S-3 1 d893814ds3.htm S-3 S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 26, 2020

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   45-0834299

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Jennifer L. Good

President and Chief Executive Officer

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copy to:

 

Stuart M. Falber, Esq.

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

60 State Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02109

(617) 526-6000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐


Table of Contents

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate
Offering Price(1)

  Amount of
Registration Fee

Debt Securities

               

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               

Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share

               

Units(2)

               

Warrants

               

Total

          $150,000,000   $19,470

 

 

(1)

Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D, this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities. In addition, the proposed maximum aggregate offering price is estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(2)

Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will be comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this registration statement, in any combination.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $150,000,000 of the Registrant’s debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, units and warrants; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the Registrant of up to $12,000,000 of shares of the Registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement between the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, any portion of the $12,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a prospectus supplement, and if no shares of common stock are sold pursuant to the sales agreement, the full $12,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a prospectus supplement.


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 26, 2020

PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

As of June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $36,516,841, which we calculated based on 17,843,639 shares of outstanding common stock as of June 25, 2020, of which 6,296,007 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price per share of $5.80 as of June 25, 2020, which is a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 2 of this prospectus and the risk factors set forth in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     4  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus and “Information Incorporated by Reference” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus and such accompanying prospectus supplement, or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

-1-


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

-2-


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.     

 

-3-


Table of Contents

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed on March 16, 2020, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed on May 7, 2020;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 6, 2020, February 18, 2020, and June 17, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 29, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

-4-


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” “could,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our ongoing clinical trials;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis or for other serious neurologically mediated conditions;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials, completion of enrollment of such trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for, and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, nalbuphine ER;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash and cash equivalents;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position; and

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or obtain additional funding.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

-5-


Table of Contents

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of nalbuphine ER to treat serious neurologically mediated conditions. We are developing nalbuphine ER for the treatment of chronic pruritus, chronic cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. These conditions share a common pathophysiology that is mediated through opioid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Due to nalbuphine’s mechanism of action as a modulator of opioid receptors, we believe nalbuphine ER has the potential to be effective in treating each of these conditions. Our ongoing clinical trials of nalbuphine ER include a Phase 2b/3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRISM trial, in patients with severe pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website address is www.trevitherapeutics.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

 

-6-


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, the acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. However, as of the date of this prospectus, we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any material acquisitions or investments. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds from sales of securities hereunder in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

-7-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to any subordinated debt securities the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the initial aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

-8-


Table of Contents
   

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the method of determination of such dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be subject to the defeasance provisions in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

any special tax implications of the debt securities;

 

   

any events of defaults or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

-9-


Table of Contents

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust;

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

we have delivered to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

-10-


Table of Contents

Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

-11-


Table of Contents

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all senior debt securities of such series (with certain limited exceptions) when due and payable; or

 

   

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture (with certain limited exceptions); or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the senior trustee) and we deposit in trust an amount of cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) sufficient to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or

 

-12-


Table of Contents

bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

-13-


Table of Contents

Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”);

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the senior indenture in respect of one or more series of senior debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (a) neither (1) apply to any senior debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (2) modify the rights of the holder of any such senior debt security with respect to such provision or (b) become effective only when there is no senior debt security described in clause (a)(1) outstanding;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate, or extends the time for payment of, interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

-14-


Table of Contents
   

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives a continuing default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification;

 

   

adversely affects the right to convert or exchange senior debt securities into common stock or other property in accordance with the terms of the senior debt securities; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two

 

-15-


Table of Contents

years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

-16-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation, or the certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws, or the by-laws, and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

Common Stock

Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority in voting power of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by the board of directors and shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary upon the written request, stating the purpose of such meeting, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections shall be decided by a plurality, and all other questions shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

Voting Rights. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders. The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights.

Dividends. Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Other Rights. Holders of the common stock have no right to:

 

   

convert the stock into any other security;

 

   

have the stock redeemed;

 

   

purchase additional stock; or

 

   

maintain their proportionate ownership interest.

Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

 

-17-


Table of Contents

Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

-18-


Table of Contents
   

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

 

-19-


Table of Contents

Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

-20-


Table of Contents
   

the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Exchange Listing. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Board of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide for a board of directors divided as nearly equally as possible into three classes. Each class is elected to a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of such election. The number of directors comprising our board of directors is fixed from time to time by the board of directors.

Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Delaware law provides that members of our board of directors may only be removed for cause by a vote of the holders of 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the election of the directors.

