N-1A 1 h87258bnv1a.htm FORM N-1A nv1a
As filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on January 16, 2013.
1940 Act Registration No. 811-22793
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM N-1A
and/or
     
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940   þ
Amendment No.___
(Check appropriate box or boxes.)
INVESCO SECURITIES TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)     (Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (713) 626-1919
John M. Zerr, Esquire
11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173
(Name and Address of Agent of Service)
With Copies to:
     
Stephen Rimes, Esquire
  E. Carolan Berkley, Esquire
Invesco Advisers, Inc.
  Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP
11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000
  2005 Market Street, Suite 2600
Houston, Texas 77046
  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103-7018
 
 


 

INVESCO SECURITIES TRUST
Prospectus
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
January 16, 2013
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund (the “Fund”), a series portfolio of Invesco Securities Trust (the “Trust”), issues its beneficial interests (“shares”) only in private placement transactions that do not involve a public offering within the meaning of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). This prospectus is not offering to sell, or soliciting any offer to buy, any security to the public within the meaning of the Securities Act.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has not approved or disapproved the Fund’s shares as an investment or determined whether this prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

1


 

Invesco Securities Trust
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
Responses to items 1 through 4 and 13 have been omitted pursuant to paragraph 2(b) of Instruction B of the General Instructions to Form N-1A.
Management
Invesco Advisers, Inc. (“Invesco” or the “Adviser”) serves as Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund’s (the “Fund”) investment adviser.
The following individuals are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio:
         
Portfolio Managers   Title   Length of Service on the Fund
Scott Wolle
  Portfolio Manager (lead)   Inception
 
       
Mark Ahnrud
  Portfolio Manager   Inception
 
       
Chris Devine
  Portfolio Manager   Inception
 
       
Scott Hixon
  Portfolio Manager   Inception
 
       
Christian Ulrich
  Portfolio Manager   Inception
     The portfolio managers are assisted by Invesco’s Global Asset Allocation Team, which is comprised of portfolio managers and research analysts. Members of the team may change from time to time.
Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares
The Fund’s shares have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), which means that the Fund’s shares may not be sold publicly. However, the Fund may sell its shares through private placements pursuant to available exemptions from registration under the Securities Act.
     Shares of the Fund are sold only to other investment companies. Requests to purchase or redeem shares of the Fund are processed at the net asset value of the shares next determined after receipt of the request in good order. All investments are subject to approval of the Adviser. There are no minimum investment requirements.
Tax information
The Fund’s distributions generally are taxable to you as ordinary income, capital gains, or some combination of both, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or individual retirement account.
     This discussion of “Taxes” is for general information only and not tax advice. All investors should consult their own tax advisers as to the federal, state, local and foreign tax provisions applicable to them.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
Not applicable.

2


 

Investment Objectives, Principal Investment Strategies, Related Risks, and Disclosure of Portfolio Holdings
Investment Objective
The Fund’s investment objective is to provide total return with a low to moderate correlation to traditional financial market indices. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed by the Board of Trustees (Board) without shareholder approval.
Principal Investment Strategies
The Fund’s investment strategy is designed to provide capital loss protection during down markets. Under normal market conditions, the Fund’s portfolio management team allocates across three asset classes, equities, fixed income and commodities, such that no one asset class drives the Fund’s performance. The Fund’s exposure to these three asset classes will be achieved primarily through investments in derivative instruments.
The portfolio managers manage the Fund’s portfolio using two different processes. One is strategic asset allocation, which the portfolio managers use to express their long term views of the market. The portfolio managers apply their strategic process to, on average, approximately 80% of the Fund’s portfolio. The other process is tactical asset allocation, which is used by the portfolio managers to reflect their shorter term views of the market. The strategic and tactical processes are intended to diversify portfolio risk in a variety of market conditions.
The portfolio managers will implement their investment decisions through the use of derivatives and other investments that create economic leverage. The Fund uses derivatives and other leveraged instruments to create and adjust exposure to the asset classes. The portfolio managers make these adjustments to balance risk exposure when they believe it will benefit the Fund. Using derivatives allows the portfolio managers to implement their views more efficiently and to gain more exposure to the asset classes than investing in more traditional assets, such as stocks and bonds, would allow. The Fund holds only long positions in derivatives. A long derivative position involves the Fund buying a derivative with the anticipation of a price increase of the underlying asset. The Fund’s use of derivatives and the leveraged investment exposure created by the use of derivatives are expected to be significant and greater than most mutual funds.
We expect the Fund’s net asset value over a short to intermediate term to be volatile because of the significant use of derivatives and other instruments that provide economic leverage. Volatility measures the range of returns of a security, fund or index, as indicated by the annualized standard deviation of its returns. Higher volatility generally indicates higher risk and is often reflected by frequent and sometimes significant movements up and down in value. It is expected that the annualized volatility level for the Fund will be, on average, approximately 12%. The Fund’s actual volatility level for longer or shorter periods may be materially higher or lower than the target level depending on market conditions, and therefore the Fund’s risk exposure may be materially higher or lower than the level targeted by the portfolio managers. The Fund’s investment strategy seeks to provide total return with low to moderate correlation to traditional market indices, notwithstanding the expected short and intermediate term volatility in the net asset value of the Fund.
The Fund will have the potential for greater gains, as well as the potential for greater losses, than if the Fund did not use derivatives or other instruments that have an economic leveraging effect. Economic leveraging tends to magnify, sometimes significantly depending on the amount of leverage used, the

3


 

effect of any increase or decrease in the Fund’s exposure to an asset class and may cause the Fund’s net asset value to be more volatile than a fund that does not use leverage. For example, if the Adviser gains exposure to a specific asset class through an instrument that provides leveraged exposure to the class, and that leveraged instrument increases in value, the gain to the Fund will be magnified; however, if the leveraged instrument decreases in value, the loss to the Fund will be magnified.
The Adviser’s investment process has three steps. The first step involves asset selection within the three asset classes (equities, fixed income and commodities). The portfolio managers select investments to represent each of the three asset classes from a universe of over fifty investments. The selection process (1) evaluates a particular investment’s theoretical case for long-term excess returns relative to cash; (2) screens the identified investments against minimum liquidity criteria; and (3) reviews the expected correlation among the investments, meaning the likelihood that the value of the investments will move in the same direction at the same time, and the expected risk of each investment to determine whether the selected investments are likely to improve the expected risk adjusted return of the Fund.
Using a systematic approach based on fundamental principles, the portfolio management team analyzes the asset classes and investments, considering the following factors: valuation, economic environment and historic price movements. Regarding valuation, the portfolio managers evaluates whether asset classes and investments are attractively priced relative to fundamentals. Next, the portfolio managers assess the economic environment and consider the effect that monetary policy and other determinants of economic growth, inflation and market volatility will have on the asset classes and investments. Lastly, the portfolio managers assess the impact of historic price movements for the asset classes and investments on likely future returns.
The second step in the investment process involves portfolio construction. The portfolio managers use their own estimates for risk and correlation to weight each asset class and the investments within each asset class to construct a risk-balanced portfolio. Periodically, the management team re-estimates the risk contributed by each asset class and investment and re-balances the portfolio; the portfolio also may be rebalanced when the Fund makes new investments.
Utilizing the results from the analysis described above, the portfolio managers determine tactical short-term over-weight (buying additional assets relative to the strategic allocation) and under-weight (selling assets relative to the strategic allocation) positions for the asset classes and investments. The portfolio managers then attempt to control the frequency, depth and duration of portfolio losses and manage the risk contribution from the various asset classes and investments with the proprietary risk-balancing process.
In the third step of the investment process, the portfolio managers calculate the estimated risk of the portfolio and scale the positions accordingly in order to construct a portfolio with a targeted risk profile. The management team actively adjusts portfolio positions to reflect the near-term market environment, while remaining consistent with the balanced-risk long-term portfolio structure described in step two above. The management team uses a systematic approach to evaluate the attractiveness of the assets in the portfolio relative to the expected returns of treasury bills. The approach focuses on three concepts: valuation, the economic environment, and historic price movements. When the balance of these concepts is positive, the management team will increase exposure to an asset by purchasing more relative to the

4


 

strategic allocation. In a like manner, the management team will reduce exposure to strategic assets when the balance of these concepts is negative.
The Fund’s equity exposure will be achieved through investments in derivatives that track equity indices from developed and/or emerging market countries. The Fund’s fixed income exposure will be achieved through derivative investments that offer exposure to issuers in developed markets that are rated investment grade or unrated but deemed to be investment grade quality, including U.S. and foreign government debt securities having intermediate (5 – 10 years) and long (10 plus years) term duration. The Fund’s commodity exposure will be achieved through investments in exchange-traded funds (ETFs), commodity futures and swaps, exchange-traded notes (ETNs) and commodity-linked notes, some or all of which will be owned through Invesco Cayman Commodity Fund VI Ltd., a wholly–owned subsidiary of the Fund organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands (Subsidiary). The commodity investments will be focused in four sectors of the commodities market: energy, precious metals, industrial metals and agriculture/livestock.
ETFs are traded on an exchange and generally hold a portfolio of securities, commodities and/or currencies that are designed to replicate (i) a specified market or other index, (ii) a basket of securities, commodities or currencies, or (iii) a particular commodity or currency.
ETNs are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities issued by a bank or other sponsor, the returns of which are linked to the performance of a particular market, benchmark or strategy. ETNs are traded on an exchange; however, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor.
The Fund invests, under normal circumstances, in derivatives that provide exposure to issuers located in at least three different countries, including the U.S. The Fund will invest, under normal circumstances, at least 40% of its net assets in derivatives that provide exposure to issuers outside the United States.
The Fund will invest up to 25% of its total assets in the Subsidiary to gain exposure to commodities markets. The Subsidiary, in turn, will invest in futures, swaps, commodity-linked notes, ETFs and ETNs. The Subsidiary is advised by the Adviser, has the same investment objective as the Fund and generally employs the same investment strategy. Unlike the Fund, however, the Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity-linked derivatives and other securities that may provide leveraged and non-leveraged exposure to commodities. The Subsidiary holds cash and can invest in cash equivalent instruments, including affiliated money market funds, some or all of which may serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivative positions. Because the Subsidiary is wholly-owned by the Fund, the Fund will be subject to the risks associated with any investment by the Subsidiary.
The Fund generally will maintain 50% to 100% of its total assets (including assets held by the Subsidiary) in cash and cash equivalent instruments, including affiliated money market funds, as margin or collateral for the Fund’s obligations under derivative transactions. The larger the value of the Fund’s derivative positions, as opposed to positions held in non-derivative instruments, the more the Fund will be required to maintain cash and cash equivalents as margin or collateral for such derivatives.

5


 

The Fund is non-diversified, which means that it can invest a greater percentage of its assets in a small group of issuers or any one issuer than a diversified fund can.
The derivatives in which the Fund will invest will include but are not limited to futures, swap agreements and commodity-linked notes.
A swap contract is an agreement between two parties pursuant to which the parties exchange payments at specified dates on the basis of a specified notional amount, with the payments calculated by reference to specified securities, indexes, reference rates, commodities, currencies or other instruments. The notional amount of a swap is based on the nominal or face amount of a referenced asset that is used to calculate payments made on that swap; the notional amount typically is not exchanged between counterparties. The parties to the swap use variations in the value of the underlying asset to calculate payments between them through the life of the swap.
Futures contracts are standardized agreements between two parties to buy or sell a specific quantity of an underlying instrument or commodity at a specific price at a specific future time. The value of a futures contract tends to increase and decrease with the value of the underlying instrument or commodity. Futures contracts are bilateral agreements, with both the purchaser and the seller equally obligated to complete the transaction. Depending on the terms of the particular contract, futures contracts are settled by purchasing an offsetting contract, physically delivering the underlying instrument or commodity on the settlement date or paying a cash settlement amount on the settlement date.
Commodity-linked notes are notes issued by a bank or other sponsor that pay a return linked to the performance of a commodities index or basket of futures contracts with respect to all of the commodities in an index. In some cases, the return will be based on a multiple of the performance of the index and this embedded leverage will magnify the positive return and losses the Fund earns from these notes as compared to the index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
As with any mutual fund investment, loss of money is a risk of investing. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit in a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency. The risks associated with an investment in the Fund can increase during times of significant market volatility. The principal risks of investing in the Fund are:
CFTC Regulation Risk. The CFTC has recently adopted amendments to certain CFTC rules, and is promulgating new rules, which will subject the Fund to regulation by the CFTC. The Fund will be required to operate subject to applicable CFTC requirements, including registration, disclosure and operational requirements. The Fund also will be subject to CFTC requirements related to processing derivatives transactions and tracking exposure levels to certain commodities. Compliance with these additional requirements will increase Fund expenses. Certain of the requirements that would apply to the Fund have not yet been adopted, and it is unclear what the effect of those requirements would be on the Fund if they are adopted. The Adviser believes that it is possible that compliance with CFTC regulations, if they are adopted as proposed, may adversely affect the ability of the Fund to achieve its objective.

6


 

Commodity-Linked Notes Risk. The Fund’s investments in commodity-linked notes may involve substantial risks, including risk of loss of a significant portion of their principal value. In addition to risks associated with the underlying commodities, they may be subject to additional special risks, such as the lack of a secondary trading market and temporary price distortions due to speculators and/or the continuous rolling over of futures contracts underlying the notes. Commodity-linked notes are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with the Fund.
Commodity Risk. The Fund’s significant investment exposure to the commodities markets, and/or a particular sector of the commodities markets, may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. The commodities markets may fluctuate widely based on a variety of factors, including changes in overall market movements, domestic and foreign political and economic events and policies, war, acts of terrorism, changes in domestic or foreign interest rates and/or investor expectations concerning interest rates, domestic and foreign inflation rates and investment and trading activities of mutual funds, hedge funds and commodities funds. Prices of various commodities may also be affected by factors such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and other regulatory developments. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions. Because the Fund’s performance is linked to the performance of volatile commodities, investors should be willing to assume the risks of potentially significant fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s shares.
Correlation Risk. Changes in the value of two investments or asset classes may not track or offset each other in the manner anticipated by the portfolio managers. Because the Fund’s investment strategy seeks to balance risk across three asset classes and, within each asset class, to balance risk across different countries and commodities, to the extent either the three asset classes or the selected countries and commodities are correlated in a way not anticipated by the portfolio managers the Fund’s risk allocation process may not succeed in achieving its investment objective.
Counterparty Risk. Counterparty risk is the risk that the other party to the contract will not fulfill its contractual obligations, which may cause losses or additional costs to the Fund.
Credit Risk. The issuer of instruments in which the Fund invests may be unable to meet interest and/or principal payments, thereby causing its instruments to decrease in value and lowering the issuer’s credit rating.
Currency/Exchange Rate Risk. The dollar value of the Fund’s foreign investments will be affected by changes in the exchange rates between the dollar and the currencies in which those investments are traded.
Derivatives Risk. The performance of derivative instruments is tied to the performance of an underlying currency, security, index, commodity or other instrument. In addition to risks relating to their underlying instruments, the use of derivatives may include other, possibly greater, risks. Derivatives involve costs, may be volatile, and may involve a small initial investment relative to the risk assumed. Risks associated with the use of derivatives may include counterparty, leverage, correlation, liquidity, tax, market, interest rate and management risks. Derivatives may also be more difficult to purchase, sell or value than other

7


 

investments. The Fund may lose more than the cash amount invested on investments in derivatives. Investors should bear in mind that, while the Fund intends to use derivative strategies, it is not obligated to actively engage in these transactions, generally or in any particular kind of derivative, if the investment manager elects not to do so due to availability, cost, market conditions or other factors.
Developing/Emerging Markets Securities Risk. Securities issued by foreign companies and governments located in developing/emerging countries may be affected more negatively by inflation, devaluation of their currencies, higher transaction costs, delays in settlement, adverse political developments, the introduction of capital controls, withholding taxes, nationalization of private assets, expropriation, social unrest, war or lack of timely information than those in developed countries.
Exchange-Traded Funds Risk. An investment by the Fund in exchange-traded funds generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a mutual fund. In addition, an exchange-traded fund may be subject to the following: (1) a discount of the exchange-traded fund’s shares to its net asset value; (2) failure to develop or maintain an active trading market for the exchange-traded fund’s shares; (3) the listing exchange halting trading of the exchange-traded fund’s shares; (4) failure of the exchange-traded fund’s shares to track the referenced asset; and (5) holding troubled securities in the referenced index or basket of investments. Exchange-traded funds may involve duplication of management fees and certain other expenses, as the Fund indirectly bears its proportionate share of any expenses paid by the exchange-traded funds in which it invests. Further, certain of the exchange-traded funds in which the Fund may invest are leveraged. The more the Fund invests in such leveraged exchange-traded funds, the more this leverage will magnify any losses on those investments.
Exchange-Traded Notes Risk. Exchange-traded notes are subject to credit risk, including the credit risk of the issuer, and the value of the exchange-traded note may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an exchange-traded note may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the exchange-traded note, volatility and lack of liquidity in the underlying market, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying market or strategy. Exchange-traded notes are also subject to counterparty risk.
Foreign Securities Risk. The Fund’s foreign investments may be affected by changes in a foreign country’s exchange rates, political and social instability, changes in economic or taxation policies, difficulties when enforcing obligations, decreased liquidity, and increased volatility. Foreign companies may be subject to less regulation resulting in less publicly available information about the companies.
Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk refers to the risk that bond prices generally fall as interest rates rise; conversely, bond prices generally rise as interest rates fall. Specific bonds differ in their sensitivity to changes in interest rates depending on their individual characteristics, including duration. This risk may be magnified due to the Fund’s use of derivatives that provide leveraged exposure to government bonds.
Leverage Risk. Leverage exists when the Fund purchases or sells an instrument or enters into a transaction without investing cash in an amount equal to the full economic exposure of the

8


 

instrument or transaction and the Fund could lose more than it invested. Leverage created from borrowing or certain types of transactions or instruments may impair the Fund’s liquidity, cause it to liquidate positions at an unfavorable time, increase volatility or otherwise not achieve its intended objective. There is no assurance that the Fund’s use of the leveraged instruments will enable the Fund to achieve its investment objective. The Fund’s significant use of derivatives and leverage could, under certain market conditions, cause the Fund’s losses to be more significant than other mutual funds and, in extreme market conditions, could cause a complete loss of your investment.
Liquidity Risk. The Fund may hold illiquid securities that they may be unable to sell at the preferred time or price and could lose their entire investment in such securities. The Fund’s significant use of derivative instruments may cause liquidity risk to be greater than other mutual funds that invest in more traditional assets such as stocks and bonds, which trade on markets with more market participants.
Management Risk. The investment techniques and risk analysis used by the Fund’s portfolio managers may not produce the desired results. Because the Fund’s investment process relies heavily on its tactical asset allocation process, market movements that are counter to the portfolio manager’s expectations may have a significant adverse effect on the Fund’s net asset value. Further, the portfolio manager’s use of instruments that provide economic leverage increases the volatility of the Fund’s net asset value, which increases the potential of greater losses that may cause the Fund to liquidate positions when it may not be advantageous to do so.
Market Risk. The prices of and the income generated by the Fund’s securities may decline in response to, among other things, investor sentiment, general economic and market conditions, regional or global instability, and currency and interest rate fluctuations.
Non-Diversification Risk. The Fund is non-diversified and can invest a greater portion of its assets in a small number of issuers or a single issuer. A change in the value of the issuer could affect the value of the Fund more than if it was a diversified fund.
Subsidiary Risk. By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to risks associated with the Subsidiary’s investments. The Subsidiary is not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (1940 Act), and, except as otherwise noted in this prospectus, is not subject to the investor protections of the 1940 Act. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands, under which the Fund and the Subsidiary, respectively, are organized, could result in the inability of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as described in this prospectus and the SAI, and could negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders.
Tax Risk. The tax treatment of commodity-linked derivative instruments may be adversely affected by changes in legislation, regulations or other legally binding authority. If, as a result of any such adverse action, the income of the Fund from certain commodity-linked derivatives was treated as non-qualifying income, the Fund might fail to qualify as a regulated investment company and be subject to federal income tax at the Fund level. The Internal Revenue Service has issued a number of private letter rulings to other mutual funds (including to another Invesco fund), which indicate that income from a fund’s investment in certain commodity-linked notes and a wholly owned foreign subsidiary that invests in

9


 

commodity-linked derivatives, such as the Subsidiary, constitutes qualifying income. However, the Internal Revenue Service has suspended issuance of any further private letter rulings pending a review of its position. Should the Internal Revenue Service issue guidance, or Congress enact legislation, that adversely affects the tax treatment of the Fund’s use of commodity-linked notes or the Subsidiary (which guidance might be applied to the Fund retroactively), it could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategy and the Fund might not qualify as a regulated investment company for one or more years. In this event the Fund’s Board of Trustees may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or Fund liquidation. The Fund also may incur transaction and other costs to comply with any new or additional guidance from the Internal Revenue Service.
U.S. Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in obligations issued by U.S. Government agencies and instrumentalities that may receive varying levels of support from the government, which could affect the Fund’s ability to recover should they default.
Volatility Risk. The Fund may have investments that appreciate or decrease significantly in value over short periods of time. This may cause the Fund’s net asset value per share to experience significant increases or declines in value over short periods of time.
Portfolio Holdings
A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s SAI.
Management, Organization and Capital Structure
The Adviser(s)
Invesco serves as the Fund’s investment adviser. The Adviser manages the investment operations of the Fund as well as other investment portfolios that encompass a broad range of investment objectives, and has agreed to perform or arrange for the performance of the Fund’s day-to-day management. The Adviser is located at 1555 Peachtree Street, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30309. The Adviser, as successor in interest to multiple investment advisers, has been an investment adviser since 1976.
     Pending Litigation. There is no material litigation affecting the Fund. Detailed information concerning other pending litigation can be found in the SAI.
Adviser Compensation
The Adviser is to receive a fee from Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund, calculated at the annual rate of average daily net assets set forth below:
     
Net Assets   Annual Rate
First $250 million
  1.100%
Next $250 million
  1.075%
Next $500 million
  1.050%
Next $1.5 billion
  1.025%
Next $2.5 billion
  1.000%
Next $2.5 billion
  0.975%
Next $2.5 billion
  0.950%
Over $10 billion
  0.925%

10


 

     When issued, a discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the investment advisory agreement and investment sub-advisory agreements of the Fund will be available in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders for the twelve-month period ended October 31, 2013.
Portfolio Managers
The following individuals are jointly and primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio:
  §   Scott Wolle, Portfolio Manager (lead), who has been responsible for the Fund since inception and has been associated with Invesco and/or its affiliates since 1999.
 
  §   Mark Ahnrud, Portfolio Manager, who has been responsible for the Fund since inception and has been associated with Invesco and/or its affiliates since 2000.
 
  §   Chris Devine, Portfolio Manager, who has been responsible for the Fund since inception and has been associated with Invesco and/or its affiliates since 1998.
 
  §   Scott Hixon, Portfolio Manager, who has been responsible for the Fund since inception and has been associated with Invesco and/or its affiliates since 1994.
 
  §   Christian Ulrich, Portfolio Manager, who has been responsible for the Fund since inception and has been associated with Invesco and/or its affiliates since 2000.
     The portfolio managers are assisted by Invesco’s Global Asset Allocation Team, which is comprised of portfolio managers and research analysts. Members of the team may change from time to time.
     More information on the portfolio managers may be found at www.invesco.com/us. The Web site is not part of this prospectus.
     The Fund’s SAI provides additional information about the portfolio managers’ investments in the Fund, a description of the compensation structure and information regarding other accounts managed.
Shareholder Information
Fair Value Pricing
Securities owned by the Fund are to be valued at current market value if market quotations are readily available. All other securities and assets of the Fund for which market quotations are not readily available are to be valued at fair value determined in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. An effect of fair value pricing may be to reduce the ability of frequent traders to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities resulting from potentially “stale” prices of portfolio holdings. However, it cannot eliminate the possibility of frequent trading.
Pricing of Shares
Determination of Net Asset Value
The price of the Fund’s shares is the Fund’s net asset value per share. The Fund values portfolio securities for which market quotations are readily available at market value. The Fund values all other securities and assets for which market quotations are unavailable or unreliable at their fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. The Board has delegated the daily determination of good faith fair value methodologies to Invesco’s Valuation Committee, which acts in accordance with Board approved policies. On a quarterly basis, Invesco provides the Board various reports indicating the quality and effectiveness of its fair value decisions on portfolio holdings. Securities and other assets quoted in foreign currencies are valued in U.S. dollars based on the prevailing exchange rates on that day.
     Even when market quotations are available, they may be stale or unreliable because the security is not traded frequently, trading on the security ceased before the close of the trading market or issuer specific events occurred after the security ceased trading or because of the passage of time between the

11


 

close of the market on which the security trades and the close of the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and when the Fund calculates its net asset value. Issuer specific events may cause the last market quotation to be unreliable. Such events may include a merger or insolvency, events which affect a geographical area or an industry segment, such as political events or natural disasters, or market events, such as a significant movement in the U.S. market. Where market quotations are not readily available, including where Invesco determines that the closing price of the security is unreliable, Invesco will value the security at fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board.
     Fair value is that amount that the owner might reasonably expect to receive for the security upon its current sale. Fair value requires consideration of all appropriate factors, including indications of fair value available from pricing services. A fair value price is an estimated price and may vary from the prices used by other mutual funds to calculate their net asset values.
     Invesco may use indications of fair value from pricing services approved by the Board. In other circumstances, the Invesco Valuation Committee may fair value securities in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. As a means of evaluating its fair value process, Invesco routinely compares closing market prices, the next day’s opening prices for the security in its primary market if available, and indications of fair value from other sources. Fair value pricing methods and pricing services can change from time to time as approved by the Board.
     Specific types of securities are valued as follows:
     Domestic Exchange Traded Equity Securities. Market quotations are generally available and reliable for domestic exchange traded equity securities. If market quotations are not available or are unreliable, Invesco will value the security at fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board.
     Foreign Securities. If market quotations are available and reliable for foreign exchange traded equity securities, the securities will be valued at the market quotations. Because trading hours for certain foreign securities end before the close of the NYSE, closing market quotations may become unreliable. If between the time trading ends on a particular security and the close of the customary trading session on the NYSE events occur that are significant and may make the closing price unreliable, the Fund may fair value the security. If an issuer specific event has occurred that Invesco determines, in its judgment, is likely to have affected the closing price of a foreign security, it will price the security at fair value. Invesco also relies on a screening process from a pricing vendor to indicate the degree of certainty, based on historical data, that the closing price in the principal market where a foreign security trades is not the current market value as of the close of the NYSE. For foreign securities where Invesco believes, at the approved degree of certainty, that the price is not reflective of current market value, Invesco will use the indication of fair value from the pricing service to determine the fair value of the security. The pricing vendor, pricing methodology or degree of certainty may change from time to time.
     Fund securities primarily traded on foreign markets may trade on days that are not business days of the Fund. Because the net asset value of Fund shares is determined only on business days of the Fund, the value of the portfolio securities of a Fund that invests in foreign securities may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or redeem shares of the Fund.
     Fixed Income Securities. Government, corporate, asset-backed and municipal bonds, convertible securities, including high yield or junk bonds, and loans, normally are valued on the basis of prices provided by independent pricing services. Prices provided by the pricing services may be determined without exclusive reliance on quoted prices, and may reflect appropriate factors such as institution-size trading in similar groups of securities, developments related to special securities, dividend rate, maturity and other market data. Prices received from pricing services are fair value prices. In addition, if the price provided by the pricing service and independent quoted prices are unreliable, the Invesco valuation committee will fair value the security using procedures approved by the Board.

12


 

     Short-term Securities. Invesco Money Market Fund, Invesco Tax-Exempt Cash Fund, Premier Portfolio, Premier Tax-Exempt Portfolio and Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio value all their securities at amortized cost.
     Futures and Options. Futures contracts are valued at the final settlement price set by the exchange on which they are principally traded. Options are valued on the basis of market quotations, if available.
     Swap Agreements. Swap Agreements are fair valued using an evaluated quote provided by an independent pricing service. Evaluated quotes provided by the pricing service are based on a model that may include end of day net present values, spreads, ratings, industry and company performance.
     Open-end Funds. To the extent the Fund invests in other open-end funds, other than open-end funds that are exchange traded, the investing Fund will calculate its net asset value using the net asset value of the underlying fund in which it invests, and the prospectuses for such open-end funds explain the circumstances under which they will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.
     The Fund determines the net asset value of its shares on each day the NYSE is open for business (a business day), as of the close of the customary trading session, or earlier NYSE closing time that day. Portfolio open for business at 8:00 a.m. Eastern Time. Premier Portfolio and Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio will generally determine the net asset value of their shares at 5:30 p.m. Eastern Time. Premier Tax-Exempt Portfolio will generally determine the net asset value of its shares at 4:30 p.m. Eastern Time. Premier Portfolio, Premier Tax-Exempt Portfolio and Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio are authorized not to open for trading on a day that is otherwise a business day if the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and The Bank of New York Mellon, the Fund’s custodian, are not open for business or the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) recommends that government securities dealers not open for trading and any such day will not be considered a business day. Premier Portfolio, Premier Tax-Exempt Portfolio and Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio also may close early on a business day if SIFMA recommends that government securities dealers close early. If Premier Portfolio, Premier Tax-Exempt Portfolio or Premier U.S. Government Money Portfolio uses its discretion to close early on a business day, the Fund will calculate its net asset value as of the time of such closing.
     For financial reporting purposes and shareholder transactions on the last day of the fiscal quarter, transactions are normally accounted for on a trade date basis. For purposes of executing shareholder transactions in the normal course of business (other than shareholder transactions at a fiscal period-end), the Fund’s portfolio securities transactions are recorded no later than the first business day following the trade date.
     The Fund, may invest up to 25% of its total assets in shares of the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary offers to redeem all or a portion of its shares at the current net asset value per share every regular business day. The value of shares of the Subsidiary will fluctuate with the value of the Subsidiary’s portfolio investments. The Subsidiary prices its portfolio investments pursuant to the same pricing and valuation methodologies and procedures used by the Fund, which requires, among other things, that the Subsidiary’s portfolio investments be marked-to-market (that is, the value on the Subsidiary’s books changes) each business day to reflect changes in the market value of the investment.
Purchase of Fund Shares
The Fund’s shares have not been registered under the Securities Act, which means that the Fund’s shares may not be sold publicly. However, the Trust may sell the Fund’s shares through private placements pursuant to available exemptions from registration under the Securities Act.

13


 

     Shares of the Fund are sold only to other investment companies. Shares of the Fund are sold at net asset value without a sales charge. Shares of the Fund generally may be purchased on any day the Trust is open for business. Shares are purchased at the net asset value next determined after the Trust receives the order in proper form. All investments are credited to the shareholder’s account in the form of full and fractional shares of the Fund calculated to three decimal places. In the interest of economy and convenience, certificates for shares will not be issued.
Redemption of Fund Shares
Redemptions are processed on any day on which the Trust is open for business and are effected at the Fund’s net asset value next determined after the Fund receives a redemption request in good form.
     Redemption payments in cash will ordinarily be made within seven days after receipt of the redemption request in good form. However, the right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed in accordance with the 1940 Act. The amount received upon redemption may be more or less than the amount paid for the shares, depending upon the fluctuations in the market value of the assets owned by the Fund.
     Although the Fund generally intends to pay redemption proceeds solely in cash, the Fund reserves the right to determine, in its sole discretion, whether to satisfy redemption requests by making payment in securities or other property (known as a redemption in kind).
Dividends and Distributions
Distributions
The Fund expects, based on its investment objective and strategies that its distributions, if any, will consist of ordinary income, capital gains, or some combination of both.
Dividends
The Fund generally declares and pays dividends from net investment income, if any, annually.
Capital Gains Distributions
The Fund generally distributes long-term and short-term capital gains (net of any available capital loss carryovers), if any, at least annually. Capital gains distributions may vary considerably from year to year as a result of the Fund’s normal investment activities and cash flows. During a time of economic volatility, a fund may experience capital losses and unrealized depreciation in value of investments, the effect of which may be to reduce or eliminate capital gains distributions for a period of time. Even though a fund may experience a current year loss, it may nonetheless distribute prior year capital gains.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Fund Shares
The Board has not adopted policies and procedures with respect to frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by Fund shareholders because Fund shares are purchased only by other investment companies in private placements. Those investment companies generally have adopted policies and procedures with respect to frequent purchases and redemptions of their shares.
Anti-Money Laundering Program. Customer identification and verification is part of the Fund’s overall obligation to deter money laundering under federal law. The Fund has adopted an anti-money laundering compliance program designed to prevent the Fund from being used for money laundering or the financing of terrorist activities. In this regard, the Fund reserves the right to (i) refuse, cancel or rescind any purchase or exchange order, (ii) freeze any account and/or suspend account services or (iii) involuntarily close an account in cases of threatening conduct or suspected fraudulent or illegal activity. These actions will be taken when, in the sole discretion of the Adviser, they are deemed to be in the best interest of the Fund or in cases when the Fund is requested or compelled to do so by governmental or law enforcement

14


 

authority. If your account is closed at the request of governmental or law enforcement authority, you may not receive proceeds of the redemption if the Fund is required to withhold such proceeds.
Tax Consequences
A Fund intends to qualify each year as a regulated investment company and, as such, is not subject to entity-level tax on the income and gain it distributes to shareholders. If you are a taxable investor, dividends and distributions you receive from a Fund generally are taxable to you whether you reinvest distributions in additional Fund shares or take them in cash. Every year, you will be sent information showing the amount of dividends and distributions you received from a Fund during the prior calendar year. In addition, investors in taxable accounts should be aware of the following basic tax points as supplemented below where relevant:
Fund Tax Basics
  §   A Fund earns income generally in the form of dividends or interest on its investments. This income, less expenses incurred in the operation of a Fund, constitutes the Fund’s net investment income from which dividends may be paid to you. If you are a taxable investor, distributions of net investment income generally are taxable to you as ordinary income.
 
  §   Distributions of net short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income. A Fund with a high portfolio turnover rate (a measure of how frequently assets within a Fund are bought and sold) is more likely to generate short-term capital gains than a Fund with a low portfolio turnover rate.
 
  §   Distributions of net long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.
 
  §   If you are an individual and meet certain holding period requirements, a portion of income dividends paid to you by a Fund may be designated as qualified dividend income eligible for taxation at long-term capital gain rates. These reduced rates generally are available (through 2012) for dividends derived from a Fund’s investment in stocks of domestic corporations and qualified foreign corporations. In the case of a Fund that invests primarily in debt securities, either none or only a nominal portion of the dividends paid by the Fund will be eligible for taxation at these reduced rates.
 
  §   Distributions declared to shareholders with a record date in December—if paid to you by the end of January—are taxable for federal income tax purposes as if received in December.
 
  §   Any long-term or short-term capital gains realized on sale or redemption of your Fund             shares will be subject to federal income tax. For tax purposes an exchange of your shares for shares of another Fund is the same as a sale. Your gain or loss is calculated by subtracting from the gross proceeds your cost basis. Gross proceeds and, for shares acquired on or after January 1, 2012 and disposed of after that date, cost basis will be reported to you and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different calculation method. As a service to you, the Fund will continue to provide to you (but not the IRS) cost basis information for shares acquired before 2012, when available, using the average cost method. Shareholders should carefully review the cost basis information provided by a Fund and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on their federal income tax returns. If you hold your Fund shares through a broker (or other nominee), please contact that broker (nominee) with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account. For more information about the cost basis methods offered by Invesco, please refer to the Tax Center located under the Accounts & Services menu of our website at www.invesco.com/us.
 
  §   At the time you purchase your Fund shares, the Fund’s net asset value may reflect undistributed income, undistributed capital gains, or net unrealized appreciation in value of portfolio securities held by the Fund. A subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable. This is sometimes referred to as “buying a dividend.”

15


 

  §   By law, if you do not provide a Fund with your proper taxpayer identification number and certain required certifications, you may be subject to backup withholding on any distributions of income, capital gains, or proceeds from the sale of your shares. A Fund also must withhold if the IRS instructs it to do so. When withholding is required, the amount will be 28% of any distributions or proceeds paid (for distributions and proceeds paid after December 31, 2012, the rate is scheduled to rise to 31% unless the 28% rate is extended or made permanent).
 
  §   You will not be required to include the portion of dividends paid by the Fund derived from interest on U.S. government obligations in your gross income for purposes of personal and, in some cases, corporate income taxes in many state and local tax jurisdictions. The percentage of dividends that constitutes dividends derived from interest on federal obligations will be determined annually. This percentage may differ from the actual percentage of interest received by the Fund on federal obligations for the particular days on which you hold shares.
 
  §   For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, an additional 3.8% Medicare tax will be imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds a threshold amount.
 
  §   Fund distributions and gains from sale or exchange of your Fund shares generally are subject to state and local income taxes.
 
  §   If a Fund qualifies to pass through to you the tax benefits from foreign taxes it pays on its investments, and elects to do so, then any foreign taxes it pays on these investments may be passed through to you as a foreign tax credit. You will then be required to include your pro-rata share of these taxes in gross income, even though not actually received by you, and will be entitled either to deduct your share of these taxes in computing your taxable income, or to claim a foreign tax credit for these taxes against your U.S. federal income tax.
 
  §   Foreign investors should be aware that U.S. withholding, special certification requirements to avoid U.S. backup withholding and claim any treaty benefits and estate taxes may apply to an investment in a Fund.
     The above discussion concerning the taxability of Fund dividends and distributions and of redemptions and exchanges of Fund shares is inapplicable to investors that generally are exempt from federal income tax, such as retirement plans that are qualified under Section 401 and 403 of the Code and individual retirement accounts (IRAs) and Roth IRAs.
     Fund Investments
  §   The Fund’s strategy of investing in derivatives and financially-linked instruments whose performance is expected to correspond to the fixed income, equity and commodity markets may cause the Fund to recognize more ordinary income and short-term capital gains taxable as ordinary income than would be the case if the Fund invested directly in debt instruments, stocks and commodities.
 
  §   The Fund must meet certain requirements under the Code for favorable tax treatment as a regulated investment company, including asset diversification and income requirements.
 
  §   The Fund intends to treat the income it derives from commodity-linked notes and the Subsidiary as qualifying income. If, contrary to a number of private letter rulings (PLRs) issued by the IRS to other mutual funds (including to another Invesco fund), the IRS were to determine such income is non -qualifying, the Fund might fail to satisfy the income requirement. As of the date of this prospectus, the IRS has suspended issuance of any further PLRs pending a review of its position. Should the IRS issue guidance, or Congress enact legislation, that adversely affects the tax treatment of the Fund’s use of commodity-linked notes or the Subsidiary (which guidance might be applied to the Fund retroactively), it could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategy and the Fund might not qualify as a regulated investment company for one or more years.

16


 

      In this event, the Fund’s Board of Trustees may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or Fund liquidation. The Fund also may incur transaction and other costs to comply with any new or additional guidance from the IRS.
 
  §   The Fund intends to limit its investment in the Subsidiary to no more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets in order to satisfy the asset diversification requirement.
     This discussion of “Taxes” is for general information only and not tax advice. All investors should consult their own tax advisers as to the federal, state, local and foreign tax provisions applicable to them.
Distribution Arrangements
Sales Loads
Not applicable.
Rule 12b-1 Fees
Not applicable.
Multiple Class and Master-Feeder Funds
Not applicable.
The response to Item 13 has been omitted pursuant to paragraph 2(b) of Instruction B of the General Instructions to Form N-1A

17


 

(INVESCO LOGO)
     
Statement of Additional Information
  January 16, 2013
 
 
 
Invesco Securities Trust
   


This Statement of Additional Information (SAI) relates to the portfolio (the Fund) of Invesco Securities Trust (the Trust) listed below.
   
Fund
 
   
   
   
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
 

 


 

(INVESCO LOGO)
     
Statement of Additional Information
  January 16, 2013
 
 
 
Invesco Securities Trust
   


This SAI is not a Prospectus, and it should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus for the Fund listed below. When issued, portions of the Fund’s financial statements will be incorporated into this SAI by reference to the Fund’s most recent Annual Report to shareholders. You may obtain, without charge, a copy of any Prospectus and/or Annual Report for the Fund listed below from an authorized dealer or by writing to:
Invesco Investment Services, Inc.
P.O. Box 219078
Kansas City, MO 64121-9078
or by calling (800) 959-4246
or on the Internet: www.invesco.com/us.
This SAI, dated January 16, 2013, relates to the following Prospectus:
     
Fund   Class
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
  January 16, 2013

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
         
Page
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST
    1  
Fund History
    1  
Shares of Beneficial Interest
    1  
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUND AND ITS INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
    2  
Classification
    2  
Investment Strategies and Risks
    2  
Equity Investments
    3  
Foreign Investments
    4  
Exchange-Traded Funds
    7  
Exchange-Traded Notes
    8  
Debt Investments
    9  
Other Investments
    17  
Investment Techniques
    20  
Derivatives
    25  
Fund Policies
    34  
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
    39  
Board of Trustees
    39  
Management Information
    44  
Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares
    48  
Compensation
    48  
Retirement Plan For Trustees
    49  
Deferred Compensation Agreements
    50  
Code of Ethics
    50  
Proxy Voting Policies
    50  
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
    51  
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
    51  
Investment Adviser
    51  
Services to the Subsidiary
    53  
Portfolio Managers
    54  
Securities Lending Arrangements
    54  
Service Agreements
    54  
Other Service Providers
    55  
BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES
    56  
Brokerage Transactions
    56  
Commissions
    57  
Broker Selection
    57  
Affiliated Transactions
    60  
Allocation of Portfolio Transactions
    60  
Allocation of Initial Public Offering (IPO) Transactions
    61  
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAX MATTERS
    61  
Dividends and Distributions
    61  
Tax Matters
    61  
DISTRIBUTION OF SECURITIES
    78  
Distributor
    78  

i


 

         
  Page
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
    79  
PENDING LITIGATION
    79  
APPENDICES:
       
RATINGS OF DEBT SECURITIES
    A-1  
PERSONS TO WHOM INVESCO PROVIDES NON-PUBLIC PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS ON AN ONGOING BASIS
    B-1  
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
    C-1  
TRUSTEE COMPENSATION TABLE
    D-1  
PROXY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
    E-1  
PORTFOLIO MANAGER FUND HOLDINGS AND INFORMATION ON OTHER MANAGED ACCOUNTS
    F-1  

ii


 

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRUST
Fund History
     Invesco Securities Trust (the Trust) is a Delaware statutory trust registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the 1940 Act), as an open-end series management investment company. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on July 31, 2012. Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust (the Trust Agreement), the Board of Trustees of the Trust (the Board) is authorized to create new series of shares without the necessity of a vote of shareholders of the Trust.
Shares of Beneficial Interest
     The Fund issues its beneficial interests (shares) only in private placement transactions that do not involve a public offering within the meaning of Section 4(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the 1933 Act). Shares of beneficial interest of the Trust are redeemable at their net asset value at the option of the shareholder or at the option of the Trust in certain circumstances.
     The Trust allocates moneys and other property it receives from the issue or sale of shares and all income, earnings and profits from such issuance and sales, subject only to the rights of creditors, to the Fund. These assets constitute the underlying assets of the Fund, are segregated on the Trust’s books of account, and are charged with the expenses of the Trust and the Fund.
     Each share of the Fund represents an equal proportionate interest in the Fund with each other share and is entitled to such dividends and distributions out of the income belonging to the Fund as are declared by the Board.
     The Trust is not required to hold annual or regular meetings of shareholders. Meetings of shareholders of the Fund will be held from time to time to consider matters requiring a vote of such shareholders in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act, state law or the provisions of the Trust Agreement. It is not expected that shareholder meetings will be held annually.
     Each share of the Fund has the same voting dividend, liquidation and other rights.
     Except as specifically noted above, shareholders of the Fund are entitled to one vote per share (with proportionate voting for fractional shares), irrespective of the relative net asset value of the shares of the Fund. When issued, shares of the Fund are fully paid and nonassessable, have no preemptive or subscription rights, and are freely transferable. There are no conversion rights. Shares do not have cumulative voting rights, which means that when shareholders elect trustees, holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of trustees can elect all of the trustees of the Trust, and the holders of fewer than 50% of the shares voting for the election of trustees will not be able to elect any trustees.
     Under Delaware law, shareholders of a Delaware statutory trust shall be entitled to the same limitation of personal liability extended to shareholders of private for-profit corporations organized under Delaware law. There is a remote possibility, however, that shareholders could, under certain circumstances, be held liable for the obligations of the Trust to the extent the courts of another state, which does not recognize such limited liability, were to apply the laws of such state to a controversy involving such obligations. The Trust Agreement disclaims shareholder liability for acts or obligations of the Trust and requires that notice of such disclaimer be given in each agreement, obligation or instrument entered into or executed by the Trust or the trustees to all parties. The Trust Agreement provides for indemnification out of the property of the Fund for all losses and expenses of any shareholder of such Fund held liable on account of being or having been a shareholder. Thus, the risk of a shareholder incurring financial loss due to shareholder liability is limited to circumstances in which

1


 

the Fund is unable to meet its obligations and the complaining party is not held to be bound by the disclaimer.
     The trustees and officers of the Trust will not be liable for any act, omission or obligation of the Trust or any trustee or officer; however, a trustee or officer is not protected against any liability to the Trust or to the shareholders to which a trustee or officer would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of his or her office with the Trust (Disabling Conduct). The Trust’s Bylaws generally provide for indemnification by the Trust of the trustees, officers and employees or agents of the Trust, provided that such persons have not engaged in Disabling Conduct. Indemnification does not extend to judgments or amounts paid in settlement in any actions by or in the right of the Trust. The Trust Agreement also authorizes the purchase of liability insurance on behalf of trustees and officers. The Trust’s Bylaws provide for the advancement of payments of expenses to current and former trustees, officers and employees or agents of the Trust, or anyone serving at their request, in connection with the preparation and presentation of a defense to any claim, action, suit or proceeding, for which such person would be entitled to indemnification; provided that any advancement of expenses would be reimbursed unless it is ultimately determined that such person is entitled to indemnification for such expenses.
     Share Certificates. Shareholders of the Fund do not have the right to demand or require the Trust to issue share certificates and share certificates are not issued.
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUND AND ITS INVESTMENTS AND RISKS
Classification
     The Trust is an open-end management investment company. The Fund is “non-diversified” for purposes of the 1940 Act, which means the Fund can invest a greater percentage of its assets in any one issuer than a diversified fund can.
Investment Strategies and Risks
     Set forth below are detailed descriptions of the various types of securities and investment techniques that Invesco and/or the Sub-Advisers (as defined herein) may use in managing the Fund, as well as the risks associated with those types of securities and investment techniques. The descriptions of the types of securities and investment techniques below supplement the discussion of principal investment strategies and risks contained in the Fund’s Prospectus; where a particular type of security or investment technique is not discussed in the Fund’s Prospectus, that security or investment technique is not a principal investment strategy.
     Unless otherwise indicated, the Fund may invest in all of the following types of investments. The Fund may not invest in all of the types of securities or use all of the investment techniques described below, and the Fund might not invest in all of these types of securities or use all of these techniques at any one time. Invesco and/or the Sub-Advisers may invest in other types of securities and may use other investment techniques in managing the Fund, including those described where the Fund is not specifically mentioned as investing in the security or using the investment technique, as well as securities and techniques not described. The Fund’s transactions in a particular type of security or use of a particular technique is subject to limitations imposed by the Fund’s investment objective, policies and restrictions described in the Fund’s Prospectus and/or this SAI, as well as the federal securities laws.
     The Fund will seek to gain exposure to the commodity market primarily through investments in the Invesco Cayman Commodity Fund VI Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Fund, organized under

2


 

the laws of the Cayman Islands or other such wholly owned subsidiary (the Subsidiary). The Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the Subsidiary.
     The Fund’s investment objective, policies, strategies and practices described below are non-fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval of the holders of the Fund’s voting securities unless otherwise indicated.
Equity Investments
     The Fund may invest in all of the following types of equity investments:
     Common Stock. Common stock is issued by a company principally to raise cash for business purposes and represents an equity or ownership interest in the issuing company. Common stockholders are typically entitled to vote on important matters of the issuing company, including the selection of directors, and may receive dividends on their holdings. The Fund participates in the success or failure of any company in which it holds common stock. In the event a company is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of bondholders, other debt holders, owners of preferred stock and general creditors take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.
     The prices of common stocks change in response to many factors including the historical and prospective earnings of the issuing company, the value of its assets, general economic conditions, interest rates, investor perceptions and market liquidity.
     Preferred Stock. Preferred stock, unlike common stock, often offers a specified dividend rate payable from a company’s earnings. Preferred stock also generally has a preference over common stock on the distribution of a company’s assets in the event the company is liquidated or declares bankruptcy; however, the rights of preferred stockholders on the distribution of a company’s assets in the event of a liquidation or bankruptcy are generally subordinate to the rights of the company’s debt holders and general creditors. If interest rates rise, the fixed dividend on preferred stocks may be less attractive, causing the price of preferred stocks to decline.
     Some fixed rate preferred stock may have mandatory sinking fund provisions which provide for the stock to be retired or redeemed on a predetermined schedule, as well as call/redemption provisions prior to maturity, which can limit the benefit of any decline in interest rates that might positively affect the price of preferred stocks. Preferred stock dividends may be “cumulative,” requiring all or a portion of prior unpaid dividends to be paid before dividends are paid on the issuer’s common stock. Preferred stock may be “participating,” which means that it may be entitled to a dividend exceeding the stated dividend in certain cases. In some cases an issuer may offer auction rate preferred stock, which means that the interest to be paid is set by auction and will often be reset at stated intervals.
     Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are generally bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities or investments that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio or predetermined price (the conversion price). A convertible security is designed to provide current income and also the potential for capital appreciation through the conversion feature, which enables the holder to benefit from increases in the market price of the underlying common stock. A convertible security may be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption or conversion, the Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party, which may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives. Convertible securities have general characteristics similar to both debt and equity securities.
     A convertible security generally entitles the holder to receive interest paid or accrued until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, convertible

3


 

securities have characteristics similar to non-convertible debt obligations and are designed to provide for a stable stream of income with generally higher yields than common stocks. However, there can be no assurance of current income because the issuers of the convertible securities may default on their obligations. Convertible securities rank senior to common stock in a corporation’s capital structure and, therefore, generally entail less risk than the corporation’s common stock. Convertible securities are subordinate in rank to any senior debt obligations of the issuer, and, therefore, an issuer’s convertible securities entail more risk than its debt obligations. Moreover, convertible securities are often rated below investment grade or not rated because they fall below debt obligations and just above common stock in order of preference or priority on an issuer’s balance sheet. To the extent that the Fund invests in convertible securities with credit ratings below investment grade, such securities may have a higher likelihood of default, although this may be somewhat offset by the convertibility feature.
     Convertible securities generally offer lower interest or dividend yields than non-convertible debt securities of similar credit quality because of the potential for capital appreciation. The common stock underlying convertible securities may be issued by a different entity than the issuer of the convertible securities.
     The value of convertible securities is influenced by both the yield of non-convertible securities of comparable issuers and by the value of the underlying common stock. The value of a convertible security viewed without regard to its conversion feature (i.e., strictly on the basis of its yield) is sometimes referred to as its “investment value.” The investment value of the convertible security typically will fluctuate based on the credit quality of the issuer and will fluctuate inversely with changes in prevailing interest rates. However, at the same time, the convertible security will be influenced by its “conversion value,” which is the market value of the underlying common stock that would be obtained if the convertible security were converted. Conversion value fluctuates directly with the price of the underlying common stock, and will therefore be subject to risks relating to the activities of the issuer and general market and economic conditions. Depending upon the relationship of the conversion price to the market value of the underlying security, a convertible security may trade more like an equity security than a debt instrument.
     If, because of a low price of the common stock, the conversion value is substantially below the investment value of the convertible security, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. Generally, if the conversion value of a convertible security increases to a point that approximates or exceeds its investment value, the value of the security will be principally influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security will sell at a premium over its conversion value to the extent investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding an income-producing security.
     While the Fund uses the same criteria to rate a convertible debt security that it uses to rate a more conventional debt security, a convertible preferred stock is treated like a preferred stock for the Fund’s financial reporting, credit rating and investment limitation purposes.
     Alternative Entity Securities. The Fund may invest in alternative entity securities which are the securities of entities that are formed as limited partnerships, limited liability companies, business trusts or other non-corporate entities that are similar to common or preferred stock of corporations.
Foreign Investments
     Foreign Securities. The Fund may invest in foreign securities.
     Foreign securities are equity or debt securities issued by issuers outside the U.S., and include securities in the form of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), European Depositary Receipts (EDRs), or other securities representing underlying securities of foreign issuers (foreign securities). ADRs are receipts, issued by U.S. banks, for the shares of foreign corporations, held by the bank issuing the receipt. ADRs are typically issued in registered form, denominated in U.S. dollars and designed for use

4


 

in the U.S. securities markets. EDRs are similar to ADRs, except they are typically issued by European banks or trust companies, denominated in foreign currencies and designed for use outside the U.S. securities markets. ADRs and EDRs entitle the holder to all dividends and capital gains on the underlying foreign securities, less any fees paid to the bank. Purchasing ADRs or EDRs gives the Fund the ability to purchase the functional equivalent of foreign securities without going to the foreign securities markets to do so. ADRs or EDRs that are “sponsored” means that the foreign corporation whose shares are represented by the ADR or EDR is actively involved in the issuance of the ADR or EDR, and generally provides material information about the corporation to the U.S. market. An “unsponsored” ADR or EDR program means that the foreign corporation whose shares are held by the bank is not obligated to disclose material information in the United States, and, therefore, the market value of the ADR or EDR may not reflect important facts known only to the foreign company.
     Foreign debt securities include corporate debt securities of foreign issuers, certain foreign bank obligations (see Bank Instruments) and U.S. dollar or foreign currency denominated obligations of foreign governments or their subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities (see Foreign Government Obligations), international agencies and supranational entities.
     The Fund considers various factors when determining whether a company is in a particular country, including whether (1) it is organized under the laws of a country; (2) it has a principal office in a country; (3) it derives 50% or more of its total revenues from businesses in a country; and/or (4) its securities are traded principally on a stock exchange, or in an over-the-counter market, in a particular country.
     Investments by the Fund in foreign securities, including ADRs and EDRs, whether denominated in U.S. dollars or foreign currencies, may entail all of the risks set forth below in addition to those accompanying an investment in issuers in the U.S.
     Currency Risk. The value in U.S. dollars of the Fund’s non-dollar denominated foreign investments will be affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The U.S. dollar value of a foreign security decreases when the value of the U.S. dollar rises against the foreign currency in which the security is denominated and increases when the value of the U.S. dollar falls against such currency.
     Political and Economic Risk. The economies of many of the countries in which the Fund may invest may not be as developed as the United States’ economy and may be subject to significantly different forces. Political, economic or social instability and development, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, and limitations on the removal of funds or other assets could also adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments.
     Regulatory Risk. Foreign companies are generally not subject to the regulatory controls imposed on U.S. issuers and, as a consequence, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign securities than is available about domestic securities. Foreign companies may not be subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, corporate governance practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to domestic companies. Therefore, financial information about foreign companies may be incomplete, or may not be comparable to the information available on U.S. companies. Income from foreign securities owned by the Fund may be reduced by a withholding tax at the source, which tax would reduce dividend income payable to the Fund’s shareholders.
     There is generally less government supervision and regulation of securities exchanges, brokers, dealers, and listed companies in foreign countries than in the U.S., thus increasing the risk of delayed settlements of portfolio transactions or loss of certificates for portfolio securities. Foreign markets may also have different clearance and settlement procedures. If the Fund experiences settlement problems it may result in temporary periods when a portion of the Fund’s assets are uninvested and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities or a potential liability to the Fund arising out of the Fund’s inability to fulfill a contract to sell such securities.

