charges
75,354

 
46,406

 
35,484

Changes in contingent consideration

 

 
(1,532
)
(Gain) loss on disposal of assets
(2,045
)
 
1,117

 
(1,038
)
Operating income (loss)
(214,742
)
 
(163,362
)
 
143,655

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Derecognition of the TRA liability (2)
122,515

 

 

Other income
1,763

 
4,170

 
5,791

Interest income, net
2,309

 
2,073

 
341

Mergers and acquisition expense
(459
)
 
(13,784
)
 

Foreign currency gain (loss)
2,075

 
(10,819
)
 
(6,358
)
Total other income (expense)
128,203

 
(18,360
)
 
(226
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(86,539
)
 
(181,722
)
 
143,429

Income tax expense (benefit)
72,918

 
(25,643
)
 
37,319

Net income (loss)
(159,457
)
 
(156,079
)
 
106,110

Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest

 
(20,741
)
 
27,000

Net income (loss) attributable to Frank's International N.V.
$
(159,457
)
 
$
(135,338
)
 
$
79,110

 
 
(1) 
For the year ended December 31, 2016, $45,336 and $11,579 have been reclassified from general and administrative expenses to services and products, respectively, and $80,369 and $15,830, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2015. See Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(2) 
Please see Note 13 - Related Party Transactions in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.




40


Consolidated Results of Operations

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016

Revenues. Revenues from external customers, excluding intersegment sales, for the year ended December 31, 2017 decreased by $32.7 million, or 6.7%, to $454.8 million from $487.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower revenues in the majority of our segments due to declining activity as depressed oil and gas prices resulted in reduced rig count in offshore markets, downward pricing pressures, rig cancellations and delays as well as deferred work scopes in the International and offshore U.S. Services regions. Tubular Sales decreased due to lower international demand and decreased deepwater fabrication revenue. The decreased revenues were partially offset by an increase in revenues from our Blackhawk segment of $61.0 million resulting from our acquisition of Blackhawk in November 2016 and improved U.S. onshore revenues. See Note 3 - Acquisition and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our Blackhawk acquisition. Revenues for our segments are discussed separately below under the heading "Operating Segment Results."

Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization. Cost of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017 decreased by $6.8 million, or 2.2%, to $310.4 million from $317.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily due to lower cost of product sales in our Tubular Sales segment driven by lower activity volumes and cost cutting initiatives, partially offset by $26.6 million in additional cost of revenues related to our Blackhawk acquisition, which was acquired in November 2016.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative ("G&A") expenses for the year ended December 31, 2017 decreased by $8.2 million, or 4.8%, to $163.7 million from $171.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, primarily due to the bad debt expense related to Venezuelan receivables in 2016, a reduction in compensation and benefit related expenses, and one-time property tax credits earned in 2017, partially offset by higher IT expenses and increased G&A expense related to the Blackhawk acquisition. Expense related to the write-off of Venezuelan receivables in 2017 is included in severance and other charges.

    Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2017 increased by $7.9 million, or 6.9%, to $122.1 million from $114.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily attributable to our Blackhawk acquisition, partially offset by a lower depreciable base as a result of asset retirements during the fourth quarter of 2016.

Severance and other charges. Severance and other charges for the year ended December 31, 2017 increased $28.9 million, or 62.4%, to $75.4 million, primarily due to impairments of our pipe and connectors inventory of $51.2 million and accounts receivable write offs of $15.0 million related to Venezuela, Nigeria and Angola. During the fourth quarter of 2017, management decided to significantly reduce our footprint in Nigeria and Angola by exiting certain bases and temporarily abandoning our investment in Venezuela. This was partially offset by lower severance and other costs of $13.8 million and lower fixed asset retirements and abandonments of $23.4 million as compared to the prior year. See Note 19 - Severance and Other Charges in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Foreign currency gain (loss). Foreign currency gain (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2017 changed by $12.9 million to a gain of $2.1 million from a loss of $(10.8) million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The change was primarily due to the devaluation of the Nigerian Naira during 2016.

Income tax expense (benefit). Income tax expense (benefit) for the year ended December 31, 2017 changed by $98.6 million to an expense of $72.9 million from a benefit of $(25.6) million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The effective income tax rate was (84.3)% and 14.1% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, respectively. The change from 2016 to 2017 was primarily because of recording valuation allowances against our net deferred tax assets, and the reversal of deferred taxes associated with the derecognition of the TRA. Excluding these one-time items, the effective income tax rate and income tax expense (benefit) for 2017 would have been 57.4% and $(49.7) million, respectively. The change from 2016 to 2017, excluding one-time items, is primarily due to changes in the jurisdictional mix of earnings.



41


We are subject to many U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions and many tax agreements and treaties among the various taxing authorities. Our operations in these jurisdictions are taxed on various bases such as income before taxes, deemed profits (which is generally determined using a percentage of revenues rather than profits) and withholding taxes based on revenues; consequently, the relationship between our pre-tax income from operations and our income tax provision varies from period to period.

On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”) was enacted into law. Among the significant changes made by the Act was the reduction of the federal income tax rate from 35% to 21% as well as the imposition of a one-time repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries. US GAAP requires that the impact of the Tax Act be recognized in the period in which the law was enacted. Because of the change in tax rate, the Company recorded a $23.8 million reduction in the value of its deferred tax assets and liabilities. The reduction in value was fully offset by a corresponding change in valuation allowance. The net effect on total tax expense was zero. Due to its legal structure, the Company does not expect to incur any material liability with respect to the repatriation tax. These provisional amounts are the Company’s best estimates based on its current interpretation of the Tax Act and may change as the Company receives additional clarification of the Tax Act and or guidance on its implementation as part of its 2017 income tax compliance process.

Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015

Revenues. Revenues from external customers, excluding intersegment sales, for the year ended December 31, 2016 decreased by $487.1 million, or 50.0%, to $487.5 million from $974.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower revenues in the majority of our segments due to declining activity as depressed oil and gas prices resulted in reduced rig count, downward pricing pressures, rig cancellations and delays as well as deferred work scopes in the International and U.S. Services regions while revenues for Tubular Sales decreased due to lower international demand and decreased deep water fabrication revenue. The decreased revenues were partially offset by revenues in our Blackhawk segment of $10.0 million resulting from our acquisition in November 2016. See Note 3 - Acquisition and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our Blackhawk acquisition. Revenues for our segments are discussed separately below under the heading "Operating Segment Results."

Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization. Cost of revenues for the year ended December 31, 2016 decreased by $197.3 million, or 38.3%, to $317.3 million from $514.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease was due to lower activity volumes, offset by cost actions taken throughout 2016. We also incurred additional costs of $8.9 million related to our Blackhawk acquisition in November 2016.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 decreased by $2.6 million, or 1.5%, to $171.9 million from $174.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Excluding the bad debt expense of $11.3 million related primarily to the collectability of receivables in Venezuela and the bankrupt customer in Nigeria, G&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2016 decreased by $13.9 million, or 8.0%, primarily as a result of declining activity and pricing pressures, offset by internal cost initiatives, which included workforce reductions and lease terminations. Also, equity-based compensation expense decreased by $10.3 million as the IPO grants for retirement-eligible employees had a two year service requirement, which was completed during the third quarter of 2015. The decreased costs were partially offset by an increase in professional fees, which included costs related to our ongoing global corporate initiatives and the investigation mentioned in Note 18 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization for the year ended December 31, 2016 increased by $5.3 million, or 4.8%, to $114.2 million from $109.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The increase was primarily attributable to our acquisitions of Timco Services, Inc. and Blackhawk, as well as a higher depreciable base resulting from property and equipment additions.

Severance and other charges. Severance and other charges for the year ended December 31, 2016 were $46.4 million as we continued to take steps to adjust our workforce to meet the depressed demand in the industry in addition to the retirement of fixed assets of $29.9 million.


42



Mergers and acquisition expense. Mergers and acquisition expense for the year ended December 31, 2016 were $13.8 million as a result of our Blackhawk acquisition as mentioned in Note 3 - Acquisition and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Foreign currency loss. Foreign currency loss for the year ended December 31, 2016 increased by $4.5 million to $10.8 million from $6.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The increase was primarily due to the devaluation of the Nigerian Naira.

Income tax expense (benefit). Income tax expense (benefit) for the year ended December 31, 2016 decreased by $63.0 million, or 168.7%, to $(25.6) million from $37.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 primarily as a result of a decrease in taxable income and a change in jurisdictional mix. We are subject to many U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions and many tax agreements and treaties among the various taxing authorities. Our operations in these jurisdictions are taxed on various bases such as income before taxes, deemed profits (which is generally determined using a percentage of revenues rather than profits) and withholding taxes based on revenues; consequently, the relationship between our pre-tax income from operations and our income tax provision varies from period to period.

Operating Segment Results

The following table presents revenues and Adjusted EBITDA by segment (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
International Services
$
206,746

 
$
237,207

 
$
442,107

U.S. Services
118,815

 
152,827

 
326,437

Tubular Sales
58,210

 
87,515

 
206,056

Blackhawk
71,024

 
9,982

 

Total
$
454,795

 
$
487,531

 
$
974,600

 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment Adjusted EBITDA: (1)
 
 
 
 
 
International Services
$
30,801

 
$
33,264

 
$
182,475

U.S. Services (2)
(39,357
)
 
(11,012
)
 
95,612

Tubular Sales
3,181

 
1,741

 
40,999

Blackhawk
11,090

 
1,038

 

Total
$
5,715

 
$
25,031

 
$
319,086

 
 
(1) 
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure that is used by management and external users of our financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors, lenders and rating agencies. (For a reconciliation of our Adjusted EBITDA, see "—Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin.")
(2) 
Amounts previously reported as Corporate and other of $478 and $96 for 2016 and 2015, respectively, have been reclassified to U.S. Services to conform to the current presentation.

Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2016

International Services

Revenue for the International Services segment decreased by $30.5 million, or 12.8%, compared to 2016, primarily due to lower offshore rig counts globally and increased pricing pressure on new contracts. Revenue declines in our Africa, Europe, and Asia Pacific regions were mostly attributable to our major customers reducing the amount of work they do in the regions, which was partially offset by our attempts to expand into countries with drilling activity where


43


we have historically had a smaller presence and increases in Canada and the Middle East due to higher activity with key customers. 

Adjusted EBITDA for the International Services segment decreased by $2.5 million, or 7.4%, compared to 2016, primarily due to the decrease in revenue, which was partially offset by lower expenses due to reduced activity and cost-cutting measures.
    
U.S. Services

Revenue for the U.S. Services segment decreased by $34.0 million, or 22.3%, compared to 2016 primarily due to a decrease in offshore services revenue of $51.4 million as a result of overall lower activity from weaknesses seen in the Gulf of Mexico due to rig cancellations and delays, coupled with downward pricing pressures. This was partially offset by an increase in onshore services revenue of $17.4 million as a result of improved activity due to increased oil prices, which has led to higher rig counts and more favorable pricing.
    