Stockholder Nomination of Directors. Our by-laws provide that a stockholder must notify us in writing of any stockholder nomination of a director not more than 120 days and not less than 90 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced

 

-21-


Table of Contents

or delayed by more than 30 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to the date of such meeting and (y) the 10th day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever occurs first.

No Action By Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent and may only act at duly called meetings of stockholders.

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Exclusive Forum Selection. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware)shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Neither of these choice of forum provisions would affect suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, jurisdiction over which is exclusively vested by statute in the United States federal courts, or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable for a particular claim or action.

Registration Rights

We are party to a second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which we refer to as the investors’ rights agreement, under which holders of a total of 10,325,257 shares of our common stock have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances. We refer to the shares with these registration rights as registrable securities. After registration pursuant to these rights, the registrable securities will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. In addition, in connection with a private placement to New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, in May 2019, we granted NEA the right to require us to register under the Securities Act under specified circumstances the shares to NEA in such private placement, and upon such registration, such shares would become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

 

-22-


Table of Contents

Demand and Form S-3 Registration Rights. Subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time, the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities may demand that we register registrable securities then outstanding under the Securities Act for purposes of a public offering having an aggregate offering price to the public of not less than $10.0 million, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions. In addition, subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time when we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, holders of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we register their registrable securities on Form S-3 for purposes of a public offering for which the reasonably anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions, would exceed $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions in any 12-month period.

Incidental Registration Rights. If we propose to register for our own account or for the account of our other stockholders any of our common stock under the Securities Act, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and, subject to specified exceptions, have the right to require us to register all or a portion of the registrable securities then held by them in that registration. In the event that any registration in which the holders of registrable securities participate pursuant to our investors’ rights agreement is an underwritten public offering, we have agreed to enter into an underwriting agreement in usual and customary form and use our commercially reasonable efforts to facilitate such offering.

Expenses and Indemnification. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including all registration and filing fees, exchange listing fees, printing expenses, fees and expenses of one counsel selected by the selling stockholders to represent the selling stockholders, state Blue Sky fees and expenses, and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration, but excluding underwriting discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and the fees and expenses of the selling stockholders’ own counsel (other than the counsel selected to represent all selling stockholders). The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or alleged material misstatements or material omissions or alleged material omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, or any violation or alleged violation, whether by action or inaction, by us under the Securities Act; the Exchange Act; any state securities or Blue Sky law or any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any state securities or Blue Sky law in connection with such registration statement or the qualification or compliance of the offering, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

 

-23-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

the name and address of any unit agent for any units we offer;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

-24-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

-25-


Table of Contents

FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take

 

-26-


Table of Contents

under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

-27-


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this prospectus in “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offerings may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale.

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters or placement agents acting as principal or agent.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

 

-28-


Table of Contents

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

 

-29-


Table of Contents

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

-30-


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

-31-


Table of Contents

 

 

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

$150,000,000

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

                    , 2020

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement related to these securities filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 26, 2020

PROSPECTUS

Up to $12,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, dated June 26, 2020, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 from time to time through SVB Leerink, acting as our agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI”. On June 25, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market was $5.80 per share.

As of June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $36,516,841, which we calculated based on 17,843,639 shares of outstanding common stock as of June 25, 2020, of which 6,296,007 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price per share of $5.80 as of June 25, 2020, which is a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. SVB Leerink is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock but will act as our sales agent and use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market to sell on our behalf the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, on mutually agreed terms between SVB Leerink and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation payable to SVB Leerink for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sale of any shares of common stock under the Sales Agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-15 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to SVB Leerink. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, SVB Leerink will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to SVB Leerink will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA-5 of this prospectus and the risk factors in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase our common stock.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

SVB Leerink

The date of this prospectus is                 , 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sales Agreement Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     SA-1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     SA-3  

RISK FACTORS

     SA-5  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     SA-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     SA-8  

DILUTION

     SA-9  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     SA-11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     SA-15  

LEGAL MATTERS

     SA-17  

EXPERTS

     SA-17  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     SA-18  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     SA-19  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC or the Commission, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, all of the information contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus contains or incorporates by reference summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but all such summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been or will be filed or have been or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described in this prospectus under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

This prospectus describes the specific terms of the common stock we are offering and also adds to, and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. Neither we nor SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering and to which we have referred you. We and SVB Leerink take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

 

SA-1


Table of Contents

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or SVB Leerink that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