5


 

     Market Risk. Investing in foreign markets generally involves certain risks not typically associated with investing in the United States. The securities markets in many foreign countries will have substantially less trading volume than the United States markets. As a result, the securities of some foreign companies may be less liquid and experience more price volatility than comparable domestic securities. Obtaining and/or enforcing judgments in foreign countries may be more difficult, which may make it more difficult to enforce contractual obligations. Increased custodian costs as well as administrative costs (such as the need to use foreign custodians) may also be associated with the maintenance of assets in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, transaction costs in foreign securities markets are likely to be higher, since brokerage commission rates in foreign countries are likely to be higher than in the United States.
     Risks of Developing/Emerging Market Countries. The Fund may invest in securities of companies located in developing and emerging market countries.
     Developing and emerging market countries are those countries in the world other than developed countries of the European Union, the United States of America, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Singapore. Developed countries of the European Union are Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
     Investments in developing and emerging market countries present risks in addition to, or greater than, those presented by investments in foreign issuers generally, and may include the following risks:
  i.   Restriction, to varying degrees, on foreign investment in stocks;
 
  ii.   Repatriation of investment income, capital, and the proceeds of sales in foreign countries may require foreign governmental registration and/or approval;
 
  iii.   Greater risk of fluctuation in value of foreign investments due to changes in currency exchange rates, currency control regulations or currency devaluation;
 
  iv.   Inflation and rapid fluctuations in inflation rates may have negative effects on the economies and securities markets of certain developing/emerging market countries;
 
  v.   Many of the developing and emerging market countries’ securities markets are relatively small or less diverse, have low trading volumes, suffer periods of relative illiquidity, and are characterized by significant price volatility; and
 
  vi.   There is a risk in developing and emerging market countries that a future economic or political crisis could lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, seizure, nationalization, or creation of government monopolies.
     Foreign Government Obligations. The Fund may invest in debt securities of foreign governments. Debt securities issued by foreign governments are often, but not always, supported by the full faith and credit of the foreign governments, or their subdivisions, agencies or instrumentalities, that issue them. These securities involve the risks discussed above under Foreign Securities. Additionally, the issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control repayment of the debt may be unwilling or unable to pay interest or repay principal when due. Political or economic changes or the balance of trade may affect a country’s willingness or ability to service its debt obligations. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt obligations, especially debt obligations issued by the governments of developing/emerging market countries. Foreign government obligations of developing/emerging market countries, and some structures of emerging market debt securities, both of which are generally below investment grade, are sometimes referred to as “Brady Bonds”. The failure of a sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance, or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign debtor, which may impair the debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts.

6


 

     Foreign Exchange Transactions. The Fund may invest in foreign currency-denominated securities has the authority to purchase and sell foreign currency options, foreign currency futures contracts and related options, and may engage in foreign currency transactions either on a spot (i.e., for prompt delivery and settlement) basis at the rate prevailing in the currency exchange market at the time or through forward currency contracts (referred to also as forward contracts; see also Forward Currency Contracts). Because forward contracts are privately negotiated transactions, there can be no assurance that a counterparty will honor its obligations.
     The Fund will incur costs in converting assets from one currency to another. Foreign exchange dealers may charge a fee for conversion. In addition, dealers may realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they buy and sell various currencies in the spot and forward markets.
     The Fund will generally engage in these transactions in order to complete a purchase or sale of foreign currency denominated securities The Funds may also use foreign currency options and forward contracts to increase or reduce exposure to a foreign currency or to shift exposure from one foreign currency to another in a cross currency hedge. Forward contracts are intended to minimize the risk of loss due to a decline in the value of the hedged currencies; however, at the same time, they tend to limit any potential gain which might result should the value of such currencies increase. Certain Funds may also engage in foreign exchange transactions, such as forward contracts, for non-hedging purposes to enhance returns. Open positions in forward contracts used for non-hedging purposes will be covered by the segregation of a sufficient amount of liquid assets.
     The Fund may purchase and sell currency futures and purchase and write currency options to increase or decrease its exposure to different foreign currencies. The Fund also may purchase and write currency options in connection with currency futures or forward contracts. Currency futures contracts are similar to forward currency exchange contracts, except that they are traded on exchanges and have standard contract sizes and delivery dates. Most currency futures contracts call for payment or delivery in U.S. dollars. The uses and risks of currency futures are similar to those of futures relating to securities or indices (see also Futures and Options). Currency futures values can be expected to correlate with exchange rates but may not reflect other factors that affect the value of the Fund’s investments.
     Whether or not any hedging strategy will be successful is highly uncertain, and use of hedging strategies may leave the Fund in a less advantageous position than if a hedge had not been established. Moreover, it is impossible to forecast with precision the market value of portfolio securities at the expiration of a foreign currency forward contract. Accordingly, the Fund may be required to buy or sell additional currency on the spot market (and bear the expense of such transaction) if Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ predictions regarding the movement of foreign currency or securities markets prove inaccurate.
     The Fund may hold a portion of its assets in bank deposits denominated in foreign currencies, so as to facilitate investment in foreign securities as well as protect against currency fluctuations and the need to convert such assets into U.S. dollars (thereby also reducing transaction costs). To the extent these monies are converted back into U.S. dollars, the value of the assets so maintained will be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in foreign currency exchange rates and exchange control regulations. Foreign exchange transactions may involve some of the risks of investments in foreign securities. For a discussion of tax considerations relating to foreign currency transaction, see “Dividends, Distributions, and Tax Matters – Tax Matters – Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions – Foreign currency transactions.”
Exchange-Traded Funds
     Exchange-Traded Funds. The Fund may purchase shares of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Most ETFs are registered under the 1940 Act as investment companies. Therefore, the Fund’s purchase of shares of an ETF may be subject to the restrictions on investments in other investment

7


 

companies discussed under “Other Investment Companies.” ETFs have management fees, which increase their cost. The Fund may invest in ETFs advised by Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC (PowerShares). Invesco, the Sub-Advisers and PowerShares are affiliates of each other as they are all indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of Invesco Ltd.
     ETFs hold portfolios of securities, commodities and/or currencies that are designed to replicate, as closely as possible before expenses, the price and/or yield of (i) a specified market or other index, (ii) a basket of securities, commodities or currencies, or (iii) a particular commodity or currency. The performance results of ETFs will not replicate exactly the performance of the pertinent index, basket, commodity or currency due to transaction and other expenses, including fees to service providers, borne by ETFs. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that the portfolio of securities, commodities and/or currencies purchased by an ETF will replicate a particular index or basket or price of a commodity or currency. ETF shares are sold and redeemed at net asset value only in large blocks called creation units and redemption units, respectively. ETF shares also may be purchased and sold in secondary market trading on national securities exchanges, which allows investors to purchase and sell ETF shares at their market price throughout the day.
     Investments in ETFs generally present the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional mutual fund that has the same investment objective, strategy and policies. Investments in ETFs further involve the same risks associated with a direct investment in the commodity or currency, or in the types of securities, commodities and/or currencies included in the indices or baskets the ETFs are designed to replicate. In addition, shares of an ETF may trade at a market price that is higher or lower than their net asset value and an active trading market in such shares may not develop or continue. Moreover, trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action to be appropriate, the shares are de-listed from the exchange, or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.
Exchange-Traded Notes
     Exchange-Traded Notes. The Fund may invest in exchange-traded notes. Exchange-traded notes (ETNs) are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market benchmark or strategy, minus applicable fees. ETNs are traded on an exchange (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange) during normal trading hours; however, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments or provide principal protection. ETNs are subject to credit risk, including the credit risk of the issuer, and the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying asset. When the Fund invests in ETNs (directly or through their respective Subsidiary) it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. A decision by the Fund or its Subsidiary to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.
     ETNs are also subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund or its Subsidiary characterizes and treats ETNs for tax purposes. Further, the IRS and Congress are considering proposals that would change the timing and character of income and gains from ETNs.
     An ETN that is tied to a specific market benchmark or strategy may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market benchmark or strategy. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be

8


 

relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form.
     The market value of ETNs may differ from their market benchmark or strategy. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities, commodities or other components underlying the market benchmark or strategy that the ETN seeks to track. As a result, there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount to its market benchmark or strategy.
Debt Investments
     The Fund may invest in high-grade short-term securities and debt securities including U.S. Government obligations and investment grade corporate bonds, whether denominated in U.S. dollars or foreign currencies.
     U.S. Government Obligations. The Fund may invest in U.S. Government obligations, which include obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, including bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury, as well as “stripped” or “zero coupon” U.S. Treasury obligations.
     U.S. Government Obligations may be, (i) supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury, (ii) supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (iii) supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. Government to purchase the agency’s obligations, or (iv) supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. There is a risk that the U.S. Government may choose not to provide financial support to U.S. Government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities if it is not legally obligated to do so. In that case, if the issuer were to default, a Fund holding securities of such issuer might not be able to recover its investment from the U.S. Government. For example, while the U.S. Government has recently provided financial support to Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), no assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will always do so, since the U.S. Government is not so obligated by law. There also is no guarantee that the government would support Federal Home Loan Banks. Accordingly, securities of FNMA, FHLMC and Federal Home Loan Banks, and other agencies, may involve a risk of non-payment of principal and interest.
     Temporary Investments. The Fund may invest a portion of its assets in affiliated money market funds or in the types of money market instruments in which the Fund would invest or other short-term U.S. government securities for cash management purposes. The Fund may invest up to 100% of its assets in investments that may be inconsistent with the Fund’s principal investment strategies for temporary defensive purposes in anticipation of or in response to adverse market, economic, political or other conditions, or atypical circumstances such as unusually large cash inflows or redemptions. As a result, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.
     Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities. The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities are mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, or issued by nongovernment entities. Mortgage-related securities represent ownership in pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various government agencies such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) and government-related organizations such as FNMA, and the FHLMC, as well as by nongovernment issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers and private mortgage insurance companies. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured. These securities differ from conventional bonds in that the principal is paid back to the investor as payments are made on the underlying mortgages in the pool. Accordingly, a Fund receives monthly scheduled payments of principal and interest along with any unscheduled principal prepayments on the underlying mortgages. Because these scheduled and unscheduled

9


 

principal payments must be reinvested at prevailing interest rates, mortgage-backed securities do not provide an effective means of locking in long-term interest rates for the investor.
     In addition, there are a number of important differences among the agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. Government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities they issue. Mortgage-related securities issued by GNMA include GNMA Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as Ginnie Maes) which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest. That guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. GNMA is a corporation wholly owned by the U.S. Government within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Mortgage-related securities issued by FNMA include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as Fannie Maes) and are guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FNMA itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FNMA is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders. Mortgage-related securities issued by FHLMC include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates (also known as Freddie Macs) guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FHLMC itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FHLMC is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders.
     On September 7, 2008, FNMA and FHLMC were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) to provide stability in the financial markets, mortgage availability and taxpayer protection by preserving FNMA and FHLMC’s assets and property and putting FNMA and FHLMC in a sound and solvent position. Under the conservatorship, the management of FNMA and FHLMC was replaced. Additionally, FNMA and FHLMC modestly increased their mortgage-backed security portfolios through the end of 2009 and are expected to gradually reduce such portfolios at the rate of 10% per year until stabilizing at a lower, less risky size.
     Since 2009, both FNMA and FHLMC have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases and Federal Reserve purchases of the entities’ mortgage-back securities. The U.S. Treasury announced in December 2009 that it would continue that support for the entities’ capital as necessary to prevent a negative net worth through at least 2012. However, the Federal Reserve’s purchases of mortgage-backed securities ended in 2010. While the U.S. Treasury is committed to offset negative equity at FNMA and FHLMC through its preferred stock purchases through 2012, no assurance can be given that the Federal Reserve, U.S. Treasury or FHFA initiatives discussed earlier will ensure that FNMA and FHLMC will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities they issue beyond that date.
     In February 2011, the Obama Administration produced a report to Congress outlining proposals to wind down FNMA and FHLMC and reduce the government’s role in the mortgage market. Discussions among policymakers continue, however, as to whether FNMA and FHLMC should be nationalized, privatized, restructured, or eliminated altogether. FNMA and FHLMC Mac also are subject of several continuing legal actions and investigations over certain accounting, disclosure or corporate governance matters, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may continue to have an adverse effect on the guaranteeing entities. Importantly, the future of the entities is in question as the U.S. Government considers multiple options regarding the future of FNMA and FHLMC.
     Asset-backed securities are structured like mortgage-backed securities, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales contracts or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Regular payments received on asset-backed securities include both interest and principal. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. Government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.
     If a Fund purchases a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security at a premium, the premium may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying collateral. As with other interest-bearing

10


 

securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true, since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages and loans underlying the securities are prone to prepayment, thereby shortening the average life of the security and shortening the period of time over which income at the higher rate is received. When interest rates are rising, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the period of time over which income at the lower rate is received. For these and other reasons, a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security’s average maturity may be shortened or lengthened as a result of interest rate fluctuations and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security’s return. In addition, while the trading market for short-term mortgages and asset-backed securities is ordinarily quite liquid, in times of financial stress the trading market for these securities may become restricted.
     Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs). The Fund may invest in CMOs. A CMO is a hybrid between a mortgage-backed bond and a mortgage pass-through security. A CMO is a type of mortgage-backed security that creates separate classes with varying maturities and interest rates, called tranches. Similar to a bond, interest and prepaid principal is paid, in most cases, semiannually. CMOs may be collateralized by whole mortgage loans, but are more typically collateralized by portfolios of mortgage pass-through securities guaranteed by GNMA, FHLMC, or FNMA, and their income streams.
     CMOs are structured into multiple classes, each bearing a different fixed or floating interest rate and stated maturity. Actual maturity and average life will depend upon the prepayment experience of the collateral. CMOs provide for a modified form of call protection through a de facto breakdown of the underlying pool of mortgages according to how quickly the loans are repaid. Monthly payment of principal received from the pool of underlying mortgages, including prepayments, is first returned to investors holding the shortest maturity class. Investors holding the longer maturity classes receive principal only after the first class has been retired. An investor is partially guarded against a sooner than desired return of principal because of the sequential payments.
     In a typical CMO transaction, a corporation (issuer) issues multiple series (e.g., Series A, B, C and Z) of CMO bonds (Bonds). Proceeds of the Bond offering are used to purchase mortgages or mortgage pass-through certificates (Collateral). The Collateral is pledged to a third party trustee as security for the Bonds. Principal and interest payments from the Collateral are used to pay principal on the Bonds in the following order: Series A, B, C and Z. The Series A, B, and C Bonds all bear current interest. Interest on a Series Z Bond is accrued and added to principal and a like amount is paid as principal on the Series A, B, or C Bond currently being paid off. Only after the Series A, B, and C Bonds are paid in full does the Series Z Bond begin to receive payment. With some CMOs, the issuer serves as a conduit to allow loan originators (primarily builders or savings and loan associations) to borrow against their loan portfolios.
     CMOs that are issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or by any of its agencies or instrumentalities will be considered U.S. Government securities by the Fund, while other CMOs, even if collateralized by U.S. Government securities, will have the same status as other privately issued securities for purposes of applying the Fund’s diversification test.
     FHLMC CMOs are debt obligations of FHLMC issued in multiple classes having different maturity dates which are secured by the pledge of a pool of conventional mortgage loans purchased by FHLMC. Payments of principal and interest on the FHLMC CMOs are made semiannually. The amount of principal payable on each semiannual payment date is determined in accordance with FHLMC’s mandatory sinking fund schedule, which, in turn, is equal to approximately 100% of FHA prepayment experience applied to the mortgage collateral pool. All sinking fund payments in the FHLMC CMOs are allocated to the retirement of the individual classes of bonds in the order of their stated maturities. Payment of principal on the mortgage loans in the collateral pool in excess of the amount of FHLMC’s minimum sinking fund obligation for any payment date are paid to the holders of the FHLMC CMOs as additional sinking fund payments. Because of the “pass-through” nature of all principal payments

11


 

received on the collateral pool in excess of FHLMC’s minimum sinking fund requirement, the rate at which principal of the FHLMC CMOs is actually repaid is likely to be such that each class of bonds will be retired in advance of its scheduled maturity date. If collection of principal (including prepayments) on the mortgage loans during any semiannual payment period is not sufficient to meet FHLMC CMO’s minimum sinking fund obligation on the next sinking fund payment date, FHLMC agrees to make up the deficiency from its general funds.
     Classes of CMOs may also include interest only (IOs) and principal only (POs). IOs and POs are stripped mortgage-backed securities representing interests in a pool of mortgages the cash flow from which has been separated into interest and principal components. IOs (interest only securities) receive the interest portion of the cash flow while POs (principal only securities) receive the principal portion. IOs and POs can be extremely volatile in response to changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise and fall, the value of IOs tends to move in the same direction as interest rates. POs perform best when prepayments on the underlying mortgages rise since this increases the rate at which the investment is returned and the yield to maturity on the PO. When payments on mortgages underlying a PO are slow, the life of the PO is lengthened and the yield to maturity is reduced.
     CMOs are generally subject to the same risks as mortgage-backed securities. In addition, CMOs may be subject to credit risk because the issuer or credit enhancer has defaulted on its obligations and a Fund may not receive all or part of its principal. Obligations issued by U.S. Government-related entities are guaranteed as to the payment of principal and interest, but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. The performance of private label mortgage-backed securities, issued by private institutions, is based on the financial health of those institutions. Although GNMA guarantees timely payment of GNMA certificates even if homeowners delay or default, tracking the “pass-through” payments may, at times, be difficult.
     Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs). The Fund may invest in CDOs. A CDO is a security backed by a pool of bonds, loans and other debt obligations. CDOs are not limited to investing in one type of debt and accordingly, a CDO may own corporate bonds, commercial loans, asset-backed securities, residential mortgage-backed securities, commercial mortgage-backed securities, and emerging market debt. The CDO’s securities are typically divided into several classes, or bond tranches, that have differing levels of investment grade or credit tolerances. Most CDO issues are structured in a way that enables the senior bond classes and mezzanine classes to receive investment-grade credit ratings. Credit risk is shifted to the most junior class of securities. If any defaults occur in the assets backing a CDO, the senior bond classes are first in line to receive principal and interest payments, followed by the mezzanine classes and finally by the lowest rated (or non-rated) class, which is known as the equity tranche. Similar in structure to a collateralized mortgage obligation (described above) CDOs are unique in that they represent different types of debt and credit risk.
     Credit Linked Notes (CLNs). The Fund may invest in CLNs. A CLN is a security with an embedded credit default swap allowing the issuer to transfer a specific credit risk to credit investors.
     CLNs are created through a Special Purpose Company (SPC), or trust, which is collateralized with AAA-rated securities. The CLN’s price or coupon is linked to the performance of the reference asset of the second party. Generally, the CLN holder receives either fixed or floating coupon rate during the life of the CLN and par at maturity. The cash flows are dependent on specified credit-related events. Should the second party default or declare bankruptcy, the CLN holder will receive an amount equivalent to the recovery rate. In return for these risks, the CLN holder receives a higher yield. The Fund bears the risk of default by the second party and any unforeseen movements in the reference asset, which could lead to loss of principal and receipt of interest payments. As with most derivative instruments, valuation of a CLN may be difficult due to the complexity of the security.
     Bank Instruments. The Fund may invest in bank instruments. Bank instruments are unsecured interest bearing bank deposits. Bank instruments include, but are not limited to, certificates of deposits, time deposits, and banker’s acceptances from U.S. or foreign banks as well as Eurodollar

12


 

certificates of deposit (Eurodollar CDs) and Eurodollar time deposits (Eurodollar time deposits) of foreign branches of domestic banks. Some certificates of deposit is a negotiable interest-bearing instrument with a specific maturity issued by banks and savings and loan institutions in exchange for the deposit of funds, and can typically be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Other certificates of deposit, like time deposits, are non-negotiable receipts issued by a bank in exchange for the deposit of funds which earns a specified rate of interest over a definite period of time; however, it cannot be traded in the secondary market. A banker’s acceptance is a bill of exchange or time draft drawn on and accepted by a commercial bank.
     An investment in Eurodollar CDs or Eurodollar time deposits may involve some of the same risks that are described for Foreign Securities.
     Commercial Instruments. The Fund may invest in commercial instruments, including commercial paper, master notes and other short-term corporate instruments, that are denominated in U.S. dollars or foreign currencies.
     Commercial instruments are a type of instrument issued by large banks and corporations to raise money to meet their short term debt obligations, and are only backed by the issuing bank or corporation’s promise to pay the face amount on the maturity date specified on the note. Commercial paper consists of short-term promissory notes issued by corporations. Commercial paper may be traded in the secondary market after its issuance. Master notes are demand notes that permit the investment of fluctuating amounts of money at varying rates of interest pursuant to arrangements with issuers who meet the credit quality criteria of the Fund. The interest rate on a master note may fluctuate based on changes in specified interest rates or may be reset periodically according to a prescribed formula or may be a set rate. Although there is no secondary market in master demand notes, if such notes have a demand feature, the payee may demand payment of the principal amount of the note upon relatively short notice. Master notes are generally illiquid and therefore subject to the Fund’s percentage limitations for investments in illiquid securities. Commercial instruments may not be registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
     Synthetic Municipal Instruments. The Fund may invest in synthetic municipal instruments, the value of and return on which are derived from underlying securities. The types of synthetic municipal instruments in which the Fund may invest include tender option bonds and variable rate trust certificates. Both types of instruments involve the deposit into a trust or custodial account of one or more long-term tax-exempt bonds or notes (Underlying Bonds), and the sale of certificates evidencing interests in the trust or custodial account to investors such as the Fund. The trustee or custodian receives the long-term fixed rate interest payments on the Underlying Bonds, and pays certificate holders short-term floating or variable interest rates which are reset periodically. A “tender option bond” provides a certificate holder with the conditional right to sell its certificate to the sponsor or some designated third party at specified intervals and receive the par value of the certificate plus accrued interest (a demand feature). A “variable rate trust certificate” evidences an interest in a trust entitling the certificate holder to receive variable rate interest based on prevailing short-term interest rates and also typically provides the certificate holder with the conditional demand feature the right to tender its certificate at par value plus accrued interest.
     Typically, a certificate holder cannot exercise the demand feature until the occurrence of certain conditions, such as where the issuer of the Underlying Bond defaults on interest payments. Moreover, because synthetic municipal instruments involve a trust or custodial account and a third party conditional demand feature, they involve complexities and potential risks that may not be present where a municipal security is owned directly.
     The tax-exempt character of the interest paid to certificate holders is based on the assumption that the holders have an ownership interest in the Underlying Bonds; however, the IRS has not issued a ruling addressing this issue. In the event the IRS issues an adverse ruling or successfully litigates this issue, it is possible that the interest paid to the Fund on certain synthetic municipal instruments would

13


 

be deemed to be taxable. The Fund relies on opinions of special tax counsel on this ownership question and opinions of bond counsel regarding the tax-exempt character of interest paid on the Underlying Bonds.
     Municipal Securities. The Fund may invest in Municipal Securities. “Municipal Securities” include debt obligations of states, territories or possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia and their political subdivisions, agencies and instrumentalities, issued to obtain funds for various public purposes, including the construction of a wide range of public facilities such as airports, bridges, highways, housing, hospitals, mass transportation, schools, streets and water and sewer works. Other public purposes for which Municipal Securities may be issued include the refunding of outstanding obligations, obtaining funds for general operating expenses and lending such funds to other public institutions and facilities.
     The principal and interest payments for industrial development bonds or pollution control bonds are often the sole responsibility of the industrial user and therefore may not be backed by the taxing power of the issuing municipality. The interest paid on such bonds may be exempt from federal income tax, although current federal tax laws place substantial limitations on the purposes and size of such issues. Such obligations are considered to be Municipal Securities provided that the interest paid thereon, in the opinion of bond counsel, qualifies as exempt from federal income tax. However, interest on Municipal Securities may give rise to a federal alternative minimum tax (AMT) liability and may have other collateral federal income tax consequences. Interest received by the Fund from tax-exempt Municipal Securities may be taxable to shareholders if the Fund fails to qualify to pay exempt-interest dividends by failing to satisfy the requirement that at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s taxable year at least 50% of the Fund’s total assets consists of Municipal Securities.
     The two major classifications of Municipal Securities are bonds and notes. Bonds may be further classified as “general obligation” or “revenue” issues. General obligation bonds are secured by the issuer’s pledge of its full faith, credit and taxing power for the payment of principal and interest. Revenue bonds are payable from the revenues derived from a particular facility or class of facilities, and in some cases, from the proceeds of a special excise or other specific revenue source, but not from the general taxing power. Tax-exempt industrial development bonds are in most cases revenue bonds and do not generally carry the pledge of the credit of the issuing municipality. Notes are short-term instruments which usually mature in less than two years. Most notes are general obligations of the issuing municipalities or agencies and are sold in anticipation of a bond sale, collection of taxes or receipt of other revenues.
     Municipal Securities also include the following securities:
    Bond Anticipation Notes usually are general obligations of state and local governmental issuers which are sold to obtain interim financing for projects that will eventually be funded through the sale of long-term debt obligations or bonds.
 
    Tax Anticipation Notes are issued by state and local governments to finance the current operations of such governments. Repayment is generally to be derived from specific future tax revenues. Tax anticipation notes are usually general obligations of the issuer.
 
    Revenue Anticipation Notes are issued by governments or governmental bodies with the expectation that future revenues from a designated source will be used to repay the notes. In general, they also constitute general obligations of the issuer.
 
    Tax-Exempt Commercial Paper (Municipal Paper) is similar to taxable commercial paper, except that tax-exempt commercial paper is issued by states, municipalities and their agencies.

14


 

     The Fund also may purchase participation interests or custodial receipts from financial institutions. These participation interests give the purchaser an undivided interest in one or more underlying Municipal Securities.
     After purchase by the Fund, an issue of Municipal Securities may cease to be rated by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (Moody’s) or Standard and Poor’s Ratings Services (S&P), or another nationally recognized statistical rating organization (NRSRO), or the rating of such a security may be reduced below the minimum credit quality rating required for purchase by the Fund. Neither event would require the Fund to dispose of the security. To the extent that the ratings applied by Moody’s, S&P or another NRSRO to Municipal Securities may change as a result of changes in these rating systems, the Fund will attempt to use comparable credit quality ratings as standards for its investments in Municipal Securities.
     Since the Fund invests in Municipal Securities backed by insurance companies and other financial institutions, changes in the financial condition of these institutions could cause losses to the Fund and affect its share price.
     The Fund may invest in Municipal Securities that are insured by financial insurance companies. Since a limited number of entities provide such insurance, the Fund may invest more than 25% of its assets in securities insured by the same insurance company.
     The Fund may also invest in taxable municipal securities. Taxable municipal securities are debt securities issued by or on behalf of states and their political subdivisions, the District of Columbia, and possessions of the United States, the interest on which is not exempt from federal income tax.
     The yields on Municipal Securities are dependent on a variety of factors, including general economic and monetary conditions, money market factors, conditions of the Municipal Securities market, size of a particular offering, and maturity and rating of the obligation. Because many Municipal Securities are issued to finance similar projects, especially those related to education, health care, transportation and various utilities, conditions in those sectors and the financial condition of an individual municipal issuer can affect the overall municipal market. The market values of the Municipal Securities held by the Fund will be affected by changes in the yields available on similar securities. If yields increase following the purchase of a Municipal Security, the market value of such Municipal Security will generally decrease. Conversely, if yields decrease, the market value of a Municipal Security will generally increase.
     Investment Grade Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in U.S. dollar-denominated debt obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations or U.S. commercial banks, U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign issuers and debt obligations of foreign issuers denominated in foreign currencies. Debt obligations include, among others, bonds, notes, debentures and variable rate demand notes.
     These obligations must meet minimum ratings criteria set forth for the Fund or, if unrated, be of comparable quality. Bonds rated Baa3 or higher by Moody’s Investors Service and/or BBB or higher by Standard & Poors or Fitch Ratings, Ltd are typically considered investment grade debt obligations. The description of debt securities ratings may be found in Appendix A.
     In choosing corporate debt securities on behalf of the Fund, portfolio managers may consider:
  (i)   general economic and financial conditions;
 
  (ii)   the specific issuer’s (a) business and management, (b) cash flow, (c) earnings coverage of interest and dividends, (d) ability to operate under adverse economic conditions, (e) fair market value of assets, and (f) in the case of foreign issuers, unique political, economic or social conditions applicable to such issuer’s country; and,
 
  (iii)   other considerations deemed appropriate.

15


 

     Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk, currency risk and default risk.
     Non-Investment Grade Debt Obligations (Junk Bonds). The Fund may invest in lower-rated or non-rated debt securities commonly known as junk bonds. The Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in junk bonds, including junk bonds of companies located in developing countries.
     Bonds rated Ba or below by Moody’s Investors Service and/or BB or below by Standard & Poors or Fitch Ratings, Ltd are typically considered non-investment grade or “junk bonds.” Analysis of the creditworthiness of junk bond issuers is more complex than that of investment-grade issuers and the success of the Fund’s Adviser in managing these decisions is more dependent upon its own credit analysis than is the case with investment-grade bonds. Descriptions of debt securities ratings are found in Appendix A.
     The capacity of junk bonds to pay interest and repay principal is considered speculative. While junk bonds may provide an opportunity for greater income and gains, they are subject to greater risks than higher-rated debt securities. The prices of and yields on junk bonds may fluctuate to a greater extent than those of higher-rated debt securities. Junk bonds are generally more sensitive to individual issuer developments, economic conditions and regulatory changes than higher-rated bonds. Issuers of junk bonds are often issued by smaller, less-seasoned companies or companies that are highly leveraged with more traditional methods of financing unavailable to them. Junk bonds are generally at a higher risk of default because such issues are often unsecured or otherwise subordinated to claims of the issuer’s other creditors. If a junk bond issuer defaults, a Fund may incur additional expenses to seek recovery. The secondary markets in which junk bonds are traded may be thin and less liquid than the market for higher-rated debt securities and a Fund may have difficulty selling certain junk bonds at the desired time and price. Less liquidity in secondary trading markets could adversely affect the price at which a Fund could sell a particular junk bond, and could cause large fluctuations in the net asset value of that Fund’s shares. The lack of a liquid secondary market may also make it more difficult for a Fund to obtain accurate market quotations in valuing junk bond assets and elements of judgment may play a greater role in the valuation.
     Structured Notes and Indexed Securities. The Fund may invest in structured notes and indexed securities.
     Structured notes are derivative debt instruments, the interest rate or principal of which is linked to currencies, interest rates, commodities, indices or other financial indicators (reference instruments). Indexed securities may include structured notes and other securities wherein the interest rate or principal are determined by a reference instrument.
     Structured notes and indexed securities may entail a greater degree of market risk than other types of debt securities because the investor bears the risk of the reference instrument. Structured notes or indexed securities also may be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities and instruments or more traditional debt securities. In addition to the credit risk of the structured note or indexed security’s issuer and the normal risks of price changes in response to changes in interest rates, the principal amount of structured notes or indexed securities may decrease as a result of changes in the value of the underlying reference instruments. Further, in the case of certain structured notes or indexed securities in which the interest rate, or exchange rate in the case of currency, is linked to a referenced instrument, the rate may be increased or decreased or the terms may provide that, under certain circumstances, the principal amount payable on maturity may be reduced to zero resulting in a loss to the Fund.
     Investment in Wholly-Owned Subsidiary. The Fund will invest up to 25% of its total assets, in the wholly-owned and controlled Subsidiary which is expected to invest primarily in commodity-linked notes, commodity-linked derivatives, ETFs and ETNs, as well as fixed income securities and other

16


 

investments intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivative positions. As a result, the Fund may be considered to be investing indirectly in these investments through its Subsidiary.
     The Subsidiary will not be registered under the 1940 Act and, except otherwise noted in the Fund’s prospectus, is not subject to the investor protections of the 1940 Act. However, since the Fund wholly-owns and controls the Subsidiary, and the Fund and the Subsidiary are managed by the Adviser, it is unlikely that the Subsidiary will take action contrary to the interests of the Fund or its shareholders. The Fund’s Trustees have oversight responsibility for the investment activities of the Fund, including its investments in the Subsidiary, and role as sole shareholder of the Subsidiary. Also, in managing the Subsidiary’s portfolio, the Adviser will be subject to the same investment restrictions and operational guidelines that apply to the management of the Fund.
     Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands, under which the Fund and the Subsidiary, are organized, could result in the inability of the Fund or the Subsidiary to operate as described in this SAI and could negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders. For example, the government of the Cayman Islands does not currently impose any income, corporate or capital gains tax, estate duty, inheritance tax, gift tax or withholding tax on the Subsidiary. If Cayman Islands law changes such that the Subsidiary must pay Cayman Islands taxes, the Funds shareholders would likely suffer decreased investment returns.
Other Investments
     Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). The Fund may invest in equity and/or debt securities issued by REITs.
     REITs are trusts that sell equity or debt securities to investors and use the proceeds to invest in real estate or interests therein. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling property that has appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments.
     Investments in REITS may be subject to many of the same risks as direct investments in real estate. These risks include difficulties in valuing and trading real estate, declines in the value of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, adverse changes in the climate for real estate, environmental liability risks, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, limitations on rents, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants, heavy cash flow dependency and increases in interest rates. To the extent that the Fund invests in REITs, the Fund could conceivably own real estate directly as a result of a default on the REIT interests or obligations it owns.
     In addition to the risks of direct real estate investment described above, equity REITs may be affected by any changes in the value of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are also subject to the following risks: they are dependent upon management skill and on cash flows; are not diversified; are subject to defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibility of failing to maintain an exemption from the 1940 Act; and are subject to interest rate risk. The Fund that invests in REITs will bear a proportionate share of the expenses of the REITs.
     Other Investment Companies. Unless otherwise indicated in this SAI or the Fund’s prospectus, the Fund may purchase shares of other investment companies, including exchange-traded funds. For the Fund, the 1940 Act imposes the following restrictions on investments in other investment companies: (i) the Fund may not purchase more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of another investment company; (ii) a Fund may not invest more than 5% of its total assets in securities issued by another investment company; and (iii) a Fund may not invest more than 10% of its total assets

17


 

in securities issued by other investment companies. The 1940 Act and related rules provide certain exemptions from these restrictions. For example, under certain conditions, the Fund may acquire an unlimited amount of shares of mutual funds that are part of the same group of investment companies as the acquiring fund. In addition, these restrictions do not apply to investments by the Fund in investment companies that are money market funds, including money market funds that have Invesco or an affiliate of Invesco as an investment adviser (the Affiliated Money Market Funds).
     When a Fund purchases shares of another investment company, including an Affiliated Money Market Fund, the Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of the advisory fees and other operating expenses of such investment company and will be subject to the risks associated with the portfolio investments of the underlying investment company.
     Defaulted Securities. The Fund may invest in defaulted securities.
     Defaulted securities are debt securities on which the issuer is not currently making interest payments. In order to enforce its rights in defaulted securities, the Fund may be required to participate in legal proceedings or take possession of and manage assets securing the issuer’s obligations on the defaulted securities. This could increase the Fund’s operating expenses and adversely affect its net asset value. Risks in defaulted securities may be considerably higher as they are generally unsecured and subordinated to other creditors of the issuer. Any investments by the Fund in defaulted securities will also be considered illiquid securities subject to the limitations described herein, unless Invesco and/or the Sub-Advisers determines that such defaulted securities are liquid under guidelines adopted by the Board.
     Variable or Floating Rate Instruments. The Fund may invest in variable or floating rate instruments.
     Variable or floating rate instruments are securities that provide for a periodic adjustment in the interest rate paid on the obligation. The interest rates for securities with variable interest rates are readjusted on set dates (such as the last day of the month or calendar quarter) and the interest rates for securities with floating rates are reset whenever a specified interest rate change occurs. Variable or floating interest rates generally reduce changes in the market price of securities from their original purchase price because, upon readjustment, such rates approximate market rates. Accordingly, as market interest rates decrease or increase, the potential for capital appreciation or depreciation is less for variable or floating rate securities than for fixed rate obligations. Many securities with variable or floating interest rates have a demand feature allowing the Fund to demand payment of principal and accrued interest prior to its maturity. The terms of such demand instruments require payment of principal and accrued interest by the issuer, a guarantor, and/or a liquidity provider. All variable or floating rate instruments will meet the applicable rating standards of the Fund. The Fund’s adviser or Sub-adviser, as applicable, may determine that an unrated floating rate or variable rate demand obligation meets the Fund’s rating standards by reason of being backed by a letter of credit or guarantee issued by a bank that meets those rating standards.
     Zero-Coupon and Pay-in-Kind Securities. The Fund may invest in zero-coupon or pay-in-kind securities.
     Zero-coupon securities do not pay interest or principal until final maturity unlike debt securities that traditionally provide periodic payments of interest (referred to as a coupon payment). Investors must wait until maturity to receive interest and principal, which increases the interest rate and credit risks of a zero coupon security. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by delivery of additional securities. Upon maturity, the holder is entitled to receive the aggregate par value of the securities. Zero-coupon and pay-in-kind securities may be subject to greater fluctuation in value and less liquidity in the event of adverse market conditions than comparably rated securities paying cash interest at regular interest payment periods. Investors may purchase zero coupon and pay in kind

18


 

securities at a price below the amount payable at maturity. The difference between the purchase price and the amount paid at maturity represents “original issue discount” on the security.
     Premium Securities. The Fund may invest in premium securities. Premium securities are securities bearing coupon rates higher than the then prevailing market rates.
     Premium securities are typically purchased at a “premium”, in other words, at a price greater than the principal amount payable on maturity. The Fund will not amortize the premium paid for such securities in calculating its net investment income. As a result, in such cases the purchase of premium securities provides the Fund a higher level of investment income distributable to shareholders on a current basis than if the Fund purchased securities bearing current market rates of interest. However, the yield on these securities would remain at the current market rate. If securities purchased by the Fund at a premium are called or sold prior to maturity, the Fund will realize a loss to the extent the call or sale price is less than the purchase price. Additionally, the Fund will realize a loss of principal if it holds such securities to maturity.
     Stripped Income Securities. The Fund may invest in stripped income securities.
     Stripped Income Securities are obligations representing an interest in all or a portion of the income or principal components of an underlying or related security, a pool of securities, or other assets. Stripped income securities may be partially stripped so that each class receives some interest and some principal. However, they may be completely stripped, where one class will receive all of the interest (the interest only class or the IO class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only class or the PO class).
     The market values of stripped income securities tend to be more volatile in response to changes in interest rates than are conventional income securities. In the case of mortgage-backed stripped income securities, the yields to maturity of IOs and POs may be very sensitive to principal repayments (including prepayments) on the underlying mortgages resulting in a Fund being unable to recoup its initial investment or resulting in a less than anticipated yield. The market for stripped income securities may be limited, making it difficult for the Fund to dispose of its holding at an acceptable price.
     Privatizations. The Fund may invest in privatizations.
     The governments of certain foreign countries have, to varying degrees, embarked on privatization programs to sell part or all of their interests in government owned or controlled companies or enterprises (privatizations). The Fund’s investments in such privatizations may include: (i) privately negotiated investments in a government owned or controlled company or enterprise; (ii) investments in the initial offering of equity securities of a government owned or controlled company or enterprise; and (iii) investments in the securities of a government owned or controlled company or enterprise following its initial equity offering.
     In certain foreign countries, the ability of foreign entities such as the Fund to participate in privatizations may be limited by local law, or the terms on which the Fund may be permitted to participate may be less advantageous than those for local investors. There can be no assurance that foreign governments will continue to sell companies and enterprises currently owned or controlled by them, that privatization programs will be successful, or that foreign governments will not re-nationalize companies or enterprises that have been privatized. If large blocks of these enterprises are held by a small group of stockholders the sale of all or some portion of these blocks could have an adverse effect on the price.

19


 

Investment Techniques
     Forward Commitments, When-Issued and Delayed Delivery Securities. The Fund may purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment, when-issued or delayed-delivery basis.
     Forward commitments, when-issued or delayed-delivery basis means that delivery and payment take place in the future after the date of the commitment to purchase or sell the securities at a pre-determined price and/or yield. Settlement of such transactions normally occurs a month or more after the purchase or sale commitment is made. Typically, no interest accrues to the purchaser until the security is delivered. Forward commitments also include “To be announced” (TBA) synthetic securities, which are contracts for the purchase or sale of mortgage-backed securities to be delivered at a future agreed upon date, whereby the specific mortgage pool numbers or the number of pools that will be delivered to fulfill the trade obligation or terms of the contract are unknown at the time of the trade. The Fund may also enter into buy/sell back transactions (a form of delayed delivery agreement). In a buy/sell back transaction, the Fund enters a trade to sell securities at one price and simultaneously enters a trade to buy the same securities at another price for settlement at a future date. Although the Fund generally intends to acquire or dispose of securities on a forward commitment, when-issued or delayed delivery basis, the Fund may sell these securities or its commitment before the settlement date if deemed advisable.
     When purchasing a security on a forward commitment, when-issued or delayed-delivery basis, the Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield fluctuation, and takes such fluctuations into account when determining its net asset value. Securities purchased on a forward commitment, when-issued or delayed-delivery basis are subject to changes in value based upon the public’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and changes, real or anticipated, in the level of interest rates. Accordingly, securities acquired on such a basis may expose the Fund to risks because they may experience such fluctuations prior to actual delivery. Purchasing securities on a forward commitment, when-issued or delayed delivery basis may involve the additional risk that the yield available in the market when the delivery takes place actually may be higher than that obtained in the transaction itself.
     Investment in these types of securities may increase the possibility that the Fund will incur short-term gains subject to federal taxation or short-term losses if the Fund must engage in portfolio transactions in order to honor its commitment. Until the settlement date, the Fund will segregate liquid assets of a dollar value sufficient at all times to make payment for the forward commitment, when-issued or delayed delivery transactions. Such segregated liquid assets will be marked-to-market daily, and the amount segregated will be increased if necessary to maintain adequate coverage of the delayed delivery commitments. No additional forward, when-issued or delayed delivery commitments will be made by the Fund if, as a result, more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would become so committed. The delayed delivery securities, which will not begin to accrue interest or dividends until the settlement date, will be recorded as an asset of the Fund and will be subject to the risk of market fluctuation. The purchase price of the delayed delivery securities is a liability of the Fund until settlement.
     Short Sales. The Fund may engage in short sales. The Fund will not sell a security short if, as a result of such short sale, the aggregate market value of all securities sold short exceeds 10% of the Fund’s total assets. This limitation does not apply to short sales against the box.
     A short sale involves the sale of a security which the Fund does not own in the hope of purchasing the same security at a later date at a lower price. To make delivery to the buyer, the Fund must borrow the security from a broker. The Fund normally closes a short sale by purchasing an equivalent number of shares of the borrowed security on the open market and delivering them to the broker. A short sale is typically affected when Invesco believes that the price of a particular security will decline. Open short positions using futures or forward foreign currency contracts are not deemed to constitute selling securities short.

20


 

     To secure its obligation to deliver the securities sold short to the broker, the Fund will be required to deposit cash or liquid securities with the broker. In addition, the Fund may have to pay a premium to borrow the securities, and while the loan of the security sold short is outstanding, the Fund is required to pay to the broker the amount of any dividends paid on shares sold short. In addition to maintaining collateral with the broker, the Fund will set aside an amount of cash or liquid securities equal to the difference, if any, between the current market value of the securities sold short and any cash or liquid securities deposited as collateral with the broker-dealer in connection with the short sale. The collateral will be marked to market daily. The amounts deposited with the broker or segregated with the custodian do not have the effect of limiting the amount of money that the Fund may lose on a short sale. Short sale transactions covered in this manner are not considered senior securities and are not subject to the Fund’s fundamental investment limitations on senior securities and borrowings.
     Short positions create a risk that the Fund will be required to cover them by buying the security at a time when the security has appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the Fund. A short position in a security poses more risk than holding the same security long. Because a short position loses value as the security’s price increases, the loss on a short sale is theoretically unlimited. The loss on a long position is limited to what the Fund originally paid for the security together with any transaction costs. The Fund may not always be able to borrow a security the Fund seeks to sell short at a particular time or at an acceptable price. It is possible that the market value of the securities the Fund holds in long positions will decline at the same time that the market value of the securities the Fund has sold short increases, thereby increasing the Fund’s potential volatility. Because the Fund may be required to pay dividends, interest, premiums and other expenses in connection with a short sale, any benefit for the Fund resulting from the short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate gain or loss will be decreased or increased, respectively, by the amount of such expenses.
     The Fund may also enter into short sales against the box. Short sales against the box are short sales of securities that the Fund owns or has the right to obtain (equivalent in kind or amount to the securities sold short). If the Fund enters into a short sale against the box, it will be required to set aside securities equivalent in kind and amount to the securities sold short (or securities convertible or exchangeable into such securities) and will be required to hold such securities while the short sale is outstanding. The Fund will incur transaction costs including interest expenses, in connection with opening, maintaining, and closing short sales against the box.
     Short sales against the box result in a “constructive sale” and require the Fund to recognize any taxable gain unless an exception to the constructive sale applies. See “Dividends, Distributions and Tax Matters – Tax Matters – Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions – Options, futures, forward contracts, swap agreements and hedging transactions.”
     Margin Transactions. The Fund will not purchase any security on margin, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities. The payment by the Fund of initial or variation margin in connection with futures or related options transactions will not be considered the purchase of a security on margin.
     Interfund Loans. The SEC has issued an exemptive order permitting the Invesco Funds to borrow money from and lend money to each other for temporary or emergency purposes. The Invesco Funds’ interfund lending program is subject to a number of conditions, including the requirements that: (1) an interfund loan will generally only occur if the interest rate on the loan is more favorable to the borrowing fund than the interest rate typically available from a bank for a comparable transaction and the rate is more favorable to the lending fund than the rate available on overnight repurchase transactions; (2) an Invesco Fund may not lend more than 15% of its net assets through the program (measured at the time of the last loan); and (3) an Invesco Fund may not lend more than 5% of its net assets to another Invesco Fund through the program (measured at the time of the loan). The Fund may participate in the program only if and to the extent that such participation is consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and investment policies. Interfund loans have a maximum duration of seven days. Loans may be called with one day’s notice and may be repaid on any day.

21


 

     Borrowing. The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted under the Fund Policies. Such borrowings may be utilized (i) for temporary or emergency purposes; (ii) in anticipation of or in response to adverse market conditions; or, (iii) for cash management purposes. All borrowings are limited to an amount not exceeding 33 1/3% of the Fund’s total assets (including the amount borrowed) less liabilities (other than borrowings). Any borrowings that exceed this amount will be reduced within three business days to the extent necessary to comply with the 33 1/3% limitation even if it is not advantageous to sell securities at that time.
     If there are unusually heavy redemptions, the Fund may have to sell a portion of its investment portfolio at a time when it may not be advantageous to do so. Selling Fund securities under these circumstances may result in a lower net asset value per share or decreased dividend income, or both. Invesco and the Sub-Advisers believe that, in the event of abnormally heavy redemption requests, the Fund’s borrowing ability would help to mitigate any such effects and could make the forced sale of their portfolio securities less likely.
     The Fund may borrow from a bank, broker-dealer, or an Invesco Fund. Additionally, the Fund is permitted to temporarily carry a negative or overdrawn balance in their account with their custodian bank. To compensate the custodian bank for such overdrafts, the Fund may either (i) leave fund as a compensating balance in their account so the custodian bank can be compensated by earning interest on such funds; or (ii) compensate the custodian bank by paying it an agreed upon rate. The Fund may not purchase additional securities when any borrowings from banks or broker-dealers exceed 5% of the Fund’s total assets or when any borrowings from an Invesco Fund are outstanding.
     Lending Portfolio Securities. The Fund may lend its portfolio securities (principally to broker-dealers) to generate additional income. Such loans are callable at any time and are continuously secured by segregated collateral equal to no less than the market value, determined daily, of the loaned securities. Such collateral will be cash, letters of credit, or debt securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies. The Fund may lend portfolio securities to the extent of one-third of its total assets. The Fund will loan its securities only to parties that Invesco has determined are in good standing and when, in Invesco’s judgment, the income earned would justify the risks.
     The Fund will not have the right to vote securities while they are on loan, but it can call a loan in anticipation of an important vote. The Fund would receive income in lieu of dividends on loaned securities and may, at the same time, generate income on the loan collateral or on the investment of any cash collateral.
     If the borrower defaults on its obligation to return the securities loaned because of insolvency or other reasons, the Fund could experience delays and costs in recovering securities loaned or gaining access to the collateral. If the Fund is not able to recover the securities loaned, the Fund may sell the collateral and purchase a replacement security in the market. Lending securities entails a risk of loss to the Fund if and to the extent that the market value of the loaned securities increases and the collateral is not increased accordingly.
     Any cash received as collateral for loaned securities will be invested, in accordance with the Fund’s investment guidelines, in short-term money market instruments or Affiliated Money Market Funds. Investing this cash subjects that investment to market appreciation or depreciation. For purposes of determining whether the Fund is complying with its investment policies, strategies and restrictions, the Fund will consider the loaned securities as assets of the Fund, but will not consider any collateral received as the Fund asset. The Fund will bear any loss on the investment of cash collateral.
     For a discussion of tax considerations relating to lending portfolio securities, see “Dividends, Distributions and Tax Matters – Tax Matters – Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions – Securities lending.”

