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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
___________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
___________________________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____ to ____
Commission File Number: 001-38953
___________________________________________________
The RealReal, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
___________________________________________________
Delaware45-1234222
( State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
55 Francisco Street Suite 400
San Francisco, CA
94133
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(855) 435-5893
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
__________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.00001 par valueREALThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of November 1, 2023, the registrant had 103,353,116 shares of common stock, $0.00001 par value per share, outstanding.


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NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans, objectives of management for future operations, long term operating expenses, the opening of additional retail stores in the future, the development of our automation technology, expectations for capital requirements and the use of proceeds from our initial public offering, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions described in the section titled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A below and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Some of the key factors that could cause actual results to differ from our expectations include:
our future financial performance, including our expectations regarding our revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, and our ability to achieve and maintain future profitability, in particular with respect to the impacts of public health emergencies, inflation, macroeconomic uncertainty, disruptions in the financial industry and geopolitical instability;
our ability to return to historic levels of revenue growth rate and to effectively expand our operations;
our ability to efficiently drive growth in consignors and buyers through our marketing and advertising activity;
our ability to achieve anticipated savings in connection with the savings plan we implemented in February 2023;
our strategies, plans, objectives and goals;
the market demand for authenticated, pre-owned luxury goods and new and pre-owned luxury goods in general and the online market for luxury goods;
our ability to compete with existing and new competitors in existing and new markets and offerings;
our ability to successfully implement our growth strategies and their capacity to help us achieve profitability or generate sustainable revenue and profit;
our ability to attract and retain consignors and buyers;
our ability to increase the supply of luxury goods offered through our online marketplace;
our ability to timely and effectively scale our operations;
our ability to enter international markets
our ability to optimize, operate and manage our authentication centers;
our ability to develop and protect our brand;
our ability to comply with laws and regulations;
our expectations regarding outstanding litigation;
the reliable performance of our network infrastructure and content delivery process;
our ability to detect and prevent data security breaches and fraud;
our expectations and management of future growth;
our expectations concerning relationships with third parties;
economic and industry trends, projected growth or trend analysis;
seasonal sales fluctuations;
ii

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our ability to add capacity, capabilities and automation to our operations; and
our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
In addition, statements such as “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and, although we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted a thorough inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.
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PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$170,811 $293,793 
Accounts receivable, net13,564 12,207 
Inventory, net24,657 42,967 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets20,933 23,291 
Total current assets229,965 372,258 
Property and equipment, net106,806 112,679 
Operating lease right-of-use assets94,680 127,955 
Restricted cash15,757  
Other assets5,473 2,749 
Total assets$452,681 $615,641 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Deficit
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$8,088 $11,902 
Accrued consignor payable66,525 81,543 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion19,856 20,776 
Other accrued and current liabilities82,459 93,292 
Total current liabilities176,928 207,513 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion109,907 125,118 
Convertible senior notes, net451,768 449,848 
Other noncurrent liabilities4,097 3,254 
Total liabilities742,700 785,733 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)
Stockholders’ deficit:
Common stock, $0.00001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022; 103,310,783 and 99,088,172 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively
1 1 
Additional paid-in capital807,912 781,060 
Accumulated deficit(1,097,932)(951,153)
Total stockholders’ deficit(290,019)(170,092)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit$452,681 $615,641 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue:
Consignment revenue$102,852 $93,874 $302,072 $274,780 
Direct revenue17,356 34,005 63,196 125,474 
Shipping services revenue12,964 14,824 40,663 43,584 
Total revenue133,172 142,703 405,931 443,838 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of consignment revenue13,577 15,206 43,681 43,193 
Cost of direct revenue15,686 28,721 61,162 105,415 
Cost of shipping services revenue9,837 12,999 30,859 43,149 
Total cost of revenue39,100 56,926 135,702 191,757 
Gross profit94,072 85,777 270,229 252,081 
Operating expenses:
Marketing11,591 13,511 44,460 48,455 
Operations and technology61,038 70,782 194,645 207,159 
Selling, general and administrative44,788 47,012 138,959 147,410 
Restructuring
(856) 37,396 275 
Total operating expenses116,561 131,305 415,460 403,299 
Loss from operations(22,489)(45,528)(145,231)(151,218)
Interest income2,260 1,002 6,717 1,360 
Interest expense(2,673)(2,675)(8,018)(8,014)
Other income (expense), net 6  133 
Loss before provision for income taxes(22,902)(47,195)(146,532)(157,739)
Provision for income taxes47 63 247 96 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(22,949)$(47,258)$(146,779)$(157,835)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted$(0.22)$(0.49)$(1.45)$(1.66)
Shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted102,648,790 96,696,417 101,087,793 95,036,618 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 202299,088,172 $1 $781,060 $(951,153)$(170,092)
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes1,064,260 — (208)— (208)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 9,280 — 9,280 
Net loss— — — (82,500)(82,500)
Balance as of March 31, 2023100,152,432 $1 $790,132 $(1,033,653)$(243,520)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options2,000 — 3 — 3 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes1,512,391 — (103)— (103)
Issuance of common stock for exercises under ESPP469,199 — 446 — 446 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 8,920 — 8,920 
Net loss— — — (41,330)(41,330)
Balance as of June 30, 2023102,136,022 $1 $799,398 $(1,074,983)$(275,584)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options6,511 — 16 — 16 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes1,168,250 — (203)— (203)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 8,701 — 8,701 
Net loss— — — (22,949)(22,949)
Balance as of September 30, 2023
103,310,783 $1 $807,912 $(1,097,932)$(290,019)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
 Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 202192,960,066 $1 $841,255 $(768,128)$73,128 
Cumulative effect adjustment due to adoption of ASU 2020-06— — (112,052)13,420 (98,632)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options417,428 — 637 — 637 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes922,610 — (2)— (2)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 12,964 — 12,964 
Net loss— — — (57,412)(57,412)
Balance as of March 31, 202294,300,104 $1 $742,802 $(812,120)$(69,317)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options94,601 — 328 — 328 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes848,646 — (23)— (23)
Issuance of common stock for exercises under ESPP282,226 — 900 — 900 
Stock-based compensation expense— — 14,164 — 14,164 
Net loss— — — (53,165)(53,165)
Balance as of June 30, 202295,525,577 $1 $758,171 $(865,285)$(107,113)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of options1,416,611 — 1,941 — 1,941 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units, net of shares withheld for employee taxes985,255 — (6)— (6)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 11,181 — 11,181 
Net loss— — — (47,258)(47,258)
Balance as of September 30, 2022
97,927,443 $1 $771,287 $(912,543)$(141,255)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(146,779)$(157,835)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization23,530 20,255 
Stock-based compensation expense26,293 37,020 
Reduction of operating lease right-of-use assets12,999 14,598 
Bad debt expense1,565 1,133 
Accrued interest on convertible notes575 575 
Accretion of debt discounts and issuance costs1,920 1,942 
Loss on disposal/sale of property and equipment and impairment of capitalized proprietary software182 432 
Property, plant, equipment, and right-of-use asset impairments33,817  
Provision for inventory write-downs and shrinkage8,836 1,798 
Gain on lease termination
(738) 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net(2,922)(2,119)
Inventory, net9,474 6,243 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,897 (6,543)
Other assets(2,856)(391)
Operating lease liability(21,399)(13,074)
Accounts payable(1,550)4,067 
Accrued consignor payable(15,018)729 
Other accrued and current liabilities(1,499)(4,494)
Other noncurrent liabilities(118)409 
Net cash used in operating activities(71,791)(95,255)
Cash flow from investing activities:
Capitalized proprietary software development costs(9,870)(9,847)
Purchases of property and equipment(25,528)(16,408)
Net cash used in investing activities(35,398)(26,255)
Cash flow from financing activities:
Proceeds from exercise of stock options19 2,906 
Proceeds from issuance of stock in connection with the Employee Stock Purchase Program446 900 
Taxes paid related to restricted stock vesting(501)(28)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
(36)3,778 
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(107,225)(117,732)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Beginning of period293,793 418,171 
End of period$186,568 $300,439 






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THE REALREAL, INC.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows

(In thousands)
(Unaudited)


Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Cash paid for interest$5,522 $5,496 
Cash paid for income taxes$227 256 
Supplemental disclosures of non-cash investing and financing activities
Property and equipment additions not yet paid in cash2,293 4,487 
Capitalized proprietary software development costs additions not yet paid in cash1,070 2,159 
Stock-based compensation capitalized to proprietary software development costs608 1,289 


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.

