Form 10-K
For the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2021
For the transition period from                     to                    
Commission file number 001-35961
Liberty Global plc
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
England and Wales 98-1112770
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Griffin House 
161 Hammersmith Rd
United KingdomW6 8BS
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +44.208.483.6449 or 303.220.6600
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A ordinary sharesLBTYANasdaq Global Select Market
Class B ordinary sharesLBTYBNasdaq Global Select Market
Class C ordinary sharesLBTYKNasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: none
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months.    Yes          No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Check one:
Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and ask price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter: $14.3 billion.
The number of outstanding ordinary shares of Liberty Global plc as of January 31, 2022 was: 174,319,920 shares of class A ordinary shares, 12,930,839 shares of class B ordinary shares and 335,620,135 shares of class C ordinary shares.
Portions of the definitive proxy statement for the Registrant’s 2022 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

Item 1.
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.
Other Information
Item 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.
Executive Compensation
Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K Summary


Item 1.    BUSINESS

Who We Are
We are Liberty Global plc (Liberty Global), an international converged broadband internet, video, fixed-line telephony and mobile communications services company. We are focused on building fixed-mobile convergence national champions, and we are constantly striving to enhance and simplify our customers’ lives through quality services and products that give them the freedom to connect, converse, work and be entertained anytime, anywhere they choose. To that end, we deliver market-leading products through next-generation networks that connect retail and wholesale customers subscribing to over 85 million (at December 31, 2021) broadband internet, video, fixed-line telephony and mobile services across our brands. Our primary business operations are listed below, all of which we consolidate, with the exception of the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV (each as defined below). Additionally, our global investment arm, Liberty Global Ventures, has investments in more than 75 companies and funds in the fields of content, technology and infrastructure, including strategic stakes in companies such as Plume Design, Inc., ITV plc, Lions Gate Entertainment Corp, Univision Holdings Inc., the Formula E racing series and several regional sports networks.

Primary Business Operations:
TelenetBelgium 60.7%
Sunrise UPCSwitzerland100.0%
Virgin MediaIreland100.0%
UPC Poland (2)
UPC SlovakiaSlovakia100.0%
Virgin Media - O2
United Kingdom (U.K.)
(1)As of December 31, 2021.

(2)On September 22, 2021, we entered into a sale and purchase agreement (the Purchase Agreement), pursuant to which we agreed to sell 100% of UPC Poland (as defined below). Closing of the transaction is currently expected to occur in the first half of 2022. For more information see General Development of Business discussion below and note 6 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


General Development of Business

As a result of a series of mergers that were completed on June 7, 2013, Liberty Global became the publicly-held parent company of the successors by merger of Liberty Global, Inc. (the predecessor to Liberty Global) and Virgin Media Inc. (Virgin Media). In the following text, the terms “we”, “our”, “our company” and “us” may refer, as the context requires, to Liberty Global (or its predecessor) or collectively to Liberty Global (or its predecessor) and its subsidiaries, including any joint ventures. Unless otherwise indicated, convenience translations into United States (U.S.) dollars are calculated as of December 31, 2021, and operational data, including subscriber statistics and ownership percentages, are as of December 31, 2021.

Acquisitions and Dispositions

We have also completed a number of strategic acquisitions and dispositions over the last several years. We made these acquisitions and dispositions in order to execute on our strategy to concentrate on markets where we have focused on creating national champion converged businesses in core markets and to unlock significant synergies.

Acquisitions. Our significant acquisitions include:
On November 11, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Sunrise Communications Group AG (Sunrise) through the settlement of the all cash public tender offer to acquire all of the outstanding shares of Sunrise (the Sunrise Acquisition). In April 2021, we completed a statutory “squeeze-out” procedure, under applicable Swiss law, to acquire the remaining Sunrise Shares that were not acquired pursuant to the tender offer and, accordingly, now hold 100% of the share capital of Sunrise. The combined business in Switzerland, which we wholly own, is now referred to as Sunrise UPC.
On June 3, 2019, Telenet Group Holding N.V. (Telenet) acquired the remaining 50.0% of De Vijver Media NV (De Vijver Media) that it did not already own (the De Vijver Media Acquisition). De Vijver Media provides content production, broadcasting and advertising services in Belgium.
On June 19, 2017, Telenet acquired Coditel Brabant sprl, operating under the brand name SFR BeLux (SFR BeLux), which provided broadband operations in Belgium (Brussels and Wallonia) and Luxembourg.

Joint Ventures. We completed the following significant joint venture transactions during 2021:
On September 1, 2021, we (i) contributed certain assets and liabilities to a newly-formed 50:50 joint venture (the Atlas Edge JV) that was established for the purpose of acquiring and commercializing European technical real estate for edge colocation and hosting services and (ii) sold certain other assets to the Atlas Edge JV. In addition, we sold certain other assets to the Atlas Edge JV during the fourth quarter of 2021. We account for our 50% interest in the Atlas Edge JV as an equity method investment.
On June 1, 2021, Liberty Global and Telefónica, S.A. (Telefónica) completed a transaction (the U.K. JV Transaction) whereby (i) we contributed Virgin Media’s U.K. operations and certain other Liberty Global subsidiaries to a 50:50 joint venture (the VMO2 JV) and (ii) Telefónica contributed its U.K. mobile business to the VMO2 JV, creating a nationwide integrated communications provider. We account for our 50% interest in the VMO2 JV as an equity method investment.

Dispositions. We have also completed the following dispositions during the past several years:
On July 31, 2019, we completed the sale of our operations in Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic to Vodafone Group plc (Vodafone). The operations of Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic are collectively referred to herein as the “Vodafone Disposal Group.” In connection with the sale of the Vodafone Disposal Group, we have agreed to provide certain transitional services to Vodafone for a period of up to four years. These services principally comprise network and information technology-related functions.
On May 2, 2019, we completed the sale of our direct-to-home satellite (DTH) operations, which serves customers in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania (UPC DTH) to M7 Group (M7). In connection with the sale of UPC DTH, we agreed to provide certain transitional services to M7 for a period of up to two years. These services principally comprised network and information technology-related functions.
On July 31, 2018, we completed the sale of our Austrian operations (UPC Austria) to Deutsche Telekom AG (Deutsche Telekom). In connection with the sale of UPC Austria, we have agreed to provide certain transitional

services to Deutsche Telekom for a period of up to four years. These services principally comprise network and information technology-related functions.
On December 29, 2017, we effected the split-off of our LiLAC Group (the Split-off Transaction) by distributing 100% of the common shares of Liberty Latin America Ltd. (Liberty Latin America) to holders of our then LiLAC ordinary shares (the LiLAC Shares). The “LiLAC Group” consisted of our businesses, assets and liabilities in Latin America and the Caribbean, including C&W, VTR.com SpA, a 60% interest in Liberty Cablevision of Puerto Rico LLC and related cash and cash equivalents and indebtedness. Following such distribution, the LiLAC Shares were redesignated as deferred shares (with virtually no economic rights) and subsequently canceled. In connection with the Split-off Transaction, Liberty Latin America became a separate publicly-traded company.

Pending Transaction

On September 22, 2021, we entered into the Purchase Agreement, pursuant to which we agreed to sell 100% of our operations in Poland (UPC Poland) to a third party for a total enterprise value of Polish zloty (PLN) 7,025.0 million ($1,743.8 million), subject to customary debt and working capital adjustments at completion. Closing of the transaction, which we currently expect to occur in the first half of 2022, is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including receipt of requisite regulatory approvals.

The proceeds from the sale are expected to be used (i) to repay a portion of the UPC Holding borrowing group’s outstanding indebtedness and (ii) for general corporate purposes, which may include reinvestment into our business and support for our share repurchase program.

We have agreed to provide certain transitional services for a period of up to five years, depending on the service. These services principally will comprise network and information technology-related functions. The annual charges will depend on the actual level of services required by the purchaser.

For additional information on our acquisitions, pending and completed dispositions and joint ventures see notes 5, 6 and 7 to our consolidated financial statements, respectively, included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition, we have completed various other smaller acquisitions and dispositions in the normal course of business. Further, we are evaluating a change in jurisdiction of incorporation to Bermuda, which has U.S.-style corporate laws and lower administrative costs. To the extent we determine to move forward with any re-domicile transaction, we would seek shareholder approval in advance.

Equity Transactions

Share repurchases are an important part of our strategy in creating value for our shareholders. Pursuant to our most recent share repurchase program authorized by our board of directors, we are authorized to repurchase ten percent of our outstanding shares (measured at the start of each year) during each of 2022 and 2023. The following table provides the details of our share repurchases during 2021:
Title of sharesNumber of shares
Average price paid per share(1)
Aggregate purchase price(1)
in millions
Class A ordinary shares8,445,800 $27.31 $230.6 
Class C ordinary shares49,604,048 $27.23 1,350.5 

(1)Amounts include direct acquisition costs.

For a further description of our share repurchases, see note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


Forward Looking Statements

Certain statements in this Annual Report constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. To the extent that statements in this Annual Report are not recitations of historical fact, such statements constitute forward-looking statements, which, by definition, involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements. In particular, statements under Item 1. Business, Item 1A. Risk Factors, Item 2. Properties, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk may contain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our business, product, foreign currency and finance strategies, our property and equipment additions, subscriber growth and retention rates, competitive, regulatory and economic factors, the timing and impacts of proposed transactions, the maturity of our markets, the potential impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) on our company, the anticipated impacts of new legislation (or changes to existing rules and regulations), anticipated changes in our revenue, costs or growth rates, our liquidity, credit risks, foreign currency risks, interest rate risks, target leverage levels, debt covenants, our future projected contractual commitments and cash flows, our share repurchase programs and other information and statements that are not historical fact. Where, in any forward-looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. In evaluating these statements, you should consider the risks and uncertainties discussed under Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, as well as the following list of some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events (including with respect to affiliates) to differ materially from anticipated results or events:

economic and business conditions and industry trends in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate;
the competitive environment in the industries and in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate, including competitor responses to our products and services;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and interest rates;
instability in global financial markets, including sovereign debt issues and related fiscal reforms;
consumer disposable income and spending levels, including the availability and amount of individual consumer debt;
changes in consumer television viewing and broadband usage preferences and habits;
consumer acceptance of our existing service offerings, including our broadband internet, television, fixed-line telephony, mobile and business service offerings, and of new technology, programming alternatives and other products and services that we may offer in the future;
our ability to manage rapid technological changes and the rate at which our current technology becomes obsolete;
our ability to maintain or increase the number of subscriptions to our broadband internet, television, fixed-line telephony and mobile service offerings and our average revenue per household;
our ability to provide satisfactory customer service, including support for new and evolving products and services;
our ability to maintain or increase rates to our subscribers or to pass through increased costs to our subscribers;
the impact of our future financial performance, or market conditions generally, on the availability, terms and deployment of capital;
changes in, or failure or inability to comply with, government regulations and legislation in the countries in which we or our affiliates operate and adverse outcomes from regulatory proceedings;
government intervention that requires opening our broadband distribution networks to competitors, such as the obligations imposed in Belgium;
our ability to obtain regulatory approval and shareholder approval and satisfy other conditions necessary to close acquisitions and dispositions and the impact of conditions imposed by competition and other regulatory authorities in connection with acquisitions;
our ability to successfully acquire new businesses and, if acquired, to integrate, realize anticipated efficiencies from, and implement our business plan with respect to, the businesses we have acquired or that we expect to acquire;
changes in laws or treaties relating to taxation, or the interpretation thereof, in the U.K., the U.S. or in other countries in which we or our affiliates operate;

changes in laws and government regulations that may impact the availability and cost of capital and the derivative instruments that hedge certain of our financial risks;
our ability to navigate the potential impacts on our business resulting from the U.K.’s departure from the European Union (E.U.);
the ability of suppliers and vendors (including our third-party wireless network providers under our mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) arrangements) to timely deliver quality products, equipment, software, services and access;
the availability of attractive programming for our video services and the costs associated with such programming, including production costs, retransmission and copyright fees payable to public and private broadcasters;
uncertainties inherent in the development and integration of new business lines and business strategies;
our ability to adequately forecast and plan future network requirements;
the availability of capital for the acquisition and/or development of telecommunications networks and services;
the availability, cost and regulation of spectrum;
problems we may discover post-closing with the operations, including the internal controls and financial reporting process, of businesses we acquire;
successfully integrating in the time or within the budgets estimated for such integrations;
operating costs, customer loss and business disruption, including maintaining relationships with employees, customers, suppliers or vendors may be greater than expected in connection with our acquisitions;
our ability to realize the expected synergies from our acquisitions in the amounts anticipated or on the anticipated timelines;
our ability to profit from investments in joint ventures that we do not solely control;
the leakage of sensitive customer data;
the outcome of any pending or threatened litigation;
the loss of key employees and the availability of qualified personnel;
changes in the nature of key strategic relationships with partners and joint venturers;
our capital structure and factors related to our debt arrangements; and
events that are outside of our control, such as political unrest in international markets, terrorist attacks, malicious human acts, natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics (such as COVID-19) and other similar events.

The broadband distribution and mobile service industries are changing rapidly and, therefore, the forward-looking statements of expectations, plans and intent in this Annual Report are subject to a significant degree of risk. These forward-looking statements and the above-described risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to disseminate any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.


Description of Business

We are one of the world’s leading converged video, broadband and communications companies, with a commitment to providing our customers the “best in class” communications and entertainment services. These services are delivered to our residential and business customers over our networks and include broadband internet, video, telephony and mobile services. Telenet, the VMO2 JV, the VodafoneZiggo JV and Sunrise UPC deliver mobile services as mobile network operators, VM Ireland and UPC Poland deliver mobile services as MVNOs through third-party networks. Sunrise UPC also delivers some mobile services as an MVNO pursuant to a legacy contract that is being phased out as a result of the Sunrise Acquisition. We design our services to enable our customers to access the digital world on their own terms and at their own pace. Offering “best in class” connectivity is at the core of our strategy. Today, our extensive broadband network enables us to deliver ultra high-speed internet service across our markets, be it through fiber, cable or mobile technology. We are striving to extend our reach and reinforce our speed leadership. In most of our footprint we offer converged fixed and mobile experiences in and out of the home, and it is our ambition to further enhance this proposition and make it available to all our customers.

We provide residential and business telecommunication services in Ireland through Virgin Media Ireland, Belgium through Telenet, Switzerland through Sunrise UPC, Poland through UPC Poland and Slovakia through UPC Slovakia. We are a leading fixed network provider in each of these countries. We also have investments in the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV, each of which is a fixed network leader in their respective countries.

A breakdown of our revenue by major category for our consolidated reportable segments appears in note 19 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

By connecting our customers through our telecommunication services, we recognize that we are a global corporate citizen and that we play a role in addressing the environmental impacts generated through our business. By seeking to address these issues, we strengthen our company and provide strong benefits to the communities in which we operate. We remain a leader in our sector on climate change with an unwavering commitment to reducing our impact on the environment. We continue to improve our operations to meet our new 2030 and 2050 science-based targets in line with the Paris Climate Accord, including by working to become more carbon efficient and striving to minimize e-waste through our various environmental initiatives. Our gigabit broadband deployments in cities throughout our operating territories and efforts to accelerate the transition to 5G will underpin a low carbon economy, while revolutionizing healthcare, flexible working regimes and countless other aspects of our lives. Diversity and inclusion have long been priorities for Liberty Global and our operating companies, and will become even more integral moving forward. Over the past several years, Liberty Global, Virgin Media, the VodafoneZiggo JV, Telenet, Sunrise UPC, UPC Slovakia, UPC Poland and, since its inception, the VMO2 JV, have all pursued gender diversity as a strategic goal, with an emphasis on building a gender-diverse pipeline. Similarly, inclusion is a key focus area and we are committed to providing an environment that empowers everyone to bring their full selves to work while creating more inviting workplaces regardless of age, race, gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation.


Operating Data

The following tables present certain operating data as of December 31, 2021, with respect to the networks of our subsidiaries and significant joint ventures. The following tables reflect 100% of the data applicable to each of our subsidiaries and significant joint ventures regardless of our ownership percentage.

