N-1A/A 1 d429949dn1aa.htm GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST II Goldman Sachs Trust II

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 19, 2013

1933 Act Registration No. 333-185659

1940 Act Registration No. 811-22781

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D. C. 20549

 

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933                x
   Pre-Effective Amendment No.         1                        x
   Post-Effective Amendment No.                ¨
   and/or   

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

   THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940     x
   Amendment No.             1                  x

(Check appropriate box or boxes)

 

 

GOLDMAN SACHS TRUST II

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

 

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (212) 902-1000

CAROLINE KRAUS, ESQ.

Goldman, Sachs & Co.

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copies to:

STEPHEN H. BIER, ESQ.

Dechert LLP

1095 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10036

 

 

Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: As soon as practicable after the effective date of the registration statement

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that the registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Preliminary Prospectus dated April 19, 2013

Subject to Completion

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Prospectus

 

April     , 2013

 

GOLDMAN SACHS MULTI-MANAGER ALTERNATIVES FUND

 

THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

 

AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND IS NOT A BANK DEPOSIT AND IS NOT INSURED BY THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCY. AN INVESTMENT IN THE FUND INVOLVES INVESTMENT RISKS, AND YOU MAY LOSE MONEY IN THE FUND.

 

 

¢  

Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund

 

  n  

Class A Shares: GMAMX

  n  

Class C Shares: GMCMX

  n  

Institutional Shares: GSMMX

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Class IR Shares: GIMMX

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Class R Shares: GRMMX

 

LOGO


Table of Contents

 

  1      Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund – Summary
  14      Investment Management Approach
  23      Risks of the Fund
  39      Service Providers
  46     

Distributions

   
  47      Shareholder Guide
 

47  How To Buy Shares

 

60  How To Sell Shares

  73      Taxation
  76     

Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio Risks, Securities and Techniques

  106     

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 


LOGO

 

Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund—Summary

Investment Objective

The Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund (the “Fund”) seeks long-term growth of capital.

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. You may qualify for sales charge discounts on purchases of Class A Shares if you and your family invest, or agree to invest in the future, at least $100,000 in Goldman Sachs Funds. More information about these and other discounts is available from your financial professional and in “Shareholder Guide—Common Questions Applicable to the Purchase of Class A Shares” beginning on page 57 of this Prospectus and “Other Information Regarding Maximum Sales Charge, Purchases, Redemptions, Exchanges and Dividends” beginning on page B-82 of the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Class IR     Class R  

Shareholder Fees

         
(fees paid directly from your investment):          

Maximum Sales Charge (Load) Imposed on Purchases (as a percentage of offering price)

    5.50%        None        None        None        None   

Maximum Deferred Sales Charge (Load) (as a percentage of the lower of original purchase price or sale proceeds)1

    None        1.00%        None        None        None   
     Class A     Class C     Institutional     Class IR     Class R  

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

         
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)          

Management Fees

    2.00%        2.00%        2.00%        2.00%        2.00%   

Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees

    0.25%        1.00%        None        None        0.50%   

Other Expenses2

    1.03%        1.03%        0.88%        1.03%        1.03%   

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses

    3.28%        4.03%        2.88%        3.03%        3.53%   

Expense Limitation3

    (0.73)%        (0.73)%        (0.73)%        (0.73)%        (0.73)%   

Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Expense Limitation

    2.55%        3.30%        2.15%        2.30%        2.80%   

 

1 

A contingent deferred sales charge (“CDSC”) of 1.00% is imposed on Class C Shares redeemed within 12 months of purchase.

2 

The Fund’s “Other Expenses” have been estimated to reflect expenses expected to be incurred during the first fiscal year.

 

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3 

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, litigation, indemnification, shareholder meeting and other extraordinary expenses) to 0.114% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. This arrangement will remain in effect through at least April 30, 2014, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.

Expense Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in Class A, Class C, Institutional, Class IR and/or Class R Shares of the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Class A, Class C, Institutional, Class IR and/or Class R Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same (except that the Example incorporates the expense limitation arrangements for only the first year). Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:

 

      1 Year      3 Years  

Class A Shares

   $ 477       $ 1,146   

Class C Shares

     

–  Assumingcomplete redemption at end of period

   $ 433       $ 1,160   

–  Assumingno redemption

   $ 433       $ 1,160   

Institutional Shares

   $ 218       $ 823   

Class IR Shares

   $ 233       $ 868   

Class R Shares

   $ 283       $ 1,015   
     

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs when it buys and sells securities or instruments (i.e., “turns over” its portfolio). A high rate of portfolio turnover may result in increased transaction costs, including brokerage commissions, which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders. These costs are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the expense example above, but are reflected in the Fund’s performance.

Principal Strategy

The Fund generally seeks to achieve its investment objective by allocating its assets among multiple investment managers (“Underlying Managers”) who are unaffiliated with the Investment Adviser and who employ one or more non-traditional and alternative investment strategies including, but not limited to, Equity Long Short, Dynamic Equity, Event Driven and Credit, Relative Value, Tactical Trading, and Opportunistic Fixed Income Strategies, each of which are described below.

 

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The Fund will primarily invest in a portfolio of (i) equity securities, including common and preferred stocks, convertible securities, rights and warrants, depositary receipts, real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies, exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), European registered investment funds (UCITS) and private investment funds, and partnership interests, including master limited partnerships (“MLPs”); (ii) fixed income and/or floating rate securities, including debt issued by corporations, debt issued by governments (including the U.S. and foreign governments), their agencies, instrumentalities, sponsored entities, and political subdivisions, covered bonds, notes, debentures, debt participations, convertible bonds, non-investment grade securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), bank loans (including senior secured loans) and other direct indebtedness; (iii) mortgage-backed and other mortgage-related securities, asset-backed securities, municipal securities, to be announced (“TBA”) securities, and custodial receipts; (iv) currencies; and (v) restricted securities eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “144A Securities”). The Fund’s investments may be publicly traded or privately issued or negotiated. The Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity or credit rating.

The Fund’s investments may include securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including securities of issuers in emerging countries and securities denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar. Up to 15% of the Fund’s net assets may be invested in illiquid investments. The Fund does not have a target duration.

The Fund may also invest in derivatives for both hedging and non-hedging purposes (although no Underlying Manager is required to hedge any of the Fund’s positions or to use derivatives). The Fund’s derivative investments may include (i) futures contracts, including futures based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, interest rate futures, currency futures and swap futures; (ii) swaps, including equity, currency, interest rate, total return, variance and credit default swaps, and swaps on futures contracts; (iii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices, individual securities or currencies, swaptions and options on futures contracts; (iv) forward contracts, including forwards based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, currency forwards, interest rate forwards, swap forwards and non-deliverable forwards; and (v) other instruments, including structured securities, exchange-traded notes, and contracts for differences (“CFDs”). As a result of the Fund’s use of derivatives, the Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits.

The Fund may use leverage (e.g., through the use of derivatives). As a result, the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time.

The Fund may take long and/or short positions in a wide range of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities and currencies, among others. Long positions benefit from an increase in the price of the underlying instrument or asset class, while short positions benefit from a decrease in that price.

 

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The Fund may implement short positions through short sales of any instrument (including ETFs) that the Fund may purchase for investment or by using options, swaps, futures, forwards, and other derivatives. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset that it does not currently own at a specified price and time in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset.

The Fund may gain exposure to commodities through investments in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles.

Management Process

The Investment Adviser and the Fund have applied for an exemptive order from the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). If that order is issued, the Investment Advisor will have the ultimate responsibility, subject to oversight by the board, to oversee the underlying managers and recommend their hiring, termination and replacement. The initial shareholder of the Fund has approved the Fund’s operation in this manner and reliance by the Fund on this exemptive order once issued by the SEC. There is no assurance the SEC will grant the requested exemptive order.

The Investment Adviser determines the percentage of the Fund’s portfolio allocated to each Underlying Manager in order to seek to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Investment Adviser’s Alternative Investments & Manager Selection (“AIMS”) Group is responsible for making recommendations with respect to hiring, terminating, or replacing the Fund’s Underlying Managers, as well as the Fund’s asset allocations. With respect to the Fund, the AIMS Group applies a multifaceted process around manager due diligence, portfolio construction, and risk management.

The Investment Adviser may determine to allocate the Fund’s assets to Underlying Managers employing all or a subset of the non-traditional and alternative strategies described below at any one time, and may change those allocations from time to time in its sole discretion and without prior notice to shareholders.

The descriptions of the investment strategies below are subjective, are not complete descriptions of any strategy and may differ from classifications made by other investment advisers that implement similar investment strategies. The Investment Adviser’s determination of the strategy shall govern. In the future, the Investment Adviser may also determine to allocate the Fund’s assets to Underlying Managers employing other strategies not described herein.

Equity Long Short Strategies generally involve long and short investing, based on fundamental evaluations, research and various analytical measurements, in equity and equity-related investments. Equity Long Short managers may, for example, buy stocks that they expect to outperform or that they believe are undervalued, and may also sell short stocks that they believe will underperform, or that they believe are overvalued. Within this framework, Equity Long Short managers may exhibit a range of styles, including longer term buy-and-hold investing and/or shorter term trading styles. The portion of the Fund’s assets invested in equity long/short strategies may cumulatively represent a net short or net long position.

 

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Dynamic Equity Strategies generally involve investing in equity instruments, often with a long term view. Dynamic Equity Strategies are less likely to track a benchmark than traditional long-only strategies. Dynamic Equity managers are less constrained than traditional long-only managers with respect to factors such as position concentration, sector and country weights, style, and market capitalization. Dynamic Equity managers may hedge long positions and may also purchase, in addition to equity investments, bonds, options, preferred securities, and convertible securities, among others. Dynamic Equity Strategies are long-biased strategies and may have low correlations to traditional equity strategies.

Event Driven and Credit Strategies seek to achieve gains from market movements in security prices caused by specific corporate events or changes in perceived relative value. These strategies may include, among others, Merger Arbitrage, Distressed Credit, Opportunistic Credit, and Value With a Catalyst investing styles. Merger Arbitrage investing involves long and/or short investments in securities affected by a corporate merger or acquisition. Distressed Credit investing typically involves the purchase of securities or other financial instruments—usually bonds or bank loans—of companies that are in, or are about to enter, bankruptcy or financial distress. Opportunistic Credit investing generally involves investing across the capital structure (which could include, investing in both mezzanine debt and convertible securities of an issuer and/or adjusting exposures across fixed income and floating rate market segments based on perceived opportunity and current market conditions). This can be done by taking a long position in a credit security or other financial instrument that is believed to be underpriced or a short position in a credit security or other financial instrument that is believed to be overpriced. Value With a Catalyst investing involves taking a view on the likelihood and potential stock price outcome of corporate events such as divestitures, spin-offs, material litigation, changes in management, or large share buybacks.

Relative Value Strategies seek to identify and benefit from price discrepancies between related assets (assets that share a common financial factor, such as interest rates, an issuer, or an index). Relative Value opportunities generally rely on arbitrage (the simultaneous purchase and sale of related assets) and may exist between two issuers or within the capital structure of a single issuer. Relative Value Strategies attempt to exploit a source of return with low correlation to the market. Relative Value Strategies include, among others, fixed income arbitrage, convertible arbitrage, volatility arbitrage, statistical arbitrage and equity market neutral strategies.

Tactical Trading Strategies seek to produce total return by long and short investing across global fixed income, currency, equity, and commodity markets. Tactical Trading managers may employ various investment styles. Tactical Trading managers that employ a global macro style may select their investments based upon fundamental analysis (determining an asset’s value based upon factors that directly affect its value). Tactical Trading managers that employ a Managed Futures investing style may use quantitative modeling techniques (determining an asset’s value based upon an analysis of price history, price momentum, and the asset’s value relative to that of other assets, among other factors). Some Tactical Trading managers may employ both fundamental analysis

 

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and quantitative modeling techniques. Tactical Trading managers typically have no bias to be long, short, or neutral.

Opportunistic Fixed Income Strategies seek to deliver positive absolute returns in excess of cash investments regardless of economic cycle (i.e., downturns and upswings) or cyclical credit availability. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers seek to maintain diversified exposure across various fixed income and floating rate market segments, with a focus on more liquid markets, assessing the relative value across sectors and adjusting portfolio weightings based on opportunity. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers generally employ a bottom up credit analysis approach and a value aspect in selecting investments. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers may seek exposure to potential income generators including, among others, global emerging markets, investment grade and high yield debt markets, convertible bonds, and bank loans.

Additional Information

THE FUND IS “NON-DIVERSIFIED” UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, AS AMENDED (“INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT”) AND MAY INVEST MORE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN “DIVERSIFIED” MUTUAL FUNDS.

Principal Risks of the Fund

Loss of money is a risk of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any government agency. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program. There can be no assurance that the Fund will achieve its investment objective.

Investment in the Fund involves substantial risks which prospective investors should consider carefully before investing.

Absence of Regulation.  The Fund engages in over-the-counter (“OTC”) transactions. In general, there is less governmental regulation and supervision of transactions in the OTC markets than of transactions entered into on organized exchanges.

Call Risk.  An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by a Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. This may happen when there is a decline in interest rates, when credit spreads change, or when an issuer’s credit quality improves. Under these circumstances, a Fund may be unable to recoup all of its initial investment and will also suffer from having to reinvest in lower-yielding securities.

Counterparty Risk.  Many of the protections afforded to participants on some organized exchanges, such as the performance guarantee of an exchange clearinghouse, might not be available in connection with OTC transactions. Therefore, in those instances in which the Fund enters into OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. Because the Fund’s Underlying Managers may trade with counterparties,

 

6


prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser.

Credit/Default Risk.  An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest, repay principal or make a margin payment. Additionally, the credit quality of securities may deteriorate rapidly, which may impair the Fund’s liquidity and cause significant deterioration in net asset value (“NAV”). To the extent that the Fund invests in non-investment grade fixed income securities, these risks will be more pronounced.

Derivatives Risk.  Loss may result from the Fund’s investments in forwards, futures, swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments. These instruments may be illiquid, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Emerging Countries Risk.  The securities markets of most emerging countries are less liquid, are especially subject to greater price volatility, have smaller market capitalizations, have more or less government regulation and are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements as the securities markets of more developed countries. Further, investment in equity security of issuers located in emerging countries involves risk of loss resulting from problems in share registration or custody, settlement and substantial economic and political disruptions. These risks are not normally associated with investments in more developed countries.

Expenses Risk.  By investing in pooled investment vehicles (including private investment funds, investment companies, ETFs, UCITS and money market funds), partnerships and REITs indirectly through the Fund, the investor will incur not only a proportionate share of the expenses of the other pooled investment vehicles, partnerships and REITs held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees), but also expenses of the Fund. The Fund’s multi-manager approach may also result in additional expenses.

Extension Risk.  An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by a Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) later than expected. This may happen when there is a rise in interest rates. Under these circumstances, the value of the obligation will decrease, and a Fund will also suffer from the inability to reinvest in higher yielding securities.

Foreign Risk.  When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with domestic issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquidity, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and

 

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business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls, foreign taxes, confiscations, expropriation and other government restrictions, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in issuers located in emerging countries.

Global Financial Markets Risk.  Global economics and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected and conditions (including recent volatility and instability) and events (including natural disasters) in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. In addition, governmental and quasi-governmental organizations have taken a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the markets. Such events and conditions may adversely affect the value of the Fund’s securities, result in greater market or liquidity risk or cause difficulty valuing the Fund’s portfolio instruments or achieving the Fund’s objective.

High Portfolio Turnover Risk.  Some or all of the strategies utilized by the Fund may involve in frequent and active trading and have a high portfolio turnover rate, which may increase the Fund’s transaction costs, may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or may generate a greater amount of short-term capital gain distributions to shareholders than if the Fund had a low portfolio turnover rate. Active trading in derivatives will have the same effects but will not always be reflected in the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate.

Interest Rate Risk.  When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities or instruments will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed income securities or instruments.

Investment Style Risk.  Different investment styles (e.g., “growth”, “value” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions and investor sentiment. The Fund employs various non-traditional and alternative investment styles, and may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

Leverage Risk.  The use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet asset segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

 

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Liquidity Risk.  The Fund may make investments that may be illiquid or that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Illiquid investments may be more difficult to value. Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests or other reasons. To meet redemption requests, the Fund may be forced to sell securities, at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions.

Loans and Other Direct Indebtedness Risk.  Loans and other direct indebtedness involve the risk that payment of principal, interest and other amounts due in connection with these investments may not be received. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be relatively illiquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan obligations are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and may be relatively illiquid and difficult to value. This will also have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular loan obligations when necessary to meet the Fund’s liquidity needs or when necessary in response to a specific economic event, such as a decline in the credit quality of the borrower. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower.

Management and Model Risk.  A strategy implemented by an Underlying Manager may fail to produce the intended results. Certain Underlying Managers may attempt to execute strategies for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). There is no guarantee that an Underlying Manager’s use of quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. An Underlying Manager may occasionally make changes to the selection or weight of individual securities, currencies or markets in the Fund, as a result of changes to a quantitative model, the method of applying that model, or the judgment of the Underlying Manager. Commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

Market Risk.  The value of the instruments in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets.

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk.  Investments in mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies. These securities may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price

 

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movements and may lack sufficient market liquidity, and these issuers often face greater business risks.

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Securities Risk.  Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks, including “extension risk” (i.e., in periods of rising interest rates, issuers may pay principal later than expected) and “prepayment risk” (i.e., in periods of declining interest rates, issuers may pay principal more quickly than expected, causing the Fund to reinvest proceeds at lower prevailing interest rates). Mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers are subject to other risks as well, including failures of private insurers to meet their obligations and unexpectedly high rates of default on the mortgages backing the securities. Other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as risks associated with the nature and servicing of the assets backing the securities. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

Multi-Manager Approach Risk.  The Fund’s performance depends on the skill of the Investment Adviser in selecting, overseeing, and allocating Fund assets to the Underlying Managers. The Underlying Managers’ investment styles may not always be complementary. Underlying Managers make investment decisions independently of one another, and may make decisions that conflict with each other. For example, it is possible that an Underlying Manager may purchase a security for the Fund at the same time that another Underlying Manager sells the same security, resulting in higher expenses without accomplishing any net investment result; or that several Underlying Managers purchase the same security at the same time, without aggregating their transactions, resulting in higher expenses. Moreover, the Fund’s multi-manager approach may result in the Fund investing a significant percentage of its assets in certain types of securities, which could be beneficial or detrimental to the Fund’s performance depending on the performance of those securities and the overall market environment. The Fund’s Underlying Managers may underperform the market generally or underperform other investment managers that could have been selected for the Fund. Because the Fund’s Underlying Managers may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser. Some Underlying Managers have little experience managing registered investment companies which, unlike the private investment funds these Underlying Managers have been managing, are subject to daily inflows and outflows of investor cash and are subject to certain legal and tax-related restrictions on their investments and operations. Subject to the overall supervision of the Fund’s investment program by the Fund’s Investment Adviser, each Underlying Manager is responsible, with respect to the portion of the Fund’s assets it manages, for compliance with the Fund’s investment strategies and applicable law. The Investment Adviser and the Fund have applied for an exemptive order from the SEC that, if issued, will permit the

 

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Investment Adviser to engage additional Underlying Managers, to enter into subadvisory agreements with those Underlying Managers, and to materially amend any existing subadvisory agreement with Underlying Managers, upon the approval of the Board of Trustees and without shareholder approval. The Fund’s ability to implement its multi-manager strategy will depend on receipt of this exemptive order. If the Fund does not receive the exemptive order, the Fund will not be able to hire new Underlying Managers without a shareholder vote.

NAV Risk.  The NAV of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

Non-Diversification Risk.  The Fund is non-diversified and is permitted to invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than a diversified mutual fund. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk.  The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for speculative purposes. The Fund’s Underlying Managers may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the applicable Underlying Managers’ judgment regarding the direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Underlying Managers seek to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from the Underlying Managers’ expectations may produce significant losses to the Fund.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk.  Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly referred to as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.

Short Position Risk.  The Fund may enter into a short position through a futures contract, an option or swap agreement or by shorting a security directly. Taking short positions involves leverage of the Fund’s assets and presents various risks. If the price of the underlying instrument or market on which the Fund has taken a short position increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in price from the time that the short position was entered into plus any related interest payments or other fees. Taking short positions involves the risk that losses may be disproportionate and may exceed the amount invested.

Stock Risk.  Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

 

11


U.S. Government Securities Risk.  The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) and the Federal Home Loan Banks are neither issued nor guaranteed by the United States Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Performance

As the Fund had not yet commenced investment operations as of the date of this Prospectus, there is no performance information quoted for the Fund.

Portfolio Management

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. is the investment adviser for the Fund (the “Investment Adviser” or “GSAM”).

As of the date of this prospectus, Ares Capital Management II LLC (“Ares”), Brigade Capital Management, LLC (“Brigade”), GAM International Management Limited (“GAM”), Karsch Capital Management, LP (“KCM”) and Lateef Investment Management, L.P. (“Lateef”) are the Underlying Managers (investment subadvisers) for the Fund.

Investment Adviser Portfolio Managers:  Jason Gottlieb, Managing Director, has managed the fund since inception; Ryan Roderick, Managing Director, has managed the Fund since inception.

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

The minimum initial investment for Class A and Class C Shares is, generally, $1,000. The minimum initial investment for Institutional Shares is, generally, $1,000,000 for individual or institutional investors or certain wrap account sponsors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates. There is no minimum for initial purchases of Class R and Class IR Shares. Those share classes with a minimum initial investment requirement do not impose it on certain employee benefit plans, and Institutional Shares do not impose it on certain investment advisers investing on behalf of other accounts.

The minimum subsequent investment for Class A and Class C shareholders is $50, except for certain employee benefit plans, for which there is no minimum. There is no minimum subsequent investment for Institutional, Class R or Class IR shareholders.

You may purchase and redeem (sell) shares of the Fund on any business day through certain brokers, investment advisers and other financial institutions (“Authorized Institutions”).

Tax Information

The Fund’s distributions are taxable, and will be taxed as ordinary income or capital gains, unless you are investing through a tax-deferred arrangement, such as a 401(k) plan or an individual retirement account. Investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may become taxable upon withdrawal from such arrangements.

 

12


Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase the Fund through an Authorized Institution, the Fund and/or its related companies may pay the Authorized Institution for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Authorized Institution and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your Authorized Institution’s website for more information.

 

13


 

Investment Management Approach

 

  INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE     

The Fund seeks long-term growth of capital. The Fund’s investment objective may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days notice.

 

  PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES     

The Fund generally seeks to achieve its investment objective by allocating its assets among multiple investment managers (“Underlying Managers”) who are unaffiliated with the Investment Adviser and who employ one or more non-traditional and alternative investment strategies including, but not limited to, Equity Long Short, Dynamic Equity, Event Driven and Credit, Relative Value, Tactical Trading, and Opportunistic Fixed Income Strategies, each of which are described below. Fund assets not allocated to Underlying Managers may be managed by the Investment Adviser although the Investment Adviser does not intend to manage a significant portion of the Fund’s assets directly, as of the date of this prospectus. Underlying Managers are responsible for the day-to-day investment decisions of the Fund, although the Investment Adviser may, in its sole discretion, develop performance benchmarks and investment guidelines with Underlying Managers. Each Underlying Manager selected for the Fund may receive an allocation of the Fund’s assets for management. Such allocations are determined by the Investment Adviser in its sole discretion and assets managed by an Underlying Manager may be reallocated by the Investment Adviser, in its sole discretion, to any other Underlying Manager. The Investment Adviser will seek to construct a portfolio of Underlying Managers that it believes have the ability to achieve low correlation to each other and to the global equity markets generally.

The Fund will primarily invest in a portfolio of (i) equity securities, including common and preferred stocks, convertible securities, rights and warrants, depositary receipts, real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), pooled investment vehicles, including other investment companies, exchange traded funds (“ETFs”), European investment companies (UCITS) and private investment funds, and partnership interests, including master limited partnerships (“MLPs”); (ii) fixed income and/or floating rate securities, including debt issued by corporations, debt issued by governments (including the U.S. and foreign governments), their agencies, instrumentalities, sponsored entities, and political subdivisions, covered bonds, notes, debentures, debt participations, convertible bonds, non-investment grade securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), bank loans (including senior secured loans) and other direct indebtedness; (iii) mortgage-backed and other mortgage related securities, asset-backed securities, municipal securities, to be announced (“TBA”)

 

14


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

securities, and custodial receipts; (iv) currencies; and (v) restricted securities illegible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A Securities. The Fund’s investments may be publicly traded or privately issued or negotiated. The Fund may invest without restriction as to issuer capitalization, country, currency, maturity or credit rating.

The Fund’s investments may include securities of U.S. and foreign issuers, including securities of issuers in emerging countries and securities denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar. Up to 15% of the Fund’s net assets may be invested in illiquid investments. The Fund does not have a target duration.

The Fund may also invest in derivatives for both hedging and non-hedging purposes (although no Underlying Manager is required to hedge any of the Fund’s positions or to use derivatives). The Fund’s derivative investments may include (i) futures contracts, including futures based on equity or fixed income securities and/or equity or fixed income indices, interest rate futures, currency futures and swap futures; (ii) swaps, including equity, interest rate, total return, variance and credit default swaps, and swaps on futures contracts; (iii) options, including long and short positions in call options and put options on indices or individual securities, swaptions and options on futures contracts; (iv) forwards, including currency forwards and non-deliverable forwards; and (v) other instruments, including structured securities, exchange traded notes, and CFDs. As a result of the Fund’s use of derivatives, the Fund may also hold significant amounts of U.S. Treasuries or short-term investments, including money market funds, repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements, cash and time deposits.

The Fund may use leverage (e.g., through the use of derivatives). As a result, the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time.

The Fund may take long and/or short positions in a wide range of asset classes, including equities, fixed income, commodities and currencies, among others. Long positions benefit from an increase in the price of the underlying instrument or asset class, while short positions benefit from a decrease in that price.

The Fund may implement short positions through short sales of any instrument (including ETFs) that the Fund may purchase for investment or by using swaps, futures, forwards, options and other derivatives. For example, the Fund may enter into a futures contract pursuant to which it agrees to sell an asset that it does not currently own at a specified price and time in the future. This gives the Fund a short position with respect to that asset.

The Fund may gain exposure to commodities through investments in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles. Although it does not currently

 

15


intend to do so, the Fund may also invest through a wholly-owned subsidiary, which would be advised by the Investment Adviser and subadvised by one or more Underlying Managers and would have the same investment objective as the Fund, or in certain commodity-linked investments.

Management Process

The Investment Adviser and the Fund have applied for an exemptive order from the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) that, if issued, will permit the Investment Adviser to engage additional Underlying Managers, to enter into subadvisory agreements with those Underlying Managers, and to materially amend any existing subadvisory agreements with Underlying Managers, upon the approval of the Board of Trustees and without shareholder approval. The initial shareholder of the Fund has approved the Fund’s operation in this manner and reliance by the Fund on this exemptive order once issued by the SEC. There is no assurance the SEC will grant the requested exemptive order.

The Investment Adviser determines the percentage of the Fund’s portfolio allocated to each Underlying Manager in order to seek to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Investment Adviser’s Alternative Investments & Manager Selection (“AIMS”) Group is responsible for making recommendations with respect to hiring, terminating, or replacing the Fund’s Underlying Managers, as well as the Fund’s asset allocations. The AIMS Group manages over $120 billion of client assets and provides investors with investment and advisory solutions, across third-party hedge fund managers, private equity funds, real estate managers, and traditional long-only managers. The AIMS Group manages globally diversified programs, targeted sector-specific strategies, customized portfolios, and provides a range of advisory services. With over 275 professionals across 10 offices around the world, the AIMS Group provides manager diligence, portfolio construction, risk management, and liquidity solutions to investors, drawing on Goldman Sachs’ market insights and risk management expertise. GSAM leverages the resources of Goldman Sachs & Co. subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions.

With respect to the Fund, the AIMS Group applies a multifaceted process around manager due diligence, portfolio construction, and risk management. The manager due diligence process includes both qualitative and quantitative analysis on each potential Underlying Manager. The factors employed to evaluate the managers that are ultimately selected have been developed over years and are informed by thousands of manager diligences. These factors include, among others, business stability, succession planning, team development, past and expected investment performance, ability to navigate in varying market conditions, risk management techniques, and liquidity of investments. In addition, the AIMS Group has a dedicated team to assess

 

16


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

the operational integrity and controls as part of the due diligence process. The AIMS Group is also engaged in portfolio construction and dynamic rebalancing of the assets allocated to Underlying Managers in the Fund. The team’s portfolio construction process combines judgment with quantitative tools and focuses on diversification by selecting multiple managers who employ diverse approaches to a variety of strategies. The AIMS Group focuses on an Underlying Manager’s return expectations, contribution to risk, liquidity, and its fit within the Fund. Furthermore, the AIMS Group seeks to employ an active risk management process which includes regular monitoring of the Underlying Managers and in-depth factor, scenario, and exposure analysis of the Fund.

The Investment Adviser may determine to allocate the Fund’s assets to Underlying Managers employing all or a subset of the non-traditional and alternative strategies described below at any one time, and may change those allocations from time to time in its sole discretion and without prior notice to shareholders. The Investment Adviser may also determine to allocate the Fund’s assets to Underlying Managers employing other strategies not described herein.

The descriptions of the investment strategies below are subjective, are not complete descriptions of any strategy and may differ from classifications made by other investment advisers that implement similar investment strategies. The Investment Adviser’s determination of the strategy shall govern.

Equity Long Short Strategies generally involve long and short investing, based on fundamental evaluations, research and various analytical measurements, in equity and equity-related investments. Equity Long Short managers may, for example, buy stocks that they expect to outperform or that they believe are undervalued, and may also sell short stocks that they believe will underperform, or that they believe are overvalued. Within this framework, Equity Long Short managers may exhibit a range of styles, including longer term buy-and-hold investing and/or shorter term trading styles. The portion of the Fund’s assets invested in equity long/short strategies may cumulatively represent a net short or net long position.

Dynamic Equity Strategies generally involve investing in equity instruments, often with a long term view. Dynamic Equity Strategies are less likely to track a benchmark than traditional long-only strategies. Dynamic Equity managers are less constrained than traditional long-only managers with respect to factors such as position concentration, sector and country weights, style, and market capitalization. Dynamic Equity managers may hedge long positions and may also purchase, in addition to equity investments, bonds, options, preferred securities, and convertible securities, among others. Dynamic Equity Strategies are long-biased strategies and may have low

 

17


correlations to traditional equity strategies. Dynamic Equity Strategies are long-biased strategies that may have low correlations to traditional equity strategies.

Event Driven and Credit Strategies seek to achieve gains from market movements in security prices caused by specific corporate events or changes in perceived relative value. These strategies may include, among others, Merger Arbitrage, Distressed Credit, Opportunistic Credit, and Value With a Catalyst investing styles. Merger Arbitrage investing involves long and/or short investments in securities affected by a corporate merger or acquisition. Distressed Credit investing typically involves the purchase of securities or other financial instruments—usually bonds or bank loans—of companies that are in, or are about to enter, bankruptcy or financial distress. Opportunistic Credit investing generally involves investing across the capital structure (which could include, investing in both mezzanine debt and convertible securities of an issuer and/or adjusting exposures across fixed income and floating rate market segments based on perceived opportunity and current market conditions). This can be done by taking a long position in a credit security or other financial instrument that is believed to be underpriced or a short position in a credit security or other financial instrument that is believed to be overpriced. Value With a Catalyst investing involves taking a view on the likelihood and potential stock price outcome of corporate events such as divestitures, spin-offs, material litigation, changes in management, or large share buybacks.

Relative Value Strategies seek to identify and benefit from price discrepancies between related assets (assets that share a common financial factor, such as interest rates, an issuer, or an index). Relative Value opportunities generally rely on arbitrage (the simultaneous purchase and sale of related assets) and may exist between two issuers or within the capital structure of a single issuer. Relative Value Strategies attempt to exploit a source of return with low correlation to the market. Relative Value Strategies include, among others, fixed income arbitrage, convertible arbitrage, volatility arbitrage, statistical arbitrage and equity market neutral strategies.

Tactical Trading Strategies seek to produce total return by long and short investing across global fixed income, currency, equity, and commodity markets. Tactical Trading managers may employ various investment styles. Tactical Trading managers that employ a global macro style may select their investments based upon fundamental analysis (determining an asset’s value based upon factors that directly affect its value). Tactical Trading managers that employ a Managed Futures investing style may use quantitative modeling techniques (determining an asset’s value based upon an analysis of price history, price momentum, and the asset’s value relative to that of other assets, among other factors). Some Tactical Trading managers may employ both fundamental analysis and quantitative modeling techniques. Tactical Trading managers typically have no bias to be long, short, or neutral.

 

18


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

Opportunistic Fixed Income Strategies seek to deliver positive absolute returns in excess of cash investments regardless of economic cycle (i.e., downturns and upswings) or cyclical credit availability. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers seek to maintain diversified exposure across various fixed income and floating rate market segments, with a focus on more liquid markets, assessing the relative value across sectors and adjusting portfolio weightings based on opportunity. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers generally employ a bottom up credit analysis approach and a value aspect in selecting investments. Opportunistic Fixed Income managers may seek exposure to potential income generators including, among others, global emerging markets, investment grade and high yield debt markets, convertible bond, and bank loans.

