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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
___________________________
FORM 10-Q
___________________________
(Mark One)
xQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission File Number: 001-40291
___________________________
COMPASS, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
___________________________
Delaware
30-0751604
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
90 Fifth Avenue, 3rd Floor
New York, New York
10011
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(212) 913-9058
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
___________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per shareCOMPThe New York Stock Exchange
___________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No x
As of August 3, 2023, there were 466,071,464 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.


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Compass, Inc.
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Unless otherwise expressly stated or the context otherwise requires, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which we refer to as this Quarterly Report, to “Compass,” “Company,” “our,” “us,” and “we” and similar references refer to Compass, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations page on our website (www.compass.com), filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, webcasts, press releases and conference calls. We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with our stockholders and the public about our company, our product candidates and other matters. It is possible that the information we make available may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website.
From time to time, we intend to announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, the investor relations page on our website (www.compass.com), press releases, public conference calls, public webcasts, our Twitter feed (@Compass), our Facebook page, our LinkedIn page, our Instagram account, our YouTube channel, Robert Reffkin’s Twitter feed (@RobReffkin) and Robert Reffkin’s Instagram account (@robreffkin). We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with our stockholders and the public about our company, our product candidates and other matters. It is possible that the information that we make available may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website and all other streaming tools. Further, corporate governance information, including our governance guidelines, board committee charters and code of ethics, is also available on our investor relations page on our website under the heading “Governance.”
Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations page on our website.
The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the website referenced in this Quarterly Report is not incorporated by reference into this filing, and the website address is provided only as an inactive textual reference.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the federal Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements contained in this Quarterly Report, other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future operating results and financial position, our business strategy and plans, market growth, and our objectives for future operations are forward-looking statements. Words such as “believes,” “may,” “will,” “estimates,” “potential,” “continues,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “expects,” “could,” “would,” “projects,” “plans,” “targets,” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report include, but are not limited to, statements about:
general macroeconomic conditions in the U.S. and globally (e.g., inflation), economic and industry downturns, the health of the U.S. real estate industry, and risks generally incident to the ownership of residential real estate, including seasonal and cyclical trends (e.g., increases in mortgage interest rates, continued limited inventory, slowed consumer demand, reduced home affordability and declines in price appreciation and home prices);
current interest rates and changes in prevailing interest rates;
our ability to continuously innovate, improve and expand our platform;
the dependability of our platform and software;
our ability to attract new agents and retain current agents or increase agents' utilization of our platform;
our ability to expand our brokerage and adjacent services businesses;
our ability to grow revenue from adjacent services at our anticipated rate;
our ability to achieve expected benefits from our mortgage and title and escrow businesses, including our joint ventures;
our rapid growth and rate of growth;
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our ability to carefully manage our expense structure;
our net losses and ability to achieve or sustain profitability in the future;
covenants in our debt agreements that may restrict our borrowing capacity or operating activities;
our ability to compete successfully in the markets in which we operate;
the effect of monetary policies of the federal government and its agencies;
any decreases in our gross commission income or the percentage of commissions that we collect;
fluctuation of our quarterly results and other operating metrics;
our ability to successfully pursue acquisitions and integrate target companies;
the loss of key personnel;
our ability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel and to recruit agents;
reliability of our information security systems;
the impact of cybersecurity incidents and the potential loss of critical and confidential information;
identification of material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and our ability to remediate such material weaknesses;
compliance with privacy laws;
the effect of the claims, lawsuits, government investigations and other proceedings that we are subject to from time to time;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights;
impact of having a multi-class structure of common stock;
natural disasters and catastrophic events; and
other general market, political, economic, and business conditions.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections as of the date of this filing about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this filing and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including, but not limited to, the important factors discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2023, which we refer to as our 2022 Form 10-K. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this filing, our 2022 Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the SEC that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the future events and circumstances discussed in this filing may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
You should completely read this filing and the documents that we reference herein and have filed with the SEC as exhibits to this Quarterly Report with the understanding that our actual future results, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report are made as of the date of this filing, and we do not undertake, and expressly disclaim any duty, to update such statements for any reason after the date of this filing or to conform statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by law.

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PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Compass, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In millions, except share and per share data, unaudited)
June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Assets
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$335.4 $361.9 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $8.8 and $9.0, respectively
58.4 36.6 
Compass Concierge receivables, net of allowance of $14.2 and $14.7, respectively
36.4 42.9 
Other current assets63.7 76.5 
Total current assets493.9 517.9 
Property and equipment, net171.0 192.5 
Operating lease right-of-use assets439.2 483.2 
Intangible assets, net86.4 99.3 
Goodwill203.8 198.4 
Other non-current assets30.3 41.8 
Total assets$1,424.6 $1,533.1 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$23.3 $28.1 
Commissions payable97.0 48.0 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities108.6 164.9 
Current lease liabilities101.4 94.6 
Concierge credit facility30.4 31.9 
Revolving credit facility150.0 150.0 
Total current liabilities510.7 517.5 
Non-current lease liabilities448.1 486.5 
Other non-current liabilities14.1 8.4 
Total liabilities972.9 1,012.4 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)  
Stockholders’ equity  
Common stock, $0.00001 par value, 13,850,000,000 shares authorized at June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022; 462,987,617 shares issued and outstanding at June 30, 2023; 438,098,194 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022
  
Additional paid-in capital2,842.3 2,713.6 
Accumulated deficit(2,394.7)(2,196.5)
Total Compass, Inc. stockholders’ equity447.6 517.1 
Non-controlling interest4.1 3.6 
Total stockholders' equity451.7 520.7 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,424.6 $1,533.1 
The accompanying footnotes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Compass, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In millions, except share and per share data, unaudited)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Revenue$1,494.0 $2,020.1 $2,451.2 $3,417.1 
Operating expenses:
Commissions and other related expense1,224.0 1,652.9 2,014.9 2,799.3 
Sales and marketing113.3 154.9 228.6 299.9 
Operations and support83.0 104.9 164.1 213.8 
Research and development45.4 107.2 94.3 215.4 
General and administrative34.7 55.2 69.1 110.5 
Restructuring costs15.9 18.9 26.0 18.9 
Depreciation and amortization22.3 25.4 47.2 44.1 
Total operating expenses1,538.6 2,119.4 2,644.2 3,701.9 
Loss from operations(44.6)(99.3)(193.0)(284.8)
Investment income, net2.5 0.3 5.4 0.4 
Interest expense(4.1)(0.7)(7.3)(1.4)
Loss before income taxes and equity in loss of unconsolidated entity(46.2)(99.7)(194.9)(285.8)
Income tax benefit 1.5  1.4 
Equity in loss of unconsolidated entity(0.7)(2.9)(2.2)(5.0)
Net loss(46.9)(101.1)(197.1)(289.4)
Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests(0.9)(0.1)(1.1)0.2 
Net loss attributable to Compass, Inc.$(47.8)$(101.2)$(198.2)$(289.2)
Net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc., basic and diluted$(0.10)$(0.24)$(0.44)$(0.69)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc., basic and diluted460,960,349 427,987,083 455,538,666 421,719,718 
The accompanying footnotes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Compass, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In millions, except share amounts, unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
 Paid-in
 Capital
Accumulated
 Deficit
Total Compass, Inc. Stockholders’ EquityNon-controlling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
For the three months ended June 30, 2023:
     
Balances at March 31, 2023458,911,722 $— $2,805.0 $(2,346.9)$458.1 $3.6 $461.7 
Net loss— — — (47.8)(47.8)0.9 (46.9)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options1,399,959 — 1.9 — 1.9 — 1.9 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of taxes withheld2,675,936 — (4.3)— (4.3)— (4.3)
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — 0.2 — 0.2 — 0.2 
Stock-based compensation— — 39.5 — 39.5 — 39.5 
Other activity related to non-controlling interests— — — — — (0.4)(0.4)
Balances at June 30, 2023
462,987,617 $— $2,842.3 $(2,394.7)$447.6 $4.1 $451.7 
For the three months ended June 30, 2022:
     
Balances at March 31, 2022426,965,766 $— $2,585.0 $(1,783.0)$802.0 $3.5 $805.5 
Net loss— — — (101.2)(101.2)0.1 (101.1)
Issuance of common stock in connection with acquisitions123,852 — 0.8 — 0.8 — 0.8 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options937,599 — 2.2 — 2.2 — 2.2 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of taxes withheld1,929,800 — (6.4)— (6.4)— (6.4)
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — 1.1 — 1.1 — 1.1 
Stock-based compensation— — 53.7 — 53.7 — 53.7 