Adjusted EBITDA for the U.S. Services segment decreased by $28.3 million, or 257.4%, compared to 2016 primarily due to higher pricing concessions, increased asset related expenses and higher labor costs to support increased land activity, as well as higher corporate and other costs, which were attributable to ongoing global corporate initiatives.

Tubular Sales

Revenue for the Tubular Sales segment decreased by $29.3 million, or 33.5%, compared to 2016, primarily as a result of lower deepwater activity in the Gulf of Mexico.

Adjusted EBITDA for the Tubular Sales segment increased by $1.4 million, or 82.7%, compared to 2016, due to cost cutting measures and lower product costs, offset by an increase in freight costs associated with project work.

Blackhawk

The Blackhawk segment is comprised solely of the assets we acquired on November 1, 2016. Revenues and Adjusted EBITDA for the segment were $71.0 million and $11.1 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $10.0 million and $1.0 million, respectively, for the two months ended December 31, 2016. See Note 3 - Acquisition and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our Blackhawk acquisition.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015

International Services

Revenue for the International Services segment decreased by $204.9 million, or 46.3%, compared to 2015, primarily due to depressed oil and gas prices, which challenged the economics of current development projects and caused the termination of ongoing drilling campaigns and the delay in the commencement of new projects, as well as cancellations or deferred work scopes.

Adjusted EBITDA for the International Services segment decreased by $149.2 million, or 81.8%, compared to 2015, primarily due to the decrease in revenue and $11.3 million of bad debt expense related to the collectability of receivables in Venezuela and Nigeria, which were partially offset by lower expenses due to reduced activity and cost-cutting measures.
    
U.S. Services

Revenue for the U.S. Services segment decreased by $173.6 million, or 53.2%, compared to 2015 primarily due to depressed oil and gas prices. Onshore services revenue decreased by $51.3 million as a result of lower activity from declining rig counts and pricing discounts. The offshore business saw a decrease in revenue of $125.9 million as a


44


result of overall lower activity from weaknesses seen in the Gulf of Mexico due to rig cancellations and delays, coupled with downward pricing pressures.
    
Adjusted EBITDA for the U.S. Services segment decreased by $106.5 million, or 111.5%, compared to 2015 primarily due to higher pricing concessions and lower activity of $94.6 million and higher corporate and other costs of $11.9 million primarily due to increased professional fees, which were attributable to ongoing global corporate initiatives.

Tubular Sales

Revenue for the Tubular Sales segment decreased by $118.5 million, or 57.5%, compared to 2015, primarily as a result of lower international demand and decreased deepwater fabrication revenue.

Adjusted EBITDA for the Tubular Sales segment decreased by $39.3 million, or 95.8%, compared to 2015, as it was negatively impacted by fixed costs associated with the manufacturing division and decreased revenues.

Blackhawk

The Blackhawk segment is comprised solely of the assets we acquired on November 1, 2016. Revenues and Adjusted EBITDA for the segment were $10.0 million and $1.0 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2016. See Note 3 - Acquisition and Divestitures in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our Blackhawk acquisition.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity

At December 31, 2017, we had cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $294.0 million and debt of $4.7 million. Our primary sources of liquidity to date have been cash flows from operations. Our primary uses of capital have been for organic growth capital expenditures and acquisitions. We continually monitor potential capital sources, including equity and debt financing, in order to meet our investment and target liquidity requirements.

Our total capital expenditures are estimated at $48.0 million for 2018. We expect approximately $38.0 million for the purchase and manufacture of equipment and $10.0 million for other property, plant and equipment, inclusive of the purchase or construction of facilities. The actual amount of capital expenditures for the manufacture of equipment may fluctuate based on market conditions. During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, capital expenditures were $21.9 million, $42.1 million and $99.7 million, respectively, all of which were funded from internally generated sources. We believe our cash on hand and cash flows from operations will be sufficient to fund our capital expenditure and liquidity requirements for the next twelve months.

We paid dividends on our common stock of $50.2 million, or an aggregate of $0.225 per common share during the year ended December 31, 2017. The timing, declaration, amount of, and payment of any dividends is within the discretion of our board of managing directors subject to the approval of our Board of Supervisory Directors and will depend upon many factors, including our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, covenants associated with certain of our debt service obligations, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, industry practice, ability to access capital markets, and other factors deemed relevant by our board of managing directors and our Board of Supervisory Directors. We do not have a legal obligation to pay any dividend and there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so. On October 27, 2017, the Board of Managing Directors of the Company, with the approval from the Board of Supervisory Directors of the Company, approved a plan to suspend the Company's quarterly dividend in order to preserve capital for various purposes, including to invest in growth opportunities.

On August 19, 2016, we received notice from Mosing Holdings that it was exercising its right to exchange, for 52,976,000 common shares, each of the following securities: (i) 52,976,000 Preferred Shares and (ii) 52,976,000 units in FICV. We issued 52,976,000 common shares to Mosing Holdings on August 26, 2016. As a result, there are


45


no remaining issued or outstanding Preferred Shares and the Mosing family beneficially owns approximately 68% of our common shares. In addition, our obligation to make payments to our noncontrolling interest pursuant to the Limited Partnership Agreement of Frank's International C.V. ceased as of the effective date of the exchange.