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THE REALREAL, INC.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements
Note 1. Description of Business and Basis of Presentation
Organization and Description of Business
The RealReal, Inc. (the “Company”) is an online marketplace for authenticated, consigned luxury goods across multiple categories, including women’s fashion, men’s fashion, and jewelry and watches. The Company was incorporated in the state of Delaware on March 29, 2011 and is headquartered in San Francisco, California.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and the requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim reporting. The Company’s functional and reporting currency is the U.S. dollar.
The condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 2022 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to state fairly the Company’s financial position, results of operations, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for the periods presented. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, comprehensive loss is equal to net loss as the Company has no other comprehensive income (loss) item in the periods presented. The Company has made a presentation change to reclassify provision for inventory write-downs and shrinkage from inventory, net and to reclassify gain on lease termination from operating lease liability within operating cash flows in the condensed statements of cash flows. Additionally, the Company has made a presentation change to the Company's condensed statements of operations to reclassify its legal settlement expenses to selling, general and administrative expense and to reclassify its restructuring expenses from marketing, operations and technology, and sales, general and administrative operating expenses. Changes to reclassify amounts in the prior periods have been made to conform to the current period presentation.
These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s financial statements and notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include those related to revenue recognition, including the returns reserve, standalone selling price related to revenue transactions, valuation of inventory, software development costs, stock-based compensation, incremental borrowing rates related to lease liability, valuation of deferred taxes, and other contingencies. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis using historical experience and other factors and adjusts those estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances dictate. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The disclosures provided herein should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto included in our 2022 Form 10-K. See “Part II - Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2” in our 2022 Form 10-K for a complete summary of our significant accounting policies.
Net Loss per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
The Company follows the two-class method when computing net loss per common share when shares are issued that meet the definition of participating securities. The two-class method determines net loss per common share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to dividends declared or accumulated and participation rights in undistributed earnings. The two-class method requires income (loss) available or attributable to common stockholders for the period to be allocated between common stock and participating securities based upon their respective rights to receive dividends as if all income for the period had been distributed.
The Company’s convertible senior notes are participating securities as they give the holders the right to receive dividends if dividends or distributions declared to the common stockholders is equal to or greater than the last reported sale
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price of the Company’s common stock on the trading day immediately preceding the ex-dividend date for such dividend or distribution as if the instruments had been converted into shares of common stock. No undistributed earnings were allocated to the participating securities as the contingent event is not satisfied as of the reporting date.
For periods in which the Company reports net losses, diluted net loss per common share attributable to common stockholders is the same as basic net loss per common share attributable to common stockholders, because potentially dilutive common shares and assumed conversion of the convertible senior notes are not assumed to have been issued within the calculation, if their effect is anti-dilutive.
Revenue Recognition
The Company generates revenue from the sale of pre-owned luxury goods through its online marketplace and retail stores. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that include products and services that are capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations as described below. The transaction price requires an allocation across consignment services, sales of Company-owned inventory, and shipping services. Estimation is required in the determination of the services' stand-alone selling price (“SSP”).
Consignment Revenue
The Company provides a service to sell pre-owned luxury goods on behalf of consignors to buyers through its online marketplace and retail stores. The Company retains a percentage of the proceeds received as payment for its consignment service, which the Company refers to as its take rate. SSP is estimated using observable stand-alone consignment sales which are conducted without shipping services. The Company reports consignment revenue on a net basis as an agent and not the gross amount collected from the buyer. Title to the consigned goods remains with the consignor until transferred to the buyer upon purchase of the consigned goods and expiration of the allotted return period. The Company does not take title of consigned goods at any time except in certain cases where returned goods become Company-owned inventory.
The Company recognizes consignment revenue upon purchase of the consigned good by the buyer as its performance obligation of providing consignment services to the consignor is satisfied at that point. Consignment revenue is recognized net of estimated returns, cancellations, buyer incentives and adjustments. The Company recognizes a returns reserve based on historical experience, which is recorded in other accrued and current liabilities on the condensed balance sheets (see Note 5). Sales tax assessed by governmental authorities is excluded from revenue.
Certain transactions provide consignors with a material right resulting from the tiered consignor commission plan. Under this plan, the amount an individual consignor receives for future sales of consigned goods may be dependent on previous consignment sales for that consignor within his/her consignment period. Accordingly, in certain consignment transactions, a small portion of the Company’s consignment revenue is allocated to such material right using the portfolio method and recorded as deferred revenue, which is recorded in other accrued and current liabilities on the condensed balance sheets. The impact of the deferral has not been material to the financial statements.
The Company also generates subscription revenue from monthly memberships allowing buyers early access to shop for luxury goods. The buyers receive the early access and other benefits over the term of the subscription period, which represents a single stand-ready performance obligation. Therefore, the subscription fees paid by the buyer are recognized over the monthly subscription period. Subscription revenue was not material in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
Direct Revenue
The Company generates direct revenue from the sale of Company-owned inventory. The Company recognizes direct revenue on a gross basis upon shipment of the purchased good to the buyer as the Company acts as the principal in the transaction. SSP is estimated using observable stand-alone sales of Company-owned inventory which are conducted without shipping services, when available, or a market assessment approach. Direct revenue is recognized net of estimated returns, buyer incentives and adjustments. Sales tax assessed by governmental authorities is excluded from revenue. Cost of direct revenue is also recognized upon shipment to the buyer in an amount equal to that paid to the consignor from the original consignment sale, an amount equal to that paid as a direct purchase from a third party, or the lower of cost of the inventory purchased and its net realizable value.
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Shipping Services Revenue
The Company provides a service to ship purchased items to buyers and a service to ship items from buyers back to the Company. The Company determines itself to be the principal in this arrangement. The Company charges a fee to buyers for this service and has elected to treat shipping and handling activities performed as a separate performance obligation. For shipping services revenue, the Company's SSP is estimated using a market approach considering external and internal data points on the stand-alone sales price of the shipping service. All outbound shipping and handling costs for buyers are accounted for as cost of shipping services and recognized as the shipping activity occurs. The Company also generates shipping services revenue from the shipping fees for consigned products returned by buyers to the Company within policy. The Company recognizes shipping revenue and associated costs over time as the shipping activity occurs, which is generally one to three days after shipment.
Incentives
Incentives, which include platform-wide discounts and buyer incentives, may periodically be offered to buyers. Platform-wide discounts are made available to all buyers on the online marketplace. Buyer incentives apply to specific buyers and consist of coupons or promotions that offer credits in connection with purchases on the Company’s platform, and do not impact the commissions paid to consignors. These are treated as a reduction of consignment revenue and direct revenue. Additionally, the Company periodically offers commission exceptions to the standard consignment rates to consignors to optimize its supply. These are treated as a reduction of consignment revenue at the time of sale. The Company may offer a certain type of buyer incentive in the form of site credits to buyers on current transactions to be applied towards future transactions, which are included in other accrued and current liabilities on the condensed balance sheets.
Contract Liabilities
The Company’s contractual liabilities primarily consist of deferred revenue for material rights primarily related to the tiered consignor commission plan, which are recognized as revenue using a portfolio approach based on the pattern of exercise, and certain buyer incentives. Contract liabilities are recorded in other accrued and current liabilities on the balance sheets and are generally expected to be recognized within one year. Contract liabilities were immaterial as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of consignment revenue consist of credit card fees, packaging, customer service personnel-related costs, website hosting services, and consignor inventory adjustments relating to lost or damaged products. Cost of direct revenue consists of the cost of goods sold, credit card fees, packaging, customer service personnel-related costs, website hosting services, and inventory adjustments. Cost of shipping services revenue consists of the outbound shipping and handling costs to deliver purchased items to buyers, the shipping costs for consigned products returned by buyers to the Company within policy, and an allocation of the credit card fees associated with the shipping fee charged.
Stock-based Compensation
The Company incurs stock-based compensation expense from stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”), performance based restricted stock units (“PSUs”) subject to performance or market conditions, and employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) purchase rights. Stock-based compensation expense related to employees and nonemployees is measured based on the grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options granted and the purchase rights issued under the ESPP using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of RSUs is estimated based on the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant, which is determined based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock. Compensation expense is recognized in the statements of operations over the period during which the employee is required to perform services in exchange for the award (the vesting period of the applicable award) using the straight-line method for awards with only a service condition.
To determine the grant-date fair value of the Company's stock-based payment awards for PSUs subject to performance conditions, the quoted stock price on the date of grant is used. The stock-based compensation expense for PSUs with performance conditions is recognized based on the estimated number of shares that the Company expects will vest and is adjusted on a quarterly basis using the estimated achievement of financial performance targets. For PSUs subject to market conditions, the grant-date fair value is determined using the Monte Carlo simulation model which utilizes multiple input variables to estimate the probability that market conditions will be achieved. These variables include the Company's expected stock price volatility over the expected term of the award, the risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the award, and expected dividends. For PSUs with market conditions, the stock-based compensation expense is recognized on a tranche by
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tranche basis over the requisite service period using the fair value derived from the Monte Carlo simulation model. The compensation expense will be recognized regardless of whether the market condition is ever satisfied, provided the requisite service period is satisfied. For all awards, the Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less from the purchase date to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents primarily consist of investments in short-term money market funds.
Restricted cash consists of cash deposited with a financial institution as collateral for the Company’s letters of credit for its facility leases and the Company’s credit cards. The Company had $15.8 million and $0 in restricted cash as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the statements of cash flows (in thousands):