Balances at June 30, 2022
429,957,017 $— $2,636.4 $(1,884.2)$752.2 $3.6 $755.8 
The accompanying footnotes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Compass, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
(In millions, except share amounts, unaudited)
Common StockAdditional
 Paid-in
 Capital
Accumulated
 Deficit
Total Compass, Inc. Stockholders’ EquityNon-controlling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmount
For the six months ended June 30, 2023:
Balances at December 31, 2022438,098,194 $— $2,713.6 $(2,196.5)$517.1 $3.6 $520.7 
Net loss— — (198.2)(198.2)1.1(197.1)
Issuance of common stock in connection with acquisitions2,578,204 — 8.2 — 8.2 — 8.2 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options2,097,108 — 2.9 — 2.9 — 2.9 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of taxes withheld5,697,711 — (10.3)— (10.3)— (10.3)
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — 0.4 — 0.4 — 0.4 
Issuance of common stock in connection with the 2022 Agent Equity Program14,147,480 — 53.3 — 53.3 — 53.3 
Issuance of common stock under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan368,920 — 1.4 — 1.4 — 1.4 
Stock-based compensation— — 72.8 — 72.8 — 72.8 
Other activity related to non-controlling interests— — — — — (0.6)(0.6)
Balances at June 30, 2023462,987,617 $— $2,842.3 $(2,394.7)$447.6 $4.1 $451.7 
For the six months ended June 30, 2022:
Balances at December 31, 2021409,267,751 $— $2438.8 $(1,595.0)$843.8 $3.8 $847.6 
Net loss— — — (289.2)(289.2)(0.2)(289.4)
Issuance of common stock in connection with acquisitions123,852 — 0.8 — 0.8 — 0.8 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options3,532,188 — 7.7 — 7.7 — 7.7 
Issuance of common stock upon settlement of RSUs, net of taxes withheld3,424,330 — (13.8)— (13.8)— (13.8)
Vesting of early exercised stock options— — 2.2 — 2.2 — 2.2 
Issuance of common stock in connection with the 2021 Agent Equity Program13,608,896 — 100.0 — 100.0 — 100.0 
Stock-based compensation— — 100.7 — 100.7 — 100.7 
Balances at June 30, 2022429,957,017 $— $2,636.4 $(1,884.2)$752.2 $3.6 $755.8 
The accompanying footnotes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Compass, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In millions, unaudited)
 Six Months Ended June 30,
 20232022
Operating Activities  
Net loss$(197.1)$(289.4)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization47.2 44.1 
Stock-based compensation83.9 123.0 
Equity in loss of unconsolidated entity2.2 5.0 
Change in acquisition related contingent consideration0.6 (0.3)
Bad debt expense2.8 3.4 
Amortization of debt issuance costs0.4 0.5 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:  
Accounts receivable(24.1)(14.5)
Compass Concierge receivables5.9 (26.9)
Other current assets12.4 (15.0)
Other non-current assets9.4 (3.3)
Operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities9.5 3.9 
Accounts payable(4.9)10.6 
Commissions payable49.0 31.9 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities0.6 6.7 
Net cash used in operating activities(2.2)(120.3)
Investing Activities  
Investment in unconsolidated entity (12.5)
Capital expenditures(6.1)(41.4)
Payments for acquisitions, net of cash acquired (15.0)
Net cash used in investing activities(6.1)(68.9)
Financing Activities  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options2.9 7.7 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under Employee Stock Purchase Plan1.4  
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(10.3)(13.8)
Proceeds from drawdowns on Concierge credit facility29.3 26.7 
Repayments of drawdowns on Concierge credit facility(30.8)(12.5)
Proceeds from drawdowns on Revolving credit facility75.0  
Repayments of drawdowns on Revolving credit facility(75.0) 
Payments related to acquisitions, including contingent consideration
(10.2)(6.7)
Other(0.5) 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(18.2)1.4 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(26.5)(187.8)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period361.9 618.3 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$335.4 $430.5 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:  
Cash paid for interest$6.4 $0.9 
Supplemental non-cash information:  
Issuance of common stock for acquisitions$8.2 $0.8 

The accompanying footnotes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Compass, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)
1.    Business and Basis of Presentation
Description of the Business
Compass, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware on October 4, 2012 under the name Urban Compass, Inc. On January 8, 2021, the board of directors approved a change to the Company’s name from Urban Compass, Inc. to Compass, Inc. On April 6, 2021, the Company completed its initial public offering (“IPO”) and the Company’s Class A common stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange on April 1, 2021 under the symbol “COMP”.
The Company provides an end-to-end platform that empowers its residential real estate agents to deliver exceptional service to seller and buyer clients. The Company’s platform includes an integrated suite of cloud-based software for customer relationship management, marketing, client service and other critical functionality, all custom-built for the real estate industry, which enables the Company’s core brokerage services. The platform also uses proprietary data, analytics, artificial intelligence, and machine learning to deliver high value recommendations and outcomes for Compass agents and their clients.
The Company’s agents are independent contractors who affiliate their real estate licenses with the Company, operating their businesses on the Company’s platform and under the Compass brand. The Company generates revenue from clients through its agents by assisting home sellers and buyers in listing, marketing, selling and finding homes as well as through the provision of services adjacent to the transaction, like title and escrow services, which comprise a smaller portion of the Company’s revenue to date. The Company currently generates substantially all of its revenue from commissions paid by clients at the time that a home is transacted.
Basis of Presentation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of all controlled subsidiaries. The condensed consolidated statements of operations include the results of entities acquired from the date of each respective acquisition. Interests held by third parties in consolidated subsidiaries are presented as non-controlling interests, which represents the non-controlling stockholders’ interests in the underlying net assets of the Company’s consolidated subsidiaries. For entities where the Company does not have a controlling interest (financial or operating), the investments in such entities are accounted for using the equity method. The Company applies the equity method of accounting when it has the ability to exercise significant influence over the operating and financial policies of an investee. The Company measures all other investments at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income or in the case that an equity investment does not have readily determinable fair values, at cost minus impairment (if any) plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment.
The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared by management on a basis consistent with the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the interim periods presented.
The results of the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full year. Certain information and notes normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted under the SEC’s rules and regulations. Accordingly, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes included herein should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes for the year ended December 31, 2022 included in the 2022 Form 10-K.

Liquidity
Since inception, the Company has primarily generated negative cash flows from operations and has primarily financed operations from net proceeds from the issuance of convertible preferred stock and common stock. In addition, a number of macroeconomic conditions, including rising inflation and rapidly rising mortgage interest rates, have contributed to a
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slowdown in the U.S. residential real estate market, which has had an adverse impact on the Company’s business and may continue to adversely impact the Company’s business in the future.
During the year ended December 31, 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company enacted various restructuring actions to improve the alignment between the Company’s organizational structure and its long-term business strategy, drive cost efficiencies enabled by the Company’s technology and other competitive advantages and continue to drive toward profitability and positive free cash flow. The Company will continue to assess the impact that changing macroeconomic factors and the slowdown of the U.S. residential real estate market will have on its business and will adjust its operations as necessary.
As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company held cash and cash equivalents of approximately $335.4 million and $361.9 million, respectively. Additionally, the Company has a Revolving Credit Facility, which it can draw upon provided it maintains continued compliance with certain financial and non-financial covenants. In July 2023, the Company repaid the $150.0 million outstanding as of June 30, 2023 under its Revolving Credit Facility. As a result, the Company has in excess of $300.0 million available to be drawn under the Revolving Credit Facility. Further, the Company is in compliance with each of the financial and non-financial covenants. See Note 5 — "Debt" for further details. The Company believes that it will have sufficient liquidity from cash on hand, its Revolving Credit Facility and future operations to sustain its business operations for the next twelve months and beyond.
2.    Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods covered by the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. These judgments, estimates and assumptions are used for, but not limited to (i) valuation of the Company’s common stock and stock awards, (ii) fair value of acquired intangible assets and goodwill, (iii) fair value of contingent consideration arrangements in connection with business combinations, (iv) incremental borrowing rate used for the Company’s operating leases, (v) useful lives of long-lived assets, (vi) impairment of intangible assets and goodwill, (vii) allowance for Compass Concierge receivables and (viii) income taxes and certain deferred tax assets. The Company determines its estimates and judgments based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. However, actual results could differ from these estimates and these differences may be material.
Business Combinations
Business combinations are accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting. This method requires, among other things, allocation of the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair values on the acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. When determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, management makes estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. During the measurement period, not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with a corresponding offset to goodwill if new information is obtained related to facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date. After the measurement period, any subsequent adjustments are reflected in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Acquisition costs, consisting primarily of third-party legal and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company measures compensation expense for all stock-based awards based on the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant. Compensation expense is generally recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the service period based on the vesting requirements. The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur.