Credit Facility

We have a $100.0 million revolving credit facility with certain financial institutions, including up to $20.0 million in letters of credit and up to $10.0 million in swingline loans, which matures in August 2018 (the “Credit Facility”). Subject to the terms of our Credit Facility, we have the ability to increase the commitments to $150.0 million. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, we did not have any outstanding indebtedness under the Credit Facility. At December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had $2.8 million and $3.7 million, respectively, in letters of credit outstanding. As of December 31, 2017, our ability to borrow under the Credit Facility has been reduced to approximately $14.3 million less letters of credit outstanding under the Credit Facility as a result of our decreased Adjusted EBITDA. Our borrowing capacity under the Credit Facility could be reduced or eliminated depending on our future Adjusted EBITDA. If this were to occur, our overall liquidity would be diminished.

Borrowings under the Credit Facility bear interest, at our option, at either a base rate or an adjusted Eurodollar rate. Base rate loans under the Credit Facility bear interest at a rate equal to the higher of (i) the prime rate as published in the Wall Street Journal, (ii) the Federal Funds Effective Rate plus 0.50% or (iii) the adjusted Eurodollar rate plus 1.00%, plus an applicable margin ranging from 0.50% to 1.50%, subject to adjustment based on the leverage ratio. Interest is in each case payable quarterly for base-rate loans. Eurodollar loans under the Credit Facility bear interest at an adjusted Eurodollar rate equal to the Eurodollar rate for such interest period multiplied by the statutory reserves, plus an applicable margin ranging from 1.50% to 2.50%. Interest is payable at the end of applicable interest periods for Eurodollar loans, except that if the interest period for a Eurodollar loan is longer than three months, interest is paid at the end of each three-month period. The unused portion of the Credit Facility is subject to a commitment fee ranging from 0.250% to 0.375% based on certain leverage ratios.

The Credit Facility contains various covenants that, among other things, limit our ability to grant certain liens, make certain loans and investments, enter into mergers or acquisitions, enter into hedging transactions, change our lines of business, prepay certain indebtedness, enter into certain affiliate transactions, incur additional indebtedness or engage in certain asset dispositions.

The Credit Facility also contains financial covenants, which, among other things, require us, on a consolidated basis, to maintain (i) a ratio of total consolidated funded debt to Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in the Credit Facility) of not more than 2.5 to 1.0; and (ii) a ratio of EBITDA to interest expense of not less than 3.0 to 1.0.

In addition, the Credit Facility contains customary events of default, including, among others, the failure to make required payments, failure to comply with certain covenants or other agreements, breach of the representations and covenants contained in the agreements, default of certain other indebtedness, certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency and the occurrence of a change in control.

On April 28, 2017, the Company obtained a limited waiver under its Revolving Credit Agreement, dated August 14, 2013, by and among FICV (as borrower), Amegy Bank National Association (as administrative agent), Capital One, National Association (as syndication agent) and the other lenders party thereto (the "Credit Agreement"), of its leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio for the fiscal quarters ending March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017 (the “Waiver”) in order to not be in default for the first quarter of 2017. The Company agreed to comply with the following conditions during the period from the effective date of the Waiver until the delivery of its compliance certificate with respect to the fiscal quarter ending September 30, 2017: (i) maintain no less than $250.0 million in liquidity; (ii) abide by certain restrictions regarding the issuance of senior unsecured debt; and (iii) pay interest and commitment fees based on the highest “Applicable Margin” (as defined in the Credit Agreement) level. In connection with the Waiver, the Company paid a waiver fee to each lender that executed the Waiver equal to five basis points of the respective lender’s commitment under the Credit Agreement. As of December 31, 2017, we were in compliance with the covenants included in the Credit Agreement.



46


Citibank Credit Facility

In 2016, we entered into a three-year credit facility with Citibank N.A., UAE Branch in the amount of $6.0 million for the issuance of standby letters of credit and guarantees. The credit facility also allows for open ended guarantees. Outstanding amounts under the credit facility bear interest of 1.25% per annum for amounts outstanding up to one year. Amounts outstanding more than one year bear interest at 1.5% per annum. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had $2.6 million and $2.2 million, respectively, in letters of credit outstanding.

Insurance Notes Payable

In 2017, we entered into three notes to finance our annual insurance premiums totaling $5.1 million. The notes bear interest at an annual rate of 2.3% with a final maturity date in October 2018. At December 31, 2017, the total outstanding balance was $4.7 million.

Cash Flows from Operating, Investing and Financing Activities

Cash flows provided by (used in) our operations, investing and financing activities are summarized below (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
24,774

 
$
(10,831
)
 
$
427,758

Investing activities
(77,709
)
 
(178,915
)
 
(174,689
)
Financing activities
(52,471
)
 
(96,765
)
 
(141,209
)
 
(105,406
)
 
(286,511
)
 
111,860

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash activities
(1,105
)
 
3,678

 
1,145

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$
(106,511
)
 
$
(282,833
)
 
$
113,005


Statements of cash flows for entities with international operations that use the local currency as the functional currency exclude the effects of the changes in foreign currency exchange rates that occur during any given year, as these are noncash changes. As a result, changes reflected in certain accounts on the consolidated statements of cash flows may not reflect the changes in corresponding accounts on the consolidated balance sheets.

Operating Activities

Cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities was $24.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to $(10.8) million in 2016. The increase in cash provided by operating activities in 2017 of $35.6 million as compared to 2016 was primarily a result of positive changes to working capital and other long-term assets and liabilities of $39.8 million, partially offset by an increase in net loss of $3.4 million. Most of the increase in working capital during 2017 was due to tax refunds of $29.7 million.