Consolidated Operating Data - December 31, 2021
Fixed-Line Customer
Internet Subscribers(3)
Video Subscribers(4)
Telephony Subscribers(5)
Mobile Subscribers(7)
Continuing operations:
Belgium3,405,800 2,032,300 1,725,700 1,762,000 1,100,200 4,587,900 2,950,200 
2,484,400 1,476,900 1,166,200 1,239,800 1,021,200 3,427,200 2,610,300 
Ireland954,000 431,800 388,400 302,300 277,700 968,400 129,400 
Slovakia632,900 188,700 146,800 169,200 90,000 406,000 — 
Total7,477,100 4,129,700 3,427,100 3,473,300 2,489,100 9,389,500 5,689,900 
Discontinued operations:
Poland3,703,400 1,569,400 1,350,500 1,397,200 598,600 3,346,300 121,300 
VodafoneZiggo JV(9)
7,328,000 3,738,800 3,328,200 3,729,800 2,064,700 9,122,700 5,365,400 
VMO2 JV(10)
15,649,900 5,768,300 5,596,800 13,390,200 32,276,800 

(1)Homes Passed are homes, residential multiple dwelling units or commercial units that can be connected to our networks without materially extending the distribution plant. Certain of our Homes Passed counts are based on census data that can change based on either revisions to the data or from new census results. Due to the fact that we do not own the partner networks (defined below) used in Switzerland (see note 9 below), we do not report homes passed for Switzerland’s partner networks.
(2)Fixed-Line Customer Relationships are the number of customers who receive at least one of our internet, video or telephony services that we count as Revenue Generating Units (RGUs), without regard to which or to how many services they subscribe. Fixed-Line Customer Relationships generally are counted on a unique premises basis. Accordingly, if an individual receives our services in two premises (e.g., a primary home and a vacation home), that individual generally will count as two Fixed-Line Customer Relationships. We exclude mobile-only customers from Fixed-Line Customer Relationships.
(3)Internet Subscribers are homes, residential multiple dwelling units or commercial units that receive internet services over our networks, or that we service through a partner network. In Switzerland, we offer a 10 Mbps internet service to our Video Subscribers without an incremental recurring fee. Our Internet Subscribers in Switzerland include 47,300 subscribers who have requested and received this service.
(4)Video Subscribers are homes, residential multiple dwelling units or commercial units that receive our video services over our broadband network or through a partner network. We have approximately 31,400 “lifeline” customers that are counted on a per connection basis, representing the least expensive regulated tier of video cable service, with only a few channels.
(5)Telephony Subscribers are homes, residential multiple dwelling units or commercial units that receive voice services over our networks, or that we service through a partner network. Telephony Subscribers exclude mobile telephony subscribers. In Switzerland, we offer a basic phone service to our Video Subscribers without an incremental recurring fee. Our Telephony Subscribers in Switzerland include 215,400 subscribers who have requested and received this service.
(6)RGU is separately a Video Subscriber, Internet Subscriber or Telephony Subscriber. A home, residential multiple dwelling unit, or commercial unit may contain one or more RGUs. For example, if a residential customer subscribed to our video service, fixed-line telephony service and broadband internet service, the customer would constitute three RGUs. Total RGUs is the sum of Video, Internet and Telephony Subscribers. RGUs generally are counted on a unique premises basis such that a given premise does not count as more than one RGU for any given service. On the other hand, if an individual receives one of our services in two premises (e.g., a primary home and a vacation home), that individual will count as two RGUs for that service. Each bundled cable, internet or telephony service is counted as a separate RGU regardless of the nature of any bundling discount or promotion. Non-paying subscribers are counted as subscribers during their free promotional service period. Some of these subscribers may choose to disconnect after their free service period. Services offered without charge on a long-term basis (e.g., VIP subscribers or free service to

employees) generally are not counted as RGUs. We do not include subscriptions to mobile services in our externally reported RGU counts. In this regard, our RGU counts exclude our separately reported postpaid and prepaid mobile subscribers.
(7)Our Mobile Subscriber count represents the number of active subscriber identification module (SIM) cards in service rather than services provided. For example, if a mobile subscriber has both a data and voice plan on a smartphone this would equate to one mobile subscriber. Alternatively, a subscriber who has a voice and data plan for a mobile handset and a data plan for a laptop would be counted as two mobile subscribers. Customers who do not pay a recurring monthly fee are excluded from our mobile subscriber count after periods of inactivity ranging from 30 to 90 days, based on industry standards within the respective country. In a number of countries, our mobile subscribers receive mobile services pursuant to prepaid contracts. As of December 31, 2021, our mobile subscriber count included 457,500 and 320,400 prepaid Mobile Subscribers in Switzerland and Belgium, respectively.
(8)Pursuant to service agreements, Switzerland offers broadband internet, video and telephony services over networks owned by third-party cable operators (“partner networks”). A partner network RGU is only recognized if there is a direct billing relationship with the customer. At December 31, 2021, Switzerland’s partner network accounted for 113,100 Fixed-Line Customer Relationships and 291,800 RGUs, which include 106,800 Internet Subscribers, 102,500 Video Subscribers and 82,500 Telephony Subscribers. Subscribers to our video services provided over partner networks largely receive video services from the partner networks as opposed to our operations. Due to the fact that we do not own these partner networks, we do not include the 464,900 homes passed by Switzerland’s partner networks at December 31, 2021. In addition, with the completion of the acquisition of Sunrise, we now service homes through Sunrise’s existing agreements with Swisscom AG (Swisscom), Swiss Fibre Net and local utilities, which are not included in Switzerland’s homes passed count. Including these arrangements, our operations in Switzerland have the ability to offer fixed services to a national footprint.
(9)Amounts related to the VodafoneZiggo JV’s fixed-line and mobile products include business and multiple dwelling unit subscribers. Prepaid mobile customers are excluded from the VodafoneZiggo JV’s mobile subscriber count after a period of inactivity of nine months.
(10)The mobile subscriber count for the VMO2 JV includes wholesale mobile subscribers. Prepaid mobile customers are excluded from the VMO2 JV’s mobile subscriber count after a period of inactivity of three months.
Additional General Notes to Table:
Most of our broadband communications subsidiaries provide broadband internet, video, telephony, mobile, data or other business services. Certain of our business service revenue is derived from small or home office (SOHO) subscribers that pay a premium price to receive enhanced service levels along with video, internet or telephony services that are the same or similar to the mass marketed products offered to our residential subscribers. All mass marketed products provided to SOHOs, whether or not accompanied by enhanced service levels and/or premium prices, are included in the respective RGU and customer counts of our broadband communications operations, with only those services provided at premium prices considered to be “SOHO RGUs” or “SOHO customers”. To the extent our existing customers upgrade from a residential product offering to a SOHO product offering, the number of SOHO RGUs or SOHO customers will increase, but there is no impact to our total RGU or customer counts. With the exception of our business SOHO subscribers, we generally do not count customers of business services as customers or RGUs for external reporting purposes.
In Belgium, Telenet leases a portion of its network under a long-term finance lease arrangement. These tables include operating statistics for Telenet’s owned and leased networks.
While we take appropriate steps to ensure that subscriber statistics are presented on a consistent and accurate basis at any given balance sheet date, the variability from country to country in (1) the nature and pricing of products and services, (2) the distribution platform, (3) billing systems, (4) bad debt collection experience and (5) other factors add complexity to the subscriber counting process. We periodically review our subscriber counting policies and underlying systems to improve the accuracy and consistency of the data reported on a prospective basis. Accordingly, we may from time to time make appropriate adjustments to our subscriber statistics based on those reviews.
Subscriber information for acquired entities is preliminary and subject to adjustment until we have completed our review of such information and determined that it is presented in accordance with our policies.


Products and Services

Our main products and services are WiFi and internet services, video, mobile, and telephony services.
Intelligent WiFi and Internet Services
Connectivity is a critical building block for vibrant communities. As highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic, all aspects of society, including families, businesses, education and healthcare, to name a few, rely heavily on connectivity and the digital services that depend on it. To meet our customers’ expectations of seamless connectivity, we are developing a fully digital, cloud based connectivity ecosystem that we call “ONE Connect,” built on top of our fiber-rich fixed broadband network and recently expanded mobile network. The ONE Connect is orchestrated by a fully cloud-based digital journey, enabling fast and flexible introduction of new hardware and services, as well as cloud to cloud open API integration, simplifying the on-boarding of new services and devices. The devices used within our ONE Connect ecosystem are connected and protected through our security gateway and VPN, both at home and on the go. At home, our customers can benefit from the gigabit speeds enabled by our “Connect Box” (described below), as well as Intelligent WiFi”, which has optimization functionalities, such as the ability to adapt to the number of people and devices online at any given time in order to improve and extend wireless connectivity reach and speeds. We have completed the rollout of our award-winning Intelligent WiFi across all our markets. In addition, we introduced our first “Smart Home” bundles in select markets, enabling those customers to take their smart home ambitions to the next level, including enhanced entertainment, home automation and home security. Finally, our “Connect App” is the digital touchpoint that allows customers to access and manage all of our services.

Our Connect Box is our next generation intelligent WiFi and telephony gateway that enables us to maximize the impact of our ultrafast broadband networks by providing reliable wireless connectivity anywhere in the home. This gateway can be self-installed and allows customers to customize their home WiFi service. Our latest versions of the gigabit Connect Box are based on DOCSIS 3.1 technology and WiFi 6, providing even better in-home WiFi service. Our new DOCSIS 3.1 Connect Box runs our “One Firmware” stack, a middleware software system based on the Reference Design Kit for Broadband (RDK-B). RDK-B is an open source initiative with wide participation from operators, device manufacturers and silicon vendors that standardizes core functions used in broadband devices, set-top boxes and internet of things solutions. We have extended the One Firmware stack to support our ONE Connect ecosystem. One Firmware runs on system-on-a-chip (SoC) technology from multiple vendors and can run on any SOC that is RDK-B compliant, enabling greater speed and agility in on-boarding of new customer premises equipment platforms and ecosystem features, allowing us to build once and port to many. It is expected that we will roll-out One Firmware to the base of DOCSIS 3.0 legacy customer premises equipment during 2022. To support the adoption of fiber to the home, cabinet, building or node networks (fiber-to-the-home/-cabinet/-building/-node is referred to herein as FTTx) access in both on-net and off-net scenarios, we plan to add XGS-PON (an updated standard for passive optical networks that supports higher-speed 10 Gbps symmetrical data transfers) and Ethernet-based Connect Boxes with WiFi 6, providing speeds up to 10 Gbps that run our One Firmware and support our ONE Connect ecosystem. Our Connect Box is available in all our markets, and currently, approximately 11 million of our customers have a Connect Box. In addition to our core markets, we distribute our Connect Box to other markets in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. Robust wireless connectivity is increasingly important with our customers spending more and more time using bandwidth-heavy services on multiple devices. We also offer our Connect App that, among other things, allows our customers to optimize their WiFi coverage and manage their connected devices. In addition, we provide intelligent WiFi mesh boosters, which increase speed, reliability and coverage by adapting to the environment at home.

Internet speed is of crucial importance to our customers, as they spend more time streaming video and other bandwidth-heavy services on multiple devices. Our extensive broadband network enables us to deliver ultra-high-speed internet service across our markets. Our residential subscribers access the internet via cable modems connected to their internet capable devices, or wirelessly via a WiFi gateway device. We offer multiple tiers of broadband internet service up to Gigabit speeds and available to over 15 million homes across our footprint. The speed of service depends on the customer location and their service selected. In 2021, our networks continued to be recognized, with the VodafoneZiggo JV winning both the Best Internet Provider award in the Netherlands for the 11th year in a row and Best Fixed Network in the Netherlands.

By leveraging our existing fiber-rich broadband networks, we are in a position to deliver gigabit services by deploying the next generation DOCSIS 3.1 technology. DOCSIS 3.1 technology is an international standard that defines the requirements for data transmission over a cable system. Not only does DOCSIS 3.1 technology improve our internet speeds and reliability, it allows for efficient network growth. Currently, our ultra-high-speed internet service is based primarily on DOCSIS 3.1 technology, and we offer this technology in all of our markets. In 2022, the VMO2 JV completed an upgrade of its entire national network to gigabit speeds, such that every VMO2 JV customer has access to internet speeds of at least 1 Gbps.


We offer value-added broadband services in certain of our markets for an incremental charge. These services include Intelligent WiFi features, security (e.g., anti-virus, anti-spyware, firewall and spam protection), Smart Home services, and online storage solutions and web spaces. Subscribers to our internet service pay a monthly fee based on the tier of service selected. In addition to the monthly fee, customers pay an activation service fee upon subscribing to an internet service. This one-time fee may be waived for promotional reasons. We determine pricing for each different tier of internet service through an analysis of speed, market conditions and other factors.

In all of our markets, we have deployed community WiFi via routers in the home (the Community WiFi), which provides secure access to the internet for our customers. Community WiFi is enabled by a cable modem WiFi access point (WiFi modem) in a Connect Box, a set-top box or a Horizon box of our internet customers. The Community WiFi is created through the sharing of access to the public channel of our customers’ home wireless routers. The public channel is a separate network from the secure private network used by the customer within the home and is automatically enabled when the WiFi modem is installed. Public WiFi access points (covering train stations, hotels, bars, restaurants and other public places) are also available for no additional cost.

Video Services

Our video service is, and continues to be, one of the foundations of our product offerings in our markets. Our cable operations offer multiple tiers of digital video programming and audio services, starting with a basic video service. Subscribers to our basic video service pay a fixed monthly fee and receive digital video channels (including a growing number of high definition (HD) and ultra-high definition 4K resolution (4K) channels) and several digital and analog radio channels, as well as an electronic programming guide. We tailor our video services in each country of operation based on programming preferences, culture, demographics and local regulatory requirements.

We also offer a variety of premium channel packages to meet the special interests of our subscribers. For an additional monthly charge, a subscriber may upgrade to one of our extended digital tier services and receive an increased number of video and radio channels, including the channels in the basic tier service and additional HD and 4K channels. Our channel offerings include general entertainment, sports, movies, series, documentaries, lifestyles, news, adult, children and ethnic and foreign channels.

Discounts to our monthly service fees are available to any subscriber who selects a bundle of two or more of our services (bundled services): video, internet, fixed-line telephony and, in most of our markets, mobile services. Bundled services consist of double-play for two services, triple-play for three services and, where available, quad-play for four services.

To meet customer demands, we have enhanced our video services with additional relevant content services and features, which increase viewing comfort and address individual user needs. Our latest next generation product suite is called “Horizon 4”, a multi-screen entertainment platform that combines linear television (including recording and Replay TV features), premium video-on-demand (“VoD”) offerings, an increasing amount of integrated premium global and local video apps and mobile viewing into one entertainment experience. Horizon 4 comes with a state-of-the-art personal user interface that is intuitively easy to navigate. Content recommendations and favorite channel settings can be customized to individual user profiles. Video playback control, such as pause and resume, navigation shortcuts and content searches can all be conducted via a voice control button on the remote control, a feature highly appreciated by our customers. Horizon 4 is available in all of our markets on the latest set top boxes capable of delivering 4K video content and achieved significant positive customer feedback, manifesting in high product net promoter score figures. Horizon 4 is marketed under the name “Telenet TV-Box” in Belgium, “UPC TV” and “Sunrise TV” in Switzerland, “Virgin TV360” in the U.K., through the VMO2 JV, and Ireland, “UPC TV 4K Box” in Poland and “MediaBox Next” in the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV.

The predecessor version of Horizon 4, Horizon 3, is deployed on set-top boxes in the Netherlands (through the VodafoneZiggo JV), Switzerland and Ireland. While in Switzerland and Ireland these set-top boxes will continue to be exchanged for the latest hardware with Horizon 4 over time, in the Netherlands the boxes can be flashed with the latest Horizon 4 software.

In the U.K., the forerunner product of Horizon 4 is based on the TiVo platform and was developed under a strategic partnership agreement with TiVo Inc. The TiVo platform is deployed on a basic set-top box as well as the Virgin Media V6 box. Similar to Horizon 4, the Virgin Media V6 box combines 4K video, including high dynamic range, with improved streaming functionalities and more processing power. The Virgin Media V6 box allows customers to record six channels simultaneously while watching a seventh channel. Customers can also start watching programming on one television and pick up where they left off on other boxes in another room or through an app on their smart phones and tablets. Over 70% of the VMO2 JV’s customers have the Virgin Media V6 box. Similar to the deployed hardware in the Netherlands via the

VodafoneZiggo JV, over time these V6 boxes will be flashed with the latest Horizon 4 software, bringing our latest and most successful television and entertainment experience to the VMO2 JV’s customers without the need of exchanging the installed hardware. The V6 boxes can now be flashed with the latest Horizon 4 software.

One of our key video services is “Replay TV”. Through Replay TV, the last seven days of content (subject to rights related to blackouts) is made available via the electronic programming guide (EPG) for on demand viewing. Customers can simply open the EPG, scroll back and replay linear programming instantly. This same technical solution also allows our customers to replay a television program from the start even while the live broadcast is in progress. Additionally, customers have the option of recording TV programs in the cloud (or onto the hard disk drive in the set top box in the U.K., through the VMO2 JV, and in Ireland). Replay TV is one of the most used and appreciated features on our platforms.

In most of our markets, we offer transactional VoD giving subscribers access to thousands of movies and television series. In several of our markets, our subscription VoD service is included in certain of our video offerings. This service is tailored to the specific market based on available content, consumer preferences and competitive offers, and includes various programming, such as music, kids, documentaries, adult, sports and TV series. We continue to develop our VoD services to provide a growing collection of programming from local and international suppliers, such as Disney/Fox, NBC/Universal, CBS/Paramount, Warner Bros. and Sony, among others. In addition, in all of our markets we offer global premium over the top (OTT) services such as Netflix, YouTube and Amazon Prime Video, and we also offer local OTT services via a large portion of our set-top boxes.   

Most of this content is also available via our online mobile app, “Horizon Go”, which is available on mobile devices (iOS and Android) and, in some markets as well, via Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV and Android TV devices. Thanks to the 360 integration of Horizon 4 across multiple screens, customers can pause a program, series or movie and seamlessly continue watching from where they left off on another device, whether a television, tablet, smart phone or laptop. Additionally, Horizon Go enables customers to remotely schedule the recording of a television program on their Horizon 4 box at home.

In the summer of 2020, we launched our first IP-only streaming device in Poland, which runs the full Horizon 4 product suite and features a small puck-like form factor that can be tucked away behind a TV screen. This all-IP mini 4K capable TV box has extremely low power consumption, and its casing is made from recycled plastic, proudly winning us the Digital TV Europe’s Video Tech Innovation Sustainability Award in December 2020 as well as the Red Dot Product Design Award in 2021. We have also launched the all-IP 4K capable TV box in Switzerland and intend to continue the roll out the all-IP TV box to additional markets. UPC Poland and the VodafoneZiggo JV announced in July and December of 2021, respectively, that they are entering into agreements with Nordic Entertainment Group (NENT) to provide the “Viaplay” streaming service, a new entrant to the Polish and Dutch markets.

Mobile Services

Mobile services are another key building block for us to provide customers with seamless connectivity. Telenet, the VMO2 JV, the VodafoneZiggo JV and UPC Sunrise offer mobile services as mobile network providers, and UPC Poland and Virgin Media in Ireland offer mobile services as an MVNO over third-party networks. Sunrise UPC and the VMO2 JV also offers mobile services under certain legacy MVNO agreements.

Where mobile telephony services are provided via MVNOs, the relevant mobile operator leases a third-party’s radio access network and owns the core network, including switching, backbone and interconnections. An MVNO arrangement permits us to offer our customers in these markets mobile services without having to build and operate a cellular radio tower network.

Our MVNO partners are:
Vodafone / EE Limited(1)
IrelandThree (Hutchison)

(1)The VMO2 JV is in the process of migrating its subscribers to its platform, but certain subscribers currently remain on MVNO plans.

(2)Sunrise UPC in Switzerland is in the process of migrating its subscribers to the Sunrise UPC network, but certain subscribers currently remain on an MVNO plan.

In each of our markets, we offer a range of mobile related services. The majority of subscribers take a post-paid service plan, which has an agreed monthly fee for a set duration (typically 1 to 2 years). The monthly fee will vary depending on the country and service package selected. Service packages can have different levels of data allowances, voice minutes and network speed, as well as differing other aspects, such as roaming charges and contract duration. Post-paid services are also offered as a bundle with fixed services, and by taking a “converged” offering, customers typically receive some benefits such as lower total cost or additional features. Post-paid services are offered to both business and retail consumers. In addition, we offer pre-paid mobile services, where the customers pay in advance for a pre-determined amount of airtime or data and which generally have no minimum contract term. In countries where we operate as a mobile service operator, we also offer a number of MVNOs, where other mobile providers use our mobile network for their mobile offering.

Telephony Services

Multi-feature telephony services are available through voice-over-internet-protocol (VoIP) technology in most of our broadband communication markets. In the U.K., the VMO2 JV also provides traditional circuit-switched telephony services. We pay interconnect fees to other telephony and internet providers when calls by our subscribers terminate on another network and receive similar fees from providers when calls by their users terminate on our network through interconnection points.

Our telephony service may be selected in several of our markets on a standalone basis and in all of our markets in combination with one or more of our other services. Our telephony service includes a basic fixed-line telephony product for line rental and various calling plans, which may consist of any of the following: unlimited network, national or international calling, unlimited off-peak calling and minute packages, including calls to fixed and mobile phones. We also offer value added services, such as a personal call manager, unified messaging and a second or third phone line at an incremental cost.