22


 

     Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may engage in repurchase agreement transactions involving the types of securities in which it is permitted to invest. Repurchase agreements are agreements under which the Fund acquires ownership of a security from a broker-dealer or bank that agrees to repurchase the security at a mutually agreed upon time and price (which is higher than the purchase price), thereby determining the yield during the Fund’s holding period. The Fund may enter into a “continuing contract” or “open” repurchase agreement under which the seller is under a continuing obligation to repurchase the underlying securities from the Fund on demand and the effective interest rate is negotiated on a daily basis. Repurchase agreements may be viewed as loans made by the Fund which are collateralized by the securities subject to repurchase.
     If the seller of a repurchase agreement fails to repurchase the security in accordance with the terms of the agreement, the Fund might incur expenses in enforcing its rights, and could experience a loss on the sale of the underlying security to the extent that the proceeds of the sale including accrued interest are less than the resale price provided in the agreement, including interest. In addition, although the Bankruptcy Code and other insolvency laws may provide certain protections for some types of repurchase agreements, if the seller of a repurchase agreement should be involved in bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, the Fund may incur delay and costs in selling the underlying security or may suffer a loss of principal and interest if the value of the underlying security declines. The securities underlying a repurchase agreement will be marked-to-market every business day so that the value of such securities is at least equal to the investment value of the repurchase agreement, including any accrued interest thereon.
     The Fund may invest its cash balances in joint accounts with other Invesco Funds for the purpose of investing in repurchase agreements with maturities not to exceed 60 days, and in certain other money market instruments with remaining maturities not to exceed 90 days. Repurchase agreements are considered loans by the Fund under the 1940 Act.
     Restricted and Illiquid Securities. The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in securities that are illiquid. The Fund may invest in Rule 144A securities.
     Illiquid securities are securities that cannot be disposed of within seven days in the normal course of business at approximately the price at which they are valued. Illiquid securities may include a wide variety of investments, such as: (1) repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days (unless the agreements have demand/redemption features); (2) over-the-counter (OTC) options contracts and certain other derivatives (including certain swap agreements); (3) fixed time deposits that are not subject to prepayment or that provide for withdrawal penalties upon prepayment (other than overnight deposits); (4) loan interests and other direct debt instruments; (5) municipal lease obligations; (6) commercial paper issued pursuant to Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act; and (7) securities that are unregistered, that can be sold to qualified institutional buyers in accordance with Rule 144A under the 1933 Act, or that are exempt from registration under the 1933 Act or otherwise restricted under the federal securities laws.
     Limitations on the resale of restricted securities may have an adverse effect on their marketability, which may prevent the Fund from disposing of them promptly at reasonable prices. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering such securities for resale, and the risk of substantial delays in effecting such registrations. The Fund’s difficulty valuing and selling illiquid securities may result in a loss or be costly to the Fund.
     If a substantial market develops for a restricted security or other illiquid investment held by the Fund, it may be treated as a liquid security, in accordance with procedures and guidelines approved by the Board. While Invesco monitors the liquidity of restricted securities on a daily basis, the Board oversees and retains ultimate responsibility for Invesco’s liquidity determinations. Invesco considers various factors when determining whether a security is liquid, including the frequency of trades, availability of quotations and number of dealers or qualified institutional buyers in the market.

23


 

     Rule 144A Securities. The Fund may invest in Rule 144A securities. Rule 144A securities are securities which, while privately placed, are eligible for purchase and resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the 1933 Act. This Rule permits certain qualified institutional buyers, such as the Fund, to trade in privately placed securities even though such securities are not registered under the 1933 Act. Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers, under the supervision of the Board, will consider whether securities purchased under Rule 144A are illiquid and thus subject to the Fund’s restriction on investment in illiquid securities. Determination of whether a Rule 144A security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers will consider the trading markets for the specific security taking into account the unregistered nature of a Rule 144A security. In addition, Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers could consider the (i) frequency of trades and quotes; (ii) number of dealers and potential purchasers; (iii) dealer undertakings to make a market; and (iv) nature of the security and of market place trades (for example, the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers and the mechanics of transfer). Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers will also monitor the liquidity of Rule 144A securities and, if as a result of changed conditions, Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers determines that a Rule 144A security is no longer liquid, Invesco and/or Sub-Advisers will review a Fund’s holdings of illiquid securities to determine what, if any, action is required to assure that such Fund complies with its restriction on investment in illiquid securities.
     Reverse Repurchase Agreements. The Fund may engage in reverse repurchase agreements.
     Reverse repurchase agreements are agreements that involve the sale of securities held by the Fund to financial institutions such as banks and broker-dealers, with an agreement that the Fund will repurchase the securities at an agreed upon price and date. During the reverse repurchase agreement period, the Fund continues to receive interest and principal payments on the securities sold. The Fund may employ reverse repurchase agreements (i) for temporary emergency purposes, such as to meet unanticipated net redemptions so as to avoid liquidating other portfolio securities during unfavorable market conditions; (ii) to cover short-term cash requirements resulting from the timing of trade settlements; or (iii) to take advantage of market situations where the interest income to be earned from the investment of the proceeds of the transaction is greater than the interest expense of the transaction.
     Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the market value of securities to be purchased by the Fund may decline below the price at which the Fund is obligated to repurchase the securities, or that the other party may default on its obligation, so that the Fund is delayed or prevented from completing the transaction. At the time the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it will segregate, and maintain, liquid assets having a dollar value equal to the repurchase price. In the event the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, a Fund’s use of the proceeds from the sale of the securities may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered borrowings by the Fund under the 1940 Act.
     Mortgage Dollar Rolls. The Fund may engage in mortgage dollar rolls (a dollar roll).
     A dollar roll is a type of transaction that involves the sale by the Fund of a mortgage-backed security to a financial institution such as a bank or broker-dealer, with an agreement that the Fund will repurchase a substantially similar (i.e., same type, coupon and maturity) security at an agreed upon price and date. The mortgage securities that are purchased will bear the same interest rate as those sold, but will generally be collateralized by different pools of mortgages with different prepayment histories. During the period between the sale and repurchase the Fund will not be entitled to receive interest or principal payments on the securities sold but is compensated for the difference between the current sales price and the forward price for the future purchase. In addition, cash proceeds of the sale may be invested in short-term instruments and the income from these investments, together with any additional fee income received on the sale, would generate income for the Fund. The Fund typically

24


 

enters into a dollar roll transaction to enhance the Fund’s return either on an income or total return basis or to manage pre-payment risk.
     Dollar roll transactions involve the risk that the market value of the securities retained by a Fund may decline below the price of the securities that the Fund has sold but is obligated to repurchase under the agreement. In the event the buyer of securities under a dollar roll transaction files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the Fund’s use of the proceeds from the sale of the securities may be restricted pending a determination by the other party, or its trustee or receiver, whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities. Dollar rolls are considered borrowings by the Fund under the 1940 Act. At the time the Fund enters into a dollar roll transaction, a sufficient amount of assets held by the Fund will segregated to meet the forward commitment.
     Unless the benefits of the sale exceed the income, capital appreciation or gains on the securities sold as part of the dollar roll, the investment performance of the Fund will be less than what the performance would have been without the use of dollar rolls. The benefits of dollar rolls may depend upon Invesco or Sub-Adviser’s ability to predict mortgage repayments and interest rates. There is no assurance that dollar rolls can be successfully employed.
Derivatives
     A derivative is a financial instrument whose value is dependent upon the value of other assets, rates or indices, referred to as an “underlying reference.” These underlying references may include commodities, stocks, bonds, interest rates, currency exchange rates or related indices. Derivatives include swaps, options, warrants, futures and forward foreign currency contract. Some derivatives, such as futures and certain options, are traded on U.S. commodity or securities exchanges, while other derivatives, such as swap agreements, are privately negotiated and entered into in the over-the-counter (OTC) market.
     Derivatives may be used for “hedging,” which means that they may be used when the portfolio manager seeks to protect the Fund’s investments from a decline in value, which could result from changes in interest rates, market prices, currency fluctuations and other market factors. Derivatives may also be used when the portfolio manager seeks to increase liquidity, implement a tax or cash management strategy, invest in a particular stock, bond or segment of the market in a more efficient or less expensive way, modify the characteristics of the Fund’s portfolio investments, for example, duration, and/or to enhance return. However derivatives are used, their successful use is not assured and will depend upon the portfolio manager’s ability to predict and understand relevant market movements.
     Because certain derivatives involve leverage, that is, the amount invested may be smaller than the full economic exposure of the derivative instrument and the Fund could lose more than it invested, federal securities laws, regulations and guidance may require the Fund to earmark assets to reduce the risks associated with derivatives or to otherwise hold instruments that offset the Fund’s obligations under the derivatives instrument. This process is known as “cover.” The Fund will not enter into any derivative transaction unless it can comply with SEC guidance regarding cover, and, if SEC guidance so requires, the Fund will earmark cash or liquid assets with a value sufficient to cover its obligations under a derivative transaction or otherwise “cover” the transaction in accordance with applicable SEC guidance. If a large portion of the Fund’s assets is used for cover, it could affect portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations. The leverage involved in certain derivative transactions may result in the Fund’s net asset value being more sensitive to changes in the value of the related investment.
     For swaps, forwards and futures that are contractually required to “cash-settle,” the Fund is permitted to set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to the Funds’ daily mark-to-market (net) obligations, if any (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liabilities, if any), rather than the notional value (See Swap Agreements). By setting aside assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled swaps,

25


 

forward and futures contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if it were required to segregate assets equal to the full notional value of such contracts. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future to comply with any changes in the positions articulated from time to time by the SEC and its staff. The Subsidiary will comply with these asset segregation requirements to the same extent as the Fund.
     General risks associated with derivatives:
      The use by the Fund of derivatives may involve certain risks, as described below.
     Counterparty Risk: OTC derivatives are generally governed by a single master agreement for each counterparty. Counterparty Risk refers to the risk that the counterparty under the agreement will not live up to its obligations. An agreement may not contemplate delivery of collateral to support fully a counterparty’s contractual obligation; therefore, the Fund might need to rely on contractual remedies to satisfy the counterparty’s full obligation. As with any contractual remedy, there is no guarantee that the Fund will be successful in pursuing such remedies, particularly in the event of the counterparty’s bankruptcy. The agreement may allow for netting of the counterparty’s obligations on specific transactions, in which case the Fund’s obligation or right will be the net amount owed to or by the counterparty. The Fund will not enter into a derivative transaction with any counterparty that Invesco and/or the Sub-Advisers believe does not have the financial resources to honor its obligations under the transaction. Invesco monitors the financial stability of counterparties. Where the obligations of the counterparty are guaranteed, Invesco monitors the financial stability of the guarantor instead of the counterparty.
     The Fund will not enter into a transaction with any single counterparty if the net amount owed or to be received under existing transactions under the agreements with that counterparty would exceed 5% of the Fund’s net assets determined on the date the transaction is entered into.
     Leverage Risk: Leverage exists when the Fund can lose more than it originally invests because it purchases or sells an instrument or enters into a transaction without investing an amount equal to the full economic exposure of the instrument or transaction. The Fund mitigates leverage by segregating or earmarking assets or otherwise covers transactions that may give rise to leverage.
     Liquidity Risk: The risk that a particular derivative is difficult to sell or liquidate. If a derivative transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses to the Fund.
     Pricing Risk: The risk that the value of a particular derivative does not move in tandem or as otherwise expected relative to the corresponding underlying instruments.
     Regulatory Risk: The risk that a change in laws or regulations will materially impact a security or market or the Fund’s ability to hold certain commodities.
     Tax Risks: For a discussion of the tax considerations relating to derivative transactions, see “Dividends, Distributions and Tax Matters – Tax Matters – Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions.”
    General risks of hedging strategies using derivatives:
     The use by the Fund of hedging strategies involves special considerations and risks, as described below.
     Successful use of hedging transactions depends upon Invesco’s and the Sub-Advisers’ ability to predict correctly the direction of changes in the value of the applicable markets and securities, contracts

26


 

and/or currencies. While Invesco and the Sub-Advisers are experienced in the use of derivatives for hedging, there can be no assurance that any particular hedging strategy will succeed.
     In a hedging transaction, there might be imperfect correlation, or even no correlation, between the price movements of an instrument used for hedging and the price movements of the investments being hedged. Such a lack of correlation might occur due to factors unrelated to the value of the investments being hedged, such as changing interest rates, market liquidity, and speculative or other pressures on the markets in which the hedging instrument is traded.
     Hedging strategies, if successful, can reduce risk of loss by wholly or partially offsetting the negative effect of unfavorable price movements in the investments being hedged. However, hedging strategies can also reduce opportunity for gain by offsetting the positive effect of favorable price movements in the hedged investments.
     Types of derivatives:
     Swap Agreements. The Fund may engage in certain strategies involving swaps to attempt to manage the risk of their investments or, in certain circumstances, for investment (e.g., as a substitute for investing in securities). The Fund may enter into a swap agreement. Generally, swap agreements are contracts between the Fund and a brokerage firm, bank, or other financial institution (the counterparty) for periods ranging from a few days to multiple years. In a basic swap transaction, the Fund agrees with its counterparty to exchange the returns (or differentials in returns) earned or realized on a particular asset such as an equity or debt security, commodity, currency or interest rate, calculated with respect to a “notional amount.” The notional amount is the set amount selected by the parties to use as the basis on which to calculate the obligations that the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange. The parties typically do not exchange the notional amount. Instead, they agree to exchange the returns that would be earned or realized if the notional amount were invested in given investments or at given interest rates. Examples of returns that may be exchanged in a swap agreement are those of a particular security, a particular fixed or variable interest rate, a particular foreign currency, or a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. In some cases, such as cross currency swaps, the swap agreement may require delivery (exchange) of the entire notional value of one designated currency for another designated currency.
     The OTC derivatives market continues to undergo changes as various regulatory entities and rulemaking bodies to regulate the OTC derivatives markets, including, specifically, requirements for clearing transactions in credit default swaps based on a credit default swap index (sometimes referred to as CDX) and requirements for clearing transactions in interest rate swaps. These new regulations will change the OTC markets for derivatives and could materially and adversely impact the ability of the Fund to buy or sell OTC derivatives, including credit default swaps and interest rate swaps.
     Commonly used swap agreements include:
     Credit Default Swaps (CDS): An agreement between two parties where the first party agrees to make one or more payments to the second party, while the second party assumes the risk of certain defaults, generally a failure to pay or bankruptcy of the issuer on a referenced debt obligation. CDS transactions are typically individually negotiated and structured. The Fund may enter into CDS to create long or short exposure to domestic or foreign corporate debt securities or sovereign debt securities.
     The Fund may buy a CDS (buy credit protection). In this transaction the Fund makes a stream of payments based on a fixed interest rate (the premium) over the life of the swap in exchange for a counterparty (the seller) taking on the risk of default of a referenced debt obligation (the Reference Obligation). If a credit event occurs for the Reference Obligation, the Fund would cease making premium payments and it would deliver defaulted bonds to the seller. In return, the seller would pay the notional value of the Reference Obligation to the Fund. Alternatively, the two counterparties may agree to cash settlement in which the seller delivers to the Fund (buyer) the difference between the market

27


 

value and the notional value of the Reference Obligation. If no event of default occurs, the Fund pays the fixed premium to the seller for the life of the contract, and no other exchange occurs.
     Alternatively, the Fund may sell a CDS (sell credit protection). In this transaction the Fund will receive premium payments from the buyer in exchange for taking the risk of default of the Reference Obligation. If a credit event occurs for the Reference Obligation, the buyer would cease to make premium payments to the Fund and deliver the Reference Obligation to the Fund. In return, the Fund would pay the notional value of the Reference Obligation to the buyer. Alternatively, the two counterparties may agree to cash settlement in which the Fund would pay the buyer the difference between the market value and the notional value of the Reference Obligation. If no event of default occurs, the Fund receives the premium payments over the life of the contract, and no other exchange occurs.
     Credit Default Index (CDX). A CDX is an index of CDS. CDX allow an investor to manage credit risk or to take a position on a basket of credit entities (such as CDS or CMBS) in a more efficient manner than transacting in single name CDS. If a credit event occurs in one of the underlying companies, the protection is paid out via the delivery of the defaulted bond by the buyer of protection in return for payment of the notional value of the defaulted bond by the seller of protection or it may be settled through a cash settlement between the two parties. The underlying company is then removed from the index. New series of CDX are issued on a regular basis. A Commercial Mortgage-Backed Index (CMBX) is a type of CDX made up of 25 tranches of commercial mortgage-backed securities (See “Debt Instruments – Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities”) rather than CDS. Unlike other CDX contracts where credit events are intended to capture an event of default CMBX involves a pay-as-you-go (PAUG) settlement process designed to capture non-default events that affect the cash flow of the reference obligation. PAUG involves ongoing, two-way payments over the life of a contract between the buyer and the seller of protection and is designed to closely mirror the cash flow of a portfolio of cash commercial mortgage-backed securities.
     Currency Swap: An agreement between two parties pursuant to which the parties exchange a U.S. dollar-denominated payment for a payment denominated in a different currency.
     Interest Rate Swap: An agreement between two parties pursuant to which the parties exchange a floating rate payment for a fixed rate payment based on a specified principal or notional amount. In other words, Party A agrees to pay Party B a fixed interest rate and in return Party B agrees to pay Party A a variable interest rate.
     Total Return Swap: An agreement in which one party makes payments based on a set rate, either fixed or variable, while the other party makes payments based on the return of an underlying asset, which includes both the income it generates and any capital gains.
     Options. An option is a contract that gives the purchaser of the option, in return for the premium paid, the right to buy from (in the case of a call) or sell to (in the case of a put) the writer of the option at the exercise price during the term of the option (for American style options or on a specified date for European style options), the security, currency or other instrument underlying the option (or in the case of an index option the cash value of the index). Options on a CDS or a Futures Contract (defined below) give the purchaser the right to enter into a CDS or assume a position in a Futures Contract.
     The Fund may engage in certain strategies involving options to attempt to manage the risk of their investments or, in certain circumstances, for investment (e.g., as a substitute for investing in securities). Option transactions present the possibility of large amounts of exposure (or leverage), which may result in the Fund’s net asset value being more sensitive to changes in the value of the option.

28


 

     The value of an option position will reflect, among other things, the current market value of the underlying investment, the time remaining until expiration, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price of the underlying investment, the price volatility of the underlying investment and general market and interest rate conditions.
     The Fund will not write (sell) options if, immediately after such sale, the aggregate value of securities or obligations underlying the outstanding options would exceed 20% of the Fund’s total assets. The Fund will not purchase options if, immediately after such purchase, the aggregate premiums paid for outstanding options would exceed 5% of the Fund’s total assets.
     The Fund may effectively terminate its right or obligation under an option by entering into an offsetting closing transaction. For example, the Fund may terminate its obligation under a call or put option that it had written by purchasing an identical call or put option, which is known as a closing purchase transaction. Conversely, the Fund may terminate a position in a put or call option it had purchased by writing an identical put or call option, which is known as a closing sale transaction. Closing transactions permit the Fund to realize profits or limit losses on an option position prior to its exercise or expiration.
     Options may be either listed on an exchange or traded in OTC markets. Listed options are tri-party contracts (i.e., performance of the obligations of the purchaser and seller are guaranteed by the exchange or clearing corporation) and have standardized strike prices and expiration dates. OTC options are two-party contracts with negotiated strike prices and expiration dates and differ from exchange-traded options in that OTC options are transacted with dealers directly and not through a clearing corporation (which guarantees performance). In the case of OTC options, there can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option at any specific time; therefore the Fund may be required to treat some or all OTC options as illiquid securities. Although the Fund will enter into OTC options only with dealers that are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with it, there is no assurance that the Fund will in fact be able to close out an OTC option position at a favorable price prior to exercise or expiration. In the event of insolvency of the dealer, the Fund might be unable to close out an OTC option position at any time prior to its expiration.
    Types of Options:
     Put Options on Securities: A put option gives the purchaser the right to sell, to the writer, the underlying security, contract or foreign currency at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option for American style options or on a specified date for European style options, regardless of the market price or exchange rate of the security, contract or foreign currency, as the case may be, at the time of exercise. If the purchaser exercises the put option, the writer of a put option is obligated to buy the underlying security, contract or foreign currency for the exercise price.
     Call Options on Securities: A call option gives the purchaser the right to buy, from the writer, the underlying security, contract or foreign currency at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option (for American style options) or on a specified date (for European style options), regardless of the market price or exchange rate of the security, contract or foreign currency, as the case may be, at the time of exercise. If the purchaser exercises the call option, the writer of a call option is obligated to sell to and deliver the underlying security, contract or foreign currency to the purchaser of the call option for the exercise price.
     Index Options: Index options (or options on securities indices) give the holder the right to receive, upon exercise, cash instead of securities, if the closing level of the securities index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. The amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the call or put times a specified multiple (the multiplier), which determines the total dollar value for each point of such difference.

29


 

     The risks of investment in index options may be greater than options on securities. Because index options are settled in cash, when the Fund writes a call on an index it cannot provide in advance for its potential settlement obligations by acquiring and holding the underlying securities. The Fund can offset some of the risk of writing a call index option by holding a diversified portfolio of securities similar to those on which the underlying index is based. However, the Fund cannot, as a practical matter, acquire and hold a portfolio containing exactly the same securities that underlie the index and, as a result, bears the risk that the value of the securities held will not be perfectly correlated with the value of the index.
     CDS Option: A CDS option transaction gives the holder the right to enter into a CDS at a specified future date and under specified terms in exchange for a purchase price or premium. The writer of the option bears the risk of any unfavorable move in the value of the CDS relative to the market value on the exercise date, while the purchaser may allow the option to expire unexercised.
     Options on Futures Contracts: Options on Futures Contracts give the holder the right to assume a position in a Futures Contract (to buy the Futures Contract if the option is a call and to sell the Futures Contract if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option.
     Option Techniques
     Writing Options. The Fund may write options to generate additional income and to seek to hedge its portfolio against market or exchange rate movements. As the writer of an option, the Fund may have no control over when the underlying instruments must be sold (in the case of a call option) or purchased (in the case of a put option) because the option purchaser may notify the Fund of exercise at any time prior to the expiration of the option (for American style options). In general, options are rarely exercised prior to expiration. Whether or not an option expires unexercised, the writer retains the amount of the premium.
     The Fund would write a put option at an exercise price that, reduced by the premium received on the option, reflects the price it is willing to pay for the underlying security, contract or currency. In return for the premium received for writing a put option, the Fund assumes the risk that the price of the underlying security, contract, or foreign currency will decline below the exercise price, in which case the put would be exercised and the Fund would suffer a loss.
     In return for the premium received for writing a call option on a security the Fund holds, the Fund foregoes the opportunity for profit from a price increase in the underlying security, contract, or foreign currency above the exercise price so long as the option remains open, but retains the risk of loss should the price of the security, contract, or foreign currency decline.
     If an option that the Fund has written expires, the Fund will realize a gain in the amount of the premium; however, such gain may be offset by a decline in the market value of the underlying security, contract or currency, held by the Fund during the option period. If a call option is exercised, the Fund will realize a gain or loss from the sale of the underlying security, contract or currency, which will be increased or offset by the premium received. The obligation imposed upon the writer of an option is terminated upon the expiration of the option, or such earlier time at which the Fund effects a closing purchase transaction by purchasing an option (put or call as the case may be) identical to that previously sold.
     Purchasing Options. The Fund may only purchase a put option on an underlying security, contract or currency owned by the Fund in order to protect against an anticipated decline in the value of the security, contract or currency held by the Fund; or purchase put options on underlying securities, contracts or currencies against which it has written other put options. The premium paid for the put option and any transaction costs would reduce any profit realized when the security, contract or

30


 

currency is delivered upon the exercise of the put option. Conversely, if the underlying security, contract or currency does not decline in value, the option may expire worthless and the premium paid for the protective put would be lost.
     The Fund may purchase a call option for the purpose of acquiring the underlying security, contract or currency for its portfolio, or on underlying securities, contracts or currencies against which it has written other call options. The Fund is not required to own the underlying security in order to purchase a call option. If the Fund does not own the underlying position, the purchase of a call option would enable the Fund to acquire the security, contract or currency at the exercise price of the call option plus the premium paid. So long as it holds a call option, rather than the underlying security, contract or currency itself, the Fund is partially protected from any unexpected increase in the market price of the underlying security, contract or currency. If the market price does not exceed the exercise price, the Fund could purchase the security on the open market and could allow the call option to expire, incurring a loss only to the extent of the premium paid for the option.
     Straddles/Spreads/Collars. The Fund may, for hedging purposes, enter into straddles (combinations of put and call options on the same underlying security) to adjust the risk and return characteristics of the Fund’s’ overall position. A possible combined position would involve writing a covered call option at one strike price and buying a call option at a lower price, in order to reduce the risk of the written covered call option in the event of a substantial price increase. Because combined options positions involve multiple trades, they result in higher transaction costs and may be more difficult to open and close out.
     Spread and straddle options transactions. In “spread” transactions, the Fund buys and writes a put or buys and writes a call on the same underlying instrument with the options having different exercise prices, expiration dates, or both. In “straddles,” the Fund purchases a put option and a call option or writes a put option and a call option on the same instrument with the same expiration date and typically the same exercise price. When the Fund engages in spread and straddle transactions, it seeks to profit from differences in the option premiums paid and received and in the market prices of the related options positions when they are closed out or sold. Because these transactions require the Fund to buy and/or write more than one option simultaneously, the Fund’s ability to enter into such transactions and to liquidate its positions when necessary or deemed advisable may be more limited than if the Fund were to buy or sell a single option. Similarly, costs incurred by the Fund in connection with these transactions will in many cases be greater than if the Fund were to buy or sell a single option.
     Option Collars. The Fund also may use option “collars.” A “collar” position combines a put option purchased by the Fund (the right of the Fund to sell a specific security within a specified period) with a call option that is written by the Fund (the right of the counterparty to buy the same security) in a single instrument. The Fund’s right to sell the security is typically set at a price that is below the counterparty’s right to buy the security. Thus, the combined position “collars” the performance of the underlying security, providing protection from depreciation below the price specified in the put option, and allowing for participation in any appreciation up to the price specified by the call option.
     Warrants. The Fund may purchase warrants.
     A warrant gives the holder the right to purchase securities from the issuer at a specific price within a certain time frame and is similar to a call option. The main difference between warrants and call options is that warrants are issued by the company that will issue the underlying security, whereas options are not issued by the company. Young, unseasoned companies often issue warrants to finance their operations.
     Futures Contracts. The Fund may enter into Futures Contracts.
     A Futures Contract is a two-party agreement to buy or sell a specified amount of a specified security, currency or commodity (or delivery of a cash settlement price, in the case of certain futures

31


 

such as an index future or Eurodollar Future) for a specified price at a designated date, time and place (collectively, Futures Contracts). A “sale” of a Futures Contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to deliver the underlying instrument or asset called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date. A “purchase” of a Futures Contract means the acquisition of a contractual obligation to acquire the underlying instrument or asset called for by the contract at a specified price on a specified date.
     The Fund will only enter into Futures Contracts that are traded (either domestically or internationally) on futures exchanges and are standardized as to maturity date and underlying financial instrument. Futures exchanges and trading thereon in the United States are regulated under the Commodity Exchange Act and by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). Foreign futures exchanges and trading thereon are not regulated by the CFTC and are not subject to the same regulatory controls. The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, has claimed an exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act and, therefore, is not subject to registration or regulation as a pool operator under the act with respect to the Fund.
     Brokerage fees are incurred when a Futures Contract is bought or sold, and margin deposits must be maintained at all times when a Futures Contract is outstanding. “Margin” for a Futures Contracts is the amount of funds that must be deposited by the Fund in order to initiate Futures Contracts trading and maintain its open positions in Futures Contracts. A margin deposit made when the Futures Contract is entered (initial margin) is intended to ensure the Fund’s performance under the Futures Contract. The margin required for a particular Futures Contract is set by the exchange on which the Futures Contract is traded and may be significantly modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the Futures Contract.
     Subsequent payments, called “variation margin,” received from or paid to the futures commission merchant through which the Fund enters into the Futures Contract will be made on a daily basis as the futures price fluctuates making the Futures Contract more or less valuable, a process known as marking-to-market. When the Futures Contract is closed out, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the futures commission merchant along with any amount in excess of the margin amount; if the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the difference is returned to the Fund; or if the Fund has a gain, the margin amount is paid to the Fund and the futures commission merchant pays the Fund any excess gain over the margin amount.
     Closing out an open Futures Contract is affected by entering into an offsetting Futures Contract for the same aggregate amount of the identical financial instrument or currency and the same delivery date. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular Futures Contract at a particular time. If the Fund is not able to enter into an offsetting transaction, it will continue to be required to maintain the margin deposits on the Futures Contract.
     In addition, if the Fund were unable to liquidate a Futures Contract or an option on a Futures Contract position due to the absence of a liquid secondary market or the imposition of price limits, it could incur substantial losses. The Fund would continue to be subject to market risk with respect to the position. In addition, except in the case of purchased options, the Fund would continue to be required to make daily variation margin payments.
     Types of Futures Contracts:
     Commodity Futures. A commodity futures contract is an exchange-traded contract to buy or sell a particular commodity at a specified price at some time in the future. Commodity futures contracts are highly volatile; therefore, the prices of fund shares may be subject to greater volatility to the extent it invests in commodity futures.

32


 

     Currency Futures: A currency Futures Contract is a standardized, exchange-traded contract to buy or sell a particular currency at a specified price at a future date (commonly three months or more). Currency Futures Contracts may be highly volatile and thus result in substantial gains or losses to the Fund.
     Index Futures: A stock index Futures Contract is an exchange-traded contract that provides for the delivery, at a designated date, time and place, of an amount of cash equal to a specified dollar amount times the difference between the stock index value at the close of trading on the date specified in the contract and the price agreed upon in the Futures Contract; no physical delivery of stocks comprising the index is made.
     Interest Rate Futures: An interest-rate Futures Contract is an exchange-traded contact in which the specified underlying security is either an interest-bearing fixed income security or an inter-bank deposit. Two examples of common interest rate Futures Contracts are U.S. Treasury futures and Eurodollar Futures Contracts. The specified security for U.S. Treasury futures is a U.S. Treasury security. The specified security for Eurodollar futures is the London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor) which is a daily reference rate based on the interest rates at which banks offer to lend unsecured funds to other banks in the London wholesale money market.
     Security Futures: A security Futures Contract is an exchange-traded contract to purchase or sell, in the future, a specified quantity of a security (other than a Treasury security, or a narrow-based securities index) at a certain price.
     Options on Futures Contracts. Options on Futures Contracts are similar to options on securities or currencies except that options on Futures Contracts give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a Futures Contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the Futures Contract position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s Futures Contract margin account. The Fund currently may not invest in any security (including futures contracts or options thereon) that is secured by physical commodities.
     Pursuant to federal securities laws and regulations, the Fund’s use of Futures Contracts and options on Futures Contracts may require the Fund to set aside assets to reduce the risks associated with using Futures Contracts and options on Futures Contracts. This process is described in more detail below in the section “Cover.”
     Forward Foreign Currency Contracts. The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions in anticipation of, or to protect itself against, fluctuations in exchange rates.
A forward foreign currency contract is an over the counter contract between two parties to buy or sell a particular currency at a specified price at a future date. The parties may exchange currency at the maturity of the forward foreign currency contract, or if the parties agree prior to maturity, enter into a closing transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting amount of currency. Forward foreign currency contracts are traded over-the-counter, and not on organized commodities or securities exchanges.
     The Fund may enter into forward foreign currency contracts with respect to a specific purchase or sale of a security, or with respect to its portfolio positions generally. The cost to a Fund of engaging in forward foreign currency contracts varies with factors such as the currencies involved, the length of the contract period, interest rate differentials and the prevailing market conditions. Because forward foreign currency contracts are usually entered into on a principal basis, no fees or commissions are involved. The use of forward foreign currency contracts does not eliminate fluctuations in the prices of the underlying securities a Fund owns or intends to acquire, but it does establish a rate of exchange in advance. While forward foreign currency contract sales limit the risk of loss due to a decline in the value

33


 

of the hedged currencies, they also limit any potential gain that might result should the value of the currencies increase.
     Limitations on Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts and on Certain Options on Currencies. The Fund may enter into Futures Contracts for hedging purposes. For example, Futures Contracts may be sold to protect against a decline in the price of securities or currencies that the Fund owns, or purchased to protect the Fund against an increase in the price of securities or currencies it has committed to purchase or expects to purchase. Additionally, Futures Contracts may be used to hedge against certain portfolio risks such as interest rate risk, yield curve risk and currency exchange rates.
Fund Policies
     Fundamental Restrictions. Except as otherwise noted below, the Fund is subject to the following investment restrictions, which may be changed only by a vote of the Fund’s outstanding shares. Fundamental restrictions may be changed only by a vote of the lesser of (i) 67% or more of the Fund’s shares present at a meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares are present in person or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding shares. Any investment restriction that involves a maximum or minimum percentage of securities or assets (other than with respect to borrowing) shall not be considered to be violated unless an excess over or a deficiency under the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or disposition of securities or utilization of assets by the Fund.
     (1) The Fund may not borrow money or issue senior securities, except as permitted by the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, as such statute, rules and regulations are amended from time to time or are interpreted form time to time by the SEC staff (collectively, the “1940 Act Laws, Interpretations”) or except to the extent that the Fund may be permitted to do so by exemptive order or similar relief (collectively, with the “1940 Act Laws and Interpretations, and Exemptions”).
     (2) The Fund may not underwrite the securities of other issuers. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving the acquisition, disposition or resale of its portfolio securities, regardless of whether the Fund may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act.
     (3) The Fund will not make investments that will result in the concentration (as that term may be defined or interpreted by the 1940 Act Laws, Interpretations and Exemptions) of its investments in the securities of issuers primarily engaged in the same industry. This restriction does not limit the Fund’s investments in (i) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities, or (ii) tax-exempt obligations issued by governments or political subdivisions of governments. In complying with this restriction, the Fund will not consider a bank-issued guaranty or financial guaranty insurance as a separate security.
     (4) The Fund may not purchase real estate or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from investing in issuers that invest, deal, or otherwise engage in transactions in real estate or interests therein, or investing in securities that are secured by real estate or interests therein.
     (5) The Fund may not purchase physical commodities or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving futures contracts and options thereon or investing in securities that are secured by physical commodities. This restriction also does not prevent the Fund from investing up to 25% of its total assets in the Subsidiary, thereby gaining exposure to the investment returns of commodities markets within the limitations of the federal tax requirements and

34


 

investing outside of the Subsidiary in other commodity-linked instruments such as commodity-linked notes, ETFs, futures and swaps.
     (6) The Fund may not make personal loans or loans of its assets to persons who control or are under common control with the Fund, except to the extent permitted by 1940 Act Laws, Interpretations and Exemptions. This restriction does not prevent the Fund from, among other things, purchasing debt obligations, entering into repurchase agreements, loaning its assets to broker-dealers or institutional investors, or investing in loans, including assignments and participation interests.
     (7) The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment policy or limitation, invest all of its assets in the securities of a single open-end management investment company with substantially the same fundamental investment objectives, policies and restrictions as the Fund.
     The investment restrictions set forth above provide the Fund with the ability to operate under new interpretations of the 1940 Act or pursuant to exemptive relief from the SEC without receiving prior shareholder approval of the change. Even though the Fund has this flexibility, the Board has adopted non-fundamental restrictions for the Fund relating to certain of these restrictions which Invesco and, when applicable, the Sub-Advisers must follow in managing the Fund. Any changes to these non-fundamental restrictions, which are set forth below, require the approval of the Board.
     Non-Fundamental Restrictions. Non-fundamental restrictions may be changed for the Fund without shareholder approval. The non-fundamental investment restrictions listed below apply to the Fund unless otherwise indicated.
     (1) In complying with the fundamental restriction regarding industry concentration, the Fund may invest up to 25% of its total assets in the securities of issuers whose principal business activities are in the same industry.
     (2) Notwithstanding the fundamental restriction with regard to engaging in transactions involving futures contracts and options thereon or investing in securities that are secured by physical commodities, the Fund currently may not invest in any security (including futures contracts or options thereon) that is secured by physical commodities.
     The Fund does not consider currencies or other financial commodities or contracts and financial instruments to be physical commodities (which include, for example, oil, precious metals and grains). Accordingly, the Fund will interpret the fundamental restriction and the related non-fundamental restriction to permit the Fund, subject to the Fund’s investment objectives and general investment policies (as stated in the Fund’s prospectuses and herein), to invest directly in foreign currencies and other financial commodities and to purchase, sell or enter into commodity futures contracts and options thereon, foreign currency forward contracts, foreign currency options, currency-, commodity- and financial instrument-related swap agreements, hybrid instruments, interest rate or securities-related or foreign currency-related hedging instruments or other currency-, commodity- or financial instrument-related derivatives, subject to compliance with any applicable provisions of the federal securities or commodities laws. The Fund also will interpret its fundamental restriction regarding purchasing and selling physical commodities and its related non-fundamental restriction to permit the Fund to invest in exchange-traded funds that invest in physical and/or financial commodities, subject to the limits described in the Fund’s prospectus and herein.
     (3) In complying with the fundamental restriction with regard to making loans, the Fund may lend up to 33 1/3% of its total assets and may lend money to an Invesco Fund, on such terms and conditions as the SEC may require in an exemptive order.
     (4) Notwithstanding the fundamental restriction with regard to investing all assets in an open-end fund, the Fund may not invest all of its assets in the securities of a single open-end

35


 

management investment company with the same fundamental investment objectives, policies and restrictions as the Fund.
     (5) The Fund may not acquire any securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Sections 12(d)(1)(F) or 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.
     Geographic Asset Diversification. The Fund considers emerging market countries as those in the world other than developed countries of the European Union, the United States of America, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Singapore. Developed countries of the European Union are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Portfolio Turnover
     Variations in turnover rate may be due to a fluctuating volume of shareholder purchase and redemption orders, market conditions and/or changes in Invesco’s investment outlook. Prior to the date of this SAI, the Fund had not yet commenced operations; therefore, as of the date of this SAI, the Fund has no portfolio turnover.
Policies and Procedures for Disclosure of Fund Holdings
     The Board has adopted policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings (the Holdings Disclosure Policy). Invesco and the Board may amend the Holdings Disclosure Policy at any time without prior notice. Details of the Holdings Disclosure Policy and a description of the basis on which employees of Invesco and its affiliates may release information about portfolio securities in certain contexts are provided below.
     Public release of portfolio holdings. The Fund discloses the following portfolio holdings information on www.invesco.com/us1:
         
    Approximate Date of   Information Remains
Information   Website Posting   Posted on Website
Top ten holdings as of month-end
  15 days after month-end   Until replaced with the following month’s top ten holdings
 
       
Select holdings included in the Fund’s Quarterly Performance Update
  29 days after calendar quarter-end   Until replaced with the following quarter’s Quarterly Performance Update
 
       
Complete portfolio holdings as of calendar quarter-end
  30 days after calendar quarter-end   For one year
 
       
Complete portfolio holdings as of fiscal quarter-end
  60-70 days after fiscal quarter-end   For one year
     These holdings are listed along with the percentage of the Fund’s net assets they represent. Generally, employees of Invesco and its affiliates may not disclose such portfolio holdings until one day after they have been posted on www.invesco.com/us. You may also obtain the publicly available portfolio holdings information described above by contacting us at 1-800-959-4246.
     Selective disclosure of portfolio holdings pursuant to non-disclosure agreement. Employees of Invesco and its affiliates may disclose non-public full portfolio holdings on a selective
 
1   To locate the Fund’s portfolio holdings information on http://www.invesco.com/us, click on the Products tab, then click on the Mutual Funds link, then select the Fund from the drop down menu and click on the “Overview” tab. A link to the Fund’s holdings is located under the heading “Top Ten Holdings” in the middle of the Web page.

36


 

basis only if the Internal Compliance Controls Committee (the ICCC) of Invesco Management approves the parties to whom disclosure of non-public full portfolio holdings will be made. The ICCC must determine that the proposed selective disclosure will be made for legitimate business purposes of the applicable Fund and is in the best interest of the applicable Fund’s shareholders. In making such determination, the ICCC will address any perceived conflicts of interest between shareholders of such Fund and Invesco or its affiliates as part of granting its approval.
     The Board exercises continuing oversight of the disclosure of Fund portfolio holdings by (1) overseeing the implementation and enforcement of the Holdings Disclosure Policy and the Invesco Funds Code of Ethics by the Chief Compliance Officer (or his designee) of Invesco and the Invesco Funds and (2) considering reports and recommendations by the Chief Compliance Officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 206(4)-7 under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended) that may arise in connection with the Holdings Disclosure Policy. Pursuant to the Holdings Disclosure Policy, the Board reviews the types of situations in which Invesco provides selective disclosure and approves situations involving perceived conflicts of interest between shareholders of the applicable Fund and Invesco or its affiliates brought to the Board’s attention by Invesco.
     Invesco discloses non-public full portfolio holdings information to the following persons in connection with the day-to-day operations and management of the Invesco Funds:
    Attorneys and accountants;
 
    Securities lending agents;
 
    Lenders to the Invesco Funds;
 
    Rating and rankings agencies;
 
    Persons assisting in the voting of proxies;
 
    Invesco Funds’ custodians;
 
    The Invesco Funds’ transfer agent(s) (in the event of a redemption in kind);
 
    Pricing services, market makers, or other persons who provide systems or software support in connection with Invesco Funds’ operations (to determine the price of securities held by an Invesco Fund);
 
    Financial printers;
 
    Brokers identified by the Invesco Funds’ portfolio management team who provide execution and research services to the team; and
 
    Analysts hired to perform research and analysis to the Invesco Funds’ portfolio management team.
     In many cases, Invesco will disclose current portfolio holdings on a daily basis to these persons. In these situations, Invesco has entered into non-disclosure agreements which provide that the recipient of the portfolio holdings will maintain the confidentiality of such portfolio holdings and will not trade on such information (Non-disclosure Agreements). Please refer to Appendix B for a list of examples of persons to whom Invesco provides non-public portfolio holdings on an ongoing basis.
     Invesco will also disclose non-public portfolio holdings information if such disclosure is required by applicable laws, rules or regulations, or by regulatory authorities having jurisdiction over Invesco and its affiliates or the Fund.
     The Holdings Disclosure Policy provides that Invesco will not request, receive or accept any compensation (including compensation in the form of the maintenance of assets in the Fund or other mutual fund or account managed by Invesco or one of its affiliates) for the selective disclosure of portfolio holdings information.

37


 

     Disclosure of certain portfolio holdings and related information without non-disclosure agreement. Invesco and its affiliates that provide services to the Fund, the Sub-Advisers and each of their employees may receive or have access to portfolio holdings as part of the day to day operations of the Fund.
     From time to time, employees of Invesco and its affiliates may express their views orally or in writing on one or more of the Fund’s portfolio securities or may state that the Fund has recently purchased or sold, or continues to own, one or more securities. The securities subject to these views and statements may be ones that were purchased or sold since the Fund’s most recent quarter-end and therefore may not be reflected on the list of the Fund’s most recent quarter-end portfolio holdings disclosed on the website. Such views and statements may be made to various persons, including members of the press, brokers and other financial intermediaries that sell shares of the Fund, shareholders in the applicable Fund, persons considering investing in the applicable Fund or representatives of such shareholders or potential shareholders, such as fiduciaries of a 401(k) plan or a trust and their advisers, and other entities for which Invesco or its affiliates provides or may provide investment advisory services. The nature and content of the views and statements provided to each of these persons may differ.
     From time to time, employees of Invesco and its affiliates also may provide oral or written information (portfolio commentary) about the Fund, including, but not limited to, how the Fund’s investments are divided among various sectors, industries, countries, investment styles and capitalization sizes, and among stocks, bonds, currencies and cash, security types, bond maturities, bond coupons and bond credit quality ratings. This portfolio commentary may also include information on how these various weightings and factors contributed to Fund performance. Invesco may also provide oral or written information (statistical information) about various financial characteristics of the Fund or its underlying portfolio securities including, but not limited to, alpha, beta, R-squared, coefficient of determination, duration, maturity, information ratio, sharpe ratio, earnings growth, payout ratio, price/book value, projected earnings growth, return on equity, standard deviation, tracking error, weighted average quality, market capitalization, percent debt to equity, price to cash flow, dividend yield or growth, default rate, portfolio turnover, and risk and style characteristics. This portfolio commentary and statistical information about the Fund may be based on the Fund’s portfolio as of the most recent quarter-end or the end of some other interim period, such as month-end. The portfolio commentary and statistical information may be provided to various persons, including those described in the preceding paragraph. The nature and content of the information provided to each of these persons may differ.
     Disclosure of portfolio holdings by traders. Additionally, employees of Invesco and its affiliates may disclose one or more of the portfolio securities of the Fund when purchasing and selling securities through broker-dealers, requesting bids on securities, obtaining price quotations on securities, or in connection with litigation involving the Fund’s portfolio securities. Invesco does not enter into formal Non-Disclosure Agreements in connection with these situations; however, the Fund would not continue to conduct business with a person who Invesco believed was misusing the disclosed information.
     Disclosure of portfolio holdings of other Invesco Invesco-managed products. Invesco and its affiliates manage products sponsored by companies other than Invesco, including investment companies, offshore funds, and separate accounts. In many cases, these other products are managed in a similar fashion to certain Invesco Funds (as defined herein) and thus have similar portfolio holdings. The sponsors of these other products managed by Invesco and its affiliates may disclose the portfolio holdings of their products at different times than Invesco discloses portfolio holdings for the Invesco Funds.
     Invesco provides portfolio holdings information for portfolios of AIM Variable Insurance Funds (Invesco Variable Insurance Funds) (the Insurance Funds) to insurance companies whose variable annuity and variable life insurance accounts invest in the Insurance Funds (Insurance Companies). Invesco may disclose portfolio holdings information for the Insurance Funds to Insurance Companies

38


 

with which Invesco has entered into Non-Disclosure Agreements up to five days prior to the scheduled dates for Invesco’s disclosure of similar portfolio holdings information for other Invesco Funds on http://www.invesco.com/us. Invesco provides portfolio holdings information for the Insurance Funds to such Insurance Companies to allow them to disclose this information on their websites at approximately the same time that Invesco discloses portfolio holdings information for the other Invesco Funds on its website. Invesco manages the Insurance Funds in a similar fashion to certain other Invesco Funds and thus the Insurance Funds and such other Invesco Funds have similar portfolio holdings. Invesco does not disclose the portfolio holdings information for the Insurance Funds on its website, and not all Insurance Companies disclose this information on their websites.
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
Board of Trustees
     The Trustees and officers of the Trust, their principal occupations during at least the last five years and certain other information concerning them are set forth in Appendix C.
     Qualifications and Experience. In addition to the information set forth in Appendix C, the following sets forth additional information about the qualifications and experiences of each of the Trustees.
Interested Persons
Martin L. Flanagan Trustee
     Martin L. Flanagan has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2007. Mr. Flanagan is president and chief executive officer of Invesco Ltd., a position he has held since August 2005. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Invesco Ltd.
     Mr. Flanagan joined Invesco Ltd. from Franklin Resources, Inc., where he was president and co-chief executive officer from January 2004 to July 2005. Previously he had been Franklin’s co-president from May 2003 to January 2004, chief operating officer and chief financial officer from November 1999 to May 2003, and senior vice president and chief financial officer from 1993 until November 1999.
     Mr. Flanagan served as director, executive vice president and chief operating officer of Templeton, Galbraith & Hansberger, Ltd. before its acquisition by Franklin in 1992. Before joining Templeton in 1983, he worked with Arthur Anderson & Co.
     Mr. Flanagan is a chartered financial analyst and a certified public accountant. He serves as vice chairman of the Investment Company Institute and a member of the executive board at the SMU Cox School of Business.
     The Board believes that Mr. Flanagan’s long experience as an executive in the investment management area benefits the Fund.
Philip A. Taylor, Trustee
     Philip A. Taylor has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2006. Mr. Taylor has headed Invesco’s North American retail business as Senior Managing Director since April 2006. He previously served as chief executive officer of Invesco Trimark Investments since January 2002.

39


 

     Mr. Taylor joined Invesco in 1999 as senior vice president of operations and client services and later became executive vice president and chief operating officer.
     Mr. Taylor was president of Canadian retail broker Investors Group Securities from 1994 to 1997 and managing partner of Meridian Securities, an execution and clearing broker, from 1989 to 1994. He held various management positions with Royal Trust, now part of Royal Bank of Canada, from 1982 to 1989. He began his career in consumer brand management in the U.S. and Canada with Richardson-Vicks, now part of Procter & Gamble.
     The Board believes that Mr. Taylor’s long experience in the investment management business benefits the Fund.
Wayne W. Whalen, Trustee
     Wayne W. Whalen has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2010.
     Mr. Whalen is Of Counsel, and prior to 2010, Partner in the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP.
     Mr. Whalen is a Director of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation. From 1995 to 2010, Mr. Whalen served as Director or Trustee of investment companies in the Van Kampen Funds complex.
     The Board believes that Mr. Whalen’s experience as a law firm Partner and his experience as a director of investment companies benefits the Fund.
Independent Trustees
Bruce L. Crockett, Trustee and Chair
     Bruce L. Crockett has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 1978, and has served as Independent Chair of the Board of Trustees and their predecessor funds since 2004.
     Mr. Crockett has more than 30 years of experience in finance and general management in the banking, aerospace and telecommunications industries. From 1992 to 1996, he served as president, chief executive officer and a director of COMSAT Corporation, an international satellite and wireless telecommunications company.
     Mr. Crockett has also served, since 1996, as chairman of Crockett Technologies Associates, a strategic consulting firm that provides services to the information technology and communications industries. Mr. Crockett also serves on the Board of Directors of ACE Limited, a Zurich-based insurance company. He is a life trustee of the University of Rochester Board of Directors.
     The Board of Trustees elected Mr. Crockett to serve as its Independent Chair because of his extensive experience in managing public companies and familiarity with investment companies.
David C. Arch, Trustee
     David C. Arch has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2010.
     Formerly, Mr. Arch was the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Blistex, Inc., a consumer health care products manufacturer. Mr. Arch is a member of the Heartland Alliance Advisory Board, a

40


 

nonprofit organization serving human needs based in Chicago and member of the Board of the Illinois Manufacturers’ Association. Mr. Arch is also a member of the Board of Visitors, Institute for the Humanities, University of Michigan. From 1984 to 2010, Mr. Arch served as Director or Trustee of investment companies in the Van Kampen Funds complex.
     The Board believes that Mr. Arch’s experience as the CEO of a public company and his experience with investment companies benefits the Fund.
Frank S. Bayley, Trustee
     Frank S. Bayley has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 1985.
     Mr. Bayley is a business consultant in San Francisco. He is Chairman and a Director of the C. D. Stimson Company, a private investment company in Seattle.
     Mr. Bayley serves as a Trustee of the Seattle Art Museum, a Trustee of San Francisco Performances, and a Trustee and Overseer of The Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. He also serves on the East Asian Art Committee of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Visiting Committee for Art of Asia, Oceana and Africa of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
     Mr. Bayley is a retired partner of the international law firm of Baker & McKenzie LLP, where his practice focused on business acquisitions and venture capital transactions. Prior to joining Baker & McKenzie LLP in 1986, he was a partner of the San Francisco law firm of Chickering & Gregory. He received his A.B. from Harvard College in 1961, his LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1964, and his LL.M. from Boalt Hall at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965. Mr. Bayley served as a Trustee of the Badgley Funds from inception in 1998 until dissolution in 2007.
     The Board believes that Mr. Bayley’s experience as a business consultant and a lawyer benefits the Fund.
James T. Bunch, Trustee
     James T. Bunch has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2000.
     From 1988 to 2010, Mr. Bunch was Founding Partner of Green Manning & Bunch, Ltd., a leading investment banking firm located in Denver, Colorado. Green Manning & Bunch is a FINRA-registered investment bank specializing in mergers and acquisitions, private financing of middle-market companies and corporate finance advisory services. Immediately prior to forming Green Manning & Bunch, Mr. Bunch was Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and a Director of Boettcher & Company, then the leading investment banking firm in the Rocky Mountain region.
     Mr. Bunch began his professional career as a practicing attorney. He joined the prominent Denver-based law firm of Davis Graham & Stubbs in 1970 and later rose to the position of Chairman and Managing Partner of the firm.
     At various other times during his career, Mr. Bunch has served as Chair of the NASD Business District Conduct Committee, and Chair of the Colorado Bar Association Ethics Committee. In June 2010, Mr. Bunch became the Managing Member of Grumman Hill Group LLC, a family office private equity investment manager.
     The Board believes that Mr. Bunch’s experience as an investment banker and investment management lawyer benefits the Fund.