The decrease in cash flow provided by (used in) operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2016 of $438.6 million as compared to the year ended December 31, 2015 was primarily due to a net loss as a result of lower activity due to depressed oil and gas prices, the impact of deferred taxes and working capital changes primarily related to accounts receivable and accrued expense and other liabilities.



47


Investing Activities

Cash flow used in investing activities was $77.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to $178.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease of $101.2 million period over period was primarily related to the acquisition of Blackhawk during 2016, for which $150.4 million in cash was used. In addition, lower purchases of property plant and equipment of $20.2 million and higher proceeds from sale of assets of $10.2 million also contributed to the decrease. These changes were partially offset by a net increase in purchase of investments of $79.8 million, primarily related to net purchases of investments with original maturities greater than three months but less than twelve months.

Cash flow used in investing activities was $178.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to $174.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The increase of $4.2 million period over period was primarily related to an increase in cash used for acquisitions of $71.8 million, offset by lower purchases of property plant and equipment of $57.6 million and an increase of $11.1 million in proceeds from the sale of investments related to our executive deferred compensation plan, which was used to make payments to former key employees.

Financing Activities

Cash flow used in financing activities was $52.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to $96.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease of $44.3 million period over period is primarily related to lower dividends paid on common stock of $28.9 million, the absence of a payment to our noncontrolling interest of $8.0 million and lower repayments on borrowings of $6.5 million.

Cash flow used in financing activities was $96.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 as compared to $141.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The decrease of $44.4 million period over period was primarily due to lower dividend payments of $13.8 million as a result of a reduction in the dividends per share amount and lower noncontrolling interest payments of $35.5 million. These decreases were partially offset by higher repayments on borrowings of $6.4 million.

Contractual Obligations
    
We are a party to various contractual obligations. A portion of these obligations are reflected in our financial statements, such as long-term debt, while other obligations, such as operating leases and purchase obligations, are not reflected on our balance sheet. The following is a summary of our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2017 (in thousands):
 
Payments Due by Period
 
 
 
Less than
 
 
 
 
 
More than
 
Total
 
1 year
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
5 years
Long-term debt
$
4,721

 
$
4,721

 
$

 
$

 
$

Noncancellable operating leases
37,390

 
10,563

 
11,020

 
7,882

 
7,925

Purchase obligations (1)
22,147

 
12,578

 
9,569

 

 

Total
$
64,258

 
$
27,862

 
$
20,589

 
$
7,882

 
$
7,925

 
 
(1) 
Includes purchase commitments primarily related to connectors, pipe and other inventory. We enter into purchase commitments as needed.

Not included in the table above are uncertain tax positions of $0.2 million.


48



Tax Receivable Agreement
    
We entered into a TRA with FICV and Mosing Holdings in connection with our IPO. The TRA generally provides for the payment by us to Mosing Holdings of 85% of the amount of the actual reductions, if any, in payments of U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax in periods after our IPO (which reductions we refer to as "cash savings") as a result of (i) the tax basis increases resulting from the transfer of FICV interests to us in connection with the conversion of shares of Preferred Stock into shares of our common stock on August 26, 2016 and (ii) imputed interest deemed to be paid by us as a result of, and additional tax basis arising from, payments under the TRA. In addition, the TRA provides for interest earned from the due date (without extensions) of the corresponding tax return to the date of payment specified by the TRA. We will retain the remaining 15% of cash savings, if any. The payment obligations under the TRA are our obligations and not obligations of FICV. The term of the TRA continues until all such tax benefits have been utilized or expired, unless we exercise our right to terminate the TRA.
If we elect to execute our sole right to terminate the TRA early, we would be required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits subject to the TRA (based upon certain assumptions and deemed events set forth in the TRA, including the assumption that it has sufficient taxable income to fully utilize such benefits and that any FICV interests that Mosing Holdings or its transferees own on the termination date are deemed to be exchanged on the termination date). In addition, payments due under the TRA will be similarly accelerated following certain mergers or other changes of control.
In certain circumstances, we may be required to make payments under the TRA that we have entered into with Mosing Holdings. In most circumstances, these payments will be associated with the actual cash savings that we recognize in connection with the conversion of Preferred Stock, which would reduce the actual tax benefit to us. If we were to elect to exercise our sole right to terminate the TRA early or enter into certain change of control transactions, we may incur payment obligations prior to the time we actually incur any tax benefit. In those circumstances, we would need to pay the amounts out of cash on hand, finance the payments or refrain from triggering the obligation. Though we do not have any present intention of triggering an advance payment under the TRA, based on our current liquidity and our expected ability to access debt and equity financing, we believe we would be able to make such a payment if necessary. Any such payment could reduce our cash on hand and our borrowing availability, however, which would also reduce the amount of cash available to operate our business, to fund capital expenditures and to be paid as dividends to our stockholders, among other things. Please see Note 13 - Related Party Transactions in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

At December 31, 2017, we had no off-balance sheet arrangements with the exception of operating leases and purchase obligations.

Critical Accounting Policies

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to select appropriate accounting principles from those available, to apply those principles consistently and to make reasonable estimates and assumptions that affect revenues and associated costs as well as reported amounts of assets and liabilities, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Certain accounting policies involve judgments and uncertainties. We evaluate estimates and assumptions on a regular basis. We base our respective estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from the estimates and assumptions used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We consider the following policies to be the most critical to understanding the judgments that are involved and the uncertainties that could impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.