Multiple Dwelling Units and Partner Networks

Pursuant to an agreement executed on June 28, 2008 (the PICs Agreement) with four associations of municipalities in Belgium (the pure intercommunales or PICs), Telenet leases the PICs broadband communications network and, accordingly, makes its services available to all of the homes passed by the cable network owned by the PICs. Telenet has a direct customer relationship with the video subscribers on the PICs network. Pursuant to the PICs Agreement, Telenet has full rights to use substantially all of the PICs network under a long-term finance lease. Unless extended, the PICs Agreement will expire on September 23, 2046, and cannot be terminated earlier (except in the case of non-payment or bankruptcy of Telenet). For additional information on the PICs Agreement, see note 18 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

For over 70% of the basic video subscribers of Sunrise UPC, Sunrise UPC maintains billing relationships with landlords or housing associations and provides basic video service to the tenants. The landlord or housing association administers the billing for the basic video service with their tenants and manages service terminations for their rental units. When tenants select triple-play bundles with or without mobile service from Sunrise UPC, they then migrate to a direct billing relationship with us.

Sunrise UPC offers broadband internet, enhanced video and telephony services directly to the video cable subscribers of those partner networks that enter into service operating contracts with Sunrise UPC. Sunrise UPC has the direct customer billing relationship with these subscribers. By permitting Sunrise UPC to offer some or all of its broadband internet, video and telephony products directly to those partner network subscribers, Sunrise UPC’s service operating contracts have expanded the addressable markets for Sunrise UPC’s digital products. In exchange for the right to provide digital products directly to the partner network subscribers, Sunrise UPC pays to the partner network a share of the revenue generated from those subscribers. Sunrise UPC also provides network maintenance services and engineering and construction services to its partner networks.

Business Services

In addition to our residential services, we offer business services in all of our operations. For business and public sector organizations, we provide a complete range of voice, advanced data, video, wireless and cloud-based services, as well as mobile and converged fixed-mobile services. Our business customers include SOHO (generally up to five employees), small business and medium and large enterprises. We also provide business services on a wholesale basis to other operators.

Our business services are designed to meet the specific demands of our business customers with a wide range of services, including increased data transmission speeds and virtual private networks. These services fall into five broad categories:

data services for fixed internet access, with a 4G connectivity backup, IP virtual private networks based on SDWAN solutions, and high-capacity point-to-point services, including dedicated cloud connections;
cloud collaboration VoIP solutions and circuit switch telephony, unified communications and conferencing options;
wireless services for mobile voice and data, as well as managed WiFi networks;
video programming packages and select channel lineups for targeted industries or full programming packages for SOHO customers; and
value added services, including managed security systems, cloud enabled business applications, storage and web hosting.

Our intermediate to long-term strategy is to enhance our capabilities and offerings in the business sector so we become a preferred provider in the business market. To execute this strategy, customer experience and strategic marketing play a key role.

Our business services are provided to customers at contractually established prices based on the size of the business, type of services received and the volume and duration of the service agreement. SOHO and small business customers pay business market prices on a monthly subscription basis to receive enhanced service levels and business features that support their needs. For more advanced business services, these customers generally enter into a service agreement. For medium to large business customers, we enter into individual agreements that address their needs. These agreements are generally for a period of at least one year.


VMO2 JV. Liberty Global owns 50% of the VMO2 JV, a fixed-mobile convergence provider in the U.K., providing mobile, broadband, video and fixed telephony services to millions of customers across its footprint. As part of the U.K. JV Transaction, Liberty Global entered into a shareholders agreement with Telefónica, owner of O2 in the U.K. This agreement sets forth the corporate governance of the VMO2 JV, as well as its decision-making process, information access, dividend policy and non-competition provisions. The shareholders agreement mandates that the VMO2 JV distribute to Liberty Global and Telefónica on a quarterly basis a pro rata dividend equaling (unless agreed otherwise) all unrestricted cash, subject to certain minimum thresholds and financing arrangements. Subject to certain exceptions, Liberty Global may not transfer its ownership interest in the VMO2 JV without consent from Telefónica. Additional information on the shareholders agreements can be found in note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

As a fixed-mobile convergence provider in the U.K., the VMO2 JV offers gigabit internet across its entire footprint, reaching over 15.6 million homes, while also providing its customers with access to one of the U.K.’s leading 4G and 5G mobile networks. The VMO2 JV had 13.4 million RGUs as of December 31, 2021, primarily comprised of approximately 5.6 million broadband internet subscribers, and approximately 32.3 million mobile subscribers. The VMO2 JV does not report video or telephony subscribers on an individualized basis, although such subscribers are included in the RGU figures in the above section titled Liberty Global Statistics.

The VMO2 JV’s customers continue to have access to Horizon TV and its functionalities (marketed as “Virgin TV 360”), including Catch up, Startover and pause live TV, the Virgin TV Go app and VoD, along with access to a range of premium subscription-based and pay per view services.

The VMO2 JV has 1 Gbps broadband internet available to residential customers across its footprint and was recognized as the Fastest Broadband Provider in uSwitch’s 2021 awards. 500 Mbps broadband internet is available to business customers. Fiber-to-the-premise upgrade pilots are underway ahead of the planned deployment of full fibre across the entire fixed network starting in 2022 with completion in 2028. The VMO2 JV has also deployed an extensive “Community WiFi” network.

The VMO2 JV offers 5G and 4G wireless services under either a prepaid or postpaid service plan. The VMO2 JV provides its mobile services under various licenses, and most recently acquired new spectrum licenses in April 2021 in 700 MHz and 3.6 GHz band. At the same auction, the VMED O2 JV agreed to trade holdings in the 3.4 – 3.8 GHz range with Vodafone.

With its mobile services, the VMO2 JV is able to offer quad-play bundles and converged services to its residential and business customers.

VodafoneZiggo JV. We own a 50% interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV, which is a leading Dutch company that provides fixed, mobile and integrated communication and entertainment services to consumers and businesses in the Netherlands. In connection with the formation of the VodafoneZiggo JV, we entered into a shareholders agreement with Vodafone providing

for the governance of the VodafoneZiggo JV, including decision-making processes, information access, dividend policy and non-compete provisions. It also provides for restrictions on transfer of interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV and exit arrangements. Under the dividend policy, the VodafoneZiggo JV is required to distribute all unrestricted cash to Vodafone and us, subject to minimum cash requirements and financing arrangements. We also entered into a framework agreement with the VodafoneZiggo JV to provide access to each partner’s expertise in the telecommunications business. For additional information on the above agreements, see note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

The fiber-rich broadband network of the VodafoneZiggo JV passes 7.3 million homes. The VodafoneZiggo JV also offers nationwide 4G and 5G mobile coverage. At December 31, 2021, the VodafoneZiggo JV had 9.1 million RGUs, of which 3.7 million were video, 3.3 million were broadband internet and 2.1 million were fixed-line telephony. In addition, the VodafoneZiggo JV had 5.4 million mobile customers. Besides its residential services, the VodafoneZiggo JV offers extensive business services throughout the Netherlands. The operations of the VodafoneZiggo JV are subject to various regulations, which are described below under Regulatory Matters—Joint Venture Entities—The Netherlands.

The VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers continue to have access to Horizon TV and its functionalities (marketed as “Ziggo TV”), including Replay TV, the Ziggo Go app, pause live TV and VoD, 1 Gbps for residential and business customers nationwide broadband internet and an extensive WiFi community network. The VodafoneZiggo JV also has its own sports channel, Ziggo Sport, and offers some exclusive programming. Additionally, as of December 2021, the VodafoneZiggo JV has made 1 Gbps broadband internet available in 5.3 million households. The VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers also have access to Vodafone’s nationwide 4G (referred to herein as LTE) and 5G wireless services, under either a prepaid or postpaid service plan. The VodafoneZiggo JV provides its mobile services under various licenses that have a weighted average useful life of approximately 18 years as of December 31, 2021. With its mobile services, the VodafoneZiggo JV is able to offer quad-play bundles and converged services to its residential and business customers.

Additional Business Information


Liberty Global’s investment arm, Liberty Global Ventures, has amassed a portfolio of investments in more than 75 companies and funds across the world, investing in the fields of content, technology and infrastructure. With its long-term, founder friendly mindset, Liberty Global Ventures makes meaningful investments in technologies that will change how people live and work tomorrow. Some of the companies in Liberty Global’s portfolio include All3Media, Plume, ITV, Lionsgate, Univision, Formula E racing series, Aviatrix, Pax8, Lacework and Edgeconnex, among others. When advantageous, we seek to forge commercial relationships between our operating companies and the companies we invest in, creating an even stronger partnership to help drive growth and efficiencies .


Our broadband internet, video and fixed-line telephony services are primarily transmitted over a hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) cable network. This network is composed primarily of national and regional fiber networks, which are connected to the home over the last few hundred meters by coaxial cable. Alongside our HFC network, we are increasingly rolling out services based on fiber to the home (FTTH) and leveraging fixed wireless access (FWA) technologies to service customers not covered by our fixed networks in areas where it may not be cost effective to deploy fixed networks.

We closely monitor our network capacity and customer usage. Where necessary, we increase our capacity incrementally, for instance by splitting nodes in our cable network. We also continue to explore improvements to our services and new technologies that will enhance our customer’s connected entertainment experience. These actions include:

recapturing bandwidth and optimizing our networks by:
increasing the number of nodes in our markets;
increasing the bandwidth of our hybrid fiber coaxial cable network to 1 GHz;
converting analog channels to digital;
moving channels to IP delivery;
deploying additional DOCSIS 3.1 channels;
replacing copper lines with modern optic fibers; and

using digital compression technologies.
freeing spectrum for high-speed internet, VoD and other services by encouraging customers to move from analog to digital services;
increasing the efficiency of our networks by moving headend functions (encoding, transcoding and multiplexing) to cloud storage systems;
enhancing our network to accommodate business services;
using wireless technologies to extend our services outside of the home;
offering remote access to our video services through laptops, smart phones and tablets;
expanding the availability of Horizon TV and Virgin TV Go, as well as Horizon 4, and related products and developing and introducing online media sharing and streaming or cloud-based video; and
testing new technologies.

As stated above, we are expanding our HFC and FTTH footprint. In addition, we are seeking mobile service opportunities where we have established cable networks and expanding our fixed-line networks where we have a strong mobile offering. This will allow us to offer converged fixed-line and mobile services to our customers.

We deliver high-speed data and fixed-line telephony over our broadband network in our markets. The cable networks of our operations in Europe are connected to our “Aorta” backbone. The Aorta backbone is recognized as a Tier 1 Carrier, which permits us to serve our customers through settlement free collaboration with other carriers without the cost of using a third-party network.

    In support of our connectivity strategy, we are moving our customers into a gigabit society. All of our broadband networks are already capable of supporting the next generation of ultra-high-speed internet service at gigabit speeds. To provide these speeds to our subscribers, we plan to grow our base of DOCSIS 3.1 technology throughout our footprint. The use of DOCSIS 3.1 technology provides us significantly higher efficiencies on our networks and allow us to offer faster speeds, in-home WiFi and better services. The new gateways and the continued upgrades to our network in the coming years will allow us to maximize high-speed connectivity over our broadband networks and deliver gigabit services in a cost-effective manner. It will also allow us to meet the expectations of our customers for high-speed internet access both in cities and rural areas of our footprint. While DOCSIS 3.1 technology will provide up to 2.5 Gbps, in 2022, we plan to deploy XGS-PON technology across our FTTH footprint, enabling speeds of up to 10Gbps. In addition, we will begin to prototype DOCSIS 4 technology that is anticipated to equally provide 10Gbps capabilities across our HFC footprint.

Supply Sources

Content. In our markets, entertainment platforms remain a key part of the telecommunication services bundle. Therefore, in addition to providing services that allow our customers to view programming when and where they want, we are investing in content that customers want. Our content strategy is based on:

proposition (exceeding our customers' entertainment desires and expectations);
product (delivering the best content available);
procurement (investment in the best brands, shows and sports); and
partnering (strategic alignment, acquisitions and growth opportunities).

We license almost all of our programming and on-demand offerings from content providers and third-party rights holders, including broadcasters and cable programming networks. Under our channel distribution agreements, we generally pay a monthly fee on a per channel or per subscriber basis, with occasional minimum pay guarantees. For on-demand programming, we generally pay a revenue share for transactional VoD (occasionally with minimum guarantees) and either a flat fee or a monthly fee per subscriber for subscription VoD. For a majority of our agreements, we seek to include the rights to offer the licensed programming to our customers through multiple delivery platforms and through our apps for smart phones and tablets.

In seeking licenses for content, we, including the VMO2 JV and the VodafoneZiggo JV, as applicable, partner with leading international and regional Pay TV providers, such as Disney/Fox, Warner Media (including HBO), Sony, UKTV Viacom, AMC, NBCUniversal, RTL, the BBC and Discovery. We also seek to carry in each of our markets key public and private broadcasters and in some markets we acquire local premium programming through select relationships with companies such as

Sky plc (Sky) BT Group plc (BT), HBO and Canal+. For our VoD services, we license a variety of programming, including box sets of television series, movies, music, kids’ programming and documentaries. 

In recent years, OTT apps have become increasingly important in the content space and, as part of our content strategy, we have put in place deals with a number of global and regional app providers. We currently have arrangements with Netflix International B.V. (Netflix) and with Amazon Europe Core S.A.R.L. (Amazon). Pursuant to these arrangements, the Netflix service and Amazon Prime Video services respectively are available via certain of our set-top boxes to our video customers across many of our markets each as premium OTT services. The Netflix app is available to customers in the U.K., through the VMO2 JV, the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV, Ireland, Switzerland and Belgium. The Amazon Prime Video app is currently available to our customers in the U.K. through the VMO2 JV, Ireland, the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV, Belgium, Switzerland and Poland. We also entered into an arrangement with, Google Ireland Limited (Google) for the YouTube and YouTube Kids services, apps for which are available via certain of our set top boxes to our customers in the U.K. through the VMO2 JV, Ireland, the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV, Belgium, Switzerland and Poland. In order to tailor our entertainment offerings to each market we have added various locally relevant apps such as BBC iPlayer in the U.K. through the VMO2 JV, NPO Start and Videoland in the Netherlands through the VodafoneZiggo JV, VRT NU in Belgium and BluePlay in Switzerland. In addition, we have concluded deals with NENT for the Viaplay service in the Netherlands, through the VodafoneZiggo JV, where the service is due to launch in March 2022 and in Poland where the service is already available as a premium service.

Exclusive content is another element of our content strategy. To support this approach, we are investing in content assets. We have invested in various content companies, including ITV plc, All3Media Ltd., LionsGate Entertainment, Virgin Media TV (formerly TV3 Group in Ireland) and De Vijver Media. We are also investing in sports, both as a broadcaster and as a rights owner. We have our own sports channels, Play Sports in Belgium which is exclusively available to Telenet customers, MySports in Switzerland, which Sunrise UPC licenses to other platforms in Switzerland, and VMSports in Ireland. Also, the VodafoneZiggo JV owns Ziggo Sport and commissions the production of certain shows such as Rondo and Race Cafe. The basic Ziggo Sport service is available exclusively to the VodafoneZiggo JV’s customers; however, the premium service is widely available through license arrangements.

In addition, we have commissioned our own drama series content. Through All3Media Ltd., we co-produced a television series, known as The Feed, which was released in 2019 in several of our markets, and co-produced Blood in Ireland, which aired in 2018 and 2020. With Lionsgate Entertainment, we pre-purchased the spy thriller series The Rook, which premiered in 2019. In addition, we have produced the Swiss sitcom Fassler-Kunz, the Swiss series Im Heimatland and the original Belgium series Chaussée d’Amour and De Dag with local production companies. These television series will primarily be available to our customers on an on-demand basis. We will also continue to commission, produce and/or co-produce content for our free-to-air (FTA) assets and VoD platforms in Ireland, and Telenet will continue to commission, produce and/or co-produce content for its FTA assets via SBS Belgium and VoD platforms in Belgium mainly via Streamz, its newly created joint venture for subscription VoD with DPG Media.

Customer Premises Equipment. We purchase each type of customer premises equipment from a number of different suppliers. Customer premises equipment includes set-top boxes, modems, WiFi routers and boosters, digital video recorders (DVRs), tuners and similar devices. For each type of equipment, we retain specialists to provide customer support. For our broadband services, we use a variety of suppliers for our network equipment and the various services we offer. Similarly, we use a variety of suppliers for mobile handsets to offer our customers mobile services.

Software Licenses. We license software products, including email and security software, and content, such as news feeds, from several suppliers for our internet services. The agreements for these products typically require us to pay a fee for software licenses and/or a share of advertising revenue for content licenses. For our mobile network operations and our fixed-line telephony services, we license software products, such as voicemail, text messaging and caller ID, from a variety of suppliers. For these licenses we seek to enter into long-term contracts, which generally require us to pay based on usage of the services.

For our mobile services provided through MVNO arrangements, we are dependent on third-party wireless network providers. Each of our MVNO operations has an agreement with such a provider to carry the mobile communications traffic of our customers. We seek to enter into medium to long-term arrangements for these services. Any termination of these arrangements could significantly impact our MVNO operated mobile services.



All of our businesses operate in highly competitive and rapidly evolving markets. The speed of technological advancements is likely to continue to increase, giving customers more options for telecommunications services. Our customers want access to high quality telecommunication products that provide seamless connectivity and experience. Accordingly, our ability to offer converged services (video, internet, fixed telephony and mobile) is a key component of our strategy. In many of our markets, we compete with incumbent companies that provide converged mobile and fixed-line services, as well as companies that are established in one or more communication products. Consequently, our businesses face significant competition. In all markets, we seek to differentiate our offerings by focusing on delivering quality high-speed internet at competitive prices and providing excellent customer service. In this section, we begin with an overview on the competitive nature of the broadband internet, video and mobile and fixed-line telephony services in our markets, and then provide information on key competitors in our more material markets.

We believe that our deep-fiber access provides us with several competitive advantages. For instance, our cable networks enable concurrent delivery of internet access, together with real-time television and VoD content, without impairing our high-speed internet service. In addition, our cable infrastructure allows us to provide triple-play bundled services of broadband internet, television and fixed-line telephony services without relying on a third-party service provider within our footprint. Our business capabilities allow us to provide a comprehensive set of converged mobile and fixed-line services through both our own mobile network and third-party networks. Our capacity is designed to support peak consumer demand, and our networks have been resilient despite significantly increased demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. In serving the business market, many aspects of the network can be leveraged at very low incremental costs.