41


 

Rodney F. Dammeyer, Trustee
     Rodney F. Dammeyer has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2010.
     Mr. Dammeyer is chairman of CAC, LLC, a private company offering capital investment and management advisory services. Prior to this, Mr. Dammeyer was responsible for managing all of Sam Zell’s non-real estate investment activity as managing partner of Equity Group Corporate Investments.
     From 1985 to 1995, Mr. Dammeyer was CEO of Itel Corporation, which later changed its name to Anixter International. From 1983 to 1985, Mr. Dammeyer was senior vice president and chief financial officer of Household International, Inc. He was executive vice president and chief financial officer of Northwest Industries, Inc. from 1979 to 1983.
     After graduating from Kent State University in 1962, Mr. Dammeyer began his business career with Arthur Andersen & Co. and was admitted to partnership in 1970. He served as chairman of the firm’s advisory council and a member of the board of director’s nominating committee.
     Mr. Dammeyer is a member of the boards of directors of Stericycle, Inc. and Quidel Corporation, in addition to several private companies. He also serves on the School of Leadership and Education Sciences (SOLES) Advisory Board of the University of San Diego, the board of directors of High Tech charter schools, and the California Charter Schools Association.
     The Board believes that Mr. Dammeyer’s experience in executive positions at a number of public companies, his accounting experience and his experience serving as a director of investment companies benefits the Fund.
Albert R. Dowden, Trustee
     Albert R. Dowden has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2000.
     Mr. Dowden retired at the end of 1998 after a 24 -year career with Volvo Group North America, Inc. and Volvo Cars of North America, Inc. Mr. Dowden joined Volvo as general counsel in 1974 and was promoted to increasingly senior positions until 1991 when he was appointed president, chief executive officer and director of Volvo Group North America and senior vice president of Swedish parent company AB Volvo.
     Since retiring, Mr. Dowden continues to serve on the board of the Reich & Tang Funds and also serves on the boards of Homeowners of America Insurance Company and its parent company as well as Nature’s Sunshine Products, Inc. and The Boss Group. Mr. Dowden’s charitable endeavors currently focus on Boys & Girls Clubs where he has been active for many years as well as several other not-for-profit organizations.
     Mr. Dowden began his career as an attorney with a major international law firm, Rogers & Wells (1967-1976), which is now Clifford Chance.
     The Board believes that Mr. Dowden’s extensive experience as a corporate executive benefits the Fund.
Jack M. Fields, Trustee
     Jack M. Fields has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 1997.
     Mr. Fields served as a member of Congress, representing the 8th Congressional District of Texas from 1980 to 1997. As a member of Congress, Mr. Fields served as Chairman of the House Telecommunications and Finance Subcommittee, which has jurisdiction and oversight of the Federal

42


 

Communications Commission and the SEC. Mr. Fields co-sponsored the National Securities Markets Improvements Act of 1996, and played a leadership role in enactment of the Securities Litigation Reform Act.
     Mr. Fields currently serves as Chief Executive Officer of the Twenty-First Century Group in Washington, D.C., a bipartisan Washington consulting firm specializing in Federal government affairs.
     Mr. Fields also serves as a Director of Insperity (formerly known as Administaff), a premier professional employer organization with clients nationwide. In addition, Mr. Fields sits on the Board of the Discovery Channel Global Education Fund, a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing educational resources to people in need around the world through the use of technology.
     The Board believes that Mr. Fields experience in the House of Representatives, especially concerning regulation of the securities markets, benefits the Fund.
Dr. Prema Mathai-Davis, Trustee
     Dr. Prema Mathai-Davis has been a member of the Board of Trustee of the Invesco Funds since 1998.
     Prior to her retirement in 2000, Dr. Mathai-Davis served as Chief Executive Officer of the YWCA of the USA. Prior to joining the YWCA, Dr. Mathai-Davis served as the Commissioner of the New York City Department for the Aging. She was a Commissioner of the New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York, the largest regional transportation network in the U.S. Dr. Mathai-Davis also serves as a Trustee of the YWCA Retirement Fund, the first and oldest pension fund for women, and on the advisory board of the Johns Hopkins Bioethics Institute. Dr. Mathai-Davis was the president and chief executive officer of the Community Agency for Senior Citizens, a non-profit social service agency that she established in 1981. She also directed the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine-Hunter College Long-Term Care Gerontology Center, one of the first of its kind.
     The Board believes that Dr. Mathai-Davis’ extensive experience in running public and charitable institutions benefits the Fund.
Dr. Larry Soll, Trustee
     Dr. Larry Soll has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 1997.
     Formerly, Dr. Soll was chairman of the board (1987 to 1994), Chief Executive Officer (1982 to 1989; 1993 to 1994), and President (1982 to 1989) of Synergen, Inc., a public company, and in such capacities supervised the activities of the Chief Financial Officer. Dr. Soll also has served as a director of three other public companies and as Treasurer of a non-profit corporation.
     The Board believes that Dr. Soll’s experience as a chairman of a public company and in academia benefits the Fund.
Hugo F. Sonnenschein, Trustee
     Hugo F. Sonnenschein has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds and their predecessor funds since 2010.
     Mr. Sonnenschein is the Distinguished Service Professor and President Emeritus of the University of Chicago and the Adam Smith Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago. Until July 2000, Mr. Sonnenschein served as President of the University of Chicago.

43


 

     Mr. Sonnenschein is a Trustee of the University of Rochester and a member of its investment committee. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. From 1994 to 2010, Mr. Sonnenschein served as Director or Trustee of investment companies in the Van Kampen Funds complex.
     The Board believes that Mr. Sonnenschein’s experiences in academia and in running a university, and his experience as a director of investment companies benefits the Fund.
Raymond Stickel, Jr., Trustee
     Raymond Stickel, Jr. has been a member of the Board of Trustees of the Invesco Funds since 2005.
     Raymond Stickel, Jr. retired after a 35-year career with Deloitte & Touche. For the last five years of his career, he was the managing partner of the investment management practice for the New York, New Jersey and Connecticut region. In addition to his management role, he directed audit and tax services to several mutual fund clients.
     Mr. Stickel began his career with Touche Ross & Co. (the Firm) in Dayton, Ohio, became a partner in 1976 and managing partner of the office in 1985. He also started and developed an investment management practice in the Dayton office that grew to become a significant source of investment management talent for the Firm. In Ohio, he served as the audit partner on numerous mutual funds and on public and privately held companies in other industries. Mr. Stickel has also served on the Firm’s Accounting and Auditing Executive Committee.
     The Board believes that Mr. Stickel’s experience as a partner in a large accounting firm working with investment managers and investment companies, and his status as an Audit Committee Financial Expert, benefits the Fund.
Management Information
     The Trustees have the authority to take all actions necessary in connection with the business affairs of the Trust, including, among other things, approving the investment objectives, policies and procedures for the Fund. The Trust enters into agreements with various entities to manage the day-to-day operations of the Fund, including the Funds’ investment advisers, administrator, transfer agent, distributor and custodians. The Trustees are responsible for selecting these service providers approving the terms of their contracts with the Fund, and exercising general oversight of these service providers on an ongoing basis.
     Certain trustees and officers of the Trust are affiliated with Invesco and Invesco Ltd., the parent corporation of Invesco. All of the Trust’s executive officers hold similar offices with some or all of the other Funds.
     Leadership Structure and the Board of Trustees. The Board is currently composed of fifteen Trustees, including twelve Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Fund, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (collectively, the Independent Trustees and each an Independent Trustee). In addition to eight regularly scheduled meetings per year, the Board holds special meetings or informal conference calls to discuss specific matters that may require action prior to the next regular meeting. As discussed below, the Board has established five committees to assist the Board in performing its oversight responsibilities.
     The Board has appointed an Independent Trustee to serve in the role of Chairman. The Chairman’s primary role is to participate in the preparation of the agenda for meetings of the Board and the identification of information to be presented to the Board and matters to be acted upon by the Board.

44


 

The Chairman also presides at all meetings of the Board and acts as a liaison with service providers, officers, attorneys, and other Trustees generally between meetings. The Chairman may perform such other functions as may be requested by the Board from time to time. Except for any duties specified herein or pursuant to the Trust’s Declaration of Trust or By-laws, the designation of Chairman does not impose on such Independent Trustee any duties, obligations or liability that is greater than the duties, obligations or liability imposed on such person as a member of the Board, generally. The Fund has substantially the same leadership structure as the Trust.
     The Board believes that its leadership structure, which includes an Independent Trustee as Chairman, allows for effective communication between the Trustees and Fund management, among the Board’s Trustees and among its Independent Trustees. The existing Board structure, including its committee structure, provides the Independent Trustees with effective control over Board governance while also providing insight from the two interested Trustees who are active officers of the Funds’ investment adviser. The Board’s leadership structure promotes dialogue and debate, which the Board believes will allow for the proper consideration of matters deemed important to the Fund and its shareholders and result in effective decision-making.
     Risk Oversight. The Board considers risk management issues as part of its general oversight responsibilities throughout the year at regular meetings of the Investments, Audit, Compliance and Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committees (as defined and further described below). These Committees in turn report to the full Board and recommend actions and approvals for the full Board to take.
     Invesco prepares regular reports that address certain investment, valuation and compliance matters, and the Board as a whole or the Committees may also receive special written reports or presentations on a variety of risk issues at the request of the Board, a Committee or the Senior Officer. In addition, the Audit Committee of the Board meets regularly with Invesco Ltd.’s internal audit group to review reports on their examinations of functions and processes within Invesco that affect the Fund.
The Investments Committee and its sub-committees receive regular written reports describing and analyzing the investment performance of the Fund. In addition, the portfolio managers of the Fund meet regularly with the sub-committees of the Investment Committee to discuss portfolio performance, including investment risk, such as the impact on the Fund of the investment in particular securities or instruments, such as derivatives. To the extent that the Fund changes a particular investment strategy that could have a material impact on the Fund’s risk profile, the Board generally is consulted in advance with respect to such change.
     Invesco provides regular written reports to the Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee that enable the Committee to monitor the number of fair valued securities in a particular portfolio, the reasons for the fair valuation and the methodology used to arrive at the fair value. Such reports also include information concerning illiquid securities within the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, the Audit Committee reviews valuation procedures and pricing results with the Fund’s independent auditors in connection with such Committee’s review of the results of the audit of the Fund’s year-end financial statement.
     The Compliance Committee receives regular compliance reports prepared by Invesco’s compliance group and meets regularly with the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) to discuss compliance issues, including compliance risks. As required under SEC rules, the Independent Trustees meet at least quarterly in executive session with the CCO and the Fund’s CCO prepares and presents an annual written compliance report to the Board. The Compliance Committee recommends and the Board adopts compliance policies and procedures for the Fund and approves such procedures for the Fund’s service providers. The compliance policies and procedures are specifically designed to detect, prevent and correct violations of the federal securities laws.

45


 

     Committee Structure. The standing committees of the Board are the Audit Committee, the Compliance Committee, the Governance Committee, the Investments Committee, and the Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee (the Committees).
     The members of the Audit Committee are Messrs. David C. Arch, Frank S. Bayley, James T. Bunch, Bruce L. Crockett, Rodney F. Dammeyer (Vice Chair), Raymond Stickel, Jr. (Chair) and Dr. Larry Soll. The Audit Committee’s primary purposes are to: (i) oversee qualifications, independence and performance of the independent registered public accountants; (ii) appoint independent registered public accountants for the Fund; (iii) pre-approve all permissible audit and non-audit services that are provided to the Fund by its independent registered public accountants to the extent required by Section 10A(h) and (i) of the Exchange Act; (iv) pre-approve, in accordance with Rule 2-01(c)(7)(ii) of Regulation S-X, certain non-audit services provided by the Fund’s independent registered public accountants to Invesco and certain other affiliated entities; (v) review the audit and tax plans prepared by the independent registered public accountants; (vi) review the Fund’s audited financial statements; (vii) review the process that management uses to evaluate and certify disclosure controls and procedures in Form N-CSR; (viii) review the process for preparation and review of the Fund’s shareholder reports; (ix) review certain tax procedures maintained by the Fund; (x) review modified or omitted officer certifications and disclosures; (xi) review any internal audits of the Fund; (xii) establish procedures regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters and other alleged violations; (xiii) set hiring policies for employees and proposed employees of the Funds who are employees or former employees of the independent registered public accountants; and (xiv) remain informed of (a) the Fund’s accounting systems and controls, (b) regulatory changes and new accounting pronouncements that affect the Fund’s net asset value calculations and financial statement reporting requirements, and (c) communications with regulators regarding accounting and financial reporting matters that pertain to the Fund. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2012, the Audit Committee held five meetings.
     The members of the Compliance Committee are Messrs. Bayley, Bunch, Dammeyer (Vice Chair), Dr. Soll (Chair) and Stickel. The Compliance Committee is responsible for: (i) recommending to the Board and the independent trustees the appointment, compensation and removal of the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer; (ii) recommending to the independent trustees the appointment, compensation and removal of the Fund’s Senior Officer appointed pursuant to the terms of the Assurances of Discontinuance entered into by the New York Attorney General, Invesco and INVESCO Funds Group, Inc. (“IFG”); (iii) reviewing any report prepared by a third party who is not an interested person of Invesco, upon the conclusion by such third party of a compliance review of Invesco; (iv) reviewing all reports on compliance matters from the Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer, (v) reviewing all recommendations made by the Senior Officer regarding Invesco’s compliance procedures, (vi) reviewing all reports from the Senior Officer of any violations of state and federal securities laws, the Colorado Consumer Protection Act, or breaches of Invesco’s fiduciary duties to Fund shareholders and of Invesco’s Code of Ethics; (vii) overseeing all of the compliance policies and procedures of the Fund and its service providers adopted pursuant to Rule 38a-1 of the 1940 Act; (viii) receiving and reviewing quarterly reports on the activities of Invesco’s Internal Compliance Controls Committee; (ix) reviewing all reports made by Invesco’s Chief Compliance Officer; (x) reviewing and recommending to the independent trustees whether to approve procedures to investigate matters brought to the attention of Invesco’s ombudsman; (xi) risk management oversight with respect to the Fund and, in connection therewith, receiving and overseeing risk management reports from Invesco Ltd. that are applicable to the Fund or its service providers; and (xii) overseeing potential conflicts of interest that are reported to the Compliance Committee by Invesco, the Chief Compliance Officer, the Senior Officer and/or the Compliance Consultant. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2012, the Compliance Committee held six meetings.
     The members of the Governance Committee are Messrs. Arch, Crockett, Albert R. Dowden (Chair), Jack M. Fields (Vice Chair), Hugo F. Sonnenschein and Dr. Prema Mathai-Davis. The Governance Committee is responsible for: (i) nominating persons who will qualify as independent trustees for (a) election as trustees in connection with meetings of shareholders of the Funds that are called to vote on the election of trustees, (b) appointment by the Board as trustees in connection with

46


 

filling vacancies that arise in between meetings of shareholders; (ii) reviewing the size of the Board, and recommending to the Board whether the size of the Board shall be increased or decreased; (iii) nominating the Chair of the Board; (iv) monitoring the composition of the Board and each committee of the Board, and monitoring the qualifications of all trustees; (v) recommending persons to serve as members of each committee of the Board (other than the Compliance Committee), as well as persons who shall serve as the chair and vice chair of each such committee; (vi) reviewing and recommending the amount of compensation payable to the independent trustees; (vii) overseeing the selection of independent legal counsel to the independent trustees; (viii) reviewing and approving the compensation paid to independent legal counsel to the independent trustees; (ix) reviewing and approving the compensation paid to counsel and other advisers, if any, to the Committees of the Board; and (x) reviewing as they deem appropriate administrative and/or logistical matters pertaining to the operations of the Board. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2012, the Governance Committee held six meetings.
     The Governance Committee will consider nominees recommended by a shareholder to serve as trustees, provided: (i) that such person is a shareholder of record at the time he or she submits such names and is entitled to vote at the meeting of shareholders at which trustees will be elected; and (ii) that the Governance Committee or the Board, as applicable, shall make the final determination of persons to be nominated. Notice procedures set forth in the Trust’s bylaws require that any shareholder of the Fund desiring to nominate a trustee for election at a shareholder meeting must submit to the Trust’s Secretary the nomination in writing not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such shareholder meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement is made of the shareholder meeting and not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the shareholder meeting.
     The members of the Investments Committee are Messrs. Arch, Bayley (Chair), Bunch (Vice Chair), Crockett, Dammeyer, Dowden, Fields (Vice Chair), Martin L. Flanagan, Sonnenschein (Vice Chair), Stickel, Philip A. Taylor, Wayne W. Whalen and Drs. Mathai-Davis and Soll. The Investments Committee’s primary purposes are to: (i) assist the Board in its oversight of the investment management services provided by Invesco Ltd. and the Sub-Advisers; and (ii) review all proposed and existing advisory and sub-advisory arrangements for the Funds, and to recommend what action the full Boards and the independent trustees take regarding the approval of all such proposed arrangements and the continuance of all such existing arrangements. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2012, the Investments Committee held six meetings.
     The Investments Committee has established three Sub-Committees. The Sub-Committees are responsible for: (i) reviewing the performance, fees and expenses of the Funds that have been assigned to a particular Sub-Committee (for each Sub-Committee, the “Designated Funds”), unless the Investments Committee takes such action directly; (ii) reviewing with the applicable portfolio managers from time to time the investment objective(s), policies, strategies and limitations of the Designated Funds; (iii) evaluating the investment advisory, sub-advisory and distribution arrangements in effect or proposed for the Designated Funds, unless the Investments Committee takes such action directly; (iv) being familiar with the registration statements and periodic shareholder reports applicable to their Designated Funds; and (v) such other investment-related matters as the Investments Committee may delegate to the Sub-Committee from time to time.
     The members of the Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee are Messrs. Dowden, Fields, Sonnenschein (Vice Chair), Whalen and Dr. Mathai-Davis (Chair). The primary purposes of the Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee are: (a) to address issues requiring action or oversight by the Board of the Invesco Funds (i) in the valuation of the Invesco Funds’ portfolio securities consistent with the Pricing Procedures, (ii) in oversight of the creation and maintenance by the principal underwriters of the Invesco Funds of an effective distribution and marketing system to build and maintain an adequate asset base and to create and maintain economies of scale for the Invesco Funds, (iii) in the review of existing distribution arrangements for the Invesco Funds under Rule 12b-1 and Section 15 of the 1940 Act, and (iv) in the oversight of proxy voting on

47


 

portfolio securities of the Invesco Funds; and (b) to make regular reports to the full Board of the Invesco Funds.
     The Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee is responsible for: (a) with regard to valuation, (i) developing an understanding of the valuation process and the Pricing Procedures, (ii) reviewing the Pricing Procedures and making recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, (iii) reviewing the reports described in the Pricing Procedures and other information from Invesco Ltd. regarding fair value determinations made pursuant to the Pricing Procedures by Invesco’s internal valuation committee and making reports and recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, (iv) receiving the reports of Invesco’s internal valuation committee requesting approval of any changes to pricing vendors or pricing methodologies as required by the Pricing Procedures and the annual report of Invesco Ltd. evaluating the pricing vendors, approving changes to pricing vendors and pricing methodologies as provided in the Pricing Procedures, and recommending annually the pricing vendors for approval by the full Board; (v) upon request of Invesco, assisting Invesco’s internal valuation committee or the full Board in resolving particular fair valuation issues; (vi) reviewing the reports described in the Procedures for Determining the Liquidity of Securities (the “Liquidity Procedures”) and other information from Invesco regarding liquidity determinations made pursuant to the Liquidity Procedures by Invesco and making reports and recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, and (vii) overseeing actual or potential conflicts of interest by investment personnel or others that could affect their input or recommendations regarding pricing or liquidity issues; (b) with regard to distribution and marketing, (i) developing an understanding of mutual fund distribution and marketing channels and legal, regulatory and market developments regarding distribution, (ii) reviewing periodic distribution and marketing determinations and annual approval of distribution arrangements and making reports and recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, and (iii) reviewing other information from the principal underwriters to the Invesco Funds regarding distribution and marketing of the Invesco Funds and making recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto; and (c) with regard to proxy voting, (i) overseeing the implementation of the Proxy Voting Guidelines (the “Guidelines”) and the Proxy Policies and Procedures (the “Proxy Procedures”) by Invesco and the Sub-Advisers, reviewing the Quarterly Proxy Voting Report and making recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, (ii) reviewing the Guidelines and the Proxy Procedures and information provided by Invesco and the Sub-Advisers regarding industry developments and best practices in connection with proxy voting and making recommendations to the full Board with respect thereto, and (iii) in implementing its responsibilities in this area, assisting Invesco in resolving particular proxy voting issues. The Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee was formed effective January 1, 2008. It succeeded the Valuation Committee which existed prior to 2008. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2012, the Valuation, Distribution and Proxy Oversight Committee held six meetings.
Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares
     The dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by each trustee (i) in the Fund and (ii) on an aggregate basis, in all registered investment companies overseen by the trustee within the Invesco Funds complex, is set forth in Appendix C.
Compensation
     Each trustee who is not affiliated with Invesco is compensated for his or her services according to a fee schedule that recognizes the fact that such trustee also serves as a trustee of other Invesco Funds. Each such trustee receives a fee, allocated among the Invesco Funds for which he or she serves as a trustee, that consists of an annual retainer component and a meeting fee component. The Chair of the Board and Chairs and Vice Chairs of certain committees receive additional compensation for their services.
     Information regarding compensation paid or accrued for each trustee of the Trust who was not affiliated with Invesco during the year ended December 31, 2012 is found in Appendix D.

48


 

Retirement Plan For Trustees
     The Trustees have adopted a retirement plan funded by the Funds for the Trustees who are not affiliated with the Adviser. The Trustees also have adopted a retirement policy that permits each non-Invesco-affiliated Trustee to serve until December 31 of the year in which the Trustee turns 75. A majority of the Trustees may extend from time to time the retirement date of a Trustee.
     Annual retirement benefits are available from the Funds and/or the other Invesco Funds for which a Trustee serves (each, a “Covered Fund”), for each Trustee who is not an employee or officer of the Adviser, who either (a) became a Trustee prior to December 1, 2008, and who has at least five years of credited service as a Trustee (including service to a predecessor fund) of a Covered Fund, or (b) was a member of the Board of Trustees of a Van Kampen Fund immediately prior to June 1, 2010 (“Former Van Kampen Trustee”), and has at least one year of credited service as a Trustee of a Covered Fund after June 1, 2010.
     For Trustees other than Former Van Kampen Trustees, effective January 1, 2006, for retirements after December 31, 2005, the retirement benefits will equal 75% of the Trustee’s annual retainer paid to or accrued by any Covered Fund with respect to such Trustee during the twelve-month period prior to retirement, including the amount of any retainer deferred under a separate deferred compensation agreement between the Covered Fund and the Trustee. The amount of the annual retirement benefit does not include additional compensation paid for Board meeting fees or compensation paid to the Chair of the Board and the Chairs and Vice Chairs of certain Board committees, whether such amounts are paid directly to the Trustee or deferred. The annual retirement benefit is payable in quarterly installments for a number of years equal to the lesser of (i) sixteen years or (ii) the number of such Trustee’s credited years of service. If a Trustee dies prior to receiving the full amount of retirement benefits, the remaining payments will be made to the deceased Trustee’s designated beneficiary for the same length of time that the Trustee would have received the payments based on his or her service or, if the Trustee has elected, in a discounted lump sum payment. A Trustee must have attained the age of 65 (60 in the event of death or disability) to receive any retirement benefit. A Trustee may make an irrevocable election to commence payment of retirement benefits upon retirement from the Board before age 72; in such a case, the annual retirement benefit is subject to a reduction for early payment.
     If the Former Van Kampen Trustee completes at least 10 years of credited service after June 1, 2010, the retirement benefit will equal 75% of the Former Van Kampen Trustee’s annual retainer paid to or accrued by any Covered Fund with respect to such Trustee during the twelve-month period prior to retirement, including the amount of any retainer deferred under a separate deferred compensation agreement between the Covered Fund and such Trustee. The amount of the annual retirement benefit does not include additional compensation paid for Board meeting fees or compensation paid to the Chair of the Board and the Chairs and Vice Chairs of certain Board committees, whether such amounts are paid directly to the Trustee or deferred. The annual retirement benefit is payable in quarterly installments for 10 years beginning after the later of the Former Van Kampen Trustee’s termination of service or attainment of age 72 (or age 60 in the event of disability or immediately in the event of death). If a Former Van Kampen Trustee dies prior to receiving the full amount of retirement benefits, the remaining payments will be made to the deceased Trustee’s designated beneficiary or, if the Trustee has elected, in a discounted lump sum payment.
     If the Former Van Kampen Trustee completes less than 10 years of credited service after June 1, 2010, the retirement benefit will be payable at the applicable time described in the preceding paragraph, but will be paid in two components successively. For the period of time equal to the Former Van Kampen Trustee’s years of credited service after June 1, 2010, the first component of the annual retirement benefit will equal 75% of the compensation amount described in the preceding paragraph. Thereafter, for the period of time equal to the Former Van Kampen Trustee’s years of credited service after June 1, 2010, the second component of the annual retirement benefit will equal the excess of (x) 75% of the compensation amount described in the preceding paragraph, over (y) $68,041 plus an

49


 

interest factor of 4% per year compounded annually measured from June 1, 2010 through the first day of each year for which payments under this second component are to be made. In no event, however, will the retirement benefits under the two components be made for a period of time greater than 10 years. For example, if the Former Van Kampen Trustee completes 7 years of credited service after June 1, 2010, he or she will receive 7 years of payments under the first component and thereafter 3 years of payments under the second component, and if the Former Van Kampen Trustee completes 4 years of credited service after June 1, 2010, he or she will receive 4 years of payments under the first component and thereafter 4 years of payments under the second component
Deferred Compensation Agreements
     Edward K. Dunn (a former Trustee of the Funds in the Invesco Funds complex), Messrs. Crockett, Fields and Drs. Mathai-Davis and Soll (for purposes of this paragraph only, the “Deferring Trustees”) have each executed a Deferred Compensation Agreement (collectively, the “Compensation Agreements”). Pursuant to the Compensation Agreements, the Deferring Trustees have the option to elect to defer receipt of up to 100% of their compensation payable by the Trust, and such amounts are placed into a deferral account and deemed to be invested in one or more Invesco Funds selected by the Deferring Trustees.
     Distributions from these deferral accounts will be paid in cash, generally in equal quarterly installments over a period of up to ten (10) years (depending on the Compensation Agreement) beginning on the date selected under the Compensation Agreement. If a Deferring Trustee dies prior to the distribution of amounts in his or her deferral account, the balance of the deferral account will be distributed to his or her designated beneficiary. The Compensation Agreements are not funded and, with respect to the payments of amounts held in the deferral accounts, the Deferring Trustees have the status of unsecured creditors of the Trust and of each other Invesco Fund from which they are deferring compensation.
Code of Ethics
     Invesco, the Trust, Invesco Distributors and the Sub-Advisers each have adopted a Code of Ethics that applies to all Invesco Fund trustees and officers, and employees of Invesco, the Sub-Advisers and their affiliates, and governs, among other things, the personal trading activities of all such persons. Unless specifically noted, each Sub-Advisers’ Codes of Ethics do not materially differ from Invesco Code of Ethics discussed below. The Code of Ethics is intended to address conflicts of interest with the Trust that may arise from personal trading, including personal trading in most of the Invesco Funds. Personal trading, including personal trading involving securities that may be purchased or held by an Invesco Fund, is permitted under the Code of Ethics subject to certain restrictions; however, employees are required to pre-clear security transactions with the Compliance Officer or a designee and to report transactions on a regular basis.
Proxy Voting Policies
     Invesco is comprised of two business divisions, Invesco and Invesco Institutional, each of which have adopted their own specific Proxy Voting Policies.
     The Board has delegated responsibility for decisions regarding proxy voting for securities held by the Fund to the following Adviser/Sub-Adviser(s), including as appropriate, separately to the named division of the Adviser:

50


 

     
Fund   Adviser/Sub-Adviser
Invesco Balanced-Risk
Aggressive Allocation Fund
  Invesco Institutional – a division of Invesco
     Invesco (the Proxy Voting Entity) will vote such proxies in accordance with the proxy policies and procedures, as outlined above, which have been reviewed and approved by the Board, and which are found in Appendix E. Any material changes to the proxy policies and procedures will be submitted to the Board for approval. The Board will be supplied with a summary quarterly report of the Fund’s proxy voting record. Once the Fund commences operations, information regarding how the Fund voted proxies related to their portfolio securities during the 12 months ended June 30, will be available without charge at our Web site, www.invesco.com/us. This information will also be available at the SEC website, http://www.sec.gov.
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES
     Invesco provided the initial capitalization of the Fund and, accordingly, as of the date of this SAI, owned more than 25% of the issued and outstanding shares of the Fund and therefore could be deemed to “control” the Fund as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. It is anticipated that after the commencement of the public offering of the Fund’s shares, Invesco will cease to control the Fund for the purposes of the 1940 Act. The Fund had no 5% shareholders because, as of the date of this SAI, it had not yet commenced operations. As of the date of this SAI, the officers and Trustees, unless otherwise noted, as a group owned less than 1% of the outstanding equity securities of the Fund and of each class of equity securities of the Fund.
INVESTMENT ADVISORY AND OTHER SERVICES
Investment Adviser
     Invesco Advisers, Inc. (the Adviser or Invesco) serves as the Fund’s investment adviser. The Adviser manages the investment operations of the Fund as well as other investment portfolios that encompass a broad range of investment objectives, and has agreed to perform or arrange for the performance of the Fund’s day-to-day management. The Adviser, as successor in interest to multiple investment advisers, has been an investment adviser since 1976. Invesco is an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd. Invesco Ltd and its subsidiaries are an independent global investment management group. Certain of the directors and officers of Invesco are also executive officers of the Trust and their affiliations are shown under “Management Information” herein.
     As investment adviser, Invesco supervises all aspects of the Fund’s operations and provides investment advisory services to the Fund. Invesco obtains and evaluates economic, statistical and financial information to formulate and implement investment programs for the Fund. The Master Investment Advisory Agreement (Advisory Agreement) provides that, in fulfilling its responsibilities, Invesco may engage the services of other investment managers with respect to the Fund. The investment advisory services of Invesco are not exclusive and Invesco is free to render investment advisory services to others, including other investment companies.
     Pursuant to an Administrative Services Agreement with the Fund, Invesco is also responsible for furnishing to the Fund, at Invesco’s expense, the services of persons believed to be competent to perform all supervisory and administrative services required by the Fund, which in the judgment of the trustees, are necessary to conduct the respective businesses of the Fund effectively, as well as the offices, equipment and other facilities necessary for their operations. Such functions include the maintenance of the Fund’s accounts and records, and the preparation of all requisite corporate documents such as tax returns and reports to the SEC and shareholders.

51


 

     The Advisory Agreement provides that the Fund will pay or cause to be paid all expenses of the Fund not assumed by Invesco, including, without limitation: brokerage commissions, taxes, legal, auditing or governmental fees, custodian, transfer and shareholder service agent costs, expenses of issue, sale, redemption, and repurchase of shares, expenses of registering and qualifying shares for sale, expenses relating to trustee and shareholder meetings, the cost of preparing and distributing reports and notices to shareholders, the fees and other expenses incurred by the Trust on behalf of the Fund in connection with membership in investment company organizations, and the cost of printing copies of prospectuses and statements of additional information distributed to the Fund’s shareholders.
     Invesco, at its own expense, furnishes to the Trust office space and facilities. Invesco furnishes to the Trust all personnel for managing the affairs of the Trust and each of its series of shares.
     Pursuant to its Advisory Agreement with the Trust, Invesco receives a monthly fee from the Fund calculated at the annual rates indicated in the second column below, based on the average daily net assets of the Fund during the year. The Fund allocates advisory fees to a class based on the relative net assets of each class.
     
    Annual Rate/Net Assets
Fund Name   Per Advisory Agreement
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
  1.100% of the first $250 million
 
  1.075% of the next $250 million
 
  1.050% of the next $500 million
 
  1.025% of the next $1.5 billion
 
  1.000% of the next $2.5 billion
 
  0.975% of the next $2.5 billion
 
  0.950% of the next $2.5 billion
 
  0.925% of the amount over $10 billion
     Invesco may from time to time waive or reduce its fee. Voluntary fee waivers or reductions may be rescinded at any time without further notice to investors. During periods of voluntary fee waivers or reductions, Invesco will retain its ability to be reimbursed for such fee prior to the end of the respective fiscal year in which the voluntary fee waiver or reduction was made. Contractual fee waivers or reductions set forth in the Fee Table in a Prospectus may not be terminated or amended to the Fund’s detriment during the period stated in the agreement between Invesco and the Fund.
     Invesco has contractually agreed through at least June 30, 2013, to waive advisory fees payable by the Fund in an amount equal to 100% of the advisory fee Invesco receives from the Affiliated Money Market Funds as a result of the Fund’s investment of uninvested cash in the Affiliated Money Market Funds. See “Description of the Fund and Its Investments and Risks – Investment Strategies and Risks – Other Investments – Other Investment Companies.” The Fund may pursue its investment objective by investing in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary has entered into a separate contract with the Adviser whereby the Adviser provides investment advisory and other services to the Subsidiary. In consideration of these services, the Subsidiary pays the Adviser a management fee. The Adviser has contractually agreed to waive the advisory fee it receives from the Funds in an amount equal to the advisory fee and administration fee, respectively, paid to the Adviser by the Subsidiary. This waiver may not be terminated by the Adviser and will remain in effect for as long as the Adviser’s contract with the Subsidiary is in place.
     Invesco also has contractually agreed through at least October 31, 2013, to waive advisory fees or reimburse expenses to the extent necessary to limit total annual fund operating expenses (excluding (i) interest; (ii) taxes; (iii) dividend expense on short sales; (iv) extraordinary or non-routine items, including litigation expenses; and (v) expenses that the Fund has incurred but did not actually pay because of an expense offset arrangement) for the Fund’s shares as follows:

52


 

             
Fund   Expense Limitation   Expiration Date
Invesco Balanced-Risk Aggressive Allocation Fund
    1.15 %   February 28, 2014
     The Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses used in determining whether the Fund meets or exceeds the Expense Limitations Described above do not include Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses. Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses are not operating expenses of the Fund directly, but are fees and expenses, including management fees of the investment companies in which the Fund invests. As a result, the Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and/or Expense Reimbursement may exceed the Fund’s expense limit.
     Unless the Board of Trustees and Invesco mutually agree to amend or terminate the fee waiver agreement, it will terminate on October 31, 2013.
Investment Sub-Advisers
     Invesco has entered into a Sub-Advisory Agreement with certain affiliates to serve as sub-advisers to the Fund, pursuant to which these affiliated sub-advisers may be appointed by Invesco from time to time to provide discretionary investment management services, investment advice, and/or order execution services to the Fund. These affiliated sub-advisers, each of which is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 are:
Invesco Asset Management Deutschland Gmbh (Invesco Deutschland)
Invesco Asset Management Limited (Invesco Asset Management)
Invesco Asset Management (Japan) Limited (Invesco Japan)
Invesco Australia Limited (Invesco Australia)
Invesco Canada Ltd. (Invesco Canada)
Invesco Hong Kong Limited (Invesco Hong Kong)
Invesco Senior Secured Management, Inc. (Invesco Senior Secured); (each a Sub-Adviser and, collectively, the Sub-Advisers).
     Invesco and each Sub-Adviser are indirect wholly owned subsidiaries of Invesco Ltd.
     The only fees payable to the Sub-Advisers under the Sub-Advisory Agreement are for providing discretionary investment management services. For such services, Invesco will pay each Sub-Adviser a fee, computed daily and paid monthly, equal to (i) 40% of the monthly compensation that Invesco receives from the Trust, multiplied by (ii) the fraction equal to the net assets of such Fund as to which such Sub-Adviser shall have provided discretionary investment management services for that month divided by the net assets of such Fund for that month. Pursuant to the Sub-Advisory Agreement, this fee is reduced to reflect contractual or voluntary fee waivers or expense limitations by Invesco, if any, in effect from time to time. In no event shall the aggregate monthly fees paid to the Sub-Advisers under the Sub-Advisory Agreement exceed 40% of the monthly compensation that Invesco receives from the Trust pursuant to its advisory agreement with the Trust, as reduced to reflect contractual or voluntary fees waivers or expense limitations by Invesco, if any.
Services to the Subsidiary.
     As with the Fund, Invesco is responsible for the Subsidiary’s day-to-day business pursuant to an investment advisory agreement with the Subsidiary. Under this agreement, Invesco provides the Subsidiary with the same type of management and sub-advisory services, under the same terms and conditions, as are provided to the Fund. The advisory agreement of the Subsidiary provides for automatic termination upon the termination of the Advisory Agreement, with respect to the Fund. The

53


 

Subsidiary has also entered into a separate contract for the provision of custody, transfer agency and audit services with the same service providers that provide those services to the Fund.
     The Subsidiary will be managed pursuant to compliance policies and procedures that are the same, in all material respects, as the policies and procedures adopted by the Fund. As a result, Invesco, in managing the Subsidiary portfolios, is subject to the same investment policies and restrictions that apply to the management of the Fund, and, in particular, to the requirements relating to portfolio leverage, liquidity, brokerage, and the timing and method of the valuation of the Subsidiary’s portfolio investments and shares of the Subsidiary. The Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer oversees implementation of the Subsidiary’s policies and procedures and makes periodic reports to the Fund’s Board regarding the Subsidiary’s compliance with its policies and procedures.
Portfolio Managers
     Appendix F contains the following information regarding the portfolio managers identified in the Fund’s prospectus:
    The dollar range of the managers’ investments in the Fund.
 
    A description of the managers’ compensation structure.
     Information regarding other accounts managed by the manager and potential conflicts of interest that might arise from the management of multiple accounts.
Securities Lending Arrangements
     If the Fund engages in securities lending, Invesco will provide the Fund investment advisory services and related administrative services. The Advisory Agreement describes the administrative services to be rendered by Invesco if the Fund engages in securities lending activities, as well as the compensation Invesco may receive for such administrative services. Services to be provided include: (a) overseeing participation in the securities lending program to ensure compliance with all applicable regulatory and investment guidelines; (b) assisting the securities lending agent or principal (the agent) in determining which specific securities are available for loan; (c) monitoring the agent to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with Invesco’s instructions and with procedures adopted by the Board; (d) preparing appropriate periodic reports for, and seeking appropriate approvals from, the Board with respect to securities lending activities; (e) responding to agent inquiries; and (f) performing such other duties as may be necessary.
     Invesco’s compensation for advisory services rendered in connection with securities lending is included in the advisory fee schedule. As compensation for the related administrative services Invesco will provide, a lending Fund will pay Invesco a fee equal to 25% of the net monthly interest or fee income retained or paid to the Fund from such activities. Invesco currently waives such fee, and has agreed to seek Board approval prior to its receipt of all or a portion of such fee.
Service Agreements
     Administrative Services Agreement. Invesco and the Trust have entered into a Master Administrative Services Agreement (Administrative Services Agreement) pursuant to which Invesco may perform or arrange for the provision of certain accounting and other administrative services to the Fund which are not required to be performed by Invesco under the Advisory Agreement. The Administrative Services Agreement provides that it will remain in effect and continue from year to year only if such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by the Board, including the independent trustees, by votes cast in person at a meeting called for such purpose. Under the Administrative Services Agreement, Invesco is entitled to receive from the Funds reimbursement of its costs or such reasonable

54


 

compensation as may be approved by the Board. Currently, Invesco is reimbursed for the services of the Trust’s principal financial officer and her staff and any expenses related to fund accounting services.
     An agreement containing the same material, terms and provisions was entered into between Invesco and the Subsidiary.
Other Service Providers
     Transfer Agent. Invesco Investment Services, Inc., (Invesco Investment Services), 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173, a wholly owned subsidiary of Invesco, is the Trust’s transfer agent.
The Transfer Agency and Service Agreement (the TA Agreement) between the Trust and Invesco Investment Services provides that Invesco Investment Services will perform certain services related to the servicing of shareholders of the Funds. Other such services may be delegated or sub-contracted to third party intermediaries. For servicing accounts holding shares of the Fund, the TA Agreement provides that the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, will pay Invesco Investment Services a fee per trade executed, to be billed monthly, plus certain out-of-pocket expenses. In addition, all fees payable by Invesco Investment Services or its affiliates to third party intermediaries who service accounts pursuant to sub-transfer agency, omnibus account services and sub-accounting agreements are charged back to the Fund, subject to certain limitations approved by the Board of the Trust. These payments are made in consideration of services that would otherwise be provided by Invesco Investment Services if the accounts serviced by such intermediaries were serviced by Invesco Investment Services directly.
     An agreement containing the same material, terms and provisions was entered into between Invesco and the Subsidiary.
     Sub-Transfer Agent. Invesco Canada, 5140 Yonge Street, Suite 900, Toronto, Ontario M2N6X7, a wholly owned, indirect subsidiary of Invesco, provides services to the Trust as a sub-transfer agent, pursuant to an agreement between Invesco Canada and Invesco Investment Services. The Trust does not pay a fee to Invesco Canada for these services. Rather Invesco Canada is compensated by Invesco Investment Services, as a sub-contractor.
     Custodian. State Street Bank and Trust Company (the Custodian), 225 Franklin Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02110, is custodian of all securities and cash of the Fund. The Bank of New York Mellon, 2 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, New York 11217-1431, also serves as sub-custodian to facilitate cash management.
     The custodian is authorized to establish separate accounts in foreign countries and to cause foreign securities owned by the Fund to be held outside the United States in branches of U.S. banks and, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, in certain foreign banks and securities depositories. Invesco is responsible for selecting eligible foreign securities depositories and for assessing the risks associated with investing in foreign countries, including the risk of using eligible foreign securities’ depositories in a country. The Custodian is responsible for monitoring eligible foreign securities depositories.
     Under its contract with the Trust, the Custodian maintains the portfolio securities of the Fund, administers the purchases and sales of portfolio securities, collects interest and dividends and other distributions made on the portfolio securities of the Fund and performs other ministerial duties. These services do not include any supervisory function over management or provide any protection against any possible depreciation of assets.
     An agreement containing the same material, terms and provisions was entered into between Invesco and the Subsidiary.

55


 

     Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. The Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the financial statements of the Fund. The Audit Committee of the Board has appointed PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, 1201 Louisiana Street, Suite 2900, Houston, Texas 77002, as the independent registered public accounting firm to audit the financial statements of the Fund. Such appointment was ratified and approved by the Board.
     Counsel to the Trust. Legal matters for the Trust have been passed upon by Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP, 2050 Market Street, Suite 2600, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103-7018, which also serves as counsel to the Subsidiary.
BROKERAGE ALLOCATION AND OTHER PRACTICES
     The Sub-Advisers have adopted compliance procedures that cover, among other items, brokerage allocation and other trading practices. If all or a portion of the Fund’s assets are managed by one or more Sub-Advisers, the decision to buy and sell securities and broker selection will be made by the Sub-Adviser for the assets it manages. Unless specifically noted, the Sub-Advisers brokerage allocation procedures do not materially differ from Invesco’s procedures. The same procedures also apply to the Subsidiary.
Brokerage Transactions
     Placing trades generally involves acting on portfolio manager instructions to buy or sell a specified amount of portfolio securities, including selecting one or more broker-dealers, including affiliated and third-party broker-dealers, to execute the trades, and negotiating commissions and spreads. Various Invesco Ltd. subsidiaries have created a global equity trading desk. The global equity trading desk has assigned local traders in six primary trading centers to place equity securities trades in their regions. Invesco Advisers’ Americas desk, located in Atlanta, Houston and Toronto, generally places trades of equity securities trading in North America, Canada and Latin America; the Hong Kong desk of Invesco Hong Kong (the Hong Kong Desk) generally places trades of equity securities in the Asia-Pacific markets, except Japan; the Japan trading desk of Invesco Japan generally places trades of equity securities in the Japanese markets; the London trading desk of Invesco Global Investment Funds Limited (the London Desk) generally places trades of equity securities in European, Middle Eastern and African countries; the Australia desk, located in Sydney and Melbourne, for the execution of orders of equity securities trading in the Australian and New Zealand markets and the Taipei desk, located in Taipei, for the execution of orders of securities trading in the Chinese market. Invesco, Invesco Canada, Invesco Australia, Invesco Japan, Invesco Deutschland, Invesco Hong Kong and Invesco Asset Management use the global equity trading desk to place equity trades. Other Sub-Advisers may use the global equity trading desk in the future. The trading procedures for the global trading desks are similar in all material respects.
     References in the language below to actions by Invesco or a Sub-Adviser (other than Invesco Canada) making determinations or taking actions related to equity trading include these entities’ delegation of these determinations/actions to the Americas Desk, the Hong Kong Desk, and the London Desk. Even when trading is delegated by Invesco or the Sub-Advisers to the various arms of the global equity trading desk, Invesco or the Sub-Advisers that delegates trading is responsible for oversight of this trading activity.
     Invesco or the Sub-Advisers make decisions to buy and sell securities for the Fund, selects broker-dealers (each, a Broker), effects the Fund’s investment portfolio transactions, allocates brokerage fees in such transactions and, where applicable, negotiates commissions and spreads on transactions. Invesco’s and the Sub-Adviser’s primary consideration in effecting a security transaction is to obtain best execution, which is defined as prompt and efficient execution of the transaction at the best obtainable price with payment of commissions, mark-ups or mark-downs which are reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage services provided by the Broker. While Invesco or the Sub-

56


 

Advisers seek reasonably competitive commission rates, the Fund may not pay the lowest commission or spread available. See “Broker Selection” below.
     Some of the securities in which the Fund invests are traded in OTC markets. Portfolio transactions in such markets may be effected on a principal basis at net prices without commissions, but which include compensation to the Broker in the form of a mark-up or mark-down, or on an agency basis, which involves the payment of negotiated brokerage commissions to the Broker, including electronic communication networks. Purchases of underwritten issues, which include initial public offerings and secondary offerings, include a commission or concession paid by the issuer (not the Fund) to the underwriter. Purchases of money market instruments may be made directly from issuers without the payment of commissions.
     Historically, Invesco and the Sub-Advisers did not negotiate commission rates on stock markets outside the United States. In recent years many overseas stock markets have adopted a system of negotiated rates; however, a number of markets maintain an established schedule of minimum commission rates.
     In some cases, Invesco may decide to place trades on a “blind principal bid” basis, which involves combining all trades for one or more portfolios into a single basket, and generating a description of the characteristics of the basket for provision to potential executing brokers. Based on the trade characteristics information provided by Invesco, these brokers submit bids for executing all of the required trades at the market close price for a specific commission. Invesco generally selects the broker with the lowest bid to execute these trades.
Commissions
     The Fund may engage in certain principal and agency transactions with banks and their affiliates that own 5% or more of the outstanding voting securities of an Invesco Fund, provided the conditions of an exemptive order received by the Invesco Funds from the SEC are met. In addition, the Fund may purchase or sell a security from or to certain other Invesco Funds or other accounts (and may invest in the Affiliated Money Market Funds) provided the Fund follows procedures adopted by the Boards of the various Invesco Funds, including the Trust. These inter-fund transactions do not generate brokerage commissions but may result in custodial fees or taxes or other related expenses.
Broker Selection
     Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ primary consideration in selecting Brokers to execute portfolio transactions for the Fund is to obtain best execution. In selecting a Broker to execute a portfolio transaction in equity securities for the Fund, Invesco or the Sub-Advisers consider the full range and quality of a Broker’s services, including the value of research and/or brokerage services provided, execution capability, commission rate, and willingness to commit capital, anonymity and responsiveness. Invesco’s and the Sub-Advisers’ primary consideration when selecting a Broker to execute a portfolio transaction in fixed income securities for the Fund is the Broker’s ability to deliver or sell the relevant fixed income securities; however, Invesco and the Sub-Advisers will also consider the various factors listed above. In each case, the determinative factor is not the lowest commission or spread available but whether the transaction represents the best qualitative execution for the Fund. Invesco and the Sub-Advisers will not select Brokers based upon their promotion or sale of Fund shares.
     In choosing Brokers to execute portfolio transactions for the Fund, Invesco or the Sub-Advisers may select Brokers that are not affiliated with Invesco that provide brokerage and/or research services (Soft Dollar Products) to the Fund and/or the other accounts over which Invesco and its affiliates have investment discretion. Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, provides that Invesco or the Sub-Advisers, under certain circumstances, lawfully may cause an account to pay a higher commission than the lowest available. Under Section 28(e)(1), Invesco or the Sub-Advisers must

57


 

make a good faith determination that the commissions paid are “reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided ... viewed in terms of either that particular transaction or [Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’] overall responsibilities with respect to the accounts as to which [it] exercises investment discretion.” The services provided by the Broker also must lawfully and appropriately assist Invesco or the Sub-Advisers in the performance of its investment decision-making responsibilities. Accordingly, a Fund may pay a Broker commissions higher than those available from another Broker in recognition of the Broker’s provision of Soft Dollar Products to Invesco or the Sub-Advisers.
     Invesco and the Sub-Advisers face a potential conflict of interest when they use client trades to obtain Soft Dollar Products. This conflict exists because Invesco and the Sub-Adviser are able to use the Soft Dollar Products to manage client accounts without paying cash for the Soft Dollar Products, which reduces Invesco’s or the Sub-Adviser’s expenses to the extent that Invesco or the Sub-Adviser’s would have purchased such products had they not been provided by Brokers. Section 28(e) permits Invesco or the Sub-Adviser’s to use Soft Dollar Products for the benefit of any account it manages. Certain Invesco-managed accounts (or accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser’s) may generate soft dollars used to purchase Soft Dollar Products that ultimately benefit other Invesco Advisers, Inc.-managed accounts (or Sub-Adviser’s-managed accounts), effectively cross subsidizing the other Invesco-managed accounts (or the other Sub-Adviser-managed accounts) that benefit directly from the product. Invesco or the Sub-Adviser’s may not use all of the Soft Dollar Products provided by Brokers through which a Fund effects securities transactions in connection with managing the Fund whose trades generated the soft dollars used to purchase such products.
     Invesco presently engages in the following instances of cross-subsidization:
     Fixed income funds normally do not generate soft dollar commissions to pay for Soft Dollar Products. Therefore, soft dollar commissions used to pay for Soft Dollar Products which are used to manage certain fixed income Invesco Funds are generated entirely by equity Invesco Funds and other equity client accounts managed by Invesco. In other words, certain fixed income Invesco Funds are cross-subsidized by the equity Invesco Funds in that the fixed income Invesco Funds receive the benefit of Soft Dollar Products services for which they do not pay. Similarly, other accounts managed by Invesco or certain of its affiliates may benefit from Soft Dollar Products services for which they do not pay.
     Invesco and the Sub-Advisers attempt to reduce or eliminate the potential conflicts of interest concerning the use of Soft Dollar Products by directing client trades for Soft Dollar Products only if Invesco or the Sub-Advisers conclude that the Broker supplying the product is capable of providing best execution.
     Certain Soft Dollar Products may be available directly from a vendor on a hard dollar basis; other Soft Dollar Products are available only through Brokers in exchange for soft dollars. Invesco and the Sub-Adviser use soft dollars to purchase two types of Soft Dollar Products:
    proprietary research created by the Broker executing the trade, and
 
    other products created by third parties that are supplied to Invesco or the Sub-Advisers through the Broker executing the trade.
     Proprietary research consists primarily of traditional research reports, recommendations and similar materials produced by the in-house research staffs of broker-dealer firms. This research includes evaluations and recommendations of specific companies or industry groups, as well as analyses of general economic and market conditions and trends, market data, contacts and other related information and assistance. Invesco periodically rates the quality of proprietary research produced by various Brokers. Based on the evaluation of the quality of information that Invesco receives from each Broker, Invesco develops an estimate of each Broker’s share of Invesco clients’ commission dollars and attempts to direct trades to these firms to meet these estimates.

