485APOS 1 etf485aspectrumfilingbody.htm 485APOS ETF 485A Spectrum QD 040120 Combined Document


Registration No. 333-201935
Investment Company Act of 1940 File No. 811-23029

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________
FORM N-1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
X
Post-Effective Amendment No. 93
X
and/or
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
X
Amendment No. 95
X
(Check Appropriate Box or Boxes)
 
_________________
PRINCIPAL EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
_________________
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(515) 235-1209
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)
_________________
Name and Address of Agent for Service:
Britney L. Schnathorst
Principal Financial Group
Des Moines, IA 50392
_________________
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: immediately
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)
____    immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
____    on (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)
____    60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)
____    on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)
XX     75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
____    on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485
If appropriate, check the following box:
____
This post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.
Title of Securities Being Registered: Shares of Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF.
EXPLANATORY NOTE
The Amendment is being filed as an annual update to the Registrant’s registration statement. The Amendment includes the following: (1) facing page; (2) Part A; (3) Part B; (4) Part C; and (5) signature pages.


 

PRINCIPAL EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS
The date of this Prospectus is ________________
Fund
Ticker Symbol
Principal U.S. Listing Exchange
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF

NYSE Arca















Beginning on November 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the report. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.
If you already elected to receive such reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you do not need to take any action. If you have not previously elected electronic delivery and you own these shares through a financial intermediary, you may contact your financial intermediary to enroll in electronic delivery. Please note that not all financial intermediaries may offer this service. You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge.
If you own these shares through a financial intermediary, you may contact your financial intermediary or follow instructions included with this disclosure to elect to continue to receive paper copies of reports. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds with the Fund complex or to the shares you own through your financial intermediary.





The Securities and Exchange Commission has not approved or disapproved these securities or passed upon the adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.







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TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
FUND SUMMARY
 
PRINCIPAL SPECTRUM QUALIFIED DIVIDEND ACTIVE ETF
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS
DISTRIBUTOR AND OTHER FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS
PRICING OF FUND SHARES
PURCHASE AND SALE OF FUND SHARES
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS
TAX CONSIDERATIONS
DISTRIBUTION PLANS AND INTERMEDIARY COMPENSATION
FUND ACCOUNT INFORMATION
APPENDIX A - DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS
A
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
B



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PRINCIPAL SPECTRUM QUALIFIED DIVIDEND ACTIVE ETF
Objective:     The Fund seeks to provide current income.
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund ("Shares"). Investors may pay brokerage commissions on their purchases and sales of Shares, which are not reflected in the table or the example below.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees
0.60%
Other Expenses
—%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses (1)
0.60%
(1) 
The investment management agreement (the “Management Agreement”) between the Fund and Principal Global Investors, LLC (“PGI”) provides that, for the duration of the Management Agreement, PGI will pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except for the Management Fee, payments made under each Series 12b-1 plan (if or when such fees are imposed), brokerage commissions and other expenses connected to the execution of portfolio transactions, interest expense, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses.
Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.
The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated . The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
 
1 year
3 years
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
$61
$192
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. This is a new fund and does not yet have a portfolio turnover rate to disclose.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund primarily invests in preferred securities and capital securities of U.S. and non-U.S. issuers. The Fund seeks securities that, at the time of issuance, are eligible to pay dividends that qualify for favorable federal income tax treatment, such as dividends treated as “qualified dividend income” (“QDI”) or qualified dividends from real estate investment trusts (“REITS”), but the Fund also invests in securities that are not eligible for such treatment.
Examples of preferred securities in which the Fund invests include preferred stock, certain depositary receipts, REITs, and various types of junior subordinated debt. Such preferred securities generally pay fixed and floating rate distributions and are junior to all forms of the company's senior debt, but may have "preference" over common stock in the payment of distributions and the liquidation of a company's assets. Capital securities are securities issued by financial institutions and other corporate issuers for purposes of satisfying regulatory capital requirements of obtaining agency credit. Examples of capital securities in which the Fund invests include subordinated debt securities, certain preferred securities, and contingent convertible securities (“Cocos”). Cocos are hybrid debt securities typically issued by non-US banking institutions that have contractual equity conversion or principal write-down features that are triggered by regulatory capital thresholds or regulatory actions calling into question the issuing banking institution’s continued viability as a going-concern if the conversion trigger were not exercised.
The Fund invests in investment grade securities and in below investment grade securities (sometimes called “high yield” or "junk"). The Fund is not managed to a particular maturity or duration. The Fund concentrates its investments (invests more than 25% of its net assets) in securities in one or more industries (i.e., banking, insurance and commercial finance) within the financial services sector.


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Principal Risks
The value of your investment in the Fund changes with the value of the Fund's investments. Many factors affect that value, and it is possible to lose money by investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit of a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. The principal risks of investing in the Fund are listed below in alphabetical order and not in order of significance.
Capital Securities Risk. In addition to the risks associated with other types of preferred securities and fixed-income securities, investing in capital securities includes the risk that the value of securities may decline in response to changes in legislation and regulations applicable to financial institutions and financial markets, increased competition, adverse changes in general or industry-specific economic conditions, or unfavorable interest rates.
Contingent Convertible Securities Risk. In addition to the general risks associated with fixed-income securities and convertible securities, the risks of investing in contingent convertible securities (“CoCos”) include the risk that a CoCo may be written down, written off or converted into an equity security when the issuer’s capital ratio falls below a specified trigger level, or in a regulator’s discretion depending on the regulator’s judgment about the issuer’s solvency prospects. Due to these features, CoCos may have substantially greater risk than other securities in times of financial stress. If the trigger level is breached, the issuer’s decision to write down, write off or convert a CoCo may result in the fund's complete loss on an investment in CoCos with no chance of recovery even if the issuer remains in existence.
Dividend-Oriented Stocks Risk. Companies that have paid regular dividends to shareholders may decrease or eliminate dividend payments in the future. For example, a sharp rise in interest rates or economic downturn could cause a company to unexpectedly reduce or eliminate its dividend. Additionally, the Fund’s performance during a broad market advance could suffer because dividend-paying securities may not experience the same capital appreciation as non-dividend paying securities.
Fixed-Income Securities Risk. Fixed-income securities are subject to interest rate, credit quality, and liquidity risks. The market value of fixed-income securities generally declines when interest rates rise, and increased interest rates may adversely affect the liquidity of certain fixed-income securities. Moreover, an issuer of fixed-income securities could default on its payment obligations due to increased interest rates or for other reasons.
Foreign Securities Risk. The risks of foreign securities include loss of value as a result of: political or economic instability; nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation; settlement delays; and limited government regulation (including less stringent reporting, accounting, and disclosure standards than are required of U.S. companies).
High Yield Securities Risk. High yield fixed-income securities (commonly referred to as "junk bonds") are subject to greater credit quality risk than higher rated fixed-income securities and should be considered speculative.
Industry Concentration Risk . A fund that concentrates investments in a particular industry or group of industries has greater exposure than other funds to market, economic and other factors affecting that industry or group of industries.
Financial Services. A fund concentrating in financial services companies may be more susceptible to adverse economic or regulatory occurrences affecting financial services companies. Financial companies may be adversely affected in certain market cycles, including periods of rising interest rates, which may restrict the availability and increase the cost of capital, and declining economic conditions, which may cause credit losses due to financial difficulties of borrowers. Because many types of financial companies are especially vulnerable to these economic cycles, the Fund’s investments in these companies may lose significant value during such periods.
Market Trading Risks. The Fund faces numerous market trading risks, including the potential lack of an active market for Fund shares, losses from trading in secondary markets, and disruption to the activities of market makers, authorized participants, or other participants and in the creation/redemption process of the Fund. ANY OF THESE FACTORS MAY LEAD TO THE FUND’S SHARES TRADING AT A PREMIUM OR DISCOUNT TO NAV.
Portfolio Duration Risk. Portfolio duration is a measure of the expected life of a fixed-income security and its sensitivity to changes in interest rates. The longer a fund's average portfolio duration, the more sensitive the fund will be to changes in interest rates, which means funds with longer average portfolio durations may be more volatile than those with shorter durations.
Preferred Securities Risk. Because preferred securities have a lower priority claim on assets or earnings than senior bonds and other debt instruments in a company's capital structure, they are subject to greater credit and liquidation risk than more senior debt instruments. In addition, preferred securities are subject to other risks, such as limited or no voting rights, deferring or skipping distributions, interest rate risk, and redeeming the security prior to any stated maturity date.

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Qualified Dividend Tax Strategy Risk. There can be no assurance as to the portion of the Fund’s distributions that will qualify for favorable federal income tax treatment . The Fund may make investments and pay dividends that are ineligible for favorable tax treatment or that otherwise do not meet the requirements for such treatment, and shareholders must satisfy certain requirements to take advantage of beneficial tax treatment.
For example, only certain individual and non-corporate taxpayers (and not corporate and other certain taxpayers) are eligible for reduced income tax rates (0%-20%) on QDI or to deduct up to 20% of qualified dividends from REITs (“QRD”). Additionally, in order to benefit from QDI or QRD treatment, both the Fund and eligible shareholders must meet holding period requirements. Some taxpayers (including certain individuals, trusts, and estates) may be subject to an additional 3.8% tax on QDI. Current regulations provide for favorable QRD treatment only for dividends distributed during the 2018-2025 tax years.
Moreover, the Internal Revenue Service may take a contrary position as to the tax treatment of certain dividends. Federal income tax laws with respect to qualified dividends or other favorable tax treatment may change, and any applicable reduced income tax rate or deduction may change or be eliminated for some or all taxpayers. Therefore, some or all of the Fund’s dividends may be subject to ordinary income tax rates and/or may not qualify for any special deduction under U.S. federal income tax laws. Any dividends made by the Fund will also be subject to applicable state and local tax.
Because the Fund makes investment decisions based in part on tax considerations, the Fund’s pre-tax performance may be lower than the performance of similar funds that are not tax-managed.
Real Estate Investment Trusts ("REITs") Risk. In addition to risks associated with investing in real estate securities, REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, risks of default by borrowers, and self-liquidation. Investment in REITs also involves risks similar to risks of investing in small market capitalization companies, such as limited financial resources, less frequent and limited volume trading, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities. A REIT could fail to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income under the Internal Revenue Code. Fund shareholders will indirectly bear their proportionate share of the expenses of REITs in which the fund invests.
Real Estate Securities Risk. Investing in real estate securities subjects the fund to the risks associated with the real estate market (which are similar to the risks associated with direct ownership in real estate), including declines in real estate values, loss due to casualty or condemnation, property taxes, interest rate changes, increased expenses, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, regulatory changes (including zoning, land use and rents), and environmental problems, as well as to the risks related to the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer.
Redemption and Large Transaction Risk. Ownership of the fund's shares may be concentrated in one or a few large investors (such as funds of funds, institutional investors, and asset allocation programs) that may redeem or purchase shares in large quantities. These transactions may cause the fund to sell securities to meet redemptions or to invest additional cash at times it would not otherwise do so, which may result in increased transaction costs, increased expenses, changes to expense ratios, and adverse effects to fund performance. Such transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income if sales of portfolio securities result in gains.
Performance
No performance information is shown because the Fund has not yet had a calendar year of performance. The Fund’s
performance is benchmarked against the ICE BofA Merrill Lynch 7% Constrained DRD Eligible Preferred Securities Index. Performance information provides an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. Past performance (before and after taxes) is not necessarily an indication of how the Fund will perform in the future. You may get updated performance information by calling 1-800-787-1621 or online at www.principaletfs.com.
Investment Advisor
Principal Global Investors, LLC
Sub-Advisor and Portfolio Managers
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc.
Fred Diaz (since 2020), Portfolio Manager
Roberto Giangregorio (since 2020), Portfolio Manager
L. Phillip Jacoby, IV (since 2020), Chief Investment Officer and Portfolio Manager
Manu Krishnan (since 2020), Portfolio Manager
Mark A. Lieb (since 2020), President and Chief Executive Officer
Kevin Nugent (since 2020), Portfolio Manager

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Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at net asset value (“NAV”) only with authorized participants ("APs") who have entered into agreements with the Fund’s distributor and only in blocks of 50,000 Shares (each block of Shares is called a "Creation Unit"), or multiples thereof ("Creation Unit Aggregations"), in exchange for the deposit or delivery of a basket of securities that the Fund specifies each day. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the Shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund. Typically, the basket of assets will be made up of securities, but may include a cash component. (See "Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units" in the Statement of Additional Information for more information.)
Individual Shares of the Fund may be purchased and sold only on a national securities exchange through brokers. Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc., and because the Shares will trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at prices greater than NAV (at a premium), at NAV, or less than NAV (at a discount).
Tax Information
The Fund’s distributions you receive are generally subject to federal income tax as ordinary income or capital gain and may also be subject to state and local taxes, unless you are tax-exempt or your account is tax-deferred in which case your distributions would be taxed when withdrawn from the tax-deferred account.
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank, insurance company, investment adviser, etc.), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary's website for more information.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS
The Fund’s investment objective is described in the summary section for the Fund. The summary section also describes the Fund’s principal investment strategies, including the types of securities in which the Fund invests, and the principal risks of investing in the Fund. The principal investment strategies are not the only investment strategies available to the Fund, but they are the ones the Fund primarily uses to achieve its investment objective.
Except for Fundamental Restrictions described in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”), the Board of Trustees may change the Fund's objective or investment strategies without a shareholder vote if it determines such a change is in the best interests of the Fund. If there is a material change to the Fund's investment objective or investment strategies, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment for you. There is no guarantee that the Fund will meet its objective.
The Fund is designed to be a portion of an investor's portfolio. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program. Investors should consider the risks of the Fund before making an investment; it is possible to lose money by investing in the Fund.
Holdings Disclosure
The Fund is actively managed and does not seek to replicate the performance of a specified index. On each business day, before commencement of trading on the exchange, the Fund will disclose on www.principaletfs.com the identities and quantities of the Fund’s portfolio holdings that will form the basis for the Fund’s calculation of the Fund’s net asset value at the end of the business day.
Active Management
The performance of a fund that is actively managed will reflect in part the ability of those managing the investments of the fund to make investment decisions that are suited to achieving the fund's investment objective. Actively-managed funds may invest differently from the benchmark against which the fund's performance is compared. When making decisions about whether to buy or sell equity securities, considerations may include, among other things, a company’s strength in fundamentals, its potential for earnings growth over time, its ability to navigate certain macroeconomic environments, the current price of its securities relative to their perceived worth and relative to others in its industry, and analysis from computer models. When making decisions about whether to buy or sell fixed-income investments, considerations may include, among other things, the strength of certain sectors of the fixed-income market relative to others, interest rates, a range of economic, political and financial factors, the balance between supply and demand for certain asset classes, the credit quality of individual issuers, the fundamental strengths of corporate issuers, and other general market conditions.
An active fund's investment performance depends upon the successful allocation of the fund's assets among asset classes, geographical regions, industry sectors, and specific issuers and investments. There is no guarantee that these allocation techniques and decisions will produce the desired results. It is possible to lose money on an investment in a fund as a result of these allocation decisions. If a fund's investment strategies do not perform as expected, the fund could underperform other funds with similar investment objectives or lose money. Moreover, buying and selling securities to adjust the fund’s asset allocation may increase portfolio turnover and generate transaction costs.
Liquidity
The Fund has established a liquidity risk management program as required by the SEC’s Liquidity Rule. Under the program, PGI assesses, manages, and periodically reviews the Fund’s liquidity risk, which is the risk that a Fund could not meet requests to redeem shares issued by the Fund without significant dilution of the remaining investors’ interests in the Fund. As part of the program, PGI classifies each investment as a “highly liquid investment,” “moderately liquid investment,” “less liquid investment” or “illiquid investment.” The liquidity of a Fund’s portfolio investments is determined based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations under the program. To the extent that an investment is deemed to be an illiquid investment or a less liquid investment, a Fund can expect to be exposed to greater liquidity risk.
Certain fund holdings may be deemed to be less liquid or illiquid because they cannot be readily sold without significantly impacting the value of the holdings. A fund is exposed to liquidity risk when trading volume, lack of a market maker, or legal restrictions impair its ability to sell particular securities or close derivative positions at an advantageous price. Funds with principal investment strategies that involve securities of companies with smaller market capitalizations, foreign securities, derivatives, high yield bonds and bank loans or securities with substantial market and/or credit risk tend to have the greatest exposure to liquidity risk.
Liquidity risk also refers to the risk of unusually high redemption requests, redemption requests by certain large shareholders such as institutional investors or asset allocators, or other unusual market conditions that may make it

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difficult for a fund to sell investments within the allowable time period to meet redemptions. Meeting such redemption requests could require a fund to sell securities at reduced prices or under unfavorable conditions, which would reduce the value of the fund.
Additional liquidity risks that apply to ETFs are described under "Market Trading Risks" below.
Market Volatility and Securities Issuers
The value of a fund's portfolio securities may decrease in response to overall stock or bond market movements. Markets tend to move in cycles, with periods of rising prices and periods of falling prices. Stocks tend to go up and down in value more than bonds. Moreover, markets (or certain market sectors) may experience greater volatility in response to the occurrence of natural or man-made disasters and catastrophes, such as acts of terrorism, pandemics, military actions, or political instability. If a fund's investments are concentrated in certain sectors, its performance could be worse than the overall market. Additionally, the value of a security may decline for reasons directly related to the issuer, such as management performance, financial leverage, and reduced demand for the issuer’s goods or services. As a result, the value of an individual security or particular type of security can be more volatile than the market as a whole and can perform differently from the value of the market as a whole.
Recent events are impacting the securities markets. A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus designated as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and has spread internationally. The transmission of COVID-19 and efforts to contain its spread have resulted in border closings and other travel restrictions and disruptions, disruptions to business operations, supply chains and customer activity, event cancellations and restrictions, service cancellations and reductions, significant challenges in the healthcare industry, and quarantines. These impacts have caused significant volatility and declines in global financial markets, including declines in oil and commodity markets, which have caused losses for investors. Health crises may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social, economic, market and financial risks and could negatively affect the global economy, as well as the economies of individual countries, the financial performance of individual companies and sectors, and the markets in general in significant and unforeseen ways. The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in certain of those negative consequences. Governmental and quasi-governmental authorities and regulators throughout the world, such as the Federal Reserve, have in the past responded to major economic disruptions with a variety of significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, including but not limited to, direct capital infusions into companies, new monetary programs, and dramatically lower interest rates. Certain of those policy changes are being implemented or considered in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Such policy changes may adversely affect the value, volatility and liquidity of dividend and interest paying securities. 
The COVID-19 outbreak, and future pandemics, could also impair the information technology and other operational systems upon which a fund’s investment advisor or sub-advisor rely, and could otherwise disrupt the ability of the fund’s service providers to perform essential tasks. In certain cases, an exchange or market may close or issue trading halts on either specific securities or even the entire market, which may result in a fund being, among other things, unable to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments or accurately price its investments.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may be short term or may last for an extended period of time, and in either case could result in a substantial economic downturn or recession. The resulting market volatility, dramatic changes to interest rates, and unfavorable economic conditions could result in a fund’s inability to achieve its investment objectives, adversely affect the prices and liquidity of the securities and other instruments in which a fund invests, negatively impact the fund’s performance, and cause losses on your investment in the fund. You should also review this prospectus and the statement of additional information to understand each fund’s discretion to implement temporary defensive measures, as well as the limited circumstances in which a fund may satisfy redemption requests in-kind.
Temporary Defensive Measures
From time to time, as part of its investment strategy, the Fund may invest without limit in cash and cash equivalents for temporary defensive purposes in response to adverse market, economic, or political conditions. For this purpose, cash equivalents include: bank notes, bank certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances, repurchase agreements, commercial paper, and commercial paper master notes, which are floating rate debt instruments without a fixed maturity. In addition, the Fund may purchase U.S. government securities, preferred stocks, and debt securities, whether or not convertible into or carrying rights for common stock. There is no limit on the extent to which the Fund may take temporary defensive measures. In taking such measures, the Fund may lose the benefit of upswings and may limit its ability to meet, or fail to achieve, its investment objective.

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Trading Issues
Although the shares of the Funds are expected to be listed on the exchange identified in the fund summary, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares on the exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to the exchange's "circuit breaker" rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of the Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged.
Strategy and Risk Table
The following table identifies whether the strategies and risks discussed in this section (listed in alphabetical order) are principal or non-principal (meaning they are relevant to the Fund but to a lesser degree than those designated as principal) for the Fund. The SAI contains additional information about investment strategies and their related risks.
INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RISKS
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
Contingent Convertible Securities
Principal
Convertible Securities
Non-Principal
Derivatives
Non-Principal
Equity Securities
Non-Principal
Growth Stock
Non-Principal
Small and Medium Market Capitalization Companies
Non-Principal
Value Stock
Non-Principal
Fixed-Income Securities
Principal
Foreign Currency
Non-Principal
Foreign Securities
Principal
Hedging
Non-Principal
High Yield Securities
Principal
Industry Concentration
Principal
Leverage
Non-Principal
Market Trading Risks
Principal
Portfolio Duration
Principal
Portfolio Turnover (Active Trading)
Non-Principal
Preferred Securities
Principal
Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)
Principal
Real Estate Securities
Principal
Redemption and Large Transaction Risk
Principal
U.S. Government and U.S. Government-Sponsored Securities
Non-Principal

Contingent Convertible Securities ("CoCos")
Contingent convertible securities (“CoCos”) are hybrid debt securities intended to either convert into equity or have their principal written down upon the occurrence of certain “triggers.” The triggers are generally linked to regulatory capital thresholds or regulatory actions calling into question the issuing banking institution’s continued viability as a going-concern, if the conversion trigger were not exercised. CoCos’ unique equity conversion or principal write-down features are tailored to the issuing banking institution and its regulatory requirements. Some additional risks associated with CoCos include, but are not limited to, the following:
The occurrence of a conversion event is inherently unpredictable and depends on many factors, some of which will be outside the issuer’s control. Because of the uncertainty regarding whether a conversion event will occur, it may be difficult to predict when, if at all, a CoCo will be converted to equity, and a fund may suffer losses as a result.
CoCos may have no stated maturity and fully discretionary coupons. This means coupon (i.e., interest) payments can be canceled at the banking institution’s discretion or at the request of the relevant regulatory authority in order to help the bank absorb losses, without causing a default.

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CoCos are usually issued in the form of subordinated debt instruments to provide the appropriate regulatory capital treatment. If an issuer liquidates, dissolves or winds-up before a conversion to equity has occurred, the rights and claims of the holders of the CoCos (such as a fund) against the issuer generally rank junior to the claims of holders of unsubordinated obligations of the issuer. In addition, if the CoCos are converted into the issuer’s underlying equity securities after a conversion event (i.e., a “trigger”), each holder will be further subordinated.
The value of CoCos is unpredictable and is influenced by many factors including, without limitation: the creditworthiness of the issuer and/or fluctuations in such issuer’s applicable capital ratios; supply and demand for CoCos; general market conditions and available liquidity; and economic, financial and political events that affect the issuer, its particular market or the financial markets in general. Moreover, the performance of CoCos may be correlated with one another and as a result negative information of one issuer may cause decline in the value of CoCos of many other issuers.
Due to these features, CoCos may have substantially greater risk than other securities in times of financial stress. If the trigger level is breached, the issuer’s decision to write down, write off or convert a CoCo may result in the fund's complete loss on an investment in CoCos with no chance of recovery even if the issuer remains in existence.
Convertible Securities
Convertible securities are usually fixed-income securities that a fund has the right to exchange for equity securities at a specified conversion price. Convertible securities include corporate bonds, notes or preferred stocks of U.S. or foreign issuers. Convertible securities allow a Fund to realize additional returns if the market price of the equity securities exceeds the conversion price. For example, a Fund may hold fixed-income securities that are convertible into shares of common stock at a conversion price of $10 per share. If the market value of the shares of common stock reached $12, the Fund could realize an additional $2 per share by converting its fixed-income securities.
Convertible securities have lower yields than comparable fixed-income securities. In addition, at the time a convertible security is issued the conversion price exceeds the market value of the underlying equity securities. Thus, convertible securities may provide lower returns than non-convertible fixed-income securities or equity securities depending upon changes in the price of the underlying equity securities. However, convertible securities permit a Fund to realize some of the potential appreciation of the underlying equity securities with less risk of losing its initial investment.
Depending on the features of the convertible security, a fund will treat a convertible security as a fixed-income security, equity security, or preferred security for purposes of investment policies and limitations because of the unique characteristics of convertible securities. Funds that invest in convertible securities may invest in convertible securities that are below investment grade (sometimes referred to as "junk"). Many convertible securities are relatively illiquid.
Derivatives
Generally, a derivative is a financial arrangement, the value of which is derived from, or based on, a traditional security, asset, or market index. A fund may invest in certain derivative strategies to earn income, manage or adjust the risk profile of the fund, replace more direct investments, or obtain exposure to certain markets. A fund may enter into forward commitment agreements, which call for the fund to purchase or sell a security on a future date at a fixed price. A fund may also enter into contracts to sell its investments either on demand or at a specific interval.
The risks associated with derivative investments include:
increased volatility of a fund and/or the failure of the investment to mitigate volatility as intended;
the inability of those managing investments of the fund to predict correctly the direction of securities prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates, asset values, and other economic factors;
losses caused by unanticipated market movements, which may be substantially greater than a fund's initial investment and are potentially unlimited;
the possibility that there may be no liquid secondary market which may make it difficult or impossible to close out a position when desired;
the possibility that the counterparty may fail to perform its obligations; and
the inability to close out certain hedged positions to avoid adverse tax consequences.
There are many different types of derivatives and many different ways to use them. The specific derivatives that are principal strategies of the Fund are listed in the Fund Summary.
Commodity index-linked notes are derivative debt instruments issued by U.S. and foreign banks, brokerage firms, insurance companies and other corporations with principal and/or coupon payments linked to the performance of commodity indices. Commodities are assets that have tangible properties, such as oil, coal, natural gas, agricultural products, industrial metals, livestock and precious metals. These notes expose a fund to movements

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in commodity prices. They are also subject to credit, counterparty, and interest rate risk. Commodity index-linked notes are often leveraged, increasing the volatility of each note's market value relative to changes in the underlying commodity index. At the maturity of the note, a fund may receive more or less principal than it originally invested. A fund may also receive interest payments on the note that are less than the stated coupon interest payments.
Credit Default Swap Agreements may be entered into by a fund as a "buyer" or "seller" of credit protection. Credit default swap agreements involve special risks because they may be difficult to value, are highly susceptible to liquidity and credit risk, and generally pay a return to the party that has paid the premium only in the event of an actual default by the issuer of the underlying obligation (as opposed to a credit downgrade or other indication of financial difficulty). Credit default swaps can increase credit risk because a fund has exposure to both the issuer of the referenced obligation and the counterparty to the credit default swap.
Foreign Currency Contracts (such as foreign currency options and foreign currency forward and swap agreements) may be used by funds to increase exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another. A forward currency contract involves a privately negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set in the contract. For currency contracts, there is also a risk of government action through exchange controls that would restrict the ability of a fund to deliver or receive currency.
Forwards, futures contracts and options thereon (including commodities futures); options (including put or call options); and swap agreements and over-the-counter swap agreements (e.g., interest rate swaps, total return swaps and credit default swaps) may be used by funds for hedging purposes in order to try to mitigate or protect against potential losses due to changing interest rates, securities prices, asset values, currency exchange rates, and other market conditions; non-hedging purposes to seek to increase the fund’s income or otherwise enhance return; and as a low-cost method of gaining exposure to a particular market without investing directly in those securities or assets. These derivative investments are subject to special risk considerations, particularly the imperfect correlation between the change in market value of the instruments held by a fund and the price of the derivative instrument. If a fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements, even when it may be disadvantageous to do so. Options and Swap Agreements also involve counterparty risk. With respect to options, there may be difference in trading hours for the options markets and the markets for the underlying securities (rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets) and an insufficient liquid secondary market for particular options.
Certain derivative securities are described more accurately as index/structured securities, which are derivative securities whose value or performance is linked to other equity securities (such as depositary receipts), currencies, interest rates, indices, or other financial indicators (reference indices).
Equity Securities
Equity securities include common stocks, some convertible securities, preferred stock, depositary receipts, rights (an offering of common stock to investors who currently own shares which entitle them to buy subsequent issues at a discount from the offering price), and warrants (the right to purchase securities from the issuer at a specified price, normally higher than the current market price). Common stocks, the most familiar type, represent an equity (ownership) interest in a corporation. The value of a company's stock may fall as a result of factors directly relating to that company, such as decisions made by its management or lower demand for the company's products or services. A stock's value may also fall because of factors affecting not just the company, but also companies in the same industry or in a number of different industries, such as increases in production costs. The value of a company's stock may also be affected by changes in financial markets that are relatively unrelated to the company or its industry, such as changes in interest rates or currency exchange rates. In addition, a company's stock generally pays dividends only after the company invests in its own business and makes required payments to holders of its bonds and other debt. For this reason, the value of a company's stock will usually react more strongly than its bonds and other debt to actual or perceived changes in the company's financial condition or prospects.
Growth Stock
The prices of growth stocks may be based largely on expectations of future earnings, and their prices can decline rapidly and significantly in reaction to negative news about such factors as earnings, revenues, the economy, political developments, or other news. Growth stocks may underperform value stocks and stocks in other broad style categories (and the stock market as a whole) over any period of time and may shift in and out of favor with investors generally, sometimes rapidly, depending on changes in market, economic, and other factors. As a result, a fund that holds substantial investments in growth stocks may underperform other funds that invest more broadly or favor different investment styles. Because growth companies typically reinvest their earnings, growth stocks typically do not pay dividends at levels associated with other types of stocks, if at all.