The Fund’s benchmark is the BofA Merrill Lynch U.S. Dollar 3-Month U.S. Treasury Bill Index (the “Index”). The BofA Merrill Lynch US 3-Month Treasury Bill Index is comprised of a single issue purchased at the beginning of the month and held for a full month. At the end of the month that issue is sold and rolled into a newly selected issue. The issue selected at each month-end rebalancing is the outstanding Treasury Bill that matures closest to, but not beyond, three months from the rebalancing date. To qualify for selection, an issue must have settled on or before the month-end rebalancing date. While the index will often hold the Treasury Bill issued at the most recent 3-month auction, it is also possible for a seasoned 6-month Bill to be selected.

References in this Prospectus to the Fund’s benchmark are for informational purposes only, and unless otherwise noted are not an indication of how the Fund is managed. The use of the Index as the Fund’s benchmark does not imply that the Fund is being managed like cash and does not imply low risk or low volatility.

THE FUND IS “NON-DIVERSIFIED” UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT AND MAY INVEST MORE OF ITS ASSETS IN FEWER ISSUERS THAN “DIVERSIFIED” MUTUAL FUNDS.

The Fund may, from time to time, take temporary defensive positions in attempting to respond to adverse market, political or other conditions. For temporary defensive purposes, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”), commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s, or having a comparable credit rating from another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser to be of comparable quality), certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, repurchase agreements, non-convertible preferred stocks and non-convertible corporate bonds with a remaining maturity of less than one year, ETFs and other investment companies and

 

19


cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

 

  OTHER INVESTMENT PRACTICES AND SECURITIES     

The tables below identify some of the investment techniques that may (but are not required to) be used by the Fund in seeking to achieve its investment objective. The Fund may be subject to additional limitations on its investments not shown here. Numbers in the tables show allowable usage only; for actual usage, consult the Fund’s annual/semi-annual reports (when available). For more information about these and other investment practices and securities, see Appendix A. The Fund publishes on its website (http://www.goldmansachsfunds.com) complete portfolio holdings for the Fund as of the end of each calendar quarter subject to a sixty calendar-day lag between the date of the information and the date on which the information is disclosed. The Fund may disclose portfolio holdings information more frequently. This information will be available on the website until the date on which the Fund files its next quarterly portfolio holdings report on Form N-CSR or Form N-Q with the SEC. In addition, a description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).

 

20


INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT APPROACH

 

 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
10   Percent of net assets (excluding borrowings for investment purposes)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objective and strategies of the Fund

 

                          
    

Multi-Manager

Alternatives
Fund

Investment Practices  

Borrowings

  33 1/3

Credit, Currency, Equity, Index, Interest Rate, Total Return, and Mortgage Swaps and Options on Swaps

 

Cross Hedging of Currencies

 

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

 

Direct Equity Investment

 

Foreign Currency Transactions (including forward contracts)

 

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts (including index futures)

 

Illiquid Investments*

  15

Initial Public Offerings (“IPOs”)

 

Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

 

Investment Company Securities (including ETFs)**

  10

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

 

Options on Foreign Currencies1

 

Options on Securities and Securities Indices2

 

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

 

Repurchase Agreements

 

Short Sales

 

UCITS and private investment funds

 

Unseasoned Companies

 

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

 
 

 

  * Illiquid investments are any investments which cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at approximately the price at which the Fund values the instrument.
** This percentage limitation does not apply to the Fund’s investments in investment companies (including ETFs) where a higher percentage limitation is permitted under the terms of an SEC exemptive order or SEC exemptive rule.
  1.

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on foreign currencies.

  2.

The Fund may purchase and sell call and put options on securities and securities indices in which it may invest.

 

21


 

10   Percent of total assets (italic type)
  No specific percentage limitation on usage; limited only by the objective and strategies of the Fund

 

                          
    

Multi-Manager

Alternatives
Fund

Investment Securities  

American, European and Global Depositary Receipts

 

Asset-Backed and Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Bank Obligations

 

Convertible Securities

 

Corporate Debt Obligations

 

Equity Investments

 

Emerging Country Securities

 

Fixed Income Securities

 

Foreign Government Securities

 

Foreign Securities

 

MLPs

  25

Municipal Securities

 

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities1

 

REITs

 

Stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities

 

Structured Securities (which may include equity linked notes)

 

Supranational Securities

 

Temporary Investments

 

U.S. Government Securities

 

Yield Curve Options and Inverse Floating Rate Securities

 
 

 

1. 

May be rated BB or lower by Standard & Poor’s, Ba or lower by Moody’s or have a comparable rating by another NRSRO at the time of investment.

 

22


 

Risks of the Fund

 

The investment program of the Fund is speculative and entails substantial risks. There can be no assurance that the investment objective of the Fund will be achieved, and the results of the Fund may vary substantially over time. Moreover, certain investment techniques which the Fund may employ in its investment program can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investments may be subject. There is no assurance that the investment processes of the Fund will be successful, that the techniques utilized therein will be implemented successfully or that they are adequate for their intended uses, or that the discretionary element of the investment processes of the Fund will be exercised in a manner that is successful or that is not adverse to the Fund.

 

ü   Principal Risk
Ÿ   Additional Risk

 

                                                   
    

Multi-Manager

Alternatives
Fund

Absence of Regulation

  ü

Call

  ü

Commodity Sector

  Ÿ

Counterparty

  ü

Credit/Default

  ü

Derivatives

  ü

Emerging Countries

  ü

Expenses

  ü

Extension

  ü

Foreign

  ü

Geographic

  Ÿ

Global Financial Markets

  ü

High Portfolio Turnover

  ü

Initial Public Offering (“IPO”)

  Ÿ

Interest Rate

  ü

Investment Style

  ü

Leverage

  ü

Liquidity

  ü

Loans and Other Direct Indebtedness

  ü

Management and Model

  ü

Market

  ü

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap

  ü

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed

  ü

Multi-Manager Approach

  ü

NAV

  ü

Non-Diversification

  ü

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading

  ü

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities

  ü

Real Estate Industry

  Ÿ

REIT

  Ÿ

Senior Loan Risk

  Ÿ

Short Position

  ü

Sovereign

  Ÿ

Stock

  ü

Swaps

  Ÿ

Tax

  Ÿ

U.S. Government Securities

  ü
 

 

23


¢  

Absence of Regulation Risk—The Fund engages in OTC transactions. In general, there is less governmental regulation and supervision of transactions in the OTC markets (in which option contracts and certain options on swaps are generally traded) than of transactions entered into on organized exchanges.

¢  

Call Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by the Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) earlier than expected. This may happen when there is a decline in interest rates, when credit spreads change, or when an issuer’s credit quality improves. Under these circumstances, the Fund may be unable to recoup all of its initial investment and will also suffer from having to reinvest in lower yielding securities.

¢  

Commodity Sector Risk—To the extent that the Fund gains exposure to the commodities markets, such exposure may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in more traditional securities. The value of commodity-linked investments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or sectors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. The prices of energy, industrial metals, precious metals, agriculture and livestock sector commodities may fluctuate widely due to factors such as changes in value, supply and demand and governmental regulatory policies. The energy sector can be significantly affected by changes in the prices and supplies of oil and other energy fuels, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects, and tax and other government regulations, policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) and relationships among OPEC members and between OPEC and oil-importing nations. The metals sector can be affected by sharp price volatility over short periods caused by global economic, financial and political factors, resource availability, government regulation, economic cycles, changes in inflation or expectations about inflation in various countries, interest rates, currency fluctuations, metal sales by governments, central banks or international agencies, investment speculation and fluctuations in industrial and commercial supply and demand. Some commodity-linked investments are issued by companies in the financial services sector, including the banking, brokerage and insurance sectors. As a result, events affecting issuers in the financial services sector may cause the Fund’s share value to fluctuate. Although investments in commodities typically move in different directions than traditional equity and debt securities when the value of those traditional securities is declining due to adverse economic conditions, there is no guarantee that these investments will perform in that manner, and at certain times the price movements of commodity-linked investments have been parallel to those of debt and equity securities.

¢  

Counterparty Risk—Many of the protections afforded to participants on some organized exchanges, such as the performance guarantee of an exchange clearinghouse, might not be available in connection with OTC transactions. Therefore, in those

 

24


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

instances in which the Fund enters into OTC transactions, the Fund will be subject to the risk that its direct counterparty will not perform its obligations under the transactions and that the Fund will sustain losses. Because the Fund’s Underlying Managers may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser.

¢  

Credit/Default Risk—An issuer or guarantor of fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (which may have low credit ratings) may default on its obligation to pay interest and repay principal or default on any other obligation. The credit quality of the Fund’s portfolio securities may meet the Fund’s credit quality requirements at the time of purchase but then deteriorate thereafter, and such a deterioration can occur rapidly. In certain instances, the downgrading or default of a single holding or guarantor of the Fund’s holding may impair the Fund’s liquidity and have the potential to cause significant NAV deterioration.

¢  

Derivatives Risk—Loss may result from the Fund’s investments in futures, forwards, swaps, structured securities and other derivative instruments. These instruments may be illiquid, difficult to price and leveraged so that small changes in the value of underlying instruments may produce disproportionate losses to the Fund. Derivatives are also subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party in the transaction will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Losses from investments in derivatives can result from a lack of correlation between the value of those derivatives and the value of the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged. In addition, there is a risk that the performance of the derivatives or other instruments used by the Investment Adviser to replicate the performance of a particular asset class may not accurately track the performance of that asset class. Derivatives are also subject to liquidity risk and risks arising from margin requirements. Returns, and potential losses, are dependent on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making capability around, but not limited to, expectations of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates, currency prices or other variables.

¢  

Expenses Risk—By investing in pooled investment vehicles (including private investment funds, investment companies, ETFs, UCITS and money market funds), partnerships and REITs indirectly through the Fund, the investor will incur not only a proportionate share of the expenses of the other pooled investment vehicles, partnerships and REITs held by the Fund (including operating costs and investment management fees), but also expenses of the Fund. The Fund’s multi-manager approach may also result in additional expenses.

 

25


¢  

Emerging Countries Risk—The securities markets of most emerging countries are less liquid, are especially subject to greater price volatility, have smaller market capitalizations, have more or less government regulation and are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements as the securities markets of more developed countries. Further, investment in equity securities of issuers located in emerging countries involves risk of loss resulting from problems in share registration or custody, settlement and substantial economic and political disruptions. These risks are not normally associated with investments in more developed countries.

¢  

Extension Risk—An issuer could exercise its right to pay principal on an obligation held by a Fund (such as a mortgage-backed security) later than expected. This may happen when there is a rise in interest rates. Under these circumstances, the value of the obligation will decrease, and a Fund will also suffer from the inability to reinvest in higher yielding securities.

¢  

Foreign Risk—When the Fund invests in foreign securities, it may be subject to risk of loss not typically associated with domestic issuers. Loss may result because of more or less foreign government regulation, less public information, less liquidity, greater volatility and less economic, political and social stability in the countries in which the Fund invests. Loss may also result from, among other things, deteriorating economic and business conditions in other countries, including the United States, regional and global conflicts, the imposition of exchange controls, foreign taxes, confiscations, expropriation and other government restrictions, higher transaction costs, difficulty enforcing contractual obligations or from problems in share registration, settlement or custody. The Fund will also be subject to the risk of negative foreign currency rate fluctuations, which may cause the value of securities denominated in such foreign currency (or other instruments through which the Fund has exposure to foreign currencies) to decline in value. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. Foreign risks will normally be greatest when the Fund invests in issuers located in emerging countries.

¢  

Geographic Risk—Concentration of the investments of the Fund in issuers located in a particular country or region will subject the Fund, to a greater extent than if investments were less concentrated, to the risks of volatile economic cycles and/or conditions and developments that may be particular to that country or region, such as: adverse securities markets; adverse exchange rates; social, political, regulatory, economic or environmental developments; or natural disasters.

¢  

Global Financial Markets Risk—Global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected and political and economic conditions (including recent instability and volatility) and events (including natural disasters) in one country, region or financial market may adversely impact issuers in a different country, region or financial market. As a result, issuers of securities held by the Fund may experience significant declines in the value of their assets and even cease

 

26


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

operations. Such conditions and/or events may not have the same impact on all types of securities and may expose the Fund to greater market or liquidity risk or cause difficulty in valuing portfolio instruments held by the Fund. This could cause the Fund to underperform other types of investments.

The severity or duration of such conditions and/or events may be affected by policy changes made by governments or quasi-governmental organizations. Recent instability in the financial markets has led governments across the globe to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support the financial markets. Future government regulation and/or intervention may also change the way in which the Fund is regulated and could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. For example, one or more countries that have adopted the euro may abandon that currency and/or withdraw from the European Union, which could disrupt markets and affect the liquidity and value of the Fund’s investments, regardless of whether the Fund has significant exposure to European markets. In addition, governments or their agencies may acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions, which may affect the Fund’s investments in ways that are unforeseeable.

In addition, in the U.S., total public debt as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the financial downturn. High levels of national debt may raise concerns that the U.S. government will be unable to pay investors at maturity, may cause declines in currency valuations and may prevent the U.S. government from implementing effective fiscal policy. In 2011, Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services (“S&P”) lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S., which may affect the market price and yields of certain U.S. Government Securities.

¢  

High Portfolio Turnover Risk—Some or all of the strategies utilized by the Fund may involve frequent and active trading and have a high portfolio turnover rate, which may increase the Fund’s transaction costs, may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and/or may generate a greater amount of short-term capital gain distributions to shareholders than if the Fund had a low portfolio turnover rate. Active trading in derivatives will have the same effects but will not always be reflected in the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. With a high portfolio turnover rate, it is possible that the Fund may distribute sizable capital gain distributions to shareholders, regardless of the Fund’s performance.

¢  

IPO Risk—The market value of IPO shares will fluctuate considerably due to factors such as the absence of a prior public market, unseasoned trading, the small number of shares available for trading and limited information about the issuer. The purchase of IPO shares may involve high transaction costs. IPO shares are subject to market risk and liquidity risk. When a Fund’s asset base is small, a significant portion of the

 

27


 

Fund’s performance could be attributable to investments in IPOs, because such investments could have a magnified impact on the Fund. As a Fund’s assets grow, the effect of the Fund’s investments in IPOs on the Fund’s performance will likely decline, which could reduce the Fund’s performance.

¢  

Interest Rate Risk—When interest rates increase, fixed income securities or instruments held by the Fund (including inflation protected securities) will generally decline in value. Long-term fixed income securities will normally have more price volatility because of this risk than short-term fixed income securities or instruments.

¢  

Investment Style Risk—Different investment styles (e.g., “growth”, “value” or “quantitative”) tend to shift in and out of favor depending upon market and economic conditions and investor sentiment. The Fund employs various non-traditional and alternative investment styles, and may outperform or underperform other funds that invest in similar asset classes but employ different investment styles.

¢  

Leverage Risk—Leverage creates exposure to potential gains and losses in excess of the initial amount invested. The use of derivatives may result in leverage and may make the Fund more volatile. When the Fund uses leverage the sum of the Fund’s investment exposures may significantly exceed the amount of assets invested in the Fund, although these exposures may vary over time. Relatively small market movements may result in large changes in the value of a leveraged investment. The Fund will identify liquid assets on its books or otherwise cover transactions that may give rise to such risk, to the extent required by applicable law. The use of leverage may cause the Fund to liquidate portfolio positions to satisfy its obligations or to meet segregation requirements when it may not be advantageous to do so. The use of leverage by the Fund can substantially increase the adverse impact to which the Fund’s investment portfolio may be subject.

¢  

Liquidity Risk—The Fund may invest to a greater degree in securities or instruments that trade in lower volumes and may make investments that are less liquid than other investments. Also, the Fund may make investments that may become less liquid in response to market developments or adverse investor perceptions. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. Investments that are illiquid or that trade in lower volumes may be more difficult to value. When there is no willing buyer and investments cannot be readily sold at the desired time or price, the Fund may have to accept a lower price or may not be able to sell the security or instrument at all. An inability to sell one or more portfolio positions can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities.

Because the Fund may invest in non-investment grade fixed income securities, small- and mid-capitalization stocks, REITs and emerging country issuers, it may be especially subject to the risk that during certain periods, the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities within a particular investment category, will shrink or

 

28


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political events, or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate.

Liquidity risk may also refer to the risk that the Fund will not be able to pay redemption proceeds within the time period stated in this Prospectus because of unusual market conditions, an unusually high volume of redemption requests, or other reasons. While the Fund reserves the right to meet redemption requests through in-kind distributions, the Fund may instead choose to raise cash to meet redemption requests through sales of portfolio securities or permissible borrowings. If the Fund is forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions, such sales may adversely affect the Fund’s NAV.

Certain shareholders, including clients or affiliates of the Investment Adviser, may from time to time own or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these shareholders of their shares of the Fund may further increase the Fund’s liquidity risk and may impact the Fund’s NAV. These shareholders may include, for example, institutional investors, funds of funds, discretionary advisory clients and other shareholders whose buy-sell decisions are controlled by a single decision-maker.

¢  

Loans and Other Direct Indebtedness Risk—Loans and other direct indebtedness involve the risk that the Fund will not receive payment of principal, interest and other amounts due in connection with these investments, which depend primarily on the financial condition of the borrower. Certain of the loans and the other direct indebtedness acquired by the Fund may involve revolving credit facilities or other standby financing commitments which obligate the Fund to pay additional cash on a certain date or on demand. Substantial increases in interest rates may cause an increase in loan obligation defaults. Although a loan obligation may be fully collateralized at the time of acquisition, the collateral may decline in value, be relatively illiquid, or lose all or substantially all of its value subsequent to investment. Many loan obligations are subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale and may be relatively illiquid and difficult to value. This will also have an adverse impact on the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular loan obligations or loan participations when necessary to meet the Fund’s liquidity needs or when necessary in response to a specific economic event, such as a decline in the credit quality of the borrower. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet schedule payment after giving effect to the senior secured obligations borrowers.

Investments in loans may take the form of either loan participations or assignments of all or a portion of a loan from a third party. With respect to loan participations, the Fund has the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is

 

29


entitled from the lender selling the participations, but only upon receipt by the lender of the payments from the borrower. The Fund generally would have no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement. As a result, the Fund would be exposed to the credit risk of both the borrower and the lender. Conversely, loan assignments result in the Fund having a direct contractual relationship with the borrower, and the Fund may enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement.

As the Fund may be required to rely upon another lending institution to collect and pass on to the Fund amounts payable with respect to the loan and to enforce the Fund’s rights under the loan and other direct indebtedness, an insolvency, bankruptcy or reorganization of the lending institution may delay or prevent the Fund from receiving such amounts. The highly leveraged nature of many such loans and other direct indebtedness may make such loans and other direct indebtedness especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions. Investments in such loans and other direct indebtedness may involve additional risk to the Fund.

¢  

Management and Model Risk—A strategy implemented by an Underlying Manager may fail to produce the intended results. Certain Underlying Managers may attempt to execute strategies for the Fund using proprietary quantitative models. Investments selected using these models may perform differently than expected as a result of the factors used in the models, the weight placed on each factor, changes from the factors’ historical trends, and technical issues in the construction and implementation of the models (including, for example, data problems and/or software issues). There is no guarantee that an Underlying Manager’s use of quantitative models will result in effective investment decisions for the Fund. An Underlying Manager may occasionally make changes to the selection or weight of individual securities, currencies or markets in the Fund, as a result of changes to a quantitative model, the method of applying that model, or the judgment of the Underlying Manager. Commonality of holdings across quantitative money managers may amplify losses.

¢  

Market Risk—The value of the instruments in which the Fund invests may go up or down in response to the prospects of individual companies, particular sectors or governments and/or general economic conditions throughout the world due to increasingly interconnected global economies and financial markets. Price changes may be temporary or last for extended periods. The Fund’s investments may be overweighted from time to time in one or more sectors or countries, which will increase the Fund’s exposure to risk of loss from adverse developments affecting those sectors or countries.

¢  

Mid-Cap and Small-Cap Risk—The securities of mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to

 

30


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price. Both mid-capitalization and small-capitalization companies often have narrower markets and more limited managerial and financial resources than larger, more established companies. As a result, their performance can be more volatile and they face greater risk of business failure, which could increase the volatility of the Fund’s portfolio. Generally, the smaller the company size, the greater these risks become.

¢  

Mortgage-Backed and Other Asset-Backed Risk—Mortgage-related and other asset-backed securities are subject to certain additional risks. Generally, rising interest rates tend to extend the duration of fixed rate mortgage-backed securities, making them more sensitive to changes in interest rates. As a result, in a period of rising interest rates, if a Fund holds mortgage-backed securities, it may exhibit additional volatility. This is known as extension risk. In addition, adjustable and fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers may pay off their mortgages sooner than expected. This can reduce the returns of a Fund because the Fund may have to reinvest that money at the lower prevailing interest rates.

A Fund’s investments in other asset-backed securities are subject to risks similar to those associated with mortgage-backed securities, as well as additional risks associated with the nature of the assets and the servicing of those assets. Asset-backed securities may not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral comparable to that of mortgage assets, resulting in additional credit risk.

The Funds may invest in mortgage-backed securities issued by the U.S. Government. (See “U.S. Government Securities Risk”.) To the extent that a Fund invests in mortgage-backed securities offered by non-governmental issuers, such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers, the Fund may be subject to additional risks. Timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental issuers are supported by various forms of private insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance purchased by the issuer. There can be no assurance that the private insurers can meet their obligations under the policies. An unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the mortgages held by a mortgage pool may adversely affect the value of a mortgage-backed security and could result in losses to a Fund. The risk of such defaults is generally higher in the case of mortgage pools that include subprime mortgages. Subprime mortgages refer to loans made to borrowers with weakened credit histories or with a lower capacity to make timely payments on their mortgages.

¢  

Multi-Manager Approach Risk—The Fund’s performance depends on the skill of the Investment Adviser in selecting, overseeing, and allocating Fund assets to the Underlying Managers. The Underlying Managers’ investment styles may not always be complementary. Underlying Managers make investment decisions independently of one another,

 

31


 

and may make decisions that conflict with each other. For example, it is possible that an Underlying Manager may purchase a security for the Fund at the same time that another Underlying Manager sells the same security, resulting in higher expenses without accomplishing any net investment result; or that several Underlying Managers purchase the same security at the same time, without aggregating their transactions, resulting in higher expenses. Moreover, the Fund’s multi-manager approach may result in the Fund investing a significant percentage of its assets in certain types of securities, which could be beneficial or detrimental to the Fund’s performance depending on the performance of those securities and the overall market environment. The Fund’s Underlying Managers may underperform the market generally or underperform other investment managers that could have been selected for the Fund. Because the Fund’s Underlying Managers may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser. Some Underlying Managers have little experience managing registered investment companies which, unlike the private funds these Underlying Managers have been managing, are subject to daily inflows and outflows of investor cash and are subject to certain legal and tax-related restrictions on their investments and operations. Subject to the overall supervision of the Fund’s investment program by the Fund’s Investment Adviser, each Underlying Manager is responsible, with respect to the portion of the Fund’s assets it manages, for compliance with the Fund’s investment strategies and applicable law. The Investment Adviser and the Fund have applied for an exemptive order from the SEC that, if issued, will permit the Investment Adviser to engage additional Underlying Managers, to enter into subadvisory agreement with those Underlying Managers, and to materially amend any existing subadvisory agreement with Underlying Managers, upon the approval of the Board of Trustees and without shareholder approval. The Fund’s ability to implement its multi-manager strategy will depend on receipt of this exemptive order. If the Fund does not receive the exemptive order, the Fund will not be able to hire new Underlying Managers without a shareholder vote.

¢  

NAV Risk—The NAV of the Fund and the value of your investment will fluctuate.

¢  

Non-Diversification Risk—The Fund is non-diversified, meaning it is permitted to invest more of its assets in fewer issuers than diversified mutual funds. Thus, the Fund may be more susceptible to adverse developments affecting any single issuer held in its portfolio, and may be more susceptible to greater losses because of these developments.

¢  

Non-Hedging Foreign Currency Trading Risk—The Fund may engage in forward foreign currency transactions for speculative purposes. The Fund’s Underlying Managers may purchase or sell foreign currencies through the use of forward contracts based on the applicable Underlying Manager’s judgment regarding the

 

32


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

direction of the market for a particular foreign currency or currencies. In pursuing this strategy, the Underlying Manager seeks to profit from anticipated movements in currency rates by establishing “long” and/or “short” positions in forward contracts on various foreign currencies. Foreign exchange rates can be extremely volatile and a variance in the degree of volatility of the market or in the direction of the market from the Underlying Manager’s expectations may produce significant losses to the Fund. Some of these transactions may also be subject to interest rate risk.

¢  

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities Risk—Non-investment grade fixed income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative and are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payment obligations. These securities may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific corporate or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.

¢  

Real Estate Industry Risk—The Fund is subject to certain risks associated with real estate in general. These risks include, among others: possible declines in the value of real estate; risks related to general and local economic conditions; possible lack of availability of mortgage financing; variations in rental income, neighborhood values or the appeal of property to tenants; limits on rents; interest rates; overbuilding; extended vacancies of properties; increases in competition, property taxes and operating expenses; and changes in zoning laws. In addition, real estate industry companies that hold mortgages may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. Real estate industry companies are dependent upon management skill, may not be diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers and self-liquidation. Real estate industry companies whose underlying properties are concentrated in a particular industry or geographic region are also subject to risks affecting such industries and regions. The real estate industry is particularly sensitive to economic downturns. The values of securities of companies in the real estate industry may go through cycles of relative under-performance and out-performance in comparison to equity securities markets in general.

¢  

REIT Risk—Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks in addition to those risks associated with investing in the real estate industry in general. REITs whose underlying properties are concentrated in a particular industry or geographic region are also subject to risks affecting such industries and regions. The securities of REITs involve greater risks than those associated with larger, more established companies and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements because of interest rate changes, economic conditions and other factors. REITs may also fail to qualify for tax free pass-through of income or may fail to maintain their exemptions from investment company registration. Securities of such issuers may lack sufficient market liquidity to

 

33


 

enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price.

¢  

Senior Loan Risk—Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. Senior Loans are usually rated below investment grade, and are subject to similar risks, such as credit risk, as below investment grade securities. However, Senior Loans are typically senior and secured in contrast to other below investment grade securities, which are often subordinated and unsecured. There is less readily available, reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of securities, and the Investment Adviser relies primarily on its own evaluation of a borrower’s credit quality rather than on any available independent sources. The ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to sell a Senior Loan may be impaired by the lack of an active trading market for certain senior loans or adverse market conditions limiting liquidity. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain Senior Loans, the market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Although Senior Loans in which the Fund will invest generally will be secured by specific collateral, there can be no assurance that liquidation of such collateral would satisfy the borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In the event of the bankruptcy of a borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. Moreover, any specific collateral used to secure a Senior Loan may decline in value or become illiquid, which would adversely affect the Senior Loan’s value. Uncollateralized Senior Loans involve a greater risk of loss. Some Senior Loans are subject to the risk that a court, pursuant to fraudulent conveyance or other similar laws, could subordinate the Senior Loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the borrower or take other action detrimental to lenders, including the Fund, such as invalidation of Senior Loans.

¢  

Short Position Risk—The Fund may enter into a short derivative position through a futures contract, an option or swap agreement. Taking short positions involves leverage of the Fund’s assets and presents various risks. If the price of the instrument or market which the Fund has taken a short position on increases, then the Fund will incur a loss equal to the increase in price from the time that the short position was entered into plus any related interest payments or other fees. Taking short positions involves the risk that losses may be disproportionate and may exceed the amount invested.

The Fund may engage in short selling. Short selling involves leverage of a Fund’s assets and presents various risks. In order to establish a short position in a financial

 

34


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

instrument, a Fund must first borrow the instrument from a lender, such as a broker or other institution. The Fund may not always be able to borrow an instrument at a particular time or at an acceptable price. Thus, there is risk that the Fund may be unable to implement their investment strategies due to the lack of available financial instruments or for other reasons.

After selling a borrowed financial instrument, the Fund is then obligated to “cover” the short sale by purchasing and returning the instrument to the lender on a later date. The Fund cannot guarantee that the financial instrument necessary to cover a short position will be available for purchase at the time the Fund wishes to close a short position or, if available, that the instrument will be available at an acceptable price. If the borrowed instrument has appreciated in value, the Fund will be required to pay more for the replacement instrument than the amount it received for selling the instrument short. Moreover, purchasing a financial instrument to cover a short position can itself cause the price of the instrument to rise further, thereby exacerbating the loss. The potential loss on a short sale is unlimited because the loss increases as the price of the instrument sold short increases and the price may rise indefinitely. If the price of a borrowed financial instrument declines before the short position is covered, the Fund may realize a gain. The Fund’s gain on a short sale, before transaction and other costs, is generally limited to the difference between the price at which it sold the borrowed instrument and the price it paid to purchase the instrument to return to the lender.

While the Fund has an open short position, it is subject to the risk that the financial instrument’s lender will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same instrument from another lender. If this happens, the Fund may be required to buy the replacement instrument immediately at the instrument’s then current market price or “buy in” by paying the lender an amount equal to the cost of purchasing the instrument to close out the short position.

Short sales also involve other costs. The Fund must normally repay to the lender an amount equal to any dividends or interest that accrues while a loan is outstanding. In addition, to borrow a financial instrument, the Fund may be required to pay a premium. The Fund also will incur transaction costs in effecting short sales. The amount of any ultimate gain for the Fund resulting from a short sale will be decreased, and the amount of any ultimate loss will be increased, by the amount of premiums, dividends, interest or expenses the Fund may be required to pay in connection with the short sale.

Until the Fund replaces a borrowed instrument, the Fund will be required to maintain assets as collateral. Thus, short sales involve credit exposure to the broker that executes the short sales. In addition, the Fund is required to identify on its books or

 

35


the books of their custodian, liquid assets (less any additional collateral held by the broker) to cover short sale obligations, marked-to-market daily. The requirement to “segregate” assets limits the Fund’s leveraging of investments. However, such segregation may also limit the Fund’s investment flexibility, as well as its ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

The SEC and financial industry regulatory authorities in other countries have imposed temporary prohibitions and restrictions on certain types of short sale transactions. These prohibitions and restrictions, or the imposition of other regulatory requirements on short selling in the future, could inhibit the ability of the Investment Adviser to sell securities short on behalf of the Fund. Due to local restrictions, the Fund may not be able to engage in short sales in certain foreign countries where they maintain long positions. These restrictions may limit the Fund’s ability to fully implement short selling strategies that could otherwise help the Fund pursue its investment goals.

¢  

Sovereign Risk—The issuer of non-U.S. sovereign debt held by the Fund, such as Germany or Japan, or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay the principal or interest when due.

  ¢  

Political Risk—The risks associated with the general political and social environment of a country. These factors may include among other things government instability, poor socioeconomic conditions, corruption, lack of law and order, lack of democratic accountability, poor quality of the bureaucracy, internal and external conflict, and religious and ethnic tensions. High political risk can impede the economic welfare of a country.

  ¢  

Economic Risk—The risks associated with the general economic environment of a country. These can encompass, among other things, low quality and growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (“GDP”), high inflation or deflation, high government deficits as a percentage of GDP, weak financial sector, overvalued exchange rate, and high current account deficits as a percentage of GDP.

  ¢  

Repayment Risk—A country may be unable to pay its external debt obligations in the immediate future. Repayment risk factors may include but are not limited to high foreign debt as a percentage of GDP, high foreign debt service as a percentage of exports, low foreign exchange reserves as a percentage of short-term debt or exports, and an unsustainable exchange rate structure.

¢  

Stock Risk—Stock prices have historically risen and fallen in periodic cycles. U.S. and foreign stock markets have experienced periods of substantial price volatility in the past and may do so again in the future.

¢  

Swaps Risk—The use of swaps is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques, risk analyses and tax planning different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. A Fund’s transactions in swaps may be significant. These transactions can result in sizeable realized and unrealized capital

 

36


RISKS OF THE FUND

 

 

gains and losses relative to the gains and losses from the Fund’s direct investments in securities and short sales.

Transactions in swaps can involve greater risks than if a Fund had invested in securities directly since, in addition to general market risks, swaps may be leveraged and are also subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if a Fund invests in cleared swaps. Because bilateral swap agreements are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, a Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may also be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

The value of swaps can be very volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of securities prices from the Investment Adviser’s expectations may produce significant losses in a Fund’s investments in swaps. In addition, a perfect correlation between a swap and a security position may be impossible to achieve. As a result, the Investment Adviser’s use of swaps may not be effective in fulfilling the Investment Adviser’s investment strategies and may contribute to losses that would not have been incurred otherwise.

As investment companies registered with the SEC, the Funds must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps that do not cash settle, for example, a Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the swaps while the positions are open. With respect to swaps that are required to cash settle, however, a Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e. the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled swaps, a Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund was required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps.