49


Revenue Recognition

All revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met: (1) evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery to and acceptance by the customer has occurred; (3) the price to the customer is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured, as follows:

Services Revenue. We provide tubular and other well construction services to clients in the oil and gas industry. We perform services either under direct service purchase orders or master service agreements. Service revenue is recognized as services are performed or rendered.

International service hours are billed per man hour, per day or similar basis.
U.S. services are billed on,
i) Offshore - per day or similar basis.
ii) Land - per man hour or on a project basis.
Blackhawk services are billed primarily on a per day basis for both domestic and international.

We design and manufacture a suite of highly technical equipment and products that we use in connection with providing our services to our customers, including high-end, proprietary tubular handling or well construction equipment. Substantially all equipment has a service element for personnel operating the equipment. We provide our equipment either under direct agreements or with customers with agreements in place. Revenue from equipment agreements is recognized as earned over the relevant period.

International equipment is billed on a per month or similar basis.
U.S. equipment is billed on,
i) Offshore - per day or similar basis.
ii) Land - on completion of a job or project basis.
Blackhawk services are billed on,
i) Offshore and Land - per day basis with some minimum days requirements.
ii) International - negotiated contracts but are primarily based on monthly rates.

For customers contracted under direct service purchase orders and direct agreements, an accrual is recorded in unbilled accounts receivable for revenue earned but not yet invoiced.

Tubular Sales and Blackhawk Product Revenue. Revenue on tubular and Blackhawk product sales is recognized when the product has shipped and significant risks of ownership have passed to the customer. The sales arrangements typically do not include right of return or other similar provisions or other post-delivery obligations.

Some of our tubular sales and well construction customers have requested that we store pipe, connectors and other products purchased from us in our facilities. We considered whether revenue should be recognized on these sales under the “bill and hold” guidance provided by the SEC Staff; however, based upon the assessment performed, revenue recognition on these transactions totaling $4.7 million and $18.1 million was deferred at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively until delivery and significant risks of ownership have passed to the customer.

Income Taxes

The liability method is used for determining our income tax provisions, under which current and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recorded in accordance with enacted tax laws and rates. Under this method, the amounts of deferred tax liabilities and assets at the end of each period are determined using the tax rate expected to be in effect when taxes are actually paid or recovered. Valuation allowances are established to reduce deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In determining the need for valuation allowances, we have made judgments and estimates regarding future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. These estimates and judgments include some degree of uncertainty, and changes in these estimates and assumptions could require us to adjust the valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets. Historically, changes to valuation allowances have been caused by major changes in the business cycle in certain


50


countries and changes in local country law. The ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets depends on the generation of sufficient taxable income in the applicable taxing jurisdictions.

Through FICV, we operate in approximately 50 countries under many legal forms. As a result, we are subject to the jurisdiction of numerous U.S. and foreign tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Our operations in these different jurisdictions are taxed on various bases: actual income before taxes, deemed profits (which are generally determined using a percentage of revenue rather than profits) and withholding taxes based on revenue. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, foreign currency exchange restrictions or our level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact on the amount of income taxes that we provide during any given year.

Our tax filings for open tax periods are subject to audit by the tax authorities . These audits may result in assessments of additional taxes that are resolved either with the tax authorities or through the courts. These assessments may occasionally be based on erroneous and even arbitrary interpretations of local tax law. Resolution of these situations inevitably includes some degree of uncertainty; accordingly, we provide taxes only for the amounts we believe will ultimately result from these proceedings. The resulting change to our tax liability, if any, is dependent on numerous factors including, among others, the amount and nature of additional taxes potentially asserted by local tax authorities; the willingness of local tax authorities to negotiate a fair settlement through an administrative process; the impartiality of the local courts; the number of countries in which we do business; and the potential for changes in the tax paid to one country to either produce, or fail to produce, an offsetting tax change in other countries. Our experience has been that the estimates and assumptions used to provide for future tax assessments have proven to be appropriate. However, past experience is only a guide, and the potential exists that the tax resulting from the resolution of current and potential future tax controversies may differ materially from the amount accrued.

In addition to the aforementioned assessments received from various tax authorities, we also provide for taxes for uncertain tax positions where formal assessments have not been received. The determination of these liabilities requires the use of estimates and assumptions regarding future events. Once established, we adjust these amounts only when more information is available or when an event occurs necessitating a change to the reserves such as changes in the facts or law, judicial decisions regarding the application of existing law or a favorable audit outcome. We believe that the resolution of tax matters will not have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition, although a resolution could have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations for a particular period and on our effective tax rate for any period in which such resolution occurs.
    
Goodwill

Goodwill is not subject to amortization and is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. A qualitative assessment is allowed to determine if goodwill is potentially impaired. The qualitative assessment determines whether it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. If it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, then a quantitative impairment test is performed. The quantitative goodwill impairment test is used to identify both the existence of impairment and the amount of impairment loss. The test compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. The amount of impairment for goodwill is measured as the excess of its carrying value over its fair value.

During the fourth quarter of 2017, we elected to change the timing of our annual goodwill impairment testing from December 31 to October 31 for our U.S Services, International Services, Tubular Sales and Manufacturing reporting units. This accounting change is considered to be preferable because it allows for additional time to complete the annual goodwill impairment test, better aligns with our planning process, and synchronizes the testing date for all of our reporting units as October 31, which is the Blackhawk reporting unit's annual impairment testing date. This change did not result in adjustments to previously issued financial statements.