September 30, 2023December 31, 2022September 30, 2022
Cash and cash equivalents$170,811 $293,793 $300,439 
Restricted cash15,757   
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$186,568 $293,793 $300,439 
Inventory, Net
Inventory consists of finished goods arising from goods returned after the title has transferred from the buyer to the Company as well as finished goods from direct purchases from vendors and consignors. The cost of inventory is an amount equal to that paid to the consignor or vendors. Inventory is valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value using the specific identification method and the Company records provisions, as appropriate, to write down obsolete and excess inventory to estimated net realizable value. After the inventory value is reduced, adjustments are not made to increase it from the estimated net realizable value. Additionally, inventory is recorded net of an allowance for shrinkage which represents the risk of physical loss of inventory. Provisions for inventory shrinkage are estimated based on historical experience and are adjusted based upon physical inventory counts. Provisions to write down inventory to net realizable value and provisions for inventory shrinkage were $8.8 million and $1.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Return reserves, which reduce revenue and cost of sales, are estimated using historical experience. Liabilities for return allowances are included in other accrued and current liabilities on the condensed balance sheets and were $23.2 million and $22.2 million as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. Included in inventory on the Company’s condensed balance sheets are assets totaling $7.2 million and $6.1 million as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, for the rights to recover products from customers associated with its liabilities for return reserves.
Software Development Costs
Proprietary software includes the costs of developing the Company’s internal proprietary business platform and automation projects. The Company capitalizes qualifying proprietary software development costs that are incurred during the application development stage. Capitalization of costs begins when two criteria are met: (1) the preliminary project stage is completed and (2) it is probable that the software will be completed and used for its intended function. Such costs are capitalized in the period incurred. Capitalization ceases and amortization begins when the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use, including the completion of all significant testing. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post-implementation operating activities are expensed as incurred.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The carrying amounts of long-lived assets, including right-of-use assets, property and equipment, net and capitalized proprietary software, are periodically reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable or that the useful life is shorter than originally estimated. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by comparing the carrying amount of assets to future undiscounted net cash flows the assets are expected to generate over their remaining life.
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If the assets are considered to be impaired, the amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value of the impaired assets. If the useful life is shorter than originally estimated, the Company amortizes the remaining carrying value over the revised shorter useful life.
Leases
Contracts that have been determined to convey the right to use an identified asset are evaluated for classification as an operating or finance lease. For the Company’s operating leases, the Company records a lease liability based on the present value of the lease payments at lease inception, using the applicable incremental borrowing rate. The Company estimates the incremental borrowing rate by developing its own synthetic credit rating, corresponding yield curve, and the terms of each lease at the lease commencement date. The corresponding right-of-use asset is recorded based on the corresponding lease liability at lease inception, adjusted for payments made to the lessor at or before the commencement date, initial direct costs incurred and any tenant incentives allowed for under the lease. The Company does not include optional renewal terms or early termination provisions unless the Company is reasonably certain such options would be exercised at the inception of the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets, current portion of operating lease liabilities, and operating lease liabilities, net of current portion are included on the Company’s condensed balance sheets.
The Company has elected the practical expedients that allows for the combination of lease components and non-lease components and to record short-term leases as lease expense on a straight-line basis on the condensed statements of operations. Variable lease payments are recorded as expense as they are incurred.
The Company has finance leases for vehicles and equipment, and the amounts of finance lease right-of-use assets and finance lease liabilities have been immaterial to date.
Convertible Senior Notes, Net
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022, convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash or other assets, or partially in cash, upon conversion, were separately accounted for as long-term debt and equity components (or conversion feature). The debt component represented the Company’s contractual obligation to pay principal and interest and the equity component represented the Company’s option to convert the debt security into equity of the Company or the equivalent amount of cash. Upon issuance, the Company allocated the debt component on the basis of the estimated fair value of a similar liability that does not have an associated convertible feature and the remaining proceeds are allocated to the equity component. The bifurcation of the debt and equity components resulted in a debt discount for the aforementioned notes. The Company uses the effective interest method to amortize the debt discount to interest expense over the amortization period which is the expected life of the debt. Following the adoption of ASU 2020-06, there is no bifurcation of the liability and equity components of the 3.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 (the “2025 Notes”) and the 1.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes” and, together with the 2025 Notes, the “Notes”), and the entire principal of the Notes are accounted for as long-term debt.
Capped Call Transactions
In June 2020 and March 2021, in connection with the issuance of its convertible senior notes, the Company entered into Capped Call Transactions (see Note 7). The Capped Call Transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to the holders of the Company’s common stock upon any conversion of the convertible senior notes and/or offset any cash payments the Company is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted convertible senior notes, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap based on the cap price. The capped calls are classified in stockholders’ equity as a reduction to additional paid-in capital and are not subsequently remeasured as long as the conditions for equity classification continue to be met. The Company monitors the conditions for equity classification, which continues to be met.
Debt Issuance Costs
Debt issuance costs, which consist of direct incremental legal, consulting, banking and accounting fees related to the anticipated debt offering, are amortized to interest expense over the estimated life of the related debt based on the effective interest method. The Company presents debt issuance costs on the condensed balance sheets as a direct deduction from the associated debt. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2022 using the modified retrospective method. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022, a portion of debt issuance costs incurred in connection with the convertible senior notes issued in June 2020 and March 2021 was allocated to the equity component and was recorded as a reduction to additional paid in capital and was not amortized to interest expense over the estimated life of the related debt. Following the adoption of ASU 2020-06, the debt issuance costs previously allocated to the equity component of both the Notes were
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reclassified to debt. As such, all of the debt issuance costs are recorded as a direct deduction from the related principal debt amounts on the balance sheet, and are all amortized to interest expense over the estimated remaining life of the related debt.
Concentrations of Credit Risks
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and accounts receivable. At times, such amount may exceed federally-insured limits. The Company is closely monitoring ongoing events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally. The Company reduces credit risk by placing its cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and investments with major financial institutions with high credit ratings within the United States. The Company has not experienced any realized losses on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash to date; however, no assurances can be provided.
As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, there were no customers that represented 10% or more of the Company’s accounts receivable balance and there were no customers that individually exceeded 10% of the Company’s total revenue for each of the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no developments to recently issued accounting standards, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects on the Company’s condensed financial statements and footnote disclosures, from those disclosed in the 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Note 3. Cash and Cash Equivalents
The following tables summarize the estimated value of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents (in thousands) and do not include restricted cash. There are no unrealized gains or losses related to the restricted cash balance.
September 30, 2023
Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gain
Unrealized
Loss
Fair
Value
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$40,467 $— $— $40,467 
Money market funds130,344 — — 130,344 
Total cash and cash equivalents$170,811 $— $— $170,811 
December 31, 2022
Amortized
Cost
Unrealized
Gain
Unrealized
Loss
Fair
Value
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash$275,742 $— $— $275,742 
Money market funds18,051 — — 18,051 
Total cash and cash equivalents$293,793 $— $— $293,793 
Note 4. Fair Value Measurement
Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis on the condensed balance sheets are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair values. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or an exit price that would be paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The authoritative guidance on fair value measurements establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements as follows:
Level 1—Observable inputs such as unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
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Level 2—Inputs (other than quoted prices included in Level 1) are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
There were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the periods presented.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company’s cash equivalents solely consisted of money market funds, which amounted to $130.3 million and $18.1 million, respectively. Money market funds are measured at net asset value per share and are excluded from the fair value hierarchy.
Fair Value Measurements of Other Financial Instruments
The following table presents the carrying amounts and estimated fair values of the financial instruments that are not recorded at fair value on the condensed balance sheets (in millions):
September 30, 2023
Net Carrying AmountEstimated Fair Value
2025 Convertible senior notes$170.2 $152.6 
2028 Convertible senior notes$281.5 $220.3 
The principal amounts of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes are $172.5 million and $287.5 million, respectively. The difference between the principal amounts of the convertible senior notes and their respective net carrying amounts are the unamortized debt issuance costs (See Note 7).
As of September 30, 2023, the fair value of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, which differs from their carrying value is determined by prices for the convertible senior notes observed in market trading. The market for trading of the convertible senior notes is not considered to be an active market and therefore the estimate of fair value is based on Level 2 inputs, such as interest rates based on the market price on the last trading day for the period.
Note 5. Condensed Balance Sheet Components
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net is recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization are recorded on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Property and equipment, net consists of the following (in thousands):
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Proprietary software$43,003 $39,017 
Furniture and equipment47,612 47,692 
Automobiles2,114 2,119 
Leasehold improvements82,698 86,986 
Property and equipment, gross175,427 175,814 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(68,621)(63,135)
Property and equipment, net$106,806 $112,679 
Depreciation and amortization expense on property and equipment was $7.6 million and $6.6 million for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $22.9 million and $19.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
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During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recorded $0.3 million and $7.5 million of impairment of leasehold improvements and disposal of fixed assets, respectively, related to the closures of several of its office and retail locations as part of the savings plan the Company implemented.
Other Accrued and Current Liabilities
Other accrued and current liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Returns reserve$23,205 $22,233 
Accrued compensation20,267 15,111 
Accrued legal473 484 
Accrued sales tax and other taxes7,094 8,531 
Site credit liability15,491 11,813 
Accrued marketing and outside services5,195 8,729 
Accrued property and equipment1,242 11,417 
Accrued shipping2,268 5,715 
Deferred revenue1,646 3,549 
Accrued interest1,741 1,166 
Other3,837 4,544 
Other accrued and current liabilities$82,459 $93,292 