For stock options, which the Company issues to employees, affiliated agents and in certain cases in connection with business combinations, the Company generally estimates the fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model,
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which requires the input of subjective assumptions, including (1) the fair value of common stock, (2) the expected stock price volatility, (3) the expected term of the award, (4) the risk-free interest rate and (5) expected dividends.
The Company also issues RSUs to employees, affiliated agents and in certain cases in connection with business combinations. In addition to the issuance of RSUs to agents as equity compensation for the provision of services, the Company offered RSUs to affiliated agents through its Agent Equity Program. The Agent Equity Program offered affiliated agents the ability to elect to have a portion of their commissions earned during a calendar year to be paid in the form of RSUs. RSUs issued in connection with the Agent Equity Program were granted at the beginning of the year following the calendar year in which the commissions were earned and are subject to the terms and conditions of the 2012 Stock Incentive Plan and the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan, as applicable. The Company discontinued the Agent Equity Program following the issuance of RSUs during the first quarter of 2023 related to the 2022 Agent Equity Program.
The Company's RSUs granted prior to December 2020 generally vest based upon the satisfaction of both a service-based condition and a liquidity event-based condition. The service-based vesting condition for these awards is generally satisfied over four years. The liquidity event-based vesting condition was met on March 31, 2021, the effective date of the Company’s registration statement filed in connection with the IPO, with subsequent expense recognized using the accelerated attribution method.
In December 2020, the Company began issuing RSUs that vest upon the satisfaction of only a service-based vesting condition that generally ranges from one to five years. The fair value of these RSUs is measured based on the fair value of the Company’s common stock on the grant date and will be recognized as expense on a straight-line basis as the required service-based vesting condition is satisfied. Any vested RSUs that require only a service-based vesting condition will convert to common stock following vesting and their prescribed delayed settlement periods.
For RSUs granted in connection with the 2021 and 2022 Agent Equity Programs, the Company determined the value of the stock-based compensation expense at the time the underlying commission was earned and recognized the associated expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods beginning on the closing date of the underlying real estate commission transactions. The stock-based compensation expense was recorded as a liability throughout the service periods and was reclassified to Additional paid-in capital at the end of the vesting period when the underlying RSUs were issued.
On a limited basis, the Company has issued stock options and RSUs that contain service, performance and market-based vesting conditions that include stock price targets to be met after the listing of the Company's stock on a public exchange. Such awards were valued using a Monte Carlo simulation and the underlying expense will be recognized as the associated vesting conditions are met.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. An update was also issued expanding the scope of this guidance. The guidance provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to contracts or other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The guidance was issued on March 12, 2020 and may be applied prospectively through December 31, 2022. On December 21, 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-06, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) - Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848, which deferred the sunset date of Topic 848 from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2024. The Company is evaluating applicable contracts and transactions to determine whether to elect the optional guidance. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The guidance amends ASC 805 to require acquiring entities to apply Topic 606 to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in a business combination. The amendment is effective for public companies with fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendment should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date. The Company adopted this standard as of January 1, 2023, and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In March 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-02, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) - Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures, which requires enhanced disclosure of certain loan refinancings and restructurings by creditors when a borrower is experiencing financial difficulty while eliminating certain current recognition and
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measurement accounting guidance. This guidance also requires the disclosure of current-period gross write-offs by year of origination for financing receivables and net investments in leases. The amendments in this guidance are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this standard as of January 1, 2023, and the adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
3.    Acquisitions
During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company completed the acquisition of 100% of the ownership interest in a real estate brokerage. The purpose of this acquisition was to expand the Company’s existing brokerage business in a new key domestic market. The Company has accounted for this acquisition as a business combination.
The consideration for the acquisition completed during the six months ended June 30, 2023 is comprised of contingent consideration payable in the Company's Class A common stock and cash at various payment dates through 2033 dependent on the future performance of the acquired business. At the time of acquisition, the purchase price was estimated to be $8.8 million and was calculated at net present value using a variety of inputs and assumptions, the most significant of which were the forecasted future results of the acquired business. Payments in excess of the original estimate may impact the Company's statement of operations in future periods. The future consideration amounts were recorded as Accrued expenses and other current liabilities and Other non-current liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheet.
The fair value of the assets acquired and the liabilities assumed primarily resulted in the recognition of: $3.1 million of customer relationships; $1.5 million of other current and non-current assets; and $1.1 million of other current and non-current liabilities. The excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the acquired net assets was recorded as goodwill of $5.3 million. The acquired customer relationship is being amortized over the estimated useful life of approximately 5 years.
None of the goodwill recorded during the six months ended June 30, 2023 is deductible for tax purposes. The amount of tax-deductible goodwill may increase in the future to approximately $5.3 million dependent on the payment of certain contingent consideration arrangements. These amounts are not expected to have an impact on the income tax provision while the Company maintains a full valuation allowance on its U.S. deferred tax assets.
The Company has recorded the preliminary purchase price allocation as of the acquisition date and expects to finalize its analysis within the measurement period (up to one year from the acquisition date) of the respective transaction. Any adjustments during the measurement period would have a corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of assets acquired or liabilities assumed, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to the consolidated statements of operations.
Pro forma revenue and earnings for this acquisition have not been presented because the acquisition is not material to the Company’s consolidated revenue and results of operations.

Contingent Consideration
Contingent consideration represents obligations of the Company to transfer cash and common stock to the sellers of certain acquired businesses in the event that certain targets and milestones are met. Approximately $3.1 million of the obligations as of June 30, 2023 are fixed in value. As of June 30, 2023, the undiscounted estimated payment under these arrangements was $29.1 million. Changes in contingent consideration measured at fair value on a recurring basis were as follows (in millions):
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2023202220232022
Opening balance$18.2 $22.8 $14.0 $24.4 
Acquisitions 3.6 8.8 3.6 
Payments(1.2)(4.0)(5.8)(6.0)
Changes in fair value included in net loss0.6 (0.7)0.6 (0.3)
Closing balance$17.6 $21.7 $17.6 $21.7 
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Other Acquisition-Related Arrangements
In connection with the Company’s acquisitions, certain amounts paid or to be paid to selling shareholders are subject to clawback and forfeiture dependent on certain employees and agents providing continued service to the Company. These retention-based payments are accounted for as compensation for future services and the Company recognizes the expenses over the service period. As of June 30, 2023, the Company expects to pay up to an additional $2.0 million in future compensation to such selling shareholders in connection with these arrangements. For the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized income of $1.1 million and expense of $3.7 million, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company recognized expense of $2.0 million and $11.4 million, respectively, within Operations and support in the condensed consolidated statements of operations related to these arrangements.
During the six months ended June 30, 2023, certain acquisition-related compensation arrangements and holdbacks were settled in the form of Class A common stock. In connection with these settlements, the Company issued 2.6 million shares of Class A common stock.
4.    Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents of $335.4 million and $361.9 million as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, are held in cash and money market funds, which are classified as Level 1 within the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using quoted prices in active markets. These are the Company’s only Level 1 financial instruments. The Company does not hold any Level 2 financial instruments. The Company’s contingent consideration liabilities of $17.6 million and $14.0 million as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively, are the Company’s only Level 3 financial instruments.
See Note 3 – “Acquisitions” for changes in contingent consideration for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022. The following table presents the balances of contingent consideration as presented in the condensed consolidated balance sheets (in millions):
 June 30, 2023December 31, 2022
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities$7.3 $10.0 
Other non-current liabilities10.3 4.0 
Total contingent consideration$17.6 $14.0 
There were no transfers of financial instruments between Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 during the periods presented.
Level 3 Financial Liabilities
The Company’s Level 3 financial liabilities relate to acquisition-related contingent consideration arrangements. Contingent consideration represents obligations of the Company to transfer cash or the Company's common stock to the sellers of certain acquired entities in the event that certain targets and milestones are met. The Company estimated the fair value of the contingent consideration using a variety of inputs, the most significant of which were the forecasted future results of the acquired businesses, not observable in the market. The impact of changes in these assumptions is not expected to result in material changes to the fair value of the Level 3 financial liabilities. Changes in the fair value of Level 3 financial liabilities are included within Operations and support in the condensed consolidated statements of operations (see Note 3 – “Acquisitions”).
5.    Debt
Concierge Credit Facility
In July 2020, the Company entered into a Revolving Credit and Security Agreement (the “Concierge Facility”) with Barclays Bank PLC, as administrative agent, and the several lenders party thereto, which was subsequently amended on July 29, 2021, August 5, 2022 and August 4, 2023. The Concierge Facility provides for a $75.0 million revolving credit facility and is solely used to finance, in part, the Company’s Compass Concierge Program. The Concierge Facility is secured primarily by the Concierge Receivables and cash of the Compass Concierge Program.