SA-2


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock, and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus, any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read all such documents carefully, and you should pay special attention to the information contained under the caption entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, in any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and in our other reports filed from time to time with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding to buy shares of our common stock.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of nalbuphine ER to treat serious neurologically mediated conditions. We are developing nalbuphine ER for the treatment of chronic pruritus, chronic cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. These conditions share a common pathophysiology that is mediated through opioid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Due to nalbuphine’s mechanism of action as a modulator of opioid receptors, we believe nalbuphine ER has the potential to be effective in treating each of these conditions. Our ongoing clinical trials of nalbuphine ER include a Phase 2b/3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRISM trial, in patients with severe pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis. If successful, we expect that we will use the PRISM trial and an additional Phase 3 clinical trial that we plan to conduct to support the submission of a new drug application to the United States Food and Drug Administration and a marketing authorization application to the European Medicines Agency for nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website is located at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

Information concerning our business and our prospects is included in the documents that we file with the SEC as a reporting company under the Exchange Act, which are accessible at www.sec.gov, and on our website.



 

SA-3


Table of Contents

THE OFFERING

 

Common Stock Offered by Us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000.

 

Common Stock to Be Outstanding After This Offering

Up to 19,903,535 shares, assuming sales of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock in this offering at a price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Manner of Offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, SVB Leerink. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA-15.

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the clinical development of nalbuphine ER and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus beginning on page SA-5 as well as those risk factors that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Market Symbol

“TRVI.”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 17,834,570 shares of our common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2020. The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

   

2,205,535 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.03 per share;

 

   

1,131,554 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan; and

 

   

333,451 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.



 

SA-4


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below and those discussed under the caption entitled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, and any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference herein, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses, and these financial losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

It is not possible to predict the aggregate proceeds resulting from sales made under the Sales Agreement.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement, and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to SVB Leerink at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold through SVB Leerink after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on a number of factors, including the market price of our common stock during the sales period, any limits we may set with SVB Leerink in any applicable placement notice and the demand for our common stock. Because the price per share of each share sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will fluctuate over time, it is not currently possible to predict the aggregate proceeds to be raised in connection with sales under the sales agreement.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and accordingly may experience different levels of dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand and the terms of the Sales Agreement, to vary the timing, prices and number of shares sold in this offering. In addition, subject to the final determination by our board of directors or any restrictions we may place in any applicable placement notice, there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase in this offering as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you may incur immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of your shares.

The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, the expected offering price of our common stock may be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may pay a price per share that exceeds our as adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock. Assuming that

 

SA-5


Table of Contents

an aggregate of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $12,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $2.88 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. To the extent outstanding options are exercised, you will experience further dilution. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you may also experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

To raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements that we may enter into may preclude us from paying dividends without the lenders’ consent or at all. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of our common stock intend to sell shares of our common stock, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Our executive officers and directors and their affiliates and our significant stockholders hold a significant number of shares of our common stock. If such persons sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. Moreover, holders of a substantial number of shares of our common stock have rights, subject to specified conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders.

 

SA-6


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” “could,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our clinical trials, business and operations;

 

   

our ongoing clinical trials, including our Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial of nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis or for other serious neurologically mediated conditions;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials, completion of enrollment of such trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for, and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, nalbuphine ER;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash and cash equivalents;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or obtain additional funding; and

 

   

our intended use of proceeds from this offering.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

SA-7


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $12,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual public offering amount, commissions to SVB Leerink and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under the Sales Agreement.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the clinical development of nalbuphine ER and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

The amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds from the sale of securities in this offering, if any, will depend on a number of factors, including the progress of our clinical development of nalbuphine ER, the status of and results from our clinical trials, including our ongoing PRISM trial as well as the additional Phase 3 clinical trial we will need to conduct for nalbuphine ER for pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis, the timing of regulatory submissions and the outcome of regulatory review, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties and any unforeseen cash needs. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us, if any, from this offering. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.

 

SA-8


Table of Contents

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering.

We calculate net tangible book value per share of our common stock by dividing net tangible book value, which we calculate as our total assets less our total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution as presented below represents the difference between the assumed price per share paid by purchasers of shares of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after giving effect to this offering. Our historical net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 was approximately $46.8 million, or $2.62 per share of our common stock.

After giving effect to the assumed sale by us of shares of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been $58.2, or $2.92 per share of our common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the as adjusted net tangible book value of $0.30 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of $2.88 per share to new investors participating in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 5.80  

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ 2.62     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

   $ 0.30     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

      $ 2.92  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

      $ 2.88  
     

 

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 2,068,965 shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus at an offering price of $5.80 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 25, 2020, for aggregate gross proceeds of $12,000,000. The shares of our common stock sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus.