58


 

     Invesco and the Sub-Advisers also use soft dollars to acquire products from third parties that are supplied to Invesco or the Sub-Advisers through Brokers executing the trades or other Brokers who “step in” to a transaction and receive a portion of the brokerage commission for the trade. Invesco or the Sub-Advisers may from time to time instruct the executing Broker to allocate or “step out” a portion of a transaction to another Broker. The Broker to which Invesco or the Sub-Advisers have “stepped out” would then settle and complete the designated portion of the transaction, and the executing Broker would settle and complete the remaining portion of the transaction that has not been “stepped out.” Each Broker may receive a commission or brokerage fee with respect to that portion of the transaction that it settles and completes.
     Soft Dollar Products received from Brokers supplement Invesco’s and or the Sub-Advisers’ own research (and the research of certain of its affiliates), and may include the following types of products and services:
    Database Services – comprehensive databases containing current and/or historical information on companies and industries and indices. Examples include historical securities prices, earnings estimates and financial data. These services may include software tools that allow the user to search the database or to prepare value-added analyses related to the investment process (such as forecasts and models used in the portfolio management process).
 
    Quotation/Trading/News Systems – products that provide real time market data information, such as pricing of individual securities and information on current trading, as well as a variety of news services.
 
    Economic Data/Forecasting Tools – various macro economic forecasting tools, such as economic data or currency and political forecasts for various countries or regions.
 
    Quantitative/Technical Analysis – software tools that assist in quantitative and technical analysis of investment data.
 
    Fundamental/Industry Analysis – industry specific fundamental investment research.
 
    Fixed Income Security Analysis – data and analytical tools that pertain specifically to fixed income securities. These tools assist in creating financial models, such as cash flow projections and interest rate sensitivity analyses, which are relevant to fixed income securities.
 
    Other Specialized Tools – other specialized products, such as consulting analyses, access to industry experts, and distinct investment expertise such as forensic accounting or custom built investment-analysis software.
     If Invesco or the Sub-Advisers determine that any service or product has a mixed use (i.e., it also serves functions that do not assist the investment decision-making or trading process), Invesco or the Sub-Advisers will allocate the costs of such service or product accordingly in its reasonable discretion. Invesco or the Sub-Advisers will allocate brokerage commissions to Brokers only for the portion of the service or product that Invesco or the Sub-Advisers determine assists it in the investment decision-making or trading process and will pay for the remaining value of the product or service in cash.
     Outside research assistance is useful to Invesco or the Sub-Advisers because the Brokers used by Invesco or the Sub-Advisers tend to provide more in-depth analysis of a broader universe of securities and other matters than Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ staff follows. In addition, such services

59


 

provide Invesco or the Sub-Advisers with a diverse perspective on financial markets. Some Brokers may indicate that the provision of research services is dependent upon the generation of certain specified levels of commissions and underwriting concessions by Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ clients, including the Fund. However, the Fund is not under any obligation to deal with any Broker in the execution of transactions in portfolio securities. In some cases, Soft Dollar Products are available only from the Broker providing them. In other cases, Soft Dollar Products may be obtainable from alternative sources in return for cash payments. Invesco and the Sub-Advisers believe that because Broker research supplements rather than replaces Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ research, the receipt of such research tends to improve the quality of Invesco’s or the Sub-Advisers’ investment advice. The advisory fee paid by the Fund is not reduced because Invesco or the Sub-Advisers receives such services. To the extent the Fund’s portfolio transactions are used to obtain Soft Dollar Products, the brokerage commissions obtained by the Fund might exceed those that might otherwise have been paid.
     Invesco or the Sub-Advisers may determine target levels of brokerage business with various Brokers on behalf of its clients (including the Fund) over a certain time period. Invesco determines target levels based upon the following factors, among others: (1) the execution services provided by the Broker; and (2) the research services provided by the Broker. Portfolio transactions may be effected through Brokers that recommend the Fund to their clients, or that act as agent in the purchase of a Fund’s shares for their clients, provided that Invesco or the Sub-Advisers believe such Brokers provide best execution and such transactions are executed in compliance with Invesco’s policy against using directed brokerage to compensate Brokers for promoting or selling Invesco Fund shares. Invesco and the Sub-Advisers will not enter into a binding commitment with Brokers to place trades with such Brokers involving brokerage commissions in precise amounts.
Affiliated Transactions
     Invesco may place trades with Invesco Capital Markets, Inc. (d/b/a Zedd Securities) (Zedd), a broker-dealer with whom it is under common control, provided Invesco determines that the affiliate’s trade execution abilities and costs are at least comparable to those of non-affiliated brokerage firms with which Invesco could otherwise place similar trades. Zedd receives brokerage commissions in connection with effecting trades for the Fund and, therefore, use of Zedd presents a conflict of interest for Invesco. Trades placed through Zedd, including the brokerage commissions paid to Zedd, are subject to procedures adopted by the Boards of the various Invesco Funds, including the Trust.
Allocation of Portfolio Transactions
     Invesco and the Sub-Advisers manage numerous Invesco Funds and other accounts. Some of these accounts may have investment objectives similar to the Fund. Occasionally, identical securities will be appropriate for investment by one of the Funds and by another Fund or one or more other accounts. However, the position of each account in the same security and the length of time that each account may hold its investment in the same security may vary. Invesco and the Sub-Advisers will also determine the timing and amount of purchases for an account based on its cash position. If the purchase or sale of securities is consistent with the investment policies of the Fund(s) and one or more other accounts, and is considered at or about the same time, Invesco or the Sub-Advisers will allocate transactions in such securities among the Fund(s) and these accounts on a pro rata basis based on order size or in such other manner believed by Invesco to be fair and equitable. Invesco or the Sub-Advisers may combine transactions in accordance with applicable laws and regulations to obtain the most favorable execution. Simultaneous transactions could, however, adversely affect a Fund’s ability to obtain or dispose of the full amount of a security which it seeks to purchase or sell.

60


 

Allocation of Initial Public Offering (IPO) Transactions
     Certain of the Invesco Funds or other accounts managed by Invesco may become interested in participating in IPOs. Purchases of IPOs by one Invesco Fund or other accounts may also be considered for purchase by one or more other Invesco Funds or accounts. Invesco combines indications of interest for IPOs for all Invesco Funds and accounts participating in purchase transactions for that IPO. When the full amount of all IPO orders for such Invesco Funds and accounts cannot be filled completely, Invesco shall allocate such transactions in accordance with the following procedures:
     Invesco or the Sub-Advisers may determine the eligibility of each Invesco Fund and account that seeks to participate in a particular IPO by reviewing a number of factors, including market capitalization/liquidity suitability and sector/style suitability of the investment with the Invesco Fund’s or account’s investment objective, policies, strategies and current holdings. Invesco will allocate securities issued in IPOs to eligible Invesco Funds and accounts on a pro rata basis based on order size.
     Invesco Canada, Invesco Australia, Invesco Hong Kong and Invesco Japan allocate IPOs on a pro rata basis based on size of order or in such other manner which they believe is fair and equitable.
     Invesco Asset Management allocates IPOs on a pro rata basis based on account size or in such other manner believed by Invesco Asset Management to be fair and equitable.
     Invesco Deutschland and Invesco Senior Secured do not subscribe to IPOs.
DIVIDENDS, DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAX MATTERS
Dividends and Distributions
     The following discussion of dividends and distributions should be read in connection with the applicable sections in the Prospectus.
     All dividends and distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of the Fund unless the shareholder has requested in writing to receive such dividends and distributions in cash or that they be invested in shares of another Invesco Fund, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Prospectus under the caption “Purchasing Shares ¾Automatic Dividend and Distribution Investment.” Such dividends and distributions will be reinvested at the net asset value per share determined on the ex-dividend date.
Tax Matters
     The following is a summary of certain additional tax considerations generally affecting the Fund and its shareholders that are not described in the Prospectus. No attempt is made to present a detailed explanation of the tax treatment of the Fund or its shareholders, and the discussion here and in the Prospectus is not intended as a substitute for careful tax planning.
     This “Tax Matters” section is based on the Code and applicable regulations in effect on the date of this SAI. Future legislative, regulatory or administrative changes including provisions of current law that sunset and thereafter no longer apply, or court decisions may significantly change the tax rules applicable to the Fund and its shareholders. Any of these changes or court decisions may have a retroactive effect.
     This is for general information only and not tax advice. All investors should consult their own tax advisors as to the federal, state, local and foreign tax provisions applicable to them.

61


 

     Taxation of the Fund. The Fund has elected and intends to qualify (or, if newly organized, intends to elect and qualify) each year as a “regulated investment company” (sometimes referred to as a regulated investment company, RIC or fund) under Subchapter M of the Code. If the Fund qualifies, the Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on the portion of its investment company taxable income (i.e., generally, taxable interest, dividends, net short-term capital gains and other taxable ordinary income net of expenses without regard to the deduction for dividends paid) and net capital gain (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that it distributes to shareholders.
     Qualification as a regulated investment company. In order to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company, the Fund must satisfy the following requirements:
    Distribution Requirement ¾ the Fund must distribute an amount equal to the sum of at least 90% of its investment company taxable income and 90% of its net tax-exempt income, if any, for the tax year (certain distributions made by the Fund after the close of its tax year are considered distributions attributable to the previous tax year for purposes of satisfying this requirement).
 
    Income Requirement ¾ the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income from dividends, interest, certain payments with respect to securities loans, and gains from the sale or other disposition of stock, securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including, but not limited to, gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived from its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies and net income derived from qualified publicly traded partnerships (QPTPs).
 
    Asset Diversification Test ¾ the Fund must satisfy the following asset diversification test at the close of each quarter of the Fund’s tax year: (1) at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets must consist of cash and cash items, U.S. Government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies, and securities of other issuers (as to which the Fund has not invested more than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets in securities of an issuer and as to which the Fund does not hold more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer); and (2) no more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets may be invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government securities and securities of other regulated investment companies) or of two or more issuers which the Fund controls and which are engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses, or, collectively, in the securities of QPTPs.
     In some circumstances, the character and timing of income realized by the Fund for purposes of the Income Requirement or the identification of the issuer for purposes of the Asset Diversification Test is uncertain under current law with respect to a particular investment, and an adverse determination or future guidance by IRS with respect to such type of investment may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to satisfy these requirements. See “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions” with respect to the application of these requirements to certain types of investments. In other circumstances, the Fund may be required to sell portfolio holdings in order to meet the Income Requirement, Distribution Requirement, or Asset Diversification Test, which may have a negative impact on the Fund’s income and performance. In lieu of potential disqualification, the Fund is permitted to pay a tax for certain failures to satisfy the Asset Diversification Test or Income Requirement, which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, for taxable years of the Fund with respect to which the extended due date of the return is after December 22, 2010.
     The Fund may use “equalization accounting” (in lieu of making some cash distributions) in determining the portion of its income and gains that has been distributed. If the Fund uses equalization accounting, it will allocate a portion of its undistributed investment company taxable income and net capital gain to redemptions of Fund shares and will correspondingly reduce the amount of such income and gains that it distributes in cash. However, the Fund intends to make cash distributions for each

62


 

taxable year in an aggregate amount that is sufficient to satisfy the Distribution Requirement without taking into account its use of equalization accounting. If the IRS determines that the Fund’s allocation is improper and that the Fund has under-distributed its income and gain for any taxable year, the Fund may be liable for federal income and/or excise tax.
     If for any taxable year the Fund does not qualify as a regulated investment company, all of its taxable income (including its net capital gain) would be subject to tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for dividends paid to shareholders, and the dividends would be taxable to the shareholders as ordinary income (or possibly as qualified dividend income) to the extent of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Failure to qualify as a regulated investment company thus would have a negative impact on the Fund’s income and performance. Subject to savings provisions for certain inadvertent failures to satisfy the Income Requirement or Asset Diversification Test which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, it is possible that the Fund will not qualify as a regulated investment company in any given tax year. Even if such savings provisions apply, the Fund may be subject to a monetary sanction of $50,000 or more. Moreover, the Board reserves the right not to maintain the qualification of the Fund as a regulated investment company if it determines such a course of action to be beneficial to shareholders.
     Portfolio turnover. For investors that hold their Fund shares in a taxable account, a high portfolio turnover rate (except in a money market fund that maintains a stable net asset value) may result in higher taxes. This is because a Fund with a high turnover rate may accelerate the recognition of capital gains and more of such gains are likely to be taxable as short-term rather than long-term capital gains in contrast to a comparable fund with a low turnover rate. Any such higher taxes would reduce the Fund’s after-tax performance. See “Taxation of Fund Distributions ¾ Capital gain dividends” below. For non-U.S. investors, any such acceleration of the recognition of capital gains that results in more short-term and less long-term capital gains being recognized by the Fund may cause such investors to be subject to increased U.S. withholding taxes. See, “Foreign Shareholders — U.S. withholding tax at the source” below.
     Capital loss carryovers. The capital losses of the Fund, if any, do not flow through to shareholders. Rather, the Fund may use its capital losses, subject to applicable limitations, to offset its capital gains without being required to pay taxes on or distribute to shareholders such gains that are offset by the losses. Under the Regulated Investment Company Modernization Act of 2010 (RIC Mod Act), if the Fund has a “net capital loss” (that is, capital losses in excess of capital gains) for a taxable year beginning after December 22, 2010, the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net short-term capital losses over its net long-term capital gains is treated as a short-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund’s next taxable year, and the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net long-term capital losses over its net short-term capital gains is treated as a long-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund’s next taxable year. Any such net capital losses of the Fund that are not used to offset capital gains may be carried forward indefinitely to reduce any future capital gains realized by the Fund in succeeding taxable years. However, for any net capital losses realized in taxable years of the Fund beginning on or before December 22, 2010, the Fund is permitted to carry forward such capital losses for eight years as a short-term capital loss. Under a transition rule, capital losses arising in a taxable year beginning after December 22, 2010 must be used before capital losses realized in a prior taxable year. The amount of capital losses that can be carried forward and used in any single year is subject to an annual limitation if there is a more than 50% “change in ownership” of the Fund. An ownership change generally results when shareholders owning 5% or more of the Fund increase their aggregate holdings by more than 50% over a three-year look-back period. An ownership change could result in capital loss carryovers being used at a slower rate (or, in the case of those realized in taxable years of the Fund beginning on or before December 22, 2010, to expire), thereby reducing the Fund’s ability to offset capital gains with those losses. An increase in the amount of taxable gains distributed to the Fund’s shareholders could result from an ownership change. The Fund undertakes no obligation to avoid or prevent an ownership change, which can occur in the normal course of shareholder purchases and redemptions or as a result of engaging in a tax-free reorganization with another fund. Moreover, because of circumstances beyond

63


 

the Fund’s control, there can be no assurance that the Fund will not experience, or has not already experienced, an ownership change.
     Deferral of late year losses. The Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year, which may change the timing, amount, or characterization of Fund distributions (see, “Taxation of Fund Distributions — Distributions of capital gains” below). A “qualified late year loss” includes:
(i) any net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (post-October losses), and
(ii) the excess, if any, of (1) the sum of (a) specified losses incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year, and (b) other ordinary losses incurred after December 31 of the current taxable year, over (2) the sum of (a) specified gains incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year, and (b) other ordinary gains incurred after December 31 of the current taxable year.
     The terms “specified losses” and “specified gains” mean ordinary losses and gains from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property (including the termination of a position with respect to such property), foreign currency losses and gains, and losses and gains resulting from holding stock in a passive foreign investment company (PFIC) for which a mark-to-market election is in effect. The terms “ordinary losses” and “ordinary gains” mean other ordinary losses and gains that are not described in the preceding sentence.
     Special rules apply to a Fund with a fiscal year ending in November or December that elects to use its taxable year for determining its capital gain net income for excise tax purposes.
     Undistributed capital gains. The Fund may retain or distribute to shareholders its net capital gain for each taxable year. The Fund currently intends to distribute net capital gains. If the Fund elects to retain its net capital gain, the Fund will be taxed thereon (except to the extent of any available capital loss carryovers) at the highest corporate tax rate (currently 35%). If the Fund elects to retain its net capital gain, it is expected that the Fund also will elect to have shareholders treated as if each received a distribution of its pro rata share of such gain, with the result that each shareholder will be required to report its pro rata share of such gain on its tax return as long-term capital gain, will receive a refundable tax credit for its pro rata share of tax paid by the Fund on the gain and will increase the tax basis for its shares by an amount equal to the deemed distribution less the tax credit.
     Asset allocation funds. If the Fund is a fund of funds, asset allocation fund, or a feeder fund in a master feeder structure (collectively referred to as a “fund of funds” which invests in one or more underlying funds taxable as regulated investment companies) distributions by the underlying funds, redemptions of shares in the underlying funds and changes in asset allocations may result in taxable distributions to shareholders of ordinary income or capital gains. A fund of funds (other than a feeder fund in a master feeder structure) generally will not be able currently to offset gains realized by one underlying fund in which the fund of funds invests against losses realized by another underlying fund. If shares of an underlying fund are purchased within 30 days before or after redeeming at a loss other shares of that underlying fund (whether pursuant to a rebalancing of the Fund’s portfolio or otherwise), all or a part of the loss will not be deductible by the Fund and instead will increase its basis for the newly purchased shares. Also, except with respect to a qualified fund of funds, a fund of funds (a) is not eligible to pass-through to shareholders foreign tax credits from an underlying fund that pays foreign income taxes and (b) is not eligible to pass-through to shareholders exempt-interest dividends from an underlying fund. A “qualified fund of funds,” i.e., a fund at least 50 percent of the value of the total assets of which (at the close of each quarter of the taxable year) is represented by interests in other RICs, is eligible to pass-through to shareholders (a) foreign tax credits and (b) exempt-interest

64


 

dividends. Also a fund of funds, whether or not it is a qualified fund of funds, is eligible to pass-through to shareholders qualified dividends earned by an underlying fund (see, “Taxation of Fund Distributions — Qualified dividend income for individuals” and ”Corporate dividends received deduction” below). However, dividends paid to shareholders by a fund of funds from interest earned by an underlying fund on U.S. Government obligations are unlikely to be exempt from state and local income tax.
     Federal excise tax. To avoid a 4% non-deductible excise tax, the Fund must distribute by December 31 of each year an amount equal to: (1) 98% of its ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of capital gain net income (the excess of the gains from sales or exchanges of capital assets over the losses from such sales or exchanges) for the one-year period ended on October 31 of such calendar year (or, at the election of a regulated investment company having a taxable year ending November 30 or December 31, for its taxable year), and (3) any prior year undistributed ordinary income and capital gain net income. The Fund may elect to defer to the following year any net ordinary loss incurred for the portion of the calendar year which is after the beginning of the Fund’s taxable year. Also, the Fund will defer any “specified gain” or “specified loss” which would be properly taken into account for the portion of the calendar after October 31. Any net ordinary loss, specified gain, or specified loss deferred shall be treated as arising on January 1 of the following calendar year. Generally, the Fund may make sufficient distributions to avoid liability for federal income and excise tax but can give no assurances that all or a portion of such liability will be avoided. In addition, under certain circumstances temporary timing or permanent differences in the realization of income and expense for book and tax purposes can result in the Fund having to pay an excise tax.
     Foreign income tax. Investment income received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to foreign income tax withheld at the source, and the amount of tax withheld generally will be treated as an expense of the Fund. The United States has entered into tax treaties with many foreign countries that entitle the Fund to a reduced rate of, or exemption from, tax on such income. Some countries require the filing of a tax reclaim or other forms to receive the benefit of the reduced tax rate; whether or when the Fund will receive the tax reclaim is within the control of the individual country. Information required on these forms may not be available such as shareholder information; therefore, the Fund may not receive the reduced treaty rates or potential reclaims. Other countries have conflicting and changing instructions and restrictive timing requirements which may cause the Fund not to receive the reduced treaty rates or potential reclaims. Other countries may subject to capital gains realized by the Fund on sale or disposition of securities of that country to taxation. It is impossible to determine the effective rate of foreign tax in advance since the amount of the Fund’s assets to be invested in various countries is not known. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may elect to pass-through foreign tax credits to shareholders, although it reserves the right not to do so.
     Investments in Commodities. The Fund invests in derivatives, financially-linked instruments, and the stock of its own wholly-owned subsidiary (the “Subsidiary”) to gain exposure to the commodity markets. This strategy may cause the Fund to realize more ordinary income than would be the case if the Fund invested directly in commodities. Also, these commodity-linked investments and the income earned thereon must be taken into account by the Fund in complying with the Distribution and Income Requirements and the Asset Diversification Test as described below.
     Distribution requirement. The Fund intends to distribute the Subsidiary’s income each year in satisfaction of the Fund’s Distribution Requirement. The Subsidiary will be classified for federal income tax purposes as a controlled foreign corporation (CFC) with respect to the Fund. As such, the Fund will be required to include in its gross income each year amounts earned by the Subsidiary during that year (subpart F income), whether or not such earnings are distributed by the Subsidiary to the Fund. Subpart F income will be distributed by the Fund to shareholders each year as ordinary income and will not be qualified dividend income eligible for taxation at long-term capital gain rates. The Subsidiary likely will also be classified as a PFIC as defined below in “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions — PFIC Investments” but the CFC rules supersede the PFIC rules.

65


 

     Income requirement. As described above, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income from qualifying sources to qualify as a regulated investment company. Gains from the disposition of commodities, including precious metals, are not considered qualifying income for purposes of satisfying the Income Requirement. See, “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions Investments in commodities — structured notes, corporate subsidiary and certain ETFs.” Also, the IRS has issued a Revenue Ruling which holds that income derived from commodity-linked swaps is not qualifying income under Subchapter M of the Code. As a result, the Fund’s ability to directly invest in commodity-linked swaps as part of its investment strategy is limited to a maximum of 10% of its gross income. The IRS has issued a number of private letter rulings to other mutual funds (including another Invesco fund), upon which the Fund cannot rely, which indicate that income from a fund’s investment in certain commodity-linked notes and a wholly owned foreign subsidiary that invests in commodity-linked derivatives such as the Subsidiary, constitutes qualifying income. However, the IRS has suspended issuance of any further private letter rulings pending a review of its position. Should the IRS issue guidance, or Congress enact legislation, that adversely affects the tax treatment of the Fund’s use of commodity-linked notes, or the Subsidiary (which might be applied retroactively to the Fund), it could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategy and the Fund might not qualify as a regulated investment company for one or more years. In this event, the Board may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or Fund liquidation. In lieu of potential disqualification, the Fund is permitted to pay a tax for certain failures to satisfy the Income Requirement, which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect for taxable years of the Fund with respect to which the extended due date of the return is after December 22, 2010. The Fund also may incur transaction and other costs to comply with any new or additional guidance from the IRS.
     Asset diversification test. For purposes of the Asset Diversification Test, the Fund’s investment in the Subsidiary would be considered a security of one issuer. Accordingly, the Fund intends to limit its investment in the Subsidiary to no more than 25% of the value of the Fund’s total assets in order to satisfy the Asset Diversification Test.
     Taxation of the Subsidiary. On the basis of current law and practice, the Subsidiary will not be liable for income tax in the Cayman Islands. Distributions by the Subsidiary to the Fund will not be subject to withholding tax in the Cayman Islands. In addition, the Subsidiary’s investment in commodity-linked derivatives and other assets held as collateral are anticipated to qualify for a safe harbor under Code Section 864(b) so that the Subsidiary will not be treated as conducting a U.S. trade or business. Thus, the Subsidiary should not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis. However, if certain of the Subsidiary’s activities were determined not to be of the type described in the safe harbor (which is not expected), then the activities of the Subsidiary may constitute a U.S. trade or business, or be taxed as such.
     In general, a foreign corporation, such as the Subsidiary, that does not conduct a U.S. trade or business is nonetheless subject to tax at a flat rate of 30 percent (or lower tax treaty rate), generally payable through withholding, on the gross amount of certain U.S.-source income that is not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business, subject to certain exemptions, including among others, exemptions for capital gains, portfolio interest and income from notional principal contracts. It is not anticipated that the Subsidiary will be subject to material amounts of U.S. withholding tax on its portfolio investments. The Subsidiary intends to properly certify its status as a non-U.S. person to each custodian and withholding agent to avoid U.S. backup withholding requirements discussed below.
     Taxation of Fund Distributions. The Fund anticipates distributing substantially all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain for each taxable year. Distributions by the Fund will be treated in the manner described regardless of whether such distributions are paid in cash or reinvested in additional shares of the Fund (or of another Fund). The Fund will send you information annually as to the federal income tax consequences of distributions made (or deemed made) during the year.

66


 

     Distributions of ordinary income. The Fund receives income generally in the form of dividends and/or interest on its investments. The Fund may also recognize ordinary income from other sources, including, but not limited to, certain gains on foreign currency-related transactions. This income, less expenses incurred in the operation of the Fund, constitutes the Fund’s net investment income from which dividends may be paid to you. If you are a taxable investor, distributions of net investment income generally are taxable as ordinary income to the extent of the Fund’s earnings and profits. In the case of a Fund whose strategy includes investing in stocks of corporations, a portion of the income dividends paid to you may be qualified dividends eligible to be taxed at reduced rates.
     Capital gain dividends. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long the Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her shares. In general, the Fund will recognize long-term capital gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of assets it has owned for more than one year, and short-term capital gain or loss on investments it has owned for one year or less. Distributions of net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) that are properly reported by the Fund to shareholders as capital gain dividends generally will be taxable to a shareholder receiving such distributions as long-term capital gain. Long-term capital gain rates applicable to individuals are taxed at the maximum rate of 15% or 25% (through 2012) depending on the nature of the capital gain. Distributions of net short-term capital gains for a taxable year in excess of net long-term capital losses for such taxable year generally will be taxable to a shareholder receiving such distributions as ordinary income.
     Qualified dividend income for individuals. With respect to taxable years of the Fund beginning before January 1, 2013 (unless such provision is extended, possibly retroactively to January 1, 2013, or made permanent), ordinary income dividends reported by the Fund to shareholders as derived from qualified dividend income will be taxed in the hands of individuals and other noncorporate shareholders at the rates applicable to long-term capital gain. Qualified dividend income means dividends paid to the Fund (a) by domestic corporations, (b) by foreign corporations that are either (i) incorporated in a possession of the United States, or (ii) are eligible for benefits under certain income tax treaties with the United States that include an exchange of information program, or (c) with respect to stock of a foreign corporation that is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Both the Fund and the investor must meet certain holding period requirements to qualify Fund dividends for this treatment. Income derived from investments in derivatives, fixed-income securities, U.S. REITs, PFICs, CFCs (such as the Subsidiary; see “Investments in Commodities”) and income received “in lieu of” dividends in a securities lending transaction generally is not eligible for treatment as qualified dividend income. If the qualifying dividend income received by the Fund is equal to 95% (or a greater percentage) of the Fund’s gross income (exclusive of net capital gain) in any taxable year, all of the ordinary income dividends paid by the Fund will be qualifying dividend income.
     Corporate dividends received deduction. Ordinary income dividends reported by the Fund to shareholders as derived from qualified dividends from domestic corporations will qualify for the 70% dividends received deduction generally available to corporations. The availability of the dividends-received deduction is subject to certain holding period and debt financing restrictions imposed under the Code on the corporation claiming the deduction. Income derived by the Fund from investments in derivatives, fixed-income and foreign securities generally is not eligible for this treatment.
     Return of capital distributions. Distributions by the Fund that are not paid from earnings and profits will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of (and in reduction of) the shareholder’s tax basis in his shares; any excess will be treated as gain from the sale of his shares. Thus, the portion of a distribution that constitutes a return of capital will decrease the shareholder’s tax basis in his Fund shares (but not below zero), and will result in an increase in the amount of gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the shareholder for tax purposes on the later sale of such Fund shares. Return of capital distributions can occur for a number of reasons including, among others, the Fund over-estimates the income to be received from certain investments such as those classified as partnerships or equity REITs. See “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions ¾Investments in U.S. REITs.”

67


 

     Impact of realized but undistributed income and gains, and net unrealized appreciation of portfolio securities. At the time of your purchase of shares (except in a money market fund that maintains a stable net asset value), the Fund’s net asset value may reflect undistributed income, undistributed capital gains, or net unrealized appreciation of portfolio securities held by the Fund. A subsequent distribution to you of such amounts, although constituting a return of your investment, would be taxable and would be taxed as either ordinary income (some portion of which may be taxed as qualified dividend income)or capital gain unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. The Fund may be able to reduce the amount of such distributions by utilizing its capital loss carryovers, if any.
     Pass-through of foreign tax credits. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets at the end of a fiscal year is invested in foreign securities, or if the Fund is a qualified fund of funds (i.e. a fund at least 50 percent of the value of the total assets of which, at the close of each quarter of the taxable year is represented by interests in other RICs), the Fund may elect to “pass through” to the Fund’s shareholders the amount of foreign income tax paid by the Fund (the Foreign Tax Election) in lieu of deducting such amount in determining its investment company taxable income. Pursuant to the Foreign Tax Election, shareholders will be required (i) to include in gross income, even though not actually received, their respective pro-rata shares of the foreign income tax paid by the Fund that are attributable to any distributions they receive; and (ii) either to deduct their pro-rata share of foreign tax in computing their taxable income or to use it (subject to various Code limitations) as a foreign tax credit against federal income tax (but not both). No deduction for foreign tax may be claimed by a noncorporate shareholder who does not itemize deductions or who is subject to the alternative minimum tax. Shareholders may be unable to claim a credit for the full amount of their proportionate shares of the foreign income tax paid by the Fund due to certain limitations that may apply. The Fund reserves the right not to pass-through to its shareholders the amount of foreign income taxes paid by the Fund. Additionally, any foreign tax withheld on payments made “in lieu of” dividends or interest will not qualify for the pass-through of foreign tax credits to shareholders. See “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions-Securities lending” below.
     Tax credit bonds. If the Fund holds, directly or indirectly, one or more “tax credit bonds” (including build America bonds, clean renewable energy bonds and qualified tax credit bonds) on one or more applicable dates during a taxable year, the Fund may elect to permit its shareholders to claim a tax credit on their income tax returns equal to each shareholder’s proportionate share of tax credits from the applicable bonds that otherwise would be allowed to the Fund. In such a case, shareholders must include in gross income (as interest) their proportionate share of the income attributable to their proportionate share of those offsetting tax credits. A shareholder’s ability to claim a tax credit associated with one or more tax credit bonds may be subject to certain limitations imposed by the Code. Even if the Fund is eligible to pass through tax credits to shareholders, the Fund may choose not to do so.
     U.S. Government interest. Income earned on certain U.S. Government obligations is exempt from state and local personal income taxes if earned directly by you. States also grant tax-free status to dividends paid to you from interest earned on direct obligations of the U.S. Government, subject in some states to minimum investment or reporting requirements that must be met by the Fund. Income on investments by the Fund in certain other obligations, such as repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. Government obligations), commercial paper and federal agency-backed obligations (e.g., GNMA or FNMA obligations, generally does not qualify for tax-free treatment. The rules on exclusion of this income are different for corporations. If the Fund is a fund of funds, see “Taxation of the Fund ¾ Asset allocation funds.”
     Dividends declared in December and paid in January. Ordinarily, shareholders are required to take distributions by the Fund into account in the year in which the distributions are made. However, dividends declared in October, November or December of any year and payable to shareholders of record on a specified date in such a month will be deemed to have been received by the shareholders

68


 

(and made by the Fund) on December 31 of such calendar year if such dividends are actually paid in January of the following year. Shareholders will be advised annually as to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of distributions made (or deemed made) during the year in accordance with the guidance that has been provided by the IRS.
     Medicare tax. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010, will impose a 3.8% Medicare tax on net investment income earned by certain individuals, estates and trusts for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012. “Net investment income,” for these purposes, means investment income, including ordinary dividends and capital gain distributions received from the Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares, reduced by the deductions properly allocable to such income. In the case of an individual, the tax will be imposed on the lesser of (1) the shareholder’s net investment income or (2) the amount by which the shareholder’s modified adjusted gross income exceeds $250,000 (if the shareholder is married and filing jointly or a surviving spouse), $125,000 (if the shareholder is married and filing separately) or $200,000 (in any other case), net investment income does not include exempt-interest dividends.
     Sale or Redemption of Fund Shares. A shareholder will recognize gain or loss on the sale or redemption of shares of the Fund in an amount equal to the difference between the proceeds of the sale or redemption and the shareholder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. If you owned your shares as a capital asset, any gain or loss that you realize will be considered capital gain or loss and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the shares were held for longer than one year. Capital losses in any year are deductible only to the extent of capital gains plus, in the case of a noncorporate taxpayer, $3,000 of ordinary income.
     Tax basis information. The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B the cost basis of shares purchased or acquired on or after January 1, 2012 where the cost basis of the shares is known by the Fund (referred to as “covered shares”) and which are disposed of after that date. However, cost basis reporting is not required for certain shareholders, including shareholders investing in the Fund through a tax-advantaged retirement account, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account, or shareholders investing in a money market fund that maintains a stable net asset value. When required to report cost basis, the Fund will calculate it using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different calculation method. In general, average cost is the total cost basis of all your shares in an account divided by the total number of shares in the account. To determine whether short-term or long-term capital gains taxes apply, the IRS presumes you redeem your oldest shares first.
     The IRS permits the use of several methods to determine the cost basis of mutual fund shares. The method used will determine which specific shares are deemed to be sold when there are multiple purchases on different dates at differing share prices, and the entire position is not sold at one time. The Fund does not recommend any particular method of determining cost basis, and the use of other methods may result in more favorable tax consequences for some shareholders. It is important that you consult with your tax advisor to determine which method is best for you and then notify the Fund if you intend to utilize a method other than average cost for covered shares.
     In addition to the Fund’s default method of average cost, other cost basis methods offered by Invesco, which you may elect to apply to covered shares, include:
    First-In First-Out ¾ shares acquired first in the account are the first shares depleted.
 
    Last-In First-Out ¾ shares acquired last in the account are the first shares depleted.
 
    High Cost ¾ shares acquired with the highest cost per share are the first shares depleted.
 
    Low Cost ¾ shares acquired with the lowest cost per share are the first shares depleted.
 
    Loss/Gain Utilization ¾ depletes shares with losses before gains, consistent with the objective of minimizing taxes. For shares that yield a loss, shares owned one year or less (short-term) will be depleted ahead of shares owned more than one year (long-term). For

69


 

      gains, long-term shares will be depleted ahead of short-term gains
 
    Specific Lot Identification ¾ shareholder selects which lots to deplete at time of each disposition. Transaction amount must be in shares. If insufficient shares are identified at the time of disposition, then a secondary default method of first-in first-out will be applied.
     You may elect any of the available methods detailed above for your covered shares. If you do not notify the Fund of your elected cost basis method, the default method of average cost will be applied to your covered shares upon redemption. The cost basis for covered shares will be calculated separately from any “noncovered shares” (defined below) you may own. You may change or revoke the use of the average cost method and revert to another cost basis method if you notify the Fund by the date of the first sale, exchange, or other disposition of your covered shares. In addition, you may change to another cost basis method at any time by notifying the Fund, but only for shares acquired after the date of the change (the change is prospective). The basis of the shares that were averaged before the change will remain averaged after the date of the change
     The Fund may also provide Fund shareholders (but not the IRS) with information concerning the average cost basis of their shares purchased prior to January 1, 2012 (“noncovered shares”) in order to assist you with the calculation of gain or loss from a sale or redemption of noncovered shares. With the exception of the specific lot identification method, Invesco first depletes noncovered shares in first-in first-out order before applying your elected method to your remaining covered shares. If you want to deplete your shares in a different order then you must elect specific lot identification and choose the lots you wish to deplete first. Shareholders that use the average cost method for noncovered shares must make the election to use the average cost method for these shares on their federal income tax returns in accordance with Treasury regulations. This election for noncovered shares cannot be made by notifying the Fund.
     The Fund will compute and report the cost basis of your Fund shares sold or exchanged by taking into account all of the applicable adjustments to cost basis and holding periods as required by the Code and Treasury regulations for purposes of reporting these amounts to you and, in the case of covered shares, to the IRS. However, the Fund is not required to, and in many cases the Fund does not possess the information to, take all possible basis, holding period or other adjustments into account in reporting cost basis information to you. Therefore, shareholders should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Fund, whether this information is provided pursuant to compliance with cost basis reporting requirements for shares acquired on or after January 1, 2012, or is provided by the Fund as a service to shareholders for shares acquired prior to that date, and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required by the Code and Treasury regulations when reporting these amounts on their federal income tax returns. Shareholders remain solely responsible for complying with all federal income tax laws when filing their federal income tax returns.
     If you hold your Fund shares through a broker (or other nominee), please contact that broker (nominee) with respect to the reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account. For more information about the cost basis methods offered by Invesco, please refer to the Tax Center located under the Accounts & Services menu of our website at www.invesco.com/us.
     Wash sale rule. All or a portion of any loss so recognized may be deferred under the wash sale rules if the shareholder purchases other shares of the Fund within 30 days before or after the sale or redemption.
     Sales at a loss within six months of purchase. Any capital loss arising from the sale or redemption of shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received on such shares.
     Deferral of basis – any class that bears a front-end sales load. If a shareholder (a) incurs a sales load in acquiring shares of the Fund, (b) disposes of such shares less than 91 days after they are acquired, and (c) subsequently acquires shares of the Fund or another Fund by January 31 of the

70


 

calendar year following the calendar year in which the disposition of the original shares occurred at a reduced sales load pursuant to a right to reinvest at such reduced sales load acquired in connection with the acquisition of the shares disposed of, then the sales load on the shares disposed of (to the extent of the reduction in the sales load on the shares subsequently acquired) shall not be taken into account in determining gain or loss on the shares disposed of, but shall be treated as incurred on the acquisition of the shares subsequently acquired. The wash sale rules may also limit the amount of loss that may be taken into account on disposition after such adjustment.
     Exchange of shares of the Fund for shares of another Fund. The exchange of shares in one Fund for shares of another Fund is taxable for federal income tax purposes and the exchange will be reported as a taxable sale. An exchange occurs when the purchase of shares of a Fund is made using the proceeds from a redemption of shares of another Fund and is effectuated on the same day as the redemption. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the state and local tax consequences of an exchange of shares.
     Tax shelter reporting. Under Treasury regulations, if a shareholder recognizes a loss with respect to the Fund’s shares of $2 million or more for an individual shareholder or $10 million or more for a corporate shareholder, the shareholder must file with the IRS a disclosure statement on Form 8886.
     Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions. Set forth below is a general description of the tax treatment of certain types of securities, investment techniques and transactions that may apply to a fund. This section should be read in conjunction with the discussion under “Description of the Funds and their Investments and Risks ¾ Investment Strategies and Risks” for a detailed description of the various types of securities and investment techniques that apply to the Fund.
     In general. In general, gain or loss recognized by a fund on the sale or other disposition of portfolio investments will be a capital gain or loss. Such capital gain and loss may be long-term or short-term depending, in general, upon the length of time a particular investment position is maintained and, in some cases, upon the nature of the transaction. Property held for more than one year generally will be eligible for long-term capital gain or loss treatment. The application of certain rules described below may serve to alter the manner in which the holding period for a security is determined or may otherwise affect the characterization as long-term or short-term, and also the timing of the realization and/or character, of certain gains or losses.
     Certain fixed-income investments. Gain recognized on the disposition of a debt obligation purchased by a fund at a market discount (generally, at a price less than its principal amount) will be treated as ordinary income to the extent of the portion of the market discount that accrued during the period of time the fund held the debt obligation unless the fund made a current inclusion election to accrue market discount into income as it accrues. If a fund purchases a debt obligation (such as a zero coupon security or pay-in-kind security)that was originally issued at a discount, the fund generally is required to include in gross income each year the portion of the original issue discount that accrues during such year. Therefore, a fund’s investment in such securities may cause the fund to recognize income and make distributions to shareholders before it receives any cash payments on the securities. To generate cash to satisfy those distribution requirements, a fund may have to sell portfolio securities that it otherwise might have continued to hold or to use cash flows from other sources such as the sale of fund shares.
     Investments in debt obligations that are at risk of or in default present tax issues for a fund. Tax rules are not entirely clear about issues such as whether and to what extent a fund should recognize market discount on a debt obligation, when a fund may cease to accrue interest, original issue discount or market discount, when and to what extent a fund may take deductions for bad debts or worthless securities and how a fund should allocate payments received on obligations in default between principal

71


 

and income. These and other related issues will be addressed by a fund in order to ensure that it distributes sufficient income to preserve its status as a regulated investment company.
     Options, futures, forward contracts, swap agreements and hedging transactions. In general, option premiums received by a fund are not immediately included in the income of the fund. Instead, the premiums are recognized when the option contract expires, the option is exercised by the holder, or the fund transfers or otherwise terminates the option (e.g., through a closing transaction). If an option written by a fund is exercised and the fund sells or delivers the underlying stock, the fund generally will recognize capital gain or loss equal to (a) sum of the strike price and the option premium received by the fund minus (b) the fund’s basis in the stock. Such gain or loss generally will be short-term or long-term depending upon the holding period of the underlying stock. If securities are purchased by a fund pursuant to the exercise of a put option written by it, the fund generally will subtract the premium received from its cost basis in the securities purchased. The gain or loss with respect to any termination of a fund’s obligation under an option other than through the exercise of the option and related sale or delivery of the underlying stock generally will be short-term gain or loss depending on whether the premium income received by the fund is greater or less than the amount paid by the fund (if any) in terminating the transaction. Thus, for example, if an option written by a fund expires unexercised, the fund generally will recognize short-term gain equal to the premium received.
     The tax treatment of certain futures contracts entered into by a fund as well as listed non-equity options written or purchased by the fund on U.S. exchanges (including options on futures contracts, broad-based equity indices and debt securities) may be governed by section 1256 of the Code (section 1256 contracts). Gains or losses on section 1256 contracts generally are considered 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gains or losses (60/40), although certain foreign currency gains and losses from such contracts may be treated as ordinary in character. Also, any section 1256 contracts held by a fund at the end of each taxable year (and, for purposes of the 4% excise tax, on certain other dates as prescribed under the Code) are “marked-to-market” with the result that unrealized gains or losses are treated as though they were realized and the resulting gain or loss is treated as ordinary or 60/40 gain or loss, as applicable. Section 1256 contracts do not include any interest rate swap, currency swap, basis swap, interest rate cap, interest rate floor, commodity swap, equity swap, equity index swap, credit default swap, or similar agreement.
     In addition to the special rules described above in respect of options and futures transactions, a fund’s transactions in other derivative instruments (including options, forward contracts and swap agreements) as well as its other hedging, short sale, or similar transactions, may be subject to one or more special tax rules (including the constructive sale, notional principal contract, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules). These rules may affect whether gains and losses recognized by a fund are treated as ordinary or capital or as short-term or long-term, accelerate the recognition of income or gains to the fund, defer losses to the fund, and cause adjustments in the holding periods of the fund’s securities. These rules, therefore, could affect the amount, timing and/or character of distributions to shareholders. Moreover, because the tax rules applicable to derivative financial instruments are in some cases uncertain under current law, an adverse determination or future guidance by the IRS with respect to these rules (which determination or guidance could be retroactive) may affect whether a fund has made sufficient distributions and otherwise satisfied the relevant requirements to maintain its qualification as a regulated investment company and avoid a fund-level tax.
     Certain of a fund’s investments in derivatives and foreign currency-denominated instruments, and the fund’s transactions in foreign currencies and hedging activities, may produce a difference between its book income and its taxable income. If a fund’s book income is less than the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any), the fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a regulated investment company. If a fund’s book income exceeds the sum of its taxable income and net tax-exempt income (if any), the distribution of any such excess will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the fund’s remaining earnings and profits (including current earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income, reduced, by related deductions), (ii)

72


 

thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient’s basis in the shares, and (iii) thereafter, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset.
     Foreign currency transactions. A fund’s transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt obligations and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned. This treatment could increase or decrease a fund’s ordinary income distributions to you, and may cause some or all of the fund’s previously distributed income to be classified as a return of capital. In certain cases, a fund may make an election to treat such gain or loss as capital.
     PFIC investments. A fund may invest in securities of foreign companies that may be classified under the Code as PFICs. In general, a foreign company is classified as a PFIC if at least one-half of its assets constitute investment-type assets or 75% or more of its gross income is investment-type income. When investing in PFIC securities, a fund intends to mark-to-market these securities under certain provisions of the Code and recognize any unrealized gains as ordinary income at the end of the fund’s fiscal and excise tax years. Deductions for losses are allowable only to the extent of any current or previously recognized gains. These gains (reduced by allowable losses) are treated as ordinary income that a fund is required to distribute, even though it has not sold or received dividends from these securities. You should also be aware that the designation of a foreign security as a PFIC security will cause its income dividends to fall outside of the definition of qualified foreign corporation dividends. These dividends generally will not qualify for the reduced rate of taxation on qualified dividends when distributed to you by a fund. Foreign companies are not required to identify themselves as PFICs. Due to various complexities in identifying PFICs, a fund can give no assurances that it will be able to identify portfolio securities in foreign corporations that are PFICs in time for the fund to make a mark-to-market election. If a fund is unable to identify an investment as a PFIC and thus does not make a mark-to-market election, the fund may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a portion of any “excess distribution” or gain from the disposition of such shares even if such income is distributed as a taxable dividend by the fund to its shareholders. Additional charges in the nature of interest may be imposed on a fund in respect of deferred taxes arising from such distributions or gains. Also, see “Investments in Commodities” with respect to investment in the Subsidiary.
     Investments in non-U.S. REITs. While non-U.S. REITs often use complex acquisition structures that seek to minimize taxation in the source country, an investment by a fund in a non-U.S. REIT may subject the fund, directly or indirectly, to corporate taxes, withholding taxes, transfer taxes and other indirect taxes in the country in which the real estate acquired by the non-U.S. REIT is located. The fund’s pro rata share of any such taxes will reduce the fund’s return on its investment. A fund’s investment in a non-U.S. REIT may be considered an investment in a PFIC, as discussed above in “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions — PFIC investments.” Additionally, foreign withholding taxes on distributions from the non-U.S. REIT may be reduced or eliminated under certain tax treaties, as discussed above in ”Taxation of the Fund — Foreign income tax.” Also, the fund in certain limited circumstances may be required to file an income tax return in the source country and pay tax on any gain realized from its investment in the non-U.S. REIT under rules similar to those in the United States which tax foreign persons on gain realized from dispositions of interests in U.S. real estate.
     Investments in U.S. REITs. A U.S. REIT is not subject to federal income tax on the income and gains it distributes to shareholders. Dividends paid by a U.S. REIT, other than capital gain distributions, will be taxable as ordinary income up to the amount of the U.S. REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Capital gain dividends paid by a U.S. REIT to a fund will be treated as long term capital gains by the fund and, in turn, may be distributed by the fund to its shareholders as a capital gain distribution. Because of certain noncash expenses, such as property depreciation, an equity U.S. REIT’s cash flow may exceed its taxable income. The equity U.S. REIT, and in turn a fund, may distribute this excess cash to shareholders in the form of a return of capital distribution. However, if a U.S. REIT is operated in a manner that fails to qualify as a REIT, an investment in the U.S. REIT would become subject to double taxation, meaning the taxable income of the U.S. REIT would be subject to

73


 

federal income tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for dividends paid to shareholders and the dividends would be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income (or possibly as qualified dividend income) to the extent of the U.S. REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Also, see “Tax Treatment of Portfolio Transactions ¾ Investment in taxable mortgage pools (excess inclusion income)” and “Foreign Shareholders ¾ U.S. withholding tax at the source” with respect to certain other tax aspects of investing in U.S. REITs.
     Investment in taxable mortgage pools (excess inclusion income). Under a Notice issued by the IRS, the Code and Treasury regulations to be issued, a portion of a fund’s income from a U.S. REIT that is attributable to the REIT’s residual interest in a real estate mortgage investment conduits (REMICs) or equity interests in a “taxable mortgage pool” (referred to in the Code as an excess inclusion) will be subject to federal income tax in all events. The excess inclusion income of a regulated investment company, such as a fund, will be allocated to shareholders of the regulated investment company in proportion to the dividends received by such shareholders, with the same consequences as if the shareholders held the related REMIC residual interest or, if applicable, taxable mortgage pool directly. In general, excess inclusion income allocated to shareholders (i) cannot be offset by net operating losses (subject to a limited exception for certain thrift institutions), (ii) will constitute unrelated business taxable income (UBTI) to entities (including qualified pension plans, individual retirement accounts, 401(k) plans, Keogh plans or other tax-exempt entities) subject to tax on UBTI, thereby potentially requiring such an entity that is allocated excess inclusion income, and otherwise might not be required to file a tax return, to file a tax return and pay tax on such income, and (iii) in the case of a foreign stockholder, will not qualify for any reduction in U.S. federal withholding tax. In addition, if at any time during any taxable year a “disqualified organization” (which generally includes certain cooperatives, governmental entities, and tax-exempt organizations not subject to UBTI) is a record holder of a share in a regulated investment company, then the regulated investment company will be subject to a tax equal to that portion of its excess inclusion income for the taxable year that is allocable to the disqualified organization, multiplied by the highest federal income tax rate imposed on corporations. The Notice imposes certain reporting requirements upon regulated investment companies that have excess inclusion income. There can be no assurance that a fund will not allocate to shareholders excess inclusion income.
     These rules are potentially applicable to a fund with respect to any income it receives from the equity interests of certain mortgage pooling vehicles, either directly or, as is more likely, through an investment in a U.S. REIT. It is unlikely that these rules will apply to a fund that has a non-REIT strategy.
     Investments in partnerships and QPTPs. For purposes of the Income Requirement, income derived by a fund from a partnership that is not a QPTP will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership that would be qualifying income if realized directly by the fund. For purposes of testing whether the fund satisfies the Asset Diversification Test, the fund generally is treated as owning a pro rata share of the underlying assets of a partnership. See “Taxation of the Fund — Qualification as a regulated investment company.” In contrast, different rules apply to a partnership that is a QPTP. A QPTP is a partnership (a) the interests in which are traded on an established securities market, (b) that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, and (c) that derives less than 90% of its income from sources that satisfy the Income Requirement (i.e., because it invests in commodities). All of the net income derived by a fund from an interest in a QPTP will be treated as qualifying income but the fund may not invest more than 25% of its total assets in one or more QPTPs. However, there can be no assurance that a partnership classified as a QPTP in one year will qualify as a QPTP in the next year. Any such failure to annually qualify as a QPTP might, in turn, cause a fund to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company. Although, in general, the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a fund with respect to items attributable to an interest in a QPTP. Fund investments in partnerships, including in QPTPs, may result in the fund’s being subject to state, local or foreign income, franchise or withholding tax liabilities.