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Small and Medium Market Capitalization Companies
Investments in companies with smaller market capitalizations may involve greater risks and price volatility (wide, rapid fluctuations) than investments in larger, more mature companies. Small company stocks may decline in price as large company stocks rise, or rise in price while larger company stocks decline. The net asset value of a fund that invests a substantial portion of its assets in small company stocks may therefore be more volatile than the shares of a fund that invests solely in larger company stocks. Small companies may be less significant within their industries and may be at a competitive disadvantage relative to their larger competitors. Smaller companies may be less mature than larger companies. At this earlier stage of development, the companies may have limited product lines, reduced market liquidity for their shares, limited financial resources, or less depth in management than larger or more established companies. While smaller companies may be subject to these additional risks, they may also realize more substantial growth than larger or more established companies.
Unseasoned issuers are companies with a record of less than three years continuous operation, including the operation of predecessors and parents. Many unseasoned issuers also may be small companies and involve the risks and price volatility associated with smaller companies. Unseasoned issuers by their nature have only a limited operating history that can be used for evaluating the company's growth prospects. As a result, these securities may place a greater emphasis on current or planned product lines and the reputation and experience of the company's management and less emphasis on fundamental valuation factors than would be the case for more mature growth companies.
Value Stock
Value stocks present the risk that they may decline in price or never reach their expected full market value because the market fails to recognize the stock's intrinsic worth. Value stocks may underperform growth stocks and stocks in other broad style categories (and the stock market as a whole) over any period of time and may shift in and out of favor with investors generally, sometimes rapidly, depending on changes in market, economic, and other factors. As a result, a fund that holds substantial investments in value stocks may underperform other funds that invest more broadly or favor different investment styles.
Fixed-Income Securities
Fixed-income securities include bonds and other debt instruments that are used by issuers to borrow money from investors. Examples include corporate bonds, convertible bonds, asset-backed securities, residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, agency securities (such as debt instruments issued by U.S. government-sponsored entities and other federally-related entities), inverse floaters, covered securities, sinking fund securities, equipment trust certificates, sovereign bonds, pay-in-kind securities (which pay investors in the form of additional securities rather than cash), and step coupon securities (which pay interest at predetermined rates that increase or decrease over time).
Fixed-income securities are sensitive to changes in interest rates. In general, fixed-income security prices rise when interest rates fall and fall when interest rates rise. An increase in interest rates from the current, historically low interest rate environment may lead to heightened volatility and redemptions alongside reduced liquidity and dealer market-making capacity in fixed income markets. If interest rates fall, issuers of callable bonds may call (repay) securities with high interest rates before their maturity dates; this is known as call risk. In this case, the Fund would likely reinvest the proceeds from these securities at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund's income. Floating rate securities generally are less sensitive to interest rate changes but may decline in value if their interest rates do not rise as much, or as quickly, as interest rates in general. Conversely, floating rate securities will not generally increase in value if interest rates decline.
Fixed-income securities are also affected by the credit quality of the issuer. Investment grade debt securities are medium and high quality securities. Some bonds, such as lower grade or "junk" bonds, may have speculative characteristics and may be particularly sensitive to economic conditions and the financial condition of the issuers. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of the security will not be able to make principal and interest payments when due.
Funds may invest in fixed-income securities of companies with small- or medium-sized market capitalizations. Investments in companies with smaller market capitalizations may involve greater risks, price volatility (wide, rapid fluctuations), and less liquidity than investments in larger, more mature companies.
Foreign Currency
Certain of the Fund's investments will be denominated in foreign currencies or traded in securities markets in which settlements are made in foreign currencies. Any income on such investments is generally paid to a fund in foreign currencies. In addition, funds may engage in foreign currency transactions for both hedging and investment purposes, as well as to increase exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure to foreign currency fluctuations from one country to another.

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The value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar varies continually, causing changes in the dollar value of a fund’s portfolio investments (even if the local market price of the investments is unchanged) and changes in the dollar value of a fund’s income available for distribution to its shareholders. The effect of changes in the dollar value of a foreign currency on the dollar value of a fund’s assets and on the net investment income available for distribution may be favorable or unfavorable. Transactions in non-U.S. currencies are also subject to many of the risks of investing in foreign (non-U.S.) securities; for example, changes in foreign economies and political climates are more likely to affect a fund that has foreign currency exposure than a fund that invests exclusively in U.S. companies and currency. There also may be less government supervision of foreign markets, resulting in non-uniform accounting practices and less publicly available information. Transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency denominated debt and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned.
A fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. In addition, a fund may be required to liquidate portfolio assets, or may incur increased currency conversion costs, to compensate for a decline in the dollar value of a foreign currency occurring between the time when a fund declares and pays a dividend, or between the time when a fund accrues and pays an operating expense in U.S. dollars. To protect against a change in the foreign currency exchange rate between the date on which a fund contracts to purchase or sell a security and the settlement date for the purchase or sale, to gain exposure to one or more foreign currencies or to "lock in" the equivalent of a dividend or interest payment in another currency, a fund might purchase or sell a foreign currency on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing spot rate.
Currency hedging involves some of the same general risks and considerations as other transactions with similar instruments (i.e., derivative instruments) and hedging. Currency transactions are also subject to additional risks. Because currency control is of great importance to the issuing governments and influences economic planning and policy, purchases and sales of currency and related instruments can be adversely affected by government exchange controls, limitations or restrictions on repatriation of currency, and manipulations or exchange restrictions imposed by governments. These forms of governmental actions can result in losses to a fund if it is unable to deliver or receive currency or monies in settlement of obligations. They could also cause hedges the fund has entered into to be rendered useless, resulting in full currency exposure as well as incurring transaction costs. Settlement of a currency forward contract for the purchase of most currencies must occur at a bank based in the issuing nation. The ability to establish and close out positions on trading options on currency futures contracts is subject to the maintenance of a liquid market that may not always be available.
Foreign Securities
The Fund considers a security to be tied economically to countries outside the U.S. (a “foreign security”) if the issuer of the security has its principal place of business or principal office outside the U.S., has its principal securities trading market outside the U.S., or derives a majority of its revenue from outside the U.S.
Foreign companies may not be subject to the same uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting practices as are required of U.S. companies. In addition, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. Commissions on foreign securities exchanges may be generally higher than those on U.S. exchanges.
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures than those in U.S. markets. In certain markets, there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct these transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of Fund assets is not invested and earning no return. If the Fund is unable to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems, the Fund may miss attractive investment opportunities. In addition, the Fund may incur a loss as a result of a decline in the value of its portfolio if it is unable to sell a security.
With respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, political or social instability, or diplomatic developments that could affect the Fund's investments in those countries. In addition, the Fund may also suffer losses due to differing accounting practices and treatments. Investments in foreign securities are subject to laws of the foreign country that may limit the amount and types of foreign investments. Changes of governments or of economic or monetary policies, in the U.S. or abroad, changes in dealings between nations, currency convertibility or exchange rates could result in investment losses for the Fund.
Foreign securities are often traded with less frequency and volume, and therefore may have greater price volatility than is the case with many U.S. securities. Brokerage commissions, custodial services, and other costs relating to investment in foreign countries are generally more expensive than in the U.S. Though the Fund intends to acquire the

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securities of foreign issuers where there are public trading markets, economic or political turmoil in a country in which the Fund has a significant portion of its assets or deterioration of the relationship between the U.S. and a foreign country may reduce the liquidity of the Fund's portfolio, and the Fund may have difficulty meeting a large number of redemption requests. Furthermore, there may be difficulties in obtaining or enforcing judgments against foreign issuers.
A fund may invest in a foreign company by purchasing depositary receipts. Depositary receipts are certificates of ownership of shares in a foreign-based issuer held by a bank or other financial institution. They are alternatives to purchasing the underlying security but are subject to the foreign securities risks to which they relate.
If a fund's portfolio is over-weighted in a certain geographic region, any negative development affecting that region will have a greater impact on the fund than a fund that is not over-weighted in that region.
Hedging
Hedging is a strategy that can be used to limit or offset investment risk. The success of a Fund’s hedging strategy will be subject to the ability of those managing the Fund's investments to correctly assess the degree of correlation between the performance of the instruments used in the hedging strategy and the performance of the investments in the portfolio being hedged. Since the characteristics of many securities change as markets change or time passes, the success of the Fund’s hedging strategy will also be subject to the ability of those managing the Fund's investments to continually recalculate, readjust, and execute hedges in an efficient and timely manner. For a variety of reasons, those managing the Fund's investments may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Such imperfect correlation may prevent the Fund from achieving the intended hedge or expose the Fund to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible to hedge fully or perfectly against any risk, and hedging entails its own costs.
High Yield Securities
Below investment grade bonds, which are rated at the time of purchase Ba1 or lower by Moody's Investors Service, Inc. ("Moody's") or BB+ or lower by S&P Global Ratings ("S&P Global") (if the bond has been rated by only one of those agencies, that rating will determine if the bond is below investment grade; if the bond has not been rated by either of those agencies, those managing the Fund's investments will determine whether the bond is of a quality comparable to those rated below investment grade), are sometimes referred to as high yield or "junk bonds" and are considered speculative. Such securities could be in default at the time of purchase.
Investment in high yield bonds involves special risks in addition to the risks associated with investment in highly rated debt securities. High yield bonds may be regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer's continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. Moreover, under certain circumstances, such securities may be less liquid than higher rated debt securities.
Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities. The ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investment in high yield bonds, be more dependent on such credit analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality bonds.
High yield bonds may be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than higher-grade bonds. The prices of high yield bonds have been found to be less sensitive to interest rate changes than more highly rated investments, but more sensitive to adverse economic downturns or individual corporate developments. If the issuer of high yield bonds defaults, the Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery. To the extent that such high yield issuers undergo a corporate restructuring, such high yield securities may become exchanged for or converted into reorganized equity of the underlying issuer. High yield bonds often include complex legal covenants that impose various degrees of restriction on the issuer’s ability to take certain actions, such as distribute cash to equity holders, incur additional indebtedness, and dispose of assets. To the extent that a bond indenture or loan agreement does not contain sufficiently protective covenants or otherwise permits the issuer to take certain actions to the detriment of the holder of the fixed-income security, the underlying value of such fixed-income security may decline.
The secondary market on which high yield bonds are traded may be less liquid than the market for higher-grade bonds. Less liquidity in the secondary trading market could adversely affect the price at which the Fund could sell a high yield bond and could adversely affect and cause large fluctuations in the daily price of the Fund's shares. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the value and liquidity of high yield bonds, especially in a thinly traded market.

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The use of credit ratings for evaluating high yield bonds also involves certain risks. For example, credit ratings evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments, not the market value risk of high yield bonds. Also, credit rating agencies may fail to change credit ratings in a timely manner to reflect subsequent events. If a credit rating agency changes the rating of a portfolio security held by the Fund, the Fund may retain the security if those managing the Fund's investments think it is in the best interest of shareholders.
Industry Concentration
A fund that concentrates its investments (invests more than 25% of its net assets) in a particular industry (or group of industries) is more exposed to the overall condition of the particular industry than a fund that invests in a wider variety of industries. A particular industry could be affected by economic, business, supply-and-demand, political, or regulatory factors. Companies within the same industry could react similarly to such factors. As a result, a fund’s concentration in a particular industry would increase the possibility that the fund’s performance will be affected by such factors.
Leverage
If a fund makes investments in futures contracts, forward contracts, swaps and other derivative instruments, these instruments provide the economic effect of financial leverage by creating additional investment exposure, as well as the potential for greater loss. If a fund uses leverage through activities such as borrowing, entering into short sales, purchasing securities on margin or on a “when-issued” basis or purchasing derivative instruments in an effort to increase its returns, the fund has the risk of magnified capital losses that occur when losses affect an asset base, enlarged by borrowings or the creation of liabilities, that exceeds the net assets of the fund. The net asset value of a fund employing leverage will be more volatile and sensitive to market movements. Leverage may involve the creation of a liability that requires the fund to pay interest. Leveraging may cause a fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. To the extent that a fund is not able to close out a leveraged position because of market illiquidity, a fund’s liquidity may be impaired to the extent that it has a substantial portion of liquid assets segregated or earmarked to cover obligations.
Market Trading Risks
The net asset value ("NAV") of the Shares generally will fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund's holdings. The market prices of the Shares generally will fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV, as well as the relative supply of and demand for Shares on the respective exchanges, PGI cannot predict whether the Shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due largely to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the Shares will be related, but not identical, to the forces influencing the prices of the securities held by the Fund (individually or in the aggregate) at any time.
Only authorized participants ("APs") may engage in creation or redemption transactions directly with the Fund. (See "Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares-Generally.") The Fund has a limited number of institutions that may act as APs, none of which are or will be obligated to engage in creation or redemption transactions. To the extent that these institutions exit the business or are unable or unwilling to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders with respect to the Fund, and no other AP is able or willing to step forward to create or redeem Creation Units, Fund shares may trade at a discount to NAV and possibly face trading halts and/or delisting. Such disruptions to creations and redemptions or the existence of extreme market volatility may result in trading prices that differ significantly from NAV.
With respect to funds that invest in foreign securities, since foreign exchanges may be open on days when such a fund does not price its shares, the value of the fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the fund’s Shares, and may result in trading prices that differ significantly from NAV. Additionally, such funds may be subject to heightened risks since APs may be required to post collateral with such investments, which only certain APs are able to do. Moreover, to the extent that an AP is unable or unwilling to trade on an agency basis for foreign securities, there could be a diminished trading market for ETF shares, and shares may trade at a discount to NAV.
If a shareholder purchases at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells at a time when the market price is at a discount to the NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses. Given that Shares can be created and redeemed only in Creation Units at NAV, PGI believes that large discounts and premiums should not be sustained over the long term.
Portfolio Duration
Average duration is a mathematical calculation of the average life of a bond (or for a bond fund, the average life of the fund's underlying bonds, weighted by the percentage of the fund's assets that each represents) that serves as a useful measure of its price risk. Duration is an estimate of how much the value of the bonds held by a fund will fluctuate in response to a change in interest rates. For example, if a fund has an average duration of 4 years and interest rates rise by 1%, the value of the bonds held by the fund will decline by approximately 4%, and if the interest

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rates decline by 1%, the value of the bonds held by the fund will increase by approximately 4%. Longer term bonds and zero coupon bonds are generally more sensitive to interest rate changes. Duration, which measures price sensitivity to interest rate changes, is not necessarily equal to average maturity.
Portfolio Turnover (Active Trading)
"Portfolio Turnover" is the term used in the industry for measuring the amount of trading that occurs in a fund's portfolio during the year. For example, a 100% turnover rate means that on average every security in the portfolio has been replaced once during the year. Funds with high turnover rates (more than 100%) are considered actively traded and often have higher transaction costs (which are paid by the Fund) that may lower the Fund's performance. High portfolio turnover can result in a lower capital gain distribution due to higher transaction costs added to the basis of the assets or can result in lower ordinary income distributions to shareholders when the transaction costs cannot be added to the basis of assets. Both events reduce fund performance.
Please consider all the factors when you compare the turnover rates of different funds. You should also be aware that the "total return" line in the Financial Highlights section reflects portfolio turnover costs.
Preferred Securities
Preferred securities include preferred stock and various types of junior subordinated debt and trust preferred securities. Preferred securities may pay fixed rate or adjustable rate distributions and generally have a payment "preference" over common stock, but are junior to the issuer's senior debt in a liquidation of the issuer’s assets. Preference would mean that a company must pay on its preferred securities before paying on its common stock, and that any claims of the preferred security holder would typically be ahead of common stockholders' claims on assets in a corporate liquidation.
Holders of preferred securities usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. The market value of preferred securities is sensitive to changes in interest rates as they are typically fixed income securities; the fixed-income payments are expected to be the primary source of long-term investment return. While some preferred securities are issued with a final maturity date, others are perpetual in nature. In certain instances, a final maturity date may be extended and/or the final payment of principal may be deferred at the issuer’s option for a specified time without triggering an event of default for the issuer. In addition, an issuer of preferred securities may have the right to redeem the securities before their stated maturity date. For instance, for certain types of preferred securities, a redemption may be triggered by a change in federal income tax or securities laws. As with call provisions, a redemption by the issuer may reduce the return of the security held by the fund. Preferred securities may be subject to provisions that allow an issuer, under certain circumstances to skip (indefinitely) or defer (possibly up to 10 years) distributions. If a fund owns a preferred security that is deferring its distribution, the fund may be required to report income for tax purposes while it is not receiving any income.
Preferred securities are typically issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest or dividend bearing instruments, or by an affiliated business trust of a corporation, generally in the form of beneficial interests in subordinated debentures or similarly structured securities. The preferred securities market is generally divided into the $25 par “retail” and the $1,000 par “institutional” segments. The $25 par segment includes securities that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (exchange traded), which trade and are quoted with accrued dividend or interest income, and which are often callable at par value five years after their original issuance date. The institutional segment includes $1,000 par value securities that are not exchange-listed (over the counter), which trade and are quoted on a “clean” price, i.e., without accrued dividend or interest income, and which often have a minimum of 10 years of call protection from the date of their original issuance. Preferred securities can also be issued by real estate investment trusts and involve risks similar to those associated with investing in real estate investment trust companies.
Real Estate Investment Trusts ("REITs")
REITs involve certain unique risks in addition to the risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general (such as possible declines in the value of real estate, lack of availability of mortgage funds, or extended vacancies of property). REITs are characterized as: equity REITs, which primarily own property and generate revenue from rental income; mortgage REITs, which invest in real estate mortgages; and hybrid REITs, which combine the characteristics of both equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, risks of default by borrowers, and self-liquidation. A fund that invests in a REIT is subject to the REIT’s expenses, including management fees, and will remain subject to the fund's advisory fees with respect to the assets so invested. REITs are also subject to the possibilities of failing to qualify for the special tax treatment accorded REITs under the Internal Revenue Code, and failing to maintain their exemptions from registration under the 1940 Act.

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Regular REIT dividends received by the Fund from a REIT will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction and generally will not constitute qualified dividend income for U.S. income tax purposes. Any distribution of income attributable to regular REIT dividends from the Fund’s investment in a REIT will not qualify for the deduction that would be available to a non-corporate shareholder were the shareholder to own such REIT directly.
Investment in REITs also involves risks similar to those associated with investing in small market capitalization companies. REITs may have limited financial resources, may trade less frequently and in a limited volume, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than larger company securities.
Real Estate Securities
Investing in securities of companies in the real estate industry subjects a fund to the special risks associated with the real estate market and the real estate industry in general. Generally, companies in the real estate industry are considered to be those that have principal activity involving the development, ownership, construction, management or sale of real estate; have significant real estate holdings, such as hospitality companies, healthcare facilities, supermarkets, mining, lumber and/or paper companies; and/or provide products or services related to the real estate industry, such as financial institutions that make and/or service mortgage loans and manufacturers or distributors of building supplies. Securities of companies in the real estate industry are sensitive to factors such as loss to casualty or condemnation, changes in real estate values, property taxes, interest rates, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, occupancy rates, government regulations affecting zoning, land use and rents, and the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer. Companies in the real estate industry may also be subject to liabilities under environmental and hazardous waste laws.
Redemption and Large Transaction Risk
Ownership of a fund's shares may be concentrated in one or a few large investors (such as funds of funds, institutional investors, and asset allocation programs) that may redeem or purchase shares in large quantities. These transactions may cause a fund to sell securities to meet redemptions or to invest additional cash at times it would not otherwise do so, which may result in increased transaction costs, increased expenses, changes to expense ratios, and adverse effects to fund performance. Such transactions may also accelerate the realization of taxable income if sales of portfolio securities result in gains.
Principal Global Investors, LLC ("PGI") is the advisor to the Principal Funds, Inc. ("PFI") and Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc. ("PVC") funds of funds, including the Strategic Asset Management ("SAM") Portfolios and each
of their underlying funds, which may include Principal Exchange-Traded Funds. PGI committed to minimizing the potential impact of redemption and large transaction risk on underlying funds to the extent consistent with pursuing the investment objectives of the funds of funds that it manages. PGI may face conflicts of interest in fulfilling responsibilities to all such funds.
Purchases and redemptions of creation units primarily with cash rather through in kind delivery of portfolio securities may cause the ETF to incur certain costs, such as brokerage costs or taxable gains or losses that it might not have incurred if it had made redemption in kind. These costs could be imposed on the ETF and thus decrease its NAV to the extent that the costs are not offset by a transaction fee payable by an authorized participant.
U.S. Government and U.S. Government-Sponsored Securities
U.S. Government securities, such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds and mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States; others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; others are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency's obligations; and still others are supported only by the credit of the issuing agency, instrumentality, or enterprise.
Although U.S. Government-sponsored enterprises such as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and the Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae") may be chartered or sponsored by Congress, they are not funded by Congressional appropriations, and their securities are not issued by the U.S. Treasury nor supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
There is no assurance that the U.S. Government would provide financial support to its agencies and instrumentalities if not required to do so. In addition, certain governmental entities have been subject to regulatory scrutiny regarding their accounting policies and practices and other concerns that may result in legislation, changes in regulatory oversight and/or other consequences that could adversely affect the credit quality, availability, or investment character of securities issued by these entities. The value and liquidity of U.S. Government securities may be affected adversely by changes in the ratings of those securities.

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PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS INFORMATION
A description of the Fund's policies and procedures with respect to disclosure of the Fund's portfolio securities is available in the SAI.
MANAGEMENT OF THE FUNDS
The Manager and Advisor
Principal Global Investors, LLC (“PGI”), an indirect subsidiary of Principal Financial Group, Inc. (“Principal®”), serves as the manager and advisor for the Fund. Through the Management Agreement with the Fund, PGI provides investment advisory services and certain corporate administrative services for the Fund.
Advisor:
Principal Global Investors, LLC ("PGI"), 711 High Street, Des Moines, IA 50392, is part of a diversified global asset management organization which utilizes a multi-boutique strategy of specialized investment groups and affiliates to provide institutional investors and individuals with diverse investment capabilities, including fixed income, equities, real estate, currency, asset allocation and stable value. PGI also has asset management offices of affiliate advisors in non-U.S. locations including London, Singapore, Tokyo, Hong Kong and Sydney. PGI has been an investment advisor since 1998.
The Sub-Advisor
PGI has signed a contract with a Sub-Advisor. Under the sub-advisory agreement, the Sub-Advisor agrees to assume the obligations of PGI to provide investment advisory services to the portion of the assets of the Fund allocated to it by PGI. For these services, PGI pays the Sub-Advisor a fee.
PGI or the Sub-Advisor provides the Trustees of the Fund with a recommended investment program. The program must be consistent with the Fund's investment objective and policies. Within the scope of the approved investment program, the Sub-Advisor advises the Fund on its investment policy and determines which securities are bought or sold, and in what amounts.
 
Sub-Advisor:
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. ("Spectrum"), 2 High Ridge Park, Stamford, CT 06905, founded in 1987, manages portfolios of preferred securities for corporate, pension fund, insurance and endowment clients, open-end and closed-end mutual funds, and separately managed account programs for high net worth individual investors as well as providing volatility mitigation solutions for some client portfolios.
Spectrum is the sub-advisor for the Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF.
Spectrum's day-to-day portfolio management for the Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF is shared by multiple portfolio managers. The portfolio managers operate as a team, sharing authority and responsibility for research and the day-to-day management of the Fund's portfolio with no limitation on the authority of one portfolio manager in relation to another.
Fernando (“Fred”) Diaz joined Spectrum in 2000.
Roberto Giangregorio joined Spectrum in 2003. Mr. Giangregorio earned a B.S. and M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from S.U.N.Y. at Stony Brook and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, respectively. He also earned an M.B.A. in Finance from Cornell University.
L. Phillip Jacoby, IV joined Spectrum in 1995. Mr. Jacoby earned a B.S. in Finance from the Boston University School of Management.
Manu Krishnan joined Spectrum in 2004. Mr. Krishnan earned a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the College of Engineering, Osmania University, India, an M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Delaware, and an M.B.A. in Finance from Cornell University. Mr. Krishnan has earned the right to use the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Mark A. Lieb founded Spectrum in 1987. Mr. Lieb earned a B.A. in Economics from Central Connecticut State College and an M.B.A. in Finance from the University of Hartford.
Kevin Nugent joined Spectrum in 2012. Mr. Nugent earned a B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University.


19


 
Fees Paid to PGI
The Fund pays PGI a fee for its services, which includes the fee PGI pays to the Sub-Advisor, and to State Street Bank and Trust for fund administration, fund accounting and other services. Pursuant to the Management Agreement between the Fund and PGI, PGI pays all operating expenses of the Fund, except interest expenses, taxes, brokerage commissions and other expenses connected with executing portfolio transactions, acquired fund fees and expenses, future distribution fees or expenses, and extraordinary expenses.
The management fee schedule for the Fund, which has not completed a full fiscal year, is as follows.
Funds
All Assets
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
0.60%
Availability of the discussions regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees approval of the management agreement and sub-advisory agreement will be available in the annual report to shareholders for the period ending June 30, 2020.
Manager of Managers
Principal Exchange-Traded Funds (the "Trust") operates as a Manager of Managers. Under an order received from the SEC (the "current order"), the Trust and PGI may enter into and materially amend agreements with unaffiliated and wholly-owned affiliated sub-advisors (affiliated sub-advisors which are at least 95% owned, directly or indirectly, by PGI or an affiliated person of PGI) without obtaining shareholder approval, including to:
hire one or more sub-advisors;
change sub-advisors; and
reallocate management fees between PGI and sub-advisors.
Although there is no present intent to do so, the funds may, in the future, rely on current SEC Staff guidance which expands relief under the current order to allow PGI to enter into and materially amend agreements with majority-owned affiliated sub-advisors (affiliated sub-advisors which are at least 50% owned, directly or indirectly, by PGI or an affiliated person of PGI), and, further, to all sub‑advisors regardless of the degree of affiliation with PGI.
In order to rely on the varying degrees of relief granted by the order and/or the SEC Staff guidance, a Fund must receive approval from its shareholders (or, in the case of a new Fund, the Fund’s sole initial shareholder before the Fund is available to the other purchasers). The shareholders of the Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF has approved reliance on the order, as supplemented by the SEC Staff guidance, with respect to all sub-advisors,regardless of the degree of affiliation with PGI.
PGI has ultimate responsibility for the investment performance of each fund that utilizes a sub-advisor due to its responsibility to oversee sub-advisors and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement.
DISTRIBUTOR AND OTHER FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS
ALPS Distributors, Inc. (the "Distributor") serves as the principal underwriter and distributor of Creation Units for the Fund. The Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in Shares.
State Street Bank and Trust Company is the sub-administrator, custodian, transfer agent, and dividend disbursing agent for the Fund.