Note 6. Debt
Revolving Credit Agreement
In April 2021, the Company entered into a loan and security agreement (“Revolving Credit Agreement”) with a lender, to provide a revolving line of credit of up to $50 million. Advances on the line of credit bear interest payable monthly at a variable annual rate equal to the greater of the prime rate plus 0.50% or 4.25%. The credit facility was set to expire in April 2023. In April 2023 the Company signed an amendment with the lender to extend the credit facility through June 2023. As of June 30, 2023, $0 had been drawn on the Revolving Credit Agreement, and the credit facility has expired and was not renewed.
Note 7. Convertible Senior Notes, Net
In June 2020, the Company issued an aggregate principal of $172.5 million of its 2025 Notes, pursuant to an indenture between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The 2025 Notes include $22.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Notes sold to the initial purchasers resulting from the exercise in full of their option to purchase additional Notes. The 2025 Notes will mature on June 15, 2025, unless earlier redeemed or repurchased by the Company or converted.
The Company received net proceeds from the 2025 Notes offering of approximately $165.8 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discount and commission and offering expenses. The Company used approximately $22.5 million of the net proceeds from the 2025 Notes offering to fund the net cost of entering into the capped call transactions described below. The Company intends to use the remainder of the net proceeds for general corporate purposes.
In March 2021, the Company issued an aggregate principal of $287.5 million of its 2028 Notes, pursuant to an indenture between the Company and U.S. Bank National Association, as trustee, in a private offering to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act. The 2028 Notes include $37.5 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2028 Notes sold to the initial purchasers resulting from the exercise in full of their option to purchase additional Notes. The 2028 Notes will mature on March 1, 2028, unless earlier redeemed or repurchased by the Company or converted.
The Company received net proceeds from the 2028 Notes offering of approximately $278.1 million, after deducting the initial purchasers’ discount and commission and offering expenses. The Company used approximately $33.7 million of the
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net proceeds from the 2028 Notes offering to fund the net cost of entering into the capped call transactions described below. The Company intends to use the remainder of the net proceeds for general corporate purposes.
The 2025 Notes accrue interest at a rate of 3.00% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning on December 15, 2020. The initial conversion rate applicable to the 2025 Notes is 56.2635 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2025 Notes (which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $17.77 per share of the Company’s common stock). The 2028 Notes accrue interest at a rate of 1.00% per annum, payable semi-annually in arrears on March 1 and September 1 of each year, beginning on September 1, 2021. The initial conversion rate applicable to the 2028 Notes is 31.4465 shares of common stock per $1,000 principal amount of 2028 Notes (which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $31.80 per share of the Company’s common stock). The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain specified events but will not be adjusted for accrued and unpaid interest. In addition, upon the occurrence of a corporate event, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares for a holder that elects to convert its Notes in connection with such corporate event.
The 2025 Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company’s option at any time, and from time to time, on or after June 20, 2023, and the 2028 Notes will be redeemable, in whole or in part, at the Company's option at any time, and from time to time, on or after March 5, 2025, in each case if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the conversion price then in effect for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive), including the trading day immediately preceding the date on which the Company provides notice of redemption, during any 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the trading day immediately before the date the Company sends the related redemption notice. In addition, calling any Note for redemption will constitute a make-whole fundamental change with respect to that Note, in which case the conversion rate applicable to the conversion of that Note will be increased in certain circumstances if it is converted after it is called for redemption.
Prior to March 15, 2025, in the case of the 2025 Notes, and December 1, 2027, in the case of the 2028 Notes, the applicable Notes will be convertible only under the following circumstances:
During any calendar quarter (and only during such calendar quarter), if the last reported sale price per share of the Company’s common stock exceeds 130% of the applicable conversion price on each applicable trading day for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) in the period of the 30 consecutive trading day period ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter;
During the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period in which, for each day of that period, the trading price per $1,000 principal amount of Notes for such trading day was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock and the applicable conversion rate on such trading day;
Upon the occurrence of specified corporate transactions; or
If the Company calls any notes for redemption.
On and after March 15, 2025, in the case of the 2025 Notes, and December 1, 2027, in the case of the 2028 Notes, until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders may convert all or a portion of their Notes, in multiples of $1,000 principal amount, at any time, regardless of the foregoing circumstances. Upon conversion, the Notes will be settled, at the Company’s election, in cash, shares of the Company’s common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of the Company’s common stock. It is the Company’s current intent to settle conversions of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes through combination settlement, which involves repayment of the principal portion in cash and any excess of the conversion value over the principal amount in shares of its common stock. The conditions allowing holders of either the 2025 Notes or the 2028 Notes to convert were not met as of September 30, 2023.
The Notes are unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of the Company and will rank senior in right of payment to any of future indebtedness of the Company that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the Notes; rank equal in right of payment to any existing and future unsecured indebtedness of the Company that is not so subordinated; be effectively subordinated in right of payment to any secured indebtedness of the Company to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness; and be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities and obligations incurred by future subsidiaries of the Company.
If bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization occurs with respect to the Company (and not solely with respect to a significant subsidiary of the Company), then the principal amount of, and all accrued and unpaid interest on, all of the 2025 Notes then outstanding will immediately become due and payable without any further action or notice by any person. If an
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event of default (other than bankruptcy, insolvency, or reorganization with respect to the Company and not solely with respect to a significant subsidiary of the Company) occurs and is continuing, then, with the exception of certain reporting events of default, the trustee, by notice to the Company, or noteholders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of 2025 Notes or 2028 Notes, as applicable, then outstanding, by notice to us and the trustee, may declare the principal amount of, and all accrued and unpaid interest on, all of the 2025 Notes or 2028 Notes, as applicable, as applicable, the outstanding to become due and payable immediately.
Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022 and in accounting for the issuance of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, the Company separately accounted for the liability and equity components of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes by allocating the proceeds between the liability component and the embedded conversion options, or equity component, due to Company’s ability to settle the applicable series of Notes in cash, its common stock, or a combination of cash and common stock at Company’s option. The allocation was done by first estimating the fair value of the liability component and the residual value was assigned to the equity component. The value of the liability component was calculated by measuring the fair value of a similar liability that does not have an associated convertible feature. The allocation was performed in a manner that reflected the Company's non-convertible debt borrowing rate for similar debt. For the 2025 Notes, the interest rate of 5.67% was used to compute the initial fair value of the liability component of $152.7 million, with a corresponding amount recorded as a discount on the initial issuance of the 2025 Notes of approximately $19.8 million. For the 2028 Notes, the interest rate of 7.18% was used to compute the initial fair value of the liability component of $191.3 million, with a corresponding amount recorded as a discount on the initial issuance of the 2028 Notes of approximately $96.2 million. For the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, the debt discount was recorded to equity and was amortized to the debt liability over the life of the Notes using the effective interest method. For the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, the equity component was not remeasured as long as it continued to meet the conditions for equity classification.
In connection with the issuance of the 2025 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $6.7 million of debt issuance costs, which primarily consisted of initial purchasers’ discounts and legal and other professional fees. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2022, the Company allocated these costs to the liability and equity components based on the allocation of the proceeds. The portion of these costs allocated to the equity component totaling approximately $0.8 million was recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital. The portion of these costs initially allocated to the liability component totaling approximately $5.9 million was recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the debt on the condensed balance sheets and was amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the expected life of the 2025 Notes or approximately its five-year term. The effective interest rate on the liability component of the 2025 Notes for the period from the date of issuance through December 31, 2021 was 6.4%.
In connection with the issuance of the 2028 Notes, the Company incurred approximately $9.4 million of debt issuance costs, which primarily consisted of initial purchasers’ discounts and legal and other professional fees. The Company allocated these costs to the liability and equity components based on the allocation of the proceeds. The portion of these costs allocated to the equity component totaling approximately $3.1 million was recorded as a reduction to additional paid-in capital. The portion of these costs allocated to the liability component totaling approximately $6.3 million was recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the debt on the condensed balance sheets and was amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the expected life of the 2028 Notes or approximately its seven-year term. The effective interest rate on the liability component of the 2028 Notes for the period from the date of issuance through December 31, 2021 was 7.5%.
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted ASU 2020-06 based on a modified retrospective transition method. Under such transition, prior period information for both the 2025 and 2028 Notes has not been retrospectively adjusted.
In accounting for the 2025 Notes after the adoption of ASU 2020-06, the 2025 Notes are accounted for as a single liability, and the carrying amount of the Notes is $170.2 million as of September 30, 2023, with principal of $172.5 million, net of unamortized issuance costs of $2.3 million. The 2025 Notes were classified as long term liabilities as of September 30, 2023. The issuance costs related to the 2025 Notes are being amortized to interest expense over the expected life of the 2025 Notes or approximately its five-year term at an effective interest rate of 3.74%. In accounting for the 2028 Notes after the adoption of ASU 2020-06, the 2028 Notes are accounted for as a single liability, and the carrying amount of the Notes is $281.5 million as of September 30, 2023, with principal of $287.5 million, net of unamortized issuance costs of $6.0 million. The 2028 Notes were classified as long term liabilities as of September 30, 2023. The issuance costs related to the 2028 Notes are being amortized to interest expense over the expected life of the 2028 Notes or approximately its seven-year term at an effective interest rate of 1.45%.
The following tables present the outstanding principal amount, unamortized debt issuance costs, and net carrying amount of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
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2025 Notes
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Principal$172,500 $172,500 
Unamortized debt issuance costs(2,262)(3,204)
Net carrying amount$170,238 $169,296 

2028 Notes
September 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Principal$287,500 $287,500 
Unamortized debt issuance costs(5,970)(6,948)
Net carrying amount$281,530 $280,552 
The following tables set forth the amounts recorded in interest expense related to the 2025 Notes as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Contractual interest expense$1,294 $1,293 $3,881 $3,881 
Amortization of debt issuance costs314 326 942 978 
Total interest and amortization expense$1,608 $1,619 $4,823 $4,859 
The following tables set forth the amounts recorded in interest expense related to the 2028 Notes as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Contractual interest expense$719 $718 $2,156 $2,156 
Amortization of debt issuance costs327 323 978 964 
Total interest and amortization expense$1,046 $1,041 $3,134 $3,120 
Future minimum payments under the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes as of September 30, 2023, are as follows (in thousands):
Amount
Fiscal Year2025 Notes2028 Notes
Remainder of 2023$2,587 $ 
20245,175 2,875 
2025175,088 2,875 
2026 2,875 
2027 2,875 
2028 288,937 
Total future payments182,850 300,437 
Less amounts representing interest(10,350)(12,937)
Total principal amount$172,500 $287,500 

Capped Call Transactions with Respect to the 2025 Notes and 2028 Notes
In connection with the issuance of the 2025 Notes and 2028 Notes, including the initial purchasers’ exercise of the option to purchase additional Notes, the Company entered into capped call transactions with respect to its common stock with certain financial institutions (collectively, the “Counterparties”). The Company paid an aggregate amount of approximately $22.5 million to the Counterparties in connection with the 2025 capped call transactions (the “2025 Capped Calls”) and $33.7
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million to the Counterparties in connection with the 2028 capped call transactions and (the “2028 Capped Calls” and, together with the 2025 Capped Calls, the “Capped Calls”). The 2025 Capped Calls and 2028 Capped Calls cover approximately 9,705,454 shares and 9,040,869 shares of the Company’s common stock at a strike price that corresponds to the initial conversion price of the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, respectively. The 2025 Capped Calls and the 2028 Capped Calls are subject to anti-dilution adjustments that are intended to be substantially identical to those in the 2025 Notes and the 2028 Notes, as applicable, and are exercisable upon conversion of the 2025 Notes or the 2028 Notes, as applicable. The Capped Calls are subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of specified extraordinary events affecting the Company, including merger events, tender offer and announcement events. In addition, the Capped Calls are subject to certain specified additional disruption events that may give rise to a termination of the Capped Calls, including nationalization, insolvency or delisting, changes in law, failures to deliver, insolvency filings and hedging disruptions. The 2025 Capped Calls settle in components commencing on April 16, 2025 with the last component scheduled to expire on June 12, 2025. The 2028 Capped Calls settle in components commencing on December 31, 2027 with the last component scheduled to expire on February 28, 2028.
The cap price of the 2025 Capped Call is initially $27.88 per share, which represents a premium of 100.0% over the closing price of the Company’s common stock of $13.94 per share on June 10, 2020, and is subject to certain adjustments under the terms of the capped call transactions. The cap price of the 2028 Capped Call is initially $48.00 per share, which represents a premium of 100.0% over the closing price of the Company’s common stock of $24.00 per share on March 3, 2021, and is subject to certain adjustments under the terms of the capped call transactions. The Company expects to receive from the Counterparties a number of shares of the Company’s common stock or, at the Company’s election (subject to certain conditions), cash, with an aggregate market value (or, in the case of cash settlement, in an amount) approximately equal to the product of such excess times the number of shares of the Company’s common stock relating to the 2025 and 2028 Capped Calls being exercised.
These Capped Call instruments meet the conditions outlined in ASC 815-40 to be classified in stockholders’ equity, are not accounted for as derivatives, and are not subsequently remeasured as long as the conditions for equity classification continue to be met. The Company recorded a reduction to additional paid-in capital of approximately $22.5 million and $33.7 million related to the premium payments for the 2025 Capped Call and 2028 Capped Call transactions.
Note 8. Share-based Compensation Plans
2019 Equity Incentive Plan
In connection with the Company’s initial public offering, the Company adopted the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2019 Plan”). The 2019 Plan allows the Company to grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units and performance awards to participants. Subject to the terms and conditions of the 2019 Plan, the initial number of shares authorized for grants under the 2019 Plan is 8,000,000. These available shares increase annually by an amount equal to the lesser of 8,000,000 shares, 5% of the number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding on the immediately preceding December 31, or the number of shares determined by the Company’s board of directors.
In February 2022, the Company granted PSUs with financial performance targets to certain employees of the Company. The number of units issued will depend on the achievement of financial metrics relative to the approved performance targets, and can range from 0% to 150% of the target amount. The PSUs are subject to continuous service with the Company and will vest after approximately three years. The PSUs are measured using the fair value at the date of grant. The compensation expense associated with PSUs is recognized based on the estimated number of shares that the Company expects will vest and may be adjusted based on interim estimates of performance against the performance condition. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company has not recognized stock-based compensation expense as attainment of financial performance targets is not considered probable.
In March 2023, the Company granted PSUs under the 2019 Plan subject to the achievement of both market and service conditions to certain employees of the Company. The number of units vested will depend on the achievement of approved market conditions and continuous service with the Company. The PSUs are eligible to vest in three tranches over a five-year performance period. The PSUs are measured using the Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the fair value at the date of grant based on the probability that the market conditions will be met. The compensation expense associated with the PSUs is based on the fair value and is recognized over the requisite service period. The compensation expense will be recognized regardless of whether the market condition is ever satisfied, provided the requisite service period is satisfied.
As of September 30, 2023, there was $50.6 million of total unrecognized compensation expense related to RSUs and PSUs, which are expected to be recognized over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.3 years. As of September 30, 2023, there was no unrecognized compensation expense related to options.
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Inducement Grants
The Company granted stock-based awards outside of the 2019 Plan to the Company’s new Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Technology and Product Officer. These awards were granted as inducements material to their commencement of employment and entry into offer letters with the Company, in accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(c)(4).
The inducement pool consisted of a total of 3,075,000 shares of the Company's common stock, which includes (a) 1,500,000 shares of PSUs that are eligible to vest based on market and service conditions in four tranches over a five-year performance period and (b) 1,575,000 shares of RSUs generally subject to the same terms and conditions as grants that are made under the 2019 Plan. As of September 30, 2023, the unrecognized expense for the PSUs is $1.4 million and the unrecognized expense for RSUs is $2.2 million.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In connection with the Company’s initial public offering, the Company adopted the Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”). The Employee Stock Purchase Plan permits employees to purchase shares of common stock during six-month offering periods at a purchase price equal to the lesser of (1) 85% of the fair market value of a share of common stock on the first business day of such offering period and (2) 85% of the fair market value of a share of common stock on the last business day of such offering period. The initial number of shares of common stock that could be issued under the employee stock purchase plan was 1,750,000 shares. These available shares increase by an amount equal to the lesser of 1,750,000 shares, 1% of the number of shares of common stock outstanding on the immediately preceding December 31, or the number of shares determined by the Company’s board of directors.
There were 469,199 shares purchased by employees under the ESPP during the nine months ended September 30, 2023. There were 282,226 shares purchased by employees under the ESPP during the nine months ended September 30, 2022. There were no shares purchased by employees under the ESPP during the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
As of September 30, 2023, total unrecognized compensation costs related to the 2019 ESPP was $0.1 million which will be amortized over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 0.12 years.