An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.80 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $2.97 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $3.83 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.80 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $12,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering of $2.86 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.94 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

SA-9


Table of Contents

The above discussion and table are based on 17,834,570 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2020 and excludes the following:

 

   

2,205,535 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020 at a weighted-average exercise price of $6.03 per share;

 

   

1,131,554 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan; and

 

   

333,451 shares of common stock reserved as of March 31, 2020 for future issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

 

SA-10


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation, our by-laws and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of May 31, 2020, 17,834,570 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority in voting power of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by the board of directors and shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary upon the written request, stating the purpose of such meeting, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections shall be decided by a plurality, and all other questions shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

Voting Rights. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders. The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights.

Dividends. Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Other Rights. Holders of the common stock have no right to:

 

   

convert the stock into any other security;

 

   

have the stock redeemed;

 

   

purchase additional stock; or

 

   

maintain their proportionate ownership interest.

Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

 

SA-11


Table of Contents

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

Exchange Listing. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval.

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and By-laws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Board of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide for a board of directors divided as nearly equally as possible into three classes. Each class is elected to a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of such election. The number of directors comprising our board of directors is fixed from time to time by the board of directors.

Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Delaware law provides that members of our board of directors may only be removed for cause by a vote of the holders of 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the election of the directors.

Stockholder Nomination of Directors. Our by-laws provide that a stockholder must notify us in writing of any stockholder nomination of a director not more than 120 days and not less than the 90 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced or delayed by more than 30 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to the date of such meeting and (y) the 10th day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever occurs first.

No Action By Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent and may only act at duly called meetings of stockholders.

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Exclusive Forum Selection. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of

 

SA-12


Table of Contents

the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Neither of these choice of forum provisions would affect suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, jurisdiction over which is exclusively vested by statute in the United States federal courts, or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable for a particular claim or action.

Registration Rights

We are party to a second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which we refer to as the investors’ rights agreement, under which holders of a total of 10,325,257 shares of our common stock have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances. We refer to the shares with these registration rights as registrable securities. After registration pursuant to these rights, the registrable securities will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. In addition, in connection with

a private placement to New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, in May 2019, we granted NEA the right to require us to register under the Securities Act under specified circumstances the shares to NEA in such private placement, and upon such registration, such shares would become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

Demand and Form S-3 Registration Rights. Subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time, the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities may demand that we register registrable securities then outstanding under the Securities Act for purposes of a public offering having an aggregate offering price to the public of not less than $10.0 million, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions. In addition, subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time when we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, holders of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we register their registrable securities on Form S-3 for purposes of a public offering for which the reasonably anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions, would exceed $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions in any 12-month period.

Incidental Registration Rights. If we propose to register for our own account or for the account of our other stockholders any of our common stock under the Securities Act, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and, subject to specified exceptions, have the right to require us to register all or a portion of the registrable securities then held by them in that registration. In the event that any registration in which the holders of registrable securities participate pursuant to our investors’ rights agreement is an underwritten public offering, we have agreed to enter into an underwriting agreement in usual and customary form and use our commercially reasonable efforts to facilitate such offering.

Expenses and Indemnification. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including all registration and filing fees, exchange listing fees, printing expenses, fees and expenses of

 

SA-13


Table of Contents

one counsel selected by the selling stockholders to represent the selling stockholders, state Blue Sky fees and expenses, and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration, but excluding underwriting discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and the fees and expenses of the selling stockholders’ own counsel (other than the counsel selected to represent all selling stockholders). The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or alleged material misstatements or material omissions or alleged material omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, or any violation or alleged violation, whether by action or inaction, by us under the Securities Act; the Exchange Act; any state securities or Blue Sky law or any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any state securities or Blue Sky law in connection with such registration statement or the qualification or compliance of the offering, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

 

SA-14


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, under which we may issue and sell up to $12.0 million of our common stock from time to time through SVB Leerink as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Market, on or through any other existing trading market for the common stock or to or through a market maker.

SVB Leerink will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and SVB Leerink. We will designate the maximum number or amount of common stock to be sold through SVB Leerink on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum number or amount together with SVB Leerink. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, SVB Leerink will use commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct SVB Leerink not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above a minimum price designated by us in any such instruction. SVB Leerink or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party. SVB Leerink and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time. The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will otherwise terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement as provided therein.