Overall, we are experiencing increased convergence as customers look to receive all their media and communication services in a more cost-effective way. In our largest markets, our key competitors are: Proximus NV/SA (Proximus) (Belgium) and Swisscom (Switzerland). Also, as described below in the following sections, the key competitors for the VMO2 JV are BT and SKY, and for the VodafoneZiggo JV, it is Koninklijke KPN N.V. (KPN) and T-Mobile (currently owned by Deutsche Telekom). Each of these competitors have extensive resources allowing them to offer competitively priced converged services. As a result, our ability to offer high quality triple-play or quad-play bundles and fixed-mobile convergence bundles is one of our key strategies to attract and retain customers. We seek to distinguish ourselves through our multimedia gateway services, interactive video products (such as Replay TV and VoD), proprietary sports offerings, expanded content offers (for both in and out of the home) and our high-speed connectivity services backed by intelligent in-home WiFi solutions.


Our businesses face competition in a rapidly evolving broadband marketplace from both incumbent and non-incumbent telecommunications companies, mobile operators and cable-based internet service providers, many of which have substantial resources. The internet services offered by these competitors include both fixed-line broadband internet via cable, digital subscriber lines (DSL) or FTTx and wireless broadband. These competitors have a range of product offerings with varying speeds and pricing, as well as interactive services, data and content services offered to households and businesses. With the demand for mobile internet services increasing, competition from wireless services using various advanced technologies is an important competitive factor. In several of our markets, competitors offer high-speed mobile data via LTE networks as well as next generation 5G wireless technology which is in the active roll-out phase. In this intense competitive environment, internet speed and pricing are the key criteria for customers.

Our strategy is seamless speed leadership. Our focus is on increasing the maximum speed of our connections while providing a reliable customer experience and offering a variety of service tiers, prices, bundled products and a range of value-added services, including intelligent in-home connectivity solutions. We update our bundles and packages on an ongoing basis to meet the needs of our customers and to retain an attractive value for money ratio. Ultra-high download speeds of 1Gbps are available throughout our operational footprints in each of the U.K., Belgium and Switzerland, as well as over 70% of our operational footprint in the Netherlands, with the view towards availability throughout our full footprint in the Netherlands by the end of 2022. We use our competitively priced ultra-high-speed internet services to encourage customers to switch to our services from other providers. Our aim is to safeguard our high-end customer base and enable us to become more aggressive at the low- and medium-end of the internet market. By fully utilizing up to 1 Gbps technical capabilities of DOCSIS 3.1 technology on our cable systems, we can compete with any FTTx, DSL or LTE players today.

Across Europe, our key competition in this product market is from the offering of broadband internet products using various FTTx and DSL-based technologies by the incumbent players and third parties. The introduction of cheaper and ever faster fixed-line broadband offerings by alternative network providers is further increasing the competitive pressure in this market. A notable emerging factor is an overbuild of our networks with FTTx technology by the incumbent players and other

third parties. At the moment, we do not consider our networks to be critically overbuilt; however certain FTTx providers have announced plans to accelerate their FTTx rollout. We are confident that our hybrid fiber-coaxial networks can be upgraded to higher speeds, to match or exceed potential FTTx based products. Furthermore, in some instances FTTx upgrades or new build could provide an opportunity for Liberty Global or its joint venture entities to take wholesale access and expand our geographical coverage. For instance, the VMO2 JV has announced plans to upgrade its entire fixed network in the U.K. to full fiber-to-the-premise, costing marginally more than its previously planned DOCSIS 4 upgrade.

Telenet. In the Flanders region of Belgium, Telenet is the leading provider of residential broadband internet services. Telenet’s primary competitor is Proximus. Proximus is a well-established competitor offering quad-play bundles. Proximus’ DSL and very high-speed DSL technology (VDSL) services provide download speeds up to 100 Mbps. Moreover, Proximus offers up to 1 Gbps speed via its fiber network that is available in selected cities and being actively deployed. Similar to its video services, Telenet faces competition in the provision of internet services from other providers who have wholesale access to Telenet’s cable network. Through such access, Orange Belgium currently offers its mobile subscribers a triple-play bundle including enhanced video, mobile and fixed broadband internet services. Furthermore, Orange Belgium has announced an acquisition of Voo, a telecom operator that owns cable networks in the Wallonia region of Belgium. This might indicate further intensification of market competition where Telenet is using its ultra-high-speed 1Gbps connectivity and innovative fixed-mobile converged packages called ONE and ONE(Up) to promote its services and retain its customer base. Furthermore, Telenet recently announced the intention to create a new, self-funded netco with utility company Fluvius that hopes to own the “data network of the future” in the Flanders region.

Sunrise UPC. In Switzerland, Swisscom is the largest provider of broadband internet services, and is Sunrise UPC’s primary competitor. It is also continuing to expand its FTTx network and is rolling-out its G.fast technology. Swisscom offers download speeds ranging from 50 Mbps to up to 10 Gbps, depending on the region. Swisscom continues to expand its FTTx network to Switzerland households in our footprint, as well as in our partner network footprints. Salt, a predominantly mobile player, also competes in this arena, with a focus on fixed-mobile convergence through a combination of FTTx and fixed wireless access technologies offering 10 Gbps internet speeds. In this competitive market, Sunrise UPC recently launched a new “Sunrise We” fixed-mobile convergence portfolio, enabling customers to benefit from the ultra-high-speed connectivity that is available across all of Sunrise UPC’s customer premises and offers significant fixed and mobile cross-selling opportunities. For more information on the Sunrise Acquisition, see note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Joint Ventures.

In the U.K., the VMO2 JV faces numerous competitors for broadband internet services, the largest of which is BT. BT is actively building out its FTTx network through its subsidiary, Openreach, to support its goal of covering 25 million homes by the end of 2026. In support of this mission, BT has launched a range of ultrafast consumer packages offering speeds of up to 900 Mbps. At the moment, we estimate the VMO2 JV’s fixed network to be 25% overbuilt by BT but it has had limited impact on the VMO2 JV’s headline indicators so far. As noted above, the VMO2 JV reached 1Gbps connectivity in all its approximately 15.6 million premises. Moreover, the VMO2 JV announced its intention to upgrade its fixed network to full fiber-to-the-premise by the end of 2028. This plan is expected to fuel connectivity innovation for consumers and businesses, create options to potentially pursue the broadband wholesale market in the U.K and to protect from growing FTTx competition. In addition, we currently see limited competition from mobile broadband developments, such as LTE and 5G mobile services and WiFi services.

The VodafoneZiggo JV’s primary competitor, KPN offers internet protocol television (IPTV) over its FTTx network and through broadband internet connections using DSL or VDSL or an enhancement to VDSL called “vectoring”. Where KPN has enhanced its VDSL system, it offers broadband internet with download speeds of up to 200 Mbps, and on its FTTx networks, it offers download speeds of up to 1 Gbps. Portions of the VodafoneZiggo JV’s network have been overbuilt by KPN’s and other providers’ FTTx networks. In 2021, KPN established a joint venture company called Glaspoort. Glaspoort will invest over one billion Euros in fiber roll-out over the next five years. The original scope of Glaspoort included approximately 685,000 households in medium-dense areas and about 225,000 business premises. Later in 2021, these plans were increased by approximately 170,000 households. KPN will continue to pursue its existing fiber roll-out plans of roughly 2.5 million additional households in the coming five years, with Glaspoort’s scope expected to accelerate KPN’s goal to reach approximately 80% FTTx coverage by 2026. We expect competitive pressure from the fiber overbuild to intensify in the coming periods. At the end of 2021, over 70% of the

VodafoneZiggo JV’s 7.3 million households had access to ultra-fast 1Gbps connectivity to support our competitive edge and speed advantage.

Video Distribution

Our video services compete primarily with traditional FTA broadcast television services, DTH satellite service providers, OTT and broadcaster VoD providers, as well as other fixed-line and mobile telecommunications carriers and broadband providers offering a similar range of video services. Many of these competitors have a national footprint and offer features, pricing and video services individually and in bundles comparable to what we offer. In certain markets, we also compete with other cable providers who have overbuilt portions of our systems.

OTT video content providers utilizing our or our competitors' high-speed internet connections are also a significant competitive factor, as are other video service providers that overlap our service areas. The OTT video providers (such as HBO Now, Amazon Prime Video, Netflix, Disney+ and AppleTV+) offer VoD service for television series, movies and programming from broadcasters. Generally, the content libraries of such services are offered for a monthly fee. Typically these services are available on multiple devices in and out of the home. Moreover, broadcasters offer direct to customer content, including VoD, live and catch-up television via their own platforms (such as BBC iPlayer, Discovery and RTL). To retain our competitive position, we provide our subscribers with TV everywhere products and premium OTT video services through our online mobile apps, VoD and Replay TV services or through our arrangements with Netflix and Amazon, as well as YouTube and relevant local OTT VoD services. Our businesses also compete to varying degrees with other sources of information and entertainment, such as online entertainment, newspapers, magazines, books, live entertainment/concerts and sporting events.

Our ability to attract and retain customers depends on our continued ability to acquire appealing content, provide easy to use services on acceptable terms and to deliver content on multiple devices inside and outside the home. Some competitors have obtained long-term exclusive contracts for certain programming, which limits the opportunities for other providers to offer such programs. Our operations have limited access to certain of such programming through select contracts with these companies, including Sky and BT in the U.K. and Ireland. Moreover, telecommunication providers increasingly offer access to OTT platforms through their systems. If exclusive content offerings increase through other providers, programming options could be a deciding factor for subscribers on selecting a video service.

Similar to our technological advances in our video services (such as launches of Horizon 4, apps on third-party devices and all-IP TV box), our competitors are also improving their video platforms with next generation set-top boxes, TV everywhere products and other interactive services. In all of our markets, competitive video services are offered by both incumbent and non-incumbent telecommunications operators, whose strategies include video services over DSL, VDSL and FTTx networks and, in some cases, DTH and digital terrestrial television (DTT). The ability of incumbent operators to offer the triple-play of broadband internet, video and fixed-line telephony services and, in most countries, a quad-play with mobile services, is exerting competitive pressure on our operations, including the pricing and bundling of our video products. In order to gain video market share, the incumbent operators and alternative service providers in a number of our larger markets are pricing their DTT, IPTV or DTH video packages at a discount to the retail price of the comparable digital cable service.

We compete on value by offering advanced digital services with a premier user interface, such as cloud recording and DVR functionality, HD/4K, VoD, voice control, OTT aggregation, Replay TV and multiscreen services via a superior user interface. We also compete by offering attractive content packages, as well as bundled services, at reasonable prices. In each of the countries where we operate, we tailor our packages to include attractive channel offerings and offer recurring discounts for bundled services and loyalty contracts, as well as integrated billing for OTT services. In addition, from time to time, we modify our digital channel offerings to improve the quality of our programming. Where mobile voice and data are available, we focus on our converged service offerings at attractive prices. In our other operations, we use the triple-play bundle as a means of driving video, as well as other products where convenience and price can be leveraged across the portfolio of services. We also continue to enhance our Horizon 4 platform to meet our customers’ desire to view programming anytime and anywhere, such as new applications and expanding its availability in our markets.

Telenet. Telenet’s principal competitor is Proximus, the incumbent telecommunications operator, which has interactive digital television, replay television, VoD, OTT and HD service as part of its video offer, as well as mobile-only video propositions tailored to the needs of younger market segments. Proximus offers customers a wide range of both individual and bundled services at competitive prices. Also, Telenet and other Belgian cable operators must give alternative providers access to their cable networks. Orange Belgium N.V. (Orange Belgium) gained such access in 2016 and currently offers its mobile subscribers a triple play bundle, including mobile, enhanced video and broadband internet services. Telenet may face increased competition from other providers of video services who take advantage

of the wholesale access and may be able to offer triple- and quad-play services. For more information on wholesale access, see Regulatory Matters—Belgium.
In order to compete effectively against alternative providers, Telenet leverages its extensive cable network, the broad acceptance of its basic cable television services and Yelo Play and its additional features, such as HD and DVR functionality, VoD offerings, its Play Sports channel and original programming delivered via the Horizon 4 multimedia box. Telenet is able to offer international, national, regional and local content, including Dutch-language broadcasts, to its subscribers. It is also using mobile services to drive its other products through its converged offerings. In addition, during 2021, Telenet and DPG Media launched a new streaming platform called Streamz, which combines some of the best locally produced series and must-see international content from HBO, extensive kids’ content, films and documentaries. Streamz is available for a monthly fee.

Sunrise UPC. Our main competitor in Switzerland is Swisscom, the incumbent telecommunications operator, which provides IPTV services over DSL, VDSL and FTTx networks. Swisscom offers VoD services, DVR and replay functionality, HD channels and has exclusive rights to distribute certain sports programming. Swisscom launched an advanced set-top box in the market with voice control, Smart Home integration and content aggregation beyond video, such as music streaming and gaming services. Although its presence is limited, Salt focuses on value propositions by including TV within their bundles and providing access to OTT via Apple TV. In this saturated market, price competition and high promotional intensity are significant factors. To compete effectively in Switzerland, Sunrise UPC is promoting Horizon 4 (marketed as “UPC TV”) and related family of products together with Replay TV and VoD, giving subscribers the ability to personalize their programming and viewing preferences while delivering excellent user interface with voice control. Sunrise UPC has its own sports channel, My Sports and aggregates third-party apps (e.g. Netflix, Amazon Prime Video and YouTube). Moreover, in October 2021, Sunrise UPC expanded its video product offering to Yallo, its ancillary brand. This is an important step in moving Yallo to full telecommunications functionality, allowing Yallo customers to access over 270 channels (many in Full HD and Dolby Digital), Replay services and streaming apps such as Netflix, Disney+ and Amazon Prime which come pre-installed on the TV box. For more information on the Sunrise Acquisition, see note 5 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Joint Ventures.

The VMO2 JV’s principal competitors for digital television services are Sky and FTA television providers. Other significant competitors are BT and TalkTalk Telecom Group plc (TalkTalk), each of which offer triple-play services, IPTV video services and multimedia home gateways. Sky owns the U.K. rights to various entertainment, sports and movie programming. Sky is both a principal competitor and an important supplier of content to us. Various Sky channels, including Sky Sports, are available over Sky’s satellite system and our cable networks, as well as via Sky’s apps and online players and other television platforms, and some of the channels are available on BT and TalkTalk platforms. The VMO2 JV distributes several basic and premium video channels supplied by Sky. BT is also both a principal competitor and an important supplier of content to us. BT owns premium BT Sport channels, providing a range of sports content, including football (soccer) from the English Premier League and exclusive rights to the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The BT Sport channels are available on our cable network as well as our competitors’ networks. The VMO2 JV is expanding its broadband network and actively promoting its 4K and HDR ready boxes running on its latest Horizon 4 platform (marketed as “Virgin TV360”) as well as it online streaming service, Virgin TV Go. Customers also have access to third-party apps such as Netflix, Amazon Prime Video and YouTube.

The VodafoneZiggo JV primarily competes with KPN with respect to video distribution, an incumbent telecommunications operator, which provides IPTV services over DSL, VDSL and FTTx networks. KPN offers many of the same interactive video service features as the VodafoneZiggo JV does including VoD services, DVR, replay functionality and HD channels. KPN also offers its customers bundling packages that include its video products, creating a highly competitive market for the VodafoneZiggo JV’s products and services.

Mobile and Telephony Services

    In Belgium, as a mobile network operator (MNO), we are one of the larger mobile providers based on number of SIM cards. The same is true for the VodafoneZiggo JV in the Netherlands. We also substantially expanded our mobile business with the acquisition of Sunrise in Switzerland and through the joint venture with O2 in the U.K. In our other European markets, however, we currently have limited mobile presence. In the markets where we are an MNO, we continue to deploy additional bandwidth to deliver our wide range of services to our customers and expand our LTE and 5G services. Where we are a small

mobile provider, we face significant competition from established mobile brands as well as ancillary, low-cost brands. Competition remains significant across each of our markets. We offer various calling plans, such as unlimited calling, national or international calling, unlimited off-peak calling and minute packages, including calls to fixed and mobile phones. In addition, we use converged bundles and benefits to cross-sell mobile to our existing fixed customers. Our ability to offer fixed-mobile convergence services is a key driver of growth.

    The market for fixed-line telephony services is saturated in almost all of our markets. Changes in market share are driven by the combination of price and quality of services provided and the inclusion of telephony services in bundled offerings. Our fixed-line telephony services compete against the incumbent telecommunications operators. In all of our markets, we also compete with other VoIP operators offering service across broadband lines. In addition, our businesses face competition from other cable telephony providers, FTTx-based providers or other indirect access providers.

In each of our markets, we face competition with a dominant fixed-line telephony provider, most of which also have competitive mobile offers based on LTE or 5G services. In our largest markets, the key dominant telephony providers are Proximus (Belgium) and Swisscom (Switzerland). These telephony competitors are also the largest mobile operators in these markets based on number of SIM cards. These competitors include their mobile products in bundles with fixed-line services. Moreover, there is a fundamental shift in customer preference towards mobile. As a result, we expect fixed telephony users to decline in favor of mobile connectivity.

Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2021, our consolidated subsidiaries had an aggregate of approximately 11,200 full-time equivalent employees, including approximately 120 in the United States, 1,100 in the U.K., 900 in the Republic of Ireland, 3,450 in Belgium, 930 in the Netherlands, 3,120 in Switzerland, 1,320 in Poland, and 290 in Slovakia. With respect to our major non-consolidated joint ventures, the VodafoneZiggo JV employs approximately 6,360 people, and the VMO2 JV employs approximately 16,710 people. None of the above figures include contractors and temporary employees.

A majority of our European employees are represented by workers councils. We strive to maintain a positive relationship with all of our employees, as well as the workers councils representing them where applicable. There have been no significant interruptions of our operations in recent years due to labor disputes.

In challenging our employees to achieve their full potential, become purposeful leaders and to Grow With Us, we commit significant resources and make ongoing investments toward the development of our employees’ leadership skills. Our skills development offerings cover key talent communities - from graduates and apprentices, to people managers, emerging leaders and senior leaders. Such programs include our Finance, Technology, CyberSecurity and People graduate schemes that thrust new graduates into our fast-paced and dynamic business model, giving them immediate real-world experience along with structured support from the company, so that each graduate exits their program prepared to be a leader of tomorrow. Liberty Global invests significantly in its employees because it recognizes that when each employee is supported and given the opportunity to succeed, the company as a whole flourishes.