Stock-based Compensation
Total stock-based compensation expense by function was as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Marketing$382 $567 $1,181 $1,774 
Operations and technology3,115 5,038 10,107 15,903 
Selling, general and administrative5,039 5,236 15,005 19,343 
Total$8,536 $10,841 $26,293 $37,020 
During the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company capitalized $0.2 million and $0.4 million of stock-based compensation expense to proprietary software, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company capitalized $0.6 million and $1.3 million of stock-based compensation expense to proprietary software, respectively.
Note 9. Leases
The Company leases its corporate offices, retail spaces and authentication centers under various noncancelable operating leases with terms ranging from one year to fifteen years.
The Company recorded operating lease costs of $5.1 million and $7.2 million for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $17.9 million and $21.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The Company also incurred $1.2 million and $1.5 million of variable lease costs for the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and $3.8 million and $4.3 million of variable lease costs for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The variable lease costs are comprised primarily of the Company’s proportionate share of operating expenses, property taxes and insurance.
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Due to the office and store closures in the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company reviewed its right-of-use assets for impairment. Impairment losses are measured and recorded for the excess of carrying value over its fair value, estimated based on expected future cash flows using discount rate and other quantitative and qualitative factors. As a result, the Company recorded $26.3 million related to the impairment of certain office and store right-of-use assets, for the nine months ended September 30, 2023. No additional impairment was recorded during the three months ended September 30, 2023. The impairment charges are included in restructuring in the condensed statements of operations.
During the three months ended September 30, 2023, the Company entered into agreements to amend certain of its operating leases. The lease for the Company's corporate headquarters in San Francisco, CA was amended to remove one floor of leased space, and the lease for the Company's offices in New York, NY, was amended to remove two floors of leased space. Additionally, during the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company terminated the operating leases for retail locations in Austin, TX, Atlanta, GA, and Miami, FL. The Company treated the lease termination amendments as lease modifications for accounting purposes as of the applicable effective dates of such terminations which resulted in a decrease of $5.7 million and $7.5 million to the related lease liabilities for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively, and $1.4 million to the related right-of-use assets for the nine months ended September 30, 2023. The Company recorded a net gain on the lease terminations of $1.2 million and $0.7 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively. The net gain on lease terminations is included in restructuring in the condensed statement of operations.
Maturities of operating lease liabilities by fiscal year for the Company’s operating leases are as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal YearAmount
Remainder of 2023$7,084 
202426,794 
202527,706 
202627,534 
202723,528 
Thereafter40,666 
Total future minimum payments$153,312 
Less: Imputed interest(23,549)
Present value of operating lease liabilities$129,763 
Supplemental cash flow information related to the Company’s operating leases are as follows (in thousands):
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20232022
Operating cash flows used for operating leases$27,028 $20,138 
Operating lease assets obtained in exchange for operating lease liabilities (including remeasurement of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities due to lease modifications)$6,006 $2,156 
The weighted average remaining lease term and discount rate for the Company’s operating leases are as follows:
September 30, 2023
Weighted average remaining lease term5.7 years
Weighted average discount rate6.0 %
The Company has leases for certain vehicles and equipment that are classified as finance leases. The finance lease right-of-use asset and finance lease liabilities for these vehicle and equipment leases are immaterial as of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.
Note 10. Restructuring
In February 2023, the Company announced a savings plan to reduce its real estate presence and operating expenses through closure of certain retail and office locations (referred to as the “Real Estate Reduction Plan”) and workforce reduction. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company closed two flagship stores (San Francisco, California and Chicago, Illinois), two neighborhood stores (Atlanta, Georgia and Austin, Texas), and two luxury consignment offices (Miami,
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Florida and Washington, D.C.), including any co-located logistics hubs, and reduced its office spaces in San Francisco, California.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recognized $37.4 million in restructuring which consisted of right-of-use asset impairment charge of $26.3 million, leasehold improvements impairment charge of $7.5 million, employee severance of $3.0 million, and other related charges of $1.3 million, partially offset by a $0.7 million gain on lease terminations. The restructuring related charges were recorded on a separate line item in the Company's condensed statement of operations.
Note 11. Commitments and Contingencies
Noncancelable Purchase Commitments
The Company has commitments for cloud services and other services in the ordinary course of business with varying expiration terms through 2027. As of September 30, 2023, there were no material changes to the Company’s noncancelable purchase commitments disclosed in the financial statements in the Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Contingencies
From time to time, the Company is subject to, and it is presently involved in, litigation and other legal proceedings and from time to time, the Company receives inquiries from government agencies. Accounting for contingencies requires the Company to use judgment related to both the likelihood of a loss and the estimate of the amount or range of loss. The Company records a loss contingency when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company discloses material contingencies when a loss is not probable but reasonably possible.
On November 14, 2018, Chanel, Inc. sued the Company in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. The Complaint alleged federal and state law claims of trademark infringement, unfair competition, and false advertising. On February 1, 2019, Chanel, Inc. filed its First Amended Complaint that included substantially similar claims against the Company. On March 4, 2019, the Company filed a Motion to Dismiss the First Amended Complaint, which was granted in part and dismissed in part on March 30, 2020. The surviving claims against the Company include trademark infringement under 15 U.S.C. § 1114, false advertising under 15 U.S.C. § 1125, and unfair competition under New York common law. On May 29, 2020, the Company filed its Answer to the Amended Complaint. On November 3, 2020, the Company sought leave to amend its Answer to assert counterclaims against Chanel, Inc. for violations of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1 & 2, the Donnelly Act, N.Y. Gen. Bus. Law. § 340, and New York common law. The motion for leave to amend was granted on February 24, 2021. On February 25, 2021, the Company filed its First Amended Answer, Affirmative Defenses and Counterclaims against Chanel. The Company’s Counterclaims allege violations of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1 & 2, the Donnelly Act, N.Y. Gen. Bus. Law. § 340, and New York common law. On March 18, 2021, Chanel moved to dismiss the Company’s Counterclaims and moved to strike the Company’s unclean hands affirmative defense. Decisions on Chanel’s motion to dismiss and motion strike are pending. The parties agreed to a stay in April 2021 to engage in settlement discussions. After several mediation sessions, the parties were unable to reach a resolution, and the stay was lifted in November 2021. Chanel then sought a partial stay of discovery on the Company's counterclaims and unclean hands defense while Chanel's motion to dismiss and strike those claims are pending, and on March 10, 2022, the Court granted Chanel's request. The parties have continued to engage in fact discovery regarding Chanel's counterfeiting and false advertising claims against the Company. Fact discovery was scheduled to be completed by August 15, 2023. However, on July 19, 2023, the Court ordered a stay of the case at the parties’ request to enable the parties to attempt mediation again. The parties are scheduling mediation in early 2024. The final outcome of this litigation, including our liability, if any, with respect to Chanel’s claims, is uncertain. An unfavorable outcome in this or similar litigation could adversely affect the Company’s business and could lead to other similar lawsuits. The Company is not able to predict or reasonably estimate the ultimate outcome or possible losses relating to this claim.