20


PRICING OF FUND SHARES
The Fund will directly issue and redeem Shares on a continuous basis, to and from authorized participants ("APs"), at net asset value ("NAV") per Share in aggregations of Shares called “Creation Units.” The value of the Fund's Shares bought and sold in the secondary market (on the exchange identified in the Fund summary) will be determined by market price, as described in the section below.
The Board of Trustees has delegated day-to-day valuation oversight responsibilities to PGI. PGI has established a Valuation Committee to fulfill these oversight responsibilities. The NAV of the Fund is calculated each day the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") is open (share prices are not calculated on the days on which the NYSE is closed for trading, generally New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Washington’s Birthday, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas). The share price is determined as of the close of business of the NYSE (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time). The Fund will not treat an intraday unscheduled disruption in NYSE trading as a closure of the NYSE and will price its shares as of 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time, if the particular disruption directly affects only the NYSE.
Notes:
If market quotations are not readily available for a security owned by the Fund, its fair value is determined using a policy adopted by the Trustees. Fair valuation pricing is subjective and creates the possibility that the fair value determined for a security may differ materially from the value that could be realized upon the sale of the security.
The Fund's securities may be traded on foreign securities markets that generally complete trading at various times during the day before the close of the NYSE. Foreign securities and currencies are converted to U.S. dollars using the exchange rate in effect at the close of the NYSE.
The trading of foreign securities generally or in a particular country or countries may not take place on all days the NYSE is open, or may trade on days the NYSE is closed. Thus, the value of the foreign securities held by the Fund may change on days when shareholders are unable to purchase or redeem shares.
Certain securities issued by companies in emerging market countries may have more than one quoted valuation at any point in time. These may be referred to as local price and premium price. The premium price is often a negotiated price that may not consistently represent a price at which a specific transaction can be effected. The Fund has a policy to value such securities at a price at which the Advisor expects the securities may be sold.
With respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets invested in other registered investment companies, that portion of the Fund's NAV is calculated based on the price (NAV or market, as applicable) of such other registered investment companies.
Fund Share Trading Prices and IOPV – Secondary Market
The trading prices of Shares of the Fund on the exchange may differ from the Funds' daily NAV. The price of the Shares will be subject to factors such as supply and demand, as well as the current value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Secondary market Shares, which are available for purchase or sale on an intraday basis, do not have a fixed relationship to either the previous day’s NAV or to the current day’s NAV. Prices in the secondary market, therefore, may be below, at, or above the most recently calculated NAV per Share.
The approximate value of shares of the Fund, known as the “indicative optimized portfolio value” (“IOPV”) will be disseminated every fifteen seconds throughout the trading day by the national securities exchange on which the Fund is listed or by other information providers or market data vendors. The IOPV is based on the current market value of holdings contained in the Fund's portfolio at the beginning of the trading day. The IOPV does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current portfolio of securities held by the Fund at a particular point in time nor the best possible valuation of the current portfolio. The IOPV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV, because the IOPV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day as discussed below. The IOPV is generally determined by using current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers that may trade in the portfolio securities held by the Fund. The quotations of certain Fund holdings may not be updated during U.S. trading hours if such holdings do not trade in the U.S. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the IOPV and makes no warranty as to its accuracy.
Shares of the Fund may trade in the secondary market on days when the Fund does not accept orders to purchase or redeem shares. On such days, shares may trade in the secondary market with more significant premiums or discounts than might otherwise be experienced on days when the Fund accepts purchase and redemption orders.
Information regarding how often the Shares of the Fund traded on the exchange at a price above (at a premium) or below (at a discount) the NAV per Share of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters (if available) can be found at www.principaletfs.com. Data presented represents past performance and cannot be used to predict future results.

21


PURCHASE AND SALE OF FUND SHARES
Generally
The Fund will directly issue shares to authorized participants ("APs") on a continuous basis at net asset value ("NAV") per Share in aggregations of 50,000 Shares called “Creation Units,” in exchange for portfolio securities. To be an AP, you must be a broker or dealer or other participant ("Participating Party") in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) or a participant in the DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement ("Participant Agreement") with the Distributor, which must be accepted by the Transfer Agent, that governs transactions in the Fund's Creation Units.
APs may acquire Shares directly from the Fund, and APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in Creation Units or Creation Unit Aggregations, and in accordance with the procedures described in the SAI. Shares are not individually redeemable, but are redeemable only in Creation Unit aggregations, and in exchange for portfolio securities and/or cash.
All orders to purchase or redeem Creation Units must be placed through an AP that has entered into a Participant Agreement with the Distributor and accepted by the Transfer Agent with respect to the creation and redemption of Creation Units. An investor purchasing or redeeming a Creation Unit from the Fund may be charged a fee (“Transaction Fee”) to protect existing shareholders of the Fund from the dilutive costs associated with the purchase and redemption of Creation Units.
Shareholders who are not APs will not be able to purchase or redeem Shares directly with or from the Fund. As a result, most investors will buy and sell Shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares of the Fund are expected to be listed for trading on the secondary market on the exchange identified in the Fund Summary for the Fund. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares. There is no minimum investment. When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. Due to the costs of buying or selling shares, including bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments. Shares of the Fund trade under the symbols set forth on the cover of this prospectus. Contact your broker for additional information on how to buy and sell Shares.
PGI may recommend to the Board, and the Board may elect, to liquidate and terminate the Fund at any time without shareholder approval.
Note:
No salesperson, broker-dealer, or other person is authorized to give information or make representations about the Fund other than those contained in this Prospectus. Information or representations not contained in this prospectus may not be relied upon as having been provided or made by the Trust, the Fund, PGI, any Sub-Advisor, or the Distributor.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company ("DTC") or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all Shares for all purposes.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other stocks that you hold in book entry or "street name" form.

22


DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
The Fund intends to generally make distributions of net income monthly. The factors that could affect the Fund’s ability to make regular monthly distributions include, without limitation, changes in interest rates, the performance of the financial markets in which the Fund invests, the allocation of Fund assets across different asset classes and investments, the performance of the Fund’s investment strategies, and the amount and timing of the Fund’s prior distributions. The Fund seeks to tailor the amount of its monthly income payments to moderate fluctuations in the amounts it distributes to shareholders over the course of the year. Although the Fund attempts to moderate fluctuations, the amounts it distributes to shareholders are not fixed and may not be the same each month. Further, the Fund does not guarantee they will make any monthly income payments to shareholders.
The Fund does not expect to make distributions that will be treated as return of capital, although the Fund cannot guarantee that it will not do so. Return of capital represents the return of a shareholder’s original investment in Fund shares, not a dividend from the Fund’s profits and earnings. If the Fund’s distributions are treated as a return of capital, the distributions themselves may not be taxable, but they will lower a shareholder's basis in the Fund shares so that when such shares are sold (even if they are sold at a loss on the original investment), the shareholder may be obligated to pay taxes on the capital gains. At the end of the year, the Funds may be required under applicable law to re-characterize distributions for the year among ordinary income, capital gains, and return of capital (if any) for purposes of tax reporting to shareholders.
To the extent that distributions the Fund pays are derived from a source other than net income (such as a return of capital), you will receive a notice disclosing the source of such distributions. Furthermore, such notice will be posted monthly on our website at www.principalfunds.com/sources-of-distribution. You may request a copy of all such notices, free of charge, by telephoning 1-800-787-1621. The amounts and sources of distributions included in such notices are estimates only and you should not rely upon them for purposes of reporting income taxes. The Fund will send shareholders a Form 1099-DIV for the calendar year that will tell shareholders how to report these distributions for federal income tax purposes.
No dividend reinvestment service is provided by the Trust. Broker-dealers may make available DTC book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by beneficial owners of the Fund for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation. Brokers may require beneficial owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole shares of the Fund purchased in the secondary market.
FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS
Particularly where creation and redemption baskets include a cash component, frequent purchases and redemptions pose a risk to the Funds because they may disrupt the management of the Funds by forcing the Funds to hold short-term (liquid) assets rather than investing for long-term growth, which results in lost investment opportunities for the Funds. Such transactions may also cause unplanned portfolio turnover, hurt the portfolio performance of the Funds, and increase expenses of the Funds due to increased broker-dealer commissions and recordkeeping and related costs.
Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on national securities exchanges. Therefore, it is unlikely that a shareholder could take advantage of a potential arbitrage opportunity presented by a lag between a change in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities after the close of the primary markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities and the reflection of that change in the Fund’s NAV (“market timing”), because the Fund sells and redeems its shares directly through transactions that are in-kind and/or for cash, with a deadline for placing cash-related transactions no later than the close of the primary markets for the Fund’s portfolio securities. Further, the Fund may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs the Fund incurs in effecting trades which may help minimize the potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions of shares. For these reasons, the Board of Trustees believes that a frequent trading monitoring policy is unnecessary for the Fund. The Fund reserves the right, without prior written notice, to reject orders from APs that the Fund determines to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise not in the best interests of the Fund.

23


TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state, local, and/or foreign tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled "Taxes" in the SAI.
Taxes
As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in Shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:
the Fund makes distributions,
you sell your Shares listed on the exchange, and
you purchase or redeem Creation Units.
Taxes on Distributions
As stated above, dividends from net investment income and net capital gains, ordinarily, are declared and paid monthly or quarterly. The Fund also may pay a special distribution at the end of the calendar year to comply with federal tax requirements. In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund.
Dividends paid out of the Fund's income and net realized short-term capital gains, if any, are generally taxable as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and foreign corporations, including Chinese corporations, with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions) generally will be subject to federal income tax for individual and certain other non-corporate shareholders (each, an “individual shareholder”) who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the lower rates for long-term capital gains—a maximum of 15% (or 20% for individual shareholders with taxable income exceeding certain thresholds, which will be adjusted annually for inflation). Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the Shares.
Distributions in excess of the Fund's current and accumulated earnings and profits, if any, are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of your basis in the Shares, and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund's NAV per Share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or long-term capital gains even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.
By law, the Fund may be required to withhold a percentage of your distributions and proceeds if you have not provided your taxpayer identification number or social security number.
Taxes on Share Sales
Any capital gain or loss you realize upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as long-term capital gain, taxable at the rates mentioned above for individual shareholders, or loss if you held the Shares for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if you held the Shares for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units
An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the exchanger's aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and the cash component paid. A person who exchanges Creation Units for securities generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger's basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate market value of the securities received and the cash redemption amount. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing "wash sales," or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisors with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units generally is treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if the Shares have been held for one year or less.

24


DISTRIBUTION PLANS AND INTERMEDIARY COMPENSATION
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
The Trust has adopted a distribution plan for the Fund pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act. Under the 12b-1 Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay fees for distribution related expenses and/or for providing services to shareholders of up to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets each year.
No 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no current plans to impose these fees.
However, in the event the Board of Trustees approves charging 12b-1 fees in the future, because Rule 12b-1 fees are paid out of Fund assets and are ongoing fees, over time they will increase the cost of your investment in the Fund and may cost you more than other types of sales charges.
Additional Payments to Intermediaries
Shares of the Fund are sold primarily through intermediaries, such as brokers, dealers, investment advisors, banks, trust companies, pension plan consultants, retirement plan administrators and insurance companies.
PGI and its affiliates may, out of their own resources, pay amounts to intermediaries that support the distribution or marketing of shares of the Fund or provide services to Fund shareholders.
In some cases, PGI or their respective affiliates will provide payments or reimbursements in connection with the costs of conferences and seminars, and educational, training and marketing efforts related to the Fund. Such activities may be sponsored by intermediaries, PGI, or their respective affiliates. Additional costs paid or reimbursed may include travel, lodging, entertainment, meals and small gifts. In some cases, PGI or their respective affiliates will also provide payment or reimbursement for expenses associated with transactions ("ticket") charges and general marketing expenses. For more information, see the SAI.
The payments described in this prospectus may create a conflict of interest by influencing your Financial Professional or your intermediary to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your Financial Professional or visit your intermediary's website for more information about the total amounts paid to them by PGI and its affiliates, and by sponsors of other investment companies your Financial Professional may recommend to you.
Your intermediary may charge you additional fees other than those disclosed in this prospectus. Ask your Financial Professional about any fees and commissions they charge.
FUND ACCOUNT INFORMATION
Continuous Offering
The method by which Creation Unit Aggregations are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Unit Aggregations of Shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a "distribution," as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.
For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Unit Aggregations after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent Shares and sells such Shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new Shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for Shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.
Broker-dealer firms also should note that dealers who are not "underwriters" but are effecting transactions in Shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of Shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not "underwriters" but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions), and thus dealing with the Shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(a)(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(a)(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act only is available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

25


Reservation of Rights
The Trust reserves the right to amend or terminate the Fund, as well as certain terms related to the Fund, described in this prospectus. Shareholders will be notified of any such action to the extent required by law.
Multiple Translations
This prospectus may be translated into other languages. In the event of any inconsistencies or ambiguity as to the meaning of any word or phrase in a translation, the English text will prevail.
Financial Statements
Shareholders will receive annual financial statements for the Fund, audited by the Fund's independent registered public accounting firm. Shareholders will also receive semiannual financial statements that are unaudited.
Section 12(d)(1)
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies. However, registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Trust on behalf of the Fund prior to exceeding the limits imposed by Section 12(d)(1).


26


APPENDIX A – DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS
Moody's Investors Service, Inc. Rating Definitions:
Long-Term Obligation Ratings
Ratings assigned on Moody's global long-term obligation rating scales are forward-looking opinions of the relative credit risk of financial obligations issued by non-financial corporates, financial institutions, structured finance vehicles, project finance vehicles, and public sector entities. Long-term ratings are assigned to issuers or obligations with an original maturity of one year or more and reflect both on the likelihood of a default or impairment on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default or impairment.1 
1 For certain structured finance, preferred stock and hybrid securities in which payment default events are either not defined or do not match investor’s expectations for timely payment, the ratings reflect the likelihood of impairment and the expected financial loss in the event of impairment.
Aaa:
Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, subject to the lowest level of credit risk.
Aa:
Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
A:
Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
Baa:
Obligations rated Baa are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium-grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
Ba:
Obligations rated Ba are judged to be speculative and are subject to substantial credit risk.
B:
Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
Caa:
Obligations rated Caa are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
Ca:
Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
C:
Obligations rated C are the lowest rated class of bonds and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
NOTE: Moody's appends numerical modifiers, 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category, the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking, and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category. Additionally, a “(hyb)” indicator is appended to all ratings of hybrid securities issued by banks, issuers, financial companies, and securities firms.*
* By their terms, hybrid securities allow for the omission of scheduled dividends, interest, or principal payments, which can potentially result in impairment if such an omission occurs. Hybrid securities may also be subject to contractually allowable write-downs of principal that could result in impairment. Together the hybrid indicator, the long-term obligation rating assigned to a hybrid security is an expression of the relative credit risk associated with that security.
SHORT-TERM NOTES: Short-term ratings are assigned to obligations with an original maturity of thirteen months or less and reflect both on the likelihood of a default on contractually promised payments and the expected financial loss suffered in the event of default. Moody's employs the following three designations, all judged to be investment grade, to indicate the relative repayment ability of rated issuers:
Issuers rated Prime-1 (or related supporting institutions) have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
Issuers rated Prime-2 (or related supporting institutions) have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
Issuers rated Prime-3 (or related supporting institutions) have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
Issuers rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.
US MUNICIPAL SHORT-TERM DEBT: The Municipal Investment Grade (MIG) scale is used to rate US municipal bonds of up to five years maturity. MIG ratings are divided into three levels - MIG 1 through MIG 3 - while speculative grade short-term obligations are designated SG.

A


MIG 1 denotes superior credit quality, afforded excellent protection from highly reliable liquidity support, or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.
MIG 2 denotes strong credit quality with ample margins of protection, although not as large as in the preceding group.
MIG 3 notes are of acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash-flow protection may be narrow and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well-established.
SG denotes speculative-grade credit quality and may lack sufficient margins of protection.
Description of S&P Global Ratings' Credit Rating Definitions:
S&P Global's credit rating, both long-term and short-term, is a forward-looking opinion of the creditworthiness of an obligor with respect to a specific obligation. This assessment takes into consideration the creditworthiness of guarantors, insurers, or other forms of credit enhancement on the obligation.
The credit rating is not a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a security, inasmuch as it does not comment as to market price or suitability for a particular investor.
The ratings are statements of opinion as of the date they are expressed furnished by the issuer or obtained by S&P Global Ratings from other sources S&P Global Ratings considers reliable. S&P Global Ratings does not perform an audit in connection with any rating and may, on occasion, rely on unaudited financial information. The ratings may be changed, suspended, or withdrawn as a result of changes in, or unavailability of, such information, or for other circumstances.
The ratings are based, in varying degrees, on the following considerations:
Likelihood of payment - capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation;
Nature of and provisions of the financial obligation;
Protection afforded by, and relative position of, the financial obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws affecting creditor's rights.
LONG-TERM CREDIT RATINGS:
AAA:
Obligations rated ‘AAA’ have the highest rating assigned by S&P Global Ratings. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.
AA:
Obligations rated ‘AA’ differ from the highest-rated issues only in small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.
A:
Obligations rated ‘A’ have a strong capacity to meet financial commitment on the obligation although they are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories.
BBB:
Obligations rated ‘BBB’ exhibit adequate protection parameters; however, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to meet financial commitment on the obligation.
BB, B, CCC,
Obligations rated ‘BB’, ‘B’, ‘CCC’, ‘CC’, and ‘C’ are regarded, on balance, as having significant
CC, and C:
speculative characteristics. ‘BB’ indicates the lowest degree of speculation and ‘C’ the highest degree of speculation. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major risk exposures to adverse conditions.
BB:
Obligations rated ‘BB’ are less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
B:
Obligations rated ‘B’ are more vulnerable to nonpayment than ‘BB’ but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair this capacity.
CCC:
Obligations rated ‘CCC’ are currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. If adverse business, financial, or economic conditions occur, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

A


CC:
Obligations rated ‘CC’ are currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment. The ‘CC’ rating is used when a default has not yet occurred but S&P Global Ratings expects default to be a virtual certainty, regardless of anticipated time to default.
C:
The rating ‘C’ is highly vulnerable to nonpayment, the obligation is expected to have lower relative seniority or lower ultimate recovery compared to higher rated obligations.
D:
Obligations rated ‘D’ are in default, or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the ‘D’ rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P Global Ratings believes that such payments will be made within five business days in the absence of a stated grace period or within the earlier of the stated grace period or 30 calendar days. The rating will also be used upon filing for bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default is a virtual certainty. If an obligation is subject to a distressed exchange offer the rating is lowered to ‘D’.
Plus (+) or Minus (-): The ratings from ‘AA’ to ‘CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus or minus sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.
NR:
Indicates that no rating has been requested, that there is insufficient information on which to base a rating or that S&P Global Ratings does not rate a particular type of obligation as a matter of policy.
SHORT-TERM CREDIT RATINGS: Ratings are graded into four categories, ranging from ‘A-1’ for the highest quality obligations to ‘D’ for the lowest.
A-1:
This is the highest category. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on these obligations is extremely strong.
A-2:
Issues carrying this designation are somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of the changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory.
A-3:
Issues carrying this designation exhibit adequate capacity to meet their financial obligations. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet it financial commitment on the obligation.
B:
Issues rated ‘B’ are regarded as vulnerable and have significant speculative characteristics. The obligor has capacity to meet financial commitments; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial obligations.
C:
This rating is assigned to short-term debt obligations that are currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
D:
This rating indicates that the issue is either in default or in breach of an imputed promise. For non-hybrid capital instruments, the ‘D’ rating category is used when payments on an obligation are not made on the date due, unless S&P Global Ratings believes that such payments will be made within five business days in the absence of a stated grace period or within the earlier of the stated grace period or 30 calendar days. The rating will also be used upon filing for bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default is a virtual certainty. If an obligation is subject to a distressed exchange offer the rating is lowered to ‘D’.
MUNICIPAL SHORT-TERM NOTE RATINGS: S&P Global Ratings rates U.S. municipal notes with a maturity of less than three years as follows:
SP-1:
A strong capacity to pay principal and interest. Issues that possess a very strong capacity to pay debt service is given a "+" designation.
SP-2:
A satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the terms of the notes.
SP-3:
A speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.


A


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Additional information about the Fund is available in the Statement of Additional Information dated ______________, as amended and restated _____________ which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Additional information about the Fund’s investments is available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year. The Statement of Additional Information and each Fund’s annual and semiannual reports can be obtained free of charge by writing Principal Exchange-Traded Funds, c/o ALPS Distributors, Inc., 1290 Broadway, Suite 1000, Denver, CO 80203. In addition, the Fund makes its Statement of Additional Information and annual and semi-annual reports available, free of charge, on our website www.principaletfs.com. To request this and other information about the Fund and to make shareholder inquiries, telephone 1-800-787-1621.
Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR Database on the Commission’s internet site at www.sec.gov. Copies of this information may be obtained, upon payment of a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
The Fund has entered into a management agreement with Principal Global Investors, LLC (“PGI”). The Fund and/or PGI, on behalf of the Fund, enter into contractual arrangements with various parties, including, among others, the Funds’ distributor, transfer agent and custodian, who provide services to the Fund. These arrangements are between the Fund and/or PGI and the applicable service provider. Shareholders are not parties to, or intended to be third-party beneficiaries of, any of these arrangements. Such arrangements are not intended to create in any individual shareholder or group of shareholders any right, including the right to enforce such arrangements against the service providers or to seek any remedy thereunder against PGI or any other service provider, either directly or on behalf of the Fund or any individual series (or fund).
This prospectus provides information that you should consider in determining whether to purchase shares of the Fund. This prospectus, the Statement of Additional Information, or the contracts that are exhibits to the Fund’s registration statement are not intended to give rise to any agreement or contract between the Fund and/or any fund and any investor, or give rise to any contract or other rights in any individual shareholder, group of shareholders or other person other than any rights conferred explicitly by federal or state securities laws that may not be waived.
The U.S. government does not insure or guarantee an investment in any Funds.
Shares of the Fund are not deposits or obligations of, or guaranteed or endorsed by, Principal Bank or any other financial institution, nor are shares of the Fund federally insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board, or any other agency.











Principal Exchange-Traded Funds SEC File 811-23029


B
 


PRINCIPAL EXCHANGE-TRADED FUNDS
Statement of Additional Information
dated November 1, 2019, as amended and restated _____________
This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") is not a prospectus. It contains information in addition to the information in the Fund's prospectus. The prospectus, which we may amend from time to time, contains the basic information you should know before investing in the Fund. You should read this SAI together with the Fund’s prospectus dated November 1, 2019 and _________________ .
Incorporation by Reference: To be filed by amendment.
For a free copy of the current prospectus, semiannual or annual report, call 1-800-787-1621 or write:
Principal Exchange-Traded Funds
c/o ALPS Distributors, Inc.
1290 Broadway, Suite 1000
Denver, CO 80203
The prospectus may be viewed at www.principaletfs.com.
Fund
Ticker Symbol
Principal U.S. Listing Exchange
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
GDVD
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
Principal Active Income ETF
YLD
NYSE Arca
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
PVAL
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
BTEC
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal International Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
PDEV
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Investment Grade Corporate Active ETF
IG
NYSE Arca
Principal Millennials Index ETF
GENY
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
PSET
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
PY
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF
PREF
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
[pending]
NYSE Arca
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
PMOM
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Ultra-Short Active Income ETF
USI
NYSE Arca
Principal U.S. Large-Cap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
PLC
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
USMC
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
PSC
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Small-MidCap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
PSM
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF TRUST AND FUNDS
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNDS' INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE AND BOARD
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
INTERMEDIARY COMPENSATION
PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS
CALCULATION OF NAV
TAX CONSIDERATIONS
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE
PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
PORTFOLIO MANAGER DISCLOSURE
APPENDIX A – DESCRIPTION OF BOND RATINGS
APPENDIX B – FOREIGN MARKET HOLIDAYS
APPENDIX C – PROXY VOTING POLICIES

2



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF TRUST AND FUNDS
Principal Exchange-Traded Funds (the "Trust") is a statutory trust organized under the laws of the State of Delaware in 2013 and is authorized to have multiple series or portfolios (each, a "Fund"). The Trust is an open-end management investment company, registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act"). The Trust currently consists of 17 Funds.
The shares of the Funds are referred to herein as "Shares."
The Trust issues and redeems Shares at net asset value ("NAV") only with Authorized Participants (“APs”) and only in aggregations of Shares in the amounts described in the prospectus (each a "Creation Unit" or a "Creation Unit Aggregation"), which is subject to change. Each Fund issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for portfolio securities and/or cash, plus a fixed and/or variable transaction fee.
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
Shares of each Fund are listed on a national securities exchange (the "Exchange") as set forth below. Shares trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV.
Fund
Principal U.S. Listing Exchange
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
Principal Active Income ETF
NYSE Arca
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal International Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Investment Grade Corporate Active ETF
NYSE Arca
Principal Millennials Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF
Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc.
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
NYSE Arca
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal Ultra-Short Active Income ETF
NYSE Arca
Principal U.S. Large-Cap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Principal U.S. Small-MidCap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
There can be no assurance that a Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of its Shares. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the Shares of a Fund from listing if: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of the Fund for 30 or more consecutive trading days; or (ii) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on such Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of a Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.
As in the case of other stocks traded on the Exchange, brokers' commissions on transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of the Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of a Fund.

3



DESCRIPTION OF THE FUNDS' INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
Fund Policies
The investment objective, principal investment strategies and principal risks of each Fund are described in the Fund's Prospectus. This Statement of Additional Information contains supplemental information about those strategies and risks and the types of securities that those managing the investments of each Fund can select. Additional information is also provided about other strategies that each Fund may use to try to achieve its objective.
The composition of each Fund and the techniques and strategies that those managing the investments of the Fund may use in selecting securities will vary over time. A Fund is not required to use all of the investment techniques and strategies available to it in seeking its goals.
Unless otherwise indicated, with the exception of the percentage limitations on borrowing, the restrictions apply at the time transactions are entered into. Accordingly, any later increase or decrease beyond the specified limitation, resulting from market fluctuations or in a rating by a rating service, does not require elimination of any security from a Fund’s portfolio.
The investment objective of each Fund and, except as described below as "Fundamental Restrictions," the investment strategies described in this Statement of Additional Information and the Prospectus are not fundamental and may be changed by the Board of Trustees without shareholder approval.
With the exception of the diversification test required by the Internal Revenue Code, the Funds will not consider collateral held in connection with securities lending activities when applying any of the following fundamental restrictions or any other investment restriction set forth in each Fund's Prospectus or Statement of Additional Information.
Fundamental Restrictions
Except as specifically noted, each Fund has adopted the following fundamental restrictions. Each fundamental restriction is a matter of fundamental policy and may not be changed without a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the affected Fund. The Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "1940 Act"), provides that "a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities" of a Fund means the affirmative vote of the lesser of 1) more than 50% of the outstanding shares or 2) 67% or more of the shares present at a meeting if more than 50% of the outstanding Fund shares are represented at the meeting in person or by proxy. Each share has one vote.
Each Fund:
1)
May not issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
2)
May not purchase or sell commodities, except as permitted by applicable law, regulation or regulatory authority having jurisdiction.
3)
May not purchase or sell real estate, which term does not include securities of companies which deal in real estate or mortgages or investments secured by real estate or interests therein, except that the Fund reserves freedom of action to hold and to sell real estate acquired as a result of the Fund’s ownership of securities.
4)
May not borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
5)
May not make loans except as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
6)
Has elected to be treated as a “diversified” investment company, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
7)
Has adopted a concentration policy as follows:
a.
The Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active, Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend, and Principal Ultra Short Active Income ETFs each concentrates its investments in securities in the financial services (i.e., banking, insurance and commercial finance) industry .
b.
Each index ETF will not concentrate its investments in a particular industry except to the extent its underlying index is so concentrated. Given the present composition of its underlying index, the Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF expects to have more than 25% of its assets invested in industries within the healthcare sector.