Borrowings under the Concierge Facility bear interest at the term SOFR rate plus a margin of 2.75%. The two year commitment fee is 0.35% if the Concierge Facility is utilized greater than 50% and 0.50%, if the Concierge Facility is utilized less than 50%. On August 4, 2023, the revolving period under the Concierge Facility was extended to August 3,
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2025. The interest rate on the Concierge Facility was 8.30% as of June 30, 2023. Pursuant to the Concierge Facility, the principal amount, if any, is payable in full in January 2026, unless earlier terminated or extended.
The Company has the option to repay the borrowings under the Concierge Facility without premium or penalty prior to maturity. The Concierge Facility contains customary affirmative covenants, such as financial statement reporting requirements, as well as covenants that restrict the Company's ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, sell certain receivables, declare dividends or make certain distributions, and undergo a merger or consolidation or certain other transactions. Additionally, in the event that the Company fails to comply with certain financial covenants that require the Company to meet certain liquidity-based measures, the commitments under the Concierge Facility will automatically be reduced to zero and the Company will be required to repay any outstanding loans under the Concierge Facility. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with the covenants under the Concierge Facility.
The Concierge Facility includes customary events of default that include, among other things, nonpayment of principal, interest or fees, inaccuracy of representations and warranties, violation of certain covenants, bankruptcy and insolvency events, material judgments and change of control. The occurrence of an event of default could result in the acceleration of the obligations and/or the increase in the applicable interest rate under the Concierge Facility.
Revolving Credit Facility
In March 2021, the Company entered into a Revolving Credit and Guaranty Agreement (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) with Barclays Bank PLC, as administrative agent and as collateral agent (the "Administrative Agent"), and certain other lenders, which was subsequently amended on May 1, 2023. The Revolving Credit Facility provides for a $350.0 million revolving credit facility, subject to the terms and conditions of the Revolving Credit Facility. The Revolving Credit Facility also includes a letter of credit sublimit, which is the lesser of (i) $125.0 million and (ii) the aggregate unused amount of the revolving commitments then in effect under the Revolving Credit Facility. The Company’s obligations under the Revolving Credit Facility are guaranteed by certain of the Company’s subsidiaries and are secured by a first priority security interest in substantially all of the assets of the Company and the Company’s subsidiary guarantors.
Borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility bear interest, at the Company’s option, at either (i) a floating rate per annum equal to the base rate plus a margin of 0.50% or (ii) a rate per annum equal to the secured overnight financing rate ("SOFR") plus a margin of 1.50%. The base rate is equal to the highest of (a) the prime rate as quoted by The Wall Street Journal, (b) the federal funds effective rate plus 0.50%, (c) the SOFR term rate for a one-month interest period plus 1.00% and (d) 1.00%. The SOFR term rate is determined by the Administrative Agent as the forward-looking term rate plus a 0.10% adjustment. During an event of default under the Revolving Credit Facility, the applicable interest rates are increased by 2.0% per annum. The interest rate on the Revolving Credit Facility was 8.43% as of June 30, 2023.
The Company is also obligated to pay other customary fees for a credit facility of this type, including a commitment fee on a quarterly basis based on amounts committed but unused under the Revolving Credit Facility of 0.175% per annum, fees associated with letters of credit and administrative and arrangement fees. The principal amount, if any, is payable in full in March 2026, unless earlier terminated or extended.
The Company has the option to repay the Company’s borrowings, and to permanently reduce the loan commitments in whole or in part, under the Revolving Credit Facility without premium or penalty prior to maturity. As of June 30, 2023, there were $150.0 million in borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility and outstanding letters of credit under the Revolving Credit Facility totaled approximately $41.6 million. In July 2023, the Company repaid $150.0 million in borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility.
The Revolving Credit Facility contains customary representations, warranties, financial covenants applicable to the Company and its restricted subsidiaries, affirmative covenants, such as financial statement reporting requirements, and negative covenants which restrict their ability, among other things, to incur liens and indebtedness, make certain investments, declare dividends, dispose of, transfer or sell assets, make stock repurchases and consummate certain other matters, all subject to certain exceptions. The financial covenants require that (i) the Company maintains liquidity of at least $150.0 million as of the last day of each fiscal quarter and each date of a credit extension and (ii) the Company’s consolidated total revenue as of the last day of each fiscal quarter be equal to or greater than the specified amount corresponding to such period. The minimum required consolidated revenue threshold for the trailing four fiscal quarters is $3,799.0 million during 2023 and $4,668.0 million thereafter. As of June 30, 2023, the Company was in compliance with the financial covenants under the Revolving Credit Facility.
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The Revolving Credit Facility includes customary events of default that include, among other things, nonpayment of principal, interest or fees, inaccuracy of representations and warranties, violation of certain covenants, cross default to certain other indebtedness, bankruptcy and insolvency events, material judgments, change of control and certain material ERISA events. The occurrence of an event of default could result in the acceleration of the obligations under the Revolving Credit Facility.
6.    Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, the Company may be involved in disputes or regulatory inquiries that arise in the ordinary course of business. When the Company determines that a loss is both probable and reasonably estimable, a liability is recorded and disclosed if the amount is material to the Company’s business, taken as a whole. When a material loss contingency is only reasonably possible, the Company does not record a liability, but instead discloses the nature and the amount of the claim and an estimate of the loss or range of loss, if such an estimate can reasonably be made. Legal costs related to the defense of loss contingencies are expensed as incurred.
Claims or regulatory actions against the Company, whether meritorious or not, could have an adverse impact on the Company due to legal costs, diversion of management resources and other elements. The Company does not believe that the outcome of any individual existing legal or regulatory proceeding to which it is a party will have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, financial condition or overall business in each case, taken as a whole.
Letter of Credit Agreements
The Company has irrevocable letters of credit with various financial institutions, primarily related to security deposits for leased facilities. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company was contingently liable for $53.2 million and $48.0 million, respectively, under these letters of credit. As of June 30, 2023, $41.6 million and $11.6 million of these letters of credit were collateralized by the Revolving Credit Facility and cash and cash equivalents, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, $33.0 million and $15.0 million of these letters of credit were collateralized by the Revolving Credit Facility and cash and cash equivalents, respectively.

Escrow and Trust Deposits
As a service to its home buyers and sellers, the Company administers escrow and trust deposits, which represent undistributed amounts for the settlement of real estate transactions. The escrow and trust deposits totaled $252.5 million and $136.7 million as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. These deposits are not assets of the Company and therefore are excluded from the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. However, the Company remains contingently liable for the disposition of these deposits.
7.    Preferred Stock and Common Stock
Undesignated Preferred Stock
In April 2021, the Company adopted a restated certificate of incorporation, which authorizes the Company to issue up to 25.0 million shares of undesignated preferred stock with a $0.00001 par value per share. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, there are no shares of the Company’s preferred stock issued and outstanding.
Common Stock
In February 2021, the Company approved the establishment of Class C common stock and an agreement with the Company’s CEO to exchange his Class A common stock for Class C common stock. On March 31, 2021, in connection with the effectiveness of the registration statement for the Company’s IPO, 15.2 million shares of Class A common stock held by the Company’s CEO were automatically exchanged for an equivalent number of shares of Class C common stock. In addition, any Class A common stock issued to the Company’s CEO from RSU awards granted prior to February 2021 are able to be exchanged for Class C common stock. Each share of Class C common stock is entitled to twenty votes per share and will be convertible at any time into one share of Class A common stock and will automatically convert into Class A common stock under certain “sunset” provisions. Other than certain permitted transfers for estate planning purposes, upon a transfer of Class C common stock, the Class C common stock will automatically convert into Class A common stock.
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In April 2021, the Company adopted a restated certificate of incorporation and changed its authorized capital stock to consist of 12,500.0 million shares of Class A common stock, 1,250.0 million shares of Class B common stock and 100.0 million shares of Class C common stock. Shares of each class of common stock have a par value of $0.00001.
The following tables reflect the authorized, issued and outstanding shares for each of the classes of common stock as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022:
 June 30, 2023
 Shares
Authorized
Shares
 Issued
Shares
 Outstanding
Class A common stock12,500,000,000 444,288,853 444,288,853 
Class B common stock1,250,000,000   
Class C common stock100,000,000 18,698,764 18,698,764 
Total13,850,000,000 462,987,617 462,987,617 
 December 31, 2022
 Shares
Authorized
Shares
Issued
Shares
 Outstanding
Class A common stock12,500,000,000 419,842,991 419,842,991 
Class B common stock1,250,000,000   
Class C common stock100,000,000 18,255,203 18,255,203 
Total13,850,000,000 438,098,194 438,098,194 
Holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share. Holders of Class B common stock are not entitled to vote. Holders of Class C common stock are entitled to twenty votes per share.