Beginning on September 10, 2019, purported shareholder class action complaints were filed against the Company, its officers and directors and the underwriters of its IPO in the San Mateo Superior Court, Marin County Superior Court, and the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. On July 27, 2021, the Company reached an agreement in principle to settle the shareholder class action. On November 5, 2021, plaintiff filed the executed stipulation of settlement and motion for preliminary approval of the settlement with the federal court. On March 24, 2022, the court entered an order preliminarily approving the settlement. On July 28, 2022, the court entered an order finally approving the settlement and dismissing the case. The financial terms of the stipulation of settlement provide that the Company will pay $11.0 million within thirty (30) days of the later of preliminary approval of the settlement or plaintiff’s counsel providing payment instructions. The Company paid the settlement amount on March 29, 2022 with available resources and recorded approximately $11.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 under our Operating expenses as a Legal settlement. One of the plaintiffs in the Marin County case opted out of the federal settlement and is pursuing the claim in Marin County Superior Court. The stay of the state
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court case has been lifted, and the opt out plaintiff filed an amended complaint on October 31, 2022 alleging putative class claims under the Securities Act Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) on behalf of the two shareholders who opted out of the settlement and those who purchased stock from November 21, 2019 through March 9, 2020, based on purported new revelations. The claims are for alleged violations of Sections 11 and 15 of the Securities Act. A hearing on the forthcoming motion for class certification has been set for May 7, 2024. While the Company intends to defend vigorously against this litigation, there can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in its defense. For this reason, the Company cannot currently estimate the loss or range of possible losses it may experience in connection with this litigation.
Indemnifications
In the ordinary course of business, the Company may provide indemnifications of varying scope and terms to vendors, directors, officers and other parties with respect to certain matters including, but not limited to, losses arising out of the breach of such agreements, intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties and other liabilities relating to or arising from the Company's various services, or its acts or omissions. The Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such indemnifications and have not accrued any liabilities related to such obligations in its financial statements.
Note 12. Income Taxes
The Company's provision for income taxes were immaterial for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
The Company does not update its deferred tax assets during interim periods. Although the Company does not update its deferred tax assets during interim periods, the Company adjusted deferred tax assets and corresponding valuation allowance for the impact of the true up of the US return filing in the second quarter of 2023 upon further evaluation of deductions related to stock compensation.
The Company maintained a full valuation allowance of $255.2 million against its gross deferred tax assets which were $291.8 million as of September 30, 2023. The deferred tax assets were primarily comprised of federal and state tax net operating loss carryforwards. Utilization of the net operating loss carryforwards may be subject to annual limitation due to historical or future ownership percentage change rules provided by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and similar state provisions. The annual limitation may result in the expiration of certain net operating loss carryforwards before their utilization.
As of September 30, 2023, the Company had unrecognized tax benefits under ASC 740 Income Taxes of $3.0 million and no applicable interest. There were no unrecognized tax benefits that, if recognized, would affect the Company's effective tax rate as of September 30, 2023. The Company's policy is to account for interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax provision. The Company does not anticipate that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits will significantly increase or decrease within the next twelve months. Due to historical losses, all years are open to examination and adjustment by the taxing authorities.
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Note 13. Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
A reconciliation of the numerator and denominator used in the calculation of the basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Numerator
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(22,949)$(47,258)$(146,779)$(157,835)
Denominator
Weighted-average common shares outstanding used to calculate net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
102,648,790 96,696,417 101,087,793 95,036,618 
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
$(0.22)$(0.49)$(1.45)$(1.66)
The following securities were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders for the periods presented, because including them would have been anti-dilutive (on an as-converted basis):
September 30,
20232022
Options to purchase common stock1,138,465 1,862,110 
Restricted stock units14,191,427 12,429,858 
Estimated shares issuable under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan373,262 478,406 
Assumed conversion of the Convertible Senior Notes18,746,323 18,746,323 
Total34,449,477 33,516,697 
The Convertible Senior Notes issued in June 2020 and in March 2021 are convertible, based on the applicable conversion rate, into cash, shares of the Company’s common stock or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election. The impact of the assumed conversion to diluted net loss per share is computed on an as-converted basis.



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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our condensed financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our audited financial statements and related notes and our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2023. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. See the discussion under “Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future, and our interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results we expect for the full calendar year or any other period.
Overview
We are the world’s largest online marketplace for authenticated resale luxury goods. We are revolutionizing luxury resale by providing an end-to-end service that unlocks supply from consignors and creates a trusted, curated online marketplace for buyers globally. Since our inception in 2011, we have cultivated a loyal and engaged consignor and buyer base through our investments in our technology platform, logistics infrastructure and people. We offer a wide selection of authenticated, primarily pre-owned luxury goods on our online marketplace bearing the brands of thousands of luxury and premium designers. We offer products across multiple categories including women’s and men’s fashion, fine jewelry and watches. We have built a vibrant online marketplace that we believe expands the overall luxury market, promotes the recirculation of luxury goods and contributes to a more sustainable world.
We have transformed the luxury consignment experience by removing the friction and pain points inherent in the traditional consignment model. For consignors, we offer concierge at-home consultation and pickup as well as virtual consultations via online face-to-face platforms. Our larger footprint flagship retail stores, (“Flagship Stores”), and smaller footprint neighborhood retail stores, (“Neighborhood Stores”), provide an alternative location to drop off consigned items and an opportunity to interact with our authentication experts. Consignors may also utilize our complimentary shipping directly to our authentication centers. We leverage our proprietary transactional database and market insights from approximately 35.9 million item sales since our inception to deliver optimal pricing and rapid sell-through. For buyers, we offer highly coveted and exclusive authenticated pre-owned luxury goods at attractive values, as well as a high-quality experience befitting the products we offer. Our online marketplace is powered by our proprietary technology platform, including consumer facing applications and purpose-built software that supports our complex, single-SKU inventory management system.
The substantial majority of our revenue is generated by consignment sales. We also generate revenue from other services and direct sales.
Consignment revenue. When we sell goods through our online marketplace or retail stores on behalf of our consignors, we retain a percentage of the proceeds, which we refer to as our take rate. Take rates vary depending on the total value of goods sold through our online marketplace on behalf of a particular consignor as well as the category and price point of the items. In the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, our overall take rate on consigned goods was 38.1% and 36.0%, respectively. The increase in our take rate was due to the update of our commission structure (effective November 1, 2022). Additionally, we earn revenue from our subscription program, First Look, in which we offer buyers early access to the items we sell in exchange for a monthly fee.
Direct revenue. When we accept out of policy returns from buyers, or when we make direct purchases from businesses and consignors, we take ownership of goods and retain 100% of the proceeds when the goods subsequently sell through our online marketplace or retail stores.
Shipping services revenue. When we deliver purchased items to our buyers, we charge shipping fees to buyers for the outbound shipping and handling services. We also generate shipping services revenue from the shipping fees for consigned products returned by our buyers to us within policy. Shipping services revenue excludes the effect of buyer incentives and sales tax.
We generate revenue from orders processed through our website, mobile app and retail stores. Our omni-channel experience enables buyers to purchase anytime and anywhere. We have a global base of more than 34.4 million members as of September 30, 2023. We count as a member any user who has registered an email address on our website or downloaded our mobile app, thereby agreeing to our terms of service.
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Through September 30, 2023, we have cumulatively paid more than $3.8 billion in commissions to our consignors. Our gross merchandise value (“GMV”) decreased by 8% to $407.6 million from $440.7 million in the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our GMV decreased by 4% to $1,275.3 million from $1,323.0 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Additionally, our net merchandise value (“NMV”) decreased by 7% to $302.9 million from $325.1 million in the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and by 3% to $934.6 million from $968.1 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our total revenue decreased by 7% to $133.2 million from $142.7 million in the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and decreased by 9% to $405.9 million from $443.8 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. In the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, our gross profit was $94.1 million and $85.8 million, respectively, representing an increase of 10%. In the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, our gross profit was $270.2 million and $252.1 million, respectively, representing an increase of 7%. See “—Impact of Public Health Emergencies and Macroeconomic Conditions on our Business” below.
Impact of Public Health Emergencies and Macroeconomic Conditions on Our Business
The impact of public health emergencies or outbreaks of epidemics, pandemics, or contagious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic has affected, and may continue to affect, our business and results of operations. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, our top priority has been to protect the health and safety of our employees and our customers. Macroeconomic uncertainty and inflationary pressure have and may in the future drive lower demand for the end customer and increase costs of labor and shipping.
Recent Business Developments
On February 15, 2023, we implemented a savings plan intended to reduce operating expenses by (a) terminating approximately 230 employees, representing approximately 7% of our workforce, and (b) reducing our real estate presence (see Note 9 — Leases, for further information). We may not be able to fully realize the cost savings and benefits initially anticipated from the savings plan, and the expected costs may be greater than expected. See “Risk Factors-Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - The savings plan we implemented in February 2023 may not result in anticipated savings, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected and could disrupt our business.”
Other Factors Affecting Our Performance
Other key business and marketplace factors, independent of the health and economic impact of public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic and macroeconomic conditions, impact our business. To analyze our business performance, determine financial forecasts and help develop long-term strategic plans, we focus on the factors described below. While each of these factors presents significant opportunity for our business, collectively, they also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order to sustain our growth, improve our operating results and achieve and maintain our profitability.
Consignors and Buyers
Consignor growth and retention. We grow our sales by increasing the supply of luxury goods offered through our consignment online marketplace. We grow our supply both by attracting new consignors and by creating lasting engagement with existing consignors. We generate leads for new consignors principally through our advertising activity. We convert those leads into active consignors through the activities of our sales professionals, who are trained and incentivized to identify and source high-quality, coveted luxury goods from consignors. Our sales professionals form a consultative relationship with consignors and deliver a high-quality, rapid consigning experience. Our existing relationships with consignors allow us to unlock valuable supply across multiple categories, including women’s fashion, men’s fashion, jewelry and watches. Using artificial intelligence to assist our pricing team, we leverage our proprietary transactional database and market insights based on more than 35.9 million item sales since inception to deliver consignors optimal pricing and rapid sell-through.
Our growth has been driven in significant part by repeat sales by existing consignors concurrent with growth of our consignor base. The percentage of GMV from repeat consignors in the three months ended September 30, 2023 was 83% as compared to 80% for the three months ended September 30, 2022.
Buyer growth and retention. We grow our business by attracting and retaining buyers. We attract and retain buyers by offering highly coveted, authenticated, pre-owned luxury goods at attractive values and delivering a high-quality, luxury experience. We measure our success in attracting and retaining buyers by tracking buyer satisfaction and purchasing activity over time. We have experienced higher than average buyer satisfaction, as evidenced by our buyer net promoter score of 55 in
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2022, and compared to the online shopping industry average of 41 according to NICE Satmetrix U.S. Consumer 2022 data. If we fail to continue to attract and retain our buyer base to our online marketplace, our operating results would be adversely affected.
We believe there is substantial opportunity to grow our business by having buyers also become consignors and vice versa. During the three months ended September 30, 2022, we updated the way we measure buyers who have become consignors and vice versa to include the last 12 months of activity, where previously we had measured using only the last quarter. As of September 30, 2023, 15% of our buyers during the last twelve months had become consignors at any point in that time, and 49% of our consignors during the last twelve months had become buyers at any point in that time. We believe our updated method of measuring buyers who have become consignors and vice versa more accurately reflects the flywheel that enhances the network effect of our online marketplace. If we fail to continue to attract and retain our buyer base to our online marketplace, our operating results would be adversely affected.
Scaling operations and technology. To support the future growth of our business, we continue to invest in physical infrastructure, talent and technology. We principally conduct our intake, authentication, merchandising and fulfillment operations in our leased authentication centers located in Arizona and New Jersey comprising an aggregate of approximately 1.4 million square feet of space. We also operate retail stores in several geographies. In addition to scaling our physical infrastructure, growing our single-SKU business operations requires that we attract, train and retain highly-skilled personnel for purposes of authentication, copywriting, merchandising, pricing and fulfilling orders. We have invested substantially in technology to automate our operations and support growth, including proprietary machine learning technology to support efficiency and quality. We continue to strategically invest in technology, as innovation positions us to scale and support growth into the future.
Seasonality. Historically, we have observed trends in seasonality of supply and demand in our business. Specifically, our supply increases in the third and fourth quarters, and our demand increases in the fourth quarter. As a result of this seasonality, we typically see stronger AOV and more rapid sell-through in the fourth quarter.
Key Financial and Operating Metrics
The key operating and financial metrics that we use to assess the performance of our business are set forth below for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022.
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
(In thousands, except AOV and percentages)
GMV$407,608 $440,659 $1,275,315 $1,323,028 
NMV$302,912 $325,105 $934,635 $968,124 
Consignment revenue$102,852 $93,874 $302,072 $274,780 
Direct revenue$17,356 $34,005 $63,196 $125,474 
Shipping services revenue$12,964 $14,824 $40,663 $43,584 
Number of orders794 952 2,474 2,764 
Take rate38.1 %36.0 %37.4 %36.0 %
Active buyers954 950 954 950 
AOV$513 $463 $515 $479 
% of GMV from repeat buyers87.4 %84.2 %86.9 %84.6 %
GMV
Gross merchandise value (“GMV”) represents the total amount paid for goods across our online marketplace in a given period. We do not reduce GMV to reflect product returns or order cancellations. GMV includes amounts paid for both consigned goods and our inventory net of platform-wide discounts and excludes the effect of buyer incentives, shipping fees and sales tax. Platform-wide discounts are made available to all buyers on the online marketplace, and impact commissions paid to consignors. Buyer incentives apply to specific buyers and consist of coupons or promotions that offer credits in connection with purchases on our platform. In addition to revenue, we believe this is an important measure of the scale and growth of our online marketplace and a key indicator of the health of our consignor ecosystem. We monitor trends in GMV to inform budgeting and operational decisions to support and promote growth in our business and to monitor our success in adapting our
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business to meet the needs of our consignors and buyers. While GMV is the primary driver of our revenue, it is not a proxy for revenue or revenue growth. See Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Revenue Recognition—Consignment Revenue.
NMV
Net merchandise value (“NMV”) represents the value of sales from both consigned goods and our inventory net of platform-wide discounts less product returns and order cancellations and excludes the effect of buyer incentives, shipping fees and sales tax. We believe NMV is a supplemental measure of the scale and growth of our online marketplace. Like GMV, NMV is not a proxy for revenue or revenue growth.
Consignment Revenue
Consignment revenue is generated from the sale of pre-owned luxury goods through our online marketplace and retail stores on behalf of consignors. We retain a portion of the proceeds received, which we refer to as our take rate. We recognize consignment revenue, net of allowances for product returns, order cancellations, buyer incentives and adjustments. We also generate revenue from subscription fees paid by buyers for early access to products.
Direct Revenue
Direct revenue is generated from the sales of company-owned inventory. We recognize direct revenue upon shipment of the goods sold, based on the gross purchase price net of allowances for product returns, buyer incentives and adjustments.