4



c.
The remaining Funds may not concentrate, as that term is used in the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time, its investments in a particular industry or group of industries.
8)
May not act as an underwriter of securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriter in connection with the sale of securities held in its portfolio.
Non-Fundamental Restrictions
Except as specifically noted, each Fund has also adopted the following non-fundamental restrictions. Non-fundamental restrictions are not fundamental policies and may be changed without shareholder approval. It is contrary to each Fund's present policy to:
1)
Invest more than 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities and in repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days except to the extent permitted by applicable law or regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time.
2)
Pledge, mortgage, or hypothecate its assets, except to secure permitted borrowings. The deposit of underlying securities and other assets in escrow and other collateral arrangements in connection with transactions that involve any future payment obligation, as permitted under the 1940 Act, as amended, and as interpreted, modified or otherwise permitted by any regulatory authority having jurisdiction, from time to time, are not deemed to be pledges, mortgages, hypothecations, or other encumbrances.
3)
Invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management.
4)
Acquire securities of other investment companies in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or (G) of the 1940 Act, invest more than 10% of its total assets in securities of other investment companies, invest more than 5% of its total assets in the securities of any one investment company, or acquire more than 3% of the outstanding voting securities of any one investment company except in connection with a merger, consolidation, or plan of reorganization and except as permitted by the 1940 Act, SEC rules adopted under the 1940 Act or exemptions granted by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The Fund may purchase securities of closed-end investment companies in the open market where no underwriter or dealer’s commission or profit, other than a customary broker’s commission, is involved.
The Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF has also adopted the following non-fundamental restriction. It is contrary to the Fund's present policy to:
1)
Invest more than 5% of its total assets in real estate limited partnership interests.
Non-Fundamental Restriction - Rule 35d-1
With the exception of the Principal Active Income and Principal Qualified Dividend Active ETFs, each Fund has also adopted the non-fundamental policy, pursuant to SEC Rule 35d-1, which requires it, under normal circumstances, to invest at least 80% of its net assets, plus any borrowings for investment purposes, in the type of investments, industry or geographic region (as described in the prospectus) as suggested by the name of the Fund.
This policy applies at the time of purchase. The Fund will provide 60 days’ notice to shareholders prior to implementing a change in this policy for the Fund. For purposes of this non-fundamental restriction, the Fund tests market capitalization ranges monthly.
For purposes of testing this requirement with respect to:
foreign currency investments, each Fund will count forward foreign currency contracts and other investments that have economic characteristics similar to foreign currency; the value of such contracts and investments will include the Fund’s investments in cash and/or cash equivalents to the extent such instruments are used to cover the Fund’s exposure under its forward foreign currency contracts and similar investments.
derivatives instruments, each Fund will typically count the mark-to-market value of such derivatives. However, the Fund may use a derivative contract’s notional value when it determines that notional value is an appropriate measure of the Fund’s exposure to investments. For example, with respect to single name equity swaps which are “fully paid” (equity swaps in which cash and/or cash equivalents are specifically segregated on the Fund’s books for the purpose of covering the full notional value of the swap), each Fund will count the value of such cash and/or cash equivalents.
investments in underlying funds (including ETFs), each Fund will count all investments in an underlying fund toward the requirement as long as 80% of the value of such underlying fund's holdings focus on the particular type of investment suggested by the Fund name.

5



Investment Strategies and Risks Related to Borrowing and Senior Securities, Commodity-Related Investments, Industry Concentration and Loans
Borrowing and Senior Securities
Under the 1940 Act, a fund that borrows money is required to maintain continuous asset coverage (that is, total assets including borrowings, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of the amount borrowed, with an exception for borrowings not in excess of 5% of the fund’s total assets made for temporary or emergency purposes. If a Fund invests the proceeds of borrowing, borrowing will tend to exaggerate the effect on net asset value of any increase or decrease in the market value of a fund’s portfolio. If a Fund invests the proceeds of borrowing, money borrowed will be subject to interest costs that may or may not be recovered by earnings on the securities purchased. A fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit; either of these requirements would increase the cost of borrowing over the stated interest rate.
Pursuant to SEC staff interpretations of the 1940 Act, a fund that purchases securities or makes other investments that have a leveraging effect on the fund (for example, reverse repurchase agreements) must segregate assets to render them not available for sale or other disposition in an amount equal to the amount the fund owes pursuant to the terms of the security or other investment.
Commodity-Related Investments
Under the 1940 Act, a fund's registration statement must recite the fund's policy with regard to investing in commodities. Each fund may invest in commodities to the extent permitted by applicable law and under its fundamental and non-fundamental policies and restrictions. Pursuant to a claim for exclusion filed with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) on behalf of each of the Funds, the Trust and the Funds are not deemed to be a “commodity pool” or “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”), and they are therefore not subject to registration or regulation under the CEA. The CFTC amended rule 4.5 “Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” Rule 4.5 provides that an investment company does not meet the definition of “commodity pool operator” if its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps is sufficiently limited that the fund can fall within one of two exclusions set out in rule 4.5. Each Fund intends to limit its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps to the degree necessary to fall within one of the two exclusions. If a Fund is unable to do so, it may incur expenses that are necessary to comply with the CEA and rules the CFTC has adopted under it.
Industry Concentration
“Concentration” means a fund invests more than 25% of its net assets in a particular industry or group of industries. To monitor compliance with the policy regarding industry concentration, the Funds may use the industry classifications provided by Bloomberg, L.P., the MSCI/Standard & Poor's Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS), the Directory of Companies Filing Annual Reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission or any other reasonable industry classification system. With respect to monitoring industry concentration, a Fund concentrating in the "financial services industry" concentrates its investments in one or more industries classified within the broader financial services sector.
Each Fund interprets its policy with respect to concentration in a particular industry to apply only to direct investments in the securities of issuers in a particular industry. For purposes of this restriction, government securities such as treasury securities or mortgage-backed securities that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities are not subject to a Fund’s industry concentration restrictions. Each Fund also views its investments in tax-exempt municipal securities as not representing interests in any particular industry or group of industries. For information about municipal securities, see the Municipal Obligations section.
Loans
A Fund may not make loans to other persons except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, or other successor law governing the regulation of registered investment companies, or interpretations or modifications thereof by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction, or (ii) pursuant to exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority of competent jurisdiction. Generally, this means the Funds are typically permitted to make loans, but must take into account potential issues such as liquidity, valuation, and avoidance of impermissible transactions. Examples of permissible loans include (a) the lending of its portfolio securities, (b) the purchase of debt securities, loan participations and/or engaging in direct corporate loans in accordance with its investment objectives and policies, (c) the entry into a repurchase agreement (to the extent such entry is deemed to be a loan), and (d) loans to affiliated investment companies to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act or any exemptions therefrom that may be granted by the SEC.

6



Other Investment Strategies and Risks
Convertible Securities
A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, or other security that entitles the holder to acquire common stock or other equity securities of the same or a different issuer. A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt or preferred securities, as applicable. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and, therefore, generally entail less risk than the corporation’s common stock, although the extent to which such risk is reduced depends in large measure upon the degree to which the convertible security sells above its value as a fixed income security. Convertible securities are subordinate in rank to any senior debt obligations of the issuer, and, therefore, an issuer’s convertible securities entail more risk than its debt obligations. Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar credit quality because of the potential for capital appreciation. In addition, convertible securities are often lower-rated securities.
Because of the conversion feature, the price of the convertible security will normally fluctuate in some proportion to changes in the price of the underlying asset, and as such is subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and/or general market and economic conditions. The income component of a convertible security may tend to cushion the security against declines in the price of the underlying asset. However, the income component of convertible securities causes fluctuations based upon changes in interest rates and the credit quality of the issuer.
If the conversion value of a convertible security increases to a point that approximates or exceeds its investment value, the value of the security will be principally influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security will sell at a premium over its conversion value to the extent investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding an income-producing security.
A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a predetermined price. If a convertible security held by a fund is called for redemption, the fund would be required to permit the issuer to redeem the security and convert it to underlying common stock, or would sell the convertible security to a third party, which may have an adverse effect on the fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.
Corporate Reorganizations
Each Fund may invest in securities for which a tender or exchange offer has been made or announced and in securities of companies for which a merger, consolidation, liquidation or reorganization proposal has been announced if, in the judgment of those managing the Fund's investments, there is a reasonable prospect of capital appreciation significantly greater than the brokerage and other transaction expenses involved. The primary risk of such investments is that if the contemplated transaction is abandoned, revised, delayed or becomes subject to unanticipated uncertainties, the market price of the securities may decline below the purchase price paid by a Fund.
In general, securities which are the subject of such an offer or proposal sell at a premium to their historic market price immediately prior to the announcement of the offer or proposal. However, the increased market price of such securities may discount what the stated or appraised value of the security would be if the contemplated transaction were approved or consummated. Such investments may be advantageous when the discount significantly overstates the risk of the contingencies involved; significantly undervalues the securities, assets or cash to be received by shareholders of the prospective company as a result of the contemplated transaction; or fails adequately to recognize the possibility that the offer or proposal may be replaced or superseded by an offer or proposal of greater value. The evaluation of such contingencies requires unusually broad knowledge and experience on the part of those managing the Fund's investments, which must appraise not only the value of the issuer and its component businesses, but also the financial resources and business motivation of the offer or proposal as well as the dynamics of the business climate when the offer or proposal is in process.

7



Cyber Security Issues
Each Fund and its service providers may be subject to cyber security risks. Those risks include, among others, theft, misuse or corruption of data maintained online or digitally; denial of service attacks on websites; the loss or unauthorized release of confidential and proprietary information; operational disruption; or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks against or security breakdowns of a Fund or its service providers may harm the Fund and its shareholders, potentially resulting in, among other things, financial losses, the inability of Fund shareholders to transact business, inability to calculate a fund’s NAV, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, and/or additional compliance and remediation costs. Cyber security risks may also affect issuers of securities in which a fund invests, potentially causing the fund’s investment in such issuers to lose value. Despite risk management processes, there can be no guarantee that a fund will avoid losses relating to cyber security risks or other information security breaches.
Depositary Receipts
Depositary Receipts are generally subject to the same sort of risks as direct investments in a foreign country, such as, currency risk, political and economic risk, and market risk, because their values depend on the performance of a foreign security denominated in its home currency.
Each Fund may invest in foreign securities which means it may invest in:
American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs") - receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. They are designed for use in U.S. securities markets.
European Depositary Receipts ("EDRs") and Global Depositary Receipts ("GDRs") - receipts typically issued by a foreign financial institution to evidence an arrangement similar to that of ADRs.
Depositary Receipts may be issued by sponsored or unsponsored programs. In sponsored programs, an issuer has made arrangements to have its securities traded in the form of Depositary Receipts. In unsponsored programs, the issuer may not be directly involved in the creation of the program. Although regulatory requirements with respect to sponsored and unsponsored programs are generally similar, in some cases it may be easier to obtain financial information from an issuer that has participated in the creation of a sponsored program. Accordingly, there may be less information available regarding issuers of securities of underlying unsponsored programs, and there may not be a correlation between the availability of such information and the market value of the Depositary Receipts.
Derivatives
Options on Securities and Securities Indices
Each Fund may write (sell) and purchase call and put options on securities in which it invests and on securities indices based on securities in which the Fund invests. Each Fund may engage in these transactions to hedge against a decline in the value of securities owned or an increase in the price of securities which the Fund plans to purchase, or to generate additional revenue.
Exchange-Traded Options. An exchange-traded option may be closed out only on an exchange that generally provides a liquid secondary market for an option of the same series. If a liquid secondary market for an exchange-traded option does not exist, it might not be possible to effect a closing transaction with respect to a particular option, with the result that a Fund would have to exercise the option in order to consummate the transaction.
Over the Counter ("OTC") Options. OTC options differ from exchange-traded options in that they are two-party contracts, with price and other terms negotiated between buyer and seller, and generally do not have as much market liquidity as exchange-traded options. An OTC option (an option not traded on an established exchange) may be closed out only by agreement with the other party to the original option transaction. With OTC options, a Fund is at risk that the other party to the transaction will default on its obligations or will not permit the Fund to terminate the transaction before its scheduled maturity. While a Fund will seek to enter into OTC options only with dealers who agree to or are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with a Fund, there can be no assurance that a Fund will be able to liquidate an OTC option at a favorable price at any time prior to its expiration. OTC options are not subject to the protections afforded purchasers of listed options by the Options Clearing Corporation or other clearing organizations. An exchange-traded option may be closed out only on an exchange that generally provides a liquid secondary market for an option of the same series. If a liquid secondary market for an exchange-traded option does not exist, it might not be possible to effect a closing transaction with respect to a particular option, with the result that a fund would have to exercise the option in order to consummate the transaction.

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Writing Call and Put Options. When a fund writes a call option, it gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy a specific security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. When a fund writes a put option, it gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell to the fund a specific security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. In both situations, the fund receives a premium from the purchaser of the option.
The premium received by a fund reflects, among other factors, the current market price of the underlying security, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price, the time period until the expiration of the option and interest rates. The premium generates additional income for the fund if the option expires unexercised or is closed out at a profit. By writing a call, a fund limits its opportunity to profit from any increase in the market value of the underlying security above the exercise price of the option, but it retains the risk of loss if the price of the security should decline. By writing a put, a fund assumes the risk that it may have to purchase the underlying security at a price that may be higher than its market value at time of exercise.
A Fund usually owns the underlying security covered by any outstanding call option. With respect to an outstanding put option, a Fund deposits and maintains with its custodian or segregates on the Fund's records, cash, or other liquid assets with a value at least equal to the market value of the option that was written.
Once a fund has written an option, it may terminate its obligation before the option is exercised. The fund executes a closing transaction by purchasing an option of the same series as the option previously written. The fund has a gain or loss depending on whether the premium received when the option was written exceeds the closing purchase price plus related transaction costs.
Purchasing Call and Put Options. When the fund purchases a call option, it receives, in return for the premium it pays, the right to buy from the writer of the option the underlying security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. A fund purchases call options in anticipation of an increase in the market value of securities that it intends ultimately to buy. During the life of the call option, the fund is able to buy the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any increase in the market price of the underlying security. In order for a call option to result in a gain, the market price of the underlying security must exceed the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid, and transaction costs.
When a fund purchases a put option, it receives, in return for the premium it pays, the right to sell to the writer of the option the underlying security at a specified price at any time before the option expires. A fund purchases put options in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the underlying security. During the life of the put option, the fund is able to sell the underlying security at the exercise price regardless of any decline in the market price of the underlying security. In order for a put option to result in a gain, the market price of the underlying security must decline, during the option period, below the exercise price enough to cover the premium and transaction costs.
Once a fund purchases an option, it may close out its position by selling an option of the same series as the option previously purchased. The fund has a gain or loss depending on whether the closing sale price exceeds the initial purchase price plus related transaction costs.
Options on Securities Indices. Each Fund may purchase and sell put and call options on any securities index based on securities in which the Fund may invest. Securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. Each Fund engages in transactions in put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as they engage in transactions in options on securities. When a Fund writes call options on securities indices, it holds in its portfolio underlying securities which, in the judgment of those managing the Fund's investments, correlate closely with the securities index and which have a value at least equal to the aggregate amount of the securities index options.
Risks Associated with Option Transactions. An option position may be closed out only on an exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. A fund generally purchases or writes only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market. However, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange exists for any particular option, or at any particular time. If a fund is unable to effect closing sale transactions in options it has purchased, it has to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and may incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities. If the fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction for a covered option that it has written, it is not able to sell the underlying securities, or dispose of the assets held in a segregated account, until the option expires or is exercised. The fund's ability to terminate option positions established in the over-the-counter market may be more limited than for exchange-traded options and may also involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions might fail to meet their obligations.

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Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts
Each Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts of many types, including for example, futures contracts covering indexes, financial instruments, and foreign currencies. Each Fund may purchase and sell financial futures contracts and options on those contracts. Financial futures contracts are commodities contracts based on financial instruments such as U.S. Treasury bonds or bills or on securities indices such as the S&P 500 Index. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission regulates futures contracts, options on futures contracts, and the commodity exchanges on which they are traded. Through the purchase and sale of futures contracts and related options, a fund may seek to hedge against a decline in the value of securities owned by the fund or an increase in the price of securities that the fund plans to purchase. Each Fund may also purchase and sell futures contracts and related options to maintain cash reserves while simulating full investment in securities and to keep substantially all of its assets exposed to the market. Each Fund may enter into futures contracts and related options transactions both for hedging and non-hedging purposes.
Futures Contracts. Each Fund may purchase or sell a futures contract to gain exposure to a particular market asset without directly purchasing that asset. When a fund sells a futures contract based on a financial instrument, the fund is obligated to deliver that kind of instrument at a specified future time for a specified price. When a fund purchases that kind of contract, it is obligated to take delivery of the instrument at a specified time and to pay the specified price. In most instances, these contracts are closed out by entering into an offsetting transaction before the settlement date. The fund realizes a gain or loss depending on whether the price of an offsetting purchase plus transaction costs are less or more than the price of the initial sale or on whether the price of an offsetting sale is more or less than the price of the initial purchase plus transaction costs. Although the fund usually liquidates futures contracts on financial instruments, by entering into an offsetting transaction before the settlement date, they may make or take delivery of the underlying securities when it appears economically advantageous to do so.
A futures contract based on a securities index provides for the purchase or sale of a group of securities at a specified future time for a specified price. These contracts do not require actual delivery of securities but result in a cash settlement. The amount of the settlement is based on the difference in value of the index between the time the contract was entered into and the time it is liquidated (at its expiration or earlier if it is closed out by entering into an offsetting transaction).
When a fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it pays a commission to the futures commission merchant through which the fund executes the transaction. When entering into a futures transaction, the fund does not pay the execution price, as it does when it purchases a security, or a premium, as it does when it purchases an option. Instead, the fund deposits an amount of cash or other liquid assets (generally about 5% of the futures contract amount) with its futures commission merchant. This amount is known as "initial margin." In contrast to the use of margin account to purchase securities, the fund's deposit of initial margin does not constitute the borrowing of money to finance the transaction in the futures contract. The initial margin represents a good faith deposit that helps assure the fund's performance of the transaction. The futures commission merchant returns the initial margin to the fund upon termination of the futures contract if the fund has satisfied all its contractual obligations.
Subsequent payments to and from the futures commission merchant, known as "variation margin," are required to be made on a daily basis as the price of the futures contract fluctuates, a process known as "marking to market." The fluctuations make the long or short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable. If the position is closed out by taking an opposite position prior to the settlement date of the futures contract, a final determination of variation margin is made. Any additional cash is required to be paid to or released by the broker and the fund realizes a loss or gain.
In using futures contracts, a fund may seek to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price of or rate of return on portfolio securities or securities that the fund proposes to acquire. A fund, for example, sells futures contracts in anticipation of a rise in interest rates that would cause a decline in the value of its debt investments. When this kind of hedging is successful, the futures contract increases in value when the fund's debt securities decline in value and thereby keeps the fund's net asset value from declining as much as it otherwise would. A fund may also sell futures contracts on securities indices in anticipation of or during a stock market decline in an endeavor to offset a decrease in the market value of its equity investments. When a fund is not fully invested and anticipates an increase in the cost of securities it intends to purchase, it may purchase financial futures contracts.
When increases in the prices of equities are expected, a fund may purchase futures contracts on securities indices in order to gain rapid market exposure that may partially or entirely offset increases in the cost of the equity securities it intends to purchase.

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With respect to futures contracts that settle in cash, a Fund will cover (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the futures contract. When entering into futures contracts that do not settle in cash (physically-settled futures contracts), a Fund will maintain with its custodian (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the full notional value of the contract. Physically-settled futures contracts (and written options on such contracts) will be treated like cash-settled futures contracts when a Fund has entered into a contractual arrangement with a third-party futures commission merchant or other counterparty to offset the Fund’s exposure under the contract and, failing that, to assign its delivery obligation under the contract to the counterparty.
Options on Futures Contracts. Each Fund may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. A call option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to purchase a futures contract (assume a long position) at a specified exercise price at any time before the option expires. A put option gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to sell a futures contract (assume a short position), for a specified exercise price, at any time before the option expires.
Upon the exercise of a call, the writer of the option is obligated to sell the futures contract (to deliver a long position to the option holder) at the option exercise price, which will presumably be lower than the current market price of the contract in the futures market. Upon exercise of a put, the writer of the option is obligated to purchase the futures contract (deliver a short position to the option holder) at the option exercise price, which will presumably be higher than the current market price of the contract in the futures market. However, as with the trading of futures, most options are closed out prior to their expiration by the purchase or sale of an offsetting option at a market price that reflects an increase or a decrease from the premium originally paid. Options on futures can be used to hedge substantially the same risks addressed by the direct purchase or sale of the underlying futures contracts. For example, if a fund anticipates a rise in interest rates and a decline in the market value of the debt securities in its portfolio, it might purchase put options or write call options on futures contracts instead of selling futures contracts.
If a Fund purchases an option on a futures contract, it may obtain benefits similar to those that would result if it held the futures position itself. But in contrast to a futures transaction, the purchase of an option involves the payment of a premium in addition to transaction costs. In the event of an adverse market movement, however, the Fund is not subject to a risk of loss on the option transaction beyond the price of the premium it paid plus its transaction costs.
When a Fund writes an option on a futures contract, the premium paid by the purchaser is deposited with the Fund's custodian. The Fund must maintain with its futures commission merchant all or a portion of the initial margin requirement on the underlying futures contract. It assumes a risk of adverse movement in the price of the underlying futures contract comparable to that involved in holding a futures position. Subsequent payments to and from the futures commission merchant, similar to variation margin payments, are made as the premium and the initial margin requirements are marked to market daily. The premium may partially offset an unfavorable change in the value of portfolio securities, if the option is not exercised, or it may reduce the amount of any loss incurred by the Fund if the option is exercised.
Risks Associated with Futures Transactions. There are many risks associated with transactions in futures contracts and related options. The value of the assets that are the subject of the futures contract may not move in the anticipated direction. A Fund's successful use of futures contracts is subject to the ability of those managing the Fund's investments to predict correctly the factors affecting the market values of the Fund's portfolio securities. For example, if the Fund is hedged against the possibility of an increase in interest rates which would adversely affect debt securities held by the Fund and the prices of those debt securities instead increases, the Fund loses part or all of the benefit of the increased value of its securities it hedged because it has offsetting losses in its futures positions. Other risks include imperfect correlation between price movements in the financial instrument or securities index underlying the futures contract, on the one hand, and the price movements of either the futures contract itself or the securities held by the Fund, on the other hand. If the prices do not move in the same direction or to the same extent, the transaction may result in trading losses.

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Prior to exercise or expiration, a position in futures may be terminated only by entering into a closing purchase or sale transaction. This requires a secondary market on the relevant contract market. A Fund enters into a futures contract or related option only if there appears to be a liquid secondary market. There can be no assurance, however, that such a liquid secondary market exists for any particular futures contract or related option at any specific time. Thus, it may not be possible to close out a futures position once it has been established. Under such circumstances, the Fund continues to be required to make daily cash payments of variation margin in the event of adverse price movements. In such situations, if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may be required to sell portfolio securities to meet daily variation margin requirements at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. In addition, the Fund may be required to perform under the terms of the futures contracts it holds. The inability to close out futures positions also could have an adverse impact on the Fund's ability effectively to hedge its portfolio.
Most United States futures exchanges limit the amount of fluctuation permitted in futures contract prices during a single trading day. This daily limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day's settlement price at the end of a trading session. Once the daily limit has been reached in a particular type of contract, no more trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit. The daily limit governs only price movements during a particular trading day and therefore does not limit potential losses because the limit may prevent the liquidation of unfavorable positions. Futures contract prices have occasionally moved to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing prompt liquidation of futures positions and subjecting some futures traders to substantial losses.
Swap Agreements and Options on Swap Agreements
Each Fund may engage in swap transactions, including, but not limited to, swap agreements on interest rates, security or commodity indexes, specific securities and commodities, and credit and event-linked swaps, to the extent permitted by its investment restrictions. To the extent a Fund may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities, it may also invest in currency swap agreements and currency exchange rate swap agreements. Each Fund may also enter into options on swap agreements (“swap options”).
Each Fund may enter into swap transactions for any legal purpose consistent with its investment objectives and policies, such as for the purpose of attempting to obtain or preserve a particular return or spread at a lower cost than obtaining a return or spread through purchases and/or sales of instruments in other markets; to protect against currency fluctuations; as a duration management technique; to protect against any increase in the price of securities the Fund anticipates purchasing at a later date; to gain exposure to one or more securities, currencies, or interest rates; to take advantage of perceived mispricing in the securities markets; or to gain exposure to certain markets in the most economical way possible.
Swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a few weeks to more than one year. In a standard "swap" transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or "swapped" between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a "notional amount," i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency, or in a "basket" of securities or commodities representing a particular index.
Interest Rate Swaps. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by a Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest (for example, an exchange of floating rate payments for fixed rate payments with respect to a notional amount of principal). Forms of swap agreements also include interest rate caps, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates exceed a specified rate, or "cap"; interest rate floors, under which, in return for a premium, one party agrees to make payments to the other to the extent that interest rates fall below a specified rate, or "floor"; and interest rate collars, under which a party sells a cap and purchases a floor or vice versa in an attempt to protect itself against interest rate movements exceeding given minimum or maximum levels.
Currency Swaps. A currency swap is an agreement to exchange cash flows on a notional amount based on changes in the relative values of the specified currencies.
Index Swaps. An index swap is an agreement to make or receive payments based on the different returns that would be achieved if a notional amount were invested in a specified basket of securities (such as the S&P 500 Index) or in some other investment (such as U.S. Treasury Securities).

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Total Return Swaps. A total return swap is an agreement to make payments of the total return from a specified asset or instrument (or a basket of such instruments) during the specified period, in return for payments equal to a fixed or floating rate of interest or the total return from another specified asset or instrument. Alternatively, a total return swap can be structured so that one party will make payments to the other party if the value of the relevant asset or instrument increases, but receive payments from the other party if the value of that asset or instrument decreases.
Commodity Swap Agreements. Consistent with a Fund's investment objectives and general investment policies, certain of the Funds may invest in commodity swap agreements. For example, an investment in a commodity swap agreement may involve the exchange of floating-rate interest payments for the total return on a commodity index. In a total return commodity swap, a Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If the commodity swap is for one period, the Fund may pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is for more than one period, with interim swap payments, the Fund may pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a "floating" rate, the fee may be pegged to a base rate, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, the Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
Credit Default Swap Agreements. The "buyer" in a credit default contract is obligated to pay the "seller" a periodic stream of payments over the term of the contract provided that no event of default on an underlying reference obligation has occurred. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value, or "par value," of the reference obligation in exchange for the reference obligation. A Fund may be either the buyer or seller in a credit default swap transaction. If the Fund is a buyer and no event of default occurs, the Fund will lose its investment and recover nothing. However, if an event of default occurs, the Fund (if the buyer) will receive the full notional value of the reference obligation that may have little or no value. As a seller, the Fund receives a fixed rate of income throughout the term of the contract, which typically is between six months and five years, provided that there is no default event. If an event of default occurs, the seller must pay the buyer the full notional value of the reference obligation. In addition, collateral posting requirements are individually negotiated and there is no regulatory requirement that a counterparty post collateral to secure its obligations or a specified amount of cash, depending upon the terms of the swap, under a credit default swap. Furthermore, there is no requirement that a party be informed in advance when a credit default swap agreement is sold. Accordingly, the Fund may have difficulty identifying the party responsible for payment of its claims. The notional value of credit default swaps with respect to a particular investment is often larger than the total par value of such investment outstanding and, in event of a default, there may be difficulties in making the required deliveries of the reference investments, possibly delaying payments.
Each Fund may invest in derivative instruments that provide exposure to one or more credit default swaps. For example, a Fund may invest in a derivative instrument known as the Loan-Only Credit Default Swap Index (“LCDX”), a tradable index with 100 equally-weighted underlying single-name loan-only credit default swaps (“LCDS”). Each underlying LCDS references an issuer whose loans trade in the secondary leveraged loan market. A Fund can either buy the index (take on credit exposure) or sell the index (pass credit exposure to a counterparty). While investing in these types of derivatives will increase the universe of debt securities to which the Fund is exposed, such investments entail additional risks that are not typically associated with investments in other debt securities. Credit default swaps and other derivative instruments related to loans are subject to the risks associated with loans generally, as well as the risks of derivative transactions.
Investment Pools. Each Fund may invest in publicly or privately issued interests in investment pools whose underlying assets are credit default, credit-linked, interest rate, currency exchange, equity-linked or other types of swap contracts and related underlying securities or securities loan agreements. The pools’ investment results may be designed to correspond generally to the performance of a specified securities index or “basket” of securities, or sometimes a single security. These types of pools are often used to gain exposure to multiple securities with a smaller investment than would be required to invest directly in the individual securities. They also may be used to gain exposure to foreign securities markets without investing in the foreign securities themselves and/or the relevant foreign market. To the extent that a Fund invests in pools of swaps and related underlying securities or securities loan agreements whose return corresponds to the performance of a foreign securities index or one or more foreign securities, investing in such pools will involve risks similar to the risks of investing in foreign securities. In addition to the risks associated with investing in swaps generally, a Fund bears the risks and costs generally associated with investing in pooled investment vehicles, such as paying the fees and expenses of the pool and the risk that the pool or the operator of the pool may default on its obligations to the holder of interests in the pool, such as a Fund. Interests in privately offered investment pools of swaps may be considered illiquid.