Each share of Class C common stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder into one share of Class A common stock. Each share of Class C common stock will automatically convert into a share of Class A common stock upon sale or transfer, except for certain permitted transfers.
8.    Stock-Based Compensation
2012 Stock Incentive Plan
In October 2012, the Company adopted the 2012 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2012 Plan”). Under the 2012 Plan, employees and non-employees could be granted stock options, RSUs and other stock-based awards, including awards earned in connection with the Agent Equity Program. Generally, these awards were based on stock agreements with a maximum ten-year term for stock options and a maximum seven-year term for RSUs, subject to board approval.
2021 Equity Incentive Plan
In February 2021, the Company’s board of directors and stockholders adopted and approved the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”), with an initial pool of 29.7 million shares of common stock available for granting stock-based awards plus any reserved shares of common stock not issued or subject to outstanding awards granted under the 2012 Plan. In addition, on January 1st of each year beginning in 2022 and continuing through 2031, the aggregate number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the 2021 Plan shall be increased automatically by the number of shares equal to 5% of the total number of outstanding shares of common stock and outstanding shares of preferred stock (on an as converted to common stock basis) on the immediately preceding December 31st, although the Company’s board of directors or one of its committees may reduce the amount of such increase in any particular year. The 2021 Plan became effective on March 30, 2021 and as of that date, the Company ceased granting new awards under the 2012 Plan and all remaining shares available under the 2012 Plan were transferred to the 2021 Plan. Effective January 1, 2023, the shares available for future grants were increased by an additional 21.9 million shares as a result of the annual increase provision described above. As of June 30, 2023, there were 36.5 million shares available for future grants under the 2021 Plan, inclusive of those shares transferred from the 2012 Plan.
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2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In February 2021, the Company’s board of directors and stockholders adopted and approved the 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”), which authorized purchase rights to the Company’s employees or to employees of its designated affiliates. In addition, on January 1st of each year beginning in 2022 and continuing through 2031, the aggregate number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance under the ESPP shall be increased automatically by the number of shares equal to 1% of the total number of outstanding shares of common stock and outstanding shares of preferred stock (on an as converted to common stock basis) on the immediately preceding December 31st, although the Company’s board of directors or one of its committees may reduce the amount of the increase in any particular year. No more than 150.0 million shares of common stock may be issued over the term of the ESPP, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the ESPP. Effective January 1, 2023, the authorized shares increased by 4.2 million shares as a result of the annual increase provision described above. As of June 30, 2023, 14.5 million shares of Class A common stock remain available for grant under the ESPP.
The ESPP permits employees to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A common stock through payroll deductions accumulated during six-month offering periods up to a maximum value of $12,500 per offering period. The offering periods begin each February and August, or such other period determined by the Compensation Committee. On each purchase date, eligible employees may purchase the shares at a price per share equal to 85% of the lesser of (1) the fair market value of the Company’s Class A common stock on the first trading day of the offering period, or (2) the fair market value of the Company’s Class A common stock on the purchase date, as defined in the ESPP. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company issued 0.4 million shares of Class A common stock under the ESPP.
The Company recognized $0.4 million and $0.7 million of stock-based compensation expense related to the ESPP during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.6 million and $1.0 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. As of June 30, 2023, $1.1 million has been withheld on behalf of employees for a future purchase under the ESPP.
Stock Options
A summary of stock option activity under the 2012 Plan and the 2021 Plan, including 1.1 million stock options that were granted outside of the 2012 Plan in 2019, is presented below (in millions, except share and per share amounts):
 Number of
Options
Weighted Average
Exercise Price
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contract Term
(in years)
Aggregate Intrinsic Value (1)
Balance as of December 31, 2022
46,694,237 $5.44 5.9$8.5 
Granted210,972 3.58 
Exercised(2,097,108)1.38 
Forfeited(1,749,459)7.03 
Balance as of June 30, 2023
43,058,642 $5.56 5.5$18.7 
Exercisable and vested at June 30, 2023
35,797,264 $5.04 5.1$18.7 
(1)The aggregate intrinsic values have been calculated using the Company’s closing stock prices of $3.50 and $2.33 as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.
During the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the intrinsic value of options exercised was $4.9 million and $19.5 million, respectively.
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Restricted Stock Units
A summary of RSU activity under the 2012 Plan and the 2021 Plan is presented below:
 Number of AwardsWeighted Average
 Grant Date Fair
 Value
Balance as of December 31, 2022
47,189,837 $7.10 
Granted30,103,327 3.41 
Vested and converted to common stock (1)
(23,033,048)4.91 
Forfeited(5,387,714)7.74 
Balance as of June 30, 2023
48,872,402 $5.79 
(1)During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company net settled all RSUs through which it issued an aggregate of 23.0 million shares of Class A common stock and withheld an aggregate of 3.2 million shares of Class A common stock to satisfy $10.3 million of tax withholding obligations on behalf of the Company’s employees.
Included in the table above are 17.2 million RSUs that only vest upon the satisfaction of both (i) a service-based vesting condition and (ii) the achievement of performance-based vesting conditions that remain outstanding as of June 30, 2023. The performance-based vesting conditions provide that 12.5% of the shares subject to the RSUs will vest subject to the achievement of a market price per share of $23.14 of the Company's Class A common stock. An additional 12.5% of the shares subject to the RSUs will vest upon the achievement of a market price per share of the Company's Class A common stock at each of 200%, 250%, 300%, 350%, 400%, 450% and 500% of the reference price.
Agent Equity Program
In connection with the 2021 Agent Equity Program, the Company recognized a total of $100.0 million in stock-based compensation expense of which $84.8 million was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2021 and $15.2 million was recognized during the six months ended June 30, 2022. In February 2022, the Company granted 13.6 million RSUs, which immediately vested and converted to Class A common stock in connection with the 2021 Agent Equity Program. Prior to the issuance of the underlying RSUs, the stock-based compensation expense associated with these awards was recorded as a liability and $100.0 million was ultimately reclassified to Additional paid-in capital at the end of the vesting period when the underlying RSUs were granted.
In connection with the 2022 Agent Equity Program, the Company recognized a total of $53.3 million in stock-based compensation expense of which $41.7 million was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2022 and $11.6 million was recognized during the six months ended June 30, 2023. In January 2023, the Company granted 14.1 million RSUs, which immediately vested and converted to Class A common stock in connection with the 2022 Agent Equity Program. Prior to the issuance of the underlying RSUs, the stock-based compensation expense associated with these awards was recorded as a liability and $53.3 million was ultimately reclassified to Additional paid-in capital at the end of the vesting period when the underlying RSUs were granted. Following the issuance of these RSUs, the Company discontinued the Agent Equity Program.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Total stock-based compensation expense included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 is as follows (in millions):
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2023202220232022
Commissions and other related expense$ $6.4 $11.6 $23.4 
Sales and marketing9.0 11.2 17.6 21.9 
Operations and support4.1 4.1 7.1 8.4 
Research and development12.6 18.9 23.0 35.8 
General and administrative13.3 18.6 24.6 33.5 
Total stock-based compensation expense$39.0 $59.2 $83.9 $123.0 
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As of June 30, 2023, unrecognized stock-based compensation expense totaled $223.5 million and is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.1 years.
The Company has not recognized any tax benefits from stock-based compensation as a result of the full valuation allowance maintained on its deferred tax assets.
9.    Income Taxes
The Company recognized no income tax expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023. The Company incurred current tax expense from its operations in India, which was offset by a deferred tax benefit for future alternative minimum tax credits. The Company recognized a benefit from income taxes of $1.5 million and $1.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively.
The Company continues to maintain a full valuation allowance on all domestic net deferred tax assets based on numerous factors including estimated future taxable income and historic profitability.
The Company had no material uncertain tax positions as of the period ended June 30, 2023 nor does it expect a substantial increase in the next 12 months. If applicable, the Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the income tax provision.
The U.S. is the Company’s only material tax jurisdiction. The Company is generally no longer subject to U.S. federal examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for years before 2015. The IRS and state taxing authorities can subject the Company to audit dating back to 2012 when the Company begins to utilize its net operating loss carryforwards.
10.    Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Compass, Inc.