 

37


¢  

Tax Risk—One of the requirements for favorable tax treatment as a regulated investment company under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) is that the Fund derive at least 90% of its gross income from certain qualifying sources of income. The Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has issued private letter rulings in which the IRS specifically concluded that income and gains from certain commodity index-linked structured notes and from investments in a subsidiary is qualifying income. However, the IRS has indicated that the granting of such private letter rulings is currently suspended, pending further internal discussion. The Fund has not received such a private letter ruling, and is not able to rely on private letter rulings issued to other taxpayers. The IRS may ultimately conclude and assert that income and gains from such structured notes and/or from a subsidiary will not be considered qualifying income for purposes of determining whether the Fund remains qualified as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The tax treatment of commodity-linked notes, other commodity-linked derivatives and/or a subsidiary may also be adversely affected by future legislation, Treasury Regulations and/or guidance issued by the IRS that could affect the character, timing and/or amount of the Fund’s taxable income or any gains and distributions made by the Fund.

¢  

U.S. Government Securities Risk—The U.S. government may not provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law. U.S. Government Securities issued by those agencies, instrumentalities and sponsored enterprises, including those issued by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac and the Federal Home Loan Banks, are neither issued nor guaranteed by the United States Treasury and, therefore, are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been operating under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Administration (“FHFA”) acting as their conservator, since September 2008. The entities are dependent upon the continued support of the U.S. Department of the Treasury and FHFA in order to continue their business operations. These factors, among others, could affect the future status and role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and the value of their securities and the securities which they guarantee. Additionally, the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities do not guarantee the market values of their securities, which may fluctuate.

More information about the Fund’s portfolio securities and investment techniques, and their associated risks, is provided in Appendix A. You should consider the investment risks discussed in this section and in Appendix A. Both are important to your investment choice.

 

38


 

Service Providers

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER     

 

Investment Adviser     

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P.

200 West Street

New York, NY 10282

   
 

GSAM has been registered as an investment adviser with the SEC since 1990 and is an affiliate of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (“Goldman Sachs”). As of December 31, 2012 GSAM, including its investment advisory affiliates, had assets under management of $742.4 billion.

GSAM’s AIMS Group manages over $120 billion of client assets and provides investors with investment and advisory solutions, across third-party hedge fund managers, private equity funds, real estate managers, and traditional long-only managers. The AIMS Group manages globally diversified programs, targeted sector-specific strategies and customized portfolios, and provides a range of advisory services. With over 275 professionals across 10 offices around the world, the AIMS Group provides manager diligence, portfolio construction, risk management, and liquidity solutions to investors, drawing on Goldman Sachs’ market insights and risk management expertise. GSAM leverages the resources of Goldman Sachs & Co. subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions.

The Investment Adviser, through the AIMS Group, oversees the provision of investment advisory and portfolio management services to the Fund, including developing the Fund’s investment program. The Investment Adviser selects, subject to the approval of the Fund’s Board of Trustees, Underlying Managers for the Fund, allocates Fund assets among those Underlying Managers, monitors them and evaluates their performance results. While the Investment Adviser is ultimately responsible for overseeing the management of the Fund, it is able to draw upon the research and expertise of its asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management. In addition, the Investment Adviser has access to the research and certain proprietary technical models developed by Goldman Sachs (subject to legal internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions).

 

39


In addition to overseeing the Fund’s investment program, under the Management Agreement, the Investment Adviser also performs the following additional services for the Fund:

 

  ¢  

Selects the Fund’s Underlying Managers and provides general oversight of the Underlying Managers

  ¢  

Supervises non-advisory operations of the Fund, including oversight of vendors hired by the Fund, oversight of Fund liquidity and risk management, oversight of regulatory inquiries and requests with respect to the Fund made to the Investment Adviser, valuation and accounting oversight and oversight of ongoing compliance with federal and state securities laws, tax regulations, and other applicable law

  ¢  

Provides personnel to perform such executive, administrative and clerical services as are reasonably necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund

  ¢  

Arranges for, at the Fund’s expense: (a) the preparation of all required tax returns, (b) the preparation and submission of reports to existing shareholders, (c) the periodic updating of prospectuses and statements of additional information and (d) the preparation of reports to be filed with the SEC and other regulatory authorities

  ¢  

Maintains the Fund’s records

  ¢  

Provides office space and necessary office equipment and services for the Investment Adviser

  ¢  

Markets the Fund

The AIMS Group also manages additional pooled vehicles which have similar investment strategies to those of the Fund that are not offered to retail investors and are not registered under the Act. Because these vehicles are not registered under the Act, they are subject to fewer regulatory restraints than the Fund (e.g., fewer trading constraints) and (i) may invest with managers other than the Fund’s Underlying Managers, (ii) may employ strategies that are not subject to the same constraints as the Fund, and (iii) may perform differently than the fund despite their similar strategies.

 

  INVESTMENT SUBADVISERS (UNDERLYING MANAGERS)     

 

Ares Capital Management II, LLC

Ares Management LLC (“Ares”), headquartered at 2000 Avenue of the Stars, 12th Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90067, an investment adviser registered with the SEC, is focused on alternative credit-based strategies, including private equity, private debt, commercial real estate and capital markets activities. The firm has approximately $59 billion of committed capital under management as of December 31, 2012. With respect to the Fund, the firm manages an allocation within the Event Driven and Credit strategy.

 

40


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

Brigade Capital Management, LLC

Brigade Capital Management, LLC (“Brigade”) located at 399 Park Avenue, 16th Floor, New York, New York 10022, an investment adviser registered with the SEC, is focused on investing in the global high yield market with core strategies in long/short credit, distressed debt, capital structure arbitrage and leveraged equities. Founded in 2006 Brigade has approximately $12.7 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2012. With respect to the Fund, the firm manages an allocation within the Event Driven and Credit strategy.

 

GAM International Management Limited

GAM International Management Limited (“GAM”), located at 12 St James’s Place London SW1A 1NX, an investment adviser registered with the SEC, is a wholly owned subsidiary of GAM Group AG. GAM Group AG is a company limited by shares, domiciled in Zurich, Switzerland and is a direct subsidiary of GAM Holding AG. GAM Holding AG is an independent asset management group, domiciled in Zurich and listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange. The firm’s investment strategies span equity, fixed income, absolute return, funds of hedge fund, discretionary portfolio management and tailored investment solutions. Founded in 1983 GAM has approximately $53.3 billion dollars in assets under management as of December 31, 2012. With respect to the Fund, the firm manages an allocation within the Opportunistic Fixed Income strategy.

 

Karsch Capital Management, LP

Karsch Capital Management, LP (“KCM”), located at 110 E. 59th Street, New York, NY 10022, an investment adviser registered with the SEC, focuses primarily on a core equity long short strategy. Founded in 2000 Karsch has approximately $1.9 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2012. With respect to the Fund, the firm manages an allocation within the Equity Long Short strategy.

 

Lateef Investment Management, L.P.

Lateef Investment Management, L.P. (“Lateef”), located at 300 Drakes Landing Rd #100, Greenbrae, CA 94904, an investment adviser registered with the SEC, is focused on long –biased concentrated, absolute return oriented investment solutions. Founded in 1974 Lateef has approximately $4.4 billion of assets under management as of December 31, 2012. With respect to the Fund, the firm manages an allocation within the Dynamic Equity strategy.

The Underlying Managers provide day to day advice or management regarding the Fund’s portfolio transactions. The Underlying Managers make the investment decisions for the Fund’s assets allocated to them and place purchase and sale orders for the Fund’s portfolio transactions in U.S. and foreign markets. As permitted by applicable law, these orders may be directed to any executing brokers, dealers, futures commission merchants or clearing brokers. Certain Underlying Managers may be able to draw upon the research and expertise of their asset management affiliates for portfolio decisions and management.

 

  MANAGEMENT FEE AND OTHER EXPENSES     

As compensation for its services and its assumption of certain expenses, the Investment Adviser is entitled to a fee, computed daily and payable monthly, at an annual rate listed below (as a percentage of the Fund’s average daily net assets). Underlying Managers will be paid by the Investment Adviser out of its management fee a percentage of the subadvised Fund’s average daily net assets.

 

41


                                       
Fund   Contractual
Management Fee
Annual Rate
 

Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund

    2.00
 

The Investment Adviser may waive a portion of its management fee from time to time, and may discontinue or modify any such waiver in the future, consistent with the terms of any fee waiver arrangements in place.

The Investment Adviser has agreed to reduce or limit “Other Expenses” (excluding acquired fund fees and expenses, transfer agency fees and expenses, taxes, interest, brokerage fees, litigation, indemnification, shareholder meeting and other extraordinary expenses) to 0.114% of the Fund’s average daily net assets through at least April 30, 2014, and prior to such date, the Investment Adviser may not terminate the arrangement without the approval of the Board of Trustees. This expense limitation may be modified or terminated by the Investment Adviser at its discretion and without shareholder approval after such date, although the Investment Adviser does not presently intend to do so. The Fund’s “Other Expenses” may be further reduced by any custody and transfer agency fee credits received by the Fund.

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Management Agreement for the Fund and Sub-Advisory Agreements for each initial Underlying Manager will be available in the Fund’s semi-annual report for the period ended June 30, 2012.

 

  INVESTMENT ADVISER PORTFOLIO MANAGERS     

AIMS Portfolio Management Team

 

  ¢  

The Goldman Sachs Alternative Investments & Manager Selection (AIMS) Group provides investors with investment and advisory solutions, across third-party hedge fund managers, private equity funds, real estate managers, and traditional long-only managers.

  ¢  

With over 275 professionals across 10 offices around the world, the AIMS Group provides manager diligence, portfolio construction, risk management, and liquidity solutions to investors, drawing on Goldman Sachs’ market insights and risk management expertise. GSAM leverages the resources of Goldman Sachs & Co. subject to legal, internal, regulatory and Chinese Wall restrictions.

  ¢  

The sourcing, selection and ongoing monitoring of managers involves a thorough, team-based approach that includes dedicated diligence teams, broader inputs from strategy experts, investment committee debate, and operational controls testing.

 

42


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

 

Name and Title   Fund Responsibility   Years
Primarily
Responsible
  Five Year Employment History

Jason Gottlieb,

Managing Director

 

Portfolio Manager—Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund

  Since
2013
  Mr. Gottlieb is a Managing Director in the AIMS Group. He is also Head of the AIMS Global Manager Strategies Group, and a member of the AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies and Global Manager Strategies Investment Committee. Mr. Gottlieb joined the firm in 1996.

Ryan Roderick,

Managing Director

 

Portfolio Manager—Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund

  Since
2013
  Mr. Roderick is a Managing Director in the AIMS Group, where he is a Portfolio Manager focusing on AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies. He is also a member of the AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies and Global Manager Strategies Investment Committee. Mr. Roderick joined the firm in 1999.
     

All Underlying Managers included in the Fund must be approved by the AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies and Global Manager Strategies Investment Committee. Kent Clark currently serves as Chairman of the AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies and Global Manager Strategies Investment Committee. Mr. Clark is also Co-Chief Operating Officer of AIMS and Chief Investment Officer and Head of the AIMS Hedge Fund Strategies investment team.

Portfolio Managers for the Fund include Jason Gottlieb and Ryan Roderick who are jointly responsible for considering Underlying Managers for the Fund, setting the long-term risk budget, and overseeing the portfolio construction process. Messrs. Gottlieb and Roderick benefit from their combined experience and the depth and breadth of the AIMS team.

For information about portfolio manager compensation, other accounts managed by the portfolio managers and portfolio manager ownership of securities in the Fund, see the SAI.

 

  DISTRIBUTOR AND TRANSFER AGENT     

Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, NY 10282, serves as the exclusive distributor (the “Distributor”) of the Fund’s shares. Goldman Sachs,

71 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, also serves as the Fund’s transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”) and, as such, performs various shareholder servicing functions.

For its transfer agency services, Goldman Sachs is entitled to receive a transfer agency fee equal, on an annualized basis, to 0.04% of average daily net assets with respect to the Institutional Shares and 0.19% of average daily net assets with respect to Class A, Class C, Class IR and Class R Shares.

 

43


  ACTIVITIES OF GOLDMAN SACHS AND ITS AFFILIATES AND OTHER ACCOUNTS MANAGED BY GOLDMAN SACHS     

The involvement of the Investment Adviser, Goldman Sachs and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities of Goldman Sachs may present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund or limit the Fund’s investment activities. Goldman Sachs is a worldwide, full service investment banking, broker dealer, asset management and financial services organization and a major participant in global financial markets that provides a wide range of financial services to a substantial and diversified client base that includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high-net-worth individuals. As such, it acts as an investor, investment banker, research provider, investment manager, financier, adviser, market maker, trader, prime broker, lender, agent and principal. In those and other capacities, Goldman Sachs advises clients in all markets and transactions and purchases, sells, holds and recommends a broad array of investments, including securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps, indices, baskets and other financial instruments and products for its own account or for the accounts of its customers and has other direct and indirect interests in the global fixed income, currency, commodity, equity and other markets and the securities and issuers in which the Fund may directly and indirectly invest. Thus, it is likely that the Fund will have multiple business relationships with and will invest in, engage in transactions with, make voting decisions with respect to, or obtain services from entities for which Goldman Sachs performs or seeks to perform investment banking or other services. The Investment Adviser and/or certain of its affiliates are the managers of the Goldman Sachs Funds. The Investment Adviser and its affiliates earn fees from this and other relationships with the Fund. Although these fees are generally based on asset levels, the fees are not directly contingent on Fund performance, and Goldman Sachs would still receive significant compensation from the Fund even if shareholders lose money. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds which have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or which engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and instruments as the Fund. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates will not have any obligation to make available any information regarding their proprietary activities or strategies, or the activities or strategies used for other accounts managed by them, for the benefit of the management of the Fund. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and other accounts managed by Goldman Sachs, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which Goldman Sachs and its affiliates and other accounts achieve significant profits on their trading for Goldman Sachs or other accounts. In addition, the Fund may enter into transactions in which Goldman Sachs or its other clients have an adverse interest. For example, the Fund may take a long position in a security at the same time Goldman Sachs or other accounts managed by the Investment Adviser take a short position in the same security (or vice versa). These and

 

44


SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

other transactions undertaken by Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or Goldman Sachs-advised clients may, individually or in the aggregate, adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more Goldman Sachs-advised clients or the Investment Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices or investment strategies of the Fund. The Fund’s activities may be limited because of regulatory restrictions applicable to Goldman Sachs and its affiliates, and/or their internal policies designed to comply with such restrictions. As a global financial services firm, Goldman Sachs also provides a wide range of investment banking and financial services to issuers of securities and investors in securities. Goldman Sachs, its affiliates and others associated with it may create markets or specialize in, have positions in and affect transactions in, securities of issuers held by the Fund, and may also perform or seek to perform investment banking and financial services for those issuers. Goldman Sachs and its affiliates may have business relationships with and purchase or distribute or sell services or products from or to distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund. The Investment Adviser will face potential conflicts in making investment decisions (including whether the Fund should make initial or maintain or increase existing investments with, or withdraw investments from, the Underlying Managers) in respect of the Underlying Managers with which the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs has other relationships. For example, it is expected that Goldman Sachs may provide a variety of products and services to the Underlying Managers, including prime brokerage and research services, and therefore Goldman Sachs may receive various forms of compensation, commissions, payments, rebates, remuneration or other benefits from the Underlying Managers to which the Fund allocates assets, and Goldman Sachs and other accounts may have interests in such Underlying Managers or their businesses (including equity, profits or other interests). The amount of such compensation or other benefits to Goldman Sachs, or the value of such interests in the Underlying Managers, may be greater depending upon the investment decisions made by the Investment Adviser in respect of an Underlying Manager than it would have been had other investment decisions been made that might also have been appropriate for the Funds. In addition, personnel of certain Underlying Managers may be clients or former employees of Goldman Sachs or may provide the Investment Adviser and/or Goldman Sachs with notice of, or offers to participate in, investment opportunities. Although the Investment Adviser’s investment decision process includes the review of qualitative and quantitative criteria, subjective decisions made by the Investment Adviser may result in different investment decisions in respect of an Underlying Manager than would otherwise have been the case. The Investment Adviser makes investment decisions in respect of the Underlying Managers consistent with its fiduciary duties and the investment strategies described in this Prospectus. The involvement of the Underlying Managers and their affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, other accounts and other activities may also present conflicts of interest with respect to the Fund or limit the Fund’s investment activities. For more information about conflicts of interest, see the SAI.

 

45


 

Distributions

 

The Fund pays distributions from its investment income and from net realized capital gains. You may choose to have distributions paid in:

  ¢  

Cash

  ¢  

Additional shares of the same class of the same Fund

  ¢  

Shares of the same or an equivalent class of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Special restrictions may apply. See the SAI.

You may indicate your election on your Account Application. Any changes may be submitted in writing, or via telephone, in some instances, to the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Authorized Institution) at any time before the record date for a particular distribution. If you do not indicate any choice, your distributions will be reinvested automatically in the Fund. Distributions from net investment income and from net capital gains, if any, are declared and paid annually. If cash distributions are elected with respect to the Fund’s annual distributions from net investment income, then cash distributions must also be elected with respect to the net short term capital gains component, if any, of the Fund’s annual distributions.

The election to reinvest distributions in additional shares will not affect the tax treatment of such distributions, which will be treated as received by you and then used to purchase the shares.

From time to time a portion of the Fund’s distributions may constitute a return of capital for tax purposes, and/or may include amounts in excess of the Fund’s net investment income for the period calculated in accordance with good accounting practice.

When you purchase shares of the Fund, part of the NAV per share may be represented by undistributed income and/or realized gains that have previously been earned by the Fund. Therefore, subsequent distributions on such shares from such income and/or realized gains may be taxable to you even if the NAV of the shares is, as a result of the distributions, reduced below the cost of such shares and the distributions (or portions thereof) represent a return of a portion of the purchase price.

 

46


 

Shareholder Guide

 

The following section will provide you with answers to some of the most frequently asked questions regarding buying and selling the Fund’s shares.

 

  HOW TO BUY SHARES     

Shares Offering

Shares of the Fund are continuously offered through the Distributor. In addition, certain Authorized Institutions designated by the Fund may be authorized to accept, on behalf of the Fund, purchase and exchange orders and redemption requests placed by or on behalf of their customers, and if approved by the Fund, may designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders.

The Fund and the Distributor will have the sole right to accept orders to purchase shares and reserve the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

How Can I Purchase Shares Of The Fund?

You may purchase shares of the Fund through certain Authorized Institutions. In order to make an initial investment in the Fund you must furnish to your Authorized Institution the information in the Account Application.

The decision as to which class to purchase depends on the amount you invest, the intended length of the investment and your personal situation. You should contact your Authorized Institution to discuss which share class option is right for you.

Note: Authorized Institutions may receive different compensation for selling different class shares.

To open an account, contact your Authorized Institution. Customers of certain Authorized Institutions will normally give their purchase instructions to the Authorized Institution, and the Authorized Institution will, in turn, place purchase orders with Goldman Sachs. Authorized Institutions will set times by which purchase orders and payments must be received by them from their customers.

For purchases by check, the Fund will not accept checks drawn on foreign banks, third party checks, temporary checks, or cash or cash equivalents; e.g., cashier’s checks, official bank checks, money orders, travelers cheques or credit card checks. In limited situations involving the transfer of retirement assets, the Fund may accept cashier’s checks or official bank checks.

 

47


Class R and Class IR Shares are not sold directly to the public. Instead, Class R and Class IR Shares generally are available only to Section 401(k), 403(b), 457, profit sharing, money purchase pension, tax-sheltered annuity, defined benefit pension, non-qualified deferred compensation plans and non-qualified pension plans or other employee benefit plans (including health savings accounts) or SIMPLE plans that are sponsored by one or more employers (including governmental or church employers) or employee organizations (“Employee Benefit Plans”). Such an Employee Benefit Plan must purchase Class IR or Class R Shares through a plan level or omnibus account. Class IR Shares may also be sold to accounts established under a fee-based program that is sponsored and maintained by an Authorized Institution and that is approved by Goldman Sachs (“Eligible Fee-Based Program”). Class IR and Class R Shares are not available to traditional and Roth Individual Retirement Accounts (“IRAs”), SEPs and SARSEPs; except that Class IR Shares are available to such accounts or plans to the extent they are purchased through an Eligible Fee-Based Program.

Employee Benefit Plans generally may open an account and purchase Class IR and/or Class R Shares through Authorized Institutions, financial planners, Employee Benefit Plan administrators and other financial intermediaries. Either Class IR or Class R Shares may not be available through certain Authorized Institutions. Additional shares may be purchased through an Employee Benefit Plan’s administrator or record-keeper.

What Is My Minimum Investment In The Fund?

For each of your accounts investing in Class A or Class C Shares, the following investment minimums must be met:

 

                                                                                                                                                           
     Initial   Additional*

Regular Accounts

  $1,000   $50

Employee Benefit Plans

  No Minimum   No Minimum

Uniform Gift/Transfer to Minors Accounts (UGMA/UTMA)

  $250   $50

Individual Retirement Accounts and Coverdell ESAs

  $250   $50

Automatic Investment Plan Accounts

  $250   $50
   

 

* No minimum additional investment requirements are imposed with respect to investors trading through Authorized Institutions who aggregate shares in omnibus or similar accounts (e.g., employee benefit plan accounts, wrap program accounts or traditional brokerage house accounts). A maximum purchase limitation of $1,000,000 in the aggregate normally applies to purchases of Class C Shares across all Goldman Sachs Funds.

For Institutional Shares, the minimum initial investment is $1,000,000 for individual or Institutional Investors, alone or in combination with other assets under the management of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, except that no initial

 

48


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

minimum will be imposed on (i) Employee Benefit Plans that hold their Institutional Shares through plan-level or omnibus accounts; or (ii) investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees where the investment adviser or its Authorized Institution purchases Institutional Shares through an omnibus account. For this purpose, “Institutional Investors” shall include “wrap” account sponsors (provided they have an agreement covering the arrangement with the Distributor), corporations, qualified non-profit organizations, charitable trusts, foundations and endowments, state, county, city or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof, and banks, trust companies or other depository institutions investing for their own account or on behalf of their clients.

No minimum amount is required for initial purchases in Class IR and Class R Shares or additional investments in Institutional, Class IR or Class R Shares.

The minimum investment requirement for Class A, Class C and Institutional Shares may be waived for current and former officers, partners, directors or employees of Goldman Sachs or any of its affiliates; any Trustee or officer of the Goldman Sachs Trust II (the “Trust”); brokerage or advisory clients of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management and accounts for which The Goldman Sachs Trust Company, N.A. acts in a fiduciary capacity (i.e., as agent or trustee); certain mutual fund “wrap” programs at the discretion of the Trust’s officers; and for other investors at the discretion of the Trust’s officers. No minimum amount is required for additional investments in such accounts.

What Should I Know When I Purchase Shares Through An Authorized Institution?

If shares of the Fund are held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution, all recordkeeping, transaction processing and payments of distributions relating to your account will be performed by your Authorized Institution, and not by the Fund and its Transfer Agent. Since the Fund will have no record of your transactions, you should contact your Authorized Institution to purchase, redeem or exchange shares, to make changes in or give instructions concerning your account or to obtain information about your account. The transfer of shares from an account with one Authorized Institution to an account with another Authorized Institution involves special procedures and may require you to obtain historical purchase information about the shares in the account from your Authorized Institution. If your Authorized Institution’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Authorized Institution, the Trust reserves the right to redeem your shares. The Trust will not be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from a redemption.

Certain Authorized Institutions may be authorized to accept, on behalf of the Trust, purchase, redemption and exchange orders placed by or on behalf of their customers,

 

49


and if approved by the Trust, to designate other financial intermediaries to accept such orders. In these cases:

  ¢  

The Fund will be deemed to have received an order that is in proper form when the order is accepted by an Authorized Institution on a business day, and the order will be priced at the Fund’s NAV per share (adjusted for any applicable sales charge) next determined after such acceptance.

  ¢  

Authorized Institutions are responsible for transmitting accepted orders to the Fund within the time period agreed upon by them.

You should contact your Authorized Institution to learn whether it is authorized to accept orders for the Trust.

Authorized Institutions that invest in shares on behalf of their customers may charge fees directly to their customer accounts in connection with their investments. You should contact your Authorized Institution for information regarding such charges, as these fees, if any, may affect the return such customers realize with respect to their investments.

The Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates may make payments or provide services to Authorized Institutions to promote the sale, distribution and/or servicing of shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. These payments are made out of the Investment Adviser’s, Distributor’s and/or their affiliates’ own assets, and are not an additional charge to the Fund. The payments are in addition to the distribution and service fees and sales charges described in this Prospectus. Such payments are intended to compensate Authorized Institutions for, among other things: marketing shares of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds, which may consist of payments relating to the Fund’s inclusion on preferred or recommended fund lists or in certain sales programs sponsored by the Authorized Institutions; access to the Authorized Institutions’ registered representatives or salespersons, including at conferences and other meetings; assistance in training and education of personnel; marketing support; and/or other specified services intended to assist in the distribution and marketing of the Fund and other Goldman Sachs Funds. The payments may also, to the extent permitted by applicable regulations, contribute to various non-cash and cash incentive arrangements to promote the sale of shares, as well as sponsor various educational programs, sales contests and/or promotions. The payments by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, which are in addition to the fees paid for these services by the Fund, may also compensate Authorized Institutions for sub-accounting, sub-transfer agency, administrative and/or shareholder processing services. These additional payments may exceed amounts earned on these assets by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates for the performance of these

 

50


SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

or similar services. The amount of these additional payments is normally not expected to exceed 0.50% (annualized) of the amount sold or invested through the Authorized Institutions. In addition, certain Authorized Institutions may have access to certain services from the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates, including research reports and economic analysis, and portfolio analysis tools. In certain cases, the Authorized Institution may not pay for these services. Please refer to the “Payments to Intermediaries” section of the SAI for more information about these payments and services.

The payments made by the Investment Adviser, Distributor and/or their affiliates and the services provided by an Authorized Institution may differ for different Authorized Institutions. The presence of these payments, receipt of these services and the basis on which an Authorized Institution compensates its registered representatives or salespersons may create an incentive for a particular Authorized Institution, registered representative or salesperson to highlight, feature or recommend the Fund based, at least in part, on the level of compensation paid. You should contact your Authorized Institution for more information about the payments it receives and any potential conflicts of interest.

What Else Should I Know About Share Purchases?

The Trust reserves the right to:

  ¢  

Refuse to open an account or require an Authorized Institution to refuse to open an account if you fail to (i) provide a Social Security Number or other taxpayer identification number; or (ii) certify that such number is correct (if required to do so under applicable law).

  ¢  

Reject or restrict any purchase or exchange order by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) for any reason in its discretion. Without limiting the foregoing, the Trust may reject or restrict purchase and exchange orders by a particular purchaser (or group of related purchasers) when a pattern of frequent purchases, sales or exchanges of shares of the Fund is evident, or if purchases, sales or exchanges are, or a subsequent redemption might be, of a size that would disrupt the management of the Fund.

  ¢  

Close the Fund to new investors from time to time and reopen the Fund whenever it is deemed appropriate by the Fund’s Investment Adviser.

  ¢  

Provide for, modify or waive the minimum investment requirements.

  ¢  

Modify the manner in which shares are offered.

  ¢  

Modify the sales charge rate applicable to future purchases of shares.

Generally, non-U.S. citizens and certain U.S. citizens residing outside the United States may not open an account with the Fund.

 

51


The Fund may allow you to purchase shares with securities instead of cash if consistent with the Fund’s investment policies and operations and if approved by the Fund’s Investment Adviser.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders.

Please be advised that abandoned or unclaimed property laws for certain states (to which your account may be subject) require financial organizations to transfer (escheat) unclaimed property (including shares of the Fund) to the appropriate state if no activity occurs in an account for a period of time specified by state law.

Customer Identification Program.  Federal law requires the Fund to obtain, verify and record identifying information for certain investors, which will be reviewed solely for customer identification purposes, which may include the name, residential or business street address, date of birth (for an individual), Social Security Number or taxpayer identification number or other information for each investor who opens an account directly with the Fund. Applications without the required information may not be accepted by the Fund. Throughout the life of your account, the Fund may request updated information in accordance with its Customer Identification Program. After accepting an application, to the extent permitted by applicable law or their customer identification program, the Fund reserves the right to: (i) place limits on transactions in any account until the identity of the investor is verified; (ii) refuse an investment in the Fund; or (iii) involuntarily redeem an investor’s shares and close an account in the event that the Fund is unable to verify an investor’s identity or obtain all required information. The Fund and its agents will not be responsible for any loss or tax liability in an investor’s account resulting from the investor’s delay in providing all required information or from closing an account and redeeming an investor’s shares pursuant to the customer identification program.

How Are Shares Priced?

The price you pay when you buy shares is the Fund’s next determined NAV for a share class (as adjusted for any applicable sales charge) after the Fund receives your order in proper form. The price you receive when you sell shares is the Fund’s next determined NAV for a share class with the redemption proceeds reduced by any applicable charges (e.g., CDSCs) after the Fund receives your order in proper form. Each class calculates its NAV as follows:

 

NAV =  

(Value of Assets of the Class)

– (Liabilities of the Class)

  Number of Outstanding Shares of the Class

 

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SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

The Fund’s investments for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value on the basis of quotations furnished by a pricing service or provided by securities dealers. If accurate quotations are not readily available, or if the Investment Adviser believes that such quotations do not accurately reflect fair value, the fair value of the Fund’s investments may be determined in good faith under valuation procedures established by the Board of Trustees. Cases where there is no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s investments include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source.

To the extent the Fund invests in foreign equity securities, “fair value” prices are provided by an independent fair value service in accordance with the fair value procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Fair value prices are used because many foreign markets operate at times that do not coincide with those of the major U.S. markets. Events that could affect the values of foreign portfolio holdings may occur between the close of the foreign market and the time of determining the NAV, and would not otherwise be reflected in the NAV. If the independent fair value service does not provide a fair value price for a particular security, or if the price provided does not meet the established criteria for the Fund, the Fund will price that security at the most recent closing price for that security on its principal exchange.

In addition, the Investment Adviser, consistent with its procedures and applicable regulatory guidance, may (but need not) determine to make an adjustment to the previous closing prices of either domestic or foreign securities in light of significant events, to reflect what it believes to be the fair value of the securities at the time of determining the Fund’s NAV. Significant events that could affect a large number of securities in a particular market may include, but are not limited to: situations relating to one or more single issuers in a market sector; significant fluctuations in U.S. or foreign markets; market dislocations; market disruptions or unscheduled market closings; equipment failures; natural or man made disasters or acts of God; armed conflicts; governmental actions or other developments; as well as the same or similar events which may affect specific issuers or the securities markets even though not tied directly to the securities markets. Other significant events that could relate to a single issuer may include, but are not limited to: corporate actions such as reorganizations, mergers and buy-outs; corporate announcements, including those relating to earnings, products and regulatory news; significant litigation; ratings downgrades; bankruptcies; and trading suspensions.

One effect of using an independent fair value service and fair valuation may be to reduce stale pricing arbitrage opportunities presented by the pricing of Fund shares. However, it involves the risk that the values used by the Fund to price its investments may be different from those used by other investment companies and investors to price the same investments.

 

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Investments in other open-end registered investment companies (if any), excluding investments in ETFs, are valued based on the NAV of those open-end registered investment companies (which may use fair value pricing as discussed in their prospectuses).

Please note the following with respect to the price at which your transactions are processed:

  ¢  

NAV per share of each share class is generally calculated by the accounting agent on each business day as of the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time) or such other times as the New York Stock Exchange or NASDAQ market may officially close. Fund shares will generally not be priced on any day the New York Stock Exchange is closed.

  ¢  

The Trust reserves the right to reprocess purchase (including dividend reinvestments), redemption and exchange transactions that were processed at a NAV that is subsequently adjusted, and to recover amounts from (or distribute amounts to) shareholders accordingly based on the official closing NAV, as adjusted.

  ¢  

The Trust reserves the right to advance the time by which purchase and redemption orders must be received for same business day credit as otherwise permitted by the SEC.

Consistent with industry practice, investment transactions not settling on the same day are recorded and factored into the Fund’s NAV on the business day following trade date (T+1). The use of T+1 accounting generally does not, but may, result in a NAV that differs materially from the NAV that would result if all transactions were reflected on their trade dates.

Note: The time at which transactions and shares are priced and the time by which orders must be received may be changed in case of an emergency or if regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange is stopped at a time other than its regularly scheduled closing time. In the event the New York Stock Exchange does not open for business, the Trust may, but is not required to, open the Fund for purchase, redemption and exchange transactions if the Federal Reserve wire payment system is open. To learn whether the Fund is open for business during this situation, please call the appropriate phone number located on the back cover of this Prospectus.

Foreign securities may trade in their local markets on days the Fund is closed. As a result, if the Fund holds foreign securities, its NAV may be impacted on days when investors may not purchase or redeem Fund shares.

 

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  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS A SHARES     

What Is The Offering Price Of Class A Shares?