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Contracts for Differences. “Contracts for differences” are swap arrangements in which a Fund may agree with a counterparty that its return (or loss) will be based on the relative performance of two different groups or “baskets” of securities. For example, as to one of the baskets, a Fund’s return is based on theoretical long futures positions in the securities comprising that basket, and as to the other basket, the Fund’s return is based on theoretical short futures positions in the securities comprising that other basket. The notional sizes of the baskets will not necessarily be the same, which can give rise to investment leverage. Each Fund may also use actual long and short futures positions to achieve the market exposure(s) as contracts for differences. Each Fund may enter into swaps and contracts for differences for investment return, hedging, risk management and for investment leverage.
Swaptions. A swap option (also known as “swaptions”) is a contract that gives a counterparty the right (but not the obligation) in return for payment of a premium, to enter into a new swap agreement or to shorten, extend, cancel, or otherwise modify an existing swap agreement, at some designated future time on specified terms. The buyer and seller of the swap option agree on the strike price, length of the option period, the term of the swap, notional amount, amortization and frequency of settlement. Each Fund may engage in swap options for hedging purposes or in an attempt to manage and mitigate credit and interest rate risk. Each Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call swap options. The use of swap options involves risks, including, among others, imperfect correlation between movements of the price of the swap options and the price of the securities, indices or other assets serving as reference instruments for the swap option, reducing the effectiveness of the instrument for hedging or investment purposes.
Obligations under Swap Agreements. The swap agreements a Fund enters into settle in cash and, therefore, provide for calculation of the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.” Consequently, a Fund's current obligations (or rights) under such a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”). A Fund's current obligations under such a swap agreement will be accrued daily (offset against any amounts owed to the Fund) and any accrued but unpaid net amounts owed to a swap counterparty will be covered by the segregation of assets determined to be liquid by those managing the Fund's investments in accordance with procedures established by the Board, to avoid any potential leveraging of the Fund's portfolio. In cases where a Fund is a seller of a credit default swap contract, the Fund will segregate liquid assets equal to the notional amount of the contract. Obligations under swap agreements for which a Fund segregates assets will not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of a Fund's investment restriction concerning senior securities.
Risks Associated with Swap Agreements. Swaps can be highly volatile and may have a considerable impact on a Fund’s performance, as the potential gain or loss on any swap transaction is not subject to any fixed limit. Whether a Fund's use of swap agreements or swap options will be successful in furthering its investment objective of total return will depend on the ability of those managing the Fund's investments to predict correctly whether certain types of investments are likely to produce greater returns than other investments. Because they are two party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. The Funds will enter into swap agreements only with counterparties that present minimal credit risks, as determined by those managing the Fund's investments. Certain restrictions imposed on each Fund by the Internal Revenue Code may limit a Fund’s ability to use swap agreements.
Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, a Fund will generally incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swap option than it will incur when it purchases a swap option. When a Fund purchases a swap option, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised. However, when the Fund writes a swap option, upon exercise of the option the Fund will become obligated according to the terms of the underlying agreement.
Liquidity of Swap Agreements. Some swap markets have grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, these swap markets have become relatively liquid. The liquidity of swap agreements will be determined by those managing the Fund's investments based on various factors, including:
the frequency of trades and quotations,
the number of dealers and prospective purchasers in the marketplace,
dealer undertakings to make a market,
the nature of the security (including any demand or tender features), and
the nature of the marketplace for trades (including the ability to assign or offset a portfolio's rights and obligations relating to the investment).

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Such determination will govern whether a swap will be deemed to be within a Fund's restriction on investments in illiquid securities.
Valuing Swap Agreements. For purposes of applying a Fund’s investment policies and restrictions (as stated in the Prospectuses and this Statement of Additional Information) swap agreements are generally valued by the Fund at market value. In the case of a credit default swap, however, in applying certain of the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions the Fund will value the credit default swap at its notional value or its full exposure value (i.e., the sum of the notional amount for the contract plus the market value), but may value the credit default swap at market value for purposes of applying certain of the Fund’s other investment policies and restrictions. For example, a Fund may value credit default swaps at full exposure value for purposes of the Fund’s credit quality guidelines because such value reflects the Fund’s actual economic exposure during the term of the credit default swap agreement. In this context, both the notional amount and the market value may be positive or negative depending on whether the fund is selling or buying protection through the credit default swap. The manner in which certain securities or other instruments are valued by a Fund for purposes of applying investment policies and restrictions may differ from the manner in which those investments are valued by other types of investors.
Permissible Uses of Futures and Options on Futures Contracts
Each Fund may enter into futures contracts and related options transactions, for hedging purposes and for other appropriate risk management purposes, and to modify the Fund's exposure to various currency, commodity, equity, or fixed-income markets. Each Fund may engage in futures trading in an effort to generate returns. When using futures contracts and options on futures contracts for hedging or risk management purposes, the Fund determines that the price fluctuations in the contracts and options are substantially related to price fluctuations in securities held by the Fund or which it expects to purchase. In pursuing traditional hedging activities, the Fund may sell futures contracts or acquire puts to protect against a decline in the price of securities that the Fund owns. Each Fund may purchase futures contracts or calls on futures contracts to protect the Fund against an increase in the price of securities the Fund intends to purchase before it is in a position to do so. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, or writes a call option on a futures contract, it segregates liquid assets that, when added to the value of assets deposited with the futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the market value of the contract.
Limitations on the Use of Futures, Options on Futures Contracts, and Swaps
A fund that utilizes futures contracts, options on futures contracts or swaps has claimed an exclusion from the definition of a “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission amended rule 4.5 “Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” Rule 4.5 provides that an investment company does not meet the definition of “commodity pool operator” if its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps is sufficiently limited that the fund can fall within one of two exclusions set out in rule 4.5. Each Fund intends to limit its use of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swaps to the degree necessary to fall within one of the two exclusions. If a Fund is unable to do so, it may incur expenses that are necessary to comply with the Commodity Exchange Act and rules the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted under it.
Risk of Potential Government Regulation of Derivatives
It is possible that additional government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures, options and swap agreements, may limit or prevent a fund from using such instruments as a part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent a fund from being able to achieve its investment objective. It is difficult to predict the effects future legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse. It is possible that legislative and regulatory activity could limit or restrict the ability of a fund to use certain instruments as a part of its investment strategy. For instance, in December 2015, the SEC proposed new regulations applicable to a mutual fund’s use of derivatives and related instruments.
If adopted as proposed, these regulations could significantly limit or impact a fund's ability to invest in derivatives and related instruments, limit a fund's ability to employ certain strategies that use derivatives and/or adversely affect the fund's performance, efficiency in implementing strategies, and ability to pursue their investment objectives. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the funds engage in derivative transactions could also prevent the funds from using certain instruments.

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Fixed-Income Securities
Inflation-Indexed Bonds
Some Funds may invest in inflation-indexed bonds or inflation protected debt securities, which are fixed income securities whose value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers utilize a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index accruals as part of a semi-annual coupon. Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury (Treasury Inflation Protected Securities or TIPS) have maturities of approximately five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. The U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if the rate of inflation rises at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds. While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond's inflation measure.
The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (CPI-U), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index calculated by that government. Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.
Step-Coupon Securities
Each Fund may invest in step-coupon securities. Step-coupon securities trade at a discount from their face value and pay coupon interest. The coupon rate is low for an initial period and then increases to a higher coupon rate thereafter. Market values of these types of securities generally fluctuate in response to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than conventional interest-paying securities of comparable term and quality. Under many market conditions, investments in such securities may be illiquid, making it difficult for a Fund to dispose of them or determine their current value.
“Stripped” Securities
Each Fund may invest in stripped securities, which are usually structured with two or more classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distribution on a pool of U.S. government or foreign government securities or mortgage assets. In some cases, one class will receive all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). Stripped securities commonly have greater market volatility than other types of fixed-income securities. In the case of stripped mortgage securities, if the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated payments of principal, a Fund may fail to recoup fully its investments in IOs. Stripped securities may be illiquid. Stripped securities may be considered derivative securities.
Zero-Coupon Securities
Each Fund may invest in zero-coupon securities. Zero-coupon securities have no stated interest rate and pay only the principal portion at a stated date in the future. They usually trade at a substantial discount from their face (par) value. Zero-coupon securities are subject to greater market value fluctuations in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make distributions of interest in cash.

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Foreign Currency Transactions
Options on Foreign Currencies
In addition, each Fund may buy and write options on foreign currencies in a manner similar to that in which futures or forward contracts on foreign currencies will be utilized. Each Fund may use options on foreign currencies to hedge against adverse changes in foreign currency conversion rates. For example, a decline in the U.S. dollar value of a foreign currency in which portfolio securities are denominated will reduce the U.S. dollar value of such securities, even if their value in the foreign currency remains constant. In order to protect against such diminutions in the value of the portfolio securities, a Fund may buy put options on the foreign currency. If the value of the currency declines, the Fund will have the right to sell such currency for a fixed amount in U.S. dollars, thereby offsetting, in whole or in part, the adverse effect on its portfolio. Conversely, when a rise in the U.S. dollar value of a currency in which securities to be acquired are denominated is projected, thereby increasing the cost of such securities, the Fund may buy call options on the foreign currency. The purchase of such options could offset, at least partially, the effects of the adverse movements in exchange rates. As in the case of other types of options, however, the benefit to the Fund from purchases of foreign currency options will be reduced by the amount of the premium and related transaction costs. In addition, if currency exchange rates do not move in the direction or to the extent desired, the Fund could sustain losses or lesser gains on transactions in foreign currency options that would require the Fund to forgo a portion or all of the benefits of advantageous changes in those rates.
Each Fund also may write options on foreign currencies. For example, to hedge against a potential decline in the U.S. dollar due to adverse fluctuations in exchange rates, a Fund could, instead of purchasing a put option, write a call option on the relevant currency. If the decline expected by the Fund occurs, the option will most likely not be exercised and the diminution in value of portfolio securities will be offset at least in part by the amount of the premium received. Similarly, instead of purchasing a call option to hedge against a potential increase in the U.S. dollar cost of securities to be acquired, a Fund could write a put option on the relevant currency which, if rates move in the manner projected by the Fund, will expire unexercised and allow the Fund to hedge the increased cost up to the amount of the premium. If exchange rates do not move in the expected direction, the option may be exercised and the Fund would be required to buy or sell the underlying currency at a loss, which may not be fully offset by the amount of the premium. Through the writing of options on foreign currencies, a Fund also may lose all or a portion of the benefits that might otherwise have been obtained from favorable movements in exchange rates.
Futures on Currency
A foreign currency future provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified quantity of foreign currency at a specified price and time. A public market exists in futures contracts covering a number of foreign currencies. Currency futures contracts are exchange-traded and change in value to reflect movements of a currency or a basket of currencies. Settlement must be made in a designated currency.
Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts
Each Fund may, but is not obligated to, enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts. Currency transactions include forward currency contracts and exchange listed or over-the-counter options on currencies. A forward currency contract involves a privately negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a specified future date at a price set at the time of the contract.
The typical use of a forward contract is to "lock in" the price of a security in U.S. dollars or some other foreign currency which a Fund is holding in its portfolio. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of dollars or other currency, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying security transactions, the Fund may be able to protect itself against a possible loss resulting from an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar or other currency which is being used for the security purchase and the foreign currency in which the security is denominated in or exposed to during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold and the date on which payment is made or received.
Those managing the Fund's investments also may from time to time utilize forward contracts for other purposes. For example, they may be used to hedge a foreign security held in the portfolio or a security which pays out principal tied to an exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and a foreign currency, against a decline in value of the applicable foreign currency. They also may be used to lock in the current exchange rate of the currency in which those securities anticipated to be purchased are denominated in or exposed to. At times, each Fund may enter into "cross-currency" hedging transactions involving currencies other than those in which securities are held or proposed to be purchased are denominated.

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Each Fund segregates liquid assets in an amount equal to (1) at least its daily marked-to-market (net) obligation (i.e., its daily net liability, if any) with respect to forward currency contracts that are cash settled and (2) the net notional value with respect to forward currency contracts that are not cash settled. It should be noted that the use of forward foreign currency exchange contracts does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange between the currencies that can be achieved at some future point in time. Additionally, although such contracts tend to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currency, they also tend to limit any potential gain that might result if the value of the currency increases.
Foreign Securities
Investing in foreign securities carries political and economic risks distinct from those associated with investing in the United States. Investments in foreign securities also involve the risk of possible adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitation on or delays in the removal of funds or other assets of a fund, political or financial instability or diplomatic and other developments that could affect such investments. Foreign investments may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U.S. investors, including the possibility of expropriation or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, restrictions on U.S. investment or on the ability to repatriate assets or to convert currency into U.S. Dollars. There may be a greater possibility of default by foreign governments or foreign-government sponsored enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic or social instability, military action or unrest or adverse diplomatic developments.
Asia-Pacific Countries
In addition to the risks of foreign investing and the risks of investing in emerging markets, the developing market Asia-Pacific countries in which a Fund may invest are subject to certain additional or specific risks. In the Asia-Pacific markets, there is a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Many of these markets also may be affected by developments with respect to more established markets in the region, such as Japan and Hong Kong. Brokers in developing market Asia-Pacific countries typically are fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in the United States.
Many of the developing market Asia-Pacific countries may be subject to a greater degree of economic, political and social instability than is the case in the United States and Western European countries. Such instability may result from, among other things: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision- making, including changes in government through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic and social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; and/or (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection. In addition, the governments of many of such countries, such as Indonesia, have a heavy role in regulating and supervising the economy.
An additional risk common to most such countries is that the economy is heavily export-oriented and, accordingly, is dependent upon international trade. The existence of overburdened infrastructure and obsolete financial systems also present risks in certain countries, as do environmental problems. Certain economies also depend to a significant degree upon exports of primary commodities and, therefore, are vulnerable to changes in commodity prices that, in turn, may be affected by a variety of factors. The legal systems in certain developing market Asia-Pacific countries also may have an adverse impact on a Fund. The rights of investors in developing market Asia-Pacific companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain and/or enforce a judgment in a developing market Asia-Pacific country.
China
Investing in China involves special considerations, including: the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy, interest rates and currency exchange rates; controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital; greater social, economic and political uncertainty; dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; and currency exchange rate fluctuations. The government of China maintains strict currency controls in support of economic, trade and political objectives and regularly intervenes in the currency market. The government's actions in this respect may not be transparent or predictable. Furthermore, it is difficult for foreign investors to directly access money market securities in China because of investment and trading restrictions. These and other factors may decrease the value and liquidity of a fund's investments.

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Investments in Stock Connect and Bond Connect
Funds may invest in China A shares, which are shares of certain Chinese companies listed and traded through the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect and Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect programs (“Stock Connect”). Stock Connect is a securities trading and clearing program established by Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ("SSE"), the Shenzhen Stock Exchange ("SZSE") and China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited, which seeks to provide mutual stock market access between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Trading through Stock Connect is subject to numerous restrictions and risks that could impair the Fund’s ability to invest in or sell China A shares and adversely affect the Fund’s performance, such as the following:
China A shares generally may not be sold, purchased or otherwise transferred other than through Stock Connect in accordance with applicable rules, regulations, and restrictions. Such securities may lose their eligibility, in which case they presumably could be sold but could no longer be purchased through Stock Connect. Market volatility and settlement difficulties in the China A share markets may result in significant fluctuations in the prices and liquidity of the securities traded on such markets. Further regulations or restrictions, such as limitations on redemptions or suspension of trading, may adversely impact the Fund.

Stock Connect is generally only available on business days when both the China and Hong Kong markets are open and when banking services are available in both markets on the corresponding settlement days. As a result, a Fund may not be able trade when it would be otherwise attractive to do so, and the Fund may not be able to dispose of its China A shares in a timely manner.
Investing in China A shares is subject to Stock Connect’s clearance and settlement procedures, which could pose risks to the Fund. Certain requirements must be completed before the market opening, or a Fund cannot sell the shares on that trading day. Stock Connect also imposes quotas that limit aggregate net purchases on an exchange on a particular day, and an investor cannot purchase and sell the same security through Stock Connect on the same trading day. Once the daily quota is reached, orders to purchase additional China A shares through Stock Connect will be rejected. Such restrictions could limit a Fund’s ability to sell its China A shares in a timely manner, or to sell them at all.
If a Fund holds 5% or more of a China A share issuer’s total shares through Stock Connect investments, the Fund must return any profits obtained from the purchase and sale of those shares if both transactions occur within a six-month period. All accounts managed by the Funds’ Advisor and/or its affiliates will be aggregated for purposes of this 5% limitation, which makes it more likely that a Fund’s profits may be subject to these limitations.
Stock Connect uses an omnibus clearing structure, and the Fund’s shares will be registered in its custodian’s name on the Central Clearing and Settlement System. This may limit the ability of the Fund’s advisor to effectively manage a Fund, and may expose the Fund to the credit risk of its custodian or to greater risk of expropriation. Investment in China A shares through Stock Connect may be available only through a single broker that is an affiliate of the Fund’s custodian, which may affect the quality of execution provided by such broker. 
China A shares purchased through Stock Connect will be held via a book entry omnibus account in the name of Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited (“HKSCC”), Hong Kong’s clearing entity, and not the Fund’s name as the beneficial owner. Therefore, a Fund’s ability to exercise its rights as a shareholder and to pursue claims against the issuer of China A shares may be limited. While Chinese regulations and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange have issued clarifications and guidance supporting the concept of beneficial ownership through Stock Connect, the interpretation of beneficial ownership in China by regulators and courts may continue to evolve. 
The Fund’s investments in China A shares through Stock Connect are generally subject to Chinese securities regulations and listing rules, among other restrictions. The Fund will not benefit from access to Hong Kong investor compensation funds, which are set up to protect against defaults of trades, when investing through Stock Connect. Investments in China A shares may not be covered by the securities investor protection programs of the exchanges and, without the protection of such programs, will be subject to the risk of default by the broker. If the depository of the SSE and the SZSE defaulted, a Fund may not be able to recover fully its losses from the depository or may be delayed in receiving proceeds as part of any recovery process.
Fees, costs and taxes imposed on foreign investors (such as the Fund) may be higher than comparable fees, costs and taxes imposed on owners of other securities that provide similar investment exposure. Trades using Stock Connect may also be subject to various fees, taxes and market charges imposed by Chinese market participants and regulatory authorities. Uncertainties in China’s tax rules related to the taxation of income and gains from investments in China A shares could result in unexpected tax liabilities for the Fund, and the withholding tax treatment of dividends and capital gains payable to overseas investors currently is unsettled. 

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Because trades of eligible China A shares on Stock Connect must be settled in Renminbi (RMB), the Chinese currency, Funds investing through Stock Connect will be exposed to RMB currency risks. The ability to hedge RMB currency risks may be limited. The RMB is subject to exchange control restrictions, and the Fund could be adversely affected by delays in converting currencies into RMB and vice versa.
Because Stock Connect is in its early stages, the effect on the market for trading China A shares with the introduction of numerous foreign investors is currently unknown. Stock Connect is relatively new and may be subject to further interpretation and guidance. There can be no assurance as to Stock Connect’s continued existence or whether future developments regarding the program may restrict or adversely affect the Fund’s investments or returns.
The risks associated with investing through Stock Connect could lead to greater market execution risk, valuation risks, liquidity risks and costs for a Fund, as well as for Authorized Participants that create and redeem Creation Units. This could cause a Fund to trade in the market at greater bid-ask spreads or greater premiums or discounts to the Fund’s NAV. Because the China A share market is considered volatile and unstable (with the risk of widespread trading suspensions or government intervention), the creation and redemption of Creation Units may also be disrupted.
Funds may also invest in China Interbank bonds traded on the China Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”) through the China - Hong Kong Bond Connect program (“Bond Connect”). In China, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority Central Money Markets Unit holds Bond Connect securities on behalf of investors (such as the Fund) in accounts maintained with maintained with a China-based custodian (either the China Central Depository & Clearing Co. or the Shanghai Clearing House). Investments using Bond Connect are subject to risks similar to those described above with respect to Stock Connect.
Europe
The economies and markets of European countries are often closely connected and interdependent, and events in one European country can have an adverse impact on other European countries. Certain funds may invest in securities of issuers that are domiciled in, or have significant operations in, member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (the “EU”), which requires member countries to comply with restrictions on inflation rates, deficits, interest rates, debt levels and fiscal and monetary controls. Decreasing imports or exports, changes in governmental or EU regulations on trade, changes in the exchange rate of the euro (the common currency of certain EU countries), the default or threat of default by an EU member country on its sovereign debt, and/or an economic recession in an EU member country may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of EU member countries and their trading partners, including some or all of the emerging markets countries. Although certain European countries do not use the euro, many of these countries are obliged to meet the criteria for joining the euro zone. Consequently, these countries must comply with many of the restrictions noted above. The European financial markets have experienced volatility and adverse trends in recent years due to concerns about economic downturns, rising government debt levels and the possible default of government debt in several European countries. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and other entities of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro and/or withdraw from the EU, including, with respect to the latter, the United Kingdom (the "UK"), which is a significant market in the global economy. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching and could adversely impact the value of investments in the region.
The UK’s referendum vote to leave the EU (referred to as "Brexit") could cause business disruptions and uncertainty and thus adversely impact the financial results and operations of various European companies and economies.
Although the precise time frame for Brexit is uncertain, it is currently expected that the UK will seek to withdraw from the EU with an anticipated completion date within two years after notifying the European Council of the UK’s intention to withdraw. The effects of Brexit will largely depend on any agreements the UK makes to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or more permanently. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. Additionally, Brexit could lead to global economic uncertainty and result in significant volatility in the global stock markets and currency exchange rate fluctuations.

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Japan
Japanese investments may be significantly affected by events influencing Japan’s economy and the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. Dollar. Japan’s economy fell into a long recession in the 1990s. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, Japan’s economy fell into another recession as a result of the recent global economic crisis. Japan is heavily dependent on exports and foreign oil. Japan is located in a seismically active area, and in 2011 experienced an earthquake of a sizable magnitude and a tsunami that significantly affected important elements of its infrastructure and resulted in a nuclear crisis. Since these events, Japan’s financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The full extent of the impact of these events on Japan’s economy and on foreign investment in Japan is difficult to estimate. Japan’s economic prospects may be affected by the political and military situations of its near neighbors, notably North and South Korea, China, and Russia.
Latin America
Most Latin American countries have experienced, at one time or another, severe and persistent levels of inflation, including, in some cases, hyperinflation. This has, in turn, led to high interest rates, extreme measures by governments to keep inflation in check, and a generally debilitating effect on economic growth. Although inflation in many countries has lessened, there is no guarantee it will remain at lower levels. In addition, the political history of certain Latin American countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres, and political corruption. Such developments, if they were to reoccur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and result in significant disruption in securities markets. Certain Latin American countries may also have managed currencies which are maintained at artificial levels to the U.S. Dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. There is no significant foreign exchange market for many currencies and it would, as a result, be difficult for the Fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies. Finally, a number of Latin American countries are among the largest debtors of developing countries. There have been moratoria on, and reschedulings of, repayment with respect to these debts. Such events can restrict the flexibility of these debtor nations in the international markets and result in the imposition of onerous conditions on their economies.
High Yield Securities
Each Fund may invest a portion of its assets in bonds that are rated below investment grade (sometimes called “high yield bonds” or "junk bonds") which are rated at the time of purchase Ba1 or lower by Moody's and BB+ or lower by S&P Global (if the bond has been rated by only one of those agencies, that rating will determine whether the bond is below investment grade; if the bond has not been rated by either of those agencies, those managing the Fund's investments will determine whether the bond is of a quality comparable to those rated below investment grade). Lower rated bonds involve a higher degree of credit risk, which is the risk that the issuer will not make interest or principal payments when due. In the event of an unanticipated default, a Fund would experience a reduction in its income and could expect a decline in the market value of the bonds so affected. Issuers of high yield securities may be involved in restructurings or bankruptcy proceedings that may not be successful. If an issuer defaults, it may not be able to pay all or a portion of interest and principal owed to the fund, it may exchange the high yield securities owned by the fund for other securities, including equities, and/or the fund may incur additional expenses while seeking recovery of its investment. Some funds may also invest in unrated bonds of foreign and domestic issuers. Unrated bonds, while not necessarily of lower quality than rated bonds, may not have as broad a market. Because of the size and perceived demand of the issue, among other factors, certain municipalities may not incur the expense of obtaining a rating. Those managing the Fund's investments will analyze the creditworthiness of the issuer, as well as any financial institution or other party responsible for payments on the bond, in determining whether to purchase unrated bonds. Unrated bonds will be included in the limitation a Fund has with regard to high yield bonds unless those managing the Fund's investments deem such securities to be the equivalent of investment grade bonds. Some of the high yield securities consist of Rule 144A securities. High yield securities may contain any type of interest rate payment or reset terms, including fixed rate, adjustable rate, zero coupon, contingent, deferred, payment-in-kind and those with auction rate features.

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Initial Public Offerings ("IPOs")
An IPO is a company's first offering of stock to the public. IPO risk is that the market value of IPO shares will fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading, the small number of shares available for trading, and limited information about the issuer. The purchase of IPO shares may involve high transaction costs. IPO shares are subject to market risk and liquidity risk. In addition, the market for IPO shares can be speculative and/or inactive for extended periods. The limited number of shares available for trading in some IPOs may make it more difficult for a fund to buy or sell significant amounts of shares without an unfavorable impact on prevailing prices. Investors in IPO shares can be affected by substantial dilution in the value of their shares by sales of additional shares and by concentration of control in existing management and principal shareholders. When a fund's asset base is small, a significant portion of the fund's performance could be attributable to investments in IPOs because such investments would have a magnified impact on the fund. As the fund's assets grow, the effect of the fund's investments in IPOs on the fund's performance probably will decline, which could reduce the fund's performance. Because of the price volatility of IPO shares, a fund may choose to hold IPO shares for a very short period. This may increase the turnover of the fund's portfolio and lead to increased expenses to the fund, such as commissions and transaction costs. By selling IPO shares, the fund may realize taxable gains it will subsequently distribute to shareholders.
Inverse Floating Rate and Other Variable and Floating Rate Instruments
Each Fund may purchase variable and floating rate instruments. These instruments may include variable amount master demand notes that permit the indebtedness thereunder to vary in addition to providing for periodic adjustments in the interest rate. These instruments may also include leveraged inverse floating rate debt instruments, or “inverse floaters”. The interest rate of an inverse floater resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest on a security or interest to which it is related. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest, and is subject to many of the same risks as derivatives. The higher degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Certain of these investments may be illiquid. The absence of an active secondary market with respect to these investments could make it difficult for a Fund to dispose of a variable or floating rate note if the issuer defaulted on its payment obligation or during periods that the Fund is not entitled to exercise its demand rights, and the Fund could, for these or other reasons, suffer a loss with respect to such instruments.
Master Limited Partnerships (“MLPs”)
An MLP is an entity that is generally taxed as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and that derives each year at least 90% of its gross income from "Qualifying Income". Qualifying Income includes interest, dividends, real estate rents, gain from the sale or disposition of real property, income and gain from commodities or commodity futures, and income and gain from mineral or natural resources activities that generate Qualifying Income. MLP interests (known as units) are traded on securities exchanges or over-the-counter. An MLP's organization as a partnership and compliance with the Qualifying Income rules generally eliminates federal tax at the entity level.
An MLP has one or more general partners (who may be individuals, corporations, or other partnerships) which manage the partnership, and limited partners, which provide capital to the partnership but have no role in its management. Typically, the general partner is owned by company management or another publicly traded sponsoring corporation. When an investor buys units in an MLP, the investor becomes a limited partner. Holders of MLP units have limited control and voting rights on matters affecting the partnership and are exposed to a remote possibility of liability for all of the obligations of that MLP in the event that a court determines that the rights of the holders of MLP units to vote to remove or replace the general partner of that MLP, to approve amendments to that MLP’s partnership agreement, or to take other action under the partnership agreement of that MLP would constitute “control” of the business of that MLP, or a court or governmental agency determines that the MLP is conducting business in a state without complying with the partnership statute of that state. Holders of MLP units are also exposed to the risk that they will be required to repay amounts to the MLP that are wrongfully distributed to them.