We are resolved to building a safe, accepting and inclusive culture in our workplace and have been actively involved in similar efforts in our local communities. A diverse and inclusive culture is critical to our performance, reputation and innovation, and it brings us closer to the communities in which we live and operate. In 2021, we built upon our redefined efforts toward Diversity, Equity & Inclusion (DE&I). In addition to appointing a new Chief DE&I Officer and further developing our DE&I Council, composed of our CEO and 19 executive representatives from around the company, we launched five Employee Resource Groups (ERGs) focusing on gender, race and ethnicity, multigenerational households, ability and neurodiversity and sexual orientation. The VMO2 JV and VodafoneZiggo JV, along with Sunrise UPC, also have their own ERGs to provide support to their local employees. We also conduct compulsory anti-bullying, anti-discrimination and anti-harassment training for all of our employees and engage in small-group, impactful conversations centering on discrimination and harassment in the workplace. Further, Liberty Global’s venture capital group has committed $10 million to investing in start-up companies, including through our partner, Avesta Capital, that make a positive impact on society. These companies, such as Blue Studios, Kiira Health, BoxPower, Harvest Thermal and Sunny Day Fund are specifically focused on socially conscious business practices such as tackling economic and social inequity, as well as climate change.

Our compensation program is key to our company’s success and incentivizes our management team to execute our financial and operational goals. We concentrate on attracting, retaining and motivating talented executives who can be responsive to new and different opportunities for our company and thereby create value for our customers and shareholders. The primary goals of our executive compensation program are to: motivate our executives to maximize their contributions to

the company’s success, attract and retain the best leaders for our business and align our executives’ interests with creating shareholder value.

At Liberty Global we are committed to the health and safety of our employees and visitors to our sites and we ensure compliance with all relevant national health and safety regulations. The continuing COVID-19 pandemic provides a powerful reminder of the critical role that connectivity plays in our lives. As an essential service provider to families, businesses, hospitals and schools, our COVID-19 response has been strong and well-received in our markets. We have prioritized the safety and well-being of our employees and customers while maintaining the highest-quality video, voice and broadband services, despite exceptional demands on our networks. For employees, we have embarked on a hybrid work-from-home/work-from-office pilot program while increasing health measures within our offices. We have made available a series of well-being resources based on a four-pronged strategy focused on the mental, physical, social and financial aspects of health and well-being. Included in this strategy, among other things, is access to group training sessions, private work-out facilities, bicycle reimbursement plans, in-office flu vaccinations, and private check-up visits.

We measure employee engagement quarterly against external benchmarks defined by a leading human resources consultant. We perform in line with global industry benchmarks and exceed benchmarks set by high performing organizations in areas such as in inclusion, well-being, manager support and senior leadership communication. The high performing comparison group is comprised of organizations with strong financial performance and superior human resource practices, representing the gold standard for employee engagement. Survey results are owned by managers and executives, who are accountable for formulating action plans. In addition, we gather qualitative and quantitative insights with methods such as shorter-term pulse surveys and narrower focus groups. This approach informs decision making across key employee focus areas, including for example, well-being, work-from-home opportunities and skills development.

Additional information on our workforce and our commitment to our employees is made available in Liberty Global’s Annual Corporate Responsibility Report, which we expect to be published on our website at the beginning of the third quarter of 2022.

Regulatory Matters

General Overview

Video distribution, broadband internet, fixed-line telephony and mobile businesses are regulated in each of the countries in which we operate. The scope of regulation varies from country to country, although in some significant respects regulation in European markets is harmonized under the regulatory structure of the E.U.

Of the seven countries in our footprint, five are part of the E.U.: the Republic of Ireland, the Netherlands (non-consolidated), Belgium, Slovakia and Poland. Our other operations are in the U.K. (non-consolidated) and Switzerland, both of which have separate jurisdictions but generally enact rules similar to that of the E.U.

The U.K. formally left the E.U. on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit”. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the E.U. reached the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement” referred to as the “E.U.-U.K. Agreement”. Principles on state aid are also contained in the E.U.-U.K. Agreement to prevent either side from granting unfair subsidies, and a dispute settlement mechanism is provided to ensure businesses from the E.U. and the U.K. compete on a level playing field. In relation to the telecommunications sector, the U.K. and the E.U. have agreed to maintain the existing levels of liberalization in their markets, including standard provisions on authorizations, access to and use of telecoms networks, interconnection, fair and transparent regulation and the allocation of scarce resources. The E.U.-U.K. Agreement contains measures to encourage cooperation and promote fair and transparent rates for international mobile roaming. However, the U.K. previously introduced a number of measures aimed at providing safeguards for consumers, which continue to apply. Such measures include limits on the amount that customers can be charged for using mobile data abroad before having to opt in if they wish to use more data and alert warnings as customers reach various milestones in data allowances included within their packages. Additionally, the Northern Irish Protocol regulates the relationship between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, ensuring that no hard border is placed between the two, as well as keeping Northern Ireland inside the E.U. single market. The Northern Irish Protocol, while not material to our or the VMO2 JV’s operations, affects the movement of consumer premises equipment and installation personnel between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

In Switzerland, most aspects of the distribution of radio and television are regulated under the Radio and television Act. In addition, the Competition Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Surveillance of Post and Telecommunications (the Telecommunications Act) are potentially relevant to our business.

Sector Regulations

The European Electronic Communications Code (the Code) is the primary source of regulation governing our E.U. operations. The Code came into effect on December 20, 2018 and is in the process of being transposed by the Member States and the U.K. into their respective national laws. On September 23, 2021, the European Commission warned a number of Member States for being late with the transposition, including Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Slovakia. The Member states in question were required to adopt and notify the relevant measures within two months - which we have not seen to date. The Commission may refer their cases to the Court of Justice of the European Union. The U.K. has largely transposed the Code into its national laws. Switzerland, while not part of the E.U., has a regulatory system that partially reflects the principles of the E.U. The Telecommunications Act in Switzerland regulates, in general, the transmission of information, including the transmission of radio and television signals.

The Code primarily seeks to develop open markets for communication services within Europe. It harmonizes the rules within the E.U. for the establishment and operation of electronic communication networks, including cable television and traditional telephony networks, and the offer of electronic communication services, such as telephony (including OTT services), internet and, to some degree, television services.

Set forth below are certain key provisions included in the Code that are most applicable to our operations.

Significant Market Power. Specific obligations imposed by National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in E.U. Member States apply only to service providers deemed to have Significant Market Power (SMP) in a relevant market. For purposes of the Code, a service provider has SMP where it enjoys a position of significant economic strength, affording it the power to behave independently of competitors, customers and consumers to an appreciable extent.
If a service provider is found to have SMP in any particular market, the applicable NRA must impose certain conditions on that service provider. We have been found to have Significant Market Power in certain markets in which we operate and further findings of Significant Market Power are possible, which may negatively impact our business. However, across our footprint, we have noticed an increased tendency of NRAs towards deregulation, with only a small number of markets currently being subject to this type of regulation.
The U.K. has a similar system with the applicable NRA assessing markets on a forward-looking basis to determine SMP. In Switzerland, there is no such forward-looking system, rather a service provider can be regulated based on general competition law.
Must-Carry Obligations. Member States may impose reasonable must-carry obligations on certain service providers under their jurisdiction. Such obligations must be based on clearly defined general interest objectives, be proportionate and transparent and be subject to periodic review. The U.K. and Switzerland have a regulatory system that reflects these principles. We are subject to must carry regulations in all markets in which we operate, and we do not expect the such obligations to be curtailed in the foreseeable future.

Net Neutrality, Roaming and Call Termination

In November 2015, the European Parliament adopted the regulation on the first E.U.-wide net neutrality regime. The regulation allows for specialized services, optimized for specific content and subjects service providers like Liberty Global to reasonable traffic management requirements. The U.K. transposed net neutrality into its national law following its exit from the E.U. The Telecommunications Act, in Switzerland introduced more transparent net neutrality regulation that allows for traffic management in very limited circumstances (e.g., to fight exceptional network congestion). Customers must be informed if traffic is treated unequally and about the quality of the internet service (for both fixed and mobile internet).

The 2015 regulation mentioned above also prohibits retail roaming tariffs and sets wholesale roaming price caps. In 2019 the E.U. introduced caps on wholesale rates for intra-E.U. calls to bring these in line with the wholesale roaming caps. The Telecommunications Act in Switzerland implemented roaming obligations, including mandatory discounted roaming packages, per second or per kilobyte of roaming charges and capped fees for all roaming services. In relation to the U.K., E.U. operators are now free to raise wholesale charges for U.K. operators (and vice-versa) but may choose not to.

Call termination tariffs for SMP providers are set by NRAs, but for the E.U., the Code includes a system of single maximum E.U.-wide voice termination rates for fixed and mobile. In 2022, all fixed service providers will be subject to a maximum fixed termination rate of €0.07 per minute and by 2024 the single maximum rate for mobile termination will be €0.20 per minute. In the U.K., an SMP provider must provide termination on fair and reasonable terms, conditions and charges, which

must be no higher than BT’s regulated charges unless certain conditions are met. In all countries where we operate, we have been found to have SMP for call termination.

Broadcasting and Content Law

The Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD) governs the activities of broadcasters under E.U. law. The AVMSD is in the process of being transposed by the Member States into their respective national laws. On September 23, 2021, the European Commission warned a number of Member States for being late with the transposition, including Ireland and Slovakia. The Member States in question were required to adopt and notify the relevant measures within two months, which we have not seen to date. The Commission may refer their cases to the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Generally, broadcasts originating in and intended for reception within an E.U. Member State must respect the laws of that Member State. Pursuant to the AVMSD, however, E.U. Member States must allow broadcast signals of broadcasters established in another E.U. Member State to be freely transmitted within their territory, so long as the broadcaster complies with the law of their home state. In addition, when we offer third-party VoD services on our network, it is the third-party provider, and not us as the distributor, that is regulated in respect of these services. The U.K. and Switzerland have regulatory systems that also reflect these principles.

The AVMSD established quotas, applicable to both linear and non-linear services, for the transmission of European-produced programming and programs made by European producers who are independent of broadcasters. Such obligations are applicable to our businesses in the E.U. The U.K. and Switzerland have regulatory systems that similarly reflect these principles.

Member States are also allowed to require service providers to contribute financially to the production of European works, including requiring financial contributions from VoD providers established in other territories that targets audiences in their jurisdiction. Such obligations are applicable to (or are expected to become applicable to) certain of our businesses.

In addition, European Commission regulations mandate that commercial providers of online content services (including OTT service providers) enable subscribers who are temporarily present in any Member State to access and use online content services in substantially the same manner as in their Member State of residence. Our services comply with these portability requirements.

In the U.K., the VMO2 JV is required to hold individual licenses under the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996 for any television channels (including barker channels) that it owns or operates and to provide certain other services on its cable television platform, such as electronic program guides. These television licensable content service (TLCS) licenses are granted and administered by the U.K. Office of Communications (Ofcom). Under these licenses, each covered service must comply with a number of Ofcom codes, including the Broadcasting Code, and with all of Ofcom’s directions. Breach of any of the terms of a TLCS license may result in the imposition of fines and, potentially, license revocation.

As a provider of an on-demand program service (ODPS), the VMO2 JV must also comply with a number of statutory obligations in relation to “editorial content” and notify Ofcom of its intention to provide an ODPS. Failure to notify Ofcom or comply with the relevant statutory obligations may result in the imposition of fines or, ultimately, a prohibition on providing an ODPS.

Technological Regulation

The European Commission is increasingly imposing additional mandatory requirements regarding energy consumption of the telecommunications equipment we provide our customers. We have been working to lower power consumption of our set-top boxes. Legislation in this area may be adopted that could adversely affect the cost and/or the functionality of equipment we deploy to customers.

Pursuant to an E.U. Regulation on standby power (the Standby Regulation), many devices are required to have either a low power standby mode or off mode, unless such mode is inappropriate for the intended use of the product. In particular, the Standby Regulation sets, among others, the maximum power consumption of networked consumer equipment while in the so-called “Networked Standby” mode. As a result, all of the devices we purchase and/or develop operate under the power management requirements of the Standby Regulation.

Also, the E.U.’s Radio Equipment Directive regulates radio equipment held for sale. It sets essential requirements for safety and health, electromagnetic compatibility and the efficient use of the radio spectrum. This directive also provides the

basis for further regulation governing some additional aspects, including technical features for the protection of privacy, personal data and fraud, interoperability, access to emergency services, and compliance regarding the combination of radio equipment and software. The European Commission recently adopted a delegated act under the Radio Equipment Directive to improve network resilience and better protect consumer’s privacy. The delegated act will enter into force during the first quarter of 2022 and will apply beginning on August 1, 2024.

Due to a Mutual Recognition Agreement established between the E.U. and Switzerland, the Standby Regulation and the Radio Equipment Directive also applies in Switzerland. Before Brexit, the U.K. implemented the Standby Regulation and the Radio Equipment Directive into national law.

Through the E.U.’s Radio Spectrum Policy Program, certain spectrum has been approved for mobile broadband use. The terms under which this spectrum becomes available varies among the European countries in which we operate, and certain uses of this spectrum may interfere with services carried on our cable networks. If this occurs, we may need to: (1) avoid using certain frequencies on our cable networks for certain of our services, (2) make some changes to our networks, or (3) change the equipment that we deploy. We are in ongoing discussions with relevant Member States and the European Commission to develop mitigation techniques to reduce some of this interference, but we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these discussions.

Privacy Regulation

In May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) became effective in the E.U. The GDPR sets strict standards regarding the handling, use and retention of personal data. Organizations that fail to comply face stiff penalties. In addition, in January 2017, the European Commission published a proposal for a new e-Privacy regulation. Negotiations among E.U. Member States are still in process, and we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these negotiations.

The GDPR applies to the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the E.U. and a number of countries, not including the U.K. or Switzerland. When personal data is transferred outside the EEA, special safeguards stemming from the GDPR, such as the adoption of adequacy decisions and the use of standard contractual clauses (SCCs), are enforced to ensure that data is transferred in a protected manner. Adequacy decisions indicate which third countries have in place data protection laws sufficiently similar to those provided under the GDPR. Transfers to an “adequate” third country is compared to a transmission of data within the E.U.

On June 28, 2021, the European Commission adopted an adequacy decision for the U.K., as the U.K.’s data protection system continues to be based on the same GDPR rules that were applicable when the U.K. was a Member State. However, the adequacy decision is subject to a so-called “sunset clause”, which establishes the automatic expiration of the decision after four years from its adoption. After that period, the adequacy findings may be renewed if the U.K. continues to ensure an adequate level of data protection.

When a data transfer involves a third country that has not been granted an adequacy decision, our operations must use SCCs. On June 4, 2021, the European Commission issued an implementing decision on new SCCs, applicable as of September 27, 2021. Using standard contractual clauses does not automatically make an international data transfer GDPR compliant. Instead, the parties must perform “transfer impact assessments” in order to address any possible risks in the data transfer and take supplementary measures. The impact assessment takes into account maters such as the circumstances of the transfer, the nature of the parties, the personal data involved and the laws and practices of the country of destination.

A continued flow of personal data from the EEA to Switzerland is ensured by the Swiss Data Protection Act (DPA). The Swiss Parliament adopted a revised version of the DPA that provides more transparency regarding the processing of data and strengthens the individual’s information rights (e.g., if his/her data is processed in a foreign country.

Other European Regulations

In addition to the industry-specific regimes discussed above, our operating companies must comply with a range of both specific and general legislation concerning cybersecurity and consumer protection, among other matters.
With respect to cybersecurity, in 2016, the E.U. adopted a directive on security of network and information systems (NIS Directive), which provides legal measures to boost the overall level of cybersecurity in the E.U. Our operations in the E.U. do not fall under the NIS Directive, but a transposition of the Directive in Ireland and the Netherlands has effectively introduced the NIS Directive concepts into those jurisdictions. In December 2020, the European Commission presented a revised version

of the legislation that seeks to expand the scope of the NIS Directive, adding new sectors, including telecommunication providers. If adopted, more of our operations may become subject to the security requirements of this second NIS Directive.

During 2020, across the E.U. and in the U.K., restrictions related to so-called “high risk vendors” (HRVs) in the telecommunications sector were announced. The E.U. published a “toolbox” for regulating 5G networks, which acknowledges the need for a risk assessment of 5G equipment suppliers and the need for adopting mitigating measures by E.U. governments. Some Member States are addressing security concerns by identifying individual HRVs in advance, whose equipment should be excluded or limited for all network operations in the country. The Swiss government is also considering new draft measures in the field of telecommunications security.

In November 2021, the U.K. government introduced the Telecoms Security Act, which imposes a new security framework on telecommunication providers and give the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport new powers to direct telecommunication providers to remove HRVs from their networks. Similar legislation has also been adopted in the Netherlands and Belgium.

The Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act currently being discussed by the European Parliament do not, as currently contemplated, appear to impact our businesses. However, we cannot predict what the final legislation will say.

Our operating companies are also subject to both national and European level regulations on competition and on consumer protection, which are largely regulated under the Code. For example, while our operating companies may offer their services in bundled packages in European markets, they are sometimes not permitted to make a subscription to one service, such as cable television, conditional upon a subscription to another service, such as telephony. They may also face restrictions on the degree to which they may discount certain products included in the bundled packages.


Telenet has been found to have SMP in the wholesale broadband market, obliging it to (1) provide third-party operators with access to the digital television platform (including basic digital video and analog video) and (2) make available to third-party operators a bitstream offer of broadband internet access including fixed voice as an option. The Belgian NRA has imposed monthly wholesale cable resale access prices. These rates are expected to evolve over time due to, among other reasons, broadband capacity usage.

The obligations on Telenet may strengthen its competitors by granting them resale access to Telenet’s network to offer competing products and services notwithstanding Telenet’s substantial historical financial outlays in developing the infrastructure. In addition, any resale access granted to competitors could (1) limit the bandwidth available to Telenet to provide new or expanded products and services to its customers, and (2) adversely impact Telenet’s ability to maintain or increase its revenue and cash flows. The extent of any such adverse impacts ultimately will be dependent on the degree to which competitors take advantage of the resale access of Telenet’s network, the rates that Telenet receives for such access and other competitive factors or market developments.

Joint Venture Entities

United Kingdom

End of Contract Notifications and Annual Best Tariff Notifications. Specific obligations regarding end of contract and annual best tariff notifications are imposed by Ofcom on providers. These require the VMO2 JV to (i) alert customers who are approaching the end of a minimum contract term to the fact that their contract period is coming to an end and to set out the best new price that the VMO2 JV can offer them and (ii) once a year, alert customers who are out of contract to that fact and again confirm the best new price the VMO2 JV can offer them. In both cases, the VMO2 JV must also set out the price available to new customers for an equivalent service offering. These requirements have adversely impacted our and the VMO2 JV’s revenue since their implementation.

Broadband Expansion. The U.K. enacted the Telecommunications Infrastructure (Leasehold Property) Act in March 2021, pursuant to which, among other things, building regulations now require new housing developments to have Gbit capable access. This new legislation comes as a result of the U.K. government’s push to encourage greater investment in new digital infrastructure and deliver FTTH/Gbit capable networks to approximately 85% of U.K. premises by 2025.


The Netherlands

Similar to our other operations, the VodafoneZiggo JV is subject to must carry obligations, including a number of regional and local broadcasting channels, as well as public broadcasting channels.