The offering price of Class A Shares of the Fund is the next determined NAV per share plus an initial sales charge paid to Goldman Sachs at the time of purchase of shares.  The sales charge varies depending upon the amount you purchase. In some cases, described below, the initial sales charge may be eliminated altogether, and the offering price will be the NAV per share. The current sales charges and commissions paid to Authorized Institutions for Class A Shares of the Fund are as follows:

 

Amount of Purchase

(including sales charge, if any)

  Sales Charge as
Percentage of
Offering Price
    Sales Charge
as Percentage
of Net Amount
Invested
    Maximum Dealer
Allowance as
Percentage of
Offering Price*
 

Less than $50,000

    5.50     5.82     5.00

$50,000 up to (but less than) $100,000

    4.75        4.99        4.00   

$100,000 up to (but less than) $250,000

    3.75        3.90        3.00   

$250,000 up to (but less than) $500,000

    2.75        2.83        2.25   

$500,000 up to (but less than) $1 million

    2.00        2.04        1.75   

$1 million or more

    0.00 **      0.00 **      ***   
     

 

    * Dealer’s allowance may be changed periodically. During special promotions, the entire sales charge may be reallowed to Authorized Institutions. Authorized Institutions to whom substantially the entire sales charge is reallowed may be deemed to be “underwriters” under the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”).
  ** No sales charge is payable at the time of purchase of Class A Shares of $1 million or more, but a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed in the event of certain redemptions within 18 months.
*** The Distributor may pay a one-time commission to Authorized Institutions who initiate or are responsible for purchases of $1 million or more of shares of the Fund equal to 1.00% of the amount under $3 million, 0.50% of the next $2 million, and 0.25% thereafter. In instances where this one-time commission is not paid to a particular Authorized Institution (including Goldman Sachs’ Private Wealth Management Unit), the CDSC on Class A Shares, generally, will be waived. The Distributor may also pay, with respect to all or a portion of the amount purchased, a commission in accordance with the foregoing schedule to Authorized Institutions who initiate or are responsible for purchases by Employee Benefit Plans investing in the Fund which satisfy the criteria set forth below in “When Are Class A Shares Not Subject To A Sales Load?” or $1 million or more by certain “wrap” accounts. Purchases by such plans will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge, but if shares are redeemed within 18 months, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the plan, the plan sponsor or the third-party administrator. In addition, Authorized Institutions will remit to the Distributor such payments received in connection with “wrap” accounts in the event that shares are redeemed within 18 months.

You should note that the actual sales charge that appears in your mutual fund transaction confirmation may differ slightly from the rate disclosed above in this Prospectus due to rounding calculations.

As indicated in the preceding chart, and as discussed further below and in the section titled “How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?”, you may, under certain circumstances, be entitled to pay reduced sales charges on your purchases of

 

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Class A Shares or have those charges waived entirely. To take advantage of these discounts, your Authorized Institution must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent at the time of your purchase order that a discount may apply to your current purchases. You may also be required to provide appropriate documentation to receive these discounts, including:

 

  (i) Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held in all accounts (e.g., retirement accounts) of the shareholder at all Authorized Institutions;

 

  (ii) Information or records regarding shares of the Fund or other Goldman Sachs Funds held at any Authorized Institution by related parties of the shareholder, such as members of the same family or household.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Class A Shares’ CDSC?

Purchases of $1 million or more of Class A Shares will be made at NAV with no initial sales charge. However, if you redeem shares within 18 months after the beginning of the month in which the purchase was made a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed. The CDSC may not be imposed if your Authorized Institution agrees with the Distributor to return all or an applicable prorated portion of its commission to the Distributor. The CDSC is waived on redemptions in certain circumstances. See “In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?” below.

When Are Class A Shares Not Subject To A Sales Load?

Class A Shares of the Fund may be sold at NAV without payment of any sales charge to the following individuals and entities:

  ¢  

Goldman Sachs, its affiliates or their respective officers, partners, directors or employees (including retired employees and former partners), any partnership of which Goldman Sachs is a general partner, any Trustee or officer of the Trust and designated family members of any of these individuals;

  ¢  

Qualified employee benefit plans of Goldman Sachs;

  ¢  

Trustees or directors of investment companies for which Goldman Sachs or an affiliate acts as sponsor;

  ¢  

Any employee or registered representative of any Authorized Institution or their respective spouses, children and parents;

  ¢  

Banks, trust companies or other types of depository institutions;

  ¢  

Any state, county or city, or any instrumentality, department, authority or agency thereof, which is prohibited by applicable investment laws from paying a sales charge or commission in connection with the purchase of shares of the Fund;

  ¢  

Employee Benefit Plans, where such Plans purchase Class A Shares through a plan level or omnibus account;

 

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  ¢  

Investors who purchase Class A Shares through an omnibus account sponsored by an Authorized Institution that has an agreement with the Distributor covering such investors to offer Class A Shares without charging an initial sales charge;

  ¢  

Insurance company separate accounts that make the Fund available as an underlying investment in certain group annuity contracts;

  ¢  

“Wrap” accounts for the benefit of clients of broker-dealers, financial institutions or financial planners, provided they have entered into an agreement with GSAM specifying aggregate minimums and certain operating policies and standards;

  ¢  

Investment advisers investing for accounts for which they receive asset-based fees;

  ¢  

Accounts over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

  ¢  

Shareholders who roll over distributions from any tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity to an IRA which invests in the Goldman Sachs Funds if the tax-qualified Employee Benefit Plan or tax-sheltered annuity receives administrative services provided by certain third party administrators that have entered into a special service arrangement with Goldman Sachs relating to such plan or annuity;

  ¢  

State sponsored 529 college savings plans; or

  ¢  

Investors who qualify under other exemptions that are stated from time to time in the SAI.

You must certify eligibility for any of the above exemptions on your Account Application and notify your Authorized Institution and the Fund if you no longer are eligible for the exemption.

The Fund will grant you an exemption subject to confirmation of your eligibility by your Authorized Institution. You may be charged a fee by your Authorized Institution.

How Can The Sales Charge On Class A Shares Be Reduced?

  ¢  

Right of Accumulation:  When buying Class A Shares in Goldman Sachs Funds, your current aggregate investment determines the initial sales load you pay. You may qualify for reduced sales charges when the current market value of holdings across Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares, plus new purchases, reaches $100,000 or more. Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares of any of the Goldman Sachs Funds may be combined under the Right of Accumulation. If the Fund’s Transfer Agent is properly notified, the “Amount of Purchase” in the chart in the section “What Is The Offering Price of Class A Shares?” will be deemed to include all Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares of the Goldman Sachs Funds that were held at the time of purchase by any of the following persons: (i) you, your spouse, your parents and your children; and (ii) any trustee, guardian or other fiduciary of a single trust estate or a single fiduciary account. This includes, for example, any Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares held at an Authorized Institution other than

 

57


 

the one handling your current purchase. For purposes of applying the Right of Accumulation, shares of the Fund and any other Goldman Sachs Funds purchased by an existing client of Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management or GS Ayco Holding LLC will be combined with Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares and other assets held by all other Goldman Sachs Private Wealth Management accounts or accounts of GS Ayco Holding LLC, respectively. In addition, under some circumstances, Class A and/or Class C Shares of the Fund and Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares of any other Goldman Sachs Fund purchased by partners, directors, officers or employees of certain organizations may be combined for the purpose of determining whether a purchase will qualify for the Right of Accumulation and, if qualifying, the applicable sales charge level. To qualify for a reduced sales load, you or your Authorized Institution must notify the Fund’s Transfer Agent at the time of investment that a quantity discount is applicable. If you do not notify your Authorized Institution at the time of your current purchase or a future purchase that you qualify for a quantity discount, you may not receive the benefit of a reduced sales charge that might otherwise apply. Use of this option is subject to a check of appropriate records.

In some circumstances, other Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares may be aggregated with your current purchase under the Right of Accumulation as described in the SAI. For purposes of determining the “Amount of Purchase,” all Class A, Class B and/or Class C Shares currently held will be valued at their current market value.

 

  ¢  

Statement of Intention:  You may obtain a reduced sales charge by means of a written Statement of Intention which expresses your non-binding commitment to invest (not counting reinvestments of dividends and distributions) in the aggregate $100,000 or more within a period of 13 months in Class A Shares of one or more of the Goldman Sachs Funds. Any investments you make during the period will receive the discounted sales load based on the full amount of your investment commitment. Purchases made during the previous 90 days may be included; however, capital appreciation does not apply toward these combined purchases. If the investment commitment of the Statement of Intention is not met prior to the expiration of the 13-month period, the entire amount will be subject to the higher applicable sales charge unless the failure to meet the investment commitment is due to the death of the investor. By selecting the Statement of Intention, you authorize the Transfer Agent to escrow and redeem Class A Shares in your account to pay this additional charge if the Statement of Intention is not met. You must, however, inform the Transfer Agent (either directly or through your Authorized Institution) that the Statement of Intention is in effect each time shares are purchased. Each purchase will be made at the public offering price applicable to a

 

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single transaction of the dollar amount specified on the Statement of Intention. The SAI has more information about the Statement of Intention, which you should read carefully.

 

  A COMMON QUESTION APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS C SHARES     

What Is The Offering Price Of Class C Shares?

You may purchase Class C Shares of the Fund at the next determined NAV without paying an initial sales charge. However, if you redeem Class C Shares within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% will normally be deducted from the redemption proceeds. In connection with purchases by Employee Benefit Plans, where Class C Shares are redeemed within 12 months of purchase, a CDSC of 1.00% may be imposed upon the plan sponsor or third party administrator. Class C Shares acquired in exchange for shares subject to a CDSC will be subject to the CDSC, if any, of the shares originally held. With respect to such shares held by Employee Benefit Plans, the CDSC may be imposed on the plan sponsor or third party administrator.

Proceeds from the CDSC are payable to the Distributor and may be used in whole or in part to defray the Distributor’s expenses related to providing distribution-related services to the Fund in connection with the sale of Class C Shares, including the payment of compensation to Authorized Institutions. A commission equal to 1.00% of the amount invested is normally paid by the Distributor to Authorized Institutions.

 

  COMMON QUESTIONS APPLICABLE TO THE PURCHASE OF CLASS A AND C SHARES     

What Else Do I Need To Know About The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares?

  ¢  

The CDSC is based on the lesser of the NAV of the shares at the time of redemption or the original offering price (which is the original NAV).

  ¢  

No CDSC is charged on shares acquired from reinvested dividends or capital gains distributions.

  ¢  

No CDSC is charged on the per share appreciation of your account over the initial purchase price.

  ¢  

When counting the number of months since a purchase of Class A or Class C Shares was made, all purchases made during a month will be combined and considered to have been made on the first day of that month.

  ¢  

To keep your CDSC as low as possible, each time you place a request to sell shares, the Fund will first sell any shares in your account that do not carry a CDSC and then the shares in your account that have been held the longest.

 

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In What Situations May The CDSC On Class A Or C Shares Be Waived Or Reduced?

The CDSC on Class A and Class C Shares that are subject to a CDSC may be waived or reduced if the redemption relates to:

  ¢  

Mandatory retirement distributions or loans to participants or beneficiaries from Employee Benefit Plans;

  ¢  

Hardship withdrawals by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

  ¢  

The separation from service by a participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

  ¢  

Excess contributions distributed from an Employee Benefit Plan;

  ¢  

Distributions from a qualified Employee Benefit Plan invested in the Goldman Sachs Funds which are being rolled over to an IRA in the same share class of a Goldman Sachs Fund;

  ¢  

The death or disability (as defined in Section 72(m)(7) of the Code of a shareholder, participant or beneficiary in an Employee Benefit Plan;

  ¢  

Satisfying the minimum distribution requirements of the Code;

  ¢  

Establishing “substantially equal periodic payments” as described under Section 72(t)(2) of the Code;

  ¢  

Redemption proceeds which are to be reinvested in accounts or non-registered products over which GSAM or its advisory affiliates have investment discretion;

  ¢  

A systematic withdrawal plan. The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% of the value of your C Shares and 10% of the value of your Class A Shares;

  ¢  

Redemptions or exchanges of Fund shares held through an Employee Benefit Plan using the Fund as part of a qualified default investment alternative or “QDIA”; or

  ¢  

Other redemptions, at the discretion of the Trust’s officers, relating to shares purchased through Employee Benefit Plans.

 

  HOW TO SELL SHARES     

How Can I Sell Shares Of The Fund?

Generally, shares may be sold (redeemed) only through your Authorized Institution. Customers of an Authorized Institution will normally give their redemption instructions to the Authorized Institution, and the Authorized Institution will, in turn, place redemption orders with the Fund. Redemptions may be requested by electronic trading platform (through your Authorized Institution), in writing or by telephone (unless the Authorized Institution opts out of the telephone redemption privilege on the Account Application). The Fund will generally redeem its Shares upon request on any business day the Fund is open at the NAV next determined after receipt of such request in proper form, subject to any applicable CDSC. You should

 

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contact your Authorized Institution to discuss redemptions and redemption proceeds. Certain Authorized Institutions are authorized to accept redemption requests on behalf of the Fund as described under “How to Buy Shares—Shares Offering.” The Fund may transfer redemption proceeds to an account with your Authorized Institution. In the alternative, your Authorized Institution may request that redemption proceeds be sent to you by check or wire (if the wire instructions are designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent).

Generally, any redemption request that requires money to go to an account or address other than that designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent must be in writing and signed by an authorized person with a Medallion signature guarantee. The written request may be confirmed by telephone with both the requesting party and the designated bank to verify instructions. Other restrictions may apply in these situations.

When Do I Need A Medallion Signature Guarantee To Redeem Shares?

A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if:

  ¢  

A request is made in writing to redeem Class A, Class C, Class IR or Class R Shares in an amount over $50,000 via check;

  ¢  

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to an address that is not your address of record; or

  ¢  

You would like the redemption proceeds sent to a domestic bank account that is not designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent.

A Medallion signature guarantee must be obtained from a bank, brokerage firm or other financial intermediary that is a member of an approved Medallion Guarantee Program or that is otherwise approved by the Trust. A notary public cannot provide a Medallion signature guarantee. Additional documentation may be required.

What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?

The Trust, the Distributor and the Transfer Agent will not be liable for any loss or tax liability you may incur in the event that the Trust accepts unauthorized telephone redemption requests that the Trust reasonably believes to be genuine. The Trust may accept telephone redemption instructions from any person identifying himself or herself as the owner of an account or the owner’s registered representative where the owner has not declined in writing to use this service. Thus, you risk possible losses if a telephone redemption is not authorized by you.

In an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent redemption and exchange requests by telephone, Goldman Sachs and Boston Financial Data Services, Inc. (“BFDS”) each employ reasonable procedures specified by the Trust to confirm that such instructions are genuine. If reasonable procedures are not employed, the Trust may be

 

61


liable for any loss due to unauthorized or fraudulent transactions. The following general policies are currently in effect:

  ¢  

Telephone requests are recorded.

  ¢  

Proceeds of telephone redemption requests will be sent to your address of record or authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (unless you provide written instructions and a Medallion signature guarantee indicating another address or account).

  ¢  

For the 30-day period following a change of address, telephone redemptions will only be filled by a wire transfer to the authorized account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent (see immediately preceding bullet point). In order to receive the redemption by check during this time period, the redemption request must be in the form of a written, Medallion signature guaranteed letter.

  ¢  

The telephone redemption option does not apply to shares held in an account maintained and serviced by your Authorized Institution. If your shares are held in an account with an Authorized Institution, you should contact your registered representative of record, who may make telephone redemptions on your behalf.

  ¢  

The telephone redemption option may be modified or terminated at any time without prior notice.

  ¢  

The Fund may redeem via check up to $50,000 in Class A, Class C, Class IR or Class R Shares requested via telephone.

Note: It may be difficult to make telephone redemptions in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

How Are Redemption Proceeds Paid?

By Wire:  You may arrange for your redemption proceeds to be paid as federal funds to an account with your Authorized Institution or to a domestic bank account designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. In addition, redemption proceeds may be transmitted through an electronic trading platform to an account with your Authorized Institution. The following general policies govern wiring redemption proceeds:

  ¢  

Redemption proceeds will normally be paid on the next business day in federal funds, but may be paid up to three business days following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request. In unusual circumstances, the Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund may pay redemption proceeds up to seven calendar days following receipt of a properly executed wire transfer redemption request.

  ¢  

Although redemption proceeds will normally be paid as described above, under certain circumstances, redemption requests or payments may be postponed or suspended as permitted under Section 22(e) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “Investment Company Act”). Generally, under that section, redemption requests or payments may be postponed or suspended if (i) the New York Stock

 

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Exchange is closed for trading or trading is restricted; (ii) an emergency exists which makes the disposal of securities owned by the Fund or the fair determination of the value of the Fund’s net assets not reasonably practicable; or (iii) the SEC, by order or regulation, permits the suspension of the right of redemption.

  ¢  

If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or purchased by Automated Clearing House (“ACH”), the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

  ¢  

If the Federal Reserve Bank is closed on the day that the redemption proceeds would ordinarily be wired, wiring the redemption proceeds may be delayed until the Federal Reserve Bank reopens.

  ¢  

To change the bank wiring instructions designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent, you must send written instructions signed by an authorized person designated in the current records of the Transfer Agent. A Medallion signature guarantee may be required if you are requesting a redemption in conjunction with the change.

  ¢  

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs assumes any responsibility for the performance of your bank or any other financial intermediary in the transfer process. If a problem with such performance arises, you should deal directly with your bank or any such financial intermediary.

By Check:  You may elect to receive redemption proceeds by check. Redemption proceeds paid by check will normally be mailed to the address of record within three business days of receipt of a properly executed redemption request. If you are selling shares you recently paid for by check or ACH, the Fund will pay you when your check or ACH has cleared, which may take up to 15 days.

What Else Do I Need To Know About Redemptions?

The following generally applies to redemption requests:

  ¢  

Additional documentation may be required when deemed appropriate by the Transfer Agent. A redemption request will not be in proper form until such additional documentation has been received.

  ¢  

Authorized Institutions are responsible for the timely transmittal of redemption requests by their customers to the Transfer Agent. In order to facilitate the timely transmittal of redemption requests, these Authorized Institutions may set times by which they must receive redemption requests. These Authorized Institutions may also require additional documentation from you.

The Trust reserves the right to:

  ¢  

Redeem your shares in the event your Authorized Institution’s relationship with Goldman Sachs is terminated, and you do not transfer your account to another Authorized Institution with a relationship with Goldman Sachs or in the event that

 

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the Fund is no longer an option in your Employee Benefit Plan or no longer available through your Eligible Fee-Based Program.

  ¢  

Redeem your shares if your account balance is below the required Fund minimum. The Fund will not redeem your shares on this basis if the value of your account falls below the minimum account balance solely as a result of market conditions. The Fund will give you 60 days prior written notice to allow you to purchase sufficient additional shares of the Fund in order to avoid such redemption. Different rules may apply to investors who have established brokerage accounts with Goldman Sachs in accordance with the terms and conditions of their account agreements.

  ¢  

Subject to applicable law, redeem your shares in other circumstances determined by the Board of Trustees to be in the best interest of the Trust.

  ¢  

Pay redemptions by a distribution in-kind of securities (instead of cash). If you receive redemption proceeds in-kind, you should expect to incur transaction costs upon the disposition of those securities.

  ¢  

Reinvest any amounts (e.g., dividends, distributions or redemption proceeds) which you have elected to receive by check should your check be returned to the Fund as undeliverable or remain uncashed for more than 180 days. Amounts will be reinvested in additional shares at the NAV per share on the day the check is reinvested. When reinvested, those amounts are subject to the risk of loss like any fund investment. This provision may not apply to certain retirement or qualified accounts or to a closed account. Your participation in a systematic withdrawal program may be terminated if your checks remain uncashed. No interest will accrue on amounts represented by uncashed checks.

  ¢  

Charge an additional fee in the event a redemption is made via wire transfer.

None of the Trust, the Investment Adviser or Goldman Sachs will be responsible for any loss in an investor’s account or tax liability resulting from an involuntary redemption.

Can I Reinvest Redemption Proceeds In The Same Or Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

For Class A and Class C Shares you may redeem shares of the Fund and reinvest a portion or all of the redemption proceeds (plus any additional amounts needed to round off purchases to the nearest full share) in the same share class of any Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV. To be eligible for this privilege, you must have held the shares you want to redeem for at least 30 days and you must reinvest the share proceeds within 90 days after you redeem. You should obtain and read the applicable prospectuses before investing in any other Goldman Sachs Funds.

 

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You may reinvest as follows:

  ¢  

If you pay a CDSC upon redemption of Class A or Class C Shares and then reinvest in Class A or Class C Shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund as described above, your account will be credited with the amount of the CDSC you paid. The reinvested shares will, however, continue to be subject to a CDSC. The holding period of the shares acquired through reinvestment will include the holding period of the redeemed shares for purposes of computing the CDSC payable upon a subsequent redemption.

  ¢  

The reinvestment privilege may be exercised at any time in connection with transactions in which the proceeds are reinvested at NAV in a tax-sheltered Employee Benefit Plan. In other cases, the reinvestment privilege may be exercised once per year upon receipt of a written request.

  ¢  

You may be subject to tax as a result of a redemption. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of a redemption and reinvestment.

Can I Exchange My Investment From One Goldman Sachs Fund To Another Goldman Sachs Fund?

You may exchange shares of a Goldman Sachs Fund at NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC, if applicable, at the time of exchange for certain shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund. Redemption of shares (including by exchange) of certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses may, however, be subject to a redemption fee for shares that are held for either 30 or 60 days or less, subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses. The exchange privilege may be materially modified or withdrawn at any time upon 60 days written notice. You should contact your Authorized Institution to arrange for exchanges of shares of the Fund for shares of another Goldman Sachs Fund.

You should keep in mind the following factors when making or considering an exchange:

  ¢  

You should obtain and carefully read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund you are acquiring before making an exchange. You should be aware that not all Goldman Sachs Funds may offer all share classes.

  ¢  

Currently, the Fund does not impose any charge for exchanges, although the Fund may impose a charge in the future.

  ¢  

The exchanged shares may later be exchanged for shares of the same class of the original Fund at the next determined NAV without the imposition of an initial sales charge or CDSC (but subject to any applicable redemption fee) if the amount in the Fund resulting from such exchanges is less than the largest amount on which you have previously paid the applicable sales charge.

 

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  ¢  

When you exchange shares subject to a CDSC, no CDSC will be charged at that time. For purposes of determining the amount of the applicable CDSC, the length of time you have owned the shares will be measured from the date you acquired the original shares subject to a CDSC, and the amount and terms of the CDSC will be that applicable to the original shares acquired, and will not be affected by a subsequent exchange.

  ¢  

Eligible investors may exchange certain classes of shares for another class of shares of the same Fund. For further information, contact your Authorized Institution.

  ¢  

All exchanges which represent an initial investment in a Goldman Sachs Fund must satisfy the minimum initial investment requirement of that Fund. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the Trust. Exchanges into a Fund need not meet the traditional minimum investment requirements for that Fund if the entire balance of the original Fund account is exchanged.

  ¢  

Exchanges are available only in states where exchanges may be legally made.

  ¢  

It may be difficult to make telephone exchanges in times of unusual economic or market conditions.

  ¢  

Goldman Sachs and BFDS may use reasonable procedures described under “What Do I Need To Know About Telephone Redemption Requests?” in an effort to prevent unauthorized or fraudulent telephone exchange requests.

  ¢  

Normally, a telephone exchange will be made only to an identically registered account.

  ¢  

Exchanges into Goldman Sachs Funds or certain share classes of Goldman Sachs Funds that are closed to new investors may be restricted.

  ¢  

Exchanges into the Fund from another Goldman Sachs Fund may be subject to any redemption fee imposed by the other Goldman Sachs Fund.

For federal income tax purposes, an exchange from one Goldman Sachs Fund to another is treated as a redemption of the shares surrendered in the exchange, on which you may be subject to tax, followed by a purchase of shares received in the exchange. Exchanges within Employee Benefit Plan accounts will not result in capital gains or loss for federal or state income tax purposes. You should consult your tax adviser concerning the tax consequences of an exchange.

 

  SHAREHOLDER SERVICES     

Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Investments Made On A Regular Basis?

You may be able to make automatic investments in Class A and Class C Shares through your bank via ACH transfer or bank draft each month. The minimum dollar amount for this service is $250 for the initial investment and $50 per month for additional investments. Forms for this option are available online at

 

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SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

www.goldmansachsfunds.com and from your Authorized Institution, or you may check the appropriate box on the Account Application.

Can My Distributions From The Fund Be Invested In Other Goldman Sachs Funds?

You may elect to cross-reinvest distributions paid by a Goldman Sachs Fund in shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

  ¢  

Shares will be purchased at NAV.

  ¢  

You may elect cross-reinvestment into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

  ¢  

You cannot make cross-reinvestments into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

  ¢  

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Fund into which dividends are invested.

Can I Arrange To Have Automatic Exchanges Made On A Regular Basis?

You may elect to exchange automatically a specified dollar amount of Class A or Class C Shares of the Fund for shares of the same class of other Goldman Sachs Funds.

  ¢  

Shares will be purchased at NAV if a sales charge had been imposed on the initial purchase.

  ¢  

You may elect to exchange into an identically registered account or a similarly registered account provided that at least one name on the account is registered identically.

  ¢  

Shares subject to a CDSC acquired under this program may be subject to a CDSC at the time of redemption from the Goldman Sachs Fund into which the exchange is made depending upon the date and value of your original purchase.

  ¢  

Automatic exchanges are made monthly on the 15th day of each month or the first business day thereafter.

  ¢  

Minimum dollar amount: $50 per month.

  ¢  

You cannot make automatic exchanges into a Goldman Sachs Fund unless that Fund’s minimum initial investment requirement is met.

  ¢  

You should obtain and read the prospectus of the Goldman Sachs Fund into which automatic exchanges are made.

  ¢  

An exchange is considered a redemption and a purchase and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

Can I Have Systematic Withdrawals Made On A Regular Basis?

You may redeem from your Class A or Class C Share account systematically via check or ACH transfer in any amount of $50 or more.

 

67


  ¢  

It is normally undesirable to maintain a systematic withdrawal plan at the same time that you are purchasing additional Class A or Class C Shares because of the sales charges that are imposed on certain purchases of Class A Shares and because of the CDSCs that are imposed on certain redemptions of Class A and Class C Shares.

  ¢  

Checks are normally mailed within two business days after your selected systematic withdrawal date of either the 15th or 25th of the month. ACH payments may take up to three business days to post to your account after your selected systematic withdrawal date between, and including, the 3rd and 26th of the month.

  ¢  

Each systematic withdrawal is a redemption and therefore may be a taxable transaction.

  ¢  

The CDSC applicable to Class A or Class C Shares redeemed under the systematic withdrawal plan may be waived.

  ¢  

The Fund reserves the right to limit such redemptions, on an annual basis, to 12% of the value of Class C Shares and 10% of the value of Class A Shares.

What Types Of Reports Will I Be Sent Regarding My Investment?

Authorized Institutions may provide varying arrangements for their clients to purchase and redeem Fund shares. In addition, Authorized Institutions are responsible for providing to you any communication from the Fund to its shareholders, including but not limited to, prospectuses, prospectus supplements, proxy materials and notices regarding the source of dividend payments under Section 19 of the Investment Company Act. They may charge additional fees not described in this Prospectus to their customers for such services.

You will be provided with a printed confirmation of each transaction in your account and a quarterly account statement if you invest in Class A, Class C, Class IR or Class R shares and a monthly account statement if you invest in Institutional Shares. If your account is held through your Authorized Institution, you will receive this information from your Authorized Institution.

You will also receive an annual shareholder report containing audited financial statements and a semi-annual shareholder report. If you have consented to the delivery of a single copy of shareholder reports, prospectuses and other information to all shareholders who share the same mailing address with your account, you may revoke your consent at any time by contacting your Authorized Institution or Goldman Sachs Funds at the appropriate phone number or address found on the back cover of this Prospectus. The Fund will begin sending individual copies to you within 30 days after receipt of your revocation. If your account is held through an Authorized Institution, please contact the Authorized Institution to revoke your consent. The Fund does not generally provide sub-accounting services.

 

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SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

 

  DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE FEES     

What Are The Different Distribution And/Or Service Fees Paid By The Fund’s Shares?

The Trust has adopted distribution and service plans (each a “Plan”) under which Class A, Class C and Class R Shares bear distribution and/or service fees paid to Goldman Sachs, some of which Goldman Sachs may pay to Authorized Institutions. Authorized Institutions seek distribution and/or servicing fee revenues to, among other things, offset the cost of servicing small and medium sized plan investors and providing information about the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plans exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from these arrangements. Goldman Sachs generally receives and pays the distribution and service fees on a quarterly basis.

Under the Plans, Goldman Sachs is entitled to a monthly fee from the Fund for distribution services equal, on an annual basis, to 0.25%, 0.75% and 0.50% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class A, Class C and Class R Shares, respectively. Because these fees are paid out of the Fund’s assets on an ongoing basis, over time, these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of such charges.

The distribution fees are subject to the requirements of Rule 12b-1 under the Investment Company Act, and may be used (among other things) for:

  ¢  

Compensation paid to and expenses incurred by Authorized Institutions, Goldman Sachs and their respective officers, employees and sales representatives;

  ¢  

Commissions paid to Authorized Institutions;

  ¢  

Allocable overhead;

  ¢  

Telephone and travel expenses;

  ¢  

Interest and other costs associated with the financing of such compensation and expenses;

  ¢  

Printing of prospectuses for prospective shareholders;

  ¢  

Preparation and distribution of sales literature or advertising of any type; and

  ¢  

All other expenses incurred in connection with activities primarily intended to result in the sale of Class A, Class C and Class R Shares.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.75% distribution fee as an ongoing commission to Authorized Institutions after the shares have been held for one year. Goldman Sachs normally begins accruing the annual 0.25% and 0.50% distribution fees for the Class A Shares and Class R Shares, respectively, as ongoing commissions to Authorized Institutions immediately. Goldman Sachs generally pays the distribution fees on a quarterly basis.

 

69


  CLASS C PERSONAL AND ACCOUNT MAINTENANCE SERVICES AND FEES     

Under the Class C Plan, Goldman Sachs is also entitled to receive a separate fee equal on an annual basis to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets attributed to Class C Shares. This fee is for personal and account maintenance services, and may be used to make payments to Goldman Sachs, Authorized Institutions and their officers, sales representatives and employees for responding to inquiries of, and furnishing assistance to, shareholders regarding ownership of their shares or their accounts or similar services not otherwise provided on behalf of the Fund. If the fees received by Goldman Sachs pursuant to the Plan exceed its expenses, Goldman Sachs may realize a profit from this arrangement.

In connection with the sale of Class C Shares, Goldman Sachs normally begins paying the 0.25% ongoing service fee to Authorized Institutions after the shares have been held for one year.

 

  RESTRICTIONS ON EXCESSIVE TRADING PRACTICES     

Policies and Procedures on Excessive Trading Practices.  In accordance with the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees, the Trust discourages frequent purchases and redemptions of Fund shares and does not permit market timing or other excessive trading practices. Purchases and exchanges should be made with a view to longer-term investment purposes only that are consistent with the investment policies and practices of the respective Fund. Excessive, short-term (market timing) trading practices may disrupt portfolio management strategies, increase brokerage and administrative costs, harm Fund performance and result in dilution in the value of Fund shares held by longer-term shareholders. The Trust and Goldman Sachs reserve the right to reject or restrict purchase or exchange requests from any investor. The Trust and Goldman Sachs will not be liable for any loss resulting from rejected purchase or exchange orders. To minimize harm to the Trust and its shareholders (or Goldman Sachs), the Trust (or Goldman Sachs) will exercise this right if, in the Trust’s (or Goldman Sachs’) judgment, an investor has a history of excessive trading or if an investor’s trading, in the judgment of the Trust (or Goldman Sachs), has been or may be disruptive to the Fund. In making this judgment, trades executed in multiple accounts under common ownership or control may be considered together to the extent they can be identified. No waivers of the provisions of the policy established to detect and deter market timing and other excessive trading activity are permitted that would harm the Trust or its shareholders or would subordinate the interests of the Trust or its shareholders to those of Goldman Sachs or any affiliated person or associated person of Goldman Sachs.

 

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SHAREHOLDER GUIDE

 

To deter excessive shareholder trading, certain Goldman Sachs Funds offered in other prospectuses impose a redemption fee on redemptions made within 30 or 60 days of purchase subject to certain exceptions as described in those Goldman Sachs Funds’ prospectuses under “What Do I Need To Know About The Redemption Fee?”. As a further deterrent to excessive trading, many foreign equity securities held by Goldman Sachs Funds are priced by an independent pricing service using fair valuation. For more information on fair valuation, please see “How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

Pursuant to the policy adopted by the Board of Trustees of the Trust, Goldman Sachs has developed criteria that it uses to identify trading activity that may be excessive. Excessive trading activity in the Fund is measured by the number of “round trip” transactions in a shareholder’s account. A “round trip” includes a purchase or exchange into the Fund followed or preceded by a redemption or exchange out of the same Fund. If the Fund detects that a shareholder has completed two or more round trip transactions in a single Fund within a rolling 90-day period, the Fund may reject or restrict subsequent purchase or exchange orders by that shareholder permanently. In addition, the Fund may, in its sole discretion, permanently reject or restrict purchase or exchange orders by a shareholder if the Fund detects other trading activity that is deemed to be disruptive to the management of the Fund or otherwise harmful to the Fund. For purposes of these transaction surveillance procedures, the Fund may consider trading activity in multiple accounts under common ownership, control, or influence. A shareholder that has been restricted from participation in the Fund pursuant to this policy will be allowed to apply for re-entry after one year. A shareholder applying for re-entry must provide assurances acceptable to the Fund that the shareholder will not engage in excessive trading activities in the future.

Goldman Sachs may modify its surveillance procedures and criteria from time to time without prior notice regarding the detection of excessive trading or to address specific circumstances. Goldman Sachs will apply the criteria in a manner that, in Goldman Sachs’ judgment, will be uniform.