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The business of certain MLPs is affected by supply and demand for energy commodities because such MLPs derive revenue and income based upon the volume of the underlying commodity produced, transported, processed, distributed, and/ or marketed. Pipeline MLPs have indirect commodity exposure to oil and gas price volatility because, although they do not own the underlying energy commodity, the general level of commodity prices may affect the volume of the commodity the MLP delivers to its customers and the cost of providing services such as distributing natural gas liquids. The costs of natural gas pipeline MLPs to perform services may exceed the negotiated rates under “negotiated rate” contracts. Processing MLPs may be directly affected by energy commodity prices. Propane MLPs own the underlying energy commodity, and therefore have direct exposure to energy commodity prices. The MLP industry in general could be hurt by market perception that MLP's performance and valuation are directly tied to commodity prices.
Pipeline MLPs are common carrier transporters of natural gas, natural gas liquids (primarily propane, ethane, butane and natural gasoline), crude oil or refined petroleum products (gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel). Pipeline MLPs also may operate ancillary businesses such as storage and marketing of such products. Pipeline MLPs derive revenue from capacity and transportation fees. Historically, pipeline output has been less exposed to cyclical economic forces due to its low cost structure and government-regulated nature. In addition, most pipeline MLPs have limited direct commodity price exposure because they do not own the product being shipped.
Processing MLPs are gatherers and processors of natural gas as well as providers of transportation, fractionation and storage of natural gas liquids ("NGLs"). Processing MLPs derive revenue from providing services to natural gas producers, which require treatment or processing before their natural gas commodity can be marketed to utilities and other end user markets. Revenue for the processor is fee based, although it is not uncommon to have some participation in the prices of the natural gas and NGL commodities for a portion of revenue.
Propane MLPs are distributors of propane to homeowners for space and water heating. Propane MLPs derive revenue from the resale of the commodity on a margin over wholesale cost. The ability to maintain margin is a key to profitability. Propane serves approximately 3% of the household energy needs in the United States, largely for homes beyond the geographic reach of natural gas distribution pipelines. Approximately 70% of annual cash flow is earned during the winter heating season (October through March). Accordingly, volumes are weather dependent, but have utility type functions similar to electricity and natural gas.
MLPs operating interstate pipelines and storage facilities are subject to substantial regulation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"), which regulates interstate transportation rates, services and other matters regarding natural gas pipelines including: the establishment of rates for service; regulation of pipeline storage and liquified natural gas facility construction; issuing certificates of need for companies intending to provide energy services or constructing and operating interstate pipeline and storage facilities; and certain other matters. FERC also regulates the interstate transportation of crude oil, including: regulation of rates and practices of oil pipeline companies; establishing equal service conditions to provide shippers with equal access to pipeline transportation; and establishment of reasonable rates for transporting petroleum and petroleum products by pipeline.
MLPs are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws and health and safety laws as well as laws and regulations specific to their particular activities. These laws and regulations address: health and safety standards for the operation of facilities, transportation systems and the handling of materials; air and water pollution requirements and standards; solid waste disposal requirements; land reclamation requirements; and requirements relating to the handling and disposition of hazardous materials. MLPs are subject to the costs of compliance with such laws applicable to them, and changes in such laws and regulations may adversely affect their results of operations.
MLPs may be subject to liability relating to the release of substances into the environment, including liability under federal “Superfund” and similar state laws for investigation and remediation of releases and threatened releases of hazardous materials, as well as liability for injury and property damage for accidental events, such as explosions or discharges of materials causing personal injury and damage to property. Such potential liabilities could have a material adverse effect upon the financial condition and results of operations of MLPs.
MLPs are subject to numerous business related risks, including: deterioration of business fundamentals reducing profitability due to development of alternative energy sources, consumer sentiment with respect to global warming, changing demographics in the markets served, unexpectedly prolonged and precipitous changes in commodity prices and increased competition that reduces the MLP’s market share; the lack of growth of markets requiring growth through acquisitions; disruptions in transportation systems; the dependence of certain MLPs upon the energy exploration and development activities of unrelated third parties; availability of capital for expansion and construction of needed facilities; a significant decrease in natural gas production due to depressed commodity prices or otherwise; the inability of MLPs to successfully integrate recent or future acquisitions; and the general level of the economy.

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Municipal Obligations and AMT-Subject Bonds
Municipal Obligations are obligations issued by or on behalf of states, territories, and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, including municipal utilities, or multi-state agencies or authorities. The interest on Municipal Obligations is exempt from federal income tax in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer. Three major classifications of Municipal Obligations are: Municipal Bonds, that generally have a maturity at the time of issue of one year or more; Municipal Notes, that generally have a maturity at the time of issue of six months to three years; and Municipal Commercial Paper, that generally has a maturity at the time of issue of 30 to 270 days.
The term "Municipal Obligations" includes debt obligations issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets, water and sewer works, and electric utilities. Other public purposes for which Municipal Obligations are issued include refunding outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses, and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities. To the extent that a fund invests a significant portion of its assets in municipal obligations issued in connection with a single project, the fund likely will be affected by the economic, business or political environment of the project.
AMT-Subject Bonds are industrial development bonds issued by or on behalf of public authorities to obtain funds to provide for the construction, equipment, repair or improvement of privately operated housing facilities, sports facilities, convention or trade show facilities, airport, mass transit, industrial, port or parking facilities, air or water pollution control facilities, and certain local facilities for water supply, gas, electricity, or sewage or solid waste disposal. They are considered to be Municipal Obligations if the interest paid thereon qualifies as exempt from federal income tax in the opinion of bond counsel to the issuer, even though the interest may be subject to the federal alternative minimum tax for individual income tax purposes.
Municipal Bonds
Municipal Bonds may be either "general obligation" or "revenue" issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer's pledge of its faith, credit, and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities or, in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise tax or other specific revenue source (e.g., the user of the facilities being financed), but not from the general taxing power. Industrial development bonds and pollution control bonds in most cases are revenue bonds and generally do not carry the pledge of the credit of the issuing municipality. The payment of the principal and interest on industrial revenue bonds depends solely on the ability of the user of the facilities financed by the bonds to meet its financial obligations and the pledge, if any, of real and personal property so financed as security for such payment. Funds may also invest in "moral obligation" bonds that are normally issued by special purpose public authorities. If an issuer of moral obligation bonds is unable to meet its obligations, the repayment of the bonds becomes a moral commitment but not a legal obligation of the state or municipality in question.
Municipal Commercial Paper
Municipal Commercial Paper refers to short-term obligations of municipalities that may be issued at a discount and may be referred to as Short-Term Discount Notes. Municipal Commercial Paper is likely to be used to meet seasonal working capital needs of a municipality or interim construction financing. Generally, they are repaid from general revenues of the municipality or refinanced with long-term debt. In most cases Municipal Commercial Paper is backed by letters of credit, lending agreements, note repurchase agreements or other credit facility agreements offered by banks or other institutions.
Municipal Notes
Municipal Notes usually are general obligations of the issuer and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes, or receipt of other revenues. Payment of these notes is primarily dependent upon the issuer's receipt of the anticipated revenues. Other notes include "Construction Loan Notes" issued to provide construction financing for specific projects, and "Bank Notes" issued by local governmental bodies and agencies to commercial banks as evidence of borrowings. Some notes ("Project Notes") are issued by local agencies under a program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Project Notes are secured by the full faith and credit of the United States.
Bank Notes are notes issued by local governmental bodies and agencies such as those described above to commercial banks as evidence of borrowings. The purposes for which the notes are issued are varied but they are frequently issued to meet short-term working-capital or capital-project needs. These notes may have risks similar to the risks associated with TANs and RANs.

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Bond Anticipation Notes ("BANs") are usually general obligations of state and local governmental issuers which are sold to obtain interim financing for projects that will eventually be funded through the sale of long-term debt obligations or bonds. The ability of an issuer to meet its obligations on its BANs is primarily dependent on the issuer's access to the long-term municipal bond market and the likelihood that the proceeds of such bond sales will be used to pay the principal and interest on the BANs.
Construction Loan Notes are issued to provide construction financing for specific projects. Permanent financing, the proceeds of which are applied to the payment of construction loan notes, is sometimes provided by a commitment by the Government National Mortgage Association ("GNMA") to purchase the loan, accompanied by a commitment by the Federal Housing Administration to insure mortgage advances thereunder. In other instances, permanent financing is provided by commitments of banks to purchase the loan.
Revenue Anticipation Notes ("RANs") are issued by governments or governmental bodies with the expectation that future revenues from a designated source will be used to repay the notes. In general, they also constitute general obligations of the issuer. A decline in the receipt of projected revenues, such as anticipated revenues from another level of government, could adversely affect an issuer's ability to meet its obligations on outstanding RANs. In addition, the possibility that the revenues would, when received, be used to meet other obligations could affect the ability of the issuer to pay the principal and interest on RANs.
Tax Anticipation Notes ("TANs") are issued by state and local governments to finance the current operations of such governments. Repayment is generally to be derived from specific future tax revenues. TANs are usually general obligations of the issuer. A weakness in an issuer's capacity to raise taxes due to, among other things, a decline in its tax base or a rise in delinquencies, could adversely affect the issuer's ability to meet its obligations on outstanding TANs.
Other Municipal Obligations
Other kinds of Municipal Obligations are occasionally available in the marketplace, and the fund may invest in such other kinds of obligations to the extent consistent with its investment objective and limitations. Such obligations may be issued for different purposes and with different security than those mentioned.
Stand-By Commitments
Each Fund may acquire stand-by commitments with respect to municipal obligations held in its portfolios. Under a stand-by commitment, a broker-dealer, dealer, or bank would agree to purchase, at the Fund’s option, a specified municipal security at a specified price. Thus, a stand-by commitment may be viewed as the equivalent of a put option acquired by a fund with respect to a particular municipal security held in the Fund's portfolio.
The amount payable to a Fund upon its exercise of a stand-by commitment normally would be 1) the acquisition cost of the municipal security (excluding any accrued interest that the fund paid on the acquisition), less any amortized market premium or plus any amortized market or original issue discount during the period the fund owned the security, plus, 2) all interest accrued on the security since the last interest payment date during the period the security was owned by the fund. Absent unusual circumstances, the fund would value the underlying municipal security at amortized cost. As a result, the amount payable by the broker-dealer, dealer or bank during the time a stand-by commitment is exercisable would be substantially the same as the value of the underlying municipal obligation.
A Fund’s right to exercise a stand-by commitment would be unconditional and unqualified. Although the Fund could not transfer a stand-by commitment, it could sell the underlying municipal security to a third party at any time. It is expected that stand-by commitments generally will be available to the Fund without the payment of any direct or indirect consideration. The Fund may, however, pay for stand-by commitments if such action is deemed necessary. In any event, the total amount paid for outstanding stand-by commitments held in the Fund's portfolio would not exceed 0.50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets calculated immediately after each stand-by commitment is acquired.
Each Fund intends to enter into stand-by commitments only with broker-dealers, dealers, or banks that those managing the Fund's investments believe present minimum credit risks. A Fund’s ability to exercise a stand-by commitment will depend upon the ability of the issuing institution to pay for the underlying securities at the time the stand-by commitment is exercised. The credit of each institution issuing a stand-by commitment to a fund will be evaluated on an ongoing basis by those managing the Fund's investments.

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Each Fund intends to acquire stand-by commitments solely to facilitate portfolio liquidity and does not intend to exercise its right thereunder for trading purposes. The acquisition of a stand-by commitment would not affect the valuation of the underlying municipal security. Each stand-by commitment will be valued at zero in determining net asset value. Should a Fund pay directly or indirectly for a stand-by commitment, its costs will be reflected in realized gain or loss when the commitment is exercised or expires. The maturity of a municipal security purchased by a Fund will not be considered shortened by any stand-by commitment to which the obligation is subject. Thus, stand-by commitments will not affect the dollar-weighted average maturity of a Fund's portfolio.
Variable and Floating Rate Obligations
Certain Municipal Obligations, obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or its agencies or instrumentalities, and debt instruments issued by domestic banks or corporations may carry variable or floating rates of interest. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices, such as a bank prime rate or tax-exempt money market index. Variable rate notes are adjusted to current interest rate levels at certain specified times, such as every 30 days. A floating rate note adjusts automatically whenever there is a change in its base interest rate adjustor, e.g., a change in the prime lending rate or specified interest rate indices. Typically, such instruments carry demand features permitting the fund to redeem at par.
The fund's right to obtain payment at par on a demand instrument upon demand could be affected by events occurring between the date the fund elects to redeem the instrument and the date redemption proceeds are due which affects the ability of the issuer to pay the instrument at par value. Those managing the Fund's investments monitor on an ongoing basis the pricing, quality, and liquidity of such instruments and similarly monitor the ability of an issuer of a demand instrument, including those supported by bank letters of credit or guarantees, to pay principal and interest on demand. Although the ultimate maturity of such variable rate obligations may exceed one year, the fund treats the maturity of each variable rate demand obligation as the longer of a) the notice period required before the fund is entitled to payment of the principal amount through demand or b) the period remaining until the next interest rate adjustment. Floating rate instruments with demand features are deemed to have a maturity equal to the period remaining until the principal amount can be recovered through demand.
Each Fund may purchase participation interests in variable rate Municipal Obligations (such as industrial development bonds). A participation interest gives the purchaser an undivided interest in the Municipal Obligation in the proportion that its participation interest bears to the total principal amount of the Municipal Obligation. Each Fund has the right to demand payment on seven days' notice, for all or any part of the Fund's participation interest in the Municipal Obligation, plus accrued interest. Each participation interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit or guarantee of a bank. Banks will retain a service and letter of credit fee and a fee for issuing repurchase commitments in an amount equal to the excess of the interest paid on the Municipal Obligations over the negotiated yield at which the instruments were purchased by the Fund.
Risks of Municipal Obligations
The yields on Municipal Obligations are dependent on a variety of factors, including general economic and monetary conditions, money market factors, conditions in the Municipal Obligations market, size of a particular offering, maturity of the obligation, and rating of the issue. Each Fund's ability to achieve its investment objective also depends on the continuing ability of the issuers of the Municipal Obligations in which it invests to meet its obligation for the payment of interest and principal when due.
Municipal Obligations are subject to the provisions of bankruptcy, insolvency, and other laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors, such as the Federal Bankruptcy Act. They are also subject to federal or state laws, if any, which extend the time for payment of principal or interest, or both, or impose other constraints upon enforcement of such obligations or upon municipalities to levy taxes. The power or ability of issuers to pay, when due, principal of and interest on Municipal Obligations may also be materially affected by the results of litigation or other conditions.
From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating the federal income tax exemption for interest on Municipal Obligations. It may be expected that similar proposals will be introduced in the future. If such a proposal was enacted, the ability of a Fund to pay "exempt interest" dividends may be adversely affected. The Fund would reevaluate its investment objective and policies and consider changes in its structure.

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Pay-in-Kind Securities
Each Fund may invest in pay-in-kind securities. Pay-in-kind securities pay dividends or interest in the form of additional securities of the issuer, rather than in cash. These securities are usually issued and traded at a discount from their face amounts. The amount of the discount varies depending on various factors, such as the time remaining until maturity of the securities, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. The market prices of pay-in-kind securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of securities that pay interest periodically and are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than are other types of securities having similar maturities and credit quality.
Portfolio Turnover (Active Trading)
Portfolio turnover is a measure of how frequently a portfolio's securities are bought and sold. The portfolio turnover rate is generally calculated as the dollar value of the lesser of a portfolio's purchases or sales of shares of securities during a given year, divided by the monthly average value of the portfolio securities during that year (excluding securities whose maturity or expiration at the time of acquisition were less than one year). For example, a portfolio reporting a 100% portfolio turnover rate would have purchased and sold securities worth as much as the monthly average value of its portfolio securities during the year.
It is not possible to predict future turnover rates with accuracy. Many variable factors are outside the control of a portfolio manager. The investment outlook for the securities in which a portfolio may invest may change as a result of unexpected developments in securities markets, economic or monetary policies, or political relationships. High market volatility may result in a portfolio manager using a more active trading strategy than might otherwise be employed. Each portfolio manager considers the economic effects of portfolio turnover but generally does not treat the portfolio turnover rate as a limiting factor in making investment decisions.
Sale of shares by investors may require the liquidation of portfolio securities to meet cash flow needs. In addition, changes in a particular portfolio's holdings may be made whenever the portfolio manager considers that a security is no longer appropriate for the portfolio or that another security represents a relatively greater opportunity. Such changes may be made without regard to the length of time that a security has been held.
Higher portfolio turnover rates generally increase transaction costs that are expenses of the Account. Active trading may generate short-term gains (losses) for taxable shareholders.
No Fund had a significant variation in portfolio turnover rates over the two most recently completed fiscal years.
Preferred Securities
Preferred securities can include: traditional preferred securities, hybrid-preferred securities, $25 par hybrid preferred securities, baby bonds, U.S. dividend received deduction (“DRD”) preferred stock, fixed rate and floating rate adjustable preferred securities, step-up preferred securities, public and 144A $1000 par capital securities including U.S. agency subordinated debt issues, trust originated preferred securities, monthly income preferred securities, quarterly income bond securities, quarterly income debt securities, quarterly income preferred securities, corporate trust securities, public income notes, and other trust preferred securities.
Traditional Preferred Securities. Traditional preferred securities may be issued by an entity taxable as a corporation and pay fixed or floating rate dividends. However, these claims are subordinated to more senior creditors, including senior debt holders. “Preference” means that a company must pay dividends on its preferred securities before paying any dividends on its common stock, and the claims of preferred securities holders are ahead of common stockholders’ claims on assets in a corporate liquidation. Holders of preferred securities usually have no right to vote for corporate directors or on other matters. Preferred securities share many investment characteristics with both common stock and bonds.
Hybrid or Trust Preferred Securities. Hybrid-preferred securities are debt instruments that have characteristics similar to those of traditional preferred securities (characteristics of both subordinated debt and preferred stock). Hybrid preferred securities may be issued by corporations, generally in the form of interest-bearing instruments with preferred securities characteristics, or by an affiliated trust or partnership of the corporation, generally in the form of preferred interests in subordinated business trusts or similarly structured securities. The hybrid-preferred securities market consists of both fixed and adjustable coupon rate securities that are either perpetual in nature or have stated maturity dates. Hybrid preferred holders generally have claims to assets in a corporate liquidation that are senior to those of traditional preferred securities but subordinate to those of senior debt holders. Certain subordinated debt and senior debt issues that have preferred characteristics are also considered to be part of the broader preferred securities market.

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Preferred securities may be issued by trusts (likely one that is wholly-owned by a financial institution or other corporate entity, typically a bank holding company) or other special purpose entities established by operating companies, and are therefore not direct obligations of operating companies. The financial institution creates the trust and owns the trust’s common securities. The trust uses the sale proceeds of its preferred securities to purchase, for example, subordinated debt issued by the financial institution. The financial institution uses the proceeds from the subordinated debt sale to increase its capital while the trust receives periodic interest payments from the financial institution for holding the subordinated debt. The trust uses the funds received to make dividend payments to the holders of the trust preferred securities. The primary advantage of this structure may be that the trust preferred securities are treated by the financial institution as debt securities for tax purposes and as equity for the calculation of capital requirements.
Trust preferred securities typically bear a market rate coupon comparable to interest rates available on debt of a similarly rated issuer. Typical characteristics include long-term maturities, early redemption by the issuer, periodic fixed or variable interest payments, and maturities at face value. Holders of trust preferred securities have limited voting rights to control the activities of the trust and no voting rights with respect to the financial institution. The market value of trust preferred securities may be more volatile than those of conventional debt securities. Trust preferred securities may be issued in reliance on Rule 144A under the 1933 Act and subject to restrictions on resale. There can be no assurance as to the liquidity of trust preferred securities and the ability of holders, such as the Funds, to sell its holdings. The condition of the financial institution can be looked to identify the risks of trust preferred securities as the trust typically has no business operations other than to issue the trust preferred securities. If the financial institution defaults on interest payments to the trust, the trust will not be able to make dividend payments to holders of its securities, such as the Funds.
Floating rate preferred securities provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the securities. The terms of such securities provide that interest rates are adjusted periodically based upon an interest rate adjustment index. The adjustment intervals may be regular, and range from daily up to annually, or may be event-based, such as a change in the short-term interest rate. Because of the interest rate reset feature, floating rate securities provide a Fund with a certain degree of protection against rising interest rates, although the interest rates of floating rate securities will participate in any declines in interest rates as well.
If a portion of a Fund’s income consists of dividends paid by U.S. corporations, a portion of the dividends paid by the fund may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, distributions reported by a Fund as derived from qualified dividend income (“QDI”) will be taxed in the hands of individuals at the reduced rates applicable to net capital gains, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met by both the shareholder and the fund. Dividend income that a Fund receives from REITs, if any, will generally not be treated as QDI and will not qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction. It is unclear the extent to which distributions a Fund receives from investments in certain preferred securities will be eligible for treatment as QDI or for the corporate dividends-received deduction. The Funds cannot predict at this time what portion, if any, of their dividends will qualify for the corporate dividends-received deduction or be eligible for the reduced rates of taxation applicable to QDI.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”)
REITs are pooled investment vehicles that invest in income producing real estate, real estate related loans, or other types of real estate interests. U.S. REITs are allowed to eliminate corporate level federal tax so long as they meet certain requirements of the Internal Revenue Code. Foreign REITs ("REIT-like") entities may have similar tax treatment in their respective countries. Equity real estate investment trusts own real estate properties, while mortgage real estate investment trusts make and/or invests in construction, development, and long-term mortgage loans. Their value may be affected by changes in the underlying property of the trusts, the creditworthiness of the issuer, property taxes, interest rates, and tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment. Both types of trusts are not diversified, are dependent upon management skill, are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free status of income under the Internal Revenue Code and failing to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act. In addition, foreign REIT-like entities will be subject to foreign securities risks. (See "Foreign Securities").

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Repurchase and Reverse Repurchase Agreements, Mortgage Dollar Rolls and Sale-Buybacks
Each Fund may invest in repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements. Repurchase agreements typically involve the purchase of debt securities from a financial institution such as a bank, savings and loan association, or broker-dealer. A repurchase agreement provides that the fund sells back to the seller and that the seller repurchases the underlying securities at a specified price on a specific date. Repurchase agreements may be viewed as loans by a fund collateralized by the underlying securities. This arrangement results in a fixed rate of return that is not subject to market fluctuation while the fund holds the security. In the event of a default or bankruptcy by a selling financial institution, the affected fund bears a risk of loss. To minimize such risks, the fund enters into repurchase agreements only with parties those managing the fund's investments deem creditworthy (those that are large, well-capitalized, and well-established financial institutions). In addition, the value of the securities collateralizing the repurchase agreement is, and during the entire term of the repurchase agreement remains, at least equal to the acquisition price the Funds pay to the seller of the securities.
In a repurchase agreement, the Fund purchases a security and simultaneously commits to resell that security to the seller at an agreed upon price on an agreed upon date within a number of days (usually not more than seven) from the date of purchase. The resale price consists of the purchase price plus an amount that is unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased security. A repurchase agreement involves the obligation of the seller to pay the agreed upon price, which obligation is in effect secured by the value (at least equal to the amount of the agreed upon resale price and marked-to-market daily) of the underlying security or "collateral." A risk associated with repurchase agreements is the failure of the seller to repurchase the securities as agreed, which may cause the Fund to suffer a loss if the market value of such securities declines before they can be liquidated on the open market. In the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of the seller, the Fund may encounter delays and incur costs in liquidating the underlying security. Repurchase agreements that mature in more than seven days are subject to the Fund's limit on illiquid investments. While it is not possible to eliminate all risks from these transactions, it is the policy of the Fund to limit repurchase agreements to those parties whose creditworthiness has been reviewed and found satisfactory by those managing the Fund's investments.
Each Fund may use reverse repurchase agreements, mortgage dollar rolls, and economically similar transactions to obtain cash to satisfy unusually heavy redemption requests or for other temporary or emergency purposes without the necessity of selling portfolio securities, or to earn additional income on portfolio securities, such as Treasury bills or notes. In a reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund sells a portfolio security to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase the instrument at a particular price and time. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain cash or appropriate liquid assets to cover its obligation under the agreement. A Fund will enter into reverse repurchase agreements only with parties that those managing the Fund's investments deem creditworthy. Using reverse repurchase agreements to earn additional income involves the risk that the interest earned on the invested proceeds is less than the expense of the reverse repurchase agreement transaction. This technique may also have a leveraging effect on a Fund, although the Fund's intent to segregate assets in the amount of the reverse repurchase obligation minimizes this effect.
A “mortgage dollar roll” is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement in certain respects. In a “dollar roll” transaction a Fund sells a mortgage-related security, such as a security issued by the Government National Mortgage Association, to a dealer and simultaneously agrees to repurchase a similar security (but not the same security) in the future at a pre-determined price. A dollar roll can be viewed, like a reverse repurchase agreement, as a collateralized borrowing in which the Fund pledges a mortgage-related security to a dealer to obtain cash. Unlike in the case of reverse repurchase agreements, the dealer with which the Fund enters into a dollar roll transaction is not obligated to return the same securities as those originally sold by the Fund, but only securities which are “substantially identical.” To be considered “substantially identical,” the securities returned to the Fund generally must: 1) be collateralized by the same types of underlying mortgages; 2) be issued by the same agency and be part of the same program; 3) have a similar original stated maturity; 4) have identical net coupon rates; 5) have similar market yields (and therefore price); and 6) satisfy “good delivery” requirements, meaning that the aggregate principal amounts of the securities delivered and received back must be within 0.01% of the initial amount delivered.
A Fund's obligations under a dollar roll agreement must be covered by segregated liquid assets equal in value to the securities subject to repurchase by the Fund.
Each Fund also may effect simultaneous purchase and sale transactions that are known as “sale-buybacks.” A sale-buyback is similar to a reverse repurchase agreement, except that in a sale-buyback, the counterparty who purchases the security is entitled to receive any principal or interest payments made on the underlying security pending settlement of the Fund's repurchase of the underlying security. A Fund's obligations under a sale-buyback typically would be segregated by liquid assets equal in value to the amount of the Fund's forward commitment to repurchase the subject security.

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Restricted and Illiquid Securities
A fund may experience difficulty in valuing and selling illiquid securities and, in some cases, may be unable to value or sell certain illiquid securities for an indefinite period of time. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of investments, such as (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (unless the agreements have demand/redemption features), (2) OTC options contracts and certain other derivatives (including certain swap agreements), (3) fixed time deposits that are not subject to prepayment or do not provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits), (4) loan interests and other direct debt instruments, (5) certain municipal lease obligations, (6) commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act, (7) thinly-traded securities, and (8) securities whose resale is restricted under the federal securities laws or contractual provisions (including restricted, privately placed securities that, under the federal securities laws, generally may be resold only to qualified institutional buyers). Generally, restricted securities may be sold only in a public offering for which a registration statement has been filed and declared effective or in a transaction that is exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933. When registration is required, a fund that owns restricted securities may be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses and a considerable period may elapse between the time of the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to sell a restricted security. If adverse market conditions were to develop during such a period, the fund might obtain a less favorable price than existed when it decided to sell.
Illiquid and restricted securities are priced at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of the Trustees. Each Fund has adopted investment restrictions that limit its investments in illiquid securities to no more than 15% of its net assets. The Trustees have adopted procedures to determine the liquidity of Rule 4(2) short-term paper and of restricted securities that may be resold under Rule 144A. Securities determined to be liquid under these procedures are excluded from the preceding investment restriction.
Securitized Products (Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities)
The yield characteristics of the mortgage- and asset-backed securities in which a Fund may invest differ from those of traditional debt securities. Among the major differences are that the interest and principal payments are made more frequently on mortgage- and asset-backed securities (usually monthly) and that principal may be prepaid at any time because the underlying mortgage loans or other assets generally may be prepaid at any time. As a result, if a Fund purchases those securities at a premium, a prepayment rate that is faster than expected will reduce their yield, while a prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect of increasing yield. If a Fund purchases these securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase their yield, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce their yield. Amounts available for reinvestment by a Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining interest rates and, as a result, are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than during a period of rising interest rates.
In general, the prepayment rate for mortgage-backed securities decreases as interest rates rise and increases as interest rates fall. However, rising interest rates will tend to decrease the value of these securities. In addition, an increase in interest rates may affect the volatility of these securities by effectively changing a security that was considered a short-term security at the time of purchase into a long-term security. Long-term securities generally fluctuate more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short- or medium-term securities.
The market for privately issued mortgage- and asset-backed securities is smaller and less liquid than the market for U.S. government mortgage-backed securities. A collateralized mortgage obligation (“CMO”) may be structured in a manner that provides a wide variety of investment characteristics (yield, effective maturity, and interest rate sensitivity). As market conditions change, and especially during periods of rapid market interest rate changes, the ability of a CMO to provide the anticipated investment characteristics may be greatly diminished. Increased market volatility and/or reduced liquidity may result.
Each Fund may invest in each of collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), other collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”) and other similarly structured securities. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs are types of asset-backed securities. A CBO is a trust which is often backed by a diversified pool of high risk, below investment grade fixed income securities. The collateral can be from many different types of fixed income securities such as high yield debt, residential privately issued mortgage-related securities, commercial privately issued mortgage-related securities, trust preferred securities and emerging market debt. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. Other CDOs are trusts backed by other types of assets representing obligations of various parties. CBOs, CLOs and other CDOs may charge management fees and administrative expenses.