The Netherlands’ NRA, the Autoriteit Consument & Markt (ACM) is currently conducting a new market analysis of high-quality wholesale access. On November 18, 2021, the ACM submitted to the European Commission its intended decision to withdraw regulation of the high-quality business telecom services provided over KPN's network. If adopted, the decision will lead to a complete deregulation of the wholesale market in the Netherlands. A final decision of the ACM is expected in 2022.

Available Information

All our filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC), including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as amendments to such filings are available on our internet website free of charge generally within 24 hours after we file such material with the SEC. Our website address is www.libertyglobal.com. The information on our website is not part of this Annual Report and is not incorporated by reference herein.


In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report, you should consider the following risk factors in evaluating our results of operations, financial condition, business and operations or an investment in the shares of our company.
The risk factors described in this section have been separated into four groups:
risks that relate to the competition we face and the technology used in our businesses;
risks that relate to our operating in overseas markets and being subject to foreign regulation;
risks that relate to certain financial matters; and
other risks, including risks that, among other things, relate to the obstacles that may be faced by anyone who may seek to acquire us. 

Although we describe below and elsewhere in this Annual Report the risks we consider to be the most material, there may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that also could have material adverse effects on our results of operations, financial condition, business or operations in the future. In addition, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.

If any of the events described below, individually or in combination, were to occur, our businesses, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected.


Factors Relating to Competition and Technology

We operate in increasingly competitive markets, and there is a risk that we will not be able to effectively compete with other service providers. The markets for cable television, broadband internet, telephony and mobile services are highly competitive. In the provision of video services, we face competition from FTA and DTT broadcasters, video provided via satellite platforms, networks using DSL, VDSL or vectoring technology, multi-channel multipoint distribution system operators, FTTx networks, OTT video service providers, and, in some countries where parts of our systems are overbuilt, cable networks, among others. Our operating businesses are facing increasing competition from video services provided by, or over the networks of, incumbent telecommunications operators and other service providers. As the availability and speed of broadband internet increases, we also face competition from OTT video content providers utilizing our or our competitors’ high-speed internet connections. In the provision of telephony and broadband internet services, we are experiencing increasing competition from the incumbent telecommunications operators and other service providers in each country in which we operate, as well as providers of mobile voice and data. The incumbent telecommunications operators typically dominate the market for these services and have the advantage of nationwide networks and greater resources than we have to devote to the provision of these services. Many of the incumbent operators offer double-play, triple-play and quadruple-play bundles of services. In many countries, we also compete with other operators using LLU to provide these services, other facilities-based operators and wireless providers. Developments in DSL as well as investments into FTTx technology by the incumbent telecommunications operators and alternative providers have improved the attractiveness of our competitors’ products and services and strengthened their competitive position. Developments in wireless technologies, such as 5G and FWA, are creating additional competitive challenges.

In some of our markets, national and local government agencies may seek to become involved, either directly or indirectly, in the establishment of FTTx networks, DTT systems or other communications systems. We intend to pursue available options to restrict such involvement or to ensure that such involvement is on commercially reasonable terms. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be successful in these pursuits. As a result, we may face competition from entities not requiring a normal commercial return on their investments. In addition, we may face more vigorous competition than would have been the case if there were no government involvement.

We expect the level and intensity of competition to continue to increase from both existing competitors and the influx of new market entrants as a result of changes in the regulatory framework of the industries in which we operate, as well as strategic alliances and cooperative relationships among industry participants. Increased competition could result in increased customer churn, reductions of customer acquisition rates for some products and services and significant price and promotional competition in our markets. In combination with difficult economic environments, these competitive pressures could adversely impact our ability to increase or, in certain cases, maintain the revenue, average revenue per RGU or mobile subscriber, as applicable (ARPU), RGUs, mobile subscribers, Adjusted EBITDA (as defined in note 19 to our consolidated financial statements), Adjusted EBITDA margins and liquidity of our operating segments.

Changes in technology may limit the competitiveness of and demand for our services. Technology in the video, telecommunications and data services industries is changing rapidly, including advances in current technologies and the emergence of new technologies. New technologies, products and services may impact consumer behavior and therefore demand for our products and services. The ability to anticipate changes in technology and consumer tastes and to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services on a timely basis will affect our ability to continue to grow, increase our revenue and number of subscribers and remain competitive. New products and services, once marketed, may not meet consumer expectations or demand, can be subject to delays in development and may fail to operate as intended. A lack of market acceptance of new products and services that we may offer, or the development of significant competitive products or services by others, could have a material adverse impact on our revenue and Adjusted EBITDA.

Our significant property and equipment additions may not generate a positive return. Significant additions to our property and equipment are, or in the future may be, required to add customers to our networks and to upgrade or expand our broadband communications networks and upgrade customer premises equipment to enhance our service offerings and improve the customer experience. Additions to our property and equipment, which are currently underway, require significant capital expenditures for equipment and associated labor costs to build out and/or upgrade our networks as well as for related customer premises equipment. Additionally, significant competition, the introduction of new technologies, the expansion of existing technologies, such as FTTx and advanced DSL technologies, the impact of natural disasters, or adverse regulatory developments could cause us to decide to undertake previously unplanned builds or upgrades of our networks and customer premises equipment.

No assurance can be given that any newbuilds, rebuilds, upgrades or extensions of our network will increase penetration rates, increase average monthly subscription revenue per average cable RGU or mobile subscriber, as applicable, or otherwise

generate positive returns as anticipated, or that we will have adequate capital available to finance such newbuilds, rebuilds, upgrades or extensions. Additionally, costs related to our property and equipment additions could end up being greater than originally anticipated or planned. If this is the case, we may require additional financing sooner than anticipated or we may have to delay or abandon some or all of our development and expansion plans or otherwise forego market opportunities. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all, and our ability to incur additional debt will be limited by our debt agreements. If we are unable to, or elect not to, pay for costs associated with adding new customers, expanding, extending or upgrading our networks or making our other planned or unplanned additions to our property and equipment, or are delayed in making such investments, our growth could be limited and our competitive position could be harmed.

We depend almost exclusively on our relationships with third-party programming providers and broadcasters for programming content, and a failure to acquire a wide selection of popular programming on acceptable terms could adversely affect our business. The success of our video subscription business depends, in large part, on our ability to provide a wide selection of popular programming to our subscribers. We generally do not produce our own content and we depend on our agreements, relationships and cooperation with public and private broadcasters, rights holders and collective rights associations to obtain such content. If we fail to obtain a diverse array of popular programming for our pay television services, including a sufficient selection of HD channels as well as non-linear content (such as a selection of attractive VoD content) and rights for ancillary services such as DVR and catch up or 'Replay' services, on satisfactory terms, we may not be able to offer a compelling video product to our customers at a price they are willing to pay. Additionally, we are frequently negotiating and renegotiating programming agreements and our annual costs for programming can vary. There can be no assurance that we will be able to renegotiate or renew the terms of our programming agreements on acceptable terms or at all. There has also been a rise in the number of direct-to-consumer offerings from content owners which impacts negotiations and the content, rights available and restrictions imposed on us. Programming and copyright costs represent a significant portion of our operating costs and are subject to rise in future periods due to various factors, including (1) higher costs associated with the expansion of our digital video content, including rights associated with ancillary product offerings and rights that provide for the broadcast of live sporting events and (2) rate increases.

If we are unable to obtain or retain attractively priced competitive content, demand for our existing and future video services could decrease, thereby limiting our ability to attract new customers, maintain existing customers and/or migrate customers from lower-tier programming to higher-tier programming, thereby inhibiting our ability to execute our business plans. Furthermore, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage if certain of our competitors obtain exclusive programming rights, particularly with respect to popular sports and movie programming, and as certain players in the OTT market, for example Netflix, Amazon and Disney, increasingly produce their own exclusive content.

We depend on third-party suppliers and licensors to supply necessary equipment, software and certain services required for our businesses. We rely on third-party vendors for the equipment, software and services that we require in order to provide services to our customers. Our suppliers often conduct business worldwide and their ability to meet our needs is subject to various risks, including political and economic instability, natural calamities, interruptions in transportation or supply chain systems, terrorism and labor issues. As a result, we may not be able to obtain the equipment, software and services required for our businesses on a timely basis or on satisfactory terms. Any shortfall in customer premises equipment could lead to delays in completing extensions to our networks and in connecting customers to our services and, accordingly, could adversely impact our ability to maintain or increase our RGUs, revenue and cash flows. Also, if demand exceeds the suppliers’ and licensors’ capacity or if they experience financial difficulties, the ability of our businesses to provide some services may be materially adversely affected, which in turn could affect our businesses’ ability to attract and retain customers. We have experienced certain business disruptions due to the worldwide silicon shortage, which has increased the delivery lead times and pricing of certain of our key components. We cannot predict how long such shortages will continue or what future disruptions to our business. Although we actively monitor the creditworthiness of our key third-party suppliers and licensors, the financial failure of a key third-party supplier or licensor could disrupt our operations and have an adverse impact on our revenue and cash flows. We rely upon intellectual property that is owned or licensed by us to use various technologies, conduct our operations and sell our products and services. Legal challenges could be made against our use of our or our licensed intellectual property rights (such as trademarks, patents and trade secrets) and we may be required to enter into licensing arrangements on unfavorable terms, incur monetary damages or be enjoined from use of the intellectual property rights in question.
Spectrum cost and availability and regulation may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results. As we continue to enhance the quality of our services in certain geographic areas and deploy new technologies, including 5G, we may need to acquire additional spectrum in the future. As a result, we will continue to actively seek to make additional investment in spectrum, which could be significant.

The continued interest in, and acquisition of, spectrum by existing carriers and others may reduce our ability to acquire, and increase the acquisition cost of, spectrum in the secondary market or negatively impact our ability to gain access to spectrum

through other means, including government auctions. Our return on investment in spectrum depends on our ability to attract additional customers and to provide additional services and usage to existing customers. Additionally, applicable regulatory bodies may not be able to provide sufficient additional spectrum to auction. We may also be unable to secure the spectrum necessary to maintain or enhance our competitive position in auctions or in the secondary market, on favorable terms or at all.

Certain regulatory bodies may impose conditions on the acquisition, and use of, new wireless broadband mobile spectrum that may negatively impact our ability to obtain spectrum economically or in appropriate configurations or coverage areas.

If we cannot acquire needed spectrum, if competitors acquire spectrum that allows them to provide competitive services or if we cannot deploy services over acquired spectrum on a timely basis without burdensome conditions, at reasonable costs, and while maintaining network quality levels, our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

Certain of our businesses that offer mobile telephony and data services rely on the radio access networks of third-party wireless network providers to carry our mobile communications traffic. Our services to mobile customers in many jurisdictions in which we operate rely on the use of MVNO arrangements in which we utilize the radio access networks of third-party wireless network providers to carry our mobile communications traffic. If any of our MVNO arrangements are terminated, or if the respective third-party wireless network provider fails to provide the services required under an MVNO arrangement, or if a third-party wireless network provider fails to deploy and maintain its network, and we are unable to find a replacement network operator on a timely and commercially reasonable basis or at all, we could be prevented from continuing the mobile services relying on such MVNO arrangement. Additionally, as our MVNO arrangements come to term, we may not be able to renegotiate renewal or replacement MVNO arrangements on the same or more favorable terms.

Failure in our or third-party technology or telecommunications systems, leakage of sensitive customer data, or security breaches could significantly disrupt our operations, reduce our customer base and result in fines, litigation or lost revenue. Our success depends, in part, on the continued and uninterrupted performance of our information technology and network systems, including internet sites, data hosting and processing facilities and other hardware, software and technical applications and platforms, as well as our customer service centers. Some of these are managed, hosted, provided or used by third-party service providers or their vendors, to assist in conducting our business. In addition, the hardware supporting a large number of critical systems for our cable network in a particular country or geographic region is housed in a relatively small number of locations. Our and our third-party service providers’ systems and equipment (including our routers and set-top boxes) are vulnerable to damage or security breach from a variety of sources, including telecommunications failures, power loss, malicious human acts, security flaws, and natural disasters. Moreover, despite security measures, unauthorized parties may gain access to or disrupt our or our third-party service providers’ servers, systems and equipment by, among other things, hacking into our servers, systems and equipment or those of our third-party service providers through fraud, computer viruses, worms, phishing, physical or electronic break-ins or burglaries, or errors by our or our third-party service providers’ employees. We and our third-party service providers may not be able to anticipate or respond in an adequate and timely manner to attempts to obtain authorized access to, disable or degrade our or our third-party service providers’ systems because the techniques for doing so change frequently, are increasingly complex and sophisticated and are difficult to detect for periods of time. In addition, as discussed further below, the security measures and procedures we and our third-party service providers have in place to protect personal data and other information may not be sufficient to counter all data security breaches, cyber-attacks or system failures. In some cases, mitigation efforts may depend on third parties who may not deliver products or services that meet the required contractual standards or whose hardware, software or network services may be subject to error, defect, delay or outage.

Through our operations, sales and marketing activities, we collect and store certain personal information related to our customers. This may include phone numbers, drivers license numbers, contact preferences, personal information stored on electronic devices and payment information, including credit and debit card data. We also gather and retain information about employees in the normal course of business. In certain circumstances, where it is lawful to do so, we may share information about such persons with third-party service providers that assist with certain aspects of our business. Unauthorized parties may attempt to gain access to such data and information using the same methods described in the prior paragraph. As a result, data and information we gather could be subject to misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or accidental release or loss of information maintained in our information technology systems and networks and those of our third-party service providers, including customer and personnel data. As a result of the increasing awareness concerning the importance of safeguarding personal information, the potential misuse of such information and legislation that has been adopted or is being considered across all of our markets regarding the protection, privacy and security of personal information, information-related risks are increasing, particularly for businesses like ours that handle a large amount of personal data. Failure to comply with these data protection laws may result in, among other consequences, fines, litigation or regulatory actions by state, federal or non-U.S. authorities.


Despite the precautions we have taken, unanticipated problems affecting our systems and equipment could cause business disruptions such as failures in our information technology systems, disruption in the transmission of signals over our networks, unauthorized access to the data and information we gather or similar problems. Further, although we devote significant resources to our cybersecurity programs and have implemented security measures to protect our systems and data, and to prevent, detect and respond to data security incidents, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent these threats. Any disruptive situation that causes loss, misappropriation, misuse or leakage of data could damage our reputation and the credibility of our operations and could subject us to potential liability, including litigation or other legal actions against us, the imposition of penalties, fines, fees or liabilities, which may not be covered by our insurance policies, and lost customers and revenue. While we maintain cyber liability insurance that provides both third-party liability and first-party liability insurance coverage, such insurance may not be sufficient to protect against all of our businesses’ losses from any future disruptions or breaches of their systems or other events as described above. Also, a cybersecurity breach and the changing cybersecurity landscape could require us to devote significant management resources to address the problems associated with the breach and to expend significant additional resources to upgrade further the security measures we employ to protect customer, employee and other personal information against cyber-attacks and other wrongful attempts to access such information, which could result in a disruption of our operations. This includes additional infrastructure capacity spending to mitigate any system degradation and the reallocation of resources from development activities. To date, other than the non-permitted access of one of Virgin Media’s databases in February of 2020, we have not been subject to cyberattacks or network disruptions that, individually or in the aggregate, have been material to our operations or financial condition. Although we have not detected another material security breach or cybersecurity incident to date, we have been the target of events of this nature and expect to be subject to similar attacks in the future.

Factors Relating to Operations and Regulation

Our businesses are conducted almost exclusively outside of the U.S., which gives rise to numerous operational risks. Our businesses operate almost exclusively in countries outside the U.S. and are thereby subject to the following inherent risks:

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
potentially adverse tax consequences;
export and import restrictions, custom duties, tariffs and other trade barriers;
increases in taxes and governmental fees;
economic and political instability; and
changes in foreign and domestic laws and policies that govern operations of foreign-based companies. 

Operational risks that we may experience in certain countries include disruptions of services or loss of property or equipment that are critical to overseas businesses due to expropriation, nationalization, war, insurrection, terrorism or general social or political unrest.

We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk. We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk with respect to our consolidated debt in situations where our debt is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the operations whose cash flows support our ability to repay or refinance such debt. Although we generally match the denomination of our and our subsidiaries’ borrowings with the functional currency of the operations that are supporting the respective borrowings, market conditions or other factors may cause us to enter into borrowing arrangements that are not denominated in the functional currency of the underlying operations (unmatched debt). In these cases, our policy is to provide for an economic hedge against foreign currency exchange rate movements by using derivative instruments to synthetically convert unmatched debt into the applicable underlying currency. At December 31, 2021, substantially all of our debt was either directly or synthetically matched to the applicable functional currencies of the underlying operations.

In addition to the exposure that results from the mismatch of our borrowings and underlying functional currencies, we are exposed to foreign currency risk to the extent that we enter into transactions denominated in currencies other than our or our subsidiaries’ respective functional currencies (non-functional currency risk), such as equipment purchases, programming contracts, notes payable and notes receivable (including intercompany amounts). Changes in exchange rates with respect to amounts recorded on our consolidated balance sheets related to these items will result in unrealized (based upon period-end exchange rates) or realized foreign currency transaction gains and losses upon settlement of the transactions. Moreover, to the

extent that our revenue, costs and expenses are denominated in currencies other than our respective functional currencies, we will experience fluctuations in our revenue, costs and expenses solely as a result of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Generally, we will consider hedging non-functional currency risks when the risks arise from agreements with third parties that involve the future payment or receipt of cash or other monetary items to the extent that we can reasonably predict the timing and amount of such payments or receipts and the payments or receipts are not otherwise hedged. In this regard, we have entered into foreign currency forward contracts to hedge certain of these risks. For additional information concerning our foreign currency forward contracts, see note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We are also exposed to unfavorable and potentially volatile fluctuations of the U.S. dollar (our reporting currency) against the currencies of our operating subsidiaries when their respective financial statements are translated into U.S. dollars for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. Cumulative translation adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive earnings or loss as a separate component of equity. Any increase (decrease) in the value of the U.S. dollar against any foreign currency that is the functional currency of one of our operating subsidiaries will cause us to experience unrealized foreign currency translation losses (gains) with respect to amounts already invested in such foreign currencies. Accordingly, we may experience a negative impact on our comprehensive earnings or loss and equity with respect to our holdings solely as a result of foreign currency translation. Our primary exposure to foreign currency translation risk during the three months ended December 31, 2021 was to the euro and Swiss franc, as 55.2% and 43.7% of our reported revenue during such period was derived from subsidiaries whose functional currencies are the euro and Swiss franc, respectively. In addition, our reported operating results are impacted by changes in the exchange rates for other local currencies in Europe. We do not hedge against the risk that we may incur non-cash losses upon the translation of the financial statements of our subsidiaries and affiliates into U.S. dollars.