Fund shares may be held through omnibus arrangements maintained by Authorized Institutions such as broker-dealers, investment advisers and insurance companies. In addition, Fund shares may be held in omnibus Employee Benefit Plans, Eligible Fee-Based Programs and other group accounts. Omnibus accounts include multiple investors and such accounts typically provide the Fund with a net purchase or redemption request on any given day where the purchases and redemptions of Fund shares by the investors are netted against one another. The identity of individual investors whose purchase and redemption orders are aggregated are ordinarily not tracked by the Fund on a regular basis. A number of these Authorized Institutions may

 

71


not have the capability or may not be willing to apply the Fund’s market timing policies or any applicable redemption fee. While Goldman Sachs may monitor share turnover at the omnibus account level, the Fund’s ability to monitor and detect market timing by shareholders or apply any applicable redemption fee in these omnibus accounts may be limited in certain circumstances, and certain of these Authorized Institutions may charge the Fund a fee for providing certain shareholder financial information requested as part of the Fund’s surveillance process. The netting effect makes it more difficult to identify, locate and eliminate market timing activities. In addition, those investors who engage in market timing and other excessive trading activities may employ a variety of techniques to avoid detection. There can be no assurance that the Fund and Goldman Sachs will be able to identify all those who trade excessively or employ a market timing strategy, and curtail their trading in every instance. If necessary, the Trust may prohibit additional purchases of Fund shares by an Authorized Institution or by certain of the Authorized Institution’s customers. Authorized Institutions may also monitor their customers’ trading activities in the Fund. The criteria used by Authorized Institutions to monitor for excessive trading may differ from the criteria used by the Fund. If an Authorized Institution fails to cooperate in the implementation or enforcement of the Trust’s excessive trading policies, the Trust may take certain actions including terminating the relationship.

 

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Taxation

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in the Fund will be taxed. The tax information below is provided as general information. More tax information is available in the SAI. You should consult your tax adviser about the federal, state, local or foreign tax consequences of your investment in the Fund. Except as otherwise noted, the tax information provided assumes that you are a U.S. citizen or resident.

Unless your investment is through an IRA or other tax-advantaged account, you should carefully consider the possible tax consequences of Fund distributions and the sale of your Fund shares.

 

  DISTRIBUTIONS     

The Fund contemplates declaring as dividends each year all or substantially all of its taxable income. Distributions you receive from the Fund are generally subject to federal income tax, and may also be subject to state or local taxes. This is true whether you reinvest your distributions in additional Fund shares or receive them in cash. For federal tax purposes, the Funds’ distributions attributable to net investment income and short-term capital gains are taxable to you as ordinary income while distributions of long-term capital gains are taxable to you as long-term capital gains, no matter how long you have owned your Fund shares.

Under current provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), the maximum long-term capital gain tax rate applicable to individuals, estates, and trusts is 15%. Fund distributions to noncorporate shareholders attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. and certain foreign corporations will generally be taxed at the long-term capital gain rate of 15%, as long as certain other requirements are met. For these lower rates to apply, the non-corporate shareholder must own their Fund shares for at least 61 days during the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the Fund’s ex-dividend date. The amount of the Fund’s distributions that would otherwise qualify for this favorable tax treatment will be reduced as a result of the Fund’s high portfolio turnover rate.

A sunset provision provides that the 15% long-term capital gain rate will increase to 20% and the taxation of dividends at the long-term capital gain rate will end after 2012 in each case, if not extended further by Congress.

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, an additional 3.8% Medicare tax will be imposed on certain net investment income (including ordinary dividends

 

73


and capital gain distributions received from a Fund and net gains from redemptions or other taxable dispositions of Fund shares) of U.S. individuals, estates and trusts to the extent that such person’s “modified adjusted gross income” (in the case of an individual) or “adjusted gross income” (in the case of an estate or trust) exceeds certain threshold amounts.

Although distributions are generally treated as taxable to you in the year they are paid, distributions declared in October, November or December but paid in January are

taxable as if they were paid in December. A percentage of the Fund’s dividends paid to corporate shareholders may be eligible for the corporate dividends-received deduction. This percentage may, however, be reduced as a result of the Fund’s high portfolio turnover rate. Character and tax status of all distributions will be available to shareholders after the close of each calendar year.

The Fund may be subject to foreign withholding or other foreign taxes on income or gain from certain foreign securities. In general, the Fund may deduct these taxes in computing its taxable income.

If you buy shares of the Fund before it makes a distribution, the distribution will be taxable to you even though it may actually be a return of a portion of your investment. This is known as “buying into a dividend.”

 

  SALES AND EXCHANGES     

Your sale of Fund shares is a taxable transaction for federal income tax purposes, and may also be subject to state and local taxes. For tax purposes, the exchange of your Fund shares for shares of a different Goldman Sachs Fund is the same as a sale. When you sell your shares, you will generally recognize a capital gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between your adjusted tax basis in the shares and the amount received. Generally, this capital gain or loss is long-term or short-term depending on whether your holding period exceeds one year, except that any loss realized on shares held for six months or less will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of any long-term capital gain dividends that were received on the shares. Additionally, any loss realized on a sale, exchange or redemption of shares of the Fund may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules to the extent the shares disposed of are replaced with other shares of the Fund within a period of 61 days beginning 30 days before and ending 30 days after the date of disposition, such as pursuant to a dividend reinvestment in shares of the Fund. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.

 

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TAXATION

 

 

  OTHER INFORMATION     

When you open your account, you should provide your Social Security Number or tax identification number on your Account Application. By law, the Fund must withhold 28% (currently scheduled to increase to 31% after 2012) of your taxable distributions and any redemption proceeds if you do not provide your correct taxpayer identification number, or certify that it is correct, or if the IRS instructs the Fund to do so.

Non-U.S. investors are generally subject to U.S. withholding tax and may be subject to estate tax. However, withholding is generally not required on properly designated distributions to non-U.S. investors of long-term capital gains. More information about U.S. taxation of non-U.S. investors is included in the SAI.

The Fund is required to report to you and the IRS annually on Form 1099-B not only the gross proceeds of Fund shares you sell or redeem but also their cost basis. Cost basis will be calculated using the Fund’s default method of average cost, unless you instruct the Fund to use a different methodology. If you would like to use the average cost method of calculation, no action is required. To elect an alternative method, you should contact Goldman Sachs Funds at the address or phone number on the back cover of this Prospectus. If your account is held with an Authorized Institution, contact your representative with respect to reporting of cost basis and available elections for your account.

You should carefully review the cost basis information provided by the Funds and make any additional basis, holding period or other adjustments that are required when reporting these amounts on your federal income tax returns.

 

75


 

Appendix A

Additional Information on Portfolio

Risks, Securities and Techniques

 

  A.    General Portfolio Risks     

The Fund will be subject to the risks associated with equity investments. “Equity investments” may include common stocks, preferred stocks, interests in REITs, MLPs equity interests in trusts, partnerships, joint ventures, limited liability companies and similar enterprises, other investment companies (including ETFs), warrants, stock purchase rights and synthetic and derivative instruments (such as swaps and futures contracts) that have economic characteristics similar to equity securities. In general, the values of equity investments fluctuate in response to the activities of individual companies and in response to general market and economic conditions. Accordingly, the values of such investments may decline over short or extended periods. The stock markets tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when prices generally decline. This volatility means that the value of your investment in the Fund may increase or decrease. In recent years, certain stock markets have experienced substantial price volatility. To the extent the Fund’s net assets decrease or increase in the future due to price volatility or share redemption or purchase activity, the Fund’s expense ratio may correspondingly increase or decrease from the expense ratio disclosed in this Prospectus.

To the extent the Fund invests in pooled investment vehicles (including private investment funds, investment companies, ETFs and UCITS), partnerships and REITS, the Fund will be affected by the investment policies, practices and performance of such entities in direct proportion to the amount of assets the Fund invests therein.

To the extent it invests in fixed income securities, the Fund will also be subject to the risks associated with fixed income securities. These risks include interest rate risk and credit/default risk and call/extension risk. In general, interest rate risk involves the risk that when interest rates decline, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. Conversely, when interest rates increase, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decline. Credit/default risk involves the risk that an issuer or guarantor could default on its obligations, and the Fund will not recover its investment. Call risk and extension risk are normally present in mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. For example, homeowners have the option to prepay their mortgages. Therefore, the duration of a security backed by home mortgages can either shorten (call risk) or lengthen (extension risk). In general, if interest rates on new mortgage loans fall sufficiently below the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to increase. Conversely, if

 

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APPENDIX A

 

mortgage loan interest rates rise above the interest rates on existing outstanding mortgage loans, the rate of prepayment would be expected to decrease. In either case, a change in the prepayment rate can result in losses to investors. The same would be true of asset-backed securities such as securities backed by car loans.

The Fund may invest in non-investment grade fixed income securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”), which are rated below investment grade (or determined to be of comparable credit quality, if not rated) at the time of purchase and are therefore considered speculative. Because non-investment grade fixed income securities are issued by issuers with low credit ratings, they pose a greater risk of default than investment grade securities.

The Underlying Managers may use derivative instruments, including financial futures contracts and swap transactions, as well as other types of derivatives. The Fund’s

investments in derivative instruments, including financial futures contracts and swaps, can be significant.

Interest rates, fixed income securities prices, the prices of futures and other derivatives, and currency exchange rates can be volatile, and a variance in the degree of volatility or in the direction of the market from the Underlying Managers’ expectations may produce significant losses in the Fund’s investments in derivatives.

Financial futures contracts used by the Fund include interest rate futures contracts including, among others, Eurodollar futures contracts. Eurodollar futures contracts are U.S. dollar-denominated futures contracts that are based on the implied forward LIBOR of a three-month deposit. Further information is included in this Prospectus regarding futures contracts, swaps and other derivative instruments used by the Fund, including information on the risks presented by these instruments and purposes for which they may be used by the Fund.

The Underlying Managers will not consider the portfolio turnover rate a limiting factor in making investment decisions for the Fund. A high rate of portfolio turnover (100% or more) involves correspondingly greater expenses which must be borne by the Fund and its shareholders, and is also likely to result in higher short-term capital gains taxable to shareholders. The portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of the dollar amount of sales or purchases of portfolio securities by the average monthly value of the Fund’s portfolio securities, excluding securities having a maturity at the date of purchase of one year or less.

The following sections provide further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks. Additional information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request. Among other things, the SAI describes certain fundamental investment restrictions

 

77


that cannot be changed without shareholder approval. You should note, however, that all investment objectives, and all investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental are non-fundamental and may be changed without shareholder approval. If there is a change in the Fund’s investment objective, you should consider whether the Fund remains an appropriate investment in light of your then current financial position and needs.

 

  B.    Other Portfolio Risks     

Risks of Derivative Investments.  The Fund may invest in derivative instruments including without limitation, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, structured securities and forward contracts and other derivatives relating to foreign currency transactions. Investments in derivative instruments may be for both hedging and nonhedging purposes (that is, to seek to increase total return, although suitable derivative instruments may not always be available to the Underlying Managers for

these purposes). Losses from investments in derivative instruments can result from a lack of correlation between changes in the value of derivative instruments and the portfolio assets (if any) being hedged, the potential illiquidity of the markets for derivative instruments, the failure of the counterparty to perform its contractual obligations, or the risks arising from margin requirements and related leverage factors associated with such transactions. Losses may also arise if the Fund receives cash collateral under the transactions and some or all of that collateral is invested in the market. To the extent that cash collateral is so invested, such collateral will be subject to market depreciation or appreciation, and the Fund may be responsible for any loss that might result from its investment of the counterparty’s cash collateral. Returns, and potential losses, from these management techniques are dependent on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making processes around, but not limited to, expectations of the timing or level of fluctuations in securities prices, interest rates or currency prices. Investments in derivative instruments may be harder to value, subject to greater volatility and more likely subject to changes in tax treatment than other investments. For these reasons, an Underlying Manager’s attempts to hedge portfolio risks through the use of derivative instruments may not be successful, and an Underlying Manager may choose not to hedge certain portfolio risks. Investing for nonhedging purposes is considered a speculative practice and presents even greater risk of loss.

Risks of Illiquid Securities.  The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities which cannot be disposed of in seven days in the ordinary course of business at fair value. Illiquid securities include:

  ¢  

Both domestic and foreign securities that are not readily marketable

  ¢  

Repurchase agreements and time deposits with a notice or demand period of more than seven days

 

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APPENDIX A

 

  ¢  

Certain over-the-counter options

  ¢  

Certain structured securities and swap transactions

  ¢  

Certain restricted securities, unless it is determined, based upon a review of the trading markets for a specific restricted security, that such restricted security is liquid because it is so called “4(2) commercial paper” or is otherwise eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (“144A Securities”).

Investing in 144A Securities may decrease the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio to the extent that qualified institutional buyers become for a time uninterested in purchasing these restricted securities. The purchase price and subsequent valuation of restricted and illiquid securities normally reflect a discount, which may be significant, from the market price of comparable securities for which a liquid market exists.

Investments purchased by the Fund, particularly debt securities and over-the-counter traded instruments, that are liquid at the time of purchase may subsequently become illiquid due to events relating to the issuer of the securities, markets events, economic conditions or investor perceptions. Domestic and foreign markets are becoming more and more complex and interrelated, so that events in one sector of the market or the economy, or in one geographical region, can reverberate and have negative consequences for other market, economic or regional sectors in a manner that may not be reasonably foreseen. With respect to over-the-counter traded securities, the continued viability of any over-the-counter secondary market depends on the continued willingness of dealers and other participants to purchase the instruments.

If one or more instruments in the Fund’s portfolio become illiquid, the Fund may exceed its 15 percent limitation in illiquid instruments. In the event that changes in the portfolio or other external events cause the investments in illiquid instruments to exceed 15 percent of the Fund’s net assets, the Fund must take steps to bring the aggregate amount of illiquid instruments back within the prescribed limitations as soon as reasonably practicable. This requirement would not force the Fund to liquidate any portfolio instrument where the Fund would suffer a loss on the sale of that instrument.

In cases where no clear indication of the value of the Fund’s portfolio instruments is available, the portfolio instruments will be valued at their fair value according to the valuation procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. These cases include, among others, situations where a security or other asset or liability does not have a price source, or the secondary markets on which an investment has previously been traded are no longer viable, due to its lack of liquidity. For more information on fair valuation, please see “Shareholder Guide—How To Buy Shares—How Are Shares Priced?”

 

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Credit/Default Risks.  Debt securities purchased by the Fund may include U.S. Government Securities (including zero coupon bonds), and securities issued by foreign governments, domestic and foreign corporations, banks and other issuers. Some of these fixed income securities are described in the next section below. Further information is provided in the SAI.

Debt securities rated BBB or higher by Standard & Poor’s or Baa or higher by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO are considered “investment grade.” Securities rated BBB or Baa are considered medium-grade obligations with speculative characteristics, and adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances may weaken the issuers’ capacity to pay interest and repay principal. A security will be deemed to have met a rating requirement if it receives the minimum required rating from at least one such rating organization even though it has been rated below the minimum rating by one or more other rating organizations, or if unrated by such rating organizations, the security is determined by an Underlying Manager to be of comparable credit quality. A security satisfies the Fund’s minimum

rating requirement regardless of its relative ranking (for example, plus or minus) within a designated major rating category (for example, BBB or Baa). If a security satisfies the Fund’s minimum rating requirement at the time of purchase and is subsequently downgraded below that rating, the Fund will not be required to dispose of the security. If a downgrade occurs, the Underlying Managers will consider what action, including the sale of the security, is in the best interest of the Fund and its shareholders.

The Fund may invest in fixed income securities rated BB or Ba or below (or comparable unrated securities) which are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Junk bonds are considered speculative and may be questionable as to principal and interest payments.

In some cases, junk bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will present greater speculative risks than those associated with investment in investment grade bonds. Also, to the extent that the rating assigned to a security in the Fund’s portfolio is downgraded by a rating organization, the market price and liquidity of such security may be adversely affected.

Risks of Foreign Investments.  The Fund will make foreign investments. Foreign investments involve special risks that are not typically associated with U.S. dollar denominated or quoted securities of U.S. issuers. Foreign investments may be affected by changes in currency rates, changes in foreign or U.S. laws or restrictions applicable to such investments and changes in exchange control regulations (e.g., currency

 

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APPENDIX A

 

blockage). A decline in the exchange rate of the currency (i.e., weakening of the currency against the U.S. dollar) in which a portfolio security is quoted or denominated relative to the U.S. dollar would reduce the value of the portfolio security. In addition, if the currency in which the Fund receives dividends, interest or other payments declines in value against the U.S. dollar before such income is distributed as dividends to shareholders or converted to U.S. dollars, the Fund may have to sell portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to pay such dividends.

Brokerage commissions, custodial services and other costs relating to investment in international securities markets generally are more expensive than in the United States. In addition, clearance and settlement procedures may be different in foreign countries and, in certain markets, such procedures have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, thus making it difficult to conduct such transactions.

Foreign issuers are not generally subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards comparable to those applicable to U.S. issuers. There may be less publicly available information about a foreign issuer than about a U.S. issuer. In addition, there is generally less government regulation of foreign markets, companies and securities dealers than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Foreign securities markets may have substantially less volume than U.S. securities markets and securities of many foreign issuers are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable domestic issuers. Furthermore, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, imposition of withholding or other taxes on dividend or interest payments (or, in some cases, capital gains distributions), limitations on the removal of funds or other assets from such countries, and risks of political or social instability or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect investments in those countries.

The Fund may hold foreign securities and cash with foreign banks, agents, and securities depositories appointed by the Fund’s custodian (each a “Foreign Custodian”). Some Foreign Custodians may be recently organized or new to the foreign custody business. In some countries, Foreign Custodians may be subject to little or no regulatory oversight over or independent evaluation of their operations. Further, the laws of certain countries may place limitations on the Fund’s ability to recover assets if a Foreign Custodian enters bankruptcy. Investments in emerging market countries may be subject to even greater custody risks than investments in more developed markets. Custody services in emerging market countries are very often undeveloped and may be considerably less well regulated than in more developed countries, and thus may not afford the same level of investor protection as would apply in developed countries.

 

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Concentration of the Fund’s assets in one or a few countries and currencies will subject the Fund to greater risks than if the Fund’s assets were not geographically concentrated.

Investments in foreign securities may take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers. ADRs, EDRs and GDRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a bank or other depository. ADRs and certain GDRs are traded in the United States. GDRs may be traded in either the United States or in foreign markets. EDRs are traded primarily outside of the United States. Prices of ADRs are quoted in U.S. dollars. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

Risks of Emerging Countries.  The Fund may invest in securities of issuers located in emerging countries. The risks of foreign investment are heightened when the issuer is located in an emerging country. Emerging countries are generally located in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Central and South America. The Fund’s purchase and sale of portfolio securities in certain emerging countries may be constrained by limitations relating to daily changes in the prices of listed securities, periodic trading or settlement volume and/or limitations on aggregate holdings of foreign investors. Such limitations may be computed based on the aggregate trading volume by or holdings of the Fund, the Underlying Managers, their affiliates and their respective clients and other service providers. The Fund may not be able to sell securities in circumstances where price, trading or settlement volume limitations have been reached.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees which may limit investment in such countries or increase the administrative costs of such investments. For example, certain Asian countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals. In addition, certain countries may restrict or prohibit investment opportunities in issuers or industries deemed important to national interests. Such restrictions may affect the market price, liquidity and rights of securities that may be purchased by the Fund. The repatriation of both investment income and capital from certain emerging countries is subject to restrictions such as the need for governmental consents. In situations where a country restricts direct investment in securities (which

 

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may occur in certain Asian and other countries), the Fund may invest in such countries through other investment funds in such countries.

Many emerging countries have experienced currency devaluations and substantial (and, in some cases, extremely high) rates of inflation. Other emerging countries have experienced economic recessions. These circumstances have had a negative effect on the economies and securities markets of such emerging countries. Economies in emerging countries generally are dependent heavily upon commodity prices and international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be affected adversely by the economies of their trading partners, trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade.

Many emerging countries are subject to a substantial degree of economic, political and social instability. Governments of some emerging countries are authoritarian in nature or have been installed or removed as a result of military coups, while governments in other emerging countries have periodically used force to suppress civil dissent. Disparities of wealth, the pace and success of democratization, and ethnic, religious and racial disaffection, among other factors, have also led to social unrest, violence and/or labor unrest in some emerging countries. Unanticipated political or social developments may result in sudden and significant investment losses. Investing in emerging countries involves greater risk of loss due to expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and property or the imposition of restrictions on foreign investments and on repatriation of capital invested. As an example, in the past some Eastern European governments have expropriated substantial amounts of private property, and many claims of the property owners have never been fully settled. There is no assurance that similar expropriations will not occur in other countries.

The Fund’s investment in emerging countries may also be subject to withholding or other taxes, which may be significant and may reduce the return to the Fund from an investment in issuers in such countries.

Settlement procedures in emerging countries are frequently less developed and reliable than those in the United States and may involve the Fund’s delivery of securities before receipt of payment for their sale. In addition, significant delays may occur in certain markets in registering the transfer of securities. Settlement or registration problems may make it more difficult for the Fund to value its portfolio securities and could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities, to have a portion of its assets uninvested or to incur losses due to the failure of a counterparty to pay for securities the Fund has delivered or the Fund’s inability to complete its contractual obligations because of theft or other reasons.

 

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The creditworthiness of the local securities firms used by the Fund in emerging countries may not be as sound as the creditworthiness of firms used in more developed countries. As a result, the Fund may be subject to a greater risk of loss if a securities firm defaults in the performance of its responsibilities.

The small size and inexperience of the securities markets in certain emerging countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those countries may make the Fund’s investments in such countries less liquid and more volatile than investments in countries with more developed securities markets (such as the United States, Japan and most Western European countries). The Fund’s investments in emerging countries are subject to the risk that the liquidity of a particular investment, or investments generally, in such countries will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic, market or political conditions or adverse investor perceptions, whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Investments in emerging countries may be more difficult to value precisely because of the characteristics discussed above and lower trading volumes.

The Fund’s use of foreign currency management techniques in emerging countries may be limited. The Underlying Managers currently anticipate that all or a significant portion of the Fund’s currency exposure in emerging countries may not be covered by these techniques.

Risks of Sovereign Debt.  Investment in sovereign debt obligations by the Fund involves risks not present in debt obligations of corporate issuers. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or pay interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and the Fund may have limited recourse to compel payment in the event of a default. Periods of economic uncertainty may result in the volatility of market prices of sovereign debt, and in turn the Fund’s NAV, to a greater extent than the volatility inherent in debt obligations of U.S. issuers.

A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward international lenders, and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject.

Geographic Risks.  The Fund may invest in the securities of governmental issuers located in a particular foreign country or region. Concentration of the Fund’s investments in such issuers will subject the Fund, to a greater extent than if investment was

 

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APPENDIX A

 

more limited, to the risks of adverse securities markets, exchange rates and social, political or economic events which may occur in that country or region.

Risks of Investing in Mid-Capitalization and Small-Capitalization Companies and REITs.  The Fund may invest in mid- and small-capitalization companies and REITs. Investments in mid- and small-capitalization companies and REITs involve greater risk and portfolio price volatility than investments in larger capitalization stocks. Among the reasons for the greater price volatility of these investments are the less certain growth prospects of smaller firms and the lower degree of liquidity in the markets for such securities. Mid- and small-capitalization companies and REITs may be thinly traded and may have to be sold at a discount from current market prices or in small lots over an extended period of time. In addition, these securities are subject to the risk that during certain periods the liquidity of particular issuers or industries, or all securities in particular investment categories, will shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse economic or market conditions, or adverse investor perceptions whether or not accurate. Because of the lack of sufficient market liquidity, the Fund may incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and only then at a substantial drop in price. Mid- and small-capitalization companies and REITs include “unseasoned” issuers that do not have an established financial history; often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources; may depend on or use a few key personnel for management; and may be susceptible to losses and risks of bankruptcy. Mid- and small-capitalization companies may be operating at a loss or have significant variations in operating results; may be engaged in a rapidly changing business with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence; may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position; and may have substantial borrowings or may otherwise have a weak financial condition. In addition, these companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities, and a larger number of qualified managerial and technical personnel. Transaction costs for these investments are often higher than those of larger capitalization companies. Investments in small- and mid-capitalization companies and REITs may be more difficult to price precisely than other types of securities because of their characteristics and lower trading volumes.

Risk of Equity Swap Transactions.  Equity swaps are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. In a standard “swap” transaction, the parties agree to pay or exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on a particular predetermined asset (or group of assets) which may be adjusted for transaction costs, interest payments, dividends paid on the reference asset or other factors. The gross returns to be paid or “swapped” between the parties are generally

 

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calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” for example, the increase or decrease in value of a particular dollar amount invested in the asset.

Equity swaps may be structured in different ways. For example, when the Fund takes a long position, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap would have increased in value had it been invested in a particular stock (or group of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on the stock. In these cases, the Fund may agree to pay to the counterparty interest on the notional amount of the equity swap plus the amount, if any, by which that notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stock (or group of stocks). Therefore, in this case the return to the Fund on the equity swap should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stock less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. In other cases, when the Fund takes a short position, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap would have decreased in value had the Fund sold a particular stock (or group of stocks) short, less the dividend expense that the Fund would have paid on the stock (or group of stocks), as adjusted for interest payments or other economic factors.

Under an equity swap, payments may be made at the conclusion of the equity swap or periodically during its term. Sometimes, however, the Underlying Managers may terminate a swap contract prior to its term, subject to any potential termination fee that is in addition to the Fund’s accrued obligations under the swap. Equity swaps will be made in the over-the-counter market and will be entered into with a counterparty that typically will be an investment banking firm, broker-dealer or bank.

Equity swaps are derivatives and their value can be very volatile. To the extent that an Underlying Manager does not accurately analyze and predict future market trends, the values of assets or economic factors, the Fund may suffer a loss, which may be substantial.

Temporary Investment Risks.  The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in:

  ¢  

U.S. Government Securities

  ¢  

Commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or, if unrated, determined by an Underlying Manager to be of comparable credit quality)

  ¢  

Certificates of deposit

  ¢  

Bankers’ acceptances

  ¢  

Repurchase agreements

  ¢  

Non-convertible preferred stocks with a remaining maturity of less than one year

  ¢  

ETFs

 

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APPENDIX A

 

  ¢  

Other Investment Companies

  ¢  

Cash items

When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

Risks of Short Selling.  The Fund may engage in short selling. In these transactions, the Fund sells a financial instrument it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of the instrument, then must borrow the instrument to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is obligated to replace the financial instrument borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the instrument was sold by the Fund, which may result in a loss or gain, respectively. Unlike purchasing a financial instrument like a stock, where potential losses are limited to the purchase price and there is no upside limit on potential gain, short sales involve no cap on maximum losses, while gains are limited to the price of the stock at the time of the short sale.

The Fund may, during the term of any short sale, withdraw the cash proceeds of such short sale and use these cash proceeds to purchase additional securities or for any other Fund purposes. Because cash proceeds are Fund assets which are typically used to satisfy the collateral requirements for the short sale, the reinvestment of these cash proceeds may require the Fund to post as collateral other securities that it owns. If the Fund reinvests the cash proceeds, the Fund might be required to post an amount greater than its net assets (but less than its total assets) as collateral. For these or other reasons, the Fund might be required to liquidate long and short positions at times or in amounts that may be disadvantageous to the Fund.

The Fund may also make short sales against the box, in which the Fund enters into a short sale of a financial instrument which it owns or has the right to obtain at no additional cost.

Risks of Large Shareholder Redemptions.  Certain participating insurance companies, accounts, or Goldman Sachs affiliates may from time to time own (beneficially or of record) or control a significant percentage of the Fund’s shares. Redemptions by these participating insurance companies or accounts of their holdings in the Fund may impact the Fund’s liquidity and NAV. These redemptions may also force the Fund to sell securities, which may negatively impact the Fund’s brokerage costs.

Loan Assignments and Loan Participations.  The Fund’s investments in loans may take the form of either loan participations or loan assignments.

A loan participation is an interest in a loan to a U.S. or foreign company or other borrower which is administered and sold by a financial institution. When the Fund

 

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invests in a loan participation, it has the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled from the financial institution selling the participation (typically the lender), but only upon receipt by that financial institution of those payments from the borrower. Because the Fund has no contractual arrangement with the borrower, it has no right to enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement. Instead, the Fund will look to an agent for the lender (the “agent lender”) to enforce appropriate credit remedies against the borrower. The Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation (such as commercial paper) of that borrower. In addition, under the terms of the loan participation, the Fund may be regarded as a creditor of the agent lender (rather than of the underlying borrower) so that the Fund may also be subject to the risk that the agent lender may become insolvent.

By contrast, when the Fund invests in loan assignments, the Fund has a direct contractual relationship with the borrower, and the Fund may enforce compliance by the borrower with the terms of the loan agreement.

The Fund may invest only in loan participations and loan assignments of issuers in whose obligations it may otherwise invest.

Senior Loan Risk.  Senior Loans hold the most senior position in the capital structure of a business entity, and are typically secured with specific collateral and have a claim on the assets and/or stock of the borrower that is senior to that held by subordinated debt holders and stockholders of the borrower. Senior Loans are usually rated below investment grade, and are subject to similar risks, such as credit risk, as below investment grade securities. However, Senior Loans are typically senior and secured in contrast to other below investment grade securities, which are often subordinated and unsecured. There is less readily available, reliable information about most Senior Loans than is the case for many other types of securities, and the Underlying Manager relies primarily on its own evaluation of a borrower’s credit quality rather than on any available independent sources. The ability of the Fund to realize full value in the event of the need to sell a Senior Loan may be impaired by the lack of an active trading market for certain senior loans or adverse market conditions limiting liquidity. To the extent that a secondary market does exist for certain Senior Loans, the market may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. Although Senior Loans in which the Fund will invest generally will be secured by specific collateral, there can be no assurance that liquidation of such collateral would satisfy the borrower’s obligation in the event of non-payment of scheduled interest or principal or that such collateral could be readily liquidated. In

 

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APPENDIX A

 

the event of the bankruptcy of a borrower, the Fund could experience delays or limitations with respect to its ability to realize the benefits of the collateral securing a Senior Loan. Moreover, any specific collateral used to secure a Senior Loan may decline in value or become illiquid, which would adversely affect the Senior Loan’s value. Uncollateralized Senior Loans involve a greater risk of loss. Some Senior Loans are subject to the risk that a court, pursuant to fraudulent conveyance or other similar laws, could subordinate the Senior Loans to presently existing or future indebtedness of the borrower or take other action detrimental to lenders, including the Fund, such as invalidation of Senior Loans.

Second Lien Loans Risk.  Second Lien Loans generally are subject to similar risks as Senior Loans. Because Second Lien Loans are subordinated or unsecured and thus lower in priority of payment to Senior Loans, they are subject to the additional risk that the cash flow of the borrower and property securing the loan or debt, if any, may be insufficient to meet scheduled payments after giving effect to the senior secured obligations of the borrower. This risk is generally higher for subordinated unsecured loans or debt, which are not backed by a security interest in any specific collateral.

Second Lien Loans generally have greater price volatility than Senior Loans and may be less liquid. There is also a possibility that originators will not be able to sell participations in Second Lien Loans, which would create greater credit risk exposure for the holders of such loans. Second Lien Loans share the same risks as other below investment grade securities.

 

  C.    Portfolio Securities and Techniques     

This section provides further information on certain types of securities and investment techniques that may be used by the Fund, including their associated risks.

The Fund may purchase other types of securities or instruments similar to those described in this section if otherwise consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Further information is provided in the SAI, which is available upon request.

The Investment Adviser is expected to be subject to registration and regulation as a “commodity pool operator” (“CPO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) with respect to its service as investment adviser to the Fund. However, as a result of proposed rulemaking by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) that has not yet been adopted, the Investment Adviser is not yet subject to CFTC recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements with respect to these Funds, and therefore the impact of these requirements remains uncertain. When the Investment

 

89


Adviser becomes subject to these requirements, as well as related National Futures Association rules, the Funds may incur additional compliance and other expenses.

U.S. Government Securities.  The Fund may invest in U.S. Government Securities. U.S. Government Securities include U.S. Treasury obligations and obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may be supported by (i) the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury; (ii) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury; (iii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer; or (iv) only the credit of the issuer. U.S. Government Securities also include Treasury receipts, zero coupon bonds and other stripped U.S. Government Securities, where the interest and principal components are traded independently. U.S. Government Securities may also include Treasury inflation-protected securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.

U.S. Government Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities; and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed. Certain of these participations may be regarded as illiquid.

U.S. Government Securities have historically involved little risk of loss of principal if held to maturity. However, no assurance can be given that loss of principal will not occur or that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises if it is not obligated to do so by law.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates.  The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government Securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. If for tax purposes, the Fund is not considered to be the owner of the underlying securities held in the custodial or trust account, the Fund may suffer adverse tax consequences. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

 

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APPENDIX A

 

REITs.  The Fund may invest in REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles that invest primarily in either real estate or real estate related loans. The value of a REIT is affected by changes in the value of the properties owned by the REIT or securing mortgage loans held by the REIT. REITs are dependent upon the ability of the REITs’ managers, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers and the qualification of the REITs under applicable regulatory requirements for favorable income tax treatment. REITs are also subject to risks generally associated with investments in real estate including possible declines in the value of real estate, general and local economic conditions, environmental problems and changes in interest rates. To the extent that assets underlying a REIT are concentrated geographically, by property type or in certain other respects, these risks may be heightened. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses, including management fees, paid by a REIT in which it invests.