The compensation payable to SVB Leerink as sales agent will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink for actual outside legal expenses incurred by SVB Leerink in connection with this offering, including SVB Leerink’s counsel fees in an amount up to $50,000 in connection with the filing of this prospectus, plus an additional amount of up to $15,000 in connection with determining our compliance with the rules and regulations of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Leerink for outside legal expenses in an amount up to $15,000 for each fiscal quarter thereafter during or with respect to which SVB Leerink conducts bring-down due diligence. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110, these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed sales compensation to SVB Leerink in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $250,000.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales of our common stock, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

SVB Leerink will provide written confirmation to us no later than the next succeeding trading day on the Nasdaq Global Market after each day on which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number or amount of shares sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume-weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us from such sales.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through SVB Leerink under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to SVB Leerink in connection with the sales of common stock during the relevant period.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf pursuant to the Sales Agreement, SVB Leerink will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to SVB Leerink will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales

 

SA-15


Table of Contents

Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Leerink with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. As sales agent, SVB Leerink will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “TRVI.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

SVB Leerink and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking, lending and other financial services for us for which services they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

SA-16


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Covington & Burling LLP, New York, New York, is counsel to SVB Leerink in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

SA-17


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC’s website.

 

SA-18


Table of Contents

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed on March 16, 2020, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed on May 7, 2020;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 6, 2020, February 18, 2020, and June 17, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 29, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

SA-19


Table of Contents

 

 

Up to $12,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

SVB Leerink LLC

 

 

                    , 2020

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 19,470  

FINRA filing fee

   $ 23,000  

Printing and engraving

              (1) 

Accounting services

              (1) 

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

              (1) 

Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depositary’s fees and expenses

              (1) 

Miscellaneous

              (1) 

Total

   $   (1) 

 

(1)

These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly are not estimated at this time and will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 102 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of its directors to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his or her duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit. Our certificate of incorporation provides that no director shall be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the DGCL prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation and certain other persons serving at the request of the corporation in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he or she is or is threatened to be made a party by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that we will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of us), by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an Indemnitee), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all


Table of Contents

expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

Our certificate of incorporation also provides that we will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of us to procure a judgment in our favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, our director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at our request as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, and any appeal therefrom, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, our best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to us, unless a court determines that, despite such adjudication but in view of all of the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified by us against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her or on his or her behalf in connection therewith. If we do not assume the defense, expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with all of our directors and executive officers. In general, these agreements provide that we will indemnify the executive officer or director to the fullest extent permitted by law for claims arising in his or her capacity as an executive officer or director of our company or in connection with his or her service at our request for another corporation or entity. The indemnification agreements also provide for procedures that will apply in the event that an executive officer or director makes a claim for indemnification and establish certain presumptions that are favorable to the executive officer or director.

We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.

Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, executive officers, or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.


Table of Contents

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.

  

Description

  1.1    Sales Agreement, dated June 26, 2020, by and between the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC
  1.2*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
  4.1    Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38886) filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019)
  4.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-38886) filed with the SEC on May 9, 2019)
  4.3    Form of Senior Indenture
  4.4    Form of Subordinated Indenture
  4.5    Form of Senior Note
  4.6    Form of Subordinated Note
  4.7*    Form of Warrant Agreement
  4.8*    Form of Unit Agreement
  5.1    Opinion of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP
23.1    Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Registrant
23.2    Consent of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
24    Powers of Attorney (included in the signature pages to the Registration Statement)
25.1**    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture
25.2**    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (a)(1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”);

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and


Table of Contents
  (iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and


Table of Contents
  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by such undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

  (i)

the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

  (ii)

each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (b)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertake to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (d)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the indemnification provisions described herein, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of New Haven, State of Connecticut on June 26, 2020.

 

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Jennifer Good

  Name: Jennifer Good
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Jennifer Good and Christopher Seiter, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

 

Title

 

Date

/s/ Jennifer Good

Jennifer Good

  President and Chief Executive Officer, and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ Christopher Seiter

Christopher Seiter

  Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ Frank Muscolo

Frank Muscolo

  Controller (Principal Accounting Officer)   June 26, 2020

/s/ David Meeker, M.D.

David Meeker, M.D.

  Chairman of the Board   June 26, 2020

/s/ James Cassella, Ph.D.

James Cassella, Ph.D.

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Michael Heffernan

Michael Heffernan

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Edward Mathers

Edward Mathers

  Director   June 26, 2020

/s/ Anne VanLent

Anne VanLent

  Director   June 26, 2020