74


 

     Investments in commodities — structured notes, corporate subsidiary and certain ETFs. Gains from the disposition of commodities, including precious metals, will neither be considered qualifying income for purposes of satisfying the Income Requirement nor qualifying assets for purposes of satisfying the Asset Diversification Test. See “Taxation of the Fund — Qualification as a regulated investment company.” Also, the IRS has issued a Revenue Ruling which holds that income derived from commodity-linked swaps is not qualifying income for purposes of the Income Requirement. However, in a subsequent Revenue Ruling, as well as in a number of follow-on private letter rulings, the IRS provides that income from certain alternative investments which create commodity exposure, such as certain commodity index-linked or structured notes or a corporate subsidiary (such as the Subsidiary) that invests in commodities, may be considered qualifying income under the Code. However, as of the date of this SAI, the IRS has suspended the issuance of any further private letter rulings pending a review of its position. Should the IRS issue guidance that adversely affects the tax treatment of a fund’s use of commodity-linked notes, or a corporate subsidiary, the fund may no longer be able to utilize commodity index-linked notes or a corporate subsidiary to gain commodity exposure. In addition, a fund may gain exposure to commodities through investment in QPTPs such as an exchange traded fund or ETF that is classified as a partnership and which invests in commodities. Accordingly, the extent to which a fund invests in commodities or commodity-linked derivatives may be limited by the Income Requirement and the Asset Diversification Test, which the fund must continue to satisfy to maintain its status as a regulated investment company. A fund also may be limited in its ability to sell its investments in commodities, commodity-linked derivatives, and certain ETFs or be forced to sell other investments to generate income due to the Income Requirement. In lieu of potential disqualification, a fund is permitted to pay a tax for certain failures to satisfy the Asset Diversification Test or Income Requirement, which, in general, are limited to those due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, for taxable years of a fund with respect to which the extended due date of the return is after December 22, 2010. Also see, “Investments in Commodities” with respect to investment in the Subsidiary.
     Securities lending. While securities are loaned out by a fund, the fund generally will receive from the borrower amounts equal to any dividends or interest paid on the borrowed securities. For federal income tax purposes, payments made “in lieu of” dividends are not considered dividend income. These distributions will neither qualify for the reduced rate of taxation for individuals on qualified dividends nor the 70% dividends received deduction for corporations. Also, any foreign tax withheld on payments made “in lieu of” dividends or interest will not qualify for the pass-through of foreign tax credits to shareholders. Additionally, in the case of a fund with a strategy of investing in tax-exempt securities, any payments made “in lieu of” tax-exempt interest will be considered taxable income to the fund, and thus, to the investors, even though such interest may be tax-exempt when paid to the borrower.
     Investments in convertible securities. Convertible debt is ordinarily treated as a “single property” consisting of a pure debt interest until conversion, after which the investment becomes an equity interest. If the security is issued at a premium (i.e., for cash in excess of the face amount payable on retirement), the creditor-holder may amortize the premium over the life of the bond. If the security is issued for cash at a price below its face amount, the creditor-holder must accrue original issue discount in income over the life of the debt. The creditor-holder’s exercise of the conversion privilege is treated as a nontaxable event. Mandatorily convertible debt (e.g., an exchange traded note or ETN issued in the form of an unsecured obligation that pays a return based on the performance of a specified market index, exchange currency, or commodity) is often, but not always, treated as a contract to buy or sell the reference property rather than debt. Similarly, convertible preferred stock with a mandatory conversion feature is ordinarily, but not always, treated as equity rather than debt. Dividends received generally are qualified dividend income and eligible for the corporate dividends received deduction. In general, conversion of preferred stock for common stock of the same corporation is tax-free. Conversion of preferred stock for cash is a taxable redemption. Any redemption premium for preferred stock that is redeemable by the issuing company might be required to be amortized under original issue discount (OID) principles.
     Tax Certification and Backup Withholding. Tax certification and backup withholding tax laws may require that you certify your tax information when you become an investor in the Fund. For U.S.

75


 

citizens and resident aliens, this certification is made on IRS Form W-9. Under these laws, the Fund must withhold a portion of your taxable distributions and sales proceeds unless you:
    provide your correct Social Security or taxpayer identification number,
 
    certify that this number is correct,
 
    certify that you are not subject to backup withholding, and
 
    certify that you are a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien).
     The Fund also must withhold if the IRS instructs it to do so. When withholding is required, the amount will be 28% of any distributions or proceeds paid. This rate will expire and the backup withholding rate will be 31% for amounts paid on or after January 1, 2013, unless the 28% rate is extended, possibly retroactively to January 1, 2012, or made permanent. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the appropriate information is furnished to the IRS. Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding and information reporting.
     Non-U.S. investors have special U.S. tax certification requirements. See “Foreign Shareholders ¾ Tax certification and backup withholding.”
     Foreign Shareholders. Shareholders who, as to the United States, are nonresident alien individuals, foreign trusts or estates, foreign corporations, or foreign partnerships (foreign shareholder), may be subject to U.S. withholding and estate tax and are subject to special U.S. tax certification requirements.
     Taxation of a foreign shareholder depends on whether the income from the Fund is “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business carried on by such shareholder.
     U.S. withholding tax at the source. If the income from the Fund is not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business carried on by a foreign shareholder, distributions to such shareholder will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or lower treaty rate) upon the gross amount of the distribution, subject to certain exemptions including those for dividends reported by the Fund to shareholders as:
    exempt-interest dividends paid by the Fund from its net interest income earned on municipal securities;
 
    capital gain dividends paid by the Fund from its net long-term capital gains (other than those from disposition of a U.S. real property interest), unless you are a nonresident alien present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the calendar year; and
 
    with respect to taxable years of the Fund beginning before January 1, 2012 (unless such provision is extended, possibly retroactively to January 1, 2012, or made permanent), interest-related dividends paid by the Fund from its qualified net interest income from U.S. sources and short-term capital gains dividends. After such sunset date, short-term capital gains are taxable to non-U.S. investors as ordinary dividends subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% or lower treaty rate.
     However, the Fund does not intend to utilize the exemptions for interest-related dividends paid and short-term capital gain dividends paid. Moreover, notwithstanding such exemptions from U.S. withholding at the source, any dividends and distributions of income and capital gains, including the proceeds from the sale of your Fund shares, will be subject to backup withholding at a rate of 28% if you fail to properly certify that you are not a U.S. person. This rate will expire and the backup withholding tax rate will be 31% for amounts paid after December 31, 2012, unless Congress enacts tax legislation providing otherwise.

76


 

     Foreign shareholders may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a rate of 30% on the income resulting from an election to pass-through foreign tax credits to shareholders, but may not be able to claim a credit or deduction with respect to the withholding tax for the foreign tax treated as having been paid by them.
     Amounts reported by the Fund to shareholders as capital gain dividends (a) that are attributable to certain capital gain dividends received from a qualified investment entity (QIE) (generally defined as either (i) a U.S. REIT or (ii) a RIC classified as a “U.S. real property holding corporation” or which would be if the exceptions for holding 5% or less of a class of publicly traded shares or an interest in a domestically controlled QIE did not apply) or (b) that are realized by the Fund on the sale of a “U.S. real property interest” (including gain realized on sale of shares in a QIE other than one that is a domestically controlled), will not be exempt from U.S. federal income tax and may be subject to U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30% (or lower treaty rate) if the Fund by reason of having a REIT strategy is classified as a QIE. If the Fund is so classified, foreign shareholders owning more than 5% of the Fund’s shares may be treated as realizing gain from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest, causing Fund distributions to be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a rate of 35%, and requiring the filing of a nonresident U.S. income tax return. In addition, if the Fund is classified as a QIE, anti-avoidance rules apply to certain wash sale transactions. Namely, if the Fund is a QIE and a foreign shareholder disposes of the Fund’s shares prior to the Fund paying a distribution attributable to the disposition of a U.S. real property interest and the foreign shareholder later acquires an identical stock interest in a wash sale transaction, the foreign shareholder may still be required to pay U.S. tax on the Fund’s distribution. Also, the sale of shares of the Fund, if classified as a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” could also be considered a sale of a U.S. real property interest with any resulting gain from such sale being subject to U.S. tax as income “effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.” These rules generally apply to dividends paid by the Fund before January 1, 2012 (unless such provision is extended, possibly retroactively to January 1, 2012, or made permanent). After such sunset date, Fund distributions from a U.S. REIT (whether or not domestically controlled) attributable to gain from the disposition of a U.S. real property interest will continue to be subject to the withholding rules described above provided the Fund is classified as a QIE.
     Income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. If the income from the Fund is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business carried on by a foreign shareholder, then ordinary income dividends, capital gain dividends and any gains realized upon the sale or redemption of shares of the Fund will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the rates applicable to U.S. citizens or domestic corporations and require the filing of a nonresident U.S. income tax return.
     Tax certification and backup withholding. Foreign shareholders may have special U.S. tax certification requirements to avoid backup withholding (at a rate of 28%, subject to increase to 31% as described above), and if applicable, to obtain the benefit of any income tax treaty between the foreign shareholder’s country of residence and the United States. To claim these tax benefits, the foreign shareholder must provide a properly completed Form W-8BEN (or other Form W-8, where applicable, or their substitute forms) to establish his or her status as a non-U.S. investor, to claim beneficial ownership over the assets in the account, and to claim, if applicable, a reduced rate of or exemption from withholding tax under the applicable treaty. A Form W-8BEN provided without a U.S. taxpayer identification number remains in effect for a period of three years beginning on the date that it is signed and ending on the last day of the third succeeding calendar year. However, non-U.S. investors must advise the Fund of any changes of circumstances that would render the information given on the form incorrect, and must then provide a new W-8BEN to avoid the prospective application of backup withholding. Forms W-8BEN with U.S. taxpayer identification numbers remain valid indefinitely, or until the investor has a change of circumstances that renders the form incorrect and necessitates a new form and tax certification. Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding.
     Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act. Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, the relevant withholding agent may be required to withhold 30% of: (a) income dividends paid after December 31, 2013 and (b) certain capital gains distributions and the proceeds of a sale of shares paid

77


 

after December 31, 2014 to (i) a foreign financial institution unless such foreign financial institution agrees to verify, report and disclose certain of its U.S. accountholders and meets certain other specified requirements or (ii) a non-financial foreign entity that is the beneficial owner of the payment unless such entity certifies that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or provides the name, address and taxpayer identification number of each substantial U.S. owner and such entity meets certain other specified requirements. These requirements are different from, and in addition to, the U.S. tax certification rules described above. The scope of these requirements remains unclear, and shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these requirements to their own situation.
     U.S. estate tax. Transfers by gift of shares of the Fund by a foreign shareholder who is a nonresident alien individual will not be subject to U.S. federal gift tax. An individual who, at the time of death, is a foreign shareholder will nevertheless be subject to U.S. federal estate tax with respect to shares at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens and residents, unless a treaty exemption applies. If a treaty exemption is available, a decedent’s estate may nonetheless need to file a U.S. estate tax return to claim the exemption in order to obtain a U.S. federal transfer certificate. The transfer certificate will identify the property (i.e., Fund shares) as to which the U.S. federal estate tax lien has been released. In the absence of a treaty, there is a $13,000 statutory estate tax credit (equivalent to an estate with assets of $60,000). Estates of nonresident alien shareholders dying after December 31, 2004 and before January 1, 2012 (unless such provision is extended, possibly retroactively to January 1, 2012, or made permanent) will be able to exempt from federal estate tax the proportion of the value of the Fund’s shares attributable to “qualifying assets” held by the Fund at the end of the quarter immediately preceding the nonresident alien shareholder’s death (or such other time as the IRS may designate in regulations). Qualifying assets include bank deposits and other debt obligations that pay interest or accrue original issue discount that is exempt from withholding tax, debt obligations of a domestic corporation that are treated as giving rise to foreign source income, and other investments that are not treated for tax purposes as being within the United States.
     Local Tax Considerations. Rules of state and local taxation of ordinary income, qualified dividend income and capital gain dividends may differ from the rules for U.S. federal income taxation described above. Distributions may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on each shareholder’s particular situation.
DISTRIBUTION OF SECURITIES
Distributor
     The Trust has entered into a master distribution relating to the Fund (the Distribution Agreement) with Invesco Distributors, Inc., a registered broker-dealer and a wholly owned subsidiary of Invesco Ltd., pursuant to which Invesco Distributors acts as the distributor of shares of the Fund. The address of Invesco Distributors is 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173. Certain trustees and officers of the Trust are affiliated with Invesco Distributors. See “Management of the Trust.” In addition to the Fund, Invesco Distributors serves as distributor to many other mutual funds that are offered to retail investors.
     The Distribution Agreement provides Invesco Distributors with the exclusive right to distribute shares of the Fund on a continuous basis directly and through other broker-dealers and other financial intermediaries with whom Invesco Distributors has entered into selected dealer and/or similar agreements. Invesco Distributors has not undertaken to sell any specified number of shares of the Fund.

78


 

     The Trust (on behalf of the Fund) or Invesco Distributors may terminate the Distribution Agreement on 60 days’ written notice without penalty. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
     When issued, the Fund’s financial statements, including the Financial Highlights pertaining thereto, and the reports of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, will be incorporated by reference into this SAI from the Fund’s Annual Report to shareholders.
PENDING LITIGATION
Investigations Related to Market Timing
     On August 30, 2005, the West Virginia Securities Commissioner (WVSC) issued a Summary Order to Cease and Desist and Notice of Right to Hearing to AIM Advisors, Inc. and AIM Distributors, Inc. (predecessors to Invesco Advisers, Inc. and Invesco Distributors, Inc., respectively) (collectively, “Invesco”) (Order No. 05-1318). The WVSC alleged that Invesco entered into certain arrangements permitting market timing and failed to disclose these arrangements in violation of the West Virginia securities laws. The WVSC ordered Invesco to cease any further violations and sought to impose monetary sanctions, including restitution to affected investors, disgorgement of fees, reimbursement of investigatory, administrative and legal costs and an “administrative assessment” to be determined by the Commissioner. On October 27, 2011, a hearing examiner was appointed to this matter. This matter continues to be indefinitely suspended.

79


 

APPENDIX A
RATINGS OF DEBT SECURITIES
     The following is a description of the factors underlying the debt ratings of Moody’s, S&P and Fitch.
Moody’s Long-Term Debt Ratings
     
Aaa:
  Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, with minimal credit risk.
 
   
Aa:
  Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.
 
   
A:
  Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.
 
   
Baa:
  Obligations rated Baa are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium-grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.
 
   
Ba:
  Obligations rated Ba are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.
 
   
B:
  Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.
 
   
Caa:
  Obligations rated Caa are judged to be of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.
 
   
Ca:
  Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.
 
   
C:
  Obligations rated C are the lowest rated class of bonds and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.
     Note: Moody’s applies numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 in each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.
Moody’s Short-Term Prime Rating System
P-1
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-1 have a superior ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-2
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-2 have a strong ability to repay short-term debt obligations.
P-3
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-3 have an acceptable ability to repay short-term obligations.
NP (Not Prime)
Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.

A-1


 

     Note: In addition, in certain countries the prime rating may be modified by the issuer’s or guarantor’s senior unsecured long-term debt rating.
     Moody’s municipal ratings are as follows:
Moody’s U.S. Long-Term Municipal Bond Rating Definitions
     Municipal Ratings are opinions of the investment quality of issuers and issues in the US municipal and tax-exempt markets. As such, these ratings incorporate Moody’s assessment of the default probability and loss severity of these issuers and issues.
     Municipal Ratings are based upon the analysis of four primary factors relating to municipal finance: economy, debt, finances, and administration/management strategies. Each of the factors is evaluated individually and for its effect on the other factors in the context of the municipality’s ability to repay its debt.
     Aaa: Issuers or issues rated Aaa demonstrate the strongest creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Aa: Issuers or issues rated Aa demonstrate very strong creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     A: Issuers or issues rated A present above-average creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Baa: Issuers or issues rated Baa represent average creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Ba: Issuers or issues rated Ba demonstrate below-average creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     B: Issuers or issues rated B demonstrate weak creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Caa: Issuers or issues rated Caa demonstrate very weak creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Ca: Issuers or issues rated Ca demonstrate extremely weak creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     C: Issuers or issues rated C demonstrate the weakest creditworthiness relative to other US municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.
     Note: Also, Moody’s applied numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 in each generic rating classification from Aa to Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the issue ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates that the issue ranks in the lower end of its generic category.
Moody’s MIG/VMIG US Short-Term Ratings
     In municipal debt issuance, there are three rating categories for short-term obligations that are considered investment grade. These ratings are designated as Moody’s Investment Grade (MIG) and are divided into three levels — MIG 1 through MIG 3.

A-2


 

     In addition, those short-term obligations that are of speculative quality are designated SG, or speculative grade.
     In the case of variable rate demand obligations (VRDOs), a two-component rating is assigned. The first element represents Moody’s evaluation of the degree of risk associated with scheduled principal and interest payments. The second element represents Moody’s evaluation of the degree of risk associated with the demand feature, using the MIG rating scale.
     The short-term rating assigned to the demand feature of VRDOs is designated as VMIG. When either the long- or short-term aspect of a VRDO is not rated, that piece is designated NR, e.g., Aaa/NR or NR/VMIG 1.
     MIG ratings expire at note maturity. By contrast, VMIG rating expirations will be a function of each issue’s specific structural or credit features.
     Gradations of investment quality are indicated by rating symbols, with each symbol representing a group in which the quality characteristics are broadly the same.
     MIG 1/VMIG 1: This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by established cash flows, highly reliable liquidity support or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.
     MIG 2/VMIG 2: This designation denotes strong credit quality. Margins of protection are ample although not as large as in the preceding group.
     MIG 3/VMIG 3: This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash flow protection may be narrow and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well established.
     SG: This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Debt instruments in this category may lack sufficient margins of protection.
Standard & Poor’s Long-Term Corporate and Municipal Ratings
     Issue credit ratings are based in varying degrees, on the following considerations: likelihood of payment — capacity and willingness of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on an obligation in accordance with the terms of the obligation; nature of and provisions of the obligation; and protection afforded by, and relative position of, the obligation in the event of bankruptcy, reorganization, or other arrangement under the laws of bankruptcy and other laws affecting creditors’ rights.
     The issue ratings definitions are expressed in terms of default risk. As such, they pertain to senior obligations of an entity. Junior obligations are typically rated lower than senior obligations, to reflect the lower priority in bankruptcy, as noted above.
     S&P describes its ratings for corporate and municipal bonds as follows:
     AAA: Debt rated AAA has the highest rating assigned by S&P. Capacity to pay interest and repay principal is extremely strong.
     AA: Debt rated AA has a very strong capacity to pay interest and repay principal and differs from the highest rated issues only in a small degree.
     A: Debt rated A has a strong capacity to meet its financial commitments although it is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than debt in higher rated categories.

A-3


 

     BBB: Debt rated BBB exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.
     BB-B-CCC-CC-C: Debt rated BB, B, CCC, CC and C is regarded as having significant speculative characteristics with respect to capacity to pay interest and repay principal. BB indicates the least degree of speculation and C the highest. While such debt will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.
     D: Debt rated D is in payment default. The D rating category is used when payments on an obligation, including a regulatory capital instrument, are not made on the date due even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless S&P believes that such payments will be made during such grace period.
     NR: Not Rated.
     Plus (+) or minus (-): Ratings from AA to CCC may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major categories.
S&P Dual Ratings
     S&P assigns “dual” ratings to all debt issues that have a put option or demand feature as part of their structure.
     The first rating addresses the likelihood of repayment of principal and interest as due, and the second rating addresses only the demand feature. The long-term debt rating symbols are used for bonds to denote the long-term maturity and the commercial paper rating symbols for the put option (for example, AAA/A-1+). With short-term demand debt, the not rating symbols are used with the commercial paper rating symbols (for example, SP-1+/A-1+).
S&P Commercial Paper Ratings
     An S&P commercial paper rating is a current assessment of the likelihood of timely payment of debt having an original maturity of no more than 365 days.
     These categories are as follows:
     A-1: This highest category indicates that the degree of safety regarding timely payment is strong. Those issues determined to possess extremely strong safety characteristics are denoted with a plus sign (+) designation.
     A-2: Capacity for timely payment on issues with this designation is satisfactory. However, the relative degree of safety is not as high as for issues designated A-1.
     A-3: Issues carrying this designation have adequate capacity for timely payment. They are, however, more vulnerable to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances than obligations carrying the higher designations.
     B: Issues rated “B” are regarded as having only speculative capacity for timely payment.
     C: This rating is assigned to short-term debt obligations with a doubtful capacity for payment.

A-4


 

     D: Debt rated “D” is in payment default. The “D” rating category is used when interest payments or principal payments are not made on the date due, even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless Standard & Poor’s believes such payments will be made during such grace period.
S&P Short-Term Municipal Ratings
     An S&P note rating reflect the liquidity factors and market-access risks unique to notes. Notes due in three years or less will likely receive a note rating. Notes maturing beyond three years will most likely receive a long-term debt rating. The following criteria will be used in making that assessment: amortization schedule (the larger the final maturity relative to other maturities, the more likely it will be treated as a note); and source of payment (the more dependent the issue is on the market for its refinancing, the more likely it will be treated as a note).
     Note rating symbols are as follows:
     SP-1: Strong capacity to pay principal and interest. An issue determined to possess a very strong capacity to pay debt service is given a plus (+) designation.
     SP-2: Satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the term of the notes.
     SP-3: Speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.
Fitch Long-Term Credit Ratings
     Fitch Ratings provides an opinion on the ability of an entity or of a securities issue to meet financial commitments, such as interest, preferred dividends, or repayment of principal, on a timely basis. These credit ratings apply to a variety of entities and issues, including but not limited to sovereigns, governments, structured financings, and corporations; debt, preferred/preference stock, bank loans, and counterparties; as well as the financial strength of insurance companies and financial guarantors.
     Credit ratings are used by investors as indications of the likelihood of getting their money back in accordance with the terms on which they invested. Thus, the use of credit ratings defines their function: “investment grade” ratings (international Long-term “AAA” — “BBB” categories; Short-term “F1” — “F3”) indicate a relatively low probability of default, while those in the “speculative” or “non-investment grade” categories (international Long-term “BB” — “D”; Short-term “B” — “D”) either signal a higher probability of default or that a default has already occurred. Ratings imply no specific prediction of default probability. However, for example, it is relevant to note that over the long term, defaults on “AAA” rated U.S. corporate bonds have averaged less than 0.10% per annum, while the equivalent rate for “BBB” rated bonds was 0.35%, and for “B” rated bonds, 3.0%.
     Fitch ratings do not reflect any credit enhancement that may be provided by insurance policies or financial guaranties unless otherwise indicated.
     Entities or issues carrying the same rating are of similar but not necessarily identical credit quality since the rating categories do not fully reflect small differences in the degrees of credit risk.
     Fitch credit and research are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold any security. Ratings do not comment on the adequacy of market price, the suitability of any security for a particular investor, or the tax-exempt nature of taxability of payments of any security.

A-5


 

     The ratings are based on information obtained from issuers, other obligors, underwriters, their experts, and other sources Fitch Ratings believes to be reliable. Fitch Ratings does not audit or verify the truth or accuracy of such information. Ratings may be changed or withdrawn as a result of changes in, or the unavailability of, information or for other reasons.
     Our program ratings relate only to standard issues made under the program concerned; it should not be assumed that these ratings apply to every issue made under the program. In particular, in the case of non-standard issues, i.e., those that are linked to the credit of a third party or linked to the performance of an index, ratings of these issues may deviate from the applicable program rating.
     Credit ratings do not directly address any risk other than credit risk. In particular, these ratings do not deal with the risk of loss due to changes in market interest rates and other market considerations.
     AAA: Bonds considered to be investment grade and of the highest credit quality. The obligor has an exceptionally strong capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, which is unlikely to be affected by foreseeable events.
     AA: Bonds considered to be investment grade and of very high credit quality. The obligor has a very strong capacity for timely payment of financial commitments which is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.
     A: Bonds considered to be investment grade and of high credit quality. The obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal is considered to be strong, but may be more vulnerable to adverse changes in economic conditions and circumstances than bonds with higher ratings.
     BBB: Bonds considered to be investment grade and of good credit quality. The obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal is considered to be adequate. Adverse changes in economic conditions and circumstances are more likely to impair this capacity.
     Plus (+) Minus (-): Plus and minus signs are used with a rating symbol to indicate the relative position of a credit within the rating category. Plus and minus signs, however, are not used in the “AAA” category.
     NR: Indicates that Fitch does not rate the specific issue.
     Withdrawn: A rating will be withdrawn when an issue matures or is called or refinanced and at Fitch’s discretion, when Fitch Ratings deems the amount of information available to be inadequate for ratings purposes.
     RatingWatch: Ratings are placed on RatingWatch to notify investors that there is a reasonable possibility of a rating change and the likely direction of such change. These are designated as “Positive,” indicating a potential upgrade, “Negative,” for potential downgrade, or “Evolving,” if ratings may be raised, lowered or maintained. RatingWatch is typically resolved over a relatively short period.
Fitch Speculative Grade Bond Ratings
     BB: Bonds are considered speculative. There is a possibility of credit risk developing, particularly as the result of adverse economic changes over time. However, business and financial alternatives may be available to allow financial commitments to be met.

A-6


 

     B: Bonds are considered highly speculative. Significant credit risk is present but a limited margin of safety remains. While bonds in this class are currently meeting financial commitments, the capacity for continued payment is contingent upon a sustained, favorable business and economic environment.
     CCC: Default is a real possibility. Capacity for meeting financial commitments is solely reliant upon sustained, favorable business or economic developments.
     CC: Default of some kind appears probable.
     C: Bonds are in imminent default in payment of interest or principal.
     DDD, DD, and D: Bonds are in default on interest and/or principal payments. Such bonds are extremely speculative and are valued on the basis of their prospects for achieving partial or full recovery value in liquidation or reorganization of the obligor. “DDD” represents the highest potential for recovery on these bonds, and “D” represents the lowest potential for recovery.
     Plus (+) Minus (-): Plus and minus signs are used with a rating symbol to indicate the relative position of a credit within the rating category. Plus and minus signs, however, are not used in categories below CCC.
Fitch Short-Term Credit Ratings
     The following ratings scale applies to foreign currency and local currency ratings. A Short-term rating has a time horizon of less than 12 months for most obligations, or up to three years for U.S. public finance securities, and thus places greater emphasis on the liquidity necessary to meet financial commitments in a timely manner.
     F-1+: Exceptionally Strong Credit Quality. Issues assigned this rating are regarded as having the strongest degree of assurance for timely payment.
     F-1-: Very Strong Credit Quality. Issues assigned this rating reflect an assurance of timely payment only slightly less in degree than issues rated “F-1+;”
     F-2: Good Credit Quality. Issues assigned this rating have a satisfactory degree of assurance for timely payment, but the margin of safety is not as great as in the case of the higher ratings.
     F-3: Fair Credit Quality. Issues assigned this rating have characteristics suggesting that the degree of assurance for timely payment is adequate, however, near-term adverse changes could result in a reduction to non-investment grade.
     B: Speculative. Minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus vulnerability to near-term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.
     C: High default risk. Default is a real possibility. Capacity for meeting financial commitments is solely reliant upon a sustained, favorable business and economic environment.
     D: Default. Issues assigned this rating are in actual or imminent payment default.

A-7


 

APPENDIX B
Persons to Whom Invesco Provides
Non-Public Portfolio Holdings on an Ongoing Basis
(as of July 31, 2012)
     
Service Provider   Disclosure Category
ABN AMRO Financial Services, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Absolute Color
  Financial Printer
Anglemyer & Co.
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, LLP
  Special Insurance Counsel
Barclays Capital, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Blaylock Robert Van LLC
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
BB&T Capital Markets
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Bear Stearns Pricing Direct, Inc.
  Pricing Vendor (for certain Invesco Funds)
BLNS Securities Ltd.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
BOSC, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
BOWNE & Co.
  Financial Printer
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
  Securities Lender (for certain Invesco Funds)
Cabrera Capital Markets
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Charles River Systems, Inc.
  System Provider
Chas. P. Young Co.
  Financial Printer
Cirrus Research, LLC
  Trading System
Citigroup Global Markets, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Commerce Capital Markets
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Crane Data, LLC
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Credit Suisse International / Credit Suisse Securities (Europe) Ltd.
  Service Provider
Crews & Associates
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
D.A. Davidson & Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Dechert LLP
  Legal Counsel
DEPFA First Albany
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
E.K. Riley Investments LLC
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Empirical Research Partners
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Finacorp Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
First Miami Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
First Southwest Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
First Tryon Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Fitch, Inc.
  Rating & Ranking Agency (for certain Invesco Funds)
FT Interactive Data Corporation
  Pricing Vendor
FTN Financial Group
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
GainsKeeper
  Software Provider (for certain Invesco Funds)
GCom2 Solutions
  Software Provider (for certain Invesco Funds)
George K. Baum & Company
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Glass, Lewis & Co.
  System Provider (for certain Invesco Funds)
Global Trading Analytics, LLC
  Software Provider
Global Trend Alert
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Greater Houston Publishers, Inc.
  Financial Printer
Hattier, Sanford & Reynoir
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Hutchinson, Shockey, Erley & Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)

B-1


 

     
Service Provider   Disclosure Category
ICI (Investment Company Institute)
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
ICRA Online Ltd.
  Rating & Ranking Agency (for certain Invesco Funds)
iMoneyNet, Inc.
  Rating & Ranking Agency (for certain Invesco Funds)
Initram Data, Inc.
  Pricing Vendor
Institutional Shareholder Services, Inc.
  Proxy Voting Service (for certain Invesco Funds)
Invesco Investment Services, Inc.
  Transfer Agent
Invesco Senior Secured Management, Inc.
  System Provider (for certain Invesco Funds)
Investment Company Institute
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Investortools, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
ITG, Inc.
  Pricing Vendor (for certain Invesco Funds)
J.P. Morgan Securities, Inc.
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
J.P. Morgan Securities Inc.\Citigroup Global Markets Inc.\JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.
  Lender (for certain Invesco Funds)
J.P. Morgan Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Janney Montgomery Scott LLC
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
John Hancock Investment Management Services, LLC
  Sub-advisor (for certain sub-advised accounts)
Jorden Burt LLP
  Special Insurance Counsel
KeyBanc Capital Markets, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Kramer Levin Naftalis & Frankel LLP
  Legal Counsel
Lebenthal & Co. LLC
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Lipper, Inc.
  Rating & Ranking Agency (for certain Invesco Funds)
Loan Pricing Corporation
  Pricing Service (for certain Invesco Funds)
Loop Capital Markets
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
M.R. Beal
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
MarkIt Group Limited
  Pricing Vendor (for certain Invesco Funds)
Merrill Communications LLC
  Financial Printer
Mesirow Financial, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Middle Office Solutions
  Software Provider
Moody’s Investors Service
  Rating & Ranking Agency (for certain Invesco Funds)
Morgan Keegan & Company, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Morrison Foerster LLP
  Legal Counsel
MS Securities Services, Inc. and Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated
  Securities Lender (for certain Invesco Funds)
Muzea Insider Consulting Services, LLC
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Ness USA Inc.
  System provider
Noah Financial, LLC
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Omgeo LLC
  Trading System
Piper Jaffray
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
Prager, Sealy & Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
  Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (for
all Invesco Funds)
Protective Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Ramirez & Co., Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Raymond James & Associates, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
RBC Capital Markets
  Analyst (for certain Invesco Funds)
RBC Dain Rauscher Incorporated
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Reuters America LLC
  Pricing Service (for certain Invesco Funds)
Rice Financial Products
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
RR Donnelley Financial
  Financial Printer

B-2


 

     
Service Provider   Disclosure Category
Ryan Beck & Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
SAMCO Capital Markets, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Seattle-Northwest Securities Corporation
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Siebert Brandford Shank & Co., L.L.C.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Simon Printing Company
  Financial Printer
Southwest Precision Printers, Inc.
  Financial Printer
Southwest Securities
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Standard and Poor’s/Standard and Poor’s Securities Evaluations, Inc.
  Pricing Service and Rating and Ranking Agency (each, respectively, for certain Invesco Funds)
StarCompliance, Inc.
  System Provider
State Street Bank and Trust Company
  Custodian, Lender, Securities Lender, and System Provider (each, respectively, for certain Invesco Funds)
Sterne, Agee & Leach, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Stradley Ronon Stevens & Young, LLP
  Legal Counsel
The Bank of New York
  Custodian and Securities Lender (each, respectively, for certain Invesco Funds)
The MacGregor Group, Inc.
  Software Provider
The Savader Group LLC
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Thomson Information Services Incorporated
  Software Provider
UBS Financial Services, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
VCI Group Inc.
  Financial Printer
Vining Sparks IBG
  Broker (for Certain Invesco Funds)
W.H Mell Associates, Inc.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Wachovia National Bank, N.A.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
Western Lithograph
  Financial Printer
Wiley Bros. Aintree Capital L.L.C.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
William Blair & Co.
  Broker (for certain Invesco Funds)
XSP, LLC\Solutions Plus, Inc.
  Software Provider

B-3


 

APPENDIX C
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
As of December 31, 2012
The address of each trustee and officer is 11 Greenway Plaza, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77046-1173. The trustees serve for the life of the Trust, subject to their earlier death, incapacitation, resignation, retirement or removal as more specifically provided in the Trust’s organizational documents. Each officer serves for a one year term or until their successors are elected and qualified. Column two below includes length of time served with predecessor entities, if any.
                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Interested Persons
 
                   
Martin L. Flanagan1 — 1960
Trustee
  2013   Executive Director, Chief Executive Officer and President, Invesco Ltd. (ultimate parent of Invesco and a global investment management firm); Advisor to the Board, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.); Trustee, The Invesco Funds; Vice Chair, Investment Company Institute; and Member of Executive Board, SMU Cox School of Business     123     None
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Chairman, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (registered investment adviser); Director, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, IVZ Inc. (holding company), INVESCO Group Services, Inc. (service provider) and Invesco North American Holdings, Inc. (holding company); Director, Chief Executive Officer and President, Invesco Holding Company Limited (parent of Invesco and a global investment management firm); Director, Invesco Ltd.; Chairman, Investment Company Institute and President, Co-Chief Executive Officer, Co-President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer, Franklin Resources, Inc. (global investment management organization)            
 
                   
Philip A. Taylor2 — 1954
  2013   Head of North American Retail and     123     None
 
1   Mr. Flanagan is considered an interested person of the Trust because he is an officer of the adviser to the Trust, and an officer and a director of Invesco Ltd., ultimate parent of the adviser to the Trust.

C-1


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Trustee, President and
Principal Executive
Officer
    Senior Managing Director, Invesco Ltd.; Director, Co-Chairman, Co-President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser); Director, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, Invesco Management Group, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Management Group, Inc.) (financial services holding company); Director and President, INVESCO Funds Group, Inc. (registered investment adviser and registered transfer agent); Director and Chairman, Invesco Investment Services, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Investment Services, Inc.) (registered transfer agent) and IVZ Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as INVESCO Distributors, Inc.) (registered broker dealer); Director, President and Chairman, Invesco Inc. (holding company) and Invesco Canada Holdings Inc. (holding company); Chief Executive Officer, Invesco Corporate Class Inc. (corporate mutual fund company) and Invesco Canada Fund Inc. (corporate mutual fund company); Director, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Invesco Canada Ltd. (formerly known as Invesco Trimark Ltd./Invesco Trimark Ltèe) (registered investment adviser and registered transfer agent); Trustee, President and Principal Executive Officer, The Invesco Funds (other than AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust) and Short-Term Investments Trust); Trustee and Executive Vice President, The Invesco Funds (AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust) and Short-Term Investments Trust only); Director, Invesco Investment Advisers LLC (formerly known as Van Kampen            
 
 
2   Mr. Taylor is considered an interested person of the Trust because he is an officer and a director of the adviser to, and a director of the principal underwriter of, the Trust.
 

C-2


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
 
    Asset Management); Director, Chief Executive Officer and President, Van Kampen Exchange Corp.            
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Director and Chairman, Van Kampen Investor Services Inc.:            
 
    Director, Chief Executive Officer and President, 1371 Preferred Inc. (holding company); and Van Kampen Investments Inc.; Director and President, AIM GP Canada Inc. (general partner for limited partnerships); and Van Kampen Advisors, Inc.; Director and Chief Executive Officer, Invesco Trimark Dealer Inc. (registered broker dealer); Director, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.) (registered broker dealer); Manager, Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC; Director, Chief Executive Officer and President, Invesco Advisers, Inc.; Director, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc.; President, Invesco Trimark Dealer Inc. and Invesco Trimark Ltd./Invesco Trimark Ltèe; Director and President, AIM Trimark Corporate Class Inc. and AIM Trimark Canada Fund Inc.; Senior Managing Director, Invesco Holding Company Limited; Trustee and Executive Vice President, Tax-Free Investments Trust; Director and Chairman, Fund Management Company (former registered broker dealer); President and Principal Executive Officer, The Invesco Funds (AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust), Short-Term Investments Trust and Tax-Free Investments Trust only); President, AIM Trimark Global Fund Inc. and AIM Trimark Canada Fund Inc.            

C-3


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Wayne W. Whalen3 — 1939
Trustee
  2013   Of Counsel, and prior to 2010, partner in the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP, legal counsel to certain funds in the Fund Complex     136     Director of the Mutual Fund Directors Forum, a nonprofit membership organization for investment directors; Chairman and Director of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library Foundation; and Director of the Stevenson Center for Democracy
 
                   
Independent Trustees
 
                   
Bruce L. Crockett — 1944
Trustee and Chair
  2013   Chairman, Crockett Technologies Associates (technology consulting company)



Formerly: Director, Captaris (unified messaging provider); Director, President and Chief Executive Officer COMSAT Corporation; and Chairman, Board of Governors of INTELSAT (international communications company)
    123     ACE Limited (insurance company); and Investment Company Institute
 
3   Mr. Whalen has been deemed to be an interested person of the Trust because of his prior service as counsel to the predecessor funds of certain Invesco open-end funds and his affiliation with the law firm that served as counsel to such predecessor funds and continues to serve as counsel to the Invesco Van Kampen closed-end funds.

C-4


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
David C. Arch — 1945
Trustee
  2013   Retired.

Formerly: Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Blistex Inc., (consumer health care products manufacturer)
    136     Member of the Heartland Alliance Advisory Board, a nonprofit organization serving human needs based in Chicago. Board member of the Illinois Manufacturers’ Association. Member of the Board of Visitors, Institute for the Humanities, University of Michigan
 
                   
Frank S. Bayley — 1939
Trustee
    Retired

Formerly: Director, Badgley Funds, Inc. (registered investment company) (2 portfolios) and Partner, law firm of Baker & McKenzie
    123     Director and Chairman, C.D. Stimson Company (a real estate investment company)
 
                   
James T. Bunch — 1942
Trustee
  2013   Managing Member, Grumman Hill Group LLC (family office private equity management)

Formerly: Founder, Green, Manning & Bunch Ltd. (investment banking firm)(1988-2010); Executive Committee, United States Golf Association; and Director, Policy Studies, Inc. and Van Gilder Insurance Corporation
    123     Chairman, Board of Governors, Western Golf Association, Chairman-elect, Evans Scholars Foundation and Director, Denver Film Society
 
                   
Rodney F. Dammeyer — 1940
Trustee
  2013   Chairman of CAC, LLC, (private company offering capital investment and management advisory services)

Formerly: Prior to 2001, Managing Partner at Equity Group Corporate Investments. Prior to 1995, Vice Chairman of Anixter International. Prior to 1985, experience includes Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Household International, Inc, Executive
    136     Director of Quidel Corporation and Stericycle, Inc. Prior to May 2008, Trustee of The Scripps Research Institute. Prior to February 2008, Director of Ventana Medical Systems, Inc.

C-5


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
 
    Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Northwest Industries, Inc. and Partner of Arthur Andersen & Co.           Prior to April 2007, Director of GATX Corporation. Prior to April 2004, Director of TheraSense, Inc.
 
                   
Albert R. Dowden — 1941
Trustee
  2013   Director of a number of public and private business corporations, including the Boss Group, Ltd. (private investment and management); Reich & Tang Funds (5 portfolios) (registered investment company); and Homeowners of America Holding Corporation/Homeowners of America Insurance Company (property casualty company)     123     Director of Nature’s Sunshine Products, Inc.
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Director, Continental Energy Services, LLC (oil and gas pipeline service); Director, CompuDyne Corporation (provider of product and services to the public security market) and Director, Annuity and Life Re (Holdings), Ltd. (reinsurance company); Director, President and Chief Executive Officer, Volvo Group North America, Inc.; Senior Vice President, AB Volvo; Director of various public and private corporations; Chairman, DHJ Media, Inc.; Director Magellan Insurance Company; and Director, The Hertz Corporation, Genmar Corporation (boat manufacturer), National Media Corporation; Advisory Board of Rotary Power International (designer, manufacturer, and seller of rotary power engines); and Chairman, Cortland Trust, Inc. (registered investment company)            
 
                   
Jack M. Fields — 1952
Trustee
  2013   Chief Executive Officer, Twenty First Century Group, Inc. (government affairs company); and Owner and Chief Executive Officer, Dos Angelos Ranch, L.P. (cattle, hunting, corporate     123     Insperity (formerly
known as
Administaff)

C-6


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
 
    entertainment), Discovery Global Education Fund (non-profit) and Cross Timbers Quail Research Ranch (non-profit)            
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Chief Executive Officer, Texana Timber LP (sustainable forestry company) and member of the U.S. House of Representatives            
 
                   
Prema Mathai-Davis — 1950
Trustee
  2013   Retired

Formerly: Chief Executive Officer, YWCA of the U.S.A.
    123     None
 
                   
Larry Soll — 1942
Trustee
  2013   Retired

Formerly: Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President, Synergen Corp. (a biotechnology company)
    123     None
 
                   
Hugo F. Sonnenschein — 1940
Trustee
  2013   Distinguished Service Professor and President Emeritus of the University of Chicago and the Adam Smith Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago.

Formerly: President of the University of Chicago
    136     Trustee of the University of Rochester and a member of its investment committee. Member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences  
 
               
 
                   
Raymond Stickel, Jr. — 1944
Trustee
  2013   Retired

Formerly: Director, Mainstay VP Series Funds, Inc. (25 portfolios) and Partner, Deloitte & Touche
    123     None
 
                   
Officers
 
                   
Russell C. Burk — 1958
Senior Vice President
and Senior Officer
    Senior Vice President and Senior Officer, The Invesco Funds     N/A     N/A
 
                   
John M. Zerr — 1962
  2013   Director, Senior Vice President,     N/A     N/A

C-7


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Senior Vice President,
Chief Legal Officer and
Secretary
    Secretary and General Counsel, Invesco Management Group, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Management Group, Inc.) and Van Kampen Exchange Corp.; Senior Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser); Senior Vice President and Secretary, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.); Director, Vice President and Secretary, Invesco Investment Services, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Investment Services, Inc.) and IVZ Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as INVESCO Distributors, Inc.); Director and Vice President, INVESCO Funds Group, Inc.; Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Secretary, The Invesco Funds; Manager, Invesco PowerShares Capital Management LLC; Director, Secretary and General Counsel, Invesco Investment Advisers LLC (formerly known as Van Kampen Asset Management); Secretary and General Counsel, Van Kampen Funds Inc. and Chief Legal Officer, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust            
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Director and Secretary, Van Kampen Advisors Inc.; Director Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel Van Kampen Investor Services Inc.; Director, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.); Director, Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, Invesco Advisers, Inc.; and Van Kampen Investments Inc.; Director, Vice President and Secretary, Fund Management Company; Director, Senior Vice President, Secretary, General            

C-8


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
 
    Counsel and Vice President, Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc.; Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel, Liberty Ridge Capital, Inc. (an investment adviser); Vice President and Secretary, PBHG Funds (an investment company) and PBHG Insurance Series Fund (an investment company); Chief Operating Officer, General Counsel and Secretary, Old Mutual Investment Partners (a broker-dealer); General Counsel and Secretary, Old Mutual Fund Services (an administrator) and Old Mutual Shareholder Services (a shareholder servicing center); Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, Old Mutual Capital, Inc. (an investment adviser); and Vice President and Secretary, Old Mutual Advisors Funds (an investment company)            
 
                   
Lisa O. Brinkley — 1959
Vice President
  2013   Global Assurance Officer, Invesco Ltd. and Vice President, The Invesco Funds     N/A     N/A
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.), Invesco Investment Services, Inc.(formerly known as Invesco Aim Investment Services, Inc.) and Van Kampen Investor Services Inc.; Senior Vice President, Invesco Management Group, Inc.; Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Advisers, Inc. and The Invesco Funds; Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Invesco Distributors, Inc.; Vice President, Invesco Investment Services, Inc. and Fund Management Company            

C-9


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Sheri Morris — 1964
Vice President,
Treasurer and Principal
Financial Officer
  2013   Vice President, Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer, The Invesco Funds; Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser); and Treasurer, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust     N/A     N/A
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc., Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Invesco Aim Private Asset Management, Inc.; Assistant Vice President and Assistant Treasurer, The Invesco Funds and Assistant Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc., Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Invesco Aim Private Asset Management, Inc.            
 
                   
Karen Dunn Kelley — 1960
Vice President
  2013   Head of Invesco’s World Wide Fixed Income and Cash Management Group; Senior Vice President, Invesco Management Group, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Management Group, Inc.) and Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser); Executive Vice President, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.); Director, Invesco Mortgage Capital Inc., INVESCO Global Asset Management Limited, Invesco Management Company Limited and INVESCO Management S.A.; Vice President, The Invesco Funds (other than AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust) and Short-Term Investments Trust); and President and Principal Executive Officer, The Invesco Funds (AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust) and Short-     N/A     N/A

C-10


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
 
    Term Investments Trust only)            
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Senior Vice President, Van Kampen Investments Inc.; Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.); Director of Cash Management and Senior Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. and Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc.; President and Principal Executive Officer, Tax-Free Investments Trust; Director and President, Fund Management Company; Chief Cash Management Officer, Director of Cash Management, Senior Vice President, and Managing Director, Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc.; Director of Cash Management, Senior Vice President, and Vice President, Invesco Advisers, Inc. and The Invesco Funds (AIM Treasurer’s Series Trust (Invesco Treasurer’s Series Trust), Short-Term Investments Trust and Tax-Free Investments Trust only)            
 
                   
Yinka Akinsola — 1977
Anti-Money Laundering
Compliance Officer
  2013   Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.) (registered investment adviser); Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.), Invesco Investment Services, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Investment Services, Inc.), Invesco Management Group, Inc., The Invesco Funds, Invesco Van Kampen Closed-End Funds, Van Kampen Exchange Corp., Van Kampen Funds Inc., PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, and PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust     N/A     N/A
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Regulatory Analyst III, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).            

C-11


 

                     
                    Other
            Number of   Trusteeship(s)/
            Funds in   Directorships(s)
    Trustee       Fund   Held by
Name, Year of Birth   and/or       Complex   Trustee/Director
and Position(s) Held   Officer   Principal Occupation(s)   Overseen by   During Past 5
with the Trust   Since   During Past 5 Years   Trustee   Years
Todd L. Spillane — 1958
Chief Compliance Officer
  2013   Senior Vice President, Invesco Management Group, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Management Group, Inc.) and Van Kampen Exchange Corp.; Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Advisers, Inc. (registered investment adviser) (formerly known as Invesco Institutional (N.A.), Inc.); Chief Compliance Officer, The Invesco Funds; Vice President, Invesco Distributors, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Distributors, Inc.) and Invesco Investment Services, Inc. (formerly known as Invesco Aim Investment Services, Inc.)     N/A     N/A
 
                   
 
    Formerly: Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Van Kampen Closed-End Funds; Senior Vice President, Van Kampen Investments Inc.; Senior Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer, Invesco Advisers, Inc. and Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc.; Chief Compliance Officer, INVESCO Private Capital Investments, Inc. (holding company), Invesco Private Capital, Inc. (registered investment adviser), Invesco Global Asset Management (N.A.), Inc., Invesco Senior Secured Management, Inc. (registered investment adviser) and Van Kampen Investor Services Inc., PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares India Exchange-Traded Fund Trust and PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange-Traded Fund Trust; Vice President, Invesco Aim Capital Management, Inc. and Fund Management Company            

C-12


 

Trustee Ownership of Fund Shares as of December 31, 2012
         
       
        Aggregate Dollar Range of
        Equity Securities in All
        Registered Investment
    Dollar Range of Equity Securities   Companies Overseen by
Name of Trustee   Per Fund   Trustee in Invesco Funds
Martin L. Flanagan
  None   Over $100,000
Philip A. Taylor
  None   None
Wayne W. Whalen
  None   Over $100,000
David C. Arch
  None   Over $100,000
Frank S. Bayley
  None   Over $100,000
James T. Bunch
  None   Over $100,0005
Bruce L. Crockett
  None   Over $100,0005
Rodney F. Dammeyer
  None   Over $100,000
Albert R. Dowden
  None   Over $100,000
Jack M. Fields
  None   Over $100,0005
Carl Frischling4
  None   Over $100,0005
Prema Mathai-Davis
  None   Over $100,0005
Larry Soll
  None   Over $100,0005
Hugo F. Sonnenschein
  None   Over $100,000
Raymond Stickel, Jr.
  None   Over $100,000
 
4   Retired effective December 31, 2012.
 
5   Includes the total amount of compensation deferred by the trustee at his or her election pursuant to a deferred compensation plan. Such deferred compensation is placed in a deferral account and deemed to be invested in one or more of the Invesco Funds.

C-13


 

APPENDIX D
TRUSTEE COMPENSATION TABLE
Set forth below is information regarding compensation paid or accrued for each trustee of the Trust who was not affiliated with Invesco during the year ended December 31, 2012:
                                 
                    Estimated        
            Retirement     Annual Benefits     Total Compensation  
    Aggregate     Benefits     Upon Retirement     From all Invesco  
    Compensation     Accrued by All     for Invesco     Funds Paid to  
Trustee   from the Trust(1)     Invesco Funds(2)     Funds(3)     Trustees(4)  
Interested Trustee
                               
Wayne Whalen
  $ -0-     $ 357,269     $ 204,000     $ 393,000  
Independent Trustees
                               
David C. Arch
    -0-       202,943       204,000       406,250  
Frank S. Bayley
    -0-       227,815       204,000       377,900  
James T. Bunch
    -0-       333,951       204,000       345,700  
Bruce L. Crockett
    -0-       229,886       204,000       666,000  
Rodney Dammeyer
    -0-       345,145       204,000       357,087  
Albert R. Dowden
    -0-       322,755       204,000       372,900  
Jack M. Fields
    -0-       363,066       204,000       316,000  
Carl Frischling(5)
    -0-       227,815       204,000       367,900  
Prema Mathai-Davis
    -0-       349,810       204,000       340,700  
Larry Soll
    -0-       371,889       225,769       377,900  
Hugo F. Sonnenschein
    -0-       345,145       204,000       426,700  
Raymond Stickel, Jr.
    -0-       259,883       204,000       402,600  
 
(1)   The total amount of compensation deferred by all trustees of the Trust during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012, including earnings, was $-0.
 
(2)   The total amount of expenses allocated to the Trust as of December 31, 2012 in respect of such retirement benefits was $-0-.
 