Preferred Stock, Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights.  The Fund may invest in preferred stock, warrants and stock purchase rights (or “rights”). Preferred stocks are securities that represent an ownership interest providing the holder with claims on the issuer’s earnings and assets before common stock owners but after bond owners. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of such preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default or other non-compliance by the issuer of the preferred stock. Warrants and other rights are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price at any time during the life of the warrant or right. The holders of warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

Zero Coupon, Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds. The Fund may invest in zero coupon bonds, deferred interest, pay-in-kind and capital appreciation bonds. These bonds are issued at a discount from their face value because interest payments are typically postponed until maturity. Pay-in-kind securities are securities that have interest payable by the delivery of additional securities. The market prices of these securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest-bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest-bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality.

Structured Securities.  The Fund may invest in structured securities. Structured securities are securities whose value is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, securities, interest rates, commodities, indices or other

 

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financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relative change in two or more References. Investments in structured securities may provide exposure to certain securities or markets in situations where regulatory or other restrictions prevent direct investments in such issuers or markets.

The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, changes in the interest rates or the value of the security at maturity may be a multiple of changes in the value of the Reference, effectively leveraging a Fund’s investment so that small changes in the value of the Reference may result in disproportionate gains or losses to the Fund. Consequently, structured securities may present a greater degree of market risk than many types of securities and may be more volatile, less liquid and more difficult to price accurately than less complex securities. Structured securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer of the structured securities may fail to perform its contractual obligations. Certain issuers of structured products may be deemed to be investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act. As a result, the Fund’s investments in structured securities may be subject to the limits applicable to investments in other investment companies.

Structured securities are considered hybrid instruments because they are derivative investments the value of which depends on, or is derived from or linked to, the value of an underlying asset, interest rate index or commodity. Commodity-linked notes are hybrid instruments because the principal and/or interest payments on these notes is linked to the value of individual commodities, futures contracts or the performance of one or more commodity indices.

Structured securities include, but are not limited to, equity linked notes. An equity linked note is a note whose performance is tied to a single stock, a stock index or a basket of stocks. Equity linked notes combine the principal protection normally associated with fixed income investments with the potential for capital appreciation normally associated with equity investments. Upon the maturity of the note, the holder generally receives a return of principal based on the capital appreciation of the linked securities. Depending on the terms of the note, equity linked notes may also have a “cap” or “floor” on the maximum principal amount to be repaid to holders, irrespective of the performance of the underlying linked securities. For example, a note may guarantee the repayment of the original principal amount invested (even if the underlying linked securities have negative performance during the note’s term), but may cap the maximum payment at maturity at a certain percentage of the issuance price or the return of the underlying linked securities. Alternatively, the note may not

 

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APPENDIX A

 

guarantee a full return on the original principal, but may offer a greater participation in any capital appreciation of the underlying linked securities. The terms of an equity linked note may also provide for periodic interest payments to holders at either a fixed or floating rate. The secondary market for equity linked notes may be limited, and the lack of liquidity in the secondary market may make these securities difficult to dispose of and to value. Equity linked notes will be considered equity securities for purposes of the Fund’s investment objective and policies.

Foreign Currency Transactions.  The Fund may, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase or sell foreign currencies on a cash basis or through forward contracts. A forward contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date at a price set at the time of the contract.

The Fund may engage in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark. The Fund may also enter into such transactions to seek to increase total return, which is considered a speculative practice.

The Fund may also engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in a currency different from that in which the hedged security is denominated or quoted. The Fund may hold foreign currency received in connection with investments in foreign securities when, in the judgment of an Underlying Manager, it would be beneficial to convert such currency into U.S. dollars at a later date (e.g., an Underlying Manager may anticipate that the foreign currency will appreciate against the U.S. dollar).

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing, along with other factors, the Fund’s NAV to fluctuate (when the Fund’s NAV fluctuates, the value of your shares may go up or down). Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by the intervention of U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or the failure to intervene, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

The market in forward foreign currency exchange contracts, currency swaps and other privately negotiated currency instruments offers less protection against defaults by the other party to such instruments than is available for currency instruments traded on an exchange. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the contract will default on its obligations. Because these contracts are not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on a contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or could force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. As

 

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an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in forward currency contracts. In the case of forward currency contracts that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid asset equal to the full notional value of the forward currency contracts while positions are open. With respect to forward currency contracts that do cash settle, however, the Fund is permitted to identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the forward currency contracts, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled forward currency contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the forward currency contracts.

Options on Securities, Securities Indices and Foreign Currencies.  A put option gives the purchaser of the option the right to sell, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to buy, the underlying instrument during the option period. A call option gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) of the option the obligation to sell, the underlying instrument during the option period. The Fund may write (sell) covered call and put options and purchase put and call options on any securities in which the Fund may invest or on any securities index consisting of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent consistent with its investment policies, purchase and sell (write) put and call options on foreign currencies.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves special investment risks. Options may be used for either hedging or cross-hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return (which is considered a speculative activity). The successful use of options depends in part on the ability of the Underlying Manager to anticipate future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. The potential for losses depends on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making processes around, but not limited to, expectations of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio. The use of options can also increase the Fund’s transaction costs. Options written or purchased by the Fund may be traded on either U.S. or foreign exchanges or over-the-counter. Foreign and over-the-counter options will present greater possibility of loss because of their greater illiquidity and credit risks. When writing an option, the Fund must identify on

 

94


APPENDIX A

 

its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures to “cover” its obligation under the option contract.

Futures Contracts and Options and Swaps on Futures Contracts.  Futures contracts are standardized, exchange-traded contracts that provide for the sale or purchase of a specified financial instrument or currency at a future time at a specified price. An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right (and the writer of the option the obligation) to assume a position in a futures contract at a specified exercise price within a specified period of time. A swap on a futures contract provides an investor with the ability to gain economic exposure to a particular futures market. A futures contract may be based on particular securities, foreign currencies, securities indices and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund may engage in futures transactions on both U.S. exchanges and foreign exchanges.

The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts, and purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts and enter into swaps on futures contracts in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selections and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts and related options and swaps present the following risks:

  ¢  

While the Fund may benefit from the use of futures and options and swaps on futures, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in poorer overall performance than if the Fund had not entered into any futures contracts, options transactions or swaps.

  ¢  

Because perfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position that is intended to be protected is impossible to achieve, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to additional risk of loss.

  ¢  

The loss incurred by the Fund in entering into futures contracts and in writing call options and entering into swaps on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received.

  ¢  

Futures markets are highly volatile and the use of futures may increase the volatility of the Fund’s NAV.

  ¢  

As a result of the low margin deposits normally required in futures trading, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in substantial losses to the Fund.

  ¢  

Futures contracts and options and swaps on futures may be illiquid, and exchanges may limit fluctuations in futures contract prices during a single day.

  ¢  

Foreign exchanges may not provide the same protection as U.S. exchanges.

 

95


The Fund must identify liquid assets on its books, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to its transactions in futures contracts and options and swaps on futures contracts. In the case of futures contracts that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the futures contracts while the positions are open. With respect to futures contracts that do cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the futures contracts, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled futures contracts, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the futures contracts.

Other Investment Companies.  The Fund may invest in securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Investment Company Act. These limitations include in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more than 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs, however, have obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit unaffiliated funds to invest in the ETFs’ shares beyond these statutory limitations, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to a contractual arrangement between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders to invest in unaffiliated ETFs.

The use of ETFs is intended to help the Fund match the total return of the particular market segments or indices represented by those ETFs, although that may not be the result. Most ETFs are passively managed investment companies whose shares are purchased and sold on a securities exchange. An ETF represents a portfolio of securities designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange-traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. In addition, an ETF may fail to accurately track the market segment or index that underlies its investment objective. The price of an ETF can fluctuate, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF. Moreover, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or a discount to their net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the requirements of the exchange necessary to maintain the listing of an ETF will continue to be met or remain unchanged.

 

96


APPENDIX A

 

Pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in certain other investment companies and money market funds beyond the statutory limits described above. Some of those investment companies and money market funds may be funds for which the Underlying Manager or any of its affiliates serves as investment adviser, administrator or distributor.

The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by such other investment companies, in addition to the fees and expenses regularly borne by the Fund. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund.

Equity Swaps.  The Fund may invest in equity swaps. Equity swaps allow the parties to a swap agreement to exchange the dividend income or other components of return on an equity investment (for example, a group of equity securities or an index) for another payment stream. An equity swap may be used by the Fund to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.

The value of swaps can be very volatile. To the extent that an Underlying Manager does not accurately analyze and predict the potential relative fluctuation of the components swapped with another party, or the creditworthiness of the counterparty, the Fund may suffer a loss, which may be substantial. The value of some components of a swap (such as the dividends on a common stock) may also be sensitive to changes in interest rates. Furthermore, swaps may be illiquid, and the Fund may be unable to terminate its obligations when desired.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff-approved measures, to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps that do not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the swaps while the positions are open. With respect to swaps that are required to cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e., the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash-settled swaps, the

 

97


Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps.

Mortgage-Backed Securities.  The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are collateralized by and payable from, mortgage loans secured by real property. Mortgage-backed securities can be backed by either fixed rate mortgage loans or adjustable rate mortgage loans, and may be issued by either a governmental or nongovernmental entity. Privately issued mortgage-backed securities are normally structured with one or more types of “credit enhancement.” However, these mortgage-backed securities typically do not have the same credit standing as U.S. government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities. Mortgage-backed securities may include multiple class securities, including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit (“REMIC”) pass-through or participation certificates. A REMIC is a CMO that qualifies for special tax treatment and invests in certain mortgages principally secured by interests in real property and other permitted investments. CMOs provide an investor with a specified interest in the cash flow from a pool of underlying mortgages or of other mortgage-backed securities. CMOs are issued in multiple classes each with a specified fixed or floating interest rate and a final scheduled distribution rate. In many cases, payments of principal are applied to the CMO classes in the order of their respective stated maturities, so that no principal payments will be made on a CMO class until all other classes having an earlier stated maturity date are paid in full. Sometimes, however, CMO classes are “parallel pay,” i.e., payments of principal are made to two or more classes concurrently. In some cases, CMOs may have the characteristics of a stripped mortgage-backed security whose price can be highly volatile. CMOs may exhibit more or less price volatility and interest rate risk than other types of mortgage-related obligations, and under certain interest rate and payment scenarios, the Fund may fail to recoup fully its investment in certain of these securities regardless of their credit quality. Throughout 2008, the market for mortgage-backed securities began experiencing substantially, often dramatically, lower valuations and greatly reduced liquidity. Markets for other asset-backed securities have also been affected. These instruments are increasingly subject to liquidity constraints, price volatility, credit downgrades and unexpected increases in default rates and, therefore, may be more difficult to value and more difficult to dispose of than previously. These events may have an adverse effect on the Fund to the extent it invests in mortgage-backed or other fixed income securities or instruments affected by the volatility in the fixed income markets.

Asset-Backed Securities.  The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Asset-backed securities are securities whose principal and interest payments are collateralized by pools of assets such as auto loans, credit card receivables, leases, installment

 

98


APPENDIX A

 

contracts and personal property. Asset-backed securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. Asset-backed securities present credit risks that are not presented by mortgage-backed securities. This is because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. If the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on the securities. In the event of a default, the Fund may suffer a loss if it cannot sell collateral quickly and receive the amount it is owed. Asset-backed securities may also be subject to increased volatility and may become illiquid and more difficult to value even when there is no default or threat of default due to market conditions impacting asset-backed securities more generally.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments.  The Fund may purchase when-issued securities and make contracts to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond customary settlement time. When-issued securities are securities that have been authorized, but not yet issued. When-issued securities are purchased in order to secure what is considered to be an advantageous price and yield to the Fund at the time of entering into the transaction. A forward commitment involves the entering into a contract to purchase or sell securities for a fixed price at a future date beyond the customary settlement period. The purchase of securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. Conversely, the sale of securities on a forward commitment basis involves the risk that the value of the securities sold may increase before the settlement date. Although the Fund will generally purchase securities on a when-issued or forward commitment basis with the intention of acquiring the securities for its portfolio, the Fund may dispose of when-issued securities or forward commitments prior to settlement if an Underlying Manager deems it appropriate. When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis or entering into a forward commitment, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets, or engage in other appropriate measures, to “cover” its obligations.

 

99


Unseasoned Companies.  The Fund may invest in companies which (together with their predecessors) have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Corporate Debt Obligations.  Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures, commercial paper and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. The Fund may invest in corporate debt obligations issued by U.S. and certain non-U.S. issuers which issue securities denominated in the U.S. dollar (including Yankee and Euro obligations). In addition to obligations of corporations, corporate debt obligations include securities issued by banks and other financial institutions and supranational entities (i.e., the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, etc.).

Bank Obligations.  The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulations. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Non-Investment Grade Fixed Income Securities.  Non-investment grade fixed-income securities and unrated securities of comparable credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”) are considered speculative. In some cases, these obligations may be highly speculative and have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing. Non-investment grade fixed income securities are subject to the increased risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest obligations. These securities, also referred to as high yield securities, may be subject to greater price volatility due to such factors as specific government or municipal developments, interest rate sensitivity, negative perceptions of the junk bond markets generally and less secondary market liquidity.

Non-investment grade securities may be issued by governmental bodies that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments. The market value

 

100


APPENDIX A

 

of non-investment grade fixed income securities tends to reflect individual government or municipal developments to a greater extent than that of higher rated securities which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. As a result, the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives may depend to a greater extent on an Underlying Manager’s judgment concerning the creditworthiness of issuers than funds which invest in higher-rated securities. Issuers of non-investment grade fixed income securities may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing and their ability to service debt obligations may be affected more adversely than issuers of higher-rated securities by economic downturns, specific corporate or financial developments or the issuer’s inability to meet specific projected business forecasts. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such securities.

A holder’s risk of loss from default is significantly greater for non-investment grade fixed income securities than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such non-investment grade securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in defaulted securities poses additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain.

The secondary market for non-investment grade fixed income securities is concentrated in relatively few market makers and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities is not as liquid as, and is more volatile than, the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, market trading volume for high yield fixed income securities is generally lower and the secondary market for such securities could shrink or disappear suddenly and without warning as a result of adverse market or economic conditions, independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. The lack of sufficient market liquidity may cause the Fund to incur losses because it will be required to effect sales at a disadvantageous time and then only at a substantial drop in price. These factors may have an adverse effect on the market price and the Fund’s ability to dispose of particular portfolio investments. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the

 

101


market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality.

Repurchase Agreements.  Repurchase agreements involve the purchase of securities subject to the seller’s agreement to repurchase them at a mutually agreed upon date and price. The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with securities dealers and banks which furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of its repurchase obligation.

If the other party or “seller” defaults, the Fund might suffer a loss to the extent that the proceeds from the sale of the underlying securities and other collateral held by the Fund are less than the repurchase price and the Fund’s costs associated with delay and enforcement of the repurchase agreement. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy of the seller, the Fund could suffer additional losses if a court determines that the Fund’s interest in the collateral is not enforceable.

The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Currency Swaps, Index Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars.  Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed-rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Credit swaps (also referred to as credit default swaps) involve the receipt of floating or fixed rate payments in exchange for assuming potential credit losses on an underlying security. Credit swaps give one party to a transaction (the buyer of the credit swap) the right to dispose of or acquire an asset (or group of assets), or the right to receive a payment from the other party, upon the occurrence of specified credit events. Credit swaps may also be structured based on the debt of a basket of issuers, rather than a single issuer, and may be customized with respect to the default event that triggers purchase or other factors (for example, the Nth default within a basket, or defaults by a particular combination of issuers within the basket, may trigger a payment obligation). Currency swaps involve the exchange of the parties’ respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Total return swaps give the Fund

 

102


APPENDIX A

 

the right to receive the appreciation in the value of a specified security, index or other instrument in return for a fee paid to the counterparty, which will typically be based on an agreed upon interest rate. If the underlying asset in a total return swap declines in value over the term of the swap, the Fund may also be required to pay the dollar value of that decline to the counterparty. The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options contracts on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a nonrefundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than the Fund incurs in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

The Fund may enter into the transactions described above for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return. As an example, when the Fund is the buyer of a credit default swap (commonly known as buying protection), it may make periodic payments to the seller of the credit default swap to obtain protection against a credit default on a specified underlying asset (or group of assets). If a default occurs, the seller of a credit default swap may be required to pay the Fund the “notional value” of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities). On the other hand, when the Fund is a seller of a credit default swap (commonly known as selling protection), in addition to the credit exposure the Fund has on the other assets held in its portfolio, the Fund is also subject to the credit exposure on the notional amount of the swap since, in the event of a credit default, the Fund may be required to pay the “notional value” of the credit default swap on a specified security (or group of securities) to the buyer of the credit default swap. The Fund will be the seller of a credit default swap only when the credit of the underlying asset is deemed by an Underlying Manager to meet the Fund’s minimum credit criteria at the time the swap is first entered into.

When the Fund writes (sells) credit swaps on individual securities or instruments, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the swaps while the positions are open.

 

103


The use of interest rate, mortgage, credit, currency and total return swaps, options on swaps, and interest rate caps, floors and collars is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The potential for less favorable investment performance depends on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making capability around, but not limited to, expectations of forecasts or market values, interest rates and currency exchange rates, or in its evaluation of the creditworthiness of swap counterparties (with respect to bilateral swap transactions) and the issuers of the underlying assets.

Currently, certain standardized swap transactions are subject to mandatory central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilaterally negotiated swaps, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely.

Yield Curve Options.  The Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, such options present a risk of loss even if the yield on an underlying security remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

As an investment company registered with the SEC, the Fund must identify on its books (often referred to as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other SEC or SEC-staff-approved measures to “cover” open positions with respect to certain kinds of derivative instruments. In the case of swaps that are required to not cash settle, for example, the Fund must identify on its books liquid assets equal to the full notional value of the swaps while the positions are open. With respect to swaps that do cash settle, however, the Fund may identify liquid assets in an amount equal to the Fund’s daily marked-to-market net obligations (i.e. the Fund’s daily net liability) under the swaps, if any, rather than their full notional value. The Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future in its discretion. By identifying assets equal to only its net obligations under cash settled swaps, the Fund will have the ability to employ leverage to a greater extent than if the Fund were required to identify assets equal to the full notional amount of the swaps.

 

104


APPENDIX A

 

Inverse Floating Rate Securities.  The Fund may invest in inverse floating rate debt securities (“inverse floaters”). The interest rate on inverse floaters resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which an inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the index rate of interest. The higher the degree of leverage of an inverse floater, the greater the volatility of its market value.

 

105


 

Appendix B

Financial Highlights

 

Because the Fund has not commenced investment operations as of the date of this Prospectus, financial highlights are not available.

 

106


 

Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund Prospectus

 

  FOR MORE INFORMATION     

Annual/Semi-annual Report

Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual reports, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

Statement of Additional Information

Additional information about the Fund and its policies is also available in the Fund’s SAI. The SAI is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus (is legally considered part of this Prospectus).

The Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI are available free upon request by calling Goldman Sachs at 1-800-526-7384. You can also access and download the annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and the SAI at the Fund’s website: http://www.goldmansachsfunds.com/summaries.

From time to time, certain announcements and other information regarding the Funds may be found at http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/individuals for individual investors, http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/institutions for institutional investors or http://www.gs.com/gsam/redirect/announcements/advisors for advisers.

To obtain other information and for shareholder inquiries:

 

   Institutional    Retail

¢    By telephone:

   1-800-621-2550    1-800-526-7384

¢    By mail:

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 06050

Chicago, IL 60606-6306

  

Goldman Sachs Funds

P.O. Box 219711

Kansas City, MO 64121

¢    On the Internet:

   SEC EDGAR database – http://www.sec.gov

You may review and obtain copies of Trust documents (including the SAI) by visiting the SEC’s public reference room in Washington, D.C. You may also obtain copies of Trust documents, after paying a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC’s Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by electronic request to: publicinfo@sec.gov. Information on the operation of the public reference room may be obtained by calling the SEC at (202) 551-8090.

 

  

The Trust’s investment company registration number is 811-05349.

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman, Sachs & Co.

  LOGO


PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

DATED APRIL 19, 2013

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION

The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

FUND

   CLASS A
SHARES
   CLASS C
SHARES
   INSTITUTIONAL
SHARES
   CLASS R
SHARES
   CLASS IR
SHARES

GOLDMAN SACHS MULTI-MANAGER
ALTERNATIVES FUND

   GMAMX    GMCMX    GSMMX    GIMMX    GRMMX

(A portfolio of Goldman Sachs Trust II)

Goldman Sachs Trust II

200 West Street

New York, New York 10282

This Statement of Additional Information (the “SAI”) is not a Prospectus. This SAI should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus for the Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund (the “Fund”), dated April     , 2013, as it may be further amended and/or supplemented from time to time (the “Prospectus”). The Prospectus may be obtained without charge from Goldman, Sachs & Co. by calling the telephone numbers or writing to one of the addresses listed below, or from institutions acting on behalf of their customers.

The Fund’s annual and semiannual shareholder reports, when available, may be obtained upon request and without charge by calling Goldman, Sachs & Co. toll free 1-800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Class R and Class IR Shareholders) or 1-800-621-2550 (for Institutional Shareholders).

GSAM® is a registered service mark of Goldman, Sachs & Co.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION

     B-1   

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

     B-1   

DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

     B-2   

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

     B-41   

TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

     B-43   

MANAGEMENT SERVICES

     B-51   

POTENTIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

     B-57   

PORTFOLIO TRANSACTIONS AND BROKERAGE

     B-64   

NET ASSET VALUE

     B-65   

SHARES OF THE TRUST

     B-67   

TAXATION

     B-70   

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     B-74   

PROXY VOTING

     B-74   

PAYMENTS TO INTERMEDIARIES

     B-75   

OTHER INFORMATION

     B-79   

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLANS

     B-81   

OTHER INFORMATION REGARDING MAXIMUM SALES CHARGE, PURCHASES, REDEMPTIONS, EXCHANGES AND DIVIDENDS

     B-82   
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES      B-85   

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

     1-A   

APPENDIX B PROXY VOTING POLICIES

     1-B   

APPENDIX C STATEMENT OF INTENTION

     1-C   

APPENDIX D UNDERLYING MANAGER PROXY POLICIES

     1-D   

The date of this SAI is April     , 2013.

 

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GOLDMAN SACHS ASSET MANAGEMENT, L.P.    GOLDMAN, SACHS & CO.
Investment Adviser    Distributor
200 West Street    200 West Street
New York, New York 10282    New York, New York 10282

GOLDMAN, SACHS & CO.

Transfer Agent

71 South Wacker Drive

Chicago, Illinois 60606

Toll-free (in U.S.) 800-526-7384 (for Class A, Class C, Class R and Class IR Shareholders) or 800-621-2550 (for Institutional Shareholders).

 

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INTRODUCTION

Goldman Sachs Trust II (the “Trust”) is an open-end, management investment company. The Trust is organized as a Delaware statutory trust and was established by a Declaration of Trust dated August 28, 2012. The following series of the Trust is described in this SAI: Goldman Sachs Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund (the “Fund”).

The Trustees of the Trust have authority under the Declaration of Trust to create and classify shares into separate series and to classify and reclassify any series or portfolio of shares into one or more classes without further action by shareholders. Pursuant thereto, the Trustees have created the Fund. Additional series and classes may be added in the future from time to time. The Fund currently offers five classes of shares: Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class R Shares, Class IR Shares and Institutional Shares. See “SHARES OF THE TRUST.”

Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (“GSAM” or the “Investment Adviser”), an affiliate of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (“Goldman Sachs”), serves as the Investment Adviser to the Fund. In addition, Goldman Sachs serves as the Fund’s distributor and transfer agent. The Fund’s custodian and administrator is State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”). The Fund’s investment sub-advisers are currently: Ares Capital Management II LLC, Brigade Capital Management, LLC, GAM International Management Ltd., Karsch Capital Management, LP and Lateef Investment Management, L.P. (the “Underlying Managers”). The Investment Adviser determines the percentage of the Fund’s portfolio allocated to each Underlying Manager in order to seek to achieve the Fund’s investment objective. The Investment Adviser’s Alternative Investments & Manager Selection (“AIMS”) Group is responsible for making recommendations with respect to hiring, terminating, or replacing the Fund’s Underlying Managers, as well as the Fund’s asset allocations. Fund assets not allocated to Underlying Managers may be managed by the Investment Adviser (references to “Underlying Manager(s)” includes the Investment Adviser when acting in this capacity).

The following information relates to and supplements the description of the Fund’s investment policies contained in the Prospectus. See the Prospectus for a more complete description of the Fund’s investment objective and policies. Investing in the Fund entails certain risks, and there is no assurance that the Fund will achieve its objective. Capitalized terms used but not defined herein have the same meaning as in the Prospectus.

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE AND POLICIES

The Fund has a distinct investment objective and policies. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s objective will be achieved. The Fund is a non-diversified, open-end management company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Act”). The investment objective and policies of the Fund, and the associated risks of the Fund, are discussed in the Fund’s Prospectus, which should be read carefully before an investment is made. All investment objectives and investment policies not specifically designated as fundamental may be changed without shareholder approval.

The Fund’s share price will fluctuate with market, economic and, to the extent applicable, foreign exchange conditions, so that an investment in the Fund may be worth more or less when redeemed than when purchased. The Fund’s performance depends on the skill of the Investment Adviser in selecting, overseeing, and allocating Fund assets to the Underlying Managers, and on the ability of the Underlying Managers to successfully execute the Fund’s investment strategies. The Fund should not be relied upon as a complete investment program.

The Investment Adviser is expected to be subject to registration and regulation as a CPO under the CEA with respect to its service as investment adviser to the Multi-Manager Alternatives Fund. However, as a result of proposed rulemaking by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) that has not yet been adopted, the Investment Adviser is not yet subject to CFTC recordkeeping, reporting and disclosure requirements with respect to these Funds, and therefore the impact of these requirements remains uncertain. When the Investment Adviser becomes subject to these requirements, as well as related National Futures Association (“NFA”) rules, the Funds may incur additional compliance and other expenses.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF INVESTMENT SECURITIES AND PRACTICES

Recent Market Conditions

The financial crisis in the U.S. and many foreign economies over the past several years, including the European sovereign debt and banking crises, has resulted, and may continue to result, in an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets and the economy at large. Both domestic and international equity and fixed income markets have been experiencing heightened volatility and turmoil, and issuers that have exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets, and the sovereign debt of certain nations or their political subdivisions have been particularly affected. It is uncertain how long these conditions will continue.

These market conditions have resulted in fixed income instruments experiencing unusual liquidity issues, increased price volatility and, in some cases, credit downgrades and increased likelihood of default. These events have reduced the willingness and ability of some lenders to extend credit, and have made it more difficult for borrowers to obtain financing on attractive terms, if at all. The values of many types of securities have been reduced, including, but not limited to, mortgage-backed, asset-backed and corporate debt securities. During times of market turmoil, investors tend to look to the safety of securities issued or backed by the U.S. Treasury, causing the prices of these securities to rise and the yield to decline.

The reduced liquidity in fixed income and credit markets may negatively affect many issuers worldwide. Illiquidity in these markets may mean there is less money available to purchase raw materials and goods and services, which may, in turn, bring down the prices of these economic staples. The values of some sovereign debt and of securities of issuers that hold that sovereign debt have fallen. These events and the potential for continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on each Fund. In addition, global economies and financial markets are becoming increasingly interconnected, which increases the possibilities that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region.

The mortgage loans and mortgage pass-through securities and other securities representing an interest in or collateralized by adjustable and fixed rate mortgage loans (“Mortgage-Backed Securities”) have been especially affected by these market events. Beginning in 2008, the market for mortgage-related securities experienced substantially, often dramatically, lower valuations and greatly reduced liquidity. Markets for other asset-backed securities have also been affected. In the mortgage sector, there have been rising delinquency rates. These defaults have caused an unexpected degree of losses for holders. Some financial institutions and other enterprises may have large exposure to certain types of securities, such as mortgage-backed securities, which could have a negative effect on the broader economy. Questions have been raised about whether the quality of the underlying mortgages was misrepresented, and suits have been filed against some lenders and “bundlers” of mortgages. Traditional market participants have been less willing to make a market in some types of debt instruments, which has affected the liquidity of those instruments. Illiquid investments may be harder to value, especially in changing markets.

The U.S. federal government and certain foreign central banks have acted to calm credit markets and increase confidence in the U.S. and world economies. Certain of these entities have injected liquidity into the markets and taken other steps in an effort to stabilize the markets and grow the economy. Others have opted for austerity, which may limit growth, at least in the short to medium term. The ultimate effect of these efforts is only beginning to reveal itself. Changes in government policies may exacerbate the market’s difficulties and withdrawal of this support, or other policy changes by governments or central banks, could adversely impact the value and liquidity of certain securities and could limit the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. Governments or their agencies may also acquire assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interest in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

The situation in the financial markets has resulted in calls for increased regulation, and the need of many financial institutions for government help has given lawmakers and regulators new leverage. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) has initiated a dramatic revision of the U.S. financial regulatory framework that will continue to unfold over several years. The Dodd-Frank Act covers a broad range of topics, including (among many others) a reorganization of federal financial regulators; a process intended to improve financial systemic stability and the resolution of potentially insolvent financial firms; new rules for derivatives trading; the creation of a consumer financial protection watchdog; the registration and additional regulation of hedge and private equity fund managers; and new federal requirements for residential mortgage loans. Instruments in which the Funds may invest, or the issuers of such instruments, may be affected by the new legislation and regulation in ways that are unforeseeable. Many of the implementing regulations have not yet been finalized. Accordingly, the ultimate impact of the Dodd-Frank Act, including on the derivative instruments in which a Fund may invest, is not yet certain.

 

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The statutory provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act significantly change in several respects the ways in which investment products are marketed, sold, settled or terminated. In particular, the Dodd-Frank Act mandates the elimination of references to credit ratings in numerous securities laws, including the 1940 Act. Certain swap derivatives have been and other derivatives may be mandated for central clearing under the Dodd-Frank Act, which likely will require technological and other changes to the operations of funds governed by the 1940 Act and the market in which they will trade. Central clearing will also entail the use of assets of a 1940 Act fund to satisfy margin calls and this may have an effect on the performance of such a fund. The regulators have not yet issued final regulations implementing all of the Dodd-Frank Act’s margin requirements and clearing mandates.

The regulators that have been charged with the responsibility for implementing the Dodd-Frank Act (i.e., the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”)) have been active in proposing and adopting regulations and guidance on the use of derivatives by 1940 Act funds. The CFTC recently adopted a revision to one of its rules that will either restrict the use of derivatives by a 1940 Act fund or require the fund’s adviser to register as a commodity pool operator. These CFTC changes took effect at the end of 2012. The SEC is reviewing its current guidance on the use of derivatives by 1940 Act funds and may issue new guidance. It is not clear whether or when such new guidance will be published or what the content of such guidance may be.

Because the situation in the financial markets is widespread and largely unprecedented, it may be unusually difficult to identify both risks and opportunities using past models of the interplay of market forces, or to predict the duration of these market conditions.

Asset-Backed Securities

Asset-backed securities represent participations in, or are secured by and payable from, assets such as motor vehicle installment sales, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements and other categories of receivables. Such assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Payments or distributions of principal and interest may be guaranteed up to certain amounts and for a certain time period by a letter of credit or a pool insurance policy issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trust or corporation, or other credit enhancements may be present.

The Fund may invest in asset-backed securities. Such securities are often subject to more rapid repayment than their stated maturity date would indicate as a result of the pass-through of prepayments of principal on the underlying loans. During periods of declining interest rates, prepayment of loans underlying asset-backed securities can be expected to accelerate. Accordingly, the Fund’s ability to maintain positions in such securities will be affected by reductions in the principal amount of such securities resulting from prepayments, and its ability to reinvest the returns of principal at comparable yields is subject to generally prevailing interest rates at that time. To the extent that the Fund invests in asset-backed securities, the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities will vary with changes in market interest rates generally and the differentials in yields among various kinds of asset-backed securities.

Asset-backed securities present certain additional risks because asset-backed securities generally do not have the benefit of a security interest in collateral that is comparable to mortgage assets. Credit card receivables are generally unsecured and the debtors on such receivables are entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal consumer credit laws, many of which give such debtors the right to set-off certain amounts owed on the credit cards, thereby reducing the balance due. Automobile receivables generally are secured, but by automobiles rather than residential real property. Most issuers of automobile receivables permit the loan servicers to retain possession of the underlying obligations. If the servicer were to sell these obligations to another party, there is a risk that the purchaser would acquire an interest superior to that of the holders of the asset-backed securities. In addition, because of the large number of vehicles involved in a typical issuance and technical requirements under state laws, the trustee for the holders of the automobile receivables may not have a proper security interest in the underlying automobiles. Therefore, if the issuer of an asset-backed security defaults on its payment obligations, there is the possibility that, in some cases, the Fund will be unable to possess and sell the underlying collateral and that the Fund’s recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be available to support payments on these securities.