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Short Sales
A short sale involves the sale by a fund of a security that it does not own with the expectation of covering settlement by purchasing the same security at a later date at a lower price. A fund may also enter into a short position by using a derivative instrument, such as a future, forward, or swap agreement. If the price of the security or derivative increases prior to the time the fund is required to replace the borrowed security, then the fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in price from the time that the short sale was entered into plus any premiums and interest paid to the broker. Therefore, short sales involve the risk that losses may be exaggerated, potentially losing more money than the value of the investment.
A “short sale against the box” is a technique that involves selling either a security owned by a fund, or a security equivalent in kind and amount to the security sold short that the fund has the right to obtain, at no additional cost, for delivery at a specified date in the future. Each Fund may enter into a short sale against the box to hedge against anticipated declines in the market price of portfolio securities. If the value of the securities sold short against the box increases prior to the scheduled delivery date, a fund will lose money.
Supranational Entities
Each Fund may invest in obligations of supranational entities. A supranational entity is an entity designated or supported by national governments to promote economic reconstruction, development or trade amongst nations. Examples of supranational entities include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (also known as the World Bank) and the European Investment Bank. Obligations of supranational entities are subject to the risk that the governments on whose support the entity depends for its financial backing or repayment may be unable or unwilling to provide that support. Obligations of a supranational entity that are denominated in foreign currencies will also be subject to the risks associated with investments in foreign currencies.
Temporary Defensive Measures/Money Market Instruments
Each Fund may make money market investments (cash equivalents), without limit, pending other investment or settlement, for liquidity, or in adverse market conditions. Following are descriptions of the types of money market instruments that each Fund may purchase:
U.S. Government Securities - Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, including treasury bills, notes, and bonds.
U.S. Government Agency Securities - Obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government.
U.S. agency obligations include, but are not limited to, the Bank for Cooperatives, Federal Home Loan Banks, and Federal Intermediate Credit Banks.
U.S. instrumentality obligations include, but are not limited to, the Export-Import Bank, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, and Federal National Mortgage Association.
Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Others, such as those issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association, are supported by discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the agency or instrumentality. Still others, such as those issued by the Student Loan Marketing Association, are supported only by the credit of the agency or instrumentality.
Bank Obligations - Certificates of deposit, time deposits and bankers' acceptances of U.S. commercial banks having total assets of at least one billion dollars and overseas branches of U.S. commercial banks and foreign banks, which in the opinion of those managing the Fund's investments, are of comparable quality. A Fund may acquire obligations of U.S. banks that are not members of the Federal Reserve System or of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates issued against funds deposited in a commercial bank for a definite period of time and earning a specified return. Bankers’ acceptances are negotiable drafts or bills of exchange, normally drawn by an importer or exporter to pay for specific merchandise, which are “accepted” by a bank, meaning, in effect, that the bank unconditionally agrees to pay the face value of the instrument on maturity. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. There are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in a fixed time deposit to a third party, although there is no market for such deposits.

31



Obligations of foreign banks and obligations of overseas branches of U.S. banks are subject to somewhat different regulations and risks than those of U.S. domestic banks. For example, an issuing bank may be able to maintain that the liability for an investment is solely that of the overseas branch which could expose a Fund to a greater risk of loss. In addition, obligations of foreign banks or of overseas branches of U.S. banks may be affected by governmental action in the country of domicile of the branch or parent bank. Examples of adverse foreign governmental actions include the imposition of currency controls, the imposition of withholding taxes on interest income payable on such obligations, interest limitations, seizure or nationalization of assets, or the declaration of a moratorium. Deposits in foreign banks or foreign branches of U.S. banks are not covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and that the selection of those obligations may be more difficult because there may be less publicly available information concerning foreign banks or the accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements applicable to foreign banks may differ from those applicable to United States banks. Foreign banks are not generally subject to examination by any United States Government agency or instrumentality. The Funds only buy short-term instruments where the risks of adverse governmental action are believed by those managing the Fund's investments to be minimal. The Funds consider these factors, along with other appropriate factors, in making an investment decision to acquire such obligations. A Fund only acquires those which, in the opinion of management, are of an investment quality comparable to other debt securities bought by the Fund.
A certificate of deposit is issued against funds deposited in a bank or savings and loan association for a definite period of time, at a specified rate of return. Normally they are negotiable. However, a Fund occasionally may invest in certificates of deposit which are not negotiable. Such certificates may provide for interest penalties in the event of withdrawal prior to their maturity. A bankers' acceptance is a short-term credit instrument issued by corporations to finance the import, export, transfer, or storage of goods. They are termed "accepted" when a bank guarantees their payment at maturity and reflect the obligation of both the bank and drawer to pay the face amount of the instrument at maturity.
Commercial Paper - Short-term promissory notes issued by U.S. or foreign corporations.
Short-term Corporate Debt - Corporate notes, bonds, and debentures that at the time of purchase have 397 days or less remaining to maturity, with certain exceptions permitted by applicable regulations.
Repurchase Agreements - Instruments under which securities are purchased from a bank or securities dealer with an agreement by the seller to repurchase the securities at the same price plus interest at a specified rate.
Taxable Municipal Obligations - Short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by state and municipal issuers which generate taxable income.
LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE AND BOARD
PETF's Board has overall responsibility for directing PETF's operations in accordance with the provisions of the 1940 Act, other applicable laws and PETF’s charter. Each Board Member serves on the Boards of the following investment companies sponsored by Principal Life Insurance Company: Principal Funds, Inc. ("PFI"), Principal Variable Contracts Funds, Inc. (“PVC”), Principal Exchange-Traded Funds ("PETF"), and Principal Diversified Select Real Asset Fund ("PDSRA"), which are collectively referred to in this SAI as the "Fund Complex." The Board elects officers to supervise the day-to-day operations of the Fund Complex. Officers serve at the pleasure of the Board, and each officer has the same position with each investment company in the Fund Complex.
Board Members that are affiliated persons of PGI, the principal distributor, or the principal underwriter of the Fund Complex are considered “interested persons” of the Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act) and are referred to in this SAI as "Interested Board Members." Board Members who are not Interested Board Members are referred to as "Independent Board Members."
The Board meets in regularly scheduled meetings eight times throughout the year. Board meetings may occur in-person or by telephone. In addition, the Board holds special in-person or telephonic meetings or informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may arise or require action between regular meetings. Independent Board Members also meet annually to consider renewal of advisory contracts.
The Chairman of the Board is an interested person of the Fund Complex. The Independent Board Members have appointed a lead Independent Board Member whose role is to review and approve, with the Chairman, each Board meeting's agenda and to facilitate communication between and among the Independent Board Members, management, and the full Board. The Board's leadership structure is appropriate for the Fund Complex given its characteristics and circumstances, including the number of portfolios, variety of asset classes, net assets, and distribution arrangements. The appropriateness of this structure is enhanced by the establishment and allocation of responsibilities among the following Committees, which report their activities to the Board on a regular basis.

32



Committee and Independent Board Members
Primary Purpose and Responsibilities
Meetings Held During the Last Fiscal Year
15(c) Committee
Craig Damos
Mark Grimmett
Fritz Hirsch
Tao Huang
The Committee’s primary purpose is to assist the Board in performing the annual review of the Fund’s advisory and sub-advisory agreements pursuant to Section 15(c) of the 1940 Act. The Committee is responsible for requesting and reviewing related materials.
6
Audit Committee
Leroy Barnes
Mark Grimmett
Elizabeth Nickels
The Committee's primary purpose is to assist the Board by serving as an independent and objective party to monitor the Fund Complex's accounting policies, financial reporting and internal control system, as well as the work of the independent registered public accountants. The Audit Committee assists Board oversight of 1) the integrity of the Fund Complex's financial statements; 2) the Fund Complex's compliance with certain legal and regulatory requirements; 3) the independent registered public accountants' qualifications and independence; and 4) the performance of the Fund Complex's independent registered public accountants. The Audit Committee also provides an open avenue of communication among the independent registered public accountants, PGI's internal auditors, Fund Complex management, and the Board.
7
Executive Committee
Craig Damos
Timothy M. Dunbar
Mark Grimmett
The Committee's primary purpose is to exercise certain powers of the Board when the Board is not in session. When the Board is not in session, the Committee may exercise all powers of the Board in the management of the Fund Complex's business except the power to 1) issue stock, except as permitted by law; 2) recommend to the stockholders any action which requires stockholder approval; 3) amend the bylaws; or 4) approve any merger or share exchange which does not require stockholder approval.
none
Nominating and Governance Committee
Elizabeth Ballantine
Leroy Barnes
Craig Damos
Fritz Hirsch
The Committee's primary purpose is to oversee the structure and efficiency of the Board and the committees. The Committee is responsible for evaluating Board membership and functions, committee membership and functions, insurance coverage, and legal matters. The Committee's nominating functions include selecting and nominating Independent Board Member candidates for election to the Board. Generally, the Committee requests nominee suggestions from Committee members and management. In addition, the Committee considers candidates recommended by shareholders of the Fund Complex. Recommendations should be submitted in writing to Principal Funds, Inc., 711 High Street, Des Moines, IA 50392. When evaluating a potential nominee for Independent Board Member, the Committee generally considers, among other factors: age; education; relevant business experience; geographical factors; whether the person is "independent" and otherwise qualified under applicable laws and regulations to serve as an Independent Board Member; and whether the person is willing to serve, and willing and able to commit the time necessary to attend meetings and perform the duties of an Independent Board Member. The Committee meets personally with nominees and conducts a reference check. The final decision is based on a combination of factors, including the strengths and the experience an individual may bring to the Board. The Committee believes the Board generally benefits from diversity of background, experience and views among its members, and considers these factors in evaluating the Board's composition. The Board does not regularly use the services of professional search firms to identify or evaluate potential candidates or nominees. 
4
Operations Committee
Fritz Hirsch
Tao Huang
Karrie McMillan
Meg VanDeWeghe
The Committee's primary purpose is to review and oversee the provision of administrative and distribution services to the Fund Complex, communications with the Fund Complex's shareholders, and the Fund Complex's operations.
4
Risk oversight forms part of the Board's general oversight of the Fund Complex. The Board has appointed a Chief Compliance Officer who oversees the implementation and testing of the Fund's compliance program and reports to the Board regarding compliance matters for the Fund and its principal service providers. As part of its regular risk oversight functions, the Board, directly or through a Committee, interacts with and reviews reports from, among others: Fund Complex management, sub-advisors, the Chief Compliance Officer, independent registered public accounting firm, and internal auditors for PGI or its affiliates, as appropriate. The Board, with the assistance of Fund management and PGI, reviews investment policies and risks in connection with its review of Fund Complex performance. In addition, as part of the Board's periodic review of advisory, sub-advisory and other service provider agreements, the Board may consider risk management aspects of their operations and the functions for which they are responsible. With respect to valuation, the Board oversees a PGI valuation committee and has approved and periodically reviews valuation policies applicable to valuing Fund shares.

33



Each Board Member has significant prior senior management and/or board experience. Board Members are selected and retained based upon their skills, experience, judgment, analytical ability, diligence and ability to work effectively with other Board members, a commitment to the interests of shareholders and, for each Independent Board Member, a demonstrated willingness to take an independent and questioning view of management. In addition to these general qualifications, the Board seeks members who build upon the Board's diversity. Below is a brief discussion of the specific education, experience, qualifications, or skills that led to the conclusion that each person identified below should serve as a Board Member. As required by rules adopted under the 1940 Act, the Independent Board Members select and nominate all candidates for Independent Board Member positions.
Independent Board Members
Elizabeth Ballantine. Ms. Ballantine has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2004. Through her professional training, experience as an attorney, and experience as a board member and investment consultant, Ms. Ballantine is experienced in financial, investment and regulatory matters.
Leroy T. Barnes, Jr. Mr. Barnes has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2012. From 2001-2005, Mr. Barnes served as Vice President and Treasurer of PG&E Corporation. From 1997-2001, Mr. Barnes served as Vice President and Treasurer of Gap, Inc. Through his education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Mr. Barnes is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Craig Damos. Mr. Damos has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2008. Since 2011, Mr. Damos has served as the President of The Damos Company (consulting services). Mr. Damos served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Weitz Company from 2006-2010; Vertical Growth Officer of Weitz Company from 2004-2006; and Chief Financial Officer of Weitz Company from 2000-2004. From 2005-2008, Mr. Damos served as a director of West Bank. Through his education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Mr. Damos is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Mark A. Grimmett. Mr. Grimmett has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2004. He is a Certified Public Accountant. From 1996-2015, Mr. Grimmett served as the Chief Financial Officer for Merle Norman Cosmetics, Inc. Through his education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Mr. Grimmett is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Fritz S. Hirsch. Mr. Hirsch has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2005. From 2011-2015, Mr. Hirsch served as CEO of MAM USA. He served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Sassy, Inc. from 1986-2009, and Chief Financial Officer of Sassy, Inc. from 1983-1985. Through his education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Mr. Hirsch is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Tao Huang. Mr. Huang has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2012. Mr. Huang served as Chief Operating Officer of Morningstar from 2000-2011; as President of the International Division of Morningstar from 1998-2000; and as Chief Technology Officer of Morningstar, Inc. from 1996-2000. Through his education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Mr. Huang is experienced with technology, financial, regulatory and investment matters.
Karen (“Karrie”) McMillan. Ms. McMillan has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2014. From 2007-2014, Ms. McMillan served as general counsel to the Investment Company Institute. Prior to that (from 1999-2007), she worked as an attorney in private practice, specializing in the mutual fund industry. From 1991-1999, she served in various roles as counsel at the Securities and Exchange Commission, Division of Investment Management, including as Assistant Chief Counsel. Through her professional education, experience as an attorney, and experience as a board member, Ms. McMillan is experienced in financial, investment and regulatory matters.
Elizabeth A. Nickels. Ms. Nickels has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2015. Ms. Nickels currently serves as a director of SpartanNash. From 2008 to 2017, she served as a director of the not-for-profit Spectrum Health System; from 2014 to 2016, she served as a director of Charlotte Russe; from 2014 to 2015, she served as a director of Follet Corporation; and from 2013 to 2015, she served as a director of PetSmart. Ms. Nickels was formerly employed by Herman Miller, Inc. in several capacities: from 2012 to 2014, as the Executive Director of the Herman Miller Foundation; from 2007 to 2012, as President of Herman Miller Healthcare; and from 2000 to 2007, as Chief Financial Officer. Through her education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Ms. Nickels is experienced with financial, accounting and regulatory matters.

34



Mary M. (“Meg”) VanDeWeghe. Ms. VanDeWeghe has served as an Independent Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2018. She is CEO and President of Forte Consulting, Inc., a management and financial consulting firm, and was previously employed as a Finance Professor at Georgetown University from 2009-2016, Senior Vice President - Finance at Lockheed Martin Corporation from 2006-2009, a Finance Professor at the University of Maryland from 1996-2006, and in various positions at J.P. Morgan from 1983-1996. Ms. VanDeWeghe served as a director of Brown Advisory from 2003-2018, B/E Aerospace from 2014-2017, WP Carey from 2014-2017, and Nalco (and its successor Ecolab) from 2009-2014. Through her education, employment experience, and experience as a board member, Ms. VanDeWeghe is experienced with financial, investment and regulatory matters.
Interested Board Members
Timothy M. Dunbar. Mr. Dunbar has served as Chair and Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2019. Mr. Dunbar serves as President of Global Asset Management for Principal®, overseeing all of Principal’s asset management capabilities, including with respect to PGI, PLIC, and PFSI, among others. He also serves on numerous boards of directors of Principal® subsidiaries, including PGI and Post. He has served in various other positions since joining Principal® in 1986. Through his education and employment experience, Mr. Dunbar is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Patrick G. Halter. Mr. Halter has served as a Board Member of the Fund Complex since 2017. Mr. Halter also serves as Chief Operating Officer and director of PGI, and Chief Executive Officer and Chair of Principal Real Estate Investors ("Principal - REI"). He has served in various other positions since joining Principal® in 1984. Through his education and employment experience, Mr. Halter is experienced with financial, accounting, regulatory and investment matters.
Additional Information Regarding Board Members and Officers
The following tables present additional information regarding the Board Members and Fund Complex officers, including their principal occupations which, unless specific dates are shown, are of more than five years duration. For each Board Member, the tables also include information concerning other directorships held in reporting companies under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or registered investment companies under the 1940 Act.

35



INDEPENDENT BOARD MEMBERS
Name, Address,
and Year of Birth
Board Positions Held with Fund Complex
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios Overseen in Fund Complex
Other Directorships
Held During Past 5 Years
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth Ballantine
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1948
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2004) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Principal, EBA Associates
(consulting and investments)
128
Durango Herald, Inc.;
McClatchy Newspapers, Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
Leroy T. Barnes, Jr.
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1951
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2012) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Retired

128
McClatchy Newspapers, Inc.; Frontier Communications, Inc.; formerly, Herbalife Ltd.
 
 
 
 
 
Craig Damos
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1954
Lead Independent Board Member
(since 2020)
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2008) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
President, C.P. Damos Consulting LLC
128
None
 
 
 
 
 
Mark A. Grimmett
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1960
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2004) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Formerly, Executive Vice President and CFO, Merle Norman Cosmetics, Inc. (cosmetics manufacturing)
128
None
 
 
 
 
 
Fritz S. Hirsch
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1951
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2005) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)

Formerly, CEO, MAM USA (manufacturer of infant and juvenile products)
128
MAM USA
 
 
 
 
 
Tao Huang
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1962
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2012) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Retired
128
Armstrong World Industries, Inc. (manufacturing) and Equity Lifestyle Properties, Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
Karen (“Karrie”) McMillan
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1961
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2014) Trustee, PETF (since 2014)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Managing Director, Patomak Global Partners, LLC (financial services consulting)
128
None
 
 
 
 
 
Elizabeth A. Nickels
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1962
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2015) Trustee, PETF (since 2015)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Retired
128
SpartanNash; Formerly: Charlotte Russe; Follet Corporation; PetSmart; Spectrum Health System
 
 
 
 
 
Mary M. (“Meg”) VanDeWeghe
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1959
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2018) Trustee, PETF (since 2018)
Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
CEO and President, Forte Consulting, Inc. (financial and management consulting)
128
Denbury Resources Inc. and Helmerich & Payne;
Formerly: Brown Advisory;
B/E Aerospace; WP Carey; Nalco (and its successor Ecolab)

36



INTERESTED BOARD MEMBERS
Name, Address,
and Year of Birth



Board Positions Held with Fund Complex

Positions with PGI and its affiliates;
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years**
(unless noted otherwise)
Number of
Portfolios
Overseen
in Fund
Complex
Other
Directorships
Held During Past 5 Years
Timothy M. Dunbar
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1957
Chair (since 2019)
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2019) Trustee, PETF (since 2019) Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Director, PGI (since 2018)
President-PGAM, PGI, PLIC, PFSI, and PFG
(since 2018)
Chair/Executive Vice President, RobustWealth,
Inc. (since 2018)
Director, Post (since 2018)
Executive Vice President/Chief Investment
Officer, PLIC, PFSI, and PFG (2014-2018)
128
None
 
 
 
 
 
Patrick G. Halter
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1959
Director, PFI and PVC (since 2017) Trustee, PETF (since 2017) Trustee, PDSRA (since 2019)
Chief Executive Officer and President, PGI (since 2018)
Chief Operating Officer, PGI (2017-2018)
Chair, PGI (since 2018)
Director, PGI (2003-2018)
Director, Finisterre (since 2018)
Director, Origin (since 2018)
Chair, Post (since 2017)
Chief Executive Officer, Principal - REI
(since 2005)
Chair, Principal - REI (since 2004)
Chair, Spectrum (since 2017)
Director, CCIP (since 2017)
128
None
FUND COMPLEX OFFICERS
Name, Address
and Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Fund Complex
Positions with PGI and its Affiliates;
Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years**
Randy L. Bergstrom
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1955
Assistant Tax Counsel
(since 2005)
Counsel, PGI
Counsel, PLIC
 
 
 
Kamal Bhatia
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1972
President and Chief Executive Officer
(since 2019)
President - Principal Funds, PFG, PFSI, PLIC (since 2019)
Principal Executive Officer, OC Private Capital (2017-2019)
Senior Vice President, Oppenheimer Funds (2011-2019)
 
 
 
Jennifer A. Block
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1973
Deputy Chief Compliance Officer (since 2018)
Vice President and Counsel (2017-2018)
Assistant Counsel (2010-2017)
Assistant Secretary (2015-2018)
Counsel, PGI (2017-2018)
Counsel, PLIC (2009-2018)
Counsel, PMC (2009-2017)
 
 
 
Tracy W. Bollin
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1970
Chief Financial Officer (since 2014)

Managing Director, PGI (since 2016)
Senior Vice President, PFD (since 2015)
Chief Financial Officer, PFD (2010-2016)
Chief Operating Officer and Senior Vice President, PMC (2015-2017)
Director, PMC (2014-2017)
President, PSS (since 2015)
 
 
 
Gina L. Graham
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1965
Treasurer (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PGI (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PFA (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PFD (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PLIC (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PMC (2016-2017)
Vice President/Treasurer, Principal - REI (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PSI (since 2016)
Vice President/Treasurer, PSS (since 2016)
 
 
 
Laura B. Latham
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1986
Assistant Counsel and Assistant Secretary (since 2018)
Counsel, PGI (since 2018)
Prior thereto, Attorney in Private Practice
 
 
 
Diane K. Nelson
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1965
AML Officer (since 2016)
Chief Compliance Officer/AML Officer, PSS (since 2015)
 
 
 

37



FUND COMPLEX OFFICERS
Name, Address
and Year of Birth
Position(s) Held
with Fund Complex
Positions with PGI and its Affiliates;
Principal Occupations During Past 5 Years**
Sara L. Reece
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1975
Vice President and Controller (since 2016)
Director - Accounting, PLIC (since 2015)
 
 
 
Teri R. Root
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1979
Chief Compliance Officer (since 2018)
Interim Chief Compliance Officer (2018)
Deputy Chief Compliance Officer
(2015-2018)
Chief Compliance Officer - Funds, PGI (since 2018)
Deputy Chief Compliance Officer, PGI (since 2017)
Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, PMC (2015-2017)
Vice President, PSS (since 2015)
 
 
 
Britney L. Schnathorst
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1981
Assistant Secretary (since 2017)
Assistant Counsel (since 2014)
Counsel, PLIC (since 2013)
 
 
 
Adam U. Shaikh
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1972
Assistant Counsel (since 2006)
Assistant General Counsel, PGI (since 2018)
Counsel, PGI (2017-2018)
Counsel, PLIC (since 2006)
Counsel, PMC (2007-2017)
 
 
 
John L. Sullivan
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1970
Assistant Counsel and Assistant Secretary
(since 2019)
Counsel, PGI (since 2019)
Prior thereto, Attorney in Private Practice
 
 
 
Dan L. Westholm
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1966
Assistant Treasurer (since 2006)
Assistant Vice President/Treasurer, PGI (since 2017)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PFA (since 2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PFD (since 2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PLIC (since 2014)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PMC (2013-2017)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PSI (since 2013)
Assistant Vice President/Treasury, PSS (since 2013)
 
 
 
Beth C. Wilson
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1956
Vice President and Secretary (since 2007)
Director and Secretary-Funds, PLIC
 
 
 
Clint L. Woods
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1961
Counsel, Vice President, and Assistant Secretary (since 2018)
Of Counsel (2017-2018)
Vice President (2016-2017)
Counsel (2015-2017)
Vice President (since 2015)
Associate General Counsel, Governance Officer, and Assistant Corporate Secretary, PLIC (since 2013)
 
 
 
Jared A. Yepsen
711 High Street
Des Moines, IA 50392
1981
Assistant Tax Counsel (since 2017)
Counsel, PGI (since 2017)
Counsel, PLIC (since 2015)
Abbreviations used:
 
 
 
CCIP, LLC (CCIP)
Principal Global Investors, LLC (PGI)
Finisterre Capital LLP (Finisterre)
Principal Life Insurance Company (PLIC)
Origin Asset Management LLP (Origin)
Principal Management Corporation (PMC), now PGI
Post Advisory Group, LLC (Post)
Principal Real Estate Investors, LLC (Principal - REI)
Principal Financial Advisors, Inc. (PFA)
Principal Securities, Inc. (PSI)
Principal Financial Services, Inc. (PFSI)
Principal Shareholder Services, Inc. (PSS)
Principal Funds Distributor, Inc. (PFD)
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. (Spectrum)
Principal Global Asset Management (PGAM)
 

38



Board Member Ownership of Securities
The following tables set forth the dollar range of the equity securities of Funds included in this SAI, and aggregate dollar range of the equity securities of the funds in the Fund Complex, that were beneficially owned by the Board Members as of December 31, 2018. As of that date, Board Members did not own shares of the Funds included in this SAI that are not listed.
For the purpose of these tables, beneficial ownership means a direct or indirect pecuniary interest. Only Interested Board Members are eligible to participate in an employee benefit program which invests in the Fund Complex. Board Members who beneficially owned shares of the series of PVC did so through variable life insurance and variable annuity contracts. Please note that exact dollar amounts of securities held are not listed. Rather, ownership is listed based on the following dollar ranges:
A    $0
B    $1 up to and including $10,000
C    $10,001 up to and including $50,000
D    $50,001 up to and including $100,000
E    $100,001 or more
 
Independent Board Members
ETFs in this SAI
Ballantine
Barnes
Damos
Grimmett
Hirsch
Huang
McMillan
Nickels
VanDeWeghe
Principal Active Income
A
A
A
C
A
A
A
A
A
Principal Millennials Index
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
A
A
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
C
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap
Multi-Factor Index
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
D
Total Fund Complex
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
 
Interested Board Members
 
Dunbar
Halter
ETFs in this SAI
A
A
Total Fund Complex
E
E
Board Member and Officer Compensation
The Fund Complex does not pay any remuneration to its Board Members or officers who are employed by PGI or its affiliates. The Board annually considers a proposal to reimburse PGI for certain expenses, including a portion of the Chief Compliance Officer's compensation. If the proposal is adopted, these amounts are allocated across all Funds based on relative net assets of each portfolio.
Each Independent Board Member received compensation for service as a member of the Boards of all investment companies in the Fund Complex based on a schedule that takes into account an annual retainer amount, the number of meetings attended, and expenses incurred. Board Member compensation and related expenses are allocated to each of the Funds based on the net assets of each relative to combined net assets of the Fund Complex.

39



The following table provides information regarding the compensation received by the Independent Board Members from the Funds included in this SAI and from the Fund Complex during the period ended June 30, 2019. On that date, there were 4 investment companies in the Fund Complex. With respect to the Funds in this SAI, Board Member compensation is paid from the unitary fee that such Funds pay to PGI. The Funds do not provide retirement benefits or pensions to any of the Board Members.
Trustee
Funds in this SAI*
Fund Complex
Elizabeth Ballantine
$5,017
$281,750
Leroy T. Barnes, Jr.
$5,360
$301,000
Craig Damos
$5,644
$317,000
Mark A. Grimmett
$5,477
$307,500
Fritz S. Hirsch
$5,546
$311,500
Tao Huang
$5,252
$295,000
Karen ("Karrie") McMillan
$5,101
$286,500
Elizabeth A. Nickels
$5,101
$286,500
Mary M. ("Meg") VanDeWeghe
$5,101
$286,500
* The Principal International Multi-Factor Core Index, Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF. Principal U.S. Large-Cap Multi-Factor Core Index, and Principal U.S. Small-MidCap Multi-Factor Core Index ETFs were not in operation during the period ended June 30, 2019.
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
Investment Advisors
Principal Global Investors, LLC (“PGI”), an indirect subsidiary of Principal Financial Group, Inc. ("Principal®"), serves as the manager and as a discretionary advisor for each Fund.
PGI has executed an agreement with a Sub-Advisor. Under the Sub-Advisory agreement, the Sub-Advisor agrees to assume the obligations of PGI to provide investment advisory services for a specific Fund. For these services, PGI pays the Sub-Advisor a fee.