Shipping Services Revenue
Shipping services revenue is generated from shipping fees we charge to buyers for outbound shipping and handling activities related to delivering purchased items to our buyers. We also generate shipping services revenue from the shipping fees for consigned products returned by our buyers to us within policy. We recognize shipping services revenue over time as the shipping activity occurs. Shipping services revenue excludes the effect of buyer incentives and sales tax.
Number of Orders
Number of orders means the total number of orders placed across our online marketplace and retail stores in a given period. We do not reduce number of orders to reflect product returns or order cancellations.
Take Rate
Take rate is a key driver of our revenue and provides comparability to other marketplaces. The numerator used to calculate our take rate is equal to net consignment sales and the denominator is equal to the numerator plus consignor commissions. Net consignment sales represent the value of sales from consigned goods net of platform-wide discounts less consignor commission, product returns and order cancellations. We exclude direct revenue from our calculation of take rate because direct revenue represents the sale of inventory owned by us, which costs are included in cost of direct revenue. Our take rate reflects the high level of service that we provide to our consignors across multiple touch points and the consistently high velocity of sales for their goods. In November 2022, we updated our take rate structure with the goals of optimizing take rate, limiting consignment of lower value items, and increasing supply of higher value items. We continue to assess the impact of our updated take rate structure and may implement further changes to increase the supply of mid-value items. Previously, our take rate was primarily based on a tiered commission structure for consignors, where the more they sell the higher percent commission they earn. Consignors typically started at a 55% commission (which equals a 45% take rate for us) and could earn up to a 70% commission. In addition, there were commission exceptions from the tiered commission structure based on category and price point of the items.
Beginning in November 2022, the take rate structure is primarily based on the category and the price point of the sold items. For example, under the updated take rate structure, consignors can earn 20% commission on all sold items under $100, and up to 90% commission on watches sold for over $7,500. We launched a pricing tool for our consignors that provides detail on commission rates for specific categories and other aspects of the take rate structure. Consignors are eligible to receive additional commissions based on total net sales under an added tiered commission structure. Management assesses changes in take rates by monitoring the volume of GMV and take rate across each discrete commission grouping, encompassing commission tiers and exceptions.
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Active Buyers
Active buyers include buyers who purchased goods through our online marketplace during the 12 months ended on the last day of the period presented, irrespective of returns or cancellations. We believe this metric reflects scale, brand awareness, buyer acquisition and engagement.
Average Order Value (“AOV”)
Average order value (“AOV”) means the average value of all orders placed across our online marketplace and retail stores, excluding the effect of buyer incentives, shipping fees and sales taxes. Our focus on luxury goods across multiple categories drives a consistently strong AOV. Our AOV reflects both the average price of items sold as well as the number of items per order. Our AOV is a key driver of our operating leverage.