Our businesses are subject to risks of adverse regulation. Our businesses are subject to the unique regulatory regimes of the countries in which they operate. Video distribution, broadband internet, telephony and mobile services are subject to licensing or registration eligibility rules and regulations, which vary by country. Countries in which we operate may adopt laws and regulations regarding electronic commerce, which could dampen the growth of the internet services being offered and developed by our businesses. In a number of countries, our ability to increase prices for, or change our services, including the programming packages we offer is limited by regulation or conditions imposed by competition authorities or is subject to review by regulatory authorities or is subject to termination rights of customers. More significantly, regulatory authorities may require us, particularly if we are deemed to possess SMP, to grant third parties access to our networks, facilities or services to distribute their own services or resell our services to end customers. Consequently, our businesses must adapt their ownership and organizational structures as well as their pricing and service offerings to satisfy the rules and regulations to which they are subject. A failure to comply with applicable rules and regulations could result in penalties, restrictions on our business, loss of required licenses or other adverse conditions.

Adverse changes in rules and regulations could:

impair our ability to use our networks in ways that would generate maximum revenue and Adjusted EBITDA;
create a shortage of capacity on our networks, which could limit the types and variety of services we seek to provide our customers;
impact our ability to access spectrum for our mobile services;
strengthen our competitors by granting them access and lowering their costs to enter into our markets; and
significantly and adversely impact our results of operations. 

Businesses, including ours, that offer multiple services, such as video distribution as well as internet, telephony, and/or mobile services, or that are vertically integrated and offer both video distribution and programming content, often face close regulatory scrutiny from competition authorities. This is particularly the case with respect to any proposed business combinations, which often require clearance from the European Commission or national competition authorities, which can block, impose conditions on, or delay, an acquisition, thus possibly hampering our opportunities for growth. In the event conditions are imposed and we fail to meet them in a timely manner, the relevant authority may impose fines and, if in connection with a merger transaction, may require restorative measures, such as a mandatory disposition of assets or divestiture of operations.


For information regarding certain other regulatory developments that could adversely impact our results of operations in future periods, see Legal and Regulatory Proceedings and Other Contingencies in note 18 to our consolidated financial statements.

New and existing legislation may significantly alter the regulatory regimes applicable to us, which could adversely affect our competitive position and profitability, and we may become subject to more extensive regulation, particularly if we are deemed to possess significant market power in any of the markets in which we operate. Significant changes to the existing regulatory regimes applicable to the provision of video, telephony, internet and mobile services have been and are still being introduced. For example, in the E.U., the Code is the primary source of communications regulation affecting our E.U. businesses, including access, user and privacy rights, video must-carry services and our competitive activities. In addition, we are subject to regular review by national regulatory authorities concerning whether we exhibit SMP. A finding of SMP can result in our company becoming subject to open access, pricing and other requirements that could potentially advantage our competitors. This has resulted, for example, in obligations with respect to call termination for our telephony business in Europe and video and broadband internet access obligations in Belgium.

The U.K.’s departure from the E.U. could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity. The U.K. formally exited the E.U. on January 31, 2020, and on December 24, 2020, entered into the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement”, referred to as the “E.U.-U.K. Agreement”. For more information regarding the E.U.-U.K. Agreement, see Item 1. Business - Regulatory Matters - Overview discussion above. Examples of the potential impact Brexit could have on our business, financial condition or results of operations include:

changes in foreign currency exchange rates and disruptions in the capital markets. For example, a sustained period of weakness in the British pound sterling or the euro could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, including our ability to fund repurchases of our equity securities and other U.S. dollar-denominated liquidity requirements;
shortages of labor necessary to conduct our business;
disruption to our U.K. supply chain and related increased cost of supplies;
a weakened U.K. economy resulting in decreased consumer demand for our products and services in the U.K.;
legal uncertainty, increased compliance costs and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which E.U. laws and directives to replace or replicate, or where previously implemented by enactment of U.K. laws or regulations, to retain, amend or repeal; and
various geopolitical forces may impact the global economy and our business, including, for example, other E.U. member states (in particular those member states where we have operations) proposing referendums to, or electing to, exit the E.U.

We cannot be certain that we will be successful with respect to acquisitions, dispositions, joint ventures, partnerships or other similar transactions, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits thereof. Historically, our businesses have grown, in part, through selective acquisitions that enabled them to take advantage of existing networks, local service offerings and region-specific management expertise, and we have also taken advantage of attractive opportunities to sell select businesses and partner with others. We expect to seek to continue improving our company through attractive acquisitions, dispositions, joint ventures, partnerships or other similar transactions in selected markets, such as the SFR BeLux acquisition in June 2017, the De Vijver Media acquisition in June 2019, the UPC Austria disposition in July 2018, the sales of the operations of UPC DTH and the Vodafone Disposal Group in May 2019 and July 2019, respectively, the Sunrise Acquisition in November 2020 and the anticipated sale of UPC Poland, as well as the formations of the Atlas Edge JV and the VMO2 JV in September and June of 2021, respectively. Our ability to complete any transaction may be limited by many factors, including government regulation, availability of financing, our or our counterparty’s debt covenants, the prevalence of complex ownership structures among potential targets, acquirers, joint ventures or partners, disapproval by shareholders of potential targets or acquirers, and competition from other potential acquirers, including private equity funds. Even if we are successful in completing such transactions, integration and separation activities may present significant costs and challenges. We cannot be assured that we will be successful with respect to acquisitions, dispositions, joint ventures, partnerships or other similar transactions or realizing the anticipated benefits thereof.

In addition, we anticipate that most, if not all, companies acquired by us will be located outside the U.S. Foreign companies may not have disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over financial reporting that are as thorough or effective as those required by U.S. securities laws and applicable accounting rules. While we intend to conduct appropriate due diligence

and to implement appropriate controls and procedures as we integrate acquired companies, we may not be able to certify as to the effectiveness of these companies’ disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over financial reporting until we have fully integrated them.

The expected synergies and benefits from our acquisitions and joint ventures may not be realized in the amounts anticipated or may not be realized within the expected time frame, and risks associated with the foregoing may also result from the extended delay in the integration of the companies. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions and joint ventures will depend, to a large extent, on our ability to integrate our businesses and the acquired or joint venture company’s business in a manner that facilitates growth opportunities and achieves the projected cost savings. In addition, some of the anticipated synergies are not expected to occur for some time following the completion of such acquisitions and joint ventures and will require substantial capital expenditures before realizing some of those synergies.

The COVID-19 pandemic may delay, reduce or eliminate some of our anticipated synergies and other benefits, including a delay in the integration of, or inability to integrate, the business that we acquire or partner with. Even if we are able to integrate successfully, the anticipated benefits of such transactions, including the expected synergies and network benefits, may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected.

We have incurred substantial expenses as a result of completing our various acquisitions and joint ventures. We expect that substantial additional expenses will need to be incurred in order to integrate the businesses, operations, policies, and procedures. While we have assumed that a certain level of transaction-related expenses will be incurred, factors beyond our control could affect the total amount or the timing of these expenses. Many of the expenses that will be incurred, by their nature, are difficult to estimate accurately. These expenses could exceed the costs historically borne by us and offset, in whole or in part, the expected synergies.

Our integration efforts may not be executed successfully, or such integration may be more difficult, time consuming or costly than expected. Operating costs, customer loss and business disruption, including maintaining relationships with employees, customers, suppliers or vendors, may be greater than expected. The combination of independent businesses is complex, costly and time-consuming, and may divert significant management attention and resources. This process may disrupt our business or otherwise impact our ability to compete. The overall combination of our and the businesses of those companies that we acquire or partner with may also result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses and impacts and loss of customers and other business relationships. The difficulties of combining the operations of the companies include, among others:

diversion of management attention to integration matters;
difficulties in integrating operations and systems, including intellectual property and communications systems, administrative and information technology infrastructure, and supplier and vendor arrangements, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic;
challenges in conforming standards, controls, procedures and accounting and other policies;
alignment of key performance measurements may result in a greater need to communicate and manage clear expectations while we work to integrate and align policies and practices;
difficulties in integrating employees;
the transition of management to the combined company management team, and the need to address possible differences in corporate cultures, management philosophies, and compensation structures;
challenges in retaining existing customers and obtaining new customers;
compliance with government regulations
known or potential unknown liabilities of the acquired businesses that are larger than expected; and
other potential adverse consequences and unforeseen increased expenses or liabilities associated with the applicable transaction.

Additionally, uncertainties over the integration process could cause customers, suppliers, distributors, dealers, retailers and others to seek to change or cancel our existing business relationships or to refuse to renew existing relationships. Suppliers, distributors and content and application providers may also delay or cease developing new products for us that are necessary for

the operations of our business due to uncertainties or lack of available resources. Competitors may also target our existing customers by highlighting potential uncertainties and integration difficulties.

Some of these factors are outside our control, and any one of them could result in lower revenues, higher costs and diversion of management time and energy, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, even if the integration is successful, the full benefits of our acquisitions and partnerships including, among others, the synergies, cost savings or sales or growth opportunities may not be realized. As a result, it cannot be assured that we will realize the full benefits expected from such transactions within the anticipated time frames or at all.

Certain operations are conducted by joint ventures that we cannot operate solely for our benefit. Certain of our operations, particularly the VMO2 JV in the U.K. and the VodafoneZiggo JV in the Netherlands, are conducted through joint ventures or partnerships. We share ownership and management of these joint venture with one or more parties who may or may not have the same goals, strategies, priorities or resources as we do. In general, joint ventures are intended to be operated for the benefit of all co-owners, rather than for our exclusive benefit. Operating a business as a joint venture often requires additional organizational formalities as well as time-consuming procedures for sharing information, accounting and making decisions. In certain cases, our joint venture partners must agree in order for the applicable joint venture to take certain actions. Our inability to take unilateral action that we believe is in our best interests may have an adverse effect on the financial performance of the joint venture and the return on our investment. In joint ventures, we believe our relationship with our co-owners is an important factor to the success of the joint venture, and if a co-owner changes, our relationship may be adversely affected. In addition, the benefits from a successful joint venture are shared among the co-owners, so that we do not receive all the benefits from our successful joint ventures.

Our interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV are held pursuant to Shareholder Agreements that contain provisions relating to governance as well as transfer and exit rights, which, depending on the circumstances, may not be in the best interest of our company. Our non-controlling interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV are held pursuant to shareholders’ agreements (each a Shareholders’ Agreement), which provides the terms of the governance of the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV, as applicable, including among others, decision-making process, information access, dividend policy and non-compete provisions. These provisions may prevent the VodafoneZiggo JV or the VMO2 JV, as applicable from making decisions or taking actions that would protect or advance the interests of our company, and could even result in the VodafoneZiggo JV or the VMO2 JV, as applicable, making decisions or taking actions that adversely impact our company. Further, our ability to access the cash of the VodafoneZiggo JV or the VMO2 JV, as applicable, pursuant to the dividend policy contained in the Shareholders’ Agreements may be restricted in certain circumstances. The Shareholders’ Agreements also provide for restrictions on the transfer of interests in the VodafoneZiggo JV and the VMO2 JV, as applicable, which could adversely affect our ability to sell our interest in the VodafoneZiggo JV or the VMO2 JV, as applicable, and/or the prices at which our interest may be sold, as well as certain exit arrangements, which could force us to sell our interest. For additional information on the VodafoneZiggo JV or the VMO2 JV and their respective Shareholders’ Agreement, see note 7 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We may have exposure to additional tax liabilities. We are subject to income taxes as well as non-income based taxes, such as value added tax (VAT) in the U.K., the U.S. and many other jurisdictions around the world. In addition, most tax jurisdictions that we operate in have complex and subjective rules regarding the valuation of intercompany services, cross-border payments between affiliated companies and the related effects on income tax, VAT and transfer tax. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are regularly under audit by tax authorities in many of the jurisdictions in which we operate. These audits may lead to disputes with tax authorities which may result in litigation. Although we believe that our tax estimates are reasonable, any material differences as a result of final determinations of tax audits or tax disputes could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations in the period or periods for which such determination is made.

We are subject to changing tax laws, treaties and regulations in and between countries in which we operate, including treaties between and among the U.K., the U.S. and many other jurisdictions in which we have a presence. Also, various income tax proposals in the jurisdictions in which we operate could result in changes to the existing laws on which our deferred taxes are calculated. A change in these tax laws, treaties or regulations, or in the interpretation thereof, could result in a materially higher income or non-income tax expense, and any such material changes could cause a material change in our effective tax rate. In this regard, there have been significant changes or proposed changes to the tax laws in numerous jurisdictions in which we operate, the impacts of which have been reflected accordingly in our financial statements.   

Further changes in the tax laws of the foreign jurisdictions in which we operate could arise as a result of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project undertaken by the Organizational Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The

OECD represents a coalition of member countries that encompass most of the jurisdictions in which we operate. In October 2021, the OECD announced the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (the Framework), which agreed to a two-pillar solution to reform international taxation. Pillar One provides a mechanism to align taxing rights more closely with local market engagement; generally, where people or consumers are located. Pillar Two establishes a global minimum tax regime through a series of interlocking rules that would apply when a country’s income tax rate is below 15%. The Framework targets a 2023 effective date for most aspects of both pillars, with OECD and G2 members enacting laws consistent with Pillar Two in 2022. It is possible that jurisdictions in which we do business could react to the BEPS initiatives or their own concerns by enacting tax legislation that could adversely affect our financial position through increasing our tax liabilities. Further, the BEPS project as well as legislative changes in many countries, has resulted in various initiatives that require the sharing of company financial and operation information with taxing authorities on a local or global basis. This may lead to greater audit scrutiny of profits earned in other countries as well as disagreements between jurisdictions associated with the proper allocation of profits between jurisdictions.

The “Virgin” brand is used by certain of our consolidated and non-consolidated subsidiaries under licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited and is not under the control of such subsidiaries. The activities of the group of companies utilizing the “Virgin” brand and other licensees could have a material adverse effect on the goodwill of customers towards our business as a licensee and the licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited can be terminated in certain circumstances. The “Virgin” brand is integral to the corporate identity of our consolidated and non-consolidated subsidiaries that utilize such brand. Such subsidiaries are reliant on the general goodwill of consumers towards the Virgin brand. Consequently, adverse publicity in relation to the group of companies utilizing the “Virgin” brand or its principals, particularly Sir Richard Branson, who is closely associated with the brand, or in relation to another licensee of the “Virgin” name and logo (particularly in the U.K., where the VMO2 JV does business) could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and our business and results of operations. In addition, the licenses from Virgin Enterprises Limited can be terminated in certain circumstances. For example, Virgin Enterprises Limited can terminate the licenses, after providing our applicable subsidiaries with an opportunity to cure, (1) if they or any of their affiliates commit persistent and material breaches or flagrant and material breaches of the licenses, (2) if Virgin Enterprises Limited has reasonable grounds to believe that the use (or lack of use) of the licensed trademarks by such subsidiaries has been or is likely to result in a long-term and material diminution in the value of the “Virgin” brand, or (3) if a third-party who is not (or one of whose directors is not) a “fit and proper person”, such as a legally disqualified director or a bankrupt entity, acquires “control” of Liberty Global. Such a termination could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Factors Relating to Certain Financial Matters

Our substantial leverage could limit our ability to obtain additional financing and have other adverse effects. We seek to maintain our debt at levels that provide for attractive equity returns without assuming undue risk. In this regard, we generally seek to cause our operating subsidiaries to maintain their debt at levels that result in a consolidated debt balance that is between four and five times our consolidated Adjusted EBITDA. As a result, we are highly leveraged. At December 31, 2021, the outstanding principal amount of our consolidated debt, together with our finance lease obligations aggregated $14.9 billion, including $0.9 billion that is classified as current on our consolidated balance sheet and $13.7 billion that is not due until 2027 or thereafter. We believe that we have sufficient resources to repay or refinance the current portion of our debt and finance lease obligations and to fund our foreseeable liquidity requirements during the next 12 months. However, as our maturing debt grows in later years, we anticipate that we will seek to refinance or otherwise extend our debt maturities. In this regard, we completed refinancing transactions during 2021 that, among other things, resulted in the extension of certain of our subsidiaries’ debt maturities. No assurance can be given that we will be able to complete these refinancing transactions or otherwise extend our debt maturities. In this regard, it is not possible to predict how political and economic conditions, sovereign debt concerns or any adverse regulatory developments could impact the credit and equity markets we access and, accordingly, our future liquidity and financial position.

Our ability to service or refinance our debt and to maintain compliance with the leverage covenants in the credit agreements and indentures of our borrowing groups is dependent primarily on our ability to maintain or increase the Adjusted EBITDA of our operating subsidiaries and to achieve adequate returns on our property and equipment additions and acquisitions. In addition, our ability to obtain additional debt financing is limited by the incurrence-based leverage covenants contained in the various debt instruments of our borrowing groups. For example, if the Adjusted EBITDA of one of our borrowing groups were to decline, our ability to obtain additional debt could be limited. Accordingly, if our cash provided by operations declines or we encounter other material liquidity requirements, we may be required to seek additional debt or equity financing in order to meet our debt obligations and other liquidity requirements as they come due. In addition, our current debt levels may limit our ability to incur additional debt financing to fund working capital needs, acquisitions, property and equipment additions, or other general corporate requirements. We can give no assurance that any additional debt or equity financing will be available on terms that are as favorable as the terms of our existing debt or at all. Further, our board of

directors has approved share repurchase programs for Liberty Global. Any cash used by our company in connection with any future repurchases of our ordinary shares would not be available for other purposes, including the repayment of debt. For additional information concerning our share repurchase programs, see note 14 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to various debt instruments that contain restrictions on how we finance our operations and operate our businesses, which could impede our ability to engage in beneficial transactions. Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to significant financial and operating restrictions contained in outstanding credit agreements, indentures and similar instruments of indebtedness. These restrictions will affect, and in some cases significantly limit or prohibit, among other things, the ability of those subsidiaries to:

incur or guarantee additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or make other upstream distributions;
make investments;
transfer, sell or dispose of certain assets, including subsidiary stock;
merge or consolidate with other entities;
engage in transactions with us or other affiliates; or
create liens on their assets. 
As a result of restrictions contained in these debt instruments, the companies party thereto, and their subsidiaries, could be unable to obtain additional capital in the future to:
fund property and equipment additions or acquisitions that could improve their value;
meet their loan and capital commitments to their business affiliates;
invest in companies in which they would otherwise invest;
fund any operating losses or future development of their business affiliates;
obtain lower borrowing costs that are available from secured lenders or engage in advantageous transactions that monetize their assets; or
conduct other necessary or prudent corporate activities. 