(3)   These amounts represent the estimated annual benefits payable by the Invesco Funds upon the trustees’ retirement and assumes each trustee serves until his or her normal retirement date.
 
(4)   All trustees except Messrs. Arch, Sonnenschein and Whalen currently serve as trustees of 16 registered investment companies advised by Invesco. Messrs. Arch, Sonnenschein and Whalen currently serve as trustee of 29 registered investment companies advised by Invesco.
 
(5)   As of December 31, 2012, the Trust paid $0 legal fees to Kramer Levin Naftalis & Frankel LLP for services rendered by such firm as counsel to the independent trustees of the Trust. Mr. Frischling is a partner of such firm. Mr. Frischling’s retirement from the Board was effective December 31, 2012.

D-1


 

APPENDIX E
PROXY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
(INVESCO LOGO)
I.2. PROXY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES — RETAIL
     
Applicable to
  Retail Accounts
 
   
Risk Addressed by Policy
  breach of fiduciary duty to client under Investment Advisers Act of 1940 by placing Invesco personal interests ahead of client best economic interests in voting proxies
 
   
Relevant Law and Other Sources
  Investment Advisers Act of 1940
 
   
Last Tested Date
   
 
   
Policy/Procedure Owner
  Advisory Compliance
 
   
Policy Approver
  Fund Board
 
   
Approved/Adopted Date
  January 1, 2010
The following policies and procedures apply to certain funds and other accounts managed by Invesco Advisers, Inc. (“Invesco”).
A. POLICY STATEMENT
Introduction
Our Belief
The Invesco Funds Boards of Trustees and Invesco’s investment professionals expect a high standard of corporate governance from the companies in our portfolios so that Invesco may fulfill its fiduciary obligation to our fund shareholders and other account holders. Well governed companies are characterized by a primary focus on the interests of shareholders, accountable boards of directors, ample transparency in financial disclosure, performance-driven cultures and appropriate consideration of all stakeholders. Invesco believes well governed companies create greater shareholder wealth over the long term than poorly governed companies, so we endeavor to vote in a manner that increases the value of our investments and fosters good governance within our portfolio companies.
In determining how to vote proxy issues, Invesco considers the probable business consequences of each issue and votes in a manner designed to protect and enhance fund shareholders’ and other account holders’ interests. Our voting decisions are intended to enhance each company’s total shareholder value over Invesco’s typical investment horizon.
Proxy voting is an integral part of Invesco’s investment process. We believe that the right to vote proxies should be managed with the same care as all other elements of the investment process. The objective of Invesco’s proxy-voting activity is to promote good governance and advance the economic interests of our clients. At no time will Invesco exercise its voting power to advance its own

E-1


 

commercial interests, to pursue a social or political cause that is unrelated to our clients’ economic interests, or to favor a particular client or business relationship to the detriment of others.
B. OPERATING PROCEDURES AND RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
Proxy administration
The Invesco Retail Proxy Committee (the “Proxy Committee”) consists of members representing Invesco’s Investments, Legal and Compliance departments. Invesco’s Proxy Voting Guidelines (the “Guidelines”) are revised annually by the Proxy Committee, and are approved by the Invesco Funds Boards of Trustees. The Proxy Committee implements the Guidelines and oversees proxy voting.
The Proxy Committee has retained outside experts to assist with the analysis and voting of proxy issues. In addition to the advice offered by these experts, Invesco uses information gathered from our own research, company managements, Invesco’s portfolio managers and outside shareholder groups to reach our voting decisions.
Generally speaking, Invesco’s investment-research process leads us to invest in companies led by management teams we believe have the ability to conceive and execute strategies to outperform their competitors. We select companies for investment based in large part on our assessment of their management teams’ ability to create shareholder wealth. Therefore, in formulating our proxy-voting decisions, Invesco gives proper consideration to the recommendations of a company’s Board of Directors.
Important principles underlying the Invesco Proxy Voting Guidelines
I. Accountability
Management teams of companies are accountable to their boards of directors, and directors of publicly held companies are accountable to their shareholders. Invesco endeavors to vote the proxies of its portfolio companies in a manner that will reinforce the notion of a board’s accountability to its shareholders. Consequently, Invesco votes against any actions that would impair the rights of shareholders or would reduce shareholders’ influence over the board or over management.
The following are specific voting issues that illustrate how Invesco applies this principle of accountability.
    Elections of directors. In uncontested director elections for companies that do not have a controlling shareholder, Invesco votes in favor of slates if they are comprised of at least a majority of independent directors and if the boards’ key committees are fully independent. Key committees include the Audit, Compensation and Governance or Nominating Committees. Invesco’s standard of independence excludes directors who, in addition to the directorship, have any material business or family relationships with the companies they serve.

E-2


 

      Contested director elections are evaluated on a case-by-case basis and are decided within the context of Invesco’s investment thesis on a company.
 
    Director performance. Invesco withholds votes from directors who exhibit a lack of accountability to shareholders, either through their level of attendance at meetings or by enacting egregious corporate-governance or other policies. In cases of material financial restatements, accounting fraud, habitually late filings, adopting shareholder rights plan (“poison pills”) without shareholder approval, or other areas of poor performance, Invesco may withhold votes from some or all of a company’s directors. In situations where directors’ performance is a concern, Invesco may also support shareholder proposals to take corrective actions such as so-called “clawback” provisions.
 
    Auditors and Audit Committee members. Invesco believes a company’s Audit Committee has a high degree of responsibility to shareholders in matters of financial disclosure, integrity of the financial statements and effectiveness of a company’s internal controls. Independence, experience and financial expertise are critical elements of a well-functioning Audit Committee. When electing directors who are members of a company’s Audit Committee, or when ratifying a company’s auditors, Invesco considers the past performance of the Committee and holds its members accountable for the quality of the company’s financial statements and reports.
 
    Majority standard in director elections. The right to elect directors is the single most important mechanism shareholders have to promote accountability. Invesco supports the nascent effort to reform the U.S. convention of electing directors, and votes in favor of proposals to elect directors by a majority vote.
 
    Classified boards. Invesco supports proposals to elect directors annually instead of electing them to staggered multi-year terms because annual elections increase a board’s level of accountability to its shareholders.
 
    Supermajority voting requirements. Unless proscribed by law in the state of incorporation, Invesco votes against actions that would impose any supermajority voting requirement, and supports actions to dismantle existing supermajority requirements.
 
    Responsiveness. Invesco withholds votes from directors who do not adequately respond to shareholder proposals that were approved by a majority of votes cast the prior year.
 
    Cumulative voting. The practice of cumulative voting can enable minority shareholders to have representation on a company’s board. Invesco supports proposals to institute the practice of cumulative voting at companies whose overall corporate-governance standards indicate a particular need to protect the interests of minority shareholders.

E-3


 

    Shareholder access. On business matters with potential financial consequences, Invesco votes in favor of proposals that would increase shareholders’ opportunities to express their views to boards of directors, proposals that would lower barriers to shareholder action and proposals to promote the adoption of generally accepted best practices in corporate governance.
II. Incentives
Invesco believes properly constructed compensation plans that include equity ownership are effective in creating incentives that induce managements and employees of our portfolio companies to create greater shareholder wealth. Invesco supports equity compensation plans that promote the proper alignment of incentives, and votes against plans that are overly dilutive to existing shareholders, plans that contain objectionable structural features, and plans that appear likely to reduce the value of an account’s investment.
Following are specific voting issues that illustrate how Invesco evaluates incentive plans.
    Executive compensation. Invesco evaluates compensation plans for executives within the context of the company’s performance under the executives’ tenure. Invesco believes independent compensation committees are best positioned to craft executive-compensation plans that are suitable for their company-specific circumstances. We view the election of those independent compensation committee members as the appropriate mechanism for shareholders to express their approval or disapproval of a company’s compensation practices. Therefore, Invesco generally does not support shareholder proposals to limit or eliminate certain forms of executive compensation. In the interest of reinforcing the notion of a compensation committee’s accountability to shareholders, Invesco supports proposals requesting that companies subject each year’s compensation record to an advisory shareholder vote, or so-called “say on pay” proposals.
 
    Equity-based compensation plans. When voting to approve or reject equity-based compensation plans, Invesco compares the total estimated cost of the plans, including stock options and restricted stock, against a carefully selected peer group and uses multiple performance metrics that help us determine whether the incentive structures in place are creating genuine shareholder wealth. Regardless of a plan’s estimated cost relative to its peer group, Invesco votes against plans that contain structural features that would impair the alignment of incentives between shareholders and management. Such features include the ability to reprice or reload options without shareholder approval, the ability to issue options below the stock’s current market price, or the ability to automatically replenish shares without shareholder approval.

E-4


 

    Employee stock-purchase plans. Invesco supports employee stock-purchase plans that are reasonably designed to provide proper incentives to a broad base of employees, provided that the price at which employees may acquire stock is at most a 15 percent discount from the market price.
 
    Severance agreements. Invesco generally votes in favor of proposals requiring advisory shareholder ratification of executives’ severance agreements. However, we oppose proposals requiring such agreements to be ratified by shareholders in advance of their adoption.
III. Capitalization
Examples of management proposals related to a company’s capital structure include authorizing or issuing additional equity capital, repurchasing outstanding stock, or enacting a stock split or reverse stock split. On requests for additional capital stock, Invesco analyzes the company’s stated reasons for the request. Except where the request could adversely affect the fund’s ownership stake or voting rights, Invesco generally supports a board’s decisions on its needs for additional capital stock. Some capitalization proposals require a case-by-case analysis within the context of Invesco’s investment thesis on a company. Examples of such proposals include authorizing common or preferred stock with special voting rights, or issuing additional stock in connection with an acquisition.
IV. Mergers, Acquisitions and Other Corporate Actions
Issuers occasionally require shareholder approval to engage in certain corporate actions such as mergers, acquisitions, name changes, dissolutions, reorganizations, divestitures and reincorporations. Invesco analyzes these proposals within the context of our investment thesis on the company, and determines its vote on a case-by-case basis.
V. Anti-Takeover Measures
Practices designed to protect a company from unsolicited bids can adversely affect shareholder value and voting rights, and they create conflicts of interests among directors, management and shareholders. Except under special issuer-specific circumstances, Invesco votes to reduce or eliminate such measures. These measures include adopting or renewing “poison pills”, requiring supermajority voting on certain corporate actions, classifying the election of directors instead of electing each director to an annual term, or creating separate classes of common or preferred stock with special voting rights. Invesco generally votes against management proposals to impose these types of measures, and generally votes for shareholder proposals designed to reduce such measures. Invesco supports shareholder proposals directing companies to subject their anti-takeover provisions to a shareholder vote.
VI. Shareholder Proposals on Corporate Governance
Invesco generally votes for shareholder proposals that are designed to protect shareholder rights if a company’s corporate-governance standards indicate that such additional protections are warranted.

E-5


 

VII. Shareholder Proposals on Social Responsibility
The potential costs and economic benefits of shareholder proposals seeking to amend a company’s practices for social reasons are difficult to assess. Analyzing the costs and economic benefits of these proposals is highly subjective and does not fit readily within our framework of voting to create greater shareholder wealth over Invesco’s typical investment horizon. Therefore, Invesco abstains from voting on shareholder proposals deemed to be of a purely social, political or moral nature.
VIII. Routine Business Matters
Routine business matters rarely have a potentially material effect on the economic prospects of fund holdings, so we generally support the board’s discretion on these items. However, Invesco votes against proposals where there is insufficient information to make a decision about the nature of the proposal. Similarly, Invesco votes against proposals to conduct other unidentified business at shareholder meetings.
Summary
These Guidelines provide an important framework for making proxy-voting decisions, and should give fund shareholders and other account holders insight into the factors driving Invesco’s decisions. The Guidelines cannot address all potential proxy issues, however. Decisions on specific issues must be made within the context of these Guidelines and within the context of the investment thesis of the funds and other accounts that own the company’s stock. Where a different investment thesis is held by portfolio managers who may hold stocks in common, Invesco may vote the shares held on a fund-by-fund or account-by-account basis.
Exceptions
In certain circumstances, Invesco may refrain from voting where the economic cost of voting a company’s proxy exceeds any anticipated benefits of that proxy proposal.
Share-lending programs
One reason that some portion of Invesco’s position in a particular security might not be voted is the securities lending program. When securities are out on loan and earning fees for the lending fund, they are transferred into the borrower’s name. Any proxies during the period of the loan are voted by the borrower. The lending fund would have to terminate the loan to vote the company’s proxy, an action that is not generally in the best economic interest of fund shareholders. However, whenever Invesco determines that the benefit to shareholders or other account holders of voting a particular proxy outweighs the revenue lost by terminating the loan, we recall the securities for the purpose of voting the fund’s full position.
“Share-blocking”
Another example of a situation where Invesco may be unable to vote is in countries where the exercise of voting rights requires the fund to submit to short-term trading restrictions, a practice known as “share-blocking.” Invesco generally

E-6


 

refrains from voting proxies in share-blocking countries unless the portfolio manager determines that the benefit to fund shareholders and other account holders of voting a specific proxy outweighs the fund’s or other account’s temporary inability to sell the security.
International constraints
An additional concern that sometimes precludes our voting non-U.S. proxies is our inability to receive proxy materials with enough time and enough information to make a voting decision. In the great majority of instances, however, we are able to vote non-U.S. proxies successfully. It is important to note that Invesco makes voting decisions for non-U.S. issuers using these Guidelines as our framework, but also takes into account the corporate-governance standards, regulatory environment and generally accepted best practices of the local market.
Exceptions to these Guidelines
Invesco retains the flexibility to accommodate company-specific situations where strictly adhering to the Guidelines would lead to a vote that the Proxy Committee deems not to be in the best interest of the funds’ shareholders and other account holders. In these situations, the Proxy Committee will vote the proxy in the manner deemed to be in the best interest of the funds’ shareholders and other account holders, and will promptly inform the funds’ Boards of Trustees of such vote and the circumstances surrounding it.
Resolving potential conflicts of interest
A potential conflict of interest arises when Invesco votes a proxy for an issuer with which it also maintains a material business relationship. Examples could include issuers that are distributors of Invesco’s products, or issuers that employ Invesco to manage portions of their retirement plans or treasury accounts. Invesco reviews each proxy proposal to assess the extent, if any, to which there may be a material conflict between the interests of the fund shareholders or other account holders and Invesco.
Invesco takes reasonable measures to determine whether a potential conflict may exist. A potential conflict is deemed to exist only if one or more of the Proxy Committee members actually knew or should have known of the potential conflict.
If a material potential conflict is deemed to exist, Invesco may resolve the potential conflict in one of the following ways: (1) if the proposal that gives rise to the potential conflict is specifically addressed by the Guidelines, Invesco may vote the proxy in accordance with the predetermined Guidelines; (2) Invesco may engage an independent third party to determine how the proxy should be voted; or (3) Invesco may establish an ethical wall or other informational barrier between the persons involved in the potential conflict and the persons making the proxy-voting decision in order to insulate the potential conflict from the decision makers.
Because the Guidelines are pre-determined and crafted to be in the best economic interest of shareholders and other account holders, applying the Guidelines to vote client proxies should, in most instances, adequately resolve any potential conflict of

E-7


 

interest. As an additional safeguard against potential conflicts, persons from Invesco’s marketing, distribution and other customer-facing functions are precluded from becoming members of the Proxy Committee.
On a quarterly basis, the Invesco Funds Boards of Trustees review a report from Invesco’s Internal Compliance Controls Committee. The report contains a list of all known material business relationships that Invesco maintains with publicly traded issuers. That list is cross-referenced with the list of proxies voted over the period. If there are any instances where Invesco’s voting pattern on the proxies of its material business partners is inconsistent with its voting pattern on all other issuers, they are brought before the Trustees and explained by the Chairman of the Proxy Committee.
Personal conflicts of interest. If any member of the Proxy Committee has a personal conflict of interest with respect to a company or an issue presented for voting, that Proxy Committee member will inform the Proxy Committee of such conflict and will abstain from voting on that company or issue.
Funds of funds. Some Invesco Funds offering diversified asset allocation within one investment vehicle own shares in other Invesco Funds. A potential conflict of interest could arise if an underlying Invesco Fund has a shareholder meeting with any proxy issues to be voted on, because Invesco’s asset-allocation funds or target-maturity funds may be large shareholders of the underlying fund. In order to avoid any potential for a conflict, the asset-allocation funds and target maturity funds vote their shares in the same proportion as the votes of the external shareholders of the underlying fund.
C. RECORDKEEPING
Records are maintained in accordance with Invesco’s Recordkeeping Policy.
Policies and Vote Disclosure
A copy of these Guidelines and the voting record of each Invesco Fund are available on our web site, www.invesco.com. In accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission regulations, all funds file a record of all proxy-voting activity for the prior 12 months ending June 30th. That filing is made on or before August 31st of each year.

E-8


 

(INVESCO LOGO)
I.1. PROXY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES — INSTITUTIONAL
       
       
Applicable to
    Institutional Accounts
       
Risk Addressed by Policy
    breach of fiduciary duty to client under Investment Advisers Act of 1940 by placing Invesco personal interests ahead of client best economic interests in voting proxies
       
Relevant Law and Other Sources
    Investment Advisers Act of 1940
       
Last Tested Date
     
       
Policy/Procedure Owner
    Advisory Compliance, Proxy Committee
       
Policy Approver
    Invesco Risk Management Committee
       
Approved/Adopted Date
    January 1, 2010, revised August 2011
       
The following policies and procedures apply to all institutional accounts, clients and funds managed by Invesco Advisers, Inc. (“Invesco”). These policies and procedures do not apply to any of the retail funds managed by Invesco. See Section I.2 for the proxy policies and procedures applicable to Invesco’s retail funds.
A. POLICY STATEMENT
Invesco has responsibility for making investment decisions that are in the best interests of its clients. As part of the investment management services it provides to clients, Invesco may be authorized by clients to vote proxies appurtenant to the shares for which the clients are beneficial owners.
Invesco believes that it has a duty to manage clients’ assets in the best economic interests of its clients and that the ability to vote proxies is a client asset.
Invesco reserves the right to amend its proxy policies and procedures from time to time without prior notice to its clients.
Voting of Proxies
Invesco will vote client proxies relating to equity securities in accordance with the procedures set forth below unless a non-ERISA client retains in writing the right to vote, the named fiduciary (e.g., the plan sponsor) of an ERISA client retains in writing the right to direct the plan trustee voting a proxy

January 2010 I.1 - 1

E-9


 

would be outweighed by the costs associated therewith. In addition, due to the distinct nature of proxy voting for interests in fixed income assets and stable value wrap agreements, the proxies for such fixed income assets and stable value wrap agreements will be voted in accordance with the procedures set forth in the “Proxy Voting for Fixed Income Assets and Stable Value Wrap Agreements” section below.
Best Economic Interests of Clients
In voting proxies, Invesco will take into consideration those factors that may affect the value of the security and will vote proxies in a manner in which, in its opinion, is in the best economic interests of clients. Invesco endeavors to resolve any conflicts of interest exclusively in the best economic interests of clients.
B. OPERATING PROCEDURES AND RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
ISS’ Services
Invesco has contracted with ISS, an independent third party service provider, to vote Invesco’s clients’ proxies according to ISS’ proxy voting recommendations determined by ISS pursuant to its then-current US Proxy Voting Guidelines, a summary of which can be found here, and which are deemed to be incorporated herein. In addition, ISS will provide proxy analyses, vote recommendations, vote execution and record-keeping services for clients for which Invesco has proxy voting responsibility. On an annual basis, the Proxy Committee will review information obtained from ISS to ascertain whether ISS (i) has the capacity and competency to adequately analyze proxy issues, and (ii) can make such recommendations in an impartial manner and in the best economic interests of Invesco’s clients. This may include a review of ISS’ Policies, Procedures and Practices Regarding Potential Conflicts of Interest and obtaining information about the work ISS does for corporate issuers and the payments ISS receives from such issuers.
Custodians forward to ISS proxy materials for clients who rely on Invesco to vote proxies. ISS is responsible for exercising the voting rights in accordance with the ISS proxy voting guidelines. If Invesco receives proxy materials in connection with a client’s account where the client has, in writing, communicated to Invesco that the client, plan fiduciary or other third party has reserved the right to vote proxies, Invesco will forward to the party appointed by client any proxy materials it receives with respect to the account. In order to avoid voting proxies in circumstances where Invesco, or any of its affiliates have or may have any conflict of interest, real or perceived, Invesco has engaged ISS to provide the proxy analyses, vote recommendations and voting of proxies.
In the event that (i) ISS recuses itself on a proxy voting matter and makes no recommendation or (ii) Invesco decides to override the ISS vote recommendation, the Proxy Committee will review the issue and direct ISS how to vote the proxies as described below.

January 2010 I.1 - 2

E-10


 

Proxy Voting for Fixed Income Assets and Stable Value Wrap Agreements
Some of Invesco’s fixed income clients hold interests in preferred stock of companies and some of Invesco’s stable value clients are parties to wrap agreements. From time to time, companies that have issued preferred stock or that are parties to wrap agreements request that Invesco’s clients vote proxies on particular matters. ISS does not currently provide proxy analysis or vote recommendations with respect to such proxy votes. Therefore, when a particular matter arises in this category, the investment team responsible for the particular mandate will review the matter and make a recommendation to the Proxy Manager as to how to vote the associated proxy. The Proxy Manager will complete the proxy ballots and send the ballots to the persons or entities identified in the ballots.
Proxy Committee
The Proxy Committee shall have seven (7) members, which shall include representatives from portfolio management, operations, and legal/compliance or other functional departments as deemed appropriate and who are knowledgeable regarding the proxy process. A majority of the members of the Proxy Committee shall constitute a quorum and the Proxy Committee shall act by a majority vote of those members in attendance at a meeting called for the purpose of determining how to vote a particular proxy. The Proxy Committee shall keep minutes of its meetings that shall be kept with the proxy voting records of Invesco. The Proxy Committee will appoint a Proxy Manager to manage the proxy voting process, which includes the voting of proxies and the maintenance of appropriate records.
The Proxy Manager shall call for a meeting of the Proxy Committee (1) when override submissions are made; and (2) in instances when ISS has recused itself or has not provided a vote recommendation with respect to an equity security. At such meeting, the Proxy Committee shall determine how proxies are to be voted in accordance with the factors set forth in the section entitled “Best Economic Interests of Clients,” above.
The Proxy Committee also is responsible for monitoring adherence to these procedures and engaging in the annual review described in the section entitled “ISS’ Services,” above.
Recusal by ISS or Failure of ISS to Make a Recommendation
When ISS does not make a recommendation on a proxy voting issue or recuses itself due to a conflict of interest, the Proxy Committee will review the issue and determine whether Invesco has a material conflict of interest as determined pursuant to the policies and procedures outlined in the “Conflicts of Interest” section below. If Invesco determines it does not have a material conflict of interest, Invesco will direct ISS how to vote the proxies. If Invesco determines it does have a material conflict of interest, the Proxy Committee will follow the policies and procedures set forth in such section.

January 2010 I.1 - 3

E-11


 

Override of ISS’ Recommendation
There may be occasions where Invesco investment personnel, senior officers or a member of the Proxy Committee seek to override a ISS recommendation if they believe that a ISS recommendation is not in accordance with the best economic interests of clients. In the event that an individual listed above in this section disagrees with a ISS recommendation on a particular voting issue, the individual shall document in writing the reasons that he/she believes that the ISS recommendation is not in accordance with clients’ best economic interests and submit such written documentation to the Proxy Manager for consideration by the Proxy Committee along with the certification attached as Appendix A hereto. Upon review of the documentation and consultation with the individual and others as the Proxy Committee deems appropriate, the Proxy Committee may make a determination to override the ISS voting recommendation if the Committee determines that it is in the best economic interests of clients and the Committee has addressed any conflict of interest.
Proxy Committee Meetings
When a Proxy Committee Meeting is called, whether because of a ISS recusal or request for override of a ISS recommendation, the Proxy Committee shall request from the Chief Compliance Officer as to whether any Invesco person has reported a conflict of interest.
The Proxy Committee shall review the report from the Chief Compliance Officer to determine whether a real or perceived conflict of interest exists, and the minutes of the Proxy Committee shall:
  (1)   describe any real or perceived conflict of interest,
 
  (2)   determine whether such real or perceived conflict of interest is material,
 
  (3)   discuss any procedure used to address such conflict of interest,
 
  (4)   report any contacts from outside parties (other than routine communications from proxy solicitors), and
 
  (5)   include confirmation that the recommendation as to how the proxies are to be voted is in the best economic interests of clients and was made without regard to any conflict of interest.
Based on the above review and determinations, the Proxy Committee will direct ISS how to vote the proxies as provided herein.
Certain Proxy Votes May Not Be Cast
In some cases, Invesco may determine that it is not in the best economic interests of clients to vote proxies. For example, proxy voting in certain countries outside

January 2010 I.1 - 4

E-12


 

the United States requires share blocking. Shareholders who wish to vote their proxies must deposit their shares 7 to 21 days before the date of the meeting with a designated depositary. During the blocked period, shares to be voted at the meeting cannot be sold until the meeting has taken place and the shares have been returned to the Custodian/Sub-Custodian bank. In addition, voting certain international securities may involve unusual costs to clients, some of which may be related to requirements of having a representative in person attend the proxy meeting. In other cases, it may not be possible to vote certain proxies despite good faith efforts to do so, for instance when inadequate notice of the matter is provided. In the instance of loan securities, voting of proxies typically requires termination of the loan, so it is not usually in the best economic interests of clients to vote proxies on loaned securities. Invesco typically will not, but reserves the right to, vote where share blocking restrictions, unusual costs or other barriers to efficient voting apply. Invesco will not vote if it determines that the cost of voting exceeds the expected benefit to the client. The Proxy Manager shall record the reason for any proxy not being voted, which record shall be kept with the proxy voting records of Invesco.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
Procedures to Address Conflicts of Interest and Improper Influence
In order to avoid voting proxies in circumstances where Invesco or any of its affiliates have or may have any conflict of interest, real or perceived, Invesco has contracted with ISS to provide proxy analyses, vote recommendations and voting of proxies. Unless noted otherwise by ISS, each vote recommendation provided by ISS to Invesco shall include a representation from ISS that ISS has no conflict of interest with respect to the vote. In instances where ISS has recused itself or makes no recommendation on a particular matter, or if an override submission is requested, the Proxy Committee shall determine how to vote the proxy and instruct the Proxy Manager accordingly, in which case the conflict of interest provisions discussed below shall apply.
In effecting the policy of voting proxies in the best economic interests of clients, there may be occasions where the voting of such proxies may present a real or perceived conflict of interest between Invesco, as the investment manager, and Invesco’s clients. For each director, officer and employee of Invesco (“Invesco person”), the interests of Invesco’s clients must come first, ahead of the interest of Invesco and any Invesco person, including Invesco’s affiliates. Accordingly, no Invesco person may put “personal benefit,” whether tangible or intangible, before the interests of clients of Invesco or otherwise take advantage of the relationship with Invesco’s clients. “Personal benefit” includes any intended benefit for oneself or any other individual, company, group or organization of any kind whatsoever, except a benefit for a client of Invesco, as appropriate. It is imperative that each Invesco person avoid any situation that might compromise, or call into question, the exercise of fully independent judgment that is in the interests of Invesco’s clients.

January 2010 I.1 - 5

E-13


 

Occasions may arise where a person or organization involved in the proxy voting process may have a conflict of interest. A conflict of interest may exist if Invesco has a business relationship with (or is actively soliciting business from) either the company soliciting the proxy or a third party that has a material interest in the outcome of a proxy vote or that is actively lobbying for a particular outcome of a proxy vote. Additional examples of situations where a conflict may exist include:
  §   Business Relationships — where Invesco manages money for a company or an employee group, manages pension assets or is actively soliciting any such business, or leases office space from a company;
 
  §   Personal Relationships — where an Invesco person has a personal relationship with other proponents of proxy proposals, participants in proxy contests, corporate directors, or candidates for directorships; and
 
  §   Familial Relationships — where an Invesco person has a known familial relationship relating to a company (e.g. a spouse or other relative who serves as a director of a public company or is employed by the company).
In the event that the Proxy Committee determines that Invesco (or an affiliate) has a material conflict of interest, the Proxy Committee will not take into consideration the relationship giving rise to the conflict of interest and shall, in its sole discretion, either (a) decide to vote the proxies pursuant to ISS’ general proxy voting guidelines, (b) engage an independent third party to provide a vote recommendation, or (c) contact Invesco’s client(s) for direction as to how to vote the proxies.
In the event an Invesco person has a conflict of interest and has knowledge of such conflict of interest, it is the responsibility of such Invesco person to disclose the conflict to the Chief Compliance Officer. When a Proxy Committee meeting is called, the Chief Compliance Officer will report to the Proxy Committee all real or potential conflicts of interest for the Proxy Committee to review and determine whether such conflict is material. If the Proxy Committee determines that such conflict is material and involves a person involved in the proxy voting process, the Proxy Committee may require such person to recuse himself or herself from participating in the discussions regarding the proxy vote item and from casting a vote regarding how Invesco should vote such proxy. An Invesco person will not be considered to have a material conflict of interest if the Invesco person did not know of the conflict of interest and did not attempt to influence the outcome of a proxy vote.
In order to ensure compliance with these procedures, the Proxy Manager and each member of the Proxy Committee shall certify annually as to their compliance with this policy. In addition, any Invesco person who submits a ISS override recommendation to the Proxy Committee shall certify as to their compliance with this policy concurrently with the submission of their override recommendation. A form of such certification is attached as Appendix A.

January 2010 I.1 - 6

E-14


 

In addition, members of the Proxy Committee must notify Invesco’s Chief Compliance Officer, with impunity and without fear of retribution or retaliation, of any direct, indirect or perceived improper influence exerted by any Invesco person or by an affiliated company’s representatives with regard to how Invesco should vote proxies. The Chief Compliance Officer will investigate the allegations and will report his or her findings to the Invesco Risk Management Committee. In the event that it is determined that improper influence was exerted, the Risk Management Committee will determine the appropriate action to take, which actions may include, but are not limited to, (1) notifying the affiliated company’s Chief Executive Officer, its Management Committee or Board of Directors, (2) taking remedial action, if necessary, to correct the result of any improper influence where clients have been harmed, or (3) notifying the appropriate regulatory agencies of the improper influence and cooperating fully with these regulatory agencies as required. In all cases, the Proxy Committee shall not take into consideration the improper influence in determining how to vote proxies and will vote proxies solely in the best economic interests of clients.
C. RECORDKEEPING
Records are maintained in accordance with Invesco’s Recordkeeping Policy.
Proxy Voting Records
The proxy voting statements and records will be maintained by the Proxy Manager on-site (or accessible via an electronic storage site of ISS) for the first two (2) years. Copies of the proxy voting statements and records will be maintained for an additional five (5) years by Invesco (or will be accessible via an electronic storage site of ISS). Clients may obtain information about how Invesco voted proxies on their behalf by contacting their client services representative. Alternatively, clients may make a written request for proxy voting information to: Proxy Manager, 1555 Peachtree Street, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia 30309.

January 2010 I.1 - 7

E-15


 

APPENDIX A
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND CERTIFICATION
     I acknowledge that I have read the Invesco Proxy Voting Policy (a copy of which has been supplied to me, which I will retain for future reference) and agree to comply in all respects with the terms and provisions thereof. I have disclosed or reported all real or potential conflicts of interest to the Invesco Chief Compliance Officer and will continue to do so as matters arise. I have complied with all provisions of this Policy.
     
 
   
 
  Print Name
 
 
   
 
   
Date
  Signature
I.1 Proxy Policy Appendix A
Acknowledgement and Certification

E-16


 

(GRAPHIC)

E-17


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
     
 
  Contents
 
   
E-19
  Introduction
 
   
E-19
  Scope
 
   
E-19
  Responsible voting
 
   
E-20
  Voting procedures
 
   
E-20
  Dialogue with companies
 
   
E-21
  Non-routine resolutions and other topics
 
   
E-22
  Evaluation of companies’ environmental, social and governance arrangements (ESG)
 
   
E-22
  Disclosure and reporting
 
   
E-23
  UK Stewardship Code
 
   
E-25
  Appendix 1 — Voting on non-UK/European and blocked shares

E-18


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
1.   Introduction
 
    Invesco Perpetual (IP), a business name of Invesco Asset Management Limited, has adopted a clear and considered policy towards its responsibility as a shareholder on behalf of all investors in portfolios managed by them. As part of this policy, IP will take steps to satisfy itself about the extent to which the companies in which it invests look after shareholders’ value in their companies and comply with local recommendations and practices, such as the UK Corporate Governance Code issued by the Financial Reporting Council and the U.S. Department of Labor Interpretive Bulletins.
 
    IP has a responsibility to optimise returns to its investors. As a core part of the investment process, IP’s fund managers will endeavour to establish a dialogue with management to promote company decision making that is in the best interests of shareholders, and is in accordance with good Corporate Governance principles.
 
    Being a major shareholder in a company is more than simply expecting to benefit in its future earnings streams. In IP’s view, it is about helping to provide the capital it needs to grow, it is about being actively involved in its strategy and it is about helping to ensure that shareholder interests are always at the forefront of management’s thoughts.
 
    IP considers that shareholder activism is fundamental to good Corporate Governance. Although this does not entail intervening in daily management decisions, it does involve supporting general standards for corporate activity and, where necessary, taking the initiative to ensure those standards are met, with a view to protecting and enhancing value for our investors in our portfolios.
 
    Engagement will also be proportionate and will reflect the size of holdings, length of holding period and liquidity of the underlying company shares. This is because in most of IP’s investment jurisdictions, the only effective remedy of last resort available to shareholders, other than liquidating their share ownership, is the removal of directors.
 
2.   Scope
 
    The scope of this policy covers all portfolios that are managed by the IP investment teams located in Henley on Thames, United Kingdom and specifically excludes portfolios that are managed by other investment teams within the wider Invesco group that have their own voting, corporate governance and stewardship policies. As an example, within IP’s ICVC range the following funds are excluded: IP UK Enhanced Index, IP US Equity Benchmark Plus, IP Hong Kong & China, IP Japanese Smaller Companies, IP Global Balanced Index Fund, IP Global ex-UK Core Equity and the IP Global ex-UK Enhanced Index.
 
3.   Responsible voting
 
    One important means of putting shareholder responsibility into practice is via the exercising of voting rights. In deciding whether to vote shares, IP will take into account such factors as the likely impact of voting on management activity, and where expressed, the preference of clients. As a result of these two factors, IP will tend to vote on all UK and European shares, but to vote on a more selective basis on other shares. (See Appendix I — Voting on non-UK/European shares).
 
    IP considers that the voting rights attached to its clients’ investments should be actively managed with the same duty of care as that applied to all other aspects of asset administration. As such, voting rights will be exercised on an informed and independent basis, and will not simply be passed back to the company concerned for discretionary voting by the Chairman.

E-19


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
    In voting for or against a proposal, IP will have in mind three objectives, as follows:
    To protect the rights of its investors
 
    To minimise the risk of financial or business impropriety within the companies in which its clients are invested, and
 
    To protect the long-term value of its clients’ investments.
    It is important to note that, when exercising voting rights, the third option of abstention can also be used as a means of expressing dissatisfaction, or lack of support, to a board on any particular issue. Additionally, in the event of a conflict of interest arising between IP and its clients over a specific issue, IP will either abstain or seek instruction from each client.
 
    IP will actively exercise the voting rights represented by the shares it manages on behalf of its investors where it is granted the discretion to do so. In certain circumstances the discretion is retained by the client, where they wish to be responsible for applying their own right to vote.
 
    Note: Share blocking
 
    Generally, IP will not vote where this results in shares being blocked from trading for a period of more than a few hours. IP considers that it is not in the interest of clients that their shares are blocked at a potentially sensitive time, such as the time around a shareholder meeting.
 
4.   Voting procedures
 
    IP will endeavour to keep under regular review with trustees, depositaries, custodians and third party proxy voting services the practical arrangements for circulating company resolutions and notices of meetings and for exercising votes in accordance with standing or special instructions. Although IP’s proxy voting service will provide research and recommendations for each resolution, each fund manager will cast their vote independently considering their own research and dialogue with company management.
 
    Proxy voting research and services are currently provided by Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS), part of the RiskMetrics Group.
 
    IP will endeavour to review regularly any standing or special instructions on voting and where possible, discuss with company representatives any significant issues.
 
    IP will take into account the implications of stock lending arrangements where this is relevant (that is, when stock is lent to the extent permitted by local regulations, the voting rights attaching to that stock pass to the borrower). However, IP does not currently enter into any stock lending arrangements as it believes the facility does not support active shareholder engagement.
 
5.   Dialogue with companies
 
    IP will endeavour, where practicable in accordance with its investment approach, to enter into a dialogue with companies based on the mutual understanding of objectives. This dialogue is likely to include regular meetings with company representatives to explore any concerns about corporate governance where these may impact on the best interests of clients. In discussion with company boards and senior non-Executive Directors, IP will endeavour to cover any matters of particular relevance to shareholder value.

E-20


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
    Those people on the inside of a company, most obviously its executives, know their businesses much more intimately. Therefore, it is usually appropriate to leave strategic matters in their hands. However, if that strategy is not working, or alternatives need exploring, IP will seek to influence the direction of that company where practicable. In IP’s view, this is part of its responsibility to investors, where possible, in shaping strategy. Ultimately the business’ performance will have an impact on the returns generated by IP’s portfolios, whether it is in terms of share price performance or dividends, and IP wants to seek to ensure that the capital IP has invested on behalf of its clients is being used as effectively as possible. In the majority of cases IP is broadly in agreement with the direction of a company that it has invested in, as its initial decision to invest will have taken these factors into account. But these issues demand regular re-evaluation, which can only be achieved through company meetings.
 
    The building of this relationship facilitates frank and open discussion, and ongoing interaction is an integral part of the fund manager’s role. The fact that IP has been a major shareholder in a number of companies for a long time, in particular within its domestic UK portfolios, reflects both the fact that IP’s original investment was based on a joint understanding of where the business was going and the ability of the management to execute that plan. Inevitably there are times when IP’s views diverge from those of the company’s executives but, where possible, it attempts to work with the company towards a practical solution. However, IP believes that its status as part-owner of a company means that it has both the right and the responsibility to make its views known. The option of selling out of that business is always open, but normally IP prefers to push for change, even if this can be a slow process.
 
    Specifically when considering resolutions put to shareholders, IP will pay attention to the companies’ compliance with the relevant local requirements. In addition, when analysing the company’s prospects for future profitability and hence returns to shareholders, IP will take many variables into account, including but not limited to, the following:
    Nomination and audit committees
 
    Remuneration committee and directors’ remuneration
 
    Board balance and structure
 
    Financial reporting principles
 
    Internal control system and annual review of its effectiveness
 
    Dividend and Capital Management policies
 
    Socially Responsible Investing policies
6.   Non-routine resolutions and other topics
 
    These will be considered on a case-by-case basis and where proposals are put to the vote will require proper explanation and justification by (in most instances) the board. Examples of such proposals would be all political donations and any proposal made by a shareholder or body of shareholders (typically a pressure group).
 
    Apart from the three fundamental voting objectives set out under ‘Responsible Voting’ above, considerations that IP might apply to non-routine proposals will include:
    The degree to which the company’s stated position on the issue could affect its reputation and/or sales, or leave it vulnerable to boycott or selective purchasing
 
    Peer group response to the issue in question
 
    Whether implementation would achieve the objectives sought in the proposal
 
    Whether the matter is best left to the Board’s discretion.

E-21


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
7.   Evaluation of companies’ environmental, social and governance arrangements
 
    At IP, each fund manager is individually responsible for environmental, social and governance (ESG) matters, rather than utilising ESG professionals or an internal / external discrete team independent from the fund management process. ESG issues are deemed as an essential component of the fund manager’s overall investment responsibilities. Additionally, fund managers may call on the support of the IP Operations team on any ESG matter.
 
    As mentioned in Section 5, company meetings are an integral part of IP’s investment research approach and discussions at these meetings include all matters that might affect the share price, including ESG issues.
 
    IP’s research is structured to give it a detailed understanding of a company’s key historical and future, long-term business drivers, such as demand for its products, pricing power, market share trends, cash flow and management strategy. This enables IP’s investment teams to form a holistic opinion of management strategy, the quality of the management, an opinion on a company’s competitive position, its strategic advantages/ disadvantages, and corporate governance arrangements, thus incorporating any inherent ESG issues.
 
    IP will, when evaluating companies’ governance arrangements, particularly those relating to board structure and composition, give due weight to all relevant factors brought to its attention.
 
8.   Disclosure and reporting
 
    Although IP acknowledges initiatives of transparency, it is also very aware of its fiduciary duty and the interests of all investors in portfolios managed by them. As such, IP is very cognisant that disclosure of any meeting specific information may have a detrimental affect in its ability to manage its portfolios and ultimately would not be in the best interests of all shareholders. Primarily, this is for investor protection and to allow IP’s fund managers to manage their portfolios in the interests of all its clients.
 
    Although IP does not report specific findings of company meetings for external use, regular illustrations will be provided to demonstrate that active engagement is at the heart of its investment process.
 
    For clients with individual mandates, (i.e. not invested in a fund), IP may discuss specific issues where it can share details of a client’s portfolio with that specific client. Occasionally, where IP has expressed strong views to management over matters of governance, those views have gained media attention, but IP will never seek to encourage such debates in the media.
 
    On request from investors, IP will in good faith provide records of voting instructions given to third parties such as trustees, depositaries and custodians provided that:
    In IP’s view, it does not conflict with the best interests of other investors and
 
    It is understood that IP will not be held accountable for the expression of views within such voting instructions and
 
    IP is not giving any assurance nor undertaking nor has any obligation to ensure that such instructions resulted in any votes actually being cast. Records of voting instructions within the immediate preceding three months will not normally be provided for activities within the funds managed by IP.
    Note:
 
    The record of votes will reflect the voting instruction of the relevant fund manager. This may not be the same as votes actually cast as IP is entirely reliant on third parties complying promptly with such instructions to ensure that such votes are cast correctly. Accordingly, the

E-22


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
    provision of information relating to an instruction does not mean that a vote was actually cast, just that an instruction was given in accordance with a particular view taken.
9.   The UK Stewardship Code
 
    The UK Stewardship Code (the Code)issued by the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) aims to enhance the quality of engagement between institutional investors and companies to help improve long-term returns to shareholders and the efficient exercise of governance responsibilities. The Code sets out seven principles, which support good practice on engagement with UK investee companies and to which the FRC believes institutional investors should aspire. The Code is applied on a ‘comply or explain’ approach. IP sets out below how it complies with each principle or details why it chooses not to.
 
    Principle 1
 
    Institutional investors should publicly disclose their policy on how they will discharge their stewardship responsibilities.
 
    IP complies with Principle 1 and publishes the Invesco Perpetual Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship on its website —
 
    http://investor.invescoperpetual.co.uk/portal/site/ipinvestor/aboutus/ukstewardshipcode/
 
    Principle 2
 
    Institutional investors should have a robust policy on managing conflicts of interest in relation to stewardship and this policy should be publicly disclosed.
 
    IP complies with Principle 2 by meeting its regulatory requirement of having an effective Conflicts of Interest Policy. Any conflicts of interest arising through its stewardship of investee companies will be handled in accordance with that policy.
 
    In respect of stewardship, IP anticipates the opportunity for conflicts arising would be limited, e.g. where it invests in a company that is also a broker (i.e. dealing) of, or client of IP.
 
    Principle 3
 
    Institutional investors should monitor their investee companies.
 
    As an active shareholder, IP complies with Principle 3. Through its investment process, fund managers endeavour to establish on a proportionate basis ongoing dialogue with company management and this is likely to include regular meetings. In discussions with company boards and senior non-Executive Directors, IP will explore any concerns about corporate governance where these may impact on the best interests of clients, together with any other matters of particular value to shareholders.
 
    Meeting company boards of investee companies is a core part of IP’s investment process and IP is committed to keeping records of all future key engagement activities.
 
    When casting votes on behalf of investors, IP keeps detailed records of all instructions given in good faith to third parties such as trustees, depositories and custodians. Although the rationale for voting in a particular manner is not automatically captured through the voting process, the individually responsible fund manager would be expected to be able to clearly articulate their decision whenever required.

E-23


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
    Principle 4
 
    Institutional investors should establish clear guidelines on when and how they will escalate their activities as a method of protecting and enhancing shareholder value.
 
    IP complies with Principle 4 with its fund managers managing corporate governance matters independently being a key part of their investment process to protect and add value on behalf investors. Initially any issues / concerns would be raised by its fund managers through IP’s process of ongoing dialogue and company meetings. On occasions that a fund manager believes an issue is significant enough to be escalated, this will be done through IP’s Chief Investment Officer (CIO) and the IP Operations team who will ensure the relevant internal resources are made available to support the fund manager in securing the most appropriate outcome for IP’s clients.
 
    Principle 5
 
    Institutional investors should be willing to act collectively with other investors where appropriate.
 
    IP is supportive of collective engagement in cases where objectives between parties are mutually agreeable and, as they pertain to the UK market, are not in breach of ‘concert party’ rules. Other shareholders can engage directly with the relevant fund manager or through an investment adviser. Alternatively, enquiries can be directed to the members of the IP Operations team detailed below:
    Charles Henderson — Head of IP Operations and Dealing
 
    Dan Baker — IP Operations Manager
    Principle 6
 
    Institutional investors should have a clear policy on voting and disclosure of voting activity.
 
    As detailed in Section 3, IP is committed to voting on all the UK stocks it holds for its underlying investors and where it has the full discretion to do so. Whilst comprehensive records of IP’s voting instructions are maintained, IP does not report specifically on its voting activity. Whilst being mindful of its fiduciary duty and the interest of all investors, IP believes that automatic public disclosure of its voting records may have a detrimental affect on its ability to manage its portfolios and ultimately would not be in the best interest of all shareholders.
 
    On specific requests from clients, IP will in good faith provide records of voting instructions given to third parties such as trustees, depositaries and custodians subject to limitations detailed in Section 8.
 
    Principle 7
 
    Institutional investors should report periodically on their stewardship and voting activities.
 
    IP complies with Principle 7 through a commitment to provide regular illustrations of its engagement activities and to respond to voting record requests from investors in its portfolios on an individual basis.
 
    Although IP does not report specific findings of company meetings for external use, regular illustrations will be provided to demonstrate that active engagement is at the heart of its investment process. On request from investors, IP will in good faith provide records of voting instructions given to third parties such as trustees, depositaries and custodians subject to certain limitations outlined in Section 8. Although the rationale for its voting decision is not captured through the voting process, individual fund managers would be expected to articulate their decision whenever required.

E-24


 

Invesco Perpetual
Policy on Corporate Governance and Stewardship
Appendix 1
Voting on non-UK/European shares
When deciding whether to exercise the voting rights attached to its clients’ non-UK/European shares, IP will take into consideration a number of factors. These will include the:
    Likely impact of voting on management activity, versus the cost to the client
 
    Portfolio management restrictions (e.g. share blocking) that may result from voting
 
    Preferences, where expressed, of clients
Generally, IP will vote on non-UK/European shares by exception only, except where the client or local regulator expressly requires voting on all shares.
Note: Share blocking
Generally, IP will not vote where this results in shares being blocked from trading for a period of more than a few hours. IP considers that it is not in the interest of clients that their shares are blocked at a potentially sensitive time, such as that around a shareholder meeting.

E-25


 

As at 30 September 2010.
Information our products is available on the contact details provided below.
Telephone calls may be recorded.
The value of investments and any income will fluctuate (this may partly be the result of exchange rate fluctuations) and investors may not get back the full amount invested.
Past performance is not a guide to future returns.
Where Invesco Perpetual has expressed views and opinions, these may change.
Invesco Perpetual is a business name of Invesco Asset Management Limited. Authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority.
Invesco Asset Management Limited
Perpetual Park, Perpetual Park Drive, Henley-on-Thames,
Oxfordshire, RG9 1HH
Telephone: Broker Services 0800 0282121
www.invescoperpetual.co.uk
30 Finsbury Square, London EC2A 1AG
Telephone: 020 7065 4000
www.invescoperpetual.co.uk/institutional
Registered in England 949417
Registered Office: 30 Finsbury Square, London, EC2A 1AG

E-26


 

1.   Proxy Voting Policy
  1.1   Introduction
 
      Invesco recognises its fiduciary obligation to act in the best interests of all clients, be they superannuation trustees, institutional clients, unit-holders in managed investment schemes or personal investors. One way Invesco represents its clients in matters of corporate governance is through the proxy voting process.
 
      This policy sets out Invesco Australia’s approach to proxy voting in the context of portfolio management, client service responsibilities and corporate governance principles.
 
      This policy applies to;
    all Australian based and managed funds and mandates, in accordance with IFSA Standard No. 13.00 October 2004, clause 9.1 and footnote #3.
      This policy does not apply;
    where investment management of an international fund has been delegated to an overseas Invesco company, proxy voting will rest with that delegated manager.
      In order to facilitate its proxy voting process and to avoid conflicts of interest where these may arise, Invesco may retain a professional proxy voting service to assist with in-depth proxy research, vote recommendations, vote execution, and the necessary record keeping.
 
  1.2   Guiding Principles
 
  1.2.1   The objective of Invesco’s Proxy Voting Policy is to promote the economic interests of its clients. At no time will Invesco use the shareholding powers exercised in respect of its clients’ investments to advance its own commercial interests, to pursue a social or political cause that is unrelated to clients’ economic interests, or to favour a particular client or other relationship to the detriment of others.
 
  1.2.2   The involvement of Invesco as an institutional shareholder will not extend to interference in the proper exercise of Board or management responsibilities, or impede the ability of companies to take the calculated commercial risks which are essential means of adding value for shareholders.
 
  1.2.3   The primary aim of the policy is to encourage a culture of performance among investee companies, rather than one of mere conformance with a prescriptive set of rules and constraints.
 
  1.2.4   Invesco considers that proxy voting rights are an important power, which if exercised diligently can enhance client returns, and should be managed with the same care as any other asset managed on behalf of its clients.
 
  1.2.5   Invesco may choose not to vote on a particular issue if this results in shares being blocked from trading for a period of more than 4

E-27


 

      hours; it may not be in the interest of clients if the liquidity of investment holdings is diminished at a potentially sensitive time, such as that around a shareholder meeting.
  1.3   Proxy Voting Authority
 
  1.3.1   Authority Overview
 
      An important dimension of Invesco’s approach to corporate governance is the exercise of proxy voting authority at the Annual General Meetings or other decision-making forums of companies in which we manage investments on behalf of clients.
 
      Proxy voting policy follows two streams, each defining where discretion to exercise voting power should rest — with Invesco as the investment manager (including its ability to outsource the function), or with individual mandate clients.
 
      Under the first alternative, Invesco’s role would be both to make voting decisions, for pooled funds and on individual mandate clients’ behalf, and to implement those decisions.
 
      Under the second alternative, where IM clients retain voting control, Invesco has no role to play other than administering voting decisions under instructions from our clients on a cost recovery basis.
 
  1.3.2   Individually-Managed Clients
 
      IM clients may elect to retain voting authority or delegate this authority to Invesco. If delegated, Invesco will employ either ISS or ASCI guidelines (selected at inception by the client) but at all times Invesco Investment Managers will retain the ability to override any decisions in the interests of the client. Alternate overlays and ad hoc intervention will not be allowed without Board approval.
 
      In cases where voting authority is delegated by an individually-managed client, Invesco recognises its responsibility to be accountable for the decisions it makes.
 
      Some individually-managed clients may wish to retain voting authority for themselves, or to place conditions on the circumstances in which it can be exercised by investment managers1.
 
      The choice of this directive will occur at inception or at major review events only. Individually managed clients will not be allowed to move on an ad hoc basis between delegating control to the funds manager and full direct control.
 