Bank Obligations

The Fund may invest in obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. or foreign banks. Bank obligations, including without limitation, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances and certificates of deposit, may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulation. Banks are subject to extensive but different governmental regulations which may limit both the amount and types of loans which may be made and interest rates which

 

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may be charged. In addition, the profitability of the banking industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of funds for the purpose of financing lending operations under prevailing money market conditions. General economic conditions as well as exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers play an important part in the operation of this industry.

Certificates of deposit are certificates evidencing the obligation of a bank to repay funds deposited with it for a specified period of time at a specified rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable instruments and are similar to saving deposits but have a definite maturity and are evidenced by a certificate instead of a passbook entry. Banks are required to keep reserves against all certificates of deposit. Fixed time deposits are bank obligations payable at a stated maturity date and bearing interest at a fixed rate. Fixed time deposits may be withdrawn on the demand by the investor, but may be subject to early withdrawal penalties which vary depending upon market conditions and the remaining maturity of the obligation. The Fund may invest in deposits in U.S. and European banks.

Collateralized Debt Obligations

The Fund may invest in collateralized debt obligations (“CDOs”), which include collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), collateralized bond obligations (“CBOs”), and other similarly structured securities. A CLO is a trust typically collateralized by a pool of loans, which may include, among others, domestic and foreign senior secured loans, senior unsecured loans, and subordinate corporate loans, including loans that may be rated below investment grade or equivalent unrated loans. CDOs may charge management and other administrative fees.

The cashflows from the trust are split into two or more portions, called tranches, varying in risk and yield. The riskiest portion is the “equity” tranche which bears the bulk of defaults from the bonds or loans in the trust and serves to protect the other, more senior tranches from default in all but the most severe circumstances. Because it is partially protected from defaults, a senior tranche from a CLO trust typically has higher ratings and lower yields than its underlying securities, and can be rated investment grade. Despite the protection from the equity tranche, CLO tranches can experience substantial losses due to actual defaults, increased sensitivity to defaults due to collateral default and disappearance of protecting tranches, market anticipation of defaults, as well as aversion to CLO securities as a class.

The risks of an investment in a CDO depend largely on the type of the collateral securities and the class of the CDO in which the Fund invests. Normally, CLOs and other CDOs are privately offered and sold, and thus, are not registered under the securities laws. As a result, investments in CDOs may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities. However, an active dealer market may exist for CDOs that qualify under the Rule 144A “safe harbor” from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resales of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers, and such securities may be characterized by the Fund as illiquid securities. In addition to the normal risks associated with fixed income securities discussed elsewhere in this SAI and the Fund’s Prospectus (e.g., interest rate risk and default risk), CDOs carry additional risks including, but are not limited to, the risk that: (i) distributions from collateral securities may not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the collateral may decline in value or default; (iii) the Fund may invest in CDOs that are subordinate to other classes; and (iv) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the issuer or unexpected investment results.

Commercial Paper and Other Short-Term Corporate Obligations

The Fund may invest in commercial paper and other short-term obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. corporations, non-U.S. corporations or other entities. Commercial paper represents short-term unsecured promissory notes issued in bearer form by banks or bank holding companies, corporations and finance companies.

Commodity-Linked Investments

The Fund may invest in commodities through investments in other investment companies, ETFs or other pooled investment vehicles. Although it does not currently intend to do so, the Fund may also invest (i) through a wholly-owned subsidiary, which would be advised by the Investment Adviser and subadvised by one or more Underlying Managers and would have the same investment objective as the Fund, or (ii) in certain commodity-linked investments. Real assets are assets such as oil, gas, industrial and precious metals, livestock, and agricultural or meat products, or other items that have tangible properties, as compared to stocks or bonds, which are financial instruments. In choosing investments, an Underlying Manager may seek to provide exposure to various commodities and commodity sectors. The value of commodity-linked derivative securities held by the Fund may be affected by a variety of factors, including, but not limited to, overall market movements and other factors affecting the value of particular industries or commodities, such as weather, disease, embargoes, acts of war or terrorism, or political and regulatory developments.

 

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Because commodity-linked derivative securities are available from a relatively small number of issuers, the Fund’s investments in commodity-linked derivative securities are particularly subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the commodity-linked derivative (which issuer may also serve as counterparty to a substantial number of the Fund’s commodity-linked and other derivative investments) will not fulfill its contractual obligations.

Convertible Securities

The Fund may invest in convertible securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted into or exchanged for a specified amount of common stock of the same or different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. A convertible security entitles the holder to receive interest that is generally paid or accrued on debt or a dividend that is paid or accrued on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Convertible securities have unique investment characteristics, in that they generally (i) have higher yields than common stocks, but lower yields than comparable non-convertible securities, (ii) are less subject to fluctuation in value than the underlying common stock due to their fixed-income characteristics and (iii) provide the potential for capital appreciation if the market price of the underlying common stock increases.

The value of a convertible security is a function of its “investment value” (determined by its yield in comparison with the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege) and its “conversion value” (the security’s worth, at market value, if converted into the underlying common stock). The investment value of a convertible security is influenced by changes in interest rates, with investment value normally declining as interest rates increase and increasing as interest rates decline. The credit standing of the issuer and other factors may also have an effect on the convertible security’s investment value. The conversion value of a convertible security is determined by the market price of the underlying common stock. If the conversion value is low relative to the investment value, the price of the convertible security is governed principally by its investment value. To the extent the market price of the underlying common stock approaches or exceeds the conversion price, the price of the convertible security will be increasingly influenced by its conversion value. A convertible security generally will sell at a premium over its conversion value by the extent to which investors place value on the right to acquire the underlying common stock while holding a fixed-income security.

A convertible security may be subject to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the convertible security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert the security into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective, which, in turn, could result in losses to the Fund.

In evaluating a convertible security, an Underlying Manager may give primary emphasis to the attractiveness of the underlying common stock. Convertible debt securities are equity investments for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies.

Corporate Debt Obligations

The Fund may, under normal market conditions, invest in corporate debt obligations, including obligations of industrial, utility and financial issuers. Corporate debt obligations include bonds, notes, debentures and other obligations of corporations to pay interest and repay principal. Corporate debt obligations are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on the obligations and may also be subject to price volatility due to such factors as market interest rates, market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer and general market liquidity.

An economic downturn could severely affect the ability of highly leveraged issuers of junk bond securities to service their debt obligations or to repay their obligations upon maturity. Factors having an adverse impact on the market value of junk bonds will have an adverse effect on the Fund’s net asset value to the extent it invests in such securities. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent it is required to seek recovery upon a default in payment of principal or interest on its portfolio holdings.

 

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The secondary market for junk bonds, which is concentrated in relatively few market makers, may not be as liquid as the secondary market for more highly rated securities. This reduced liquidity may have an adverse effect on the ability of the Fund to dispose of a particular security when necessary to meet its redemption requests or other liquidity needs. Under adverse market or economic conditions, the secondary market for junk bonds could contract further, independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. As a result, an Underlying Manager could find it difficult to sell these securities or may be able to sell the securities only at prices lower than if such securities were widely traded. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under such circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the Fund’s net asset value.

Because investors generally perceive that there are greater risks associated with the medium to lower rated securities of the type in which the Fund may invest, the yields and prices of such securities may tend to fluctuate more than those for higher rated securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed-income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed-income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility.

Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of fixed-income securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of fixed-income securities fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s net asset value.

Medium to lower rated and comparable non-rated securities tend to offer higher yields than higher rated securities with the same maturities because the historical financial condition of the issuers of such securities may not have been as strong as that of other issuers. Because medium to lower rated securities generally involve greater risks of loss of income and principal than higher rated securities, investors should consider carefully the relative risks associated with investment in securities which carry medium to lower ratings and in comparable unrated securities. In addition to the risk of default, there are the related costs of recovery on defaulted issues.

Covered Bonds

Covered Bonds are debt instruments, issued by a financial institution and secured by a segregated pool of financial assets (the “cover pool”), typically comprised of mortgages or, in certain cases, public-sector loans. The cover pool, typically maintained by an issuing financial institution, is designed to pay covered bondholders in the event that there is a default on the payment obligations of a covered bond. To the extent the cover pool assets are insufficient to repay principal and/or interest, covered bondholders also have a senior, unsecured claim against the issuing financial institution. Covered bonds differ from other debt instruments, including asset-backed securities, in that covered bondholders have claims against both the cover pool and the issuing financial institution.

Currency Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, Credit Swaps, Index Swaps, Total Return Swaps, Options on Swaps and Interest Rate Caps, Floors and Collars

The Fund may enter into currency, mortgage, credit, total return, index, interest rate and other swaps for hedging purposes, or to seek to increase total return. The Fund may also purchase and write (sell) options on swaps, commonly referred to as swaptions. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) or some other amount earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments, which may be adjusted for an interest factor. The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are generally calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested at a particular interest rate, in a particular foreign currency or security, or in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Bilateral swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Cleared swaps are transacted through futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) that are members of central clearinghouses with the clearinghouse serving as a central counterparty similar to transactions in futures contracts. Funds post initial and variation margin by making payments to their clearing member FCMs. Currency swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies. Interest rate swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of their respective commitments to pay or receive interest, such as an exchange of fixed rate payments for floating rate payments. Mortgage swaps are similar to interest rate swaps in that they represent commitments to pay and receive interest. The notional principal amount, however, is tied to a reference pool or pools of mortgages. Index swaps involve the exchange by the Fund with another party of the respective amounts payable with respect to a notional principal amount at interest rates equal to two specified indices. Credit swaps involve the exchange of a floating or fixed rate payments in return for assuming potential credit losses of an underlying security, or pool of securities. Total return swaps are contracts that obligate a party to pay interest in exchange for payment by the other party of the total return generated by a security, a basket of securities, an index or an index component. A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. Like other types of options, the buyer of a swaption pays a non-refundable premium for the option and obtains the right, but not

 

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the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap or to modify the terms of an existing swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into or modify an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms, which generally entails a greater risk of loss than incurred in buying a swaption. The purchase of an interest rate cap entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index exceeds a predetermined interest rate, to receive payment of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling such interest rate cap. The purchase of an interest rate floor entitles the purchaser, to the extent that a specified index falls below a predetermined interest rate, to receive payments of interest on a notional principal amount from the party selling the interest rate floor. An interest rate collar is the combination of a cap and a floor that preserves a certain return within a predetermined range of interest rates.

A great deal of flexibility may be possible in the way swap transactions are structured. However, generally the Fund will enter into interest rate, total return, credit, mortgage and index swaps only on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Interest rate, total return, credit, index and mortgage swaps do not normally involve the delivery of securities, other underlying assets or principal. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate, total return, credit, index and mortgage swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. In contract, currency swaps usually involve the delivery of a gross payment stream in on designated currency in exchange for the gross payment stream in another designated currency. Therefore, the entire principal value of a currency swap is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations.

If the other party to a bilateral swap agreement defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive. However, certain swap transactions are currently subject to central clearing. Although central clearing is expected to decrease the counterparty risk involved in bi-laterally negotiated contracts because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, central clearing does not make swap transactions risk-free.

As a result of new rules adopted in 2012, certain standardized swaps are currently subject to mandatory central clearing. Central clearing is expected to decrease counterparty risk and increase liquidity compared to bilateral swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap. However, central clearing does not eliminate counterparty risk or illiquidity risk entirely. In addition, depending on the size of the Fund and other factors, the margin required under the rules of a clearinghouse and by a clearing member may be in excess of the collateral required to be posted by the Fund to support its obligations under a similar bilateral swap. However, regulators are expected to adopt rules imposing certain margin requirements, including minimums, on uncleared swaps in the near future, which could change this comparison.

A credit swap may have as reference obligations one or more securities that may, or may not, be currently held by the Fund. The protection “buyer” in a credit swap is generally obligated to pay the protection “seller” an upfront or a periodic stream of payments over the term of the swap provided that no credit event, such as a default, on a reference obligation has occurred. If a credit event occurs, the seller generally must pay the buyer the “par value” (full notional value) of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity described in the swap, or the seller may be required to deliver the related net cash amount, if the swap is cash settled. The Fund may be either the protection buyer or seller in the transaction. If the Fund is a buyer and no credit event occurs, the Fund may recover nothing if the swap is held through its termination date. However, if a credit event occurs, the buyer generally may elect to receive the full notional value of the swap in exchange for an equal face amount of deliverable obligations of the reference entity whose value may have significantly decreased. As a seller, the Fund generally receives an upfront payment or a rate of income throughout the term of the swap provided that there is no credit event. As the seller, the Fund would effectively add leverage to its portfolio because, in addition to the amount invested, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. If a credit event occurs, the value of any deliverable obligation received by the Fund as seller, coupled with the upfront or periodic payments previously received, may be less than the full notional value it pays to the buyer, resulting in a loss of value to the Fund. To the extent that the Fund’s exposure in a transaction involving a swap or a swaption is covered by the segregation of cash or liquid assets or is covered by other means in accordance with SEC guidance or otherwise, the Fund, the Investment Adviser and Underlying Managers believe that swaps do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s restrictions on senior securities and borrowing.

 

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The use of swaps, swaptions and interest rate caps, floors and collars, is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The use of a swap requires an understanding not only of the referenced asset, reference rate, or index but also of the swap itself, without the benefit of observing the performance of the swap under all possible market conditions. The investment performance of the Fund, including the potential for losses, is dependent on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making capability around, but not limited to, forecasts of market values, credit quality, interest rates and currency exchange rates.

In addition, these transactions can involve greater risks than if the Fund had invested in the reference obligation directly because, in addition to general market risks, swaps are subject to illiquidity risk, counterparty risk, credit risk and pricing risk. Regulators also may impose limits on an entity’s or group of entities’ positions in certain swaps. However, certain risks are reduced (but not eliminated) if the Fund invests in cleared swaps. Because bilateral swap agreements are two-party contracts and because they may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid. Moreover, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap transaction in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap counterparty. Many swaps are complex and often valued subjectively. Swaps and other derivatives may be subject to pricing or “basis” risk, which exists when the price of a particular derivative diverges from the price of corresponding cash market instruments. Under certain market conditions it may not be economically feasible to imitate a transaction or liquidate a position in time to avoid a loss or take advantage of an opportunity. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses.

Regulators are in the process of developing rules that would require trading and execution of most liquid swaps on trading facilities. Moving trading to an exchange-type system may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps.

Rules adopted in 2012 also require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. This information is available to regulators and, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, which may be beneficial to funds that use swaps to implement trading strategies. However, these rules place potential additional administrative obligations on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity may not function as expected.

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments which are traded in the interbank market. The Investment Adviser and the Underlying Managers, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, are responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s transactions in swaps, swaptions, caps, floors and collars. Because the Fund’s Underlying Managers may trade with counterparties, prime brokers, clearing brokers or futures commission merchants on terms that are different than those on which the Investment Adviser would trade, and because each Underlying Manager applies its own risk analysis in evaluating potential counterparties for the Fund, the Fund may be subject to greater counterparty risk than if it were managed directly by the Investment Adviser.

Contracts for Difference

The Fund may enter into contracts for difference (CFDs). A CFD offers exposure to price changes in an underlying security without ownership of the security, typically by providing investors (such as the Fund) the ability to trade on margin. CFDs are subject to liquidity risk because the liquidity of CFD is based on the liquidity of the underlying instrument, and are subject to counterparty risk, i.e., the risk that the counterparty to the CFD transaction may be unable or unwilling to make payments or to otherwise honor its financial obligations under the terms of the contract. To the extent that there is an imperfect correlation between the return on the Fund’s obligation to its counterparty under the CFD and the return on related assets in its portfolio, the contracts for difference transaction may increase the fund’s financial risk. CFDs are also subject to risks arising from margin requirements. CFDs are not registered with the SEC or any U.S. regulator.

Custodial Receipts and Trust Certificates

The Fund may invest in custodial receipts and trust certificates, which may be underwritten by securities dealers or banks, representing interests in securities held by a custodian or trustee. The securities so held may include U.S. Government securities, municipal securities or other types of securities in which the Fund may invest. The custodial receipts or trust certificates are underwritten by securities dealers or banks and may evidence ownership of future interest payments, principal payments or both on the underlying securities, or, in some cases, the payment obligation of a third party that has entered into an interest rate swap or other

 

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arrangement with the custodian or trustee. For certain securities laws purposes, custodial receipts and trust certificates may not be considered obligations of the U.S. government or other issuer of the securities held by the custodian or trustee. As a holder of custodial receipts and trust certificates, the Fund will bear its proportionate share of the fees and expenses charged to the custodial account or trust. The Fund may also invest in separately issued interests in custodial receipts and trust certificates.

Although under the terms of a custodial receipt or trust certificate the Fund would typically be authorized to assert its rights directly against the issuer of the underlying obligation, the Fund could be required to assert through the custodian bank or trustee those rights as may exist against the underlying issuers. Thus, in the event an underlying issuer fails to pay principal and/or interest when due, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that would have been involved if the Fund had purchased a direct obligation of the issuer. In addition, in the event that the trust or custodial account in which the underlying securities have been deposited is determined to be an association taxable as a corporation, instead of a non-taxable entity, the yield on the underlying securities would be reduced in recognition of any taxes paid.

Certain custodial receipts and trust certificates may be synthetic or derivative instruments that have interest rates that reset inversely to changing short-term rates and/or have embedded interest rate floors and caps that require the issuer to pay an adjusted interest rate if market rates fall below or rise above a specified rate. Because some of these instruments represent relatively recent innovations, and the trading market for these instruments is less developed than the markets for traditional types of instruments, it is uncertain how these instruments will perform under different economic and interest-rate scenarios. Also, because these instruments may be leveraged, their market values may be more volatile than other types of fixed income instruments and may present greater potential for capital gain or loss. The possibility of default by an issuer or the issuer’s credit provider may be greater for these derivative instruments than for other types of instruments. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the fair value of a derivative instrument because of a lack of reliable objective information and an established secondary market for some instruments may not exist. In many cases, the IRS has not ruled on the tax treatment of the interest or payments received on the derivative instruments and, accordingly, purchases of such instruments are based on the opinion of counsel to the sponsors of the instruments.

Deferred Interest, Pay-In-Kind and Capital Appreciation Bonds

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities may include deferred interest, pay-in-kind (“PIK”) and capital appreciation bonds. Deferred interest and capital appreciation bonds are debt securities issued or sold at a discount from their face value and which do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or a specified date. The original issue discount varies depending on the time remaining until maturity or cash payment date, prevailing interest rates, the liquidity of the security and the perceived credit quality of the issuer. These securities also may take the form of debt securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons, the coupons themselves or receipts or certificates representing interests in such stripped debt obligations or coupons. The market prices of deferred interest, capital appreciation bonds and PIK securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of interest bearing securities and are likely to respond to a greater degree to changes in interest rates than interest bearing securities having similar maturities and credit quality.

PIK securities may be debt obligations or preferred shares that provide the issuer with the option of paying interest or dividends on such obligations in cash or in the form of additional securities rather than cash. Similar to deferred interest bonds, PIK securities are designed to give an issuer flexibility in managing cash flow. PIK securities that are debt securities can be either senior or subordinated debt and generally trade flat (i.e., without accrued interest). The trading price of PIK debt securities generally reflects the market value of the underlying debt plus an amount representing accrued interest since the last interest payment.

Deferred interest, capital appreciation and PIK securities involve the additional risk that, unlike securities that periodically pay interest to maturity, the Fund will realize no cash until a specified future payment date unless a portion of such securities is sold and, if the issuer of such securities defaults, the Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. In addition, even though such securities do not provide for the payment of current interest in cash, the Fund is nonetheless required to accrue income on such investments for each taxable year and generally is required to distribute such accrued amounts (net of deductible expenses, if any) to avoid being subject to tax. Because no cash is generally received at the time of the accrual, the Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy federal tax distribution requirements applicable to the Fund. A portion of the discount with respect to stripped tax-exempt securities or their coupons may be taxable. See “Taxation.”

Equity Swaps

The Fund may enter into equity swap contracts to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of securities in various circumstances, including circumstances where direct investment in the securities is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Equity swaps may also be used for hedging purposes or to seek to increase total return.

 

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Equity swap contracts may be structured in different ways. For example, a counterparty may agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the equity swap contract would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks (or an index of stocks), plus the dividends that would have been received on those stocks. In these cases, the Fund may agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the equity swap contract plus the amount, if any, by which that notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks. Therefore, the return to the Fund on the equity swap contract should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount. In other cases, the counterparty and the Fund may each agree to pay the other the difference between the relative investment performances that would have been achieved if the notional amount of the equity swap contract had been invested in different stocks (or indices of stocks).

The Fund will generally enter into equity swaps on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments. Payments may be made at the conclusion of an equity swap contract or periodically during its term. Equity swaps normally do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to equity swaps is normally limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an equity swap defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any. Inasmuch as these transactions are entered into for hedging purposes or are offset by cash or liquid assets identified on the Fund’s books to cover the Fund’s exposure, the Fund, the Investment Adviser and Underlying Managers believe that the transactions do not constitute senior securities under the Act and, accordingly, will not treat them as being subject to the Fund’s borrowing restrictions.

Foreign Securities

The Fund may invest a substantial portion of its assets in foreign securities. Investments in foreign securities may offer potential benefits not available from investments solely in U.S. dollar-denominated or quoted securities of domestic issuers. Such benefits may include the opportunity to invest in foreign issuers that appear, in the opinion of an Underlying Manager, to offer the potential for better long term growth of capital and income than investments in U.S. securities, the opportunity to invest in foreign countries with economic policies or business cycles different from those of the United States and the opportunity to reduce fluctuations in portfolio value by taking advantage of foreign securities markets that do not necessarily move in a manner parallel to U.S. markets. Investing in the securities of foreign issuers also involves, however, certain special risks, including those discussed in the Fund’s Prospectus and those set forth below, which are not typically associated with investing in U.S. dollar-denominated securities or quoted securities of U.S. issuers.

With any investment in foreign securities, there exist certain economic, political and social risks, including the risk of adverse political developments, nationalization, confiscation without fair compensation or war. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Investments in foreign securities often involve currencies of foreign countries. Accordingly, the Fund that invests in foreign securities may be affected favorably or unfavorably by changes in currency rates and in exchange control regulations and may incur costs in connection with conversions between various currencies. The Fund may be subject to currency exposure independent of its securities positions. To the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining net currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk.

Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. They generally are determined by the forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets and the relative merits of investments in different countries, actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and other complex factors, as seen from an international perspective. Currency exchange rates also can be affected unpredictably by intervention by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks or the failure to intervene or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad.

Because foreign issuers generally are not subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and requirements comparable to those applicable to U.S. companies, there may be less publicly available information about a foreign company than about a U.S. company. Volume and liquidity in most foreign securities markets are less than in the United States and securities of many foreign companies are less liquid and more volatile than securities of comparable U.S. companies. The securities

 

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of foreign issuers may be listed on foreign securities exchanges or traded in foreign over-the-counter markets. Fixed commissions on foreign securities exchanges are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although the Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on its portfolio transactions. There is generally less government supervision and regulation of foreign securities exchanges, brokers, dealers and listed and unlisted companies than in the United States, and the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when some of the Fund’s assets are uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser. In addition, with respect to certain foreign countries, there is the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation, limitations on the movement of funds and other assets between different countries, political or social instability, or diplomatic developments which could adversely affect the Fund’s investments in those countries.

The Fund may invest in foreign securities which take the form of sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts and Global Depositary Receipts. The Fund may also invest in European Depositary Receipts or other similar instruments representing securities of foreign issuers (together, “Depositary Receipts”).

ADRs represent the right to receive securities of foreign issuers deposited in a domestic bank or a correspondent bank. ADRs are traded on domestic exchanges or in the U.S. over-the-counter market and, generally, are in registered form. EDRs and GDRs are receipts evidencing an arrangement with a non-U.S. bank similar to that for ADRs and are designed for use in the non-U.S. securities markets. EDRs and GDRs are not necessarily quoted in the same currency as the underlying security.

To the extent the Fund acquires Depositary Receipts through banks which do not have a contractual relationship with the foreign issuer of the security underlying the Depositary Receipts to issue and service such unsponsored Depositary Receipts, there is an increased possibility that the Fund will not become aware of and be able to respond to corporate actions such as stock splits or rights offerings involving the foreign issuer in a timely manner. In addition, the lack of information may result in inefficiencies in the valuation of such instruments. Investment in Depositary Receipts does not eliminate all the risks inherent in investing in securities of non-U.S. issuers. The market value of Depositary Receipts is dependent upon the market value of the underlying securities and fluctuations in the relative value of the currencies in which the Depositary Receipts and the underlying securities are quoted. However, by investing in Depositary Receipts, such as ADRs, that are quoted in U.S. dollars, the Fund may avoid currency risks during the settlement period for purchases and sales.

As described more fully below, the Fund may invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Political and economic structures in many of such countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristic of more developed countries. Certain of such countries have in the past failed to recognize private property rights and have at times nationalized or expropriated the assets of private companies. As a result, the risks described above, including the risks of nationalization or expropriation of assets, may be heightened. See “Investing in Emerging Countries” below.

Foreign Government Obligations. Foreign government obligations include securities, instruments and obligations issued or guaranteed by a foreign government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. Investment in foreign government obligations can involve a high degree of risk. The governmental entity that controls the repayment of foreign government obligations may not be able or willing to repay the principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt. A governmental entity’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the governmental entity’s policy towards the International Monetary Fund and the political constraints to which a governmental entity may be subject. Governmental entities may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and others abroad to reduce principal and interest on their debt. The commitment on the part of these governments, agencies and others to make such disbursements may be conditioned on a governmental entity’s implementation of economic reforms and/or economic performance and the timely service of such debtor’s obligations. Failure to implement such reforms, achieve such levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of such third parties’ commitments to lend funds to the governmental entity, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to services its debts in a timely manner. Consequently, governmental entities may default on their debt. Holders of foreign government obligations (including the Fund) may be requested to participate in the rescheduling of such debt and to extend further loans to governmental agencies.

 

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Investing in Emerging Countries. The securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid and subject to greater price volatility, and have a smaller market capitalization, than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issuers or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the U.S. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of the securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country securities may also affect the Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

With respect to investments in certain emerging market countries, antiquated legal systems may have an adverse impact on the Fund. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders of U.S. corporations.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in the United States and other developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging markets countries may not be fully developed. To the extent the Fund invests in emerging markets, Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to such sub-custodians in those markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Foreign investment in the securities markets of certain emerging countries is restricted or controlled to varying degrees. These restrictions may limit the Fund’s investment in certain emerging countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require government approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals. In addition, the repatriation of both investment income and capital from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of the Fund. The Fund may be required to establish special custodial or other arrangements before investing in certain emerging countries.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than is the case in the United States, Japan and most Western European countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) popular unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Fund may invest and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s assets. The Fund’s investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

 

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The economies of emerging countries may differ unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

The Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the U.S. and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates. See “TAXATION.”

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result either in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.

From time to time, certain of the companies in which the Fund may invest may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargos imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations and/or countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. A company may suffer damage to its reputation if it is identified as a company which operates in, or has dealings with, countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. As an investor in such companies, the Fund will be indirectly subject to those risks.

Investing in Australia. The Australian economy is heavily dependent on the economies of Asia, Europe and the U.S. as key trading partners, and in particular, on the price and demand for agricultural products and natural resources. By total market capitalization, the Australian stock market is small relative to the U.S. stock market and issues may trade with lesser liquidity, although Australia’ stock market is the largest and most liquid in the Asia-Pacific region (ex-Japan). Australian reporting, accounting and auditing standards differ substantially from U.S. standards. In general, Australian corporations do not provide all of the disclosure required by U.S. law and accounting practice, and such disclosure may be less timely and less frequent than that required of U.S. companies.

Investing in Eastern Europe. The Fund may seek investment opportunities within Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. In addition, any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

Where the Fund invests in securities issued by companies incorporated in or whose principal operations are located in Eastern Europe, other risks may also be encountered. Legal, political, economic and fiscal uncertainties in Eastern European markets may affect the value of the Fund’s investment in such securities. The currencies in which these investments may be denominated may be unstable, may be subject to significant depreciation and may not be freely convertible. Existing laws and regulations may not be consistently applied. The markets of the countries of Eastern Europe are still in the early stages of their development, have less volume, are less highly regulated, are less liquid and experience greater volatility than more established markets. Settlement of transactions may be subject to delay and administrative uncertainties. Custodians are not able to offer the level of service and safekeeping, settlement and administration services that is customary in more developed markets, and there is a risk that the Fund will not be recognized as the owner of securities held on its behalf by a sub-custodian.

 

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Investing in Asia. Although many countries in Asia have experienced a relatively stable political environment over the last decade, there is no guarantee that such stability will be maintained in the future. As an emerging region, many factors may affect such stability on a country-by-country as well as on a regional basis – increasing gaps between the rich and poor, agrarian unrest and stability of existing coalitions in politically-fractionated countries – and may result in adverse consequences to the Fund. The political history of some Asian countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres, and political corruption. Such developments, if they continue to occur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization, and removal of trade barriers, and could result in significant disruption to securities markets.

The legal infrastructure in each of the countries in Asia is unique and often undeveloped. In most cases, securities laws are evolving and far from adequate for the protection of the public from serious fraud. Investment in Asian securities involves considerations and possible risks not typically involved with investment in other issuers, including changes in governmental administration or economic or monetary policy or changed circumstances in dealings between nations. The application of tax laws (e.g., the imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments) or confiscatory taxation may also affect investment in Asian securities. Higher expenses may result from investments in Asian securities than would from investments in other securities because of the costs that must be incurred in connection with conversions between various currencies and brokerage commissions that may be higher than more established markets. Asian securities markets also may be less liquid, more volatile and less subject to governmental supervision than elsewhere. Investments in countries in the region could be affected by other factors not present elsewhere, including lack of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, inadequate settlement procedures and potential difficulties in enforcing contractual obligations.

Certain countries in Asia are especially prone to natural disasters, such as flooding, drought and earthquakes. Combined with the possibility of man-made disasters, the occurrence of such disasters may adversely affect companies in which the Fund is invested and, as a result, may result in adverse consequences to the Fund.

Many of the countries in Asia periodically have experienced significant inflation. Should the governments and central banks of the countries in Asia fail to control inflation, this may have an adverse effect on the performance of the Fund’s investments in Asian securities.

Several of the countries in Asia remain dependent on the U.S. economy as their largest export customer, and future barriers to entry into the U.S. market or other important markets could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Intraregional trade is becoming an increasingly significant percentage of total trade for the countries in Asia. Consequently, the intertwined economies are becoming increasingly dependent on each other, and any barriers to entry to markets in Asia in the future may adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

Certain Asian countries may have managed currencies which are maintained at artificial levels to the U.S. dollar rather than at levels determined by the market. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency which, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Asian countries also may restrict the free conversion of their currency into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. There is no significant foreign exchange market for certain currencies, and it would, as a result, be difficult to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

Although the Fund will generally attempt to invest in those markets which provide the greatest freedom of movement of foreign capital, there is no assurance that this will be possible or that certain countries in Asia will not restrict the movement of foreign capital in the future. Changes in securities laws and foreign ownership laws may have an adverse effect on the Fund.

Investing in Greater China. Investing in Greater China (the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan) involves a high degree of risk and special considerations not typically associated with investing in other more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (a) social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of armed conflict); (b) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (c) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (d) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (e) greater price volatility and significantly smaller market capitalization of securities markets; (f) substantially less liquidity, particularly of certain share classes of Chinese securities; (g) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (h) higher rates of inflation; (i) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on the Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (j) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (k) uncertainty regarding the People’s Republic of China’s commitment to economic reforms; (l) the fact that Chinese companies may be smaller, less seasoned and newly-organized companies; (m) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in

 

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unavailability of material information about issuers; (n) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of Greater China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (o) less extensive, and still developing, legal systems and regulatory frameworks regarding the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (p) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (q) the fact that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; and (r) the rapid and erratic nature of growth, particularly in the People’s Republic of China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations.

The People’s Republic of China is dominated by the one-party rule of the Communist Party. Investments in China involve the risk of greater control over the economy, political and legal uncertainties and currency fluctuations or blockage. The government of the People’s Republic of China exercises significant control over economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. For over three decades, the government of the People’s Republic of China has been reforming economic and market practices and providing a larger sphere for private ownership of property. While currently contributing to growth and prosperity, the government may decide not to continue to support these economic reform programs and could possibly return to the completely centrally planned economy that existed prior to 1978.

The willingness and ability of the government of the People’s Republic of China to support Greater China markets is uncertain. Taiwan and Hong Kong do not exercise the same level of control over their economies as does the People’s Republic of China, but changes to their political and economic relationships with the People’s Republic of China could adversely impact the Fund’s investments in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The relationship between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan is a highly problematic issue and is unlikely to be settled in the near future. This situation, and the continuing hostility between the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan, poses a threat to Taiwan’s economy and may have an adverse impact on the value of the Fund’s investments in Greater China.

Greater China has historically been prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, droughts, floods and tsunamis and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could cause a significant impact on the economy of, or investments in, Greater China.

Investing in Japan. Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade and is especially sensitive to any adverse effects arising from trade tariffs and other protectionist measures, as well as the economic condition of its trading partners. Japan’s high volume of exports has caused trade tensions with Japan’s primary trading partners, particularly with the United States. The relaxing of official and de facto barriers to imports, or hardships created by the actions of trading partners, could adversely affect Japan’s economy. Because the Japanese economy is so dependent on exports, any fall-off in exports may be seen as a sign of economic weakness, which may adversely affect Japanese markets.