The Company computes net loss per share under the two-class method required for multiple classes of common stock and participating securities. The rights, including the liquidation and dividend rights, of the Class A common stock, Class B common stock and Class C common stock are substantially identical, other than voting rights. Accordingly, the net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc. will be the same for Class A common stock, Class B common stock and Class C common stock on an individual or combined basis.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc. (in millions, except share and per share amounts):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Numerator:    
Net loss attributable to Compass, Inc.$(47.8)$(101.2)$(198.2)$(289.2)
Denominator:    
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used to compute net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc., basic and diluted460,960,349 427,987,083 455,538,666 421,719,718 
Net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc., basic and diluted$(0.10)$(0.24)$(0.44)$(0.69)
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The following participating securities were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share attributable to Compass, Inc. for the periods presented, because including them would have been anti-dilutive (on an as-converted basis):
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Outstanding stock options43,058,642 49,893,318 43,058,642 49,893,318 
Outstanding RSUs48,872,402 59,738,313 48,872,402 59,738,313 
Shares subject to the Employee Stock Purchase Plan562,163 1,521,265 562,163 1,521,265 
Unvested early exercised stock options40,980 657,100 40,980 657,100 
Unvested common stock 173,612  173,612 
Total92,534,187 111,983,608 92,534,187 111,983,608 
11.    Compass Concierge Receivables and Allowance for Credit Losses
In 2018, the Company launched the Compass Concierge Program for home sellers who have engaged Compass as their exclusive listing agent. The initial program was based on a services model (“Concierge Classic”) provided by Compass Concierge, LLC (“Compass Concierge”), which included items such as consultation on suggested cosmetic updates or modifications to a specific property or guidance on securing licensed contractors or vendors to perform non-structural property improvements. The Concierge Classic program provided for the payment of the up-front costs of specified home improvement services provided by unrelated vendors. During 2022, the Company substantially ceased providing new payments under the Concierge Classic program.
In 2019, the Compass Concierge Program was expanded to include a loan program underwritten by an independent third-party lender (the “Lender”) through a commercial arrangement with Compass Concierge (“Concierge Capital”). Under the Concierge Capital program, the Lender originates and services unsecured consumer loans to home sellers following its independent underwriting process pursuant to program-level criteria provided by the Company. Pursuant to the Company’s agreement with the Lender, the consumer loans are unsecured, interest-free and have no associated fees except for late fees that the Lender may charge in its sole discretion. The Company has no right or obligation with respect to any individual consumer loan originated by the Lender. Under the agreement, the Company has repayment rights against the Lender in connection with a corporate loan.
Payment to the Company for these services under the Concierge Classic program or repayment of the loan funds under the Concierge Capital program is due upon the earlier of a successful home sale, the termination of the listing agreement or one year from the date in which costs were originally funded. Compass Concierge receivables (“Concierge Receivables”) are stated at the amount advanced to the home sellers, net of an estimated allowance for credit losses (“ACL”) in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company did not recognize any revenue or earn any fees from the Compass Concierge Program. The Company incurs service fees payable to the Lender and incurs bad debt expense in connection with the Compass Concierge Program.
The Company manages its credit risk by establishing a comprehensive credit policy for the approval of new loans while monitoring and reviewing the performance of its existing Concierge Receivables. Factors considered include but are not limited to:
No negative liens or judgements on the property;
Seller’s available equity on the property;
Loan to listing price ratio;
FICO score (only for Concierge Capital program); and
Macroeconomic conditions.
Credit Quality
The Company monitors credit quality by evaluating various attributes and utilizes such information in its evaluation of the appropriateness of the ACL. Based on the Company’s experience, the key credit quality indicator is whether the underlying properties associated with the Concierge Receivables will be sold or not. Concierge Receivables associated with properties that are eventually sold have a lower credit risk than those that are associated with properties that are not sold. As of
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June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the amount of outstanding Concierge Receivables related to unsold properties was approximately 96% and 98%, respectively. For Concierge Receivables where repayments have not been triggered (i.e., earlier of (i) sale of the property, (ii) termination of a listing agreement or (iii) 12 months from the date costs were originally funded), the Company establishes an estimate as to the percentage of underlying properties that will be sold based on historical data. This estimate is updated as of the end of each reporting period.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The Company maintains an ACL for the expected credit losses over the contractual life of the Concierge Receivables. The amount of ACL is based on ongoing, quarterly assessments by management. Historical loss experience is generally the starting point when the Company estimates the expected credit losses. The Company then considers whether (i) current conditions and economic conditions, (ii) future economic conditions and (iii) any potential changes in the Compass Concierge Program that are reasonable and supportable would impact its ACL. The following table summarizes the activity of the ACL for Concierge Receivables for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 (in millions):
 Three Months Ended June 30, 2023Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
Beginning of period$14.2 $14.7 
Allowances0.3 0.5 
Net write-offs and other(0.3)(1.0)
End of period$14.2 $14.2 
Aging Status
The Company generally considers Concierge Receivables to be past due after being outstanding for over 30 days after the initial billing. Changes in the Company’s estimate to the ACL are recorded through bad debt expense as Sales and marketing expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and individual accounts are charged against the allowance when all reasonable collection efforts are exhausted. The following table presents the aging analysis of Concierge Receivables as of June 30, 2023 (in millions):
 June 30, 2023
Current$41.7 
31-90 days past due3.2 
Over 90 days past due5.7 
Total$50.6 
12.    Restructuring Activities
During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company enacted certain workforce reductions, wound down Modus and terminated certain of its operating leases. The workforce reductions were part of a broader plan by the Company to take meaningful actions to improve the alignment between the Company’s organizational structure and its long-term business strategy, drive cost efficiencies enabled by the Company’s technology and other competitive advantages and continue to drive toward profitability and positive free cash flow. In addition to the workforce reductions, restructuring actions have included and are expected to include, but not be limited to, a reduction in U.S. hiring and backfills resulting from attrition; a reduction in spend through third-party vendors; eliminating the use of incentives when recruiting new agents and reducing incentives for existing agents; a planned slow down in M&A activity and new market expansion; and a review of occupancy costs with a view to consolidating offices and reducing related costs.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company implemented a further workforce reduction. During the three months ended June 30, 2023, the Company took actions to reduce its occupancy costs, the most significant being the scaling down of its New York administrative office. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company incurred restructuring costs of $15.9 million and $26.0 million, respectively, in connection with these actions. These costs are a result of severance and other termination benefits for employees whose roles were eliminated and lease termination costs as a result of the accelerated amortization of various right-of-use assets and other lease-related costs. These expenses have been presented within the Restructuring costs line in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The Company incurred additional non-cash charges of approximately $1.4 million and $5.3 million for the three and six months
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ended June 30, 2023, respectively, associated with the write-down of fixed assets for certain real estate leases that have been exited, or partially exited. These costs have been included within the Depreciation and amortization line in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The following table summarizes the total costs incurred in connection with the Company's restructuring activities taken during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 (in millions):
Three Months Ended June 30, 2023Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
Severance related personnel costs$ $8.9 
Lease termination costs15.9 17.1 
Write-down of fixed assets1.4 5.3 
Total expense$17.3 $31.3 
The total costs incurred in connection with the Company's restructuring activities taken during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 were included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations as follows (in millions):
Three Months Ended June 30, 2023Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
Restructuring costs$15.9 $26.0 
Depreciation and amortization1.4 5.3 
Total expense$17.3 $31.3 
The following table summarizes the estimated timing of the Company's future lease and lease-related payments, net of amounts contractually subleased, related to restructuring activities for lease termination costs as of June 30, 2023 (in millions):
Payment Due by Period
Remaining 2023$7.7 
202413.9 
20256.7 
20262.8 
Thereafter1.6 
Total$32.7 


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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the discussion under the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for the year ended December 31, 2022 included in the 2022 Form 10-K. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements”. You should review the disclosure under the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in our 2022 Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.
OVERVIEW
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations, or MD&A, is provided as a supplement to the condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report and is intended to provide an understanding of our results of operations, financial condition and changes in our results of operations and financial condition. Our MD&A is organized as follows:
Introduction. This section provides a general description of our company and its business, recent developments affecting our company and discussions of how seasonal factors and macroeconomic conditions may impact our results.
Results of Operations. This section provides our analysis and outlook for the significant line items on our statements of operations, as well as other information that we deem meaningful to understand our results of operations on a consolidated basis.
Key Business Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures. This section provides a discussion of key business metrics and non-GAAP financial measures we use to evaluate our business and measure our performance, in addition to the measures presented in our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Liquidity and Capital Resources. This section provides an analysis of our liquidity and cash flows, as well as a discussion of our commitments that existed as of June 30, 2023.
Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies. This section discusses those accounting policies that are considered important to the evaluation and reporting of our financial condition and results of operations, and whose application requires us to exercise subjective and often complex judgments in making estimates and assumptions.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. This section provides a summary of the most recent authoritative accounting standards and guidance that have either been recently adopted by our company or may be adopted in the future.
INTRODUCTION
Our Company
Compass, Inc. (the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware on October 4, 2012 under the name Urban Compass, Inc. On January 8, 2021, the board of directors of the Company approved a change to the Company’s name from Urban Compass, Inc. to Compass, Inc.
Our Business and Business Model
We are a residential real estate brokerage that provides an end-to-end platform of software, services and support to empower our residential real estate agents to deliver exceptional service to seller and buyer clients. Real estate agents are themselves business owners, and Compass agents utilize the platform to grow their respective businesses, save time and manage their business more effectively. Our platform includes an integrated suite of cloud-based software for customer relationship management, marketing, client service, brokerage services and other critical functionalities, all custom-built for the real estate industry and enabling our core brokerage services. Our platform also uses proprietary data, analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning to deliver high value recommendations and outcomes for Compass agents and their clients.
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Our business model is directly aligned with the success of our agents. We attract agents to our brokerage and partner with them as independent contractors that affiliate their real estate licenses with us, operating their businesses on our platform and under our brand. We currently generate substantially all of our revenue from commissions paid to us by our agents' clients at the time that a home is transacted on our platform, which agents use to assist home sellers and buyers in listing, marketing, selling and finding homes as well as through the provision of services adjacent to the transaction, such as title, escrow and mortgage. While adjacent services comprise a small portion of our revenue to date, we believe we are well-positioned to capture meaningful revenue from adjacent services as we continue to diversify our offerings within the real estate ecosystem.
Update Related to the Restructuring Activities
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we enacted certain workforce reductions, wound down Modus and terminated certain of our operating leases. The workforce reductions were part of a broader plan by us to take meaningful actions to improve the alignment between our organizational structure and long-term business strategy, drive cost efficiencies enabled by our technology and other competitive advantages and continue to drive toward profitability and positive free cash flow. In addition to the aforementioned workforce reductions, restructuring actions have included and are expected to include, but not be limited to, a reduction in U.S. hiring and backfills resulting from attrition; a reduction in spend through third-party vendors; eliminating the use of incentives when recruiting new agents and reducing incentives for existing agents; a planned slow down in M&A activity and new market expansion; and a review of occupancy costs with a view to consolidating offices and reducing related costs.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we implemented a further workforce reduction. During the three months ended June 30, 2023, we took actions to reduce our occupancy costs, the most significant being the scaling down of our New York administrative office. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, we incurred restructuring costs of $15.9 million and $26.0 million, respectively, in connection with these actions. These costs are a result of severance and other termination benefits for employees whose roles are being eliminated and lease termination costs as a result of the accelerated amortization of various right-of-use assets and other lease-related costs. These expenses have been presented within the Restructuring costs line in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. We incurred additional non-cash charges of approximately $1.4 million and $5.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively, associated with the write-down of fixed assets for certain real estate leases that have been exited, or partially exited. These costs have been included within the Depreciation and amortization line in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Operational Highlights for the Three Months Ended June 30, 2023
We continue to attract and retain the most talented agents to our platform, which is critical to our long-term success. We grow our revenue by attracting high-performing agents looking to grow their business and increasing the productivity of our agents. While we are not investing in technology at the same rate as in the past, we continue to invest in our proprietary, integrated platform designed for real estate agents, to enable them to grow their business and save them time and money. This value proposition allows us to recruit more agents, help them grow their business and retain them on our platform at industry leading retention rates.
We had over 28,000 agents on our platform as of June 30, 2023. A subset of our agents are considered principal agents, which we define as either agents who are leaders of their respective agent teams or individual agents operating independently on our platform.
For the three months ended June 30, 2023, the Average Number of Principal Agents1 was 13,633, an increase of 429, or 3.2%, from the three months ended June 30, 2022. The principal agent additions came in both new and existing markets.
During the three months ended June 30, 2023, our agents closed 54,207 Total Transactions, a decrease of 18.9% when compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022. The decline was primarily driven by the macroeconomic conditions that contributed to the slowdown in the U.S. residential real estate market. See the section entitled “Impact of the Macroeconomic Conditions on the U.S. Residential Real Estate Market and Our Business” for more details surrounding these macroeconomic conditions.
1 During the first quarter of 2023, the Company began to utilize an updated methodology for tracking and reporting its agent statistics. The Company's Average Number of Principal Agents and year over year growth reported in this Form 10-Q is based on the updated methodology.
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Our Gross Transaction Value for the three months ended June 30, 2023 was $56.8 billion, a decrease of 26.0% when compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022. Gross Transaction Value is primarily driven by home values in the markets we serve and by changes in the number of our agents in those markets, as well as seasonality and the aforementioned macroeconomic factors.
For the three months ended June 30, 2023, our Gross Transaction Value represented 4.6% of residential real estate transacted in the U.S., compared to 4.9% for the three months ended June 30, 2022. The second quarter's market share represents a 13 basis point increase sequentially from the three months ended March 31, 2023. We calculate our national market share by dividing our Gross Transaction Value, or the total dollar value of transactions closed by agents on our platform, by two times (to account for the sell-side and buy-side of each transaction) the aggregate dollar value of U.S. existing home sales as reported by the National Association of Realtors ("NAR"). Gross Transaction Value includes a de minimis number of new development and commercial brokerage transactions.
For the definitions of Average Number of Principal Agents, Total Transactions and Gross Transaction Value please refer to the section entitled “Key Business Metrics” included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report.

Seasonality and Cyclicality

The residential real estate market is seasonal, which directly impacts our agents’ businesses. While individual markets may vary, transaction volume is typically highest in spring and summer, and then declines gradually in late fall and winter. We experience the most significant financial effect from this seasonality in the first and fourth quarters of each year, when our revenue is typically lower relative to the second and third quarters. The effect of this seasonality on our revenue has a larger effect on our results of operations as many of our operating expenses (excluding commissions) are somewhat fixed in nature and do not vary directly in line with our revenue. We believe that this seasonality has affected and will continue to affect our quarterly results; however, to date its effect may have been masked by our rapid growth during the year ended December 31, 2021 and the impact of changes in macroeconomic conditions experienced during the year ended December 31, 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023.
The broader residential real estate industry is cyclical, and individual markets can have their own dynamics that diverge from broad market conditions. The real estate industry can be impacted by the strength or weakness of the economy, changes in interest rates or mortgage lending standards, or extreme economic or political conditions. Our revenue growth rate tends to increase as the real estate industry performs well and to decrease when the real estate industry performs poorly.