In addition, most of the credit agreements to which these subsidiaries are parties include financial covenants that require them, in certain circumstances, to maintain certain leverage ratios if the drawings under the applicable revolving credit facility exceed a certain percentage of the commitments under such revolving credit facility. Their ability to meet these financial covenants may be affected by adverse economic, competitive, or regulatory developments and other events beyond their control, and we cannot assure you that these financial covenants will be met. In the event of a default under such subsidiaries’ credit agreements or indentures, the lenders or bondholders, as applicable, may accelerate the maturity of the indebtedness under those agreements or indentures, which could result in a default under other outstanding credit facilities or indentures. We cannot assure you that any of these subsidiaries will have sufficient assets to repay indebtedness outstanding under their credit agreements and indentures. Any refinancing of this indebtedness is likely to contain similar restrictive covenants.

We are exposed to interest rate risks. Shifts in such rates may adversely affect the debt service obligation of our subsidiaries. We are exposed to the risk of fluctuations in interest rates, primarily through the credit facilities of certain of our subsidiaries, which are indexed to EURIBOR, LIBOR or other base rates. Although we enter into various derivative transactions to manage exposure to movements in interest rates, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to do so at a reasonable cost or at all. If we are unable to effectively manage our interest rate exposure through derivative transactions, any increase in market interest rates would increase our interest rate exposure and debt service obligations, which would exacerbate the risks associated with our leveraged capital structure.

In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced that it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Additionally, the European Money Markets Institute (the authority that administers EURIBOR) announced that measures would need to be undertaken by the end of 2021 to reform EURIBOR to ensure compliance with the E.U. Benchmarks Regulation. In November 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration

(the entity that administers LIBOR) announced its intention to continue publishing USD LIBOR rates until June 30, 2023, with the exception of the one-week and two-month rates which, along with all CHF and GBP LIBOR rates, it ceased to publish after December 31, 2021. While this extension allows additional runway on existing contracts using USD LIBOR rates, companies are still encouraged to transition away from using USD LIBOR as soon as practicable and should not enter into new contracts that use USD LIBOR after 2021. The methodology for EURIBOR has been reformed and EURIBOR has been granted regulatory approval to continue to be used. Currently, there is no consensus amongst loan borrowers and investors for what rate(s) should replace USD LIBOR.

In October 2020, the International Swaps and Derivatives Association (the ISDA) launched the Fallback Supplement, which, as of January 25, 2021, amended the standard definitions for interest rate derivatives to incorporate fallbacks for derivatives linked to certain key interbank offered rates (IBORs). The ISDA also launched the Fallback Protocol, a protocol that enables market participants to incorporate these revisions into their legacy non-cleared derivatives with other counterparties that choose to adhere to the protocol. The fallbacks for a particular currency apply following a permanent cessation of the IBOR in that currency, or in the case of a LIBOR setting, that LIBOR setting becoming permanently unrepresentative, and are adjusted versions of the risk-free rates identified in each currency. Our credit agreements contain provisions that contemplate alternative calculations of the base rate applicable to our LIBOR-indexed and EURIBOR-indexed debt to the extent LIBOR or EURIBOR (as applicable) are not available, which alternative calculations we do not anticipate will be materially different from what would have been calculated under LIBOR or EURIBOR (as applicable). Additionally, no mandatory prepayment or redemption provisions would be triggered under our credit agreements in the event that either the LIBOR rate or the EURIBOR rate is not available. It is possible, however, that any new reference rate that applies to our LIBOR-indexed or EURIBOR-indexed debt could be different from any new reference rate that applies to our LIBOR-indexed or EURIBOR-indexed derivative instruments. For discontinued currencies and tenors, we expect to continue taking steps to mitigate the changes in these benchmark rates, including by amending existing credit agreements and adhering to the Fallback Protocol, where appropriate. We plan to continue to manage this difference and any resulting increased variable-rate exposure through modifications to our debt and/or derivative instruments, however future market conditions may not allow immediate implementation of desired modifications and our subsidiaries may incur significant associated costs.

We are subject to increasing operating costs and inflation risks, which may adversely affect our results of operations. While our operations attempt to increase our subscription rates to offset increases in programming and operating costs, there is no assurance that they will be able to do so. In certain countries in which we operate, our ability to increase subscription rates is subject to regulatory controls. Also, our ability to increase subscription rates may be constrained by competitive pressures. Therefore, programming and operating costs may rise faster than associated revenue, resulting in a material negative impact on our cash flow and net earnings (loss). We are also impacted by inflationary increases in salaries, wages, benefits and other administrative costs in certain of our markets. In this regard, inflation rates in the countries in which we operate have recently increased, and in many countries, such increases have been significant.

Continuing uncertainties and challenging conditions in the global economy and in the countries in which we operate may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The current macroeconomic environment is highly volatile, and continuing instability in global markets, including ongoing trade negotiations, uncertainty over inflation and energy price fluctuations, have contributed to a challenging global economic environment. Future developments are dependent upon a number of political and economic factors, including the additional borrowing incurred by countries since the start of the pandemic and the potential for low growth expectations as social restrictions are lifted. As a result, we cannot predict how long challenging conditions will exist or the extent to which the markets in which we operate may deteriorate. Additional risks arising from the ongoing economic challenges in Europe are described below under the Risk Factor titled: We are exposed to sovereign debt and currency instability risks that could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, financial condition and cash flows.

Unfavorable economic conditions may impact a significant number of our subscribers and/or the prices we are able to charge for our products and services, and, as a result, it may be (1) more difficult for us to attract new subscribers, (2) more likely that subscribers will downgrade or disconnect their services and (3) more difficult for us to maintain ARPUs at existing levels. Countries may also seek new or increased revenue sources due to fiscal deficits. Such actions may further adversely affect our company. Accordingly, our ability to increase, or, in certain cases, maintain, the revenue, ARPUs, RGUs, mobile subscribers, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margins and liquidity of our operating segments could be adversely affected if the macroeconomic environment remains uncertain or declines further. We are currently unable to predict the extent of any of these potential adverse effects.

We are exposed to sovereign debt and currency instability risks that could have an adverse impact on our liquidity, financial condition and cash flows. Our operations are subject to macroeconomic and political risks that are outside of our control. For example, high levels of sovereign debt in the U.S. and several countries in which we or our affiliates operate,

combined with structural changes arising from the pandemic, could potentially lead to fiscal reforms (including austerity measures), tax increases, sovereign debt restructurings, high corporate default rates, currency instability, increased counterparty credit risk, high levels of volatility and disruptions in the credit and equity markets, as well as other outcomes that might adversely impact our company. With regard to currency instability issues, concerns exist in the eurozone with respect to individual macro-fundamentals on a country-by-country basis, as well as with respect to the overall stability of the European monetary union and the suitability of a single currency to appropriately deal with specific fiscal management and sovereign debt issues in individual eurozone countries. The realization of these concerns could lead to the exit of one or more countries from the European monetary union and the re-introduction of individual currencies in these countries, or, in more extreme circumstances, the possible dissolution of the European monetary union entirely, which could result in the redenomination of a portion or, in the extreme case, all of our euro-denominated assets, liabilities and cash flows to the new currency of the country in which they originated. This could result in a mismatch in the currencies of our assets, liabilities and cash flows. Any such mismatch, together with the capital market disruption that would likely accompany any such redenomination event, could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and financial condition. Furthermore, any redenomination event would likely be accompanied by significant economic dislocation, particularly within the eurozone countries, which in turn could have an adverse impact on demand for our products and services, and accordingly, on our revenue and cash flows. Moreover, any changes from euro to non-euro currencies within the countries in which we operate would require us to modify our billing and other financial systems. No assurance can be given that any required modifications could be made within a time frame that would allow us to timely bill our customers or prepare and file required financial reports. In light of the significant exposure that we have to the euro through our euro-denominated borrowings, derivative instruments, cash balances and cash flows, a redenomination event could have a material adverse impact on our company.

We may not freely access the cash of our operating companies. Our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. Our current sources of corporate liquidity include (1) our cash and cash equivalents, (2) investments held within separately managed accounts, and (3) interest and dividend income received on our cash and cash equivalents and investments. From time to time, we also receive (1) proceeds in the form of distributions or loan repayments from our subsidiaries or affiliates, (2) proceeds upon the disposition of investments and other assets and (3) proceeds in connection with the incurrence of debt or the issuance of equity securities. The ability of our operating subsidiaries to pay dividends or to make other payments or advances to us depends on their individual operating results and any statutory, regulatory or contractual restrictions to which they may be or may become subject and in some cases our receipt of such payments or advances may be limited due to tax considerations or the presence of noncontrolling interests. Most of our operating subsidiaries are subject to credit agreements or indentures that restrict sales of assets and prohibit or limit the payment of dividends or the making of distributions, loans or advances to shareholders and partners, including us. In addition, because these subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities they have no obligation to provide us funds for payment obligations, whether by dividends, distributions, loans or other payments.

We are exposed to the risk of default by the counterparties to our cash and short-term investments, derivative and other financial instruments, and undrawn debt facilities. Although we seek to manage the credit risks associated with our cash and short-term investments, derivative and other financial instruments, and undrawn debt facilities, we are exposed to the risk that our counterparties will default on their obligations to us. While we regularly review our credit exposures and currently have no specific concerns about the creditworthiness of any counterparty for which we have material credit risk exposures, we cannot rule out the possibility that one or more of our counterparties could fail or otherwise be unable to meet its obligations to us. Any such instance of default or failure could have an adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations, financial condition and/or liquidity. In this regard, (1) we may incur losses to the extent that we are unable to recover debts owed to us, including cash deposited and the value of financial losses, (2) we may incur significant costs to recover amounts owed to us, and such recovery may take a long period of time or may not be possible at all, (3) our derivative liabilities may be accelerated by the default of our counterparty, (4) we may be exposed to financial risks as a result of the termination of affected derivative contracts, and it may be costly or impossible to replace such contracts or otherwise mitigate such risks, (5) amounts available under committed credit facilities may be reduced and (6) disruption to the credit markets could adversely impact our ability to access debt financing on favorable terms, or at all.

At December 31, 2021, our exposure to counterparty credit risk included (1) derivative assets with an aggregate fair value of $57.8 million, (2) cash and cash equivalent and restricted cash balances of $917.3 million and (3) aggregate undrawn debt facilities of $1,560.3 million. For additional information on our derivative contracts, see note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

We may not report net earnings. We reported earnings (loss) from continuing operations of $13,527.5 million, ($1,525.1 million) and ($1,475.9 million) during 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In light of our historical financial performance, we cannot assure you that we will report net earnings in the near future.

Other Factors

We have not historically paid any cash dividends, and we may not pay dividends equally or at all on any class of our ordinary shares. We do not presently intend to pay cash dividends on any class of our ordinary shares for the foreseeable future. However, we have the right to pay dividends, effect securities distributions or make bonus issues on Liberty Global Shares. In addition, any dividends or distributions on, or repurchases of Liberty Global Shares will reduce our “distributable reserves” (defined as our accumulated, realized profits less accumulated, realized losses, as measured for U.K. statutory purposes) legally available to be paid as dividends by our company under English law on any of our ordinary shares.

The loss of certain key personnel could harm our business. We have experienced employees at both the corporate and operational levels who possess substantial knowledge of our business and operations. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in retaining their services or that we would be successful in hiring and training suitable replacements without undue costs or delays. As a result, the loss of any of these key employees could cause significant disruptions in our business operations, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.

John C. Malone has significant voting power with respect to corporate matters considered by our shareholders. John C. Malone beneficially owns outstanding ordinary shares of Liberty Global representing 30.48% of our aggregate voting power as of February 11, 2022. By virtue of Mr. Malone’s voting power in our company, as well as his position as Chairman of our board of directors, Mr. Malone may have significant influence over the outcome of any corporate transaction or other matters submitted to our shareholders for approval. For example, under English law and our articles of association, certain matters (including amendments to the articles of association) require the approval of 75% of the shareholders who vote (in person or by proxy) on the relevant resolution, and other certain corporate transactions or matters may require the approval of at least 75% of the outstanding shares of each class of our ordinary shares. Because Mr. Malone beneficially owns approximately 30.48% of our aggregate voting power and almost 70% of the outstanding Class B ordinary shares of Liberty Global, he has the ability to prevent the requisite approval threshold from being met even though the other shareholders may determine that such action or transaction is beneficial for the company. Mr. Malone’s rights to vote or dispose of his equity interests in our company are not subject to any restrictions in favor of us other than as may be required by applicable law and except for customary transfer restrictions pursuant to equity award agreements.

It may be difficult for a third-party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our shareholders. Certain provisions of our articles of association and of English law may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company that a shareholder may consider favorable. These provisions include the following:

authorizing a capital structure with multiple classes of ordinary shares; a Class B that entitles the holders to 10 votes per share; a Class A that entitles the holders to one vote per share; and a Class C that, except as otherwise required by applicable law, entitles the holders to no voting rights;
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” shares (both ordinary and preference), which could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
classifying our board of directors with staggered three-year terms, which may lengthen the time required to gain control of our board of directors, although under English law, shareholders of our company can remove a director without cause by ordinary resolution;
prohibiting shareholder action by written resolution, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the shareholders;
requiring the approval of 75% in value of the shareholders (or class of shareholders) and/or English court approval for certain statutory mergers or schemes of arrangements; and
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings. 

Change in control provisions in our incentive plans and related award agreements or in executive employment agreements may also discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if such change of control would be in the best interests of our shareholders.


The enforcement of civil liabilities against us may be more difficult. Because we are a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, investors could experience more difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us in U.S. courts than would currently be the case for U.S. judgments obtained against a U.S. company. It may also be more difficult (or impossible) to bring some types of claims against us in courts sitting in England than it would be to bring similar claims against a U.S. company in a U.S. court. In particular, English law significantly limits the circumstances under which shareholders of English companies may bring derivative actions. Under English law generally, only the company can be the proper plaintiff in proceedings in respect of wrongful acts committed against us. Our articles of association provide for the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts for shareholder lawsuits against us or our directors.

We are exposed to the risks arising from widespread epidemic diseases in the countries in which we operate, such as the outbreak of COVID-19, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The COVID-19 pandemic and the emergency measures imposed by governments worldwide, including travel restrictions, restrictions on social activity and the shutdown of non-essential businesses have adversely impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. While it is not currently possible to estimate the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic or the adverse economic impact resulting from the preventative measures taken to contain or mitigate its outbreak, an extended period of global economic disruption could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations in future periods. We may also be adversely impacted by any government mandated regulations on our business that could be implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, countries may seek new or increased revenue sources due to fiscal deficits that result from measures taken to mitigate the adverse economic impacts of COVID-19, such as by imposing new taxes on the products and services we provide. We are currently unable to predict the extent of any of these potential adverse effects.


We lease our corporate offices in London, U.K., in Denver, Colorado, U.S. and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. All of our other real or personal property is owned or leased by our subsidiaries and affiliates.

Our subsidiaries and affiliates own or lease the fixed assets necessary for the operation of their respective businesses, including office space, transponder space, headend facilities, rights of way, cable television and telecommunications distribution equipment, telecommunications switches, base stations, cell towers and customer premises equipment and other property necessary for their operations. The physical components of their broadband networks require maintenance and periodic upgrades to support the new services and products they introduce. Subject to these maintenance and upgrade activities, our management believes that our current facilities are suitable and adequate for our business operations for the foreseeable future.

From time to time, our subsidiaries and affiliates have become involved in litigation relating to claims arising out of their operations in the normal course of business. For additional information, see note 18 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


Not applicable.





The capitalized terms used in Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K are defined in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. In the following text, the terms “we,” “our,” “our company” and “us” may refer, as the context requires, to Liberty Global or collectively to Liberty Global and its subsidiaries.

Market Information

Our share capital comprises Liberty Global Class A, Class B and Class C ordinary shares, which trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbols “LBTYA,” “LBTYB,” and “LBTYK,” respectively. Share price information for securities traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market can be found on the Nasdaq’s website at www.nasdaq.com.

The following table sets forth the quarterly range of high and low sales prices of Liberty Global Class B ordinary shares for 2021 and 2020. Although Liberty Global Class B ordinary shares are traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, an established public trading market does not exist for the shares, as they are not actively traded.
 Liberty Global Class B ordinary shares
First quarter$36.11 $22.58 
Second quarter$38.89 $25.00 
Third quarter$31.00 $26.15 
Fourth quarter$30.85 $26.76 
First quarter$21.94 $15.98 
Second quarter$58.31 $16.52 
Third quarter$25.70 $20.60 
Fourth quarter$26.10 $19.51 


As of January 31, 2022, there were 1,199, six and 1,368 record holders of Liberty Global Class A, Class B and Class C ordinary shares, respectively. These amounts do not include the number of shareholders whose shares are nominally held by banks, brokerage houses or other institutions, but include each such institution as one record holder.


We have not paid any cash dividends on any of our ordinary shares, and we have no present intention of doing so. Any future payment of cash dividends will be determined by our board of directors in light of our earnings, financial condition and other relevant considerations, including applicable laws in England and Wales.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities



Issuer Purchase of Equity Securities

The following table sets forth information regarding our company’s purchase of its own equity securities during the three months ended December 31, 2021:
PeriodTotal number 
of shares 
paid per 
share (a)
Total number
of shares purchased as  part of publicly-announced plans or programs
Value of shares that may yet be repurchased under the plans or programs
October 1, 2021 through October 31, 2021:
Class A— — — (b)
Class C3,734,300 29.60 3,734,300 (b)
November 1, 2021 through November 30, 2021:
Class A— — — (b)
Class C4,532,300 28.63 4,532,300 (b)
December 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021:
Class A2,600,000 27.75 2,600,000 (b)
Class C8,636,748 28.02 8,636,748 (b)
Total — October 1, 2021 through December 31, 2021:
Class A2,600,000 27.75 2,600,000 (b)
Class C16,903,348 28.54 16,903,348 (b)

(a)Average price paid per share includes direct acquisition costs.

(b)Under our current repurchase program that was approved in July 2021, we are authorized during 2022 to repurchase 10% of our total outstanding shares as of the beginning of the year, or 52.75 million shares. Based on the respective closing share prices as of December 31, 2021, this would equate to total share repurchases of approximately $1.5 billion. However, the actual U.S. dollar amount of our share repurchases during 2022 will be determined by the actual transaction date share prices during the year and could differ significantly from this amount. In addition, we are authorized during 2023 to repurchase 10% of our total outstanding shares as of January 1, 2023. Our previous share repurchase program, which authorized our share repurchases during 2021, was completed and expired at the end of 2021.


Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the changes in the cumulative total shareholder return on our Liberty Global Class A, Class B and Class C ordinary shares from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2021, to the change in the cumulative total return on the ICB 6500 Telecommunications and the Nasdaq US Benchmark TR Index (assuming reinvestment of dividends, where applicable). The graph assumes that $100 was invested on January 1, 2017.