1   In practice, it is believed that this option is generally only likely to arise with relatively large clients such as trustees of major superannuation funds or statutory corporations that have the resources to develop their own policies and to supervise their implementation by investment managers and custodians. In particular, clients who have multiple equity managers and utilise a master custody arrangement may be more likely to consider retaining voting authority in order to ensure consistency of approach across their total portfolio. Such arrangements will be costed into administration services at inception.

E-28


 

  1.3.3   Pooled Fund Clients
 
      The funds manager is required to act solely in the collective interests of unit holders at large rather than as a direct agent or delegate of each unit holder. The legal relationship that exists means it is not possible for the manager to accept instructions from a particular pooled fund client as to how to exercise proxy voting authority in a particular instance.
 
      Invesco’s accountability to pooled fund clients in exercising its fiduciary responsibilities is best addressed as part of the manager’s broader client relationship and reporting responsibilities.
 
      In considering proxy voting issues arising in respect of pooled fund shareholdings, Invesco will act solely in accordance with its fiduciary responsibility to take account of the collective interests of unit holders in the pooled fund as a whole.
 
      All proxy voting decisions may be delegated to an outsourced provider, but Invesco investment managers will retain the ability to override these decisions in the interests of fund unit holders.
 
  1.4   Key Proxy Voting Issues
 
  1.4.1   Issues Overview
 
      Invesco will consider voting requirements on all issues at all company meetings directly or via an outsourced provider. We will generally not announce our voting intentions and the reasons behind them.
 
  1.4.2   Portfolio Management Issues
 
      Invesco does not consider it feasible or desirable to prescribe in advance comprehensive guidelines as to how it will exercise proxy voting authority in all circumstances. The primary aim of Invesco’s approach to corporate governance is to encourage a culture of performance among the companies in which we invest in order to add value to our clients’ portfolios, rather than one of mere conformance with a prescriptive set of rules and constraints.
 
      As a general rule, Invesco will vote against any actions that will reduce the rights or options of shareholders, reduce shareholder influence over the board of directors and management, reduce the alignment of interests between management and shareholders, or reduce the value of shareholders’ investments, unless balanced by reasonable increase in net worth of the shareholding.
 
      Where appropriate, Invesco will also use voting powers to influence companies to adopt generally accepted best corporate governance practices in areas such as board composition, disclosure policies and the other areas of recommended corporate governance practice.
 
      Administrative constraints are highlighted by the fact that many issues on which shareholders are in practice asked to vote are routine matters relating to the ongoing administration of the company — eg. approval of financial accounts or housekeeping amendments to Articles of Association. Generally in such cases,

E-29


 

      Invesco will be in favour of the motion as most companies take seriously their duties and are acting in the best interests of shareholders. However, reasonable consideration of issues and the actual casting of a vote on all such resolutions would entail an unreasonable administrative workload and cost. For this reason, Invesco may outsource all or part of the proxy voting function at the expense of individual funds. Invesco believes that an important consideration in the framing of a proxy voting policy is the need to avoid unduly diverting resources from our primary responsibilities to add value to our clients’ investments through portfolio management and client service.
  1.5   Internal Proxy Voting Procedure
 
      In situations where an override decision is required to be made or where the outsourced provider has recused itself from a vote recommendation, the responsible Investment Manager will have the final say as to how a vote will be cast.
 
      In the event that a voting decision is considered not to be in the best interests of a particular client or where a vote is not able to be cast, a meeting may be convened at any time to determine voting intentions. The meeting will be made up of at least three of the following:
      Chief Executive Officer;
 
      Head of Operations & Finance;
 
      Head of either Legal or Compliance; and
 
      Relevant Investment Manager(s).
  1.6   Client Reporting
Invesco will keep records of its proxy voting activities, directly or through outsourced reporting.
      Upon client election, Invesco will report quarterly or annually to the client on proxy voting activities for investments owned by the client.
 
      A record will be kept of the voting decision in each case by Invesco or its outsourced provider. Invesco will disclose on an annual basis, a summary of its proxy voting statistics on its website as required by IFSA standard No. 13 — Proxy Voting.

E-30


 

(INVESCO LOGO)
Voting Rights Policy
This document sets out the high level Proxy Voting policy of Invesco Asset Management GmbH and Invesco Kapitalanlagegesellschaft mbH. The principles within this policy are followed by both Invesco Asset Management GmbH and Invesco Kapitalanlagegesellschaft mbH or to any of its delegates as applicable
Introduction:
Invesco Asset Management GmbH and Invesco Kapitalanlagegesellschaft mbH is committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all its clients. As such Invesco Asset Management GmbH and Invesco Kapitalanlagegesellschaft mbH has put in place procedures to ensure that voting rights attached to securities within a UCITS for which it is the Management Company are exercised where appropriate and in the best interests of the individual UCITS itself. Where Invesco Asset Management GmbH and Invesco Kapitalanlagegesellschaft mbH delegates the activity of Investment Management it will ensure that the delegate has in place policies and procedures consistent with the principles of this policy.
Outline of Voting Rights Process:
      Voting opportunities which exist in relation to securities within each individual UCITS are monitored on an ongoing basis in order to ensure that advantage can be taken of any opportunity that arises to benefit the individual UCITS.
It is has been identified that a voting opportunity exist, an investment decisions is taken whether or not the opportunity to vote should be exercised and, if relevant, the voting decision to be taken. Considerations which are taken into account include:
    the cost of participating in the vote relative to the potential benefit to the UCITS
 
    the impact of participation in a vote on the liquidity of the securities creating the voting opportunity due to the fact that some jurisdictions will require that the securities are not sold for a period if they are the subject of a vote.
 
    Other factors as deemed appropriate by the Investment Manager in relation to the investment objectives and policy of the individual UCITS.
It may be the case that an investment decision is taken not to participate in a vote. Such decisions can be equally appropriate due to the considerations applied by the investment team to determine the relative benefit to the individual UCITS, based on criteria such as fund size, investment objective, policy and investment strategy applicable.

E-31


 

Information on Voting Activity:
Further information on votes which were available to individual UCITS and actions taken are available to unitholders free of charge and by request to the UCITS Management Company.
Conflicts of Interest:
(name of management company) has a Conflict of Interest Policy which outlines the principles for avoiding, and where not possible, managing conflicts of interest. At no time will Invesco use shareholding powers in respect of individual UCITS to advance its own commercial interests, to pursue a social or political cause that is unrelated to a UCITS economic interests, or to favour another UCITS or client or other relationship to the detriment of others. This policy is available, free of cost, from the (name of Management Company.)

E-32


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
 
B6. Proxy Voting
Policy Number: B-6                Effective Date: May 1, 2001                Revision Date: December 2010
 
1. Purpose and Background
In its trusteeship and management of mutual funds, Invesco Trimark acts as fiduciary to the Fund and must act in its best interest.
2. Application
Invesco Trimark will make every effort to exercise all voting rights with respect to securities held in the accounts (“Accounts”) that it acts as investment fund manager and/or adviser including separately managed portfolios (“SMPs”), investment funds offered in Canada (“Canadian Funds”), investment funds registered under and governed by the US Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and to which Invesco Trimark provides advisory services (the “US Funds”).but excluding Accounts (“Sub-Advised Accounts”) that are sub-advised to affiliated or third party advisers (“Sub-Advisers”) to provide investment advice to such accounts. Proxies for Sub-Advised Accounts will be voted in accordance with the Sub-Adviser’s policy, unless the sub-advisory agreement or investment management agreement between the client and Invesco Trimark provides otherwise.
Unless the investment management agreement between Invesco Trimark and its client provides otherwise, Invesco Trimark’s portfolio managers have responsibility for exercising all proxy votes and in doing so, for acting in the best interest of the Account. Portfolio managers must vote proxies in accordance with the Invesco Trimark Proxy Voting Guidelines (the “Guidelines”), as amended from time to time, a copy of which is attached to this policy.
When a proxy is voted against the recommendation of the publicly traded company’s management, the portfolio manager or designate will provide to the Chief Investment Officer (“CIO”) the reasons in writing for any vote in opposition to management’s recommendation.
Invesco Trimark may delegate to a third party the responsibility to vote proxies on behalf of all or certain Accounts, in accordance with the Guidelines.
3. Proxy Administration, Records Management and Data Retention
3.1 Proxy Administration
Invesco Trimark has a dedicated proxy team within the Investment Operations and Support department (“Proxy Team”). This team is responsible for managing all proxy voting materials. The Proxy Team endeavours to ensure that all proxies and notices are received from all issuers on a timely basis.

E-33


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
Proxy voting circulars for all companies are received electronically through an external service provider. Circulars for North American companies and ADRs are generally also received in paper format.
Once a circular is received, the Proxy Team verifies that all shares and Accounts affected are correctly listed. The Proxy Team then gives a copy of the proxy ballot to each affected portfolio manager and maintains a tracking list to ensure that all proxies are voted within the prescribed deadlines.
Once voting information has been received from the portfolio managers, voting instructions are sent electronically to the service provider who then forwards the instructions to the appropriate proxy voting agent or transfer agent.
3.2 Records Management and Data Retention
Invesco Trimark will maintain for all Accounts a record of all proxies received, a record of votes cast and a copy of the reasons for voting against management. In addition, for the US Funds Invesco Trimark will maintain a copy of any document created by Invesco Trimark that was material to making a decision how to vote proxies on behalf of a U.S. Fund and that memorializes the basis of that decision.
The external proxy service provider retains on behalf of Invesco Trimark electronic records of the votes cast and agrees to provide Invesco Trimark with a copy of proxy records promptly upon request. The service provider must make all documents available to Invesco Trimark for a period of 7 years.
In the event that Invesco Trimark ceases to use an external service provider, all documents would be maintained and preserved in an easily accessible place i) for a period of 2 years where Invesco Trimark carries on business in Canada and ii) for a period of 5 years thereafter at the same location or at any other location.
4. Reporting
The CIO will report on proxy voting to the Compliance Committees of the Invesco Trimark Fund Advisory Board and the Boards of Directors of Invesco Trimark Canada Fund Inc. and Invesco Trimark Corporate Class Inc. (collectively, the “Board Compliance Committees”) on an annual basis with respect to all Canadian Funds and investment funds managed by Invesco Trimark but sub-advised by a Sub-Adviser. The CIO will report on proxy voting to the Board of Directors of the US Funds as required from time to time.
In accordance with National Instrument 81-106 (NI 81-106), proxy voting records for all Canadian mutual funds must be prepared annually (for the period ended June 30) and must be posted on Invesco Trimark’s website no later than August 31st of each year.
The Invesco Trimark Compliance department (“Compliance department”) will review a sample of the proxy voting records posted on Invesco Trimark’s website on an annual basis to confirm that the records are posted by the August 31st deadline under NI 81-106.

E-34


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
A summary of the review will be maintained and preserved by the Compliance department in an easily accessible place i) for a period of 2 years where Invesco Trimark carries on business in Canada and ii) for a period of 5 years thereafter at the same location or at any other location.

E-35


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
INVESCO TRIMARK
PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES
Purpose
The purpose of this document is to describe Invesco Trimark’s general guidelines for voting proxies received from companies held in the accounts (“Accounts”) for which it acts as investment fund manager and/or adviser including separately managed portfolios (“SMPs”), investment funds offered in Canada (“Canadian Funds”) and investment funds registered under and governed by the US Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and to which Invesco Trimark provides advisory services (the “US Funds”) but excluding Accounts (“Sub-Advised Accounts”) that are sub-advised by affiliated or third party advisers (“Sub-Advisers”) to provide investment advice to such accounts. Proxies for Sub-Advised Accounts will be voted in accordance with the Sub-Adviser’s policy, unless the sub-advisory agreement or investment advisory agreement between the client and Invesco Trimark provides otherwise.
As part of its due diligence, the Invesco Trimark Compliance department will review the proxy voting policies & procedures of any new sub-advisors to ensure that they are appropriate in the circumstances.
Introduction
Invesco Trimark has a fiduciary obligation to act in the best long-term economic interest of the Accounts when voting proxies of portfolio companies.
The default is to vote with the recommendation of the publicly traded company’s management.
As a general rule, Invesco Trimark shall vote against any actions that would:
    reduce the rights or options of shareholders,
 
    reduce shareholder influence over the board of directors and management,
 
    reduce the alignment of interests between management and shareholders, or
 
    reduce the value of shareholders’ investments.
At the same time, since Invesco Trimark’s Toronto-based portfolio managers follow an investment discipline that includes investing in companies that are believed to have strong management teams, the portfolio managers will generally support the management of companies in which they invest, and will accord proper weight to the recommendations of company management. Therefore, in most circumstances, votes will be cast in accordance with the recommendations of company management.

E-36


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
While Invesco Trimark’s proxy voting guidelines are stated below, the portfolio managers will take into consideration all relevant facts and circumstances (including country specific considerations), and retain the right to vote proxies as deemed appropriate.
These guidelines may be amended from time to time.
Conflicts of Interest
When voting proxies, Invesco Trimark’s portfolio managers assess whether there are material conflicts of interest between Invesco Trimark’s interests and those of the Account. A potential conflict of interest situation may include where Invesco Trimark or an affiliate manages assets for, provides other financial services to, or otherwise has a material business relationship with, a company whose management is soliciting proxies, and failure to vote in favour of management of the company may harm Invesco Trimark’s relationship with the company. In all situations, the portfolio managers will not take Invesco Trimark’s relationship with the company into account, and will vote the proxies in the best interest of the Account. To the extent that a portfolio manager has any personal conflict of interest with respect to a company or an issue presented, that portfolio manager should abstain from voting on that company or issue. Portfolio managers are required to report to the CIO any such conflicts of interest and/or attempts by outside parties to improperly influence the voting process. The CIO will report any conflicts of interest to the Trading Committee and the Independent Review Committee on an annual basis.
I. BOARDS OF DIRECTORS
We believe that a board that has at least a majority of independent directors is integral to good corporate governance. Unless there are restrictions specific to a company’s home jurisdiction, key board committees, including audit and compensation committees, should be completely independent.
Voting on Director Nominees in Uncontested Elections
Votes in an uncontested election of directors are evaluated on a case-by-case basis, considering factors that may include:
    Long-term company performance relative to a market index,
 
    Composition of the board and key board committees,
 
    Nominee’s attendance at board meetings,
 
    Nominee’s time commitments as a result of serving on other company boards,
 
    Nominee’s investments in the company,

E-37


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
    Whether the chairman is also serving as CEO, and
 
    Whether a retired CEO sits on the board.
Voting on Director Nominees in Contested Elections
Votes in a contested election of directors are evaluated on a case-by-case basis, considering factors that may include:
    Long-term financial performance of the target company relative to its industry,
 
    Management’s track record,
 
    Background to the proxy contest,
 
    Qualifications of director nominees (both slates),
 
    Evaluation of what each side is offering shareholders as well as the likelihood that the proposed objectives and goals can be met, and
 
    Stock ownership positions.
Majority Threshold Voting for Director Elections
We will generally vote for proposals that require directors to be elected with an affirmative majority of votes cast unless the relevant portfolio manager believes that the company has adopted formal corporate governance principles that present a meaningful alternative to the majority voting standard.
Separating Chairman and CEO
Shareholder proposals to separate the chairman and CEO positions should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
While we generally support these proposals, some companies have governance structures in place that can satisfactorily counterbalance a combined position. Voting decisions will take into account factors such as:
    Designated lead director, appointed from the ranks of the independent board members with clearly delineated duties;
 
    Majority of independent directors;
 
    All-independent key committees;
 
    Committee chairpersons nominated by the independent directors;

E-38


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
    CEO performance is reviewed annually by a committee of outside directors; and
 
    Established governance guidelines.
Majority of Independent Directors
While we generally support proposals asking that a majority of directors be independent, each proposal should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
We generally vote for proposals that request that the board’s audit, compensation, and/or nominating committees be composed exclusively of independent directors.
Stock Ownership Requirements
We believe that individual directors should be appropriately compensated and motivated to act in the best interests of shareholders. Share ownership by directors better aligns their interests with those of other shareholders. Therefore, we believe that meaningful share ownership by directors is in the best interest of the company.
We generally vote for proposals that require a certain percentage of a director’s compensation to be in the form of common stock.
Size of Boards of Directors
We believe that the number of directors is important to ensuring the board’s effectiveness in maximizing long-term shareholder value. The board must be large enough to allow it to adequately discharge its responsibilities, without being so large that it becomes cumbersome.
While we will prefer a board of no fewer than 5 and no more than 16 members, each situation will be considered on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the specific company circumstances.
Classified or Staggered Boards
In a classified or staggered board, directors are typically elected in two or more “classes”, serving terms greater than one year.
We prefer the annual election of all directors and will generally not support proposals that provide for staggered terms for board members. We recognize that there may be jurisdictions where staggered terms for board members is common practice and, in such situations, we will review the proposals on a case-by-case basis.
Director Indemnification and Liability Protection
We recognize that many individuals may be reluctant to serve as corporate directors if they are personally liable for all lawsuits and legal costs. As a result, limitations on

E-39


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
directors’ liability can benefit the corporation and its shareholders by helping to attract and retain qualified directors while providing recourse to shareholders on areas of misconduct by directors.
We generally vote for proposals that limit directors’ liability and provide indemnification as long as the arrangements are limited to the director acting honestly and in good faith with a view to the best interests of the corporation and, in criminal matters, are limited to the director having reasonable grounds for believing the conduct was lawful.
II. AUDITORS
A strong audit process is a requirement for good corporate governance. A significant aspect of the audit process is a strong relationship with a knowledgeable and independent set of auditors.
Ratification of Auditors
We believe a company should limit its relationship with its auditors to the audit engagement, and certain closely related activities that do not, in the aggregate, raise an appearance of impaired independence.
We generally vote for the reappointment of the company’s auditors unless:
    It is not clear that the auditors will be able to fulfill their function;
 
    There is reason to believe the auditors have rendered an opinion that is neither accurate nor indicative of the company’s financial position; or
 
    The auditors have a significant professional or personal relationship with the issuer that compromises their independence.
Disclosure of Audit vs. Non-Audit Fees
Understanding the fees earned by the auditors is important for assessing auditor independence. Our support for the re-appointment of the auditors will take into consideration whether the management information circular contains adequate disclosure about the amount and nature of audit vs. non-audit fees.
There may be certain jurisdictions that do not currently require disclosure of audit vs. non-audit fees. In these circumstances, we will generally support proposals that call for this disclosure.
III. COMPENSATION PROGRAMS
Appropriately designed equity-based compensation plans, approved by shareholders, can be an effective way to align the interests of long-term shareholders and the interests of management, employees and directors. Plans should not substantially dilute shareholders’ ownership interests in the company, provide participants with excessive

E-40


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
awards or have objectionable structural features. We will consider each compensation plan in its entirety (including all incentives, awards and other compensation) to determine if the plan provides the right incentives to managers and directors and is reasonable on the whole.
While we generally encourage companies to provide more transparent disclosure related to their compensation programs, the following are specific guidelines dealing with some of the more common features of these programs (features not specifically itemized below will be considered on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the general principles described above):
Cash Compensation and Severance Packages
We will generally support the board’s discretion to determine and grant appropriate cash compensation and severance packages.
Executive Compensation (“say on pay”)
Proposals requesting that companies subject each year’s compensation record to a non binding advisory shareholder vote, or so-called “say on pay” proposals will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
Equity Based Plans — Dilution
Equity compensation plans can increase the number of shares of a company and therefore dilute the value of existing shares. While such plans can be an effective compensation tool in moderation, they can be a concern to shareholders and their cost needs to be closely watched. We assess proposed equity compensation plans on a case-by-case basis.
Employee Stock Purchase Plans
We will generally vote for the use of employee stock purchase plans to increase company stock ownership by employees, provided that shares purchased under the plan are acquired for no less than 85% of their market value. It is recognized that country specific circumstances may exist (e.g. tax issues) that require proposals to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Loans to Employees
We will vote against the corporation making loans to employees to allow employees to pay for stock or stock options. It is recognized that country specific circumstances may exist that require proposals to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
Stock Option Plans — Board Discretion
We will vote against stock option plans that give the board broad discretion in setting the terms and conditions of the programs. Such programs should be submitted with detail

E-41


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
and be reasonable in the circumstances regarding their cost, scope, frequency and schedule for exercising the options.
Stock Option Plans — Inappropriate Features
We will generally vote against plans that have any of the following structural features:
    ability to re-price “underwater” options without shareholder approval,
 
    ability to issue options with an exercise price below the stock’s current market price,
 
    ability to issue “reload” options, or
 
    automatic share replenishment (“evergreen”) features.
Stock Option Plans — Director Eligibility
While we prefer stock ownership by directors, we will support stock option plans for directors as long as the terms and conditions of director options are clearly defined
Stock Option Plans — Repricing
We will vote for proposals to re-price options if there is a value-for-value (rather than a share-for-share) exchange.
Stock Option Plans — Vesting
We will vote against stock option plans that are 100% vested when granted.
Stock Option Plans — Authorized Allocations
We will generally vote against stock option plans that authorize allocation of 25% or more of the available options to any one individual.
Stock Option Plans — Change in Control Provisions
We will vote against stock option plans with change in control provisions that allow option holders to receive more for their options than shareholders would receive for their shares.
IV. CORPORATE MATTERS
We will review proposals relating to changes to capital structure and restructuring on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the impact of the changes on corporate governance and shareholder rights, anticipated financial and operating benefits, portfolio manager views, level of dilution, and a company’s industry and performance in terms of shareholder returns.

E-42


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
Common Stock Authorization
We will review proposals to increase the number of shares of common stock authorized for issue on a case-by-case basis.
Dual Class Share Structures
Dual class share structures involve a second class of common stock with either superior or inferior voting rights to those of another class of stock.
We will generally vote against proposals to create or extend dual class share structures where classes have different voting rights.
Stock Splits
We will vote for proposals to increase common share authorization for a stock split, provided that the increase in authorized shares would not result in excessive dilution given a company’s industry and performance in terms of shareholder returns.
Reverse Stock Splits
We will vote for proposals to implement a reverse stock split, provided that the reverse split does not result in an increase of authorized but unissued shares of more than 100% after giving effect to the shares needed for the reverse split.
Share Repurchase Programs
We will vote against proposals to institute open-market share repurchase plans if all shareholders do not participate on an equal basis.
Reincorporation
Reincorporation involves re-establishing the company in a different legal jurisdiction.
We will generally vote for proposals to reincorporate the company provided that the board and management have demonstrated sound financial or business reasons for the move. Proposals to reincorporate will generally not be supported if solely as part of an anti-takeover defense or as a way to limit directors’ liability.
Mergers & Acquisitions
We will vote for merger & acquisition proposals that the relevant portfolio managers believe, based on their review of the materials:
    will result in financial and operating benefits,
 
    have a fair offer price,
 
    have favourable prospects for the combined companies, and

E-43


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
    will not have a negative impact on corporate governance or shareholder rights.
V. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
We recognize that to effectively manage a corporation, directors and management must consider not only the interests of shareholders, but the interests of employees, customers, suppliers, and creditors, among others.
We believe that companies and their boards must give careful consideration to social responsibility issues in order to enhance long-term shareholder value.
We support efforts by companies to develop policies and practices that consider social responsibility issues related to their businesses.
VI. SHAREHOLDER PROPOSALS
Shareholder proposals can be extremely complex, and the impact on the interests of all stakeholders can rarely be anticipated with a high degree of confidence. As a result, shareholder proposals will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis with consideration of factors such as:
    the proposal’s impact on the company’s short-term and long-term share value,
 
    its effect on the company’s reputation,
 
    the economic effect of the proposal,
 
    industry and regional norms applicable to the company,
 
    the company’s overall corporate governance provisions, and
 
    the reasonableness of the request.
We will generally support shareholder proposals that require additional disclosure regarding corporate responsibility issues where the relevant portfolio manager believes:
    the company has failed to adequately address these issues with shareholders,
 
    there is information to suggest that a company follows procedures that are not in compliance with applicable regulations, or
 
    the company fails to provide a level of disclosure that is comparable to industry peers or generally accepted standards.

E-44


 

(INVESCO TRIMARK LOGO)
We will generally not support shareholder proposals that place arbitrary or artificial constraints on the board, management or the company.
Ordinary Business Practices
We will generally support the board’s discretion regarding shareholder proposals that involve ordinary business practices.
Protection of Shareholder Rights
We will generally vote for shareholder proposals that are designed to protect shareholder rights if the company’s corporate governance standards indicate that such additional protections are warranted.
Barriers to Shareholder Action
We will generally vote for proposals to lower barriers to shareholder action.
Shareholder Rights Plans
We will generally vote for proposals to subject shareholder rights plans to a shareholder vote.
VII. OTHER
We will vote against any proposal where the proxy materials lack sufficient information upon which to base an informed decision.
We will vote against any proposals to authorize the company to conduct any other business that is not described in the proxy statement (including the authority to approve any further amendments to an otherwise approved resolution).
Reimbursement of Proxy Solicitation Expenses
Decisions to provide reimbursement for dissidents waging a proxy contest are made on a case-by-case basis.

E-45


 

Invesco Hong Kong Limited
PROXY VOTING POLICY
1 February 2010

E-46


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
         
Introduction
    E-48  
 
1. Guiding Principles
    E-49  
 
2. Proxy Voting Authority
    E-50  
 
3. Key Proxy Voting Issues
    E-52  
 
4. Internal Administration and Decision-Making Process
    E-54  
 
5. Client Reporting
    E-56  

E-47


 

INTRODUCTION
 
This policy sets out Invesco’s approach to proxy voting in the context of our broader portfolio management and client service responsibilities. It applies to Asia related equity portfolios managed by Invesco on behalf of individually-managed clients and pooled fund clients
Invesco’s proxy voting policy is expected to evolve over time to cater for changing circumstances or unforeseen events.

E-48


 

1. GUIDING PRINCIPLES
 
  1.1   Invesco recognises its fiduciary obligation to act in the best interests of all clients, be they retirement scheme trustees, institutional clients, unitholders in pooled investment vehicles or personal investors. The application of due care and skill in exercising shareholder responsibilities is a key aspect of this fiduciary obligation.
 
  1.2   The sole objective of Invesco’s proxy voting policy is to promote the economic interests of its clients. At no time will Invesco use the shareholding powers exercised in respect of its clients’ investments to advance its own commercial interests, to pursue a social or political cause that is unrelated to clients’ economic interests, or to favour a particular client or other relationship to the detriment of others.
 
  1.3   Invesco also recognises the broader chain of accountability that exists in the proper governance of corporations, and the extent and limitations of the shareholder’s role in that process. In particular, it is recognised that company management should ordinarily be presumed to be best placed to conduct the commercial affairs of the enterprise concerned, with prime accountability to the enterprise’s Board of Directors which is in turn accountable to shareholders and to external regulators and exchanges. The involvement of Invesco as an institutional shareholder will not extend to interference in the proper exercise of Board or management responsibilities, or impede the ability of companies to take the calculated commercial risks which are essential means of adding value for shareholders.
 
  1.4   The primary aim of the policy is to encourage a culture of performance among investee companies, rather than one of mere conformance with a prescriptive set of rules and constraints. Rigid adherence to a checklist approach to corporate governance issues is of itself unlikely to promote the maximum economic performance of companies, or to cater for circumstances in which non-compliance with a checklist is appropriate or unavoidable.
 
  1.5   Invesco considers that proxy voting rights are an asset which should be managed with the same care as any other asset managed on behalf of its clients.

E-49


 

2. PROXY VOTING AUTHORITY
 
  2.1   An important dimension of Invesco’s approach to corporate governance is the exercise of proxy voting authority at the Annual General Meetings or other decision-making forums of companies in which we manage investments on behalf of clients.
 
  2.2   An initial issue to consider in framing a proxy voting policy is the question of where discretion to exercise voting power should rest — with Invesco as the investment manager, or with each individual client? Under the first alternative, Invesco’s role would be both to make voting decisions on clients’ behalf and to implement those decisions. Under the second alternative, Invesco would either have no role to play, or its role would be limited solely to implementing voting decisions under instructions from our clients.
 
  2.3   In addressing this issue, it is necessary to distinguish the different legal structures and fiduciary relationships which exist as between individually-managed clients, who hold investments directly on their own accounts, and pooled fund clients, whose investments are held indirectly under a trust structure.
 
  2.4   Individually-Managed Clients
 
  2.4.1   As a matter of general policy, Invesco believes that unless a client’s mandate gives specific instructions to the contrary, discretion to exercise votes should normally rest with the investment manager, provided that the discretion is always exercised in the client’s interests alone.
 
  2.4.2   The reason for this position is that Invesco believes that, with its dedicated research resources and ongoing monitoring of companies, an investment manager is usually better placed to identify issues upon which a vote is necessary or desirable. We believe it is also more practical that voting discretion rests with the party that has the authority to buy and sell shares, which is essentially what investment managers have been engaged to do on behalf of their clients.
 
  2.4.3   In cases where voting authority is delegated by an individually-managed client, Invesco recognises its responsibility to be accountable for the decisions it makes. If a client requires, an appropriate reporting mechanism will be put in place.
 
  2.4.4   While it is envisaged that the above arrangements will be acceptable in the majority of cases, it is recognised that some individually-managed clients will wish to retain voting authority for themselves, or to place conditions on the circumstances in which it can be exercised by investment managers. In practice, it is believed that this option is generally only likely to arise with relatively large clients such as trustees of major superannuation funds or statutory corporations which have the resources to develop their own policies and to supervise their implementation by investment managers and custodians. In particular, clients who have multiple equity managers and utilise a master custody arrangement may be more likely to consider retaining voting authority in order to ensure consistency of approach across their total portfolio.
 
  2.4.5   In any event, whatever decision is taken as to where voting authority should lie, Invesco believes that the matter should be explicitly covered by the terms of the investment management agreement and clearly understood by the respective parties.
 
  2.4.6   Accordingly, Invesco will pursue the following policies with respect to the exercise of proxy voting authority for individually-managed clients:

PROXY VOTING AUTHORITY
Individually-Managed Clients

E-50


 

Unless an individually-managed client wishes to retain proxy voting authority, Invesco will assume proxy voting authority by way of delegation from the client, provided that the allocation of proxy voting responsibility is clearly set out in the investment management agreement.
In the case of clients who wish to place special conditions on the delegation of proxy voting powers, Invesco will endeavour to accommodate those clients’ requirements as far as practicable, subject to any administrative obstacles or additional costs that might arise in implementing the conditions.
  2.5   Pooled Fund Clients
 
  2.5.1   The legal relationship between an investment manager and its pooled fund clients is different in a number of important respects from that applying to individually-managed clients. These differences have a bearing on how proxy voting authority is exercised on behalf of pooled fund clients.
 
  2.5.2   These legal relationships essentially mean that the manager is required to act solely in the collective interests of unitholders at large rather than as a direct agent or delegate of each unitholder. On the issue of proxy voting, as with all other aspects of our client relationships, Invesco will naturally continue to be receptive to any views and concerns raised by its pooled fund clients. However, the legal relationship that exists means it is not possible for the manager to accept instructions from a particular pooled fund client as to how to exercise proxy voting authority in a particular instance.
 
  2.5.3   As in the case of individually-managed clients who delegate their proxy voting authority, Invesco’s accountability to pooled fund clients in exercising its fiduciary responsibilities is best addressed as part of the manager’s broader client relationship and reporting responsibilities.
 
  2.5.4   Accordingly, Invesco will pursue the following policies with respect to the exercise of proxy voting authority for pooled fund clients:

PROXY VOTING AUTHORITY
Pooled Fund Clients
In considering proxy voting issues arising in respect of pooled fund shareholdings, Invesco will act solely in accordance with its fiduciary responsibility to take account of the collective interests of unitholders in the pooled fund as a whole.
Invesco cannot accept instructions from individual unitholders as to the exercise of proxy voting authority in a particular instance.

E-51


 

3. KEY PROXY VOTING ISSUES
 
  3.1   This section outlines Invesco’s intended approach in cases where proxy voting authority is being exercised on clients’ behalf.
 
  3.2   Invesco will vote on all material issues at all company meetings where it has the voting authority and responsibility to do so. We will not announce our voting intentions and the reasons behind them.
 
  3.3   Invesco applies two underlying principles. First, our interpretation of ‘material voting issues’ is confined to those issues which affect the value of shares we hold on behalf of clients and the rights of shareholders to an equal voice in influencing the affairs of companies in proportion to their shareholdings. We do not consider it appropriate to use shareholder powers for reasons other than the pursuit of these economic interests. Second, we believe that a critical factor in the development of an optimal corporate governance policy is the need to avoid unduly diverting resources from our primary responsibilities to add value to our clients’ portfolios through investment performance and client service.
 
  3.4   In order to expand upon these principles, Invesco believes it is necessary to consider the role of proxy voting policy in the context of broader portfolio management and administrative issues which apply to our investment management business as a whole. These are discussed as follows.
 
  3.5   Portfolio Management Issues — Active Equity Portfolios
 
  3.5.1   While recognising in general terms that issues concerning corporate governance practices can have a significant bearing on the financial performance of companies, the primary criterion for the selection and retention of a particular stock in active equity portfolios remains our judgment that the stock will deliver superior investment performance for our clients, based on our investment themes and market analysis.
 
  3.5.2   In view of these dynamics, Invesco does not consider it feasible or desirable to prescribe in advance comprehensive guidelines as to how it will exercise proxy voting authority in all circumstances. The primary aim of Invesco’s approach to corporate governance is to encourage a culture of performance among the companies in which we manage investments in order to add value to our clients’ portfolios, rather than one of mere conformance with a prescriptive set of rules and constraints.
 
  3.5.3   Nevertheless, Invesco has identified a limited range of issues upon which it will always exercise proxy voting authority — either to register disapproval of management proposals or to demonstrate support for company initiatives through positive use of voting powers. These issues are outlined as follows:

KEY VOTING ISSUES
Major Corporate Proposals
Invesco will always vote on the following issues arising in company General Meetings where it has the authority to do so on behalf of clients.
  contentious issues (eg. issues of perceived national interest, or where there has been extensive press coverage or public comment);
 
  approval of changes of substantial shareholdings;
 
  mergers or schemes of arrangement; and
 
  approval of major asset sales or purchases.
As a general rule, Invesco will vote against any actions that will reduce the rights or options of shareholders, reduce shareholder influence over the board of directors and management, reduce the alignment of interests between management and shareholders, or reduce the value of shareholders’ investments, unless balanced by reasonable increase in net worth of the shareholding.

E-52


 

Where appropriate, Invesco will also use voting powers to influence companies to adopt generally accepted best corporate governance practices in areas such as board composition, disclosure policies and the other areas of recommended corporate governance practice.
Invesco’s approach to significant proxy voting issues which fall outside these areas will be addressed on their merits.
  3.6   Administrative Issues
 
  3.6.1   In addition to the portfolio management issues outlined above, Invesco’s proxy voting policy also takes account of administrative and cost implications, together with the size of our holdings as compared to the issue size, involved in the exercise of proxy voting authority on our clients’ behalf.
 
  3.6.2   There are practical constraints to the implementation of proxy voting decisions. Proxy voting is a highly seasonal activity, with most company Annual General Meetings being collapsed into a few months, with short deadlines for the distribution and return of notice papers, multiple resolutions from multiple companies being considered simultaneously, and under a legal system which is essentially dependent upon paper-based communication and record-keeping.
 
  3.6.3   In addition, for investment managers such as Invesco who do not invest as principals and who consequently do not appear directly on the share registers of companies, all of these communications are channelled through external custodians, among whom there is in turn a considerable variation in the nature and quality of systems to deal with the flow of information.
 
  3.6.4   While Invesco has the systems in place to efficiently implement proxy voting decisions when required, it can be seen that administrative and cost considerations by necessity play an important role in the application of a responsible proxy voting policy. This is particularly so bearing in mind the extremely limited time period within which voting decisions must often be made and implemented (which can in practice be as little as a few days). This factor also explains why Invesco resists any suggestion that there should be compulsory proxy voting on all issues, as in our view this would only increase the costs to be borne by our clients with very little practical improvement in corporate performance in most cases.
 
  3.6.5   These administrative constraints are further highlighted by the fact that many issues on which shareholders are in practice asked to vote are routine matters relating to the ongoing administration of the company — eg. approval of financial accounts or housekeeping amendments to Articles of Association. Generally in such cases, we will be in favour of the motion as most companies take seriously their duties and are acting in the best interests of shareholders. However, the actual casting of a “yes” vote on all such resolutions in our view would entail an unreasonable administrative workload and cost.
 
  3.6.6   Accordingly, Invesco believes that an important consideration in the framing of a proxy voting policy is the need to avoid unduly diverting resources from our primary responsibilities to add value to our clients’ investments through portfolio management and client service. The policies outlined below have been prepared on this basis.

KEY PROXY VOTING ISSUES
Administrative Constraints
In view of the administrative constraints and costs involved in the exercise of proxy voting powers, Invesco may (depending on circumstances) not exercise its voting right unless its clients’ portfolios in aggregate represent a significant proportion of the shareholdings of the company in question.
A significant proportion in this context means 5% or more of the market capitalisation of the company.

E-53


 

4. INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION & DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
 
  4.1   The following diagram illustrates the procedures adopted by Invesco for the administration of proxy voting:
(GRAPHIC)
  4.2   As shown by the diagram, a central administrative role is performed by our Corporate Action Team, located within the Client Administration section. The initial role of the Corporate Action Team is to receive company notice papers via the range of custodians who hold shares on behalf of our clients, to ascertain which client portfolios hold the stock, and to initiate the decision-making process by distributing the company notice papers to the Primary Investment Manager responsible for the company in question.
 
  4.3   A voting decision on each company resolution (whether a yes or no vote, or a recommended abstention) is made by the Primary Investment Manager responsible for the company in question. Invesco believes that this approach is preferable to the appointment of a committee with responsibility for handling voting issues across all companies, as it takes advantage of the expertise of individuals whose professional lives are occupied by analysing particular companies and sectors, and who are familiar with the issues facing particular companies through their regular company visits.
 
  4.4   Moreover, the Primary Equity Manager has overall responsibility for the relevant market and this ensures that similar issues which arise in different companies are handled in a consistent way across the relevant market.
 
  4.5   The voting decision is then documented and passed back to the Corporate Action Team, who issue the voting instructions to each custodian in advance of the closing date for receipt of proxies by the company. At the same time, the Corporate Action Team logs all proxy voting activities for record keeping or client reporting purposes.
 
  4.6   A key task in administering the overall process is the capture and dissemination of data from companies and custodians within a time frame that makes exercising votes feasible in practice. This applies particularly during the company Annual General Meeting “season”, when there are typically a large number of proxy voting issues under consideration simultaneously. Invesco has no control over the former dependency and Invesco’s ability to influence a custodian’s service levels are limited in the case of individually-managed clients, where the custodian is answerable to the client.

E-54


 

  4.7   The following policy commitments are implicit in these administrative and decision-making processes:

INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
Invesco will consider all resolutions put forward in the Annual General Meetings or other decision-making forums of all companies in which investments are held on behalf of clients, where it has the authority to exercise voting powers. This consideration will occur in the context of our policy on Key Voting Issues outlined in Section 3.
The voting decision will be made by the Primary Investment Manager responsible for the market in question.
A written record will be kept of the voting decision in each case, and in case of an opposing vote, the reason/comment for the decision.
Voting instructions will be issued to custodians as far as practicable in advance of the deadline for receipt of proxies by the company. Invesco will monitor the efficiency with which custodians implement voting instructions on clients’ behalf.
Invesco’s ability to exercise proxy voting authority is dependent on timely receipt of notification from the relevant custodians.

E-55


 

5. CLIENT REPORTING
 
  5.1   Invesco will keep records of its proxy voting activities.
 
  5.2   Upon client request, Invesco will regularly report back to the client on proxy voting activities for investments owned by the client.
 
  5.2   The following points summarise Invesco’s policy commitments on the reporting of proxy voting activities to clients (other than in cases where specific forms of client reporting are specified in the client’s mandate):

CLIENT REPORTING
Where proxy voting authority is being exercised on a client’s behalf, a statistical summary of voting activity will be provided on request as part of the client’s regular quarterly report.
Invesco will provide more detailed information on particular proxy voting issues in response to requests from clients wherever possible.

E-56


 

Guidelines on Exercising Shareholder Voting Rights and
Policies for Deciding on the Exercise of Shareholder Voting Rights
Invesco Asset Management (Japan) Limited
Enforcement Date: July 5, 2010
Revision Date: April 20, 2011
Authority to Amend or Abolish: Shareholders’ Voting Committee

E-57


 

Record of Amendments
     
Date   Content
April 20, 2011
  Revision associated with review of proxy voting guideline

E-58


 

Guidelines on Exercising of Shareholder Voting Rights and
Policy Decision Making Criteria
(Japanese Equities)
Policy and Objectives of Exercising Shareholder Voting Rights
Our company is cognizant of the importance of corporate governance, and exercises votes with the sole objective of maximizing the long term interests of trustors (investors) and beneficiaries, pursuant to our fiduciary duty as a trustee to the trustors (investors) and the beneficiaries. We will not conduct any voting with an objective of own interest or that of any third party other than the trustors (investors) or beneficiaries. The interests of trustors (investors) and beneficiaries means the increasing of corporate value or the increasing of the economic interests of shareholders or the preventing of damage thereto.
Significance of Guidelines on Exercising Shareholder Voting Rights
Our company has determined the Guidelines on Exercising of Shareholder Voting Rights in accordance with our policy on exercising the voting rights of shareholders, for the purpose of exercising votes in an appropriate manner, and will closely examine each proposal and determine the response pursuant to these Guidelines.
Guidelines on Exercising Shareholder Voting Rights
1.   Procedural Proposal
(1) Financial Statements, Business Reports and Auditors Reports
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal requesting approval of the financial statements, business reports and auditor reports, except in the following circumstances:
  -   Concerns exist about the settlement or auditing procedures; or
 
  -   The relevant company has not answered shareholders’ questions concerning matters that should be disclosed.
(2) Allocation of Earned Surplus and Dividends
    A decision regarding a proposal requesting approval of the allocation of earned surplus and dividends will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the financial condition and the business performance of the relevant company as well as the economic interests of shareholders.
2. Election of Directors
A decision regarding a proposal in connection with electing a director will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the independence, suitability and existence or absence of any antisocial activities in

E-59


 

the past on the part of a candidate for director. In the event that a candidate for director is a reelection candidate, we will decide in consideration, inter alia, of the director candidate’s engagement in corporate governance, accountability, the business performance of the company, and the existence or absence of any antisocial act by the company during his or her term in the office.
Definition of the independence:
A person considered to be independent shall mean a person for whom there is no relationship between the relevant company and the candidate for director other than that of being selected as a director.
(1)   Independence
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to elect an external director, however, we will oppose a candidate for an external director who is perceived to have an interest in the relevant company.
 
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for an external director who does not have independence in the case of a committees organized company, except where the majority of the board are independent.
 
    Listed parent and subsidiary
If the relevant company has a listed parent and does not have at least one external director who is independent from the relevant company, we shall in principle oppose the candidates for directors of that company.
(2) Suitability
    In principle we shall oppose a director candidate in the following case:
  -   An attendance rate of less than 75 percent at meetings of the board of directors.
(3) Accountability
    In the following circumstances we will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a director:
  -   If the relevant company has a problematic system as set forth bellow and if business performance of the relevant company during the term in office of the candidate experienced a deficit in three consecutive periods and no dividends were paid or they were inferior when compared to others in the same industry.
 
  -   If a takeover defense strategy is introduced, that has not been approved by a resolution of a general meeting of shareholders.
(4) Business Performance of the Company
    We will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a director in the event that business

E-60


 

      performance of the relevant company during the term in office of the candidate experienced a deficit in three consecutive periods and no dividends were paid.
    We will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a director in the event that business performance of the relevant company during the term in office of the candidate was inferior when compared to others in the same industry.
(5) Antisocial Activities on the Part of the Company
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for reelection as a director in the event that during the term in office of the candidate a corporate scandal occurred that had a significant impact on society and caused or could cause damage to of shareholder value.
 
    In principle we will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a director in the event that during the term in office of the candidate window dressing or inappropriate accounting practices occurred on the part of the relevant company.
(6) Other
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for director in the event that information concerning the relevant candidate has not been sufficiently disclosed.
3. Amendment of the Composition of the Board of Directors and the Required Qualification of Directors
(1) Amendment of the Number of Directors or Composition of the Board of Directors
    A decision regarding a proposal concerning amendment of the number of directors or the composition of the board of directors will be made by making a comparison with the existing situation and considering, inter alia, the impact on the relevant company and the economic interests of shareholders.
(2) Amendment of Required Qualifications of Directors, Their Terms of Office and Scope of Responsibilities
    A decision regarding a proposal concerning amendment of the required qualifications of directors, their terms of office or scope of liabilities will be made by making a comparison with the existing situation and considering, inter alia, the impact on the relevant company and the economic interests of shareholders.
 
    In principle we will oppose a proposal requesting retention of a certain number of a company’s own shares as a condition of installation or continuation in office of a director.
    In principle we will oppose a proposal to restrict a term in office of a director.
 
    In principle we will oppose a proposal to institute a normal retirement age of directors.
 
    In principle we will oppose a proposal to reduce the liabilities of a director from liability in connection with financial damage as a result of a violation of the fiduciary duties.

E-61


 

(3) Amendment of the Procedural Method for Election of Directors
    A decision regarding a proposal concerning amendment of the procedural method of electing directors will be made by making a comparison with the existing situation and considering, inter alia, the reasonability of the amendment.
4. Election of Statutory Auditors
A decision regarding a proposal concerning the election of statutory auditors will be made by considering, inter alia, the independence and the suitability of the candidate for statutory auditor.
Definition of the independence:
A person considered to be independent shall mean a person for whom there is no relationship between the relevant company and the candidate for statutory auditor other than that of being selected as a statutory auditor.
(1) Independence
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for an external statutory auditor if the candidate does not have independence.
(2)   Suitability
    In principle we shall oppose a statutory auditor candidate in the following case:
  -   An attendance rate of less than 75 percent at meetings of the board of directors or meetings of the board of auditors
(3)   Accountability
    In principle we will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a statutory auditor in the event that significant concerns exist in an audit report that has been submitted or audit proceedings.
(4)   Antisocial Activities on the Part of the Company
    In principle we will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a statutory auditor in the event that during the term in office of the candidate a corporate scandal occurred that had a significant impact on society and caused or could cause damage to shareholder value.
    In principle we will consider opposing a candidate for reelection as a statutory auditor in the event that during the term in office of the candidate window dressing or inappropriate accounting practices occurred on the part of the relevant company.

E-62


 

5. Election of Accounting Auditors
We will decide on proposals concerning the election of an accounting auditor by considering, inter alia, the suitability of the candidate for accounting auditor, and the level of audit fees.
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for accounting auditor in the event that the accounting auditor can be determined to have expressed an opinion that is not accurate concerning the financial condition of the relevant company.
    In principle we will oppose in the event that a contract for non-auditing work exists between the accounting auditor and the relevant company, and it is determined that the non-auditing work can be found to present a conflict of interest with the auditing work.
    In principle we will oppose a candidate for accounting auditor in the event that an excessive auditing fee is paid.
    In principle we will oppose a proposal requesting a change of accounting auditor in the event that the reason for the change can be determined to be a result of a difference in interpretation between the accounting auditor and the relevant company regarding accounting policy.
6. Compensation of Directors, Statutory Auditors, Officers and Employees
(1) Compensation (including bonus)
    A decision regarding a proposal concerning compensation will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the levels of compensation, the business performance of the company, and the reasonability of the framework.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to obtain approval of compensation, except in the following cases:
  -   A negative correlation appears to exist between the business performance of the company and compensation
  -   A compensation framework or practice exists which presents an issue
    In principle we will oppose a proposal to pay compensation only by granting shares.
(2)   Stock Option Plan
    A proposal to introduce or amend a stock option plan will be decided in consideration of, inter alia, the impact that introducing or amending the plan will have on shareholder value and the rights of shareholders, as well as the level of compensation, the scope of implementation, and the reasonability of the plan.
    In principle we will oppose a proposal to reduce the exercise price of a stock option plan.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to request that an amendment of the exercise price of a stock option plan be made a matter for approval by the shareholders.

E-63


 

(3) Stock Purchase Plan
    A decision regarding a proposal requesting the introduction or amendment of a stock purchase plan will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the impact that introducing or amending the plan will have on shareholder value and the rights of shareholders, the scope of implementation, and the reasonability of the plan.
(4) Retirement Bonus of Directors or Statutory Auditors
A decision regarding a proposal in connection with awarding a retirement bonus to a director or a statutory auditor will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the extent of the persons who are to be recipients, the existence or absence of antisocial activities in the past on the part of the prospective recipients, the business performance of the company, and the existence or absence of antisocial activities on the part of the company.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to pay a retirement bonus of a director or a statutory auditor if all of the following conditions are satisfied.
  -   Retirement bonus amount is disclosed.
  -   The prospective recipients do not include an external director or an external statutory auditor.
  -   None of the prospective recipients have committed a significant criminal conduct.
  -   The business performance of the relevant company has not experienced a deficit for three consecutive periods and had no dividend or dividends or they were inferior when compared to others in the same industry.
  -   During the terms of office of the prospective recipients there has been no corporate scandal that had a significant impact on society and caused or could cause damage to shareholder value.
  -   During their terms in office there has been no window dressing or inappropriate accounting practices in the relevant company.
7. Equity Financing Policy
(1) Amendment of the Number of Authorized Shares
    A decision regarding a proposal requesting an increase in the number of authorized shares will be made by considering, inter alia, the impact that amending the number of authorized shares will have on shareholder value and the rights of shareholders, as well as the reasonability of the amendment of the number of authorized shares, and the impact on the listing of shares as well as on the continuity of the company.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal requesting an increase in the number of authorized shares if it can be determined that unless an increase is made to the number of authorized shares the company will be delisted or that there is a risk of a significant impact on the continuity of the company.

E-64


 

    In principle we will oppose a proposal to increase the number of authorized shares after the appearance of an acquirer.
(2) Issuing of New Shares
A decision regarding a proposal in connection with issuing of new shares will be made in consideration of, inter alia, reasons of issuing new shares, issuing conditions and terms, the impact of the dilution on the shareholders value and rights of shareholders as well as the impact on the listing of shares and the continuity of the company.
(3) Acquisition or Reissue by a Company of Its Own Shares
    A decision regarding a proposal for a company to acquire or reissue its own shares shall be made by considering, inter alia, its reasonability.
(4) Stock Split
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal involving a stock split.
(5) Consolidation of Shares (Reverse Split)
    A decision regarding a proposal involving a consolidation of shares (reverse split) shall be made by considering, inter alia, its reasonability.
(6) Preferred Shares
    In principle we will oppose a proposal requesting the creation of new preferred shares or increasing the authorized number of preferred shares, by way of a blank power of attorney that does not specify the voting rights, dividends, conversion or other rights.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to create new preferred shares or to increase the number of authorized preferred shares if the voting rights, dividends, conversion and other rights are stipulated and these rights can be determined to be reasonable.
    In principle we will vote in favor of a proposal to the effect that approval of issuing preferred shares is so be obtained from shareholders.
(7) Issuing of Convertible Bonds
    A decision regarding a proposal to issue convertible bonds shall be made by considering, inter alia, the number of shares into which the bonds are to be converted, and the period to maturity of the bonds.
(8) Issuing of Non-Convertible Bonds, and Increasing a Borrowing Limit
    A decision regarding a proposal in connection with the issuing of non-convertible bonds or increasing a borrowing limit shall be made by considering, inter alia the financial condition of the relevant company.

E-65


 

(9) Equitization of Debt
    A decision regarding a proposal requesting an amendment of the number of authorized shares or issuing of shares of the company in relation to a debt restructuring shall be made in consideration of, inter alia, the conditions of amending the number of authorized shares or issuing shares of the company, the impact on shareholder value and on the rights of shareholders, the reasonability thereof, and the impact on listing of the shares as well as on the continuity of the company.
(10) Capital Reduction
    A decision regarding a proposal in connection with a capital reduction will be made in consideration of, inter alia, the impact on shareholder value and on the rights of shareholders, the