Impact of the Macroeconomic Conditions on the U.S. Residential Real Estate Market and Our Business
Throughout 2022 and through the second quarter of 2023, a number of macroeconomic conditions contributed to the slowdown in the U.S. residential real estate market, impacting our business and financial results during the year ended December 31, 2022 and the six months ended June 30, 2023. These conditions include, but are not limited to, the conflict in Ukraine, volatility in the U.S. equity markets, rising inflation, rapidly rising mortgage interest rates, and the Federal Reserve Board increasing the federal funds rate by an aggregate of 5.25% through July 2023 with possible further increases throughout the year. These conditions have contributed toward slowed consumer demand and declining home affordability and began to have an impact on price appreciation. Any further slowdown or additional challenging conditions in the U.S. residential real estate market could have a significant impact on our business and financial results in the third quarter of 2023 and beyond. While we continue to assess the effects of the current slowdown on our business and financial results, the ultimate impact will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict, as well as the actions that we have taken, or will take, to minimize any current and future impact.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated:
 Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2023202220232022
 
(in millions, except percentages)
Revenue$1,494.0 100.0 %$2,020.1 100.0 %$2,451.2 100.0 %$3,417.1 100.0 %
Operating expenses:
Commissions and other related expense (1)
1,224.0 81.9 1,652.9 81.8 2,014.9 82.2 2,799.3 81.9 
Sales and marketing (1)
113.3 7.6 154.9 7.7 228.6 9.3 299.9 8.8 
Operations and support (1)
83.0 5.6 104.9 5.2 164.1 6.7 213.8 6.3 
Research and development (1)
45.4 3.0 107.2 5.3 94.3 3.8 215.4 6.3 
General and administrative (1)
34.7 2.3 55.2 2.7 69.1 2.8 110.5 3.2 
Restructuring costs15.9 1.1 18.9 0.9 26.0 1.1 18.9 0.6 
Depreciation and amortization22.3 1.5 25.4 1.3 47.2 1.9 44.1 1.3 
Total operating expenses1,538.6 103.0 2,119.4 104.9 2,644.2 107.9 3,701.9 108.3 
Loss from operations(44.6)(3.0)(99.3)(4.9)(193.0)(7.9)(284.8)(8.3)
Investment income, net2.5 0.2 0.3 — 5.4 0.2 0.4 — 
Interest expense(4.1)(0.3)(0.7)— (7.3)(0.3)(1.4)— 
Loss before income taxes and equity in loss of unconsolidated entity(46.2)(3.1)(99.7)(4.9)(194.9)(8.0)(285.8)(8.4)
Income tax benefit— — 1.5 0.1 — — 1.4 — 
Equity in loss of unconsolidated entity(0.7)— (2.9)(0.1)(2.2)(0.1)(5.0)(0.1)
Net loss(46.9)(3.1)(101.1)(5.0)(197.1)(8.0)(289.4)(8.5)
Net (income) loss attributable to non-controlling interests(0.9)(0.1)(0.1)— (1.1)— 0.2 — 
Net loss attributable to Compass, Inc.$(47.8)(3.2 %)$(101.2)(5.0 %)$(198.2)(8.1 %)$(289.2)(8.5 %)
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Commissions and other related expense$— $6.4 $11.6 $23.4 
Sales and marketing9.0 11.2 17.6 21.9 
Operations and support4.1 4.1 7.1 8.4 
Research and development12.6 18.9 23.0 35.8 
General and administrative13.3 18.6 24.6 33.5 
Total stock-based compensation expense$39.0 $59.2 $83.9 $123.0 
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Comparison of the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2023 and 2022
Revenue
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Revenue$1,494.0 $2,020.1 $(526.1)(26.0 %)$2,451.2 $3,417.1 $(965.9)(28.3 %)
Revenue was $1,494.0 million and $2,451.2 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $526.1 million, or 26.0%, and $965.9 million, or 28.3%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. The decrease for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 was primarily driven by the macroeconomic conditions that contributed to the current slowdown in the U.S. residential real estate market, a lower volume of transactions and a decline in average transaction value, partially offset by an increase in the number of agents that joined our platform during 2022 and 2023. The Average Number of Principal Agents2 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 grew to 13,633 and 13,574, an increase of 3.2% and 4.4% from the year ago periods.
Operating Expenses
Commissions and other related expense
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Commissions and other related expense$1,224.0$1,652.9 $(428.9)(25.9 %)$2,014.9 $2,799.3 $(784.4)(28.0 %)
Percentage of revenue81.9 %81.8 %82.2 %81.9 %
Commissions and other related expense was $1,224.0 million and $2,014.9 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $428.9 million, or 25.9%, and $784.4 million, or 28.0%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. Included in Commissions and other related expense were non-cash expenses related to stock-based compensation of $11.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and $6.4 million and $23.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decline in stock-based compensation expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 when compared to the prior year periods was due the discontinuation of the Agent Equity Program in 2023. Commissions and other related expense excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense was $1,224.0 million, or 81.9% of revenue, and $2,003.3 million, or 81.7% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $1,646.5 million, or 81.5% of revenue, and $2,775.9 million, or 81.2% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in absolute dollars of Commission and other related expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 when compared to the prior year periods was primarily driven by the macroeconomic conditions that contributed to the slowdown in the U.S. residential real estate market. The unfavorable increase in Commissions and other related expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, expressed as a percentage of revenue in the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, was due to there being no Agent Equity Program contributions in the current year periods as the Agent Equity Program was discontinued for 2023. Excluding the impact of $16.3 million and $28.1 million in Agent Equity Program contributions made during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, Commissions and other related expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 improved by 38 and 33 basis points, respectively, when compared to the year ago periods.
2 During the first quarter of 2023, the Company began to utilize an updated methodology for tracking and reporting its agent statistics. The Company's Average Number of Principal Agents and year over year growth reported in this Form 10-Q is based on the updated methodology.
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Sales and marketing
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Sales and marketing$113.3 $154.9 $(41.6)(26.9 %)$228.6 $299.9 $(71.3)(23.8 %)
Percentage of revenue7.6 %7.7 %9.3 %8.8 %
Sales and marketing expense was $113.3 million and $228.6 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $41.6 million, or 26.9%, and $71.3 million, or 23.8%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. Included in Sales and marketing expense were non-cash expenses related to stock-based compensation of $9.0 million and $17.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $11.2 million and $21.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in stock-based compensation expense during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 was due to lower headcount resulting from the aforementioned workforce reductions. Sales and marketing expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, was $104.3 million, or 7.0% of revenue, and $211.0 million, or 8.6% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $143.7 million, or 7.1% of revenue, and $278.0 million, or 8.1% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in absolute dollars, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 was primarily due to a decrease in compensation and other personnel-related costs due to decreased headcount. Sales and marketing expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, expressed as a percentage of revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022 was relatively flat. The unfavorable increase in Sales and marketing expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, expressed as a percentage of revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022 was primarily driven by a decrease in revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2023 compared to the year ago period.
Operations and support
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Operations and support$83.0 $104.9 $(21.9)(20.9 %)$164.1 $213.8 $(49.7)(23.2 %)
Percentage of revenue5.6 %5.2 %6.7 %6.3 %
Operations and support expense was $83.0 million and $164.1 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $21.9 million, or 20.9%, and $49.7 million, or 23.2%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. Included in Operations and support expense were non-cash expenses related to stock-based compensation of $4.1 million and $7.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $4.1 million and $8.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in stock-based compensation expense during the six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022 was due to lower headcount resulting from the aforementioned workforce reductions. Operations and support expense, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, was $78.9 million, or 5.3% of revenue, and $157.0 million, or 6.4% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $100.8 million, or 5.0% of revenue, and $205.4 million, or 6.0% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in absolute dollars, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 was primarily driven by a decrease in compensation and other personnel-related costs due to decreased headcount. The increase in Operations and support expense, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, as a percentage of revenue for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 was primarily driven by a decrease in revenue for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 compared to the year ago periods.
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Research and development
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Research and development$45.4 $107.2 $(61.8)(57.6 %)$94.3 $215.4 $(121.1)(56.2 %)
Percentage of revenue3.0 %5.3 %3.8 %6.3 %
Research and development expense was $45.4 million and $94.3 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $61.8 million, or 57.6%, and $121.1 million, or 56.2%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. Included in Research and development expense were non-cash expenses related to stock-based compensation of $12.6 million and $23.0 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $18.9 million and $35.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in stock-based compensation expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 was primarily driven by workforce reductions taken in connection with our restructuring activities. Research and development expense, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, was $32.8 million, or 2.2% of revenue, and $71.3 million, or 2.9% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $88.3 million, or 4.4% of revenue, and $179.6 million, or 5.3% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in Research and development expense, excluding non-cash stock-based compensation expense, in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 was primarily driven by lower research and development related headcount resulting from our aforementioned workforce reductions and other cost reduction initiatives.
General and administrative
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
General and administrative$34.7 $55.2 $(20.5)(37.1 %)$69.1 $110.5 $(41.4)(37.5 %)
Percentage of revenue2.3 %2.7 %2.8 %3.2 %
General and administrative expense was $34.7 million and $69.1 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, a decrease of $20.5 million, or 37.1%, and $41.4 million, or 37.5%, compared to the prior year periods, respectively. General and administrative expense includes non-cash expenses related to stock-based compensation of $13.3 million and $24.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $18.6 million and $33.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in stock-based compensation expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the year ago periods was primarily due to decreased expense for awards resulting from decreased headcount. General and administrative expense, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, was $21.4 million, or 1.4% of revenue, and $44.5 million, or 1.8% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and $36.6 million, or 1.8% of revenue, and $77.0 million, or 2.3% of revenue, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively. The decrease in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue, excluding such non-cash stock-based compensation expense, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 was primarily driven by lower headcount resulting from our aforementioned workforce reductions and other cost reduction initiatives.
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Restructuring costs
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Restructuring costs$15.9 $18.9 $(3.0)(15.9 %)$26.0 $18.9 $7.1 37.6 %
Percentage of revenue1.1 %0.9 %1.1 %0.6 %
Restructuring costs in the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 primarily consisted of costs associated with workforce reduction actions and lease terminations. Restructuring costs in the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 primarily consisted of costs associated with a workforce reduction plan and a wind-down of Modus Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned title and escrow software company. See Note 12 - "Restructuring Activities" in our condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report, for more information.
Depreciation and amortization
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022$ Change% Change20232022$ Change% Change
(in millions, except percentages)
Depreciation and amortization$22.3 $25.4 $(3.1)(12.2 %)$47.2