51


No goodwill impairment was recorded for years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. Our goodwill is allocated to our operating segments as follows: U.S. Services - approximately $16.2 million; Tubular Sales - approximately $2.4 million; Blackhawk - approximately $192.4 million. The inputs used in the determination of fair value are generally level 3 inputs.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

We evaluate whether client receivables are collectible. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our clients and monitor collections and payments in order to maintain a provision for estimated uncollectible accounts based on our historical collection experience and our current aging of client receivables outstanding in addition to clients' representations and our understanding of the economic environment in which our clients operate. Based on our review, we establish or adjust allowances for specific clients and the accounts receivable as a whole.

We have experienced payment delays from certain customers in Nigeria, Angola and Venezuela. During 2016, we recorded an allowance of $9.6 million for trade accounts receivable from our national oil company customer in Venezuela due to the uncertainty of collection. During the fourth quarter of 2017 management decided to significantly reduce our footprint in Nigeria and Angola by exiting certain bases and temporarily abandoning our investment in Venezuela, primarily consisting of accounts receivable, which we believe will diminish our ability to collect amounts owed. As a result, we wrote off the previously reserved trade accounts receivable of $9.6 million. In addition, we wrote off trade accounts receivables of $15.0 million for Nigeria, Angola and Venezuela, which is included in the financial statement line item severance and other charges during the year ended December 31, 2017. Our allowance for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2017 and 2016 was $4.8 million and $14.3 million, respectively.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements set forth in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," under the heading "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" included in this Form 10-K.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

We are exposed to certain market risks that are inherent in our financial instruments and arise from changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. A discussion of our market risk exposure in financial instruments is presented below.

The primary objective of the following information is to provide forward-looking quantitative and qualitative information about our potential exposure to market risks. The disclosures are not meant to be precise indicators of expected future losses or gains, but rather indicators of reasonably possible losses or gains. This forward-looking information provides indicators of how we view and manage our ongoing market risk exposures.

Foreign Currency Exchange Rates

We operate in virtually every oil and natural gas exploration and production region in the world. In some parts of the world, the currency of our primary economic environment is the U.S. dollar, and we use the U.S. dollar as our functional currency. In other parts of the world, such as Europe, Norway, Africa and Brazil, we conduct our business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and the functional currency is the applicable local currency. Assets and liabilities of entities for which the functional currency is the local currency are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, resulting in translation adjustments that are reflected in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the shareholders’ equity section on our consolidated balance sheets. A portion of our net assets are impacted by changes in foreign currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, on a U.S. dollar-equivalent basis, approximately 25% of our revenue was represented by currencies other than the U.S. dollar. However, no single foreign currency poses a primary risk to us. A


52


hypothetical 10% decrease in the exchange rates for each of the foreign currencies in which a portion of our revenues is denominated would result in a 2.2% decrease in our overall revenues for the year ended December 31, 2017.

We enter into short-duration foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate our exposure to non-local currency operating working capital. We are also exposed to market risk on our forward contracts related to potential non-performance by our counterparty. It is our policy to enter into derivative contracts with counterparties that are creditworthy institutions.

We account for our derivative activities under the accounting guidance for derivatives and hedging. Derivatives are recognized on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value. Although the derivative contracts will serve as an economic hedge of the cash flow of our currency exchange risk exposure, they are not formally designated as hedge contracts for hedge accounting treatment. Accordingly, any changes in the fair value of the derivative instruments during a period will be included in our consolidated statements of operations.

As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had the following foreign currency derivative contracts outstanding in U.S. dollars (in thousands):
Foreign Currency
 
Notional Amount
 
Contractual Exchange Rate
 
Fair Value at December 31, 2017
Canadian dollar
 
$
6,226

 
1.2850

 
$
(165
)
Euro
 
5,326

 
1.1836

 
(101
)
Norwegian krone
 
6,212

 
8.3704

 
(157
)
Pound sterling
 
6,039

 
1.3419

 
(64
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
(487
)

Foreign Currency
 
Notional Amount
 
Contractual Exchange Rate
 
Fair Value at December 31, 2016
Canadian dollar
 
$
4,553

 
1.3179

 
$
74

Euro
 
4,753

 
1.0563

 
(11
)
Euro
 
2,558

 
1.0659

 
(24
)
Norwegian krone
 
3,643

 
8.5101

 
38

Pound sterling
 
3,908

 
1.2607

 
69

 
 
 
 
 
 
$
146


Based on the derivative contracts that were in place as of December 31, 2017, a simultaneous 10% weakening of the U.S. dollar as compared to the Canadian dollar, Euro, Norwegian krone, and Pound sterling would result in a $2.6 million decrease in the market value of our forward contracts.

Interest Rate Risk

As of December 31, 2017, we did not have an outstanding funded debt balance under the Credit Facility. If we borrow under the Credit Facility in the future, we will be exposed to changes in interest rates on our floating rate borrowings under the Credit Facility. Although we do not currently utilize interest rate derivative instruments to reduce interest rate exposure, we may do so in the future.
    
Customer Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk are trade receivables. We extend credit to customers and other parties in the normal course of business. International sales also present various risks including governmental activities that may limit or disrupt markets and restrict the movement of funds. We operate in approximately 50 countries and, as a result, our accounts receivables are spread over many countries and customers.