Sub-Advisor:
Spectrum Asset Management, Inc. ("Spectrum") is an indirect subsidiary of Principal Financial Group, Inc.
Funds:
Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active and Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active

Affiliated Persons of the Trust Who are Affiliated Persons of the Advisor
For information about affiliated persons of the Trust who are also affiliated persons of PGI or affiliated advisors, see the Interested Trustee and Officer tables in the “Leadership Structure and Board” section.
Codes of Ethics
The Trust, PGI, and the Sub-Advisor have adopted Codes of Ethics (“Codes”) under Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. PGI and the Sub-Advisor have each also adopted such a Code under Rule 204A-1 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. These Codes are designed to prevent, among other things, persons with access to information regarding the portfolio trading activity of the Funds from using that information for their personal benefit. Except in limited circumstances, the Code for PGI and the Fund prohibits portfolio managers from personally trading securities that are held or traded in the actively managed portfolios for which they are responsible. The Sub-Advisor's Code does not permit personnel subject to the Code to invest in securities that may be purchased or held by the Fund. The Trust's Board reviews reports at least annually regarding the operation of the Code of Ethics of the Trust, PGI, and each Sub-Advisor. The Codes are on file with, and available from, the SEC. A copy of the Trust's Code will also be provided upon request, which may be made by contacting the Trust.

40



Management Agreement
For providing the investment advisory services, and specified other services, PGI, under the terms of the Management Agreement for the Trust, is entitled to receive a fee computed and accrued daily and payable monthly, at the following annual rates. The management fee schedule for each Fund is as follows (expressed as a percentage of average net assets):

Fund
First $500
Million
Next $500
Million
Next $500
Million
Over $1.5
Billion
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
0.42%
0.40%
0.38%
0.37%
Principal Millennials Index ETF
0.45%
0.43%
0.41%
0.40%
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
0.29%
0.27%
0.25%
0.24%
Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
0.29%
0.27%
0.25%
0.24%

Fund
All Assets
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
0.58%
Principal Active Income ETF
0.49%
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
0.29%
Principal International Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
0.25%
Principal Investment Grade Corporate Active ETF
0.26%
Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF
0.55%
Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF
0.60%
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
0.29%
Principal Ultra-Short Active Income ETF
0.18%
Principal U.S. Large-Cap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
0.15%
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
0.15%
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
0.38%
Principal U.S. Small-MidCap Multi-Factor Core Index ETF
0.20%
Fund Operating Expenses
The Management Agreement between each Fund and PGI provides that PGI will pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except for the Management Fee, payments made under each Series 12b-1 plan, brokerage commissions and other expenses connected to the execution of portfolio transactions, interest expense, taxes, acquired fund fees and expenses, litigation expenses and other extraordinary expenses.
Contractual Limits on Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
PGI has contractually agreed to limit certain Funds' expenses (excluding interest expense, expenses related to fund investments, acquired fund fees and expenses, and other extraordinary expenses). The reductions and management fee waivers/expense reimbursements are in amounts that maintain total operating expenses at or below certain limits. The limits are expressed as a percentage of average daily net assets on an annualized basis. The expenses borne by PGI are subject to reimbursement by the Funds through the fiscal year end, provided no reimbursement will be made if it would result in the Funds' exceeding the total operating expense limit. The operating expense limits and the agreement terms are as follows:
Contractual Limit on Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
Fund
Limit
Expiration
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
0.12%
10/31/2020

41



Management Fees Paid
Fees paid for investment management services during the periods indicated were as follows:
Management Fees for Periods Ended June 30*
(amounts in thousands)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
$
3,991

 
$
3,414

 
$
300

(1) 
Principal Active Income ETF
1,767

 
1,955

 
2,088

 
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
12

 
9

(2) 
N/A

 
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
223

 
154

 
23

(3) 
Principal Investment Grade Corporate Active ETF
563

 
80

(4) 
N/A

 
Principal Millennials Index ETF
85

 
58

 
26

(3) 
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
74

 
61

 
27

 
Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
56

 
42

 
27

 
Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF
296

 
198

(5) 
N/A

 
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
16

 
9

(2) 
N/A

 
Principal Ultra-Short Active Income ETF
4

(6) 
N/A

 
N/A

 
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
2,399

 
1,235

(7) 
N/A

 
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
1,332

 
1,215

 
681

(8) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Period from May 9, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2017
(2) Period from October 18, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(3) Period from August 19, 2016, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2017
(4) Period from April 18, 2018, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(5) Period from July 7, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(6) Period from April 24, 2019, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2019
(7) Period from October 11, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(8) Period from September 21, 2016, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2017
* The Principal International Multi-Factor Core Index, Principal Spectrum Qualified Dividend Active ETF, Principal U.S. Large-Cap Multi-Factor Core Index, and Principal U.S. Small-MidCap Multi-Factor Core Index ETFs were not in operation as of June 30, 2019.
Sub-Advisory Agreements
PGI (and not the Fund) pays the sub-advisor fees determined pursuant to a sub-advisory Agreement with the sub-advisor, including any sub-advisors that are at least 95% owned, directly or indirectly, by PGI or its affiliates. Fees paid to sub-advisors are individually negotiated between PGI and each sub-advisor and may vary.
Distributor
ALPS Distributors, Inc. (the “Distributor”) is located at 1290 Broadway, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80203. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”).
Shares will be continuously offered for sale by the Trust through the Distributor only in whole Creation Units, as described in the section of this SAI entitled “Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units.” The Distributor also acts as an agent for the Trust with respect to the continuous distribution of Creation Units of the Funds. The Distributor will deliver a prospectus to APs purchasing Shares in Creation Units and will maintain records of both orders placed with it and confirmations of acceptance furnished by it. The Distributor has no role in determining the investment policies of the Funds or which securities are to be purchased or sold by the Funds.
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by any of the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in accordance with its Rule 12b-1 plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year to compensate the Distributor for providing certain services to the Fund, including activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or the provision of investor services. Under the plan, the Funds would have no legal obligation to pay any amount that exceeds the compensation limit. The Distributor would be entitled to retain any such fees without regard to the expenses which it incurs. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, they will be paid out of the respective Fund’s assets, and over time, these fees will increase the cost of your investment and they may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.

42



Fund Sub-Administrator, Custodian, and Transfer Agent
State Street Bank and Trust Company (the “Transfer Agent,” “Custodian,” or "State Street") serves as the Funds' sub-administrator, custodian and transfer agent. State Street is located at One Lincoln Street, Boston, MA 02111.
Under an Administration Agreement and an Accounting Services Agreement with PGI (on behalf of the Trust), State Street provides necessary administrative, treasury, and tax services, including financial reporting for the maintenance and operations of the Funds. In addition, State Street makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services. State Street also provides fund accounting services and is responsible for maintaining the books and records and calculating the daily net asset value of the Funds. PGI is ultimately responsible for such services pursuant to a Management Agreement with the Trust.
Under the Custody Agreement with the Trust, State Street maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Trust and each Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services. State Street is required, upon order of the Trust, to deliver securities held by State Street and to make payments for securities purchased by the Trust for each Fund. Under the Custody Agreement, State Street is also authorized to appoint certain foreign custodians or foreign custody managers for Fund investments outside the United States.
Pursuant to a Transfer Agency Services Agreement with the Trust, State Street acts as transfer agent to the Funds, dividend disbursing agent and shareholder servicing agent to the Funds.
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019, the Trust paid State Street a total of $2,428,006.74 for these services.
Securities Lending Agent
State Street serves as the securities lending agent for the Funds. The Funds did not loan their securities or
employ State Street as securities lending agent during their most recently ended fiscal year.
Brokerage on Purchases and Sales of Securities
All orders for the purchase or sale of portfolio securities are placed on behalf of a Fund by PGI, or by the Fund's Sub-Advisor pursuant to the terms of the applicable sub-advisory agreement. In distributing brokerage business arising out of the placement of orders for the purchase and sale of securities for any Fund, the objective of PGI and of each Fund's Sub-Advisor is to obtain the best overall terms. In pursuing this objective, PGI or the Sub-Advisor considers all matters it deems relevant, including the breadth of the market in the security, the price of the security, the financial condition and executing capability of the broker or dealer, confidentiality, including trade anonymity, and the reasonableness of the commission, if any (for the specific transaction and on a continuing basis). This may mean in some instances that PGI or the Sub-Advisor will pay broker commissions that are in excess of the amount of commissions another broker might have charged for executing the same transaction when PGI or the Sub-Advisor believes that such commissions are reasonable in light of a) the size and difficulty of the transaction, b) the quality of the execution provided, and c) the level of commissions paid relative to commissions paid by other institutional investors. Such factors are viewed both in terms of that particular transaction and in terms of all transactions that broker executes for accounts over which PGI or the Sub-Advisor exercises investment discretion. The Board has also adopted a policy and procedure designed to prevent each of the Funds from compensating a broker/dealer for promoting or selling Fund shares by directing brokerage transactions to that broker/dealer for the purpose of compensating the broker/dealer for promoting or selling Fund shares. Therefore, PGI or the Sub-Advisor may not compensate a broker/dealer for promoting or selling Fund shares by directing brokerage transactions to that broker/dealer for the purpose of compensating the broker/dealer for promoting or selling Fund shares. PGI or the Sub-Advisor may purchase securities in the over-the-counter market, utilizing the services of principal market makers unless better terms can be obtained by purchases through brokers or dealers, and may purchase securities listed on the NYSE from non-Exchange members in transactions off the Exchange.
PGI or the Sub-Advisor may give consideration in the allocation of business to services performed by a broker (e.g., the furnishing of statistical data and research generally consisting of, but not limited to, information of the following types: analyses and reports concerning issuers, industries, economic factors and trends, portfolio strategy, performance of client accounts, and access to research analysts, corporate management personnel, and industry experts). If any such allocation is made, the primary criteria used will be to obtain the best overall terms for such transactions or terms that are reasonable in relation to the research or brokerage services provided by the broker or dealer when viewed in terms of either a particular transaction or the Sub-Advisor’s overall responsibilities to the accounts under its management. PGI or the Sub-Advisor generally pays additional commission amounts for such research services. Statistical data and research information received from brokers or dealers as described above may be useful in varying degrees and PGI or a Sub-Advisor may use it in servicing some or all of the accounts it manages.
Subject to the rules promulgated by the SEC, as well as other regulatory requirements, the Board has approved procedures whereby the Funds may purchase securities that are offered in underwritings in which an affiliate of a Sub-Advisor, or PGI, participates. These procedures prohibit the Funds from directly or indirectly benefiting a Sub-

43



Advisor or PGI affiliate in connection with such underwritings. In addition, for underwritings where a Sub-Advisor affiliate or PGI participates as a principal underwriter, certain restrictions may apply that could, among other things, limit the amount of securities that the Funds could purchase in the underwritings. The Sub-Advisor shall determine the amounts and proportions of orders allocated to the Sub-Advisor or affiliate. The Trustees will receive quarterly reports on these transactions.
The Board has approved procedures that permit the Funds to effect a purchase or sale transaction between the Fund and an affiliated investment company or between a Fund and affiliated persons of the Fund under limited circumstances prescribed by SEC rules. Any such transaction must be effected without any payment other than a cash payment for the securities, for which a market quotation is readily available, at the current market price; no brokerage commission or fee (except for customary transfer fees), or other remuneration may be paid in connection with the transaction. The Board receives quarterly reports of all such transactions.
The Board has also approved procedures that permit a Fund's Sub-Advisor(s) to place portfolio trades with an affiliated broker under circumstances prescribed by SEC Rules 17e-1 and 17a-10. The procedures require that total commissions, fees, or other remuneration received or to be received by an affiliated broker must be reasonable and fair compared to the commissions, fees or other remuneration received by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities being purchased or sold on a securities exchange during a comparable time period. The Board receives quarterly reports of all transactions completed pursuant to each Fund's procedures.
Purchases and sales of debt securities and money market instruments usually are principal transactions; portfolio securities are normally purchased directly from the issuer or from an underwriter or marketmakers for the securities. Such transactions are usually conducted on a net basis with a Fund paying no brokerage commissions. Purchases from underwriters include a commission or concession paid by the issuer to the underwriter, and the purchases from dealers serving as marketmakers include the spread between the bid and asked prices.
Commission rates that PGI or a Sub-Advisor pays to brokers may vary and reflect such factors as the trading volume placed with a broker, the type of security, the market in which a security is traded and the trading volume of that security, the types of services provided by the broker (i.e. execution services only or additional research services) and the quality of a broker's execution.
The following table shows the brokerage commissions paid during the periods indicated.
Total Brokerage Commissions Paid for Periods Ended June 30
Fund
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
$
342,577

 
$
206,167

 
N/A

 
Principal Active Income ETF
31,067

 
13,067

 
33,187

 
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
923

 
930

(1) 
N/A

 
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
9,418

 
7,255

 
1,169

(2) 
Principal Millennials Index ETF
3,847

 
3,859

 
2,011

(2) 
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
3,427

 
4,911

 
600

 
Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
3,045

 
3,047

 
945

 
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
4,347

 
2,367

(1) 
N/A

 
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
222,178

 
138,564

(3) 
N/A

 
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
124,112

 
170,353

 
30,673

(4) 
(1) 
Period from October 18, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(2) 
Period from August 19, 2016, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2017
(3) 
Period from October 11, 2017, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2018
(4) 
Period from September 21, 2016, date operations commenced, through June 30, 2017
In 2018, in response to the adoption of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID II”), PGI modified its approach regarding how trading costs are paid and how research costs are allocated, which resulted in certain Funds paying higher, and certain Funds paying lower, commission amounts compared to prior years. Other primary reasons for changes in several Funds’ brokerage commissions for the three years were changes in Fund size; changes in market conditions; changes in money managers of certain Funds; and implementation of investment strategies. In some cases, such events required substantial portfolio restructurings, resulting in increased securities transactions and brokerage commissions.

44



Brokerage commissions from the portfolio transactions effected for the Funds were paid to brokers affiliated with PGI or the Sub-Advisors for the fiscal years ended June 30 as follows:
Fund
Sub-Advisor Employed by
the Fund Complex
Affiliated Broker
2019
Fund's Total
Commissions
Paid


% of Fund's Total
Commissions
% of Dollar Amount of Fund's Commissionable Transactions
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
6,423

1.87
%
2.83
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
28,239

8.24

5.87

 
Delaware Investments Fund Advisers
Macquarie Securities Limited
5,127

1.50

1.84

 
Eagle Asset Management, Inc.
Raymond James and Associates
1,098

0.32

0.17

 
Mellon Investments Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
1,473

0.43

0.78

 
Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated
Robert W. Baird Co.
737

0.22

0.11

Total
$
43,097

12.58
%
11.60
%
Principal Active Income ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
472

1.52
%
3.12
%
 
Mellon Investments Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
158

0.51

0.36

Total
$
630

2.03
%
3.48
%
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
13

1.43
%
1.61
%
Total
$
13

1.43
%
1.61
%
Principal Millennials Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
68

1.77
%
2.53
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
118

3.06

0.88

Total
$
186

4.83
%
3.41
%
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
18

0.52
%
0.09
%
Total
$
18

0.52
%
0.09
%
Principal Shareholder Yield index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$ 0

0.00%

0.01
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
29

0.95

0.17

Total
$
29

0.95
%
0.18
%
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
15

0.34
%
0.65
%
Total
$
15

0.34
%
0.65
%
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
817

0.37
%
0.08
%
 
Mellon Investments Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
1,734

0.78

0.58

Total
$
2,551

1.15
%
0.66
%
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
283

0.23
%
0.21
%
Total
$
283

0.23
%
0.21
%
Fund
Sub-Advisor Employed by
the Fund Complex
Affiliated Broker
2018
Fund's Total
Commissions
Paid


% of Fund's Total
Commissions
% of Dollar Amount of Fund's Commissionable Transactions
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
855

0.41
%
1.05
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
3,568

1.73

2.33

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
9,824

4.77

3.39

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
11,117

5.39

5.87

Total
$
25,364

12.30
%
12.64
%

45



Fund
Sub-Advisor Employed by
the Fund Complex
Affiliated Broker
2018
Fund's Total
Commissions
Paid


% of Fund's Total
Commissions
% of Dollar Amount of Fund's Commissionable Transactions
Principal Active Income ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
107

0.82
%
0.78
%
 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
196

1.50

0.66

Total
$
303

2.32
%
1.44
%
Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
2

0.20
%
0.25
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
3

0.36

0.15

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
54

5.76

7.30

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
12

1.32

1.67

Total
$
71

7.64
%
9.37
%
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
 
 
 
 
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
64

0.88
%
0.64
%
Total
$
64

0.88
%
0.64
%
Principal Millennials Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
20

0.51
%
0.91
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
33

0.87

1.77

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
2

0.06

0.05

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited

0.01

0.01

Total
$
55

1.45
%
2.74
%
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
27

0.55
%
1.06
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
10

0.20

0.09

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
14

0.28

0.34

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
4

0.07

0.06

Total
$
55

1.10
%
1.55
%
Principal Shareholder Yield index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$

%
0.01
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
7

0.23

0.10

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
37

1.21

1.53

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
16

0.53

0.25

Total
$
60

1.97
%
1.89
%
Principal Sustainable Momentum Index ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$

%
0.01
%
 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Securities Limited
149

6.31

7.41

Total
$
149

6.31
%
7.42
%
Principal U.S. Mega-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
$
460

0.33
%
0.30
%
Total
$
460

0.33
%
0.30
%
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C Bernstein Co., LLC
$
1,132

0.66
%
0.52
%
 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing Securities Limited
375

0.22

0.05

Total
$
1,507

0.88
%
0.57
%

46



Fund
Sub-Advisor Employed by
the Fund Complex
Affiliated Broker
2017
Fund's Total
Commissions
Paid


% of Fund's Total
Commissions
% of Dollar Amount of Fund's Commissionable Transactions
Principal Active Income ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
2,931

8.83
%
9.52
%
 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
129

0.39

1.31

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing LLC
547

1.65

1.37

 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., LLC
861

2.59

2.70

 
Analytic Investors, LLC
Wells Fargo Securities, LLC
5,589

16.84

13.58

Total
$
10,057

30.30
%
28.48
%
Principal Healthcare Innovators Index ETF
 
 
 
 
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
2

0.15
%
0.32
%
 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
100

8.60

10.27

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing LLC
1

0.08

0.03

Total
$
103

8.83
%
10.62
%
Principal Millennials Index ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (Europe), LLC
$
361

17.97
%
16.33
%
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
2

0.09

0.05

 
American Century Investment Management, Inc.
Instinet U.K. LTD
20

1.01

0.28

 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
576

28.63

45.40

 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Securities Australia LTD
1

0.03

0.01

 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Securities PLC
1

0.04

0.02

 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Securities (Asia Pacific) LTD
7

0.37

0.14

 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Bank Limited
18

0.90

0.49

 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., LLC
36

1.80

1.28

Total
$
1,022

50.84
%
64.00
%
Principal Price Setters Index ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
8

1.39
%
0.65
%
 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
18

3.03

3.70

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing LLC
7

1.24

0.48

Total
$
33

5.66
%
4.83
%
Principal Shareholder Yield index ETF
 
Credit Suisse Asset Management, LLC
Credit Suisse Securities (USA), LLC
$
22

2.29
%
1.22
%
 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
25

2.60

4.11

 
Mellon Capital Management Corporation
Pershing LLC
9

0.93

0.28

Total
$
56

5.82
%
5.61
%
Principal U.S. Small-Cap Multi-Factor Index ETF
 
J.P. Morgan Investment Management, Inc.
J.P. Morgan Clearing Corp
$
604

1.97
%
2.54
%
 
Macquarie Capital Investment Management LLC
Macquarie Capital (USA) Inc.
678

2.21

1.96

 
AllianceBernstein L.P.
Sanford C. Bernstein & Co., LLC
371

1.21

1.96

Total
$
1,653

5.39
%
6.46
%
Material differences, if any, between the percentage of an ETF’s brokerage commissions paid to a broker and the percentage of transactions effected through that broker reflect the commission rates the Advisor or Sub-Advisor has negotiated with the broker. Commission rates an Advisor or Sub-Advisor pays to brokers may vary and reflect such factors as the trading volume placed with a broker, the type of security, the market in which a security is traded and the trading volume of that security, the types of services provided by the broker (i.e. execution services only or additional research services) and the quality of a broker's execution.

47



The following table indicates the value of each Fund's aggregate holdings, in thousands, of the securities of its regular brokers or dealers for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2019.
Holdings of Securities of Principal Exchange-Traded Funds Regular Brokers and Dealers
Principal Active Global Dividend Income ETF
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
$21,621
Principal Active Income ETF
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
1,060

 
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
4,879

 
Morgan Stanley
1,243

 
Wells Fargo
1,024

Principal Contrarian Value Index ETF
Wells Fargo
6

Principal Investment Grade Corporate Active ETF
CITIGroup
815

 
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
4,107

 
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
1,766

 
Morgan Stanley
2,382

 
UBS Group
278

 
Wells Fargo
1,396

Principal Price Setter Index ETF
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
211

Principal Shareholder Yield Index ETF
CITIGroup
149

 
Wells Fargo
129

Principal Spectrum Preferred Securities Active ETF
CITIGroup
1,412

 
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
2,154

 
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
2,012

 
Morgan Stanley
1,415

 
Wells Fargo
1,522

Principal Ultra-Short Active Income ETF
CITIGroup
251

 
Credit Suisse
201

 
Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
252

 
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
200

 
Morgan Stanley
200

 
Wells Fargo
251

Principal U.S. Mega Cap-Multi Factor Index ETF
CITIGroup
35,509

 
JP Morgan Chase & Co.
34,842

 
Wells Fargo
30,897

Conflicts of Interest and Allocation of Trades
By the Manager (PGI). PGI has its own trading platform and personnel that perform trade-related functions. Where applicable, PGI trades on behalf of its own clients. Such transactions are executed in accordance with PGI's trading policies and procedures, including, but not limited to trade allocations and order aggregation, purchase of new issues, and directed brokerage. PGI acts as discretionary investment adviser for a variety of individual accounts, ERISA accounts, mutual funds, insurance company separate accounts, and public employee retirement plans and places orders to trade portfolio securities for each of these accounts. Managing multiple accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies and conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities. PGI has adopted and implemented policies and procedures that it believes address the potential conflicts associated with managing accounts for multiple clients and are designed to ensure that all clients are treated fairly and equitably. These procedures include allocation policies and procedures and internal review processes.
If, in carrying out the investment objectives of its respective clients, occasions arise in which PGI deems it advisable to purchase or sell the same equity securities for two or more client accounts at the same or approximately the same time, PGI may submit the orders to purchase or sell to a broker/dealer for execution on an aggregate or "bunched" basis. PGI will not aggregate orders unless it believes that aggregation is consistent with (1) its duty to seek best execution and (2) the terms of its investment advisory agreements. In distributing the securities purchased or the proceeds of sale to the client accounts participating in a bunched trade, no advisory account will be favored over any other account and each account that participates in an aggregated order will participate at the average share price for all transactions of PGI relating to that aggregated order on a given business day, with all transaction costs relating to that aggregated order shared on a pro rata basis.

48



Because of PGI's role as investment advisor to each of the Funds and discretionary advisor to funds of funds and some underlying funds, conflicts may arise in connection with the services PGI provides to funds of funds with respect to asset class and target weights for each asset class and investments made in underlying funds. Conflicts may arise in connection with the services PGI provides to the funds of funds that it manages, in connection with the services PGI provides to other funds of funds, because PGI serves as the investment adviser to the underlying mutual funds in which the funds of funds invest, sometimes as the discretionary advisor, and an affiliated investment adviser may serve as sub-adviser to the mutual funds in which a fund of funds may invest. This raises a potential conflict because PGI's or an affiliated company's profit margin may vary depending upon the underlying fund in which the funds of funds invest.
PGI implements the following in an effort to limit the appearance of conflicts of interest and the opportunity for events that could trigger an actual conflict of interest:
PGI uses a process to select investment advisors that emphasizes the selection of PGI or Principal-affiliated subadvisors that are determined to be qualified under the Manager’s due diligence process. However, PGI will select an unaffiliated subadvisor to manage all or a portion of a Fund’s portfolio when deemed necessary or appropriate based upon a consideration of the Fund’s objective and investment strategies and available expertise and resources within the Principal organization.
PGI provides ongoing oversight of the Funds' investments to monitor adherence to their investment program.
Additionally, each Fund's portfolio managers manage a number of accounts other than the applicable Fund's portfolio, including in some instances proprietary or personal accounts. Managing multiple accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies, allocating time and attention to account management, allocation of investment opportunities, knowledge of and timing of fund trades, selection of brokers and dealers, and compensation for the account. PGI has adopted and implemented policies and procedures that it believes address the potential conflicts associated with managing accounts for multiple clients and personal accounts and are designed to ensure that all clients and client accounts are treated fairly and equitably. These procedures include allocation policies and procedures, personal trading policies and procedures, internal review processes and, in some cases, review by independent third parties.
Investments that PGI and its portfolio managers deem appropriate for a Fund's portfolio may also be deemed appropriate by it for other accounts. Therefore, the same security may be purchased or sold at or about the same time for both a Fund's portfolio and other accounts. In such circumstances, PGI may determine that orders for the purchase or sale of the same security for a Fund's portfolio and one or more other accounts should be combined. In this event the transactions will be priced and allocated in a manner deemed by PGI to be equitable and in the best interests of a Fund’s portfolio and such other accounts. While in some instances combined orders could adversely affect the price or volume of a security, the Trust believes that its participation in such transactions on balance will produce better overall results for the Funds.
By the Sub-Advisor(s). The portfolio managers of the Sub-Advisor(s) manage a number of accounts other than the Fund's portfolios, including in some instances proprietary or personal accounts. Managing multiple accounts may give rise to potential conflicts of interest including, for example, conflicts among investment strategies, allocating time and attention to account management, allocation of investment opportunities, knowledge of and timing of fund trades, selection of brokers and dealers, and compensation for the account. Each has adopted and implemented policies and procedures that it believes address the potential conflicts associated with managing accounts for multiple clients and personal accounts and are designed to ensure that all clients and client accounts are treated fairly and equitably. These procedures include allocation policies and procedures, personal trading policies and procedures, internal review processes and, in some cases, review by independent third parties.
Investments the Sub-Advisor(s) deem appropriate for the Fund's portfolio may also be deemed appropriate by it for other accounts. Therefore, the same security may be purchased or sold at or about the same time for both the Fund's portfolio and other accounts. In such circumstances, the Sub-Advisor(s) may determine that orders for the purchase or sale of the same security for the Fund's portfolio and one or more other accounts should be combined. In this event the transactions will be priced and allocated in a manner deemed by the Sub-Advisor(s) to be equitable and in the best interests of the Fund’s portfolio and such other accounts. While in some instances combined orders could adversely affect the price or volume of a security, the Fund believes that its participation in such transactions on balance will produce better overall results for the Fund.

49



INTERMEDIARY COMPENSATION
Shares of the Funds are sold primarily through intermediaries, such as brokers, dealers, investment advisors, banks, trust companies, pension plan consultants, retirement plan administrators and insurance companies.
As mentioned in the Prospectus, in the event 12b-1 fees are paid by the Funds to the Distributor in the future, the Distributor may pay some or all of those fees to intermediaries.
Additional Payments to Intermediaries
In addition, PGI and its affiliates may, out of their own resources, pay amounts to intermediaries that support the distribution or marketing of shares of the Funds or provide services to Fund shareholders. The making of these payments could create a conflict of interest for a financial intermediary receiving such payments. These payments may be made from profits received by PGI from the management fees paid to PGI by the Funds.
Numerous factors may be considered in determining the amount of such additional payments, including, but not limited to, the intermediary’s Fund sales and assets, and the willingness and ability of the intermediary to give the Distributor access to its Financial Professionals for educational and marketing purposes. Some such arrangements may include an agreed upon minimum or maximum payment.
As of June 30, 2019, PGI anticipates that the firms that will receive additional payments as described above include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
Kestra Investment Services
Morgan Stanley
Raymond James
TD Ameritrade