Percent of GMV from Repeat Buyers
Repeat buyers represents buyers who made a purchase in the months subsequent to the month they made their initial purchase across our online marketplace and retail stores. GMV from repeat buyers reflects purchases made after their initial purchase month.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA is a key performance measure that our management uses to assess our operating performance. Because Adjusted EBITDA facilitates internal comparisons of our historical operating performance on a more consistent basis, we use this measure as an overall assessment of our performance, to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies for business planning purposes and for incentive and compensation purposes. Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled metrics of other companies.
Adjusted EBITDA means net loss before interest income, interest expense, other (income) expense net, provision for income taxes, and depreciation and amortization, further adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation, payroll taxes on employee stock transactions, restructuring, CEO separation benefits, CEO transition costs, and certain one-time expenses. Adjusted EBITDA provides a basis for comparison of our business operations between current, past and future periods by excluding items that we believe are not indicative of our core operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure. Adjusted EBITDA has certain limitations as the measure excludes the impact of certain expenses that are included in our statements of operations that are necessary to run our business and should not be considered as an alternative to net loss or any other measure of financial performance calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
In particular, the exclusion of certain expenses in calculating Adjusted EBITDA facilitates operating performance comparisons on a period-to-period basis and, in the case of exclusion of the impact of stock-based compensation and the related employer payroll tax expense on employee stock transactions, excludes an item that we do not consider to be indicative of our core operating performance. Investors should, however, understand that stock-based compensation and the related employer payroll tax expense will be a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of the compensation provided to our employees. Accordingly, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management and board of directors.
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The following table provides a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation:
Net loss$(22,949)$(47,258)$(146,779)$(157,835)
Depreciation and amortization7,744 7,195 23,530 20,255 
Interest income(2,260)(1,002)(6,717)(1,360)
Interest expense2,673 2,675 8,018 8,014 
Provision for income taxes47 63 247 96 
EBITDA(14,745)(38,327)(121,701)(130,830)
Stock-based compensation (1)
8,536 10,841 26,293 37,020 
 CEO separation benefits (2)
— — — 902 
 CEO transition costs (3)
— 452 159 1,018 
Payroll taxes expense on employee stock transactions74 137 142 412 
Legal fees reimbursement benefit (4)
— (1,400)— (1,400)
Legal settlement— 152 1,100 456 
Restructuring (5)
(856)— 37,396 275 
Other (income) expense, net— (6)— (133)
Adjusted EBITDA$(6,991)$(28,151)$(56,611)$(92,280)
(1) The stock-based compensation expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 includes a one-time charge of $1.0 million related to the modification of certain equity awards pursuant to the terms of the transition and separation agreement entered into with our founder, Julie Wainwright, in connection with her resignation as Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) on June 6, 2022 (the “Separation Agreement”).
(2) The CEO separation benefit charges for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 consists of base salary, bonus and benefits for the 2022 fiscal year, as well as an additional twelve months of base salary and benefits payable to Julie Wainwright pursuant to the Separation Agreement.
(3) The CEO transition charges for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 consist of general and administrative fees, including legal and recruiting expenses, as well as retention bonuses for certain executives incurred in connection with our founder's resignation. The CEO transition charges for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 consists of retention bonuses for certain executives incurred in connection with our founder's resignation on June 6, 2022.
(4) During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, we received insurance reimbursement of $1.4 million related to a legal settlement expense.
(5) Restructuring for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 consists of employee severance payments and benefits. Restructuring for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 consists of impairment of right-of-use assets and property and equipment, employee severance charges, gain on lease terminations, and other charges, including legal and transportation expenses.
Components of our Operating Results
Revenue
Our revenue is comprised of consignment revenue, direct revenue and shipping services revenue.
Consignment revenue. We generate the substantial majority of our revenue from the sale of pre-owned luxury goods through our online marketplace and retail stores on behalf of consignors. For consignment sales, we retain a percentage of the proceeds received, which we refer to as our take rate. We recognize consignment revenue, net of allowances for product returns, order cancellations, buyer incentives and adjustments. Additionally, we generate revenue from subscription fees paid by buyers for early access to products, but to date our subscription revenue has not been material.
Direct revenue. We generate direct revenue from the sale of items that we own, which we refer to as our inventory. We generally acquire inventory when we accept out of policy returns from buyers, and when we make direct purchases from businesses and consignors. We recognize direct revenue upon shipment based on the gross purchase price paid by buyers for goods, net of allowances for product returns, buyer incentives and adjustments.
Shipping services revenue. We generate shipping services revenue from the outbound shipping and handling fees we charge when delivering purchased items to our buyers. We also generate shipping services revenue from the shipping fees for consigned products returned by our buyers to us within policy. We recognize shipping services revenue over time as the shipping activity occurs. Shipping services revenue excludes the effect of buyer incentives and sales tax.
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Cost of Revenue
Cost of consignment revenue consists of credit card fees, packaging, customer service personnel-related costs, website hosting services, and consignor inventory adjustments related to lost or damaged products. Cost of direct revenue consists of the cost of goods sold, credit card fees, packaging, customer service personnel-related costs, website hosting services, and inventory adjustments for lower of cost or net realizable value provisions and for lost or damaged products. Cost of shipping services revenue consists of the outbound shipping and handling costs to deliver purchased items to our buyers, the shipping costs for consigned products returned by our buyers to us within policy, and an allocation of the credit card fees associated with the shipping fee charged.
Marketing
Marketing expense comprises the cost of acquiring and retaining consignors and buyers, including the cost of television, digital and direct mail advertising. Marketing expense also includes personnel-related costs for employees engaged in these activities. We expect these expenses to continue to decrease as a percentage of revenue.
Operations and Technology
Operations and technology expense principally includes personnel-related costs for employees involved with the authentication, merchandising and fulfillment of goods sold through our online marketplace and retail stores, as well as our general information technology expense. Operations and technology expense also includes allocated facility and overhead costs, costs related to our retail stores, facility supplies, inbound consignment shipping costs and depreciation of hardware and equipment, as well as research and development expense for technology associated with managing and improving our operations. We capitalize a portion of our proprietary software and technology development costs. As such, operations and technology expense also includes amortization of capitalized technology development costs. We expect operations and technology expense to increase in future periods to support our growth, including continuing to invest in automation and other technology improvements to support and drive efficiency in our operations. These expenses may vary from year to year as a percentage of revenue, depending primarily upon when we choose to make more significant investments. We expect these expenses to continue to decrease as a percentage of revenue.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expense is principally comprised of personnel-related costs for our sales professionals and employees involved in finance and administration. Selling, general and administrative expense also includes allocated facilities and overhead costs and professional services, including accounting and legal advisors. We expect these expenses to continue to decrease as a percentage of revenue.
Restructuring
Restructuring expense is primarily comprised of right-of-use asset and fixed asset impairments, severance benefits, and other related charges, including net gain on lease terminations. Impairment losses are measured and recorded for the excess of carrying value over its fair value, estimated based on expected future cash flows using discount rate and other quantitative and qualitative factors. The assumptions used such as projected future cash flows, discount rates, and determination of appropriate market comparable, are subject to volatility and may differ from actual results.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes consists primarily of state minimum taxes in the United States. We have a full valuation allowance for our net deferred tax assets primarily consisting of net operating loss carryforwards, accruals and reserves, stock-based compensation, fixed assets, and other book-to-tax timing differences. We expect to maintain this full valuation allowance for the foreseeable future.
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Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations (in thousands) and such data as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue:
Consignment revenue$102,852 $93,874 $302,072 $274,780 
Direct revenue17,356 34,005 63,196 125,474 
Shipping services revenue12,964 14,824 40,663 43,584 
Total revenue133,172 142,703 405,931 443,838 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of consignment revenue13,577 15,206 43,681 43,193 
Cost of direct revenue15,686 28,721 61,162 105,415 
Cost of shipping services revenue9,837 12,999 30,859 43,149 
Total cost of revenue39,100 56,926 135,702 191,757 
Gross profit94,072 85,777 270,229 252,081 
Operating expenses:
Marketing11,591 13,511 44,460 48,455 
Operations and technology61,038 70,782 194,645 207,159 
Selling, general and administrative44,788 47,012 138,959 147,410 
Restructuring
(856)— 37,396 275 
Total operating expenses116,561 131,305 415,460 403,299 
Loss from operations(22,489)(45,528)(145,231)(151,218)
Interest income2,260 1,002 6,717 1,360 
Interest expense(2,673)(2,675)(8,018)(8,014)
Other income (expense), net— — 133 
Loss before provision for income taxes(22,902)(47,195)(146,532)(157,739)
Provision for income taxes47 63 247 96 
Net loss$(22,949)$(47,258)$(146,779)$(157,835)

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Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue:
Consignment revenue77 %66 %74 %62 %
Direct revenue13 24 16 28 
Shipping services revenue10 10 10 10 
Total revenue100 100 100 100 
Cost of revenue:
Cost of consignment revenue10 11 11 10 
Cost of direct revenue12 20 15 24 
Cost of shipping services revenue
Total cost of revenue29 40 34 43 
Gross profit71 60 66 57 
Operating expenses:
Marketing11 11 
Operations and technology46 50 48 47 
Selling, general and administrative34 33 34 33 
Restructuring
(1)— — 
Total operating expenses88 92 102 91 
Loss from operations(17)(32)(36)(34)
Interest income— 
Interest expense(2)(2)(2)(2)
Other income (expense), net— — — — 
Loss before provision for income taxes(17)(33)(36)(36)
Provision for income taxes— — — — 
Net loss(17)%(33)%(36)%(36)%
Comparison of the Three Months Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022
Consignment Revenue
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Consignment revenue$102,852 $93,874 $8,978 10 %
Consignment revenue increased by $9.0 million, or 10% in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. The increase in revenue was driven by an 11% increase in AOV and a 210 basis point improvement in our take rate during the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. Higher AOV was driven by a year-over-year increase in average selling prices driven by a shift toward higher-value items and reduced lower-value items, partially offset by a decrease in units per transaction.
Overall GMV decreased by 8% during the three months ended September 30, 2023. The decrease in GMV was driven by lower volume, offset by a higher take rate and favorable returns and cancellations rate. Our take rate increased to 38.1% from 36.0% during the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022 due to the update of our commission structure which went into effect on November 1, 2022 and a shift in mix of products sold toward higher-value items. Additionally, returns and cancellations as a percentage of GMV improved for the three months ended September 30, 2023 to 25.7% from 26.2% for the three months ended September 30, 2022.
Direct Revenue
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Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Direct revenue$17,356 $34,005 $(16,649)(49)%
Direct revenue decreased by $16.6 million, or 49%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. The decrease was primarily driven by our planned actions to minimize vendor-purchased company-owned inventory as the margin profile of our direct revenue is lower than consignment revenue. We recognize direct revenue on a gross basis upon shipment of the purchased good to the buyer. Direct revenue as a percentage of total revenue may vary from period to period primarily based on the growth of consignment revenue. We anticipate direct revenue to decrease as a percentage of total revenue, as we have acted to limit the amount of direct purchases from businesses and plan to continue to do so in the future, but we anticipate the rate of decline to moderate over time.

Shipping Services Revenue
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Shipping services revenue$12,964 $14,824 $(1,860)(13)%
Shipping services revenue decreased by $1.9 million, or 13%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022 primarily due to the decrease in the number of orders in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022.
Cost of Consignment Revenue
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Cost of consignment revenue $13,577 $15,206 $(1,629)(11)%
Cost of consignment revenue decreased by $1.6 million, or 11%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to a decrease in consignor inventory adjustments related to lost or damaged products and a decrease in credit card fees associated with consignment sales.
Consignment revenue gross margin increased by 300 basis points in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022 primarily driven by the improvement in take rate and the resulting increase in consignment revenue.
Cost of Direct Revenue
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Cost of direct revenue$15,686 $28,721 $(13,035)(45)%
Cost of direct revenue decreased by $13.0 million, or 45%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. The decrease was primarily attributable to the decrease in direct revenue compared to the prior year.
Direct revenue gross margin decreased by 592 basis points for the three months ended September 30, 2023, primarily driven by strategic liquidation of company owned inventory sold at discounted prices, which resulted in sell through of inventory that was previously reserved. The margin profile of our direct revenue is lower than consignment revenue.
Cost of Shipping Services Revenue
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Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Cost of shipping services revenue$9,837 $12,999 $(3,162)(24)%
Cost of shipping services revenue decreased by $3.2 million, or 24%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022, primarily due to a decrease in the number of orders and realizing benefits of cost savings initiatives.
Shipping services revenue gross margin increased by 1,181 basis points for the three months ended September 30, 2023, primarily due to decreased costs related to cost saving initiatives.
Our total gross margin increased by 1,053 basis points in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022 due to the decrease in direct revenue as a percentage of total revenue and the improvement in take rate. Gross margin may vary from period to period.
Marketing
Three Months Ended September 30,Change
20232022Amount%
(In thousands, except percentage)
Marketing$11,591 $13,511 $(1,920)(14)%
Marketing expense decreased by $1.9 million, or 14%, in the three months ended September 30, 2023 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2022. The decrease was primarily due to decreased advertising costs as we gain more efficiency.
As a percent of revenue, marketing expense remained flat at 9% in the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. These expenses may vary from period to period as a percentage of revenue, depending primarily upon our marketing investments. We expect these expenses to decrease as a percentage of revenue over the longer term.
Operations and Technology
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