53


We are also exposed to credit risk because our customers are concentrated in the oil and natural gas industry. This concentration of customers may impact overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, because our customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic and industry conditions, including sensitivity to commodity prices. While current energy prices are important contributors to positive cash flow for our customers, expectations about future prices and price volatility are generally more important for determining future spending levels. However, any prolonged increase or decrease in oil and natural gas prices affects the levels of exploration, development and production activity, as well as the entire health of the oil and natural gas industry and can therefore negatively impact spending by our customers.


54


Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
 
 
 
 
Page
Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015
 
 
 
 


55


Management's Report on Internal Control
Over Financial Reporting

Management of the Company, including the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
We conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 based on the Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in 2013. Based on our evaluation, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2017.
The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is included herein.



56


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Supervisory Directors and Stockholders of Frank’s International N.V.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Frank’s International N.V. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2017 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2017, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Change in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note 1 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for goodwill impairment in 2017, and changed the impairment testing date for two of its reporting units from December 31 to October 31.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.


57




Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.



/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Houston, Texas
February 27, 2018

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2008.




58


 FRANK'S INTERNATIONAL N.V.
 CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 (In thousands, except share data)
 
 
 
 
 
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
213,015

 
$
319,526

Short-term investments
81,021

 

Accounts receivables, net
127,210

 
167,417

Inventories, net
76,420

 
139,079

Assets held for sale
3,792

 

Other current assets
10,437

 
14,027

Total current assets
511,895

 
640,049

 
 
 
 
Property, plant and equipment, net
469,646

 
567,024

Goodwill
211,040

 
211,063

Intangible assets, net
33,895

 
45,083

Deferred tax assets, net

 
79,309

Other assets
35,293

 
45,533

Total assets
$
1,261,769

 
$
1,588,061

 
 
 
 
Liabilities and Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Short-term debt
$
4,721

 
$
276

Accounts payable
33,912

 
16,081

Deferred revenue
4,703

 
18,072

Accrued and other current liabilities
74,973

 
64,950

Total current liabilities
118,309

 
99,379

 
 
 
 
Deferred tax liabilities
229

 
20,951

Other non-current liabilities
27,330

 
156,412

Total liabilities
145,868

 
276,742

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 18)


 


 
 
 
 
Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, €0.01 par value, 798,096,000 shares authorized, 224,228,071 and 223,161,356 shares issued and 223,289,389 and 222,401,427 shares outstanding
2,814

 
2,802

Additional paid-in capital
1,050,873

 
1,036,786

Retained earnings
106,923

 
317,270

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(30,972
)
 
(32,977
)
Treasury stock (at cost), 938,682 and 759,929 shares
(13,737
)
 
(12,562
)
Total stockholders' equity
1,115,901

 
1,311,319

Total liabilities and equity
$
1,261,769

 
$
1,588,061


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
59



 FRANK'S INTERNATIONAL N.V.
 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 (In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Services
$
364,061

 
$
397,369

 
$
766,252

Products
90,734

 
90,162

 
208,348

Total revenue
454,795

 
487,531

 
974,600

 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization
 
 
 
 
 
Services
223,222

 
246,652

 
384,842

Products
87,200

 
70,616

 
129,748

General and administrative expenses
163,704

 
171,887

 
174,479

Depreciation and amortization
122,102

 
114,215

 
108,962

Severance and other charges
75,354

 
46,406

 
35,484

Changes in contingent consideration

 

 
(1,532
)
(Gain) loss on disposal of assets
(2,045
)
 
1,117

 
(1,038
)
Operating income (loss)
(214,742
)
 
(163,362
)
 
143,655

 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Derecognition of the tax receivable agreement liability
122,515

 

 

Other income, net
1,763

 
4,170

 
5,791

Interest income, net
2,309

 
2,073

 
341

Mergers and acquisition expense
(459
)
 
(13,784
)
 

Foreign currency gain (loss)
2,075

 
(10,819
)
 
(6,358
)
Total other income (expense)
128,203

 
(18,360
)
 
(226
)
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)
(86,539
)
 
(181,722
)
 
143,429

Income tax expense (benefit)
72,918

 
(25,643
)
 
37,319

Net income (loss)
(159,457
)
 
(156,079
)
 
106,110

Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest

 
(20,741
)
 
27,000

Net income (loss) attributable to Frank's International N.V.
$
(159,457
)
 
$
(135,338
)
 
$
79,110

Preferred stock dividends

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
Net income (loss) attributable to Frank's International N.V.
 common shareholders
$
(159,457
)
 
$
(135,339
)
 
$
79,108

 
 
 
 
 
 
Dividends per common share:
$
0.225

 
$
0.45

 
$
0.60

 
 
 
 
 
 
Income (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.51

Diluted
$
(0.72
)
 
$
(0.77
)
 
$
0.50

 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
222,940

 
176,584

 
154,662

Diluted
222,940

 
176,584

 
209,152


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
60



 FRANK'S INTERNATIONAL N.V.
 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
 (In thousands)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(159,457
)
 
$
(156,079
)
 
$
106,110

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
2,345

 
546

 
(14,039
)
Marketable securities:


 


 

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities
(103
)
 
1,214

 
(1,500
)
Reclassification to net income
(395
)
 

 

Deferred tax asset / liability change
158

 
(418
)
 
314

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax
(340
)
 
796

 
(1,186
)
Total other comprehensive income (loss)
2,005

 
1,342

 
(15,225
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
(157,452
)
 
(154,737
)
 
90,885

Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to
noncontrolling interest

 
(20,180
)
 
23,120

Add: Transfer of Mosing Holdings interest to FINV attributable to comprehensive loss (See Note 13)

 
(8,203
)
 

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Frank's International N.V.
$
(157,452