In addition, Japan’s export industry, its most important economic sector, depends heavily on imported raw materials and fuels, including iron ore, copper, oil and many forest products. Japan has historically depended on oil for most of its energy requirements. Almost all of its oil is imported, the majority from the Middle East. In the past, oil prices have had a major impact on the domestic economy, but more recently Japan has worked to reduce its dependence on oil by encouraging energy conservation and use of alternative fuels. However, Japan remains sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices, and a substantial rise in world oil or commodity prices could have a negative effect on its economy.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely during recent periods and may be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, especially Southeast Asia. In addition, the yen has had a history of unpredictable and volatile movements against the U.S. dollar. A weak yen is disadvantageous to U.S. shareholders investing in yen-denominated securities. A strong yen, however, could be an impediment to strong continued exports and economic recovery, because it makes Japanese goods sold in other countries more expensive and reduces the value of foreign earnings repatriated to Japan.

The performance of the global economy could have a major impact upon equity returns in Japan. As a result of the strong correlation with the economy of the U.S., Japan’s economy and its stock market are vulnerable to any unfavorable economic conditions in the U.S. and poor performance of U.S. stock markets. The growing economic relationship between Japan and its other neighboring countries in the Southeast Asia region, especially China, also exposes Japan’s economy to changes to the economic climates in those countries.

 

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Like many developed countries, Japan faces challenges to its competitiveness. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s and Japan’s economy fell into a long recession. After a few years of mild recovery in the mid-2000s, the Japanese economy fell into another recession in part due to the recent global economic crisis. This economic recession was likely compounded by an unstable financial sector, low domestic consumption, and certain corporate structural weaknesses, which remain some of the major issues facing the Japanese economy. Japan is reforming its political process and deregulating its economy to address this situation. However, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed in making the performance of the Japanese economy more competitive.

Japan has experienced natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tidal waves, of varying degrees of severity. The risks of such phenomena, and the resulting damage, continue to exist and could have a severe and negative impact on the Fund’s holdings in Japanese securities. Japan also has one of the world’s highest population densities. A significant percentage of the total population of Japan is concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. Therefore, a natural disaster centered in or very near to one of these cities could have a particularly devastating effect on Japan’s financial markets. Japan’s recovery from the recession has been affected by economic distress resulting from the earthquake and resulting tsunami that struck northeastern Japan in March 2011 causing major damage along the coast, including damage to nuclear power plants in the region. Since the earthquake, Japan’s financial markets have fluctuated dramatically. The disaster caused large personal losses, reduced energy supplies, disrupted manufacturing, resulted in significant declines in stock market prices and resulted in an appreciable decline in Japan’s economic output. Although production levels are recovering in some industries as work is shifted to factories in areas not directly affected by the disaster, the timing of a full economic recovery is uncertain, and foreign business whose supply chains are dependent on production or manufacturing in Japan may decrease their reliance on Japanese industries in the future.

Forward Foreign Currency Exchange Contracts. The Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts for hedging purposes and to seek to protect against anticipated changes in future foreign currency exchange rates. A forward foreign currency exchange contract involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are traded in the interbank market between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are generally charged at any stage for trades.

At the maturity of a forward contract the Fund may either accept or make delivery of the currency specified in the contract or, at or prior to maturity, enter into a closing purchase transaction involving the purchase or sale of an offsetting contract. Closing purchase transactions with respect to forward contracts are often, but not always, effected with the currency trader who is a party to the original forward contract.

The Fund may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts in several circumstances. First, when the Fund enters into a contract for the purchase or sale of a security denominated or quoted in a foreign currency, or when the Fund anticipates the receipt in a foreign currency of dividend or interest payments on such a security which it holds, the Fund may desire to “lock in” the U.S. dollar price of the security or the U.S. dollar equivalent of such dividend or interest payment, as the case may be. By entering into a forward contract for the purchase or sale, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, of the amount of foreign currency involved in the underlying transactions, the Fund will attempt to protect itself against an adverse change in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and the subject foreign currency during the period between the date on which the security is purchased or sold, or on which the dividend or interest payment is declared, and the date on which such payments are made or received.

Additionally, when an Underlying Manager believes that the currency of a particular foreign country may suffer a substantial decline against the U.S. dollar, it may enter into a forward contract to sell, for a fixed amount of U.S. dollars, the amount of foreign currency approximating the value of some or all of the Fund’s portfolio securities quoted or denominated in such foreign currency. The precise matching of the forward contract amounts and the value of the securities involved will not generally be possible because the future value of such securities in foreign currencies will change as a consequence of market movements in the value of those securities between the date on which the contract is entered into and the date it matures. Using forward contracts to protect the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the underlying prices of the securities. It simply establishes a rate of exchange which the Fund can achieve at some future point in time. The precise projection of short-term currency market movements is not possible, and short-term hedging provides a means of fixing the U.S. dollar value of only a portion of the Fund’s foreign assets.

The Fund may engage in cross-hedging by using forward contracts in one currency to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency. In addition, the Fund may enter into foreign currency transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposure and the currency exposure of a performance benchmark. Unless otherwise covered in accordance with applicable regulations, the fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets in an amount equal to the value of the Fund’s total assets committed to the consummation of forward foreign currency exchange contracts. If the value of the identified assets declines, additional cash or liquid assets will be identified so that the value of the assets will equal the amount of the Fund’s commitments with respect to such contracts.

 

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While the Fund may enter into forward contracts to reduce currency exchange rate risks, transactions in such contracts involve certain other risks. Thus, while the Fund may benefit from such transactions, unanticipated changes in currency prices may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not engaged in any such transactions. Moreover, there may be imperfect correlation between the Fund’s portfolio holdings of securities quoted or denominated in a particular currency and forward contracts entered into by the Fund. Such imperfect correlation may cause the Fund to sustain losses which will prevent the Fund from achieving a complete hedge or expose the Fund to risk of foreign exchange loss.

Markets for trading forward foreign currency contracts offer less protection against defaults than is available when trading in currency instruments on an exchange. Forward contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty to such contract will default on its obligations. Because a forward foreign currency exchange contract is not guaranteed by an exchange or clearinghouse, a default on the contract would deprive the Fund of unrealized profits, transaction costs or the benefits of a currency hedge or force the Fund to cover its purchase or sale commitments, if any, at the current market price. In addition, the institutions that deal in forward currency contracts are not required to continue to make markets in the currencies they trade and these markets can experience periods of illiquidity. To the extent that a portion of the Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect the Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, is denominated or quoted in the currencies of foreign countries, the Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

Writing and Purchasing Currency Call and Put Options. The Fund may write and purchase put and call options on foreign currencies for the purpose of protecting against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign securities to be acquired. As with other kinds of option transactions, however, the writing of an option on foreign currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received. If and when the Fund seeks to close out an option, the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign currency may constitute an effective hedge against exchange rate fluctuations; however, in the event of exchange rate movements adverse to the Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs. Options on foreign currencies may be traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges or over-the-counter.

Options on currency may also be used for cross-hedging purposes, which involves writing or purchasing options on one currency to seek to hedge against changes in exchange rates for a different currency with a pattern of correlation, or to seek to increase total return when an Underlying Manager anticipates that the currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but the securities quoted or denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not included in the Fund’s portfolio.

A call option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to sell a specified currency to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. A put option written by the Fund obligates the Fund to purchase a specified currency from the option holder at a specified price if the option is exercised before the expiration date. The writing of currency options involves a risk that the Fund will, upon exercise of the option, be required to sell currency subject to a call at a price that is less than the currency’s market value or be required to purchase currency subject to a put at a price that exceeds the currency’s market value. Written put and call options on foreign currencies may be covered in a manner similar to written put and call options on securities and securities indices described under “Writing Covered Options” above.

The Fund may terminate its obligations under a written call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.” The Fund may enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options purchased by the Fund.

The Fund may purchase call options on foreign currency in anticipation of an increase in the U.S. dollar value of the currency in which securities to be acquired by the Fund are quoted or denominated. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of such currency exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the U.S. dollar value of currency in which securities in its portfolio are quoted or denominated (“protective puts”). The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified currency at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is usually

 

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designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the U.S. dollar value of the Fund’s portfolio securities due to currency exchange rate fluctuations. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying currency decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of underlying currency or portfolio securities.

In addition to using options for the hedging purposes described above, the Fund may use options on currency to seek to increase total return. The Fund may write (sell) covered put and call options on any currency in order to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, in writing covered call options for additional income, the Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market value of the underlying currency. Also, when writing put options, the Fund accepts, in return for the option premium, the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying currency at a price in excess of the currency’s market value at the time of purchase.

Special Risks Associated With Options on Currency. An exchange traded options position may be closed out only on an options exchange that provides a secondary market for an option of the same series. Although the Fund will generally purchase or write only those options for which there appears to be an active secondary market, there is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time. For some options no secondary market on an exchange may exist. In such event, it might not be possible to effect closing transactions in particular options, with the result that the Fund would have to exercise its options in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the sale of underlying securities pursuant to the exercise of put options. If the Fund as an option writer is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction in a secondary market, it may not be able to sell the underlying currency (or security quoted or denominated in that currency) or dispose of the assets, identified on its books to cover the position until the option expires or the Fund delivers the underlying currency upon exercise.

There is no assurance that higher than anticipated trading activity or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation inadequate, and thereby result in the institution by an exchange of special procedures which may interfere with the timely execution of customers’ orders.

The Fund may purchase or write over-the-counter options to the extent consistent with its limitation on investments in illiquid securities. Trading in over-the-counter options is subject to the risk that the other party will be unable or unwilling to close out options purchased or written by the Fund.

The amount of the premiums which the Fund may pay or receive may be adversely affected as new or existing institutions, including other investment companies, engage in or increase their option purchasing and writing activities.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts

The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and may also purchase and write call and put options on futures contracts. The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts based on various securities, securities indices, foreign currencies and other financial instruments and indices. The Fund will engage in futures and related options transactions in order to seek to increase total return or to hedge against changes in interest rates, securities prices or, to the extent the Fund invests in foreign securities, currency exchange rates, or to otherwise manage its term structure, sector selection and duration in accordance with its investment objective and policies. The Fund may also enter into closing purchase and sale transactions with respect to such contracts and options.

Futures contracts utilized by mutual funds have historically been traded on U.S. exchanges or boards of trade that are licensed and regulated by the CFTC or with respect to certain funds on foreign exchanges. More recently, certain futures may also be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as derivatives transaction execution facilities, exempt boards of trade or electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by the CFTC. Also, certain single stock futures and narrow based security index futures may be traded either over-the-counter or on trading facilities such as contract markets, derivatives transaction execution facilities and electronic trading facilities that are licensed and/or regulated to varying degrees by both the CFTC and the SEC or on foreign exchanges.

Neither the CFTC, National Futures Association (“NFA”), SEC nor any domestic exchange regulates activities of any foreign exchange or boards of trade, including the execution, delivery and clearing of transactions, or has the power to compel enforcement of the rules of a foreign exchange or board of trade or any applicable foreign law. This is true even if the exchange is formally linked to a domestic market so that a position taken on the market may be liquidated by a transaction on another market. Moreover, such laws or regulations will vary depending on the foreign country in which the foreign futures or foreign options transaction occurs. For these

 

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reasons, the Fund’s investments in foreign futures or foreign options transactions may not be provided the same protections in respect of transactions on United States exchanges. In particular, persons who trade foreign futures or foreign options contracts may not be afforded certain of the protective measures provided by the CEA, the CFTC’s regulations and the rules of the NFA and any domestic exchange, including the right to use reparations proceedings before the CFTC and arbitration proceedings provided by the NFA or any domestic futures exchange. Similarly, those persons may not have the protection of the United States securities laws.

Futures Contracts. A futures contract may generally be described as an agreement between two parties to buy and sell particular financial instruments for an agreed price during a designated month (or to deliver the final cash settlement price, in the case of a contract relating to an index or otherwise not calling for physical delivery at the end of trading in the contract).

When interest rates are rising or securities prices are falling, the Fund can seek through the sale of futures contracts to offset a decline in the value of its current portfolio securities. When interest rates are falling or securities prices are rising, the Fund, through the purchase of futures contracts, can attempt to secure better rates or prices than might later be available in the market when it effects anticipated purchases. Similarly, the Fund can purchase and sell futures contracts on a specified currency in order to seek to increase total return or to protect against changes in currency exchange rates. For example, the Fund can purchase futures contracts on foreign currency to establish the price in U.S. dollars of a security quoted or denominated in such currency that the Fund has acquired or expects to acquire. As another example, the Fund may enter into futures transactions to seek a closer correlation between the Fund’s overall currency exposures and the currency exposures of the Fund’s performance benchmark.

Positions taken in the futures market are not normally held to maturity, but are instead liquidated through offsetting transactions which may result in a profit or a loss. While the Fund will usually liquidate futures contracts on securities or currency in this manner, the Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying securities or currency whenever it appears economically advantageous for the Fund to do so. A clearing corporation associated with the exchange on which futures are traded guarantees that, if still open, the sale or purchase will be performed on the settlement date.

Hedging Strategies Using Futures Contracts. Hedging, by use of futures contracts, seeks to establish with more certainty than would otherwise be possible the effective price, rate of return or currency exchange rate on portfolio securities or securities that the Fund owns or proposes to acquire. The Fund may, for example, take a “short” position in the futures market by selling futures contracts to seek to hedge against an anticipated rise in interest rates or a decline in market prices or foreign currency rates that would adversely affect the dollar value of the Fund’s portfolio securities. Similarly, the Fund may sell futures contracts on a currency in which its portfolio securities are quoted or denominated, or sell futures contracts on one currency to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the value of securities quoted or denominated in a different currency if there is an established historical pattern of correlation between the two currencies. If, in the opinion of an Underlying Manager, there is a sufficient degree of correlation between price trends for the Fund’s portfolio securities and futures contracts based on other financial instruments, securities indices or other indices, the Fund may also enter into such futures contracts as part of its hedging strategy. Although under some circumstances prices of securities in the Fund’s portfolio may be more or less volatile than prices of such futures contracts, an Underlying Manager may attempt to estimate the extent of this volatility difference based on historical patterns and compensate for any such differential by having the Fund enter into a greater or lesser number of futures contracts or by attempting to achieve only a partial hedge against price changes affecting the Fund’s portfolio securities. When hedging of this character is successful, any depreciation in the value of portfolio securities will be substantially offset by appreciation in the value of the futures position. On the other hand, any unanticipated appreciation in the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities would be substantially offset by a decline in the value of the futures position.

On other occasions, the Fund may take a “long” position by purchasing such futures contracts. This may be done, for example, when the Fund anticipates the subsequent purchase of particular securities when it has the necessary cash, but expects the prices or currency exchange rates then available in the applicable market to be less favorable than prices or rates that are currently available.

Options on Futures Contracts. The acquisition of put and call options on futures contracts will give the Fund the right (but not the obligation), for a specified price, to sell or to purchase, respectively, the underlying futures contract at any time during the option period. As the purchaser of an option on a futures contract, the Fund obtains the benefit of the futures position if prices move in a favorable direction but limits its risk of loss in the event of an unfavorable price movement to the loss of the premium and transaction costs.

 

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The writing of a call option on a futures contract generates a premium which may partially offset a decline in the value of the Fund’s assets. By writing a call option, the Fund becomes obligated, in exchange for the premium, to sell a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value higher than the exercise price. The writing of a put option on a futures contract generates a premium, which may partially offset an increase in the price of securities that the Fund intends to purchase. However, the Fund becomes obligated (upon the exercise of the option) to purchase a futures contract if the option is exercised, which may have a value lower than the exercise price. Thus, the loss incurred by the Fund in writing options on futures is potentially unlimited and may exceed the amount of the premium received. The Fund will incur transaction costs in connection with the writing of options on futures.

The holder or writer of an option on a futures contract may terminate its position by selling or purchasing an offsetting option on the same financial instrument. There is no guarantee that such closing transactions can be effected. The Fund’s ability to establish and close out positions on such options will be subject to the development and maintenance of a liquid market.

Other Considerations. The Fund will engage in transactions in futures contracts and related options transactions only to the extent such transactions are consistent with the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for maintaining its qualification as a regulated investment company for federal income tax purposes. Transactions in futures contracts and options on futures involve brokerage costs, require margin deposits and, in certain cases, require the Fund to identify on its books cash or liquid assets. The Fund may cover its transactions in futures contracts and related options by identifying on its books cash or liquid assets or by other means, in any manner permitted by applicable law.

While transactions in futures contracts and options on futures may reduce certain risks, such transactions themselves entail certain other risks. Thus, unanticipated changes in interest rates, securities prices or currency exchange rates may result in a poorer overall performance for the Fund than if it had not entered into any futures contracts or options transactions. When futures contracts and options are used for hedging purposes, perfect correlation between the Fund’s futures positions and portfolio positions may be impossible to achieve, particularly where futures contracts based on individual equity or corporate fixed income securities are currently not available. In the event of imperfect correlation between a futures position and a portfolio position which is intended to be protected, the desired protection may not be obtained and the Fund may be exposed to risk of loss. In addition, it is not possible for the Fund to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities quoted or denominated in foreign currencies because the value of such securities is likely to fluctuate as a result of independent factors unrelated to currency fluctuations. The profitability of the Fund’s trading in futures depends upon the ability of an Underlying Manager to analyze correctly the futures markets.

High Yield Securities

The Fund may invest in bonds rated BB or below by Standard & Poor’s or Ba or below by Moody’s (or comparable rated and unrated securities). These bonds are commonly referred to as “junk bonds” and are considered speculative. The ability of issuers of non-investment grade securities to make principal and interest payments may be questionable. In some cases, such bonds may be highly speculative, have poor prospects for reaching investment grade standing and be in default. As a result, investment in such bonds will entail greater risks than those associated with investment grade bonds (i.e., bonds rated AAA, AA, A or BBB by Standard and Poor’s or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa by Moody’s). Analysis of the creditworthiness of issuers of high yield securities may be more complex than for issuers of higher quality debt securities, and the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective may, to the extent of its investments in high yield securities, be more dependent upon such creditworthiness analysis than would be the case if the Fund were investing in higher quality securities. See Appendix A for a description of the corporate bond and preferred stock ratings by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. (“Fitch”) and Dominion Bond Rating Service Limited (“DBRS”).

Risks associated with acquiring the securities of such issuers generally are greater than is the case with higher rated securities because such issuers are often less creditworthy companies or are highly leveraged and generally less able than more established or less leveraged entities to make scheduled payments of principal and interest. High yield securities are also issued by governmental issuers that may have difficulty in making all scheduled interest and principal payments.

The market values of high yield, fixed income securities tend to reflect individual corporate or municipal developments to a greater extent than do those of higher rated securities, which react primarily to fluctuations in the general level of interest rates. Issuers of such high yield securities are often highly leveraged, and may not be able to make use of more traditional methods of financing. Their ability to service debt obligations may be more adversely affected than issuers of higher rated securities by economic downturns, specific corporate or governmental developments or the issuers’ inability to meet specific projected business forecasts. High yield securities also tend to be more sensitive to economic conditions than higher-rated securities. Negative publicity about the junk bond market and investor perceptions regarding lower-rated securities, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may depress the prices for such high yield securities.

 

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Because there are greater risks associated with non-investment grade securities than those for higher-rated securities, the yields and prices of such securities may tend to fluctuate more than those for higher-rated securities. In the lower quality segments of the fixed income securities market, changes in perceptions of issuers’ creditworthiness tend to occur more frequently and in a more pronounced manner than do changes in higher quality segments of the fixed income securities market, resulting in greater yield and price volatility.

Another factor which causes fluctuations in the prices of high yield, fixed income securities is the supply and demand for similarly rated securities. In addition, the prices of fixed income securities fluctuate in response to the general level of interest rates. Fluctuations in the prices of portfolio securities subsequent to their acquisition will not affect cash income from such securities but will be reflected in the Fund’s net asset value.

The risk of loss from default for the holders of high yield securities is significantly greater than is the case for holders of other debt securities because such high yield securities are generally unsecured and are often subordinated to the rights of other creditors of the issuers of such securities. Investment by the Fund in already defaulted securities poses an additional risk of loss should nonpayment of principal and interest continue in respect of such securities. Even if such securities are held to maturity, recovery by the Fund of its initial investment and any anticipated income or appreciation is uncertain. In addition, the Fund may incur additional expenses to the extent that they are required to seek recovery relating to the default in the payment of principal or interest on such securities or otherwise protect their interests. The Fund may be required to liquidate other portfolio securities to satisfy annual distribution obligations of the Fund in respect of accrued interest income on securities which are subsequently written off, even though the Fund has not received any cash payments of such interest.

The secondary market for high yield, fixed income securities is concentrated in relatively few markets and is dominated by institutional investors, including mutual funds, insurance companies and other financial institutions. Accordingly, the secondary market for such securities is not as liquid as and is more volatile than the secondary market for higher-rated securities. In addition, the trading volume for high-yield, fixed-income securities is generally lower than that of higher rated securities and the secondary market for high yield, fixed income securities could contract under adverse market or economic conditions independent of any specific adverse changes in the condition of a particular issuer. These factors may have an adverse effect on the ability of the Fund to dispose of particular portfolio investments. Prices realized upon the sale of such lower rated or unrated securities, under these circumstances, may be less than the prices used in calculating the net asset value of the Fund. A less liquid secondary market also may make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain precise valuations of the high yield securities in its portfolio.

The adoption of new legislation could adversely affect the secondary market for high yield securities and the financial condition of issuers of these securities. The form of any future legislation, and the probability of such legislation being enacted, is uncertain.

Non-investment grade or high yield, fixed income securities also present risks based on payment expectations. High yield, fixed income securities frequently contain “call” or buy-back features which permit the issuer to call or repurchase the security from its holder. If an issuer exercises such a “call option” and redeems the security, the Fund may have to replace such security with a lower-yielding security, resulting in a decreased return for investors. In addition, if the Fund experiences net redemptions of its shares, it may be forced to sell its higher-rated securities, resulting in a decline in the overall credit quality of its portfolio and increasing its exposure to the risks of high yield securities.

Credit ratings issued by credit rating agencies are designed to evaluate the safety of principal and interest payments of rated securities. They do not, however, evaluate the market value risk of non-investment grade securities and, therefore, may not fully reflect the true risks of an investment. In addition, credit rating agencies may or may not make timely changes in a rating to reflect changes in the economy or in the conditions of the issuer that affect the market value of the security. Consequently, credit ratings are used only as a preliminary indicator of investment quality. Investments in non-investment grade and comparable unrated obligations will be more dependent on Underlying Manager’s credit analysis than would be the case with investments in investment-grade debt obligations.

Inverse Floating Rate Securities

The Fund may invest in leveraged inverse floating rate debt instruments (“inverse floaters”). The interest rate on an inverse floater resets in the opposite direction from the market rate of interest to which the inverse floater is indexed. An inverse floater may be considered to be leveraged to the extent that its interest rate varies by a magnitude that exceeds the magnitude of the change in the

 

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index rate of interest. The higher degree of leverage inherent in inverse floaters is associated with greater volatility in their market values. Accordingly, the duration of an inverse floater may exceed its stated final maturity. Certain inverse floaters may be deemed to be illiquid securities for purposes of the Fund’s 15% limitation on investments in such securities.

Investing in Master Limited Partnerships

MLPs are publicly traded partnerships primarily engaged in the transportation, storage, processing, refining, marketing, exploration, production, and mining of minerals and natural resources. Investments in securities of MLPs involve risks that differ from investments in common stock, including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the MLP, risks related to potential conflicts of interest between the MLP and the MLP’s general partner, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s right to require unit-holders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price. Certain MLP securities may trade in lower volumes due to their smaller capitalizations. Accordingly, those MLPs may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements, may lack sufficient market liquidity to enable the Fund to effect sales at an advantageous time or without a substantial drop in price, and investment in those MLPs may restrict the Fund’s ability to take advantage of other investment opportunities. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns. Depending on the state of interest rates in general, the use of MLPs could enhance or harm the overall performance of the Fund.

MLPs are subject to various risks related to the underlying operating companies they control, including dependence upon specialized management skills and the risk that such companies may lack or have limited operating histories. The success of the Fund’s investments also will vary depending on the underlying industry represented by the MLP’s portfolio. The Fund must recognize income that it receives from underlying MLPs for tax purposes, even if the Fund does not receive cash distributions from the MLPs in an amount necessary to pay such tax liability.

In addition, a percentage of a distribution received by the Fund as the holder of an MLP interest may be treated as a return of capital, which would reduce the Fund’s adjusted tax basis in the interests of the MLP, which will result in an increase in the amount of income or gain (or decrease in the amount of loss) that will be recognized by the Fund for tax purposes upon the sale of any such interests or upon subsequent distributions in respect of such interests. Furthermore, any return of capital distribution received from the MLP may require the Fund to restate the character of its distributions and amend any shareholder tax reporting previously issued.

MLPs do not pay U.S. federal income tax at the partnership level. Rather, each partner is allocated a share of the partnership’s income, gains, losses, deductions and expenses. A change in current tax law, or a change in the underlying business mix of a given MLP, could result in an MLP being treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which would result in the MLP being required to pay U.S. federal income tax (as well as state and local income taxes) on its taxable income. The classification of an MLP as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes would have the effect of reducing the amount of cash available for distribution by the MLP. If any MLP in which the Fund invests were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could result in a reduction of the value of the Fund’s investment in the MLP and lower income to the Fund.

Investment in Unseasoned Companies

The Fund may invest in companies (including predecessors) which have operated less than three years. The securities of such companies may have limited liquidity, which can result in their being priced higher or lower than might otherwise be the case. In addition, investments in unseasoned companies are more speculative and entail greater risk than do investments in companies with an established operating record.

Mortgage Dollar Rolls

The Fund may enter into mortgage dollar rolls, in which the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts with the same counterparty to repurchase similar, but not identical securities on a specified future date. During the roll period, the Fund loses the right to receive principal and interest paid on the securities sold. However, the Fund would benefit to the extent of any difference between the price received for the securities sold and the lower forward price for the future purchase or fee income plus the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the securities sold until the settlement date of the forward purchase. All cash proceeds will be invested in instruments that are permissible investments for the Fund. The Fund will, until the settlement date, identify cash or liquid assets on its books, as permitted by applicable law, in an amount equal to its forward purchase price.

 

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Mortgage dollar rolls involve certain risks including the following: if the broker-dealer to whom the Fund sells the security becomes insolvent, the Fund’s right to purchase or repurchase the mortgage-related securities subject to the mortgage dollar roll may be restricted. Also, the instrument which the Fund is required to repurchase may be worth less than an instrument which the Fund originally held. Successful use of mortgage dollar rolls will depend upon an Underlying Manager’s ability to manage the Fund’s interest rate and mortgage prepayments exposure. For these reasons, there is no assurance that mortgage dollar rolls can be successfully employed. The use of this technique may diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what such performance would have been without the use of mortgage dollar rolls.

Mortgage Loans and Mortgage-Backed Securities

The Fund may invest in Mortgage-Backed Securities.

Mortgage-Backed Securities are subject to both call risk and extension risk. Because of these risks, these securities can have significantly greater price and yield volatility than traditional fixed income securities.

General Characteristics of Mortgage Backed Securities.

In general, each mortgage pool underlying Mortgage-Backed Securities consists of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured by first mortgages or first deeds of trust or other similar security instruments creating a first lien on owner occupied and non-owner occupied one-unit to four-unit residential properties, multi-family (i.e., five-units or more) properties, agricultural properties, commercial properties and mixed use properties (the “Mortgaged Properties”). The Mortgaged Properties may consist of detached individual dwelling units, multi-family dwelling units, individual condominiums, townhouses, duplexes, triplexes, fourplexes, row houses, individual units in planned unit developments, other attached dwelling units (“Residential Mortgaged Properties”) or commercial properties, such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property (“Commercial Mortgaged Properties”). Residential Mortgaged Properties may also include residential investment properties and second homes. In addition, the Mortgage-Backed Securities which are residential mortgage-backed securities may also consist of mortgage loans evidenced by promissory notes secured entirely or in part by second priority mortgage liens on Residential Mortgaged Properties.

The investment characteristics of adjustable and fixed rate Mortgage-Backed Securities differ from those of traditional fixed income securities. The major differences include the payment of interest and principal on Mortgage-Backed Securities on a more frequent (usually monthly) schedule, and the possibility that principal may be prepaid at any time due to prepayments on the underlying mortgage loans or other assets. These differences can result in significantly greater price and yield volatility than is the case with traditional fixed income securities. As a result, if the Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a premium, a faster than expected prepayment rate will reduce both the market value and the yield to maturity from those which were anticipated. A prepayment rate that is slower than expected will have the opposite effect, increasing yield to maturity and market value. Conversely, if the Fund purchases Mortgage-Backed Securities at a discount, faster than expected prepayments will increase, while slower than expected prepayments will reduce yield to maturity and market value. To the extent that the Fund invests in Mortgage-Backed Securities, an Underlying Manager may seek to manage these potential risks by investing in a variety of Mortgage-Backed Securities and by using certain hedging techniques.

Prepayments on a pool of mortgage loans are influenced by changes in current interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic, social and other factors (such as changes in mortgagor housing needs, job transfers, unemployment, mortgagor equity in the mortgage properties and servicing decisions). The timing and level of prepayments cannot be predicted. A predominant factor affecting the prepayment rate on a pool of mortgage loans is the difference between the interest rates on outstanding mortgage loans and prevailing mortgage loan interest rates (giving consideration to the cost of any refinancing). Generally, prepayments on mortgage loans will increase during a period of falling mortgage interest rates and decrease during a period of rising mortgage interest rates. Accordingly, the amounts of prepayments available for reinvestment by the Fund are likely to be greater during a period of declining mortgage interest rates. If general interest rates decline, such prepayments are likely to be reinvested at lower interest rates than the Fund was earning on the mortgage-backed securities that were prepaid. Due to these factors, mortgage-backed securities may be less effective than U.S. Treasury and other types of debt securities of similar maturity at maintaining yields during periods of declining interest rates. Because the Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities are interest-rate sensitive, the Fund’s performance will depend in part upon the ability of the Fund to anticipate and respond to fluctuations in market interest rates and to utilize appropriate strategies to maximize returns to the Fund, while attempting to minimize the associated risks to its investment capital. Prepayments may have a disproportionate effect on certain mortgage-backed securities and other multiple class pass-through securities, which are discussed below.

 

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The rate of interest paid on mortgage-backed securities is normally lower than the rate of interest paid on the mortgages included in the underlying pool due to (among other things) the fees paid to any servicer, special servicer and trustee for the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool, other costs and expenses of such trust fund, fees paid to any guarantor, such as Ginnie Mae (as defined below) or to any credit enhancers, mortgage pool insurers, bond insurers and/or hedge providers, and due to any yield retained by the issuer. Actual yield to the holder may vary from the coupon rate, even if adjustable, if the mortgage-backed securities are purchased or traded in the secondary market at a premium or discount. In addition, there is normally some delay between the time the issuer receives mortgage payments from the servicer and the time the issuer (or the trustee of the trust fund which holds the mortgage pool) makes the payments on the mortgage-backed securities, and this delay reduces the effective yield to the holder of such securities.

The issuers of certain mortgage-backed obligations may elect to have the pool of mortgage loans (or indirect interests in mortgage loans) underlying the securities treated as a REMIC, which is subject to special federal income tax rules. A description of the types of mortgage loans and mortgage-backed securities in which the Fund may invest is provided below. The descriptions are general and summary in nature, and do not detail every possible variation of the types of securities that are permissible investments for the Fund.

Certain General Characteristics of Mortgage Loans

Adjustable Rate Mortgage Loans (“ARMs”). The Fund may invest in ARMs. ARMs generally provide for a fixed initial mortgage interest rate for a specified period of time. Thereafter, the interest rates (the “Mortgage Interest Rates”) may be subject to periodic adjustment based on changes in the applicable index rate (the “Index Rate”). The adjusted rate would be equal to the Index Rate plus a fixed percentage spread over the Index Rate established for each ARM at the time of its origination. ARMs allow the Fund to participate in increases in interest rates through periodic increases in the securities coupon rates. During periods of declining interest rates, coupon rates may readjust downward resulting in lower yields to the Fund.

Adjustable interest rates can cause payment increases that some mortgagors may find difficult to make. However, certain ARMs may provide that the Mortgage Interest Rate may not be adjusted to a rate above an applicable lifetime maximum rate or below an applicable lifetime minimum rate for such ARM. Certain ARMs may also be subject to limitations on the maximum amount by which the Mortgage Interest Rate may adjust for any single adjustment period (the “Maximum Adjustment”). Other ARMs (“Negatively Amortizing ARMs”) may provide instead or as well for limitations on changes in the monthly payment on such ARMs. Limitations on monthly payments can result in monthly payments which are greater or less than the amount necessary to amortize a Negatively Amortizing ARM by its maturity at the Mortgage Interest Rate in effect in any particular month. In the event that a monthly payment is not sufficient to pay the interest accruing on a Negatively Amortizing ARM, any such excess interest is added to the principal balance of the loan, causing negative amortization, and will be repaid through future monthly payments. It may take borrowers under Negatively Amortizing ARMs longer periods of time to build up equity and may increase the likelihood of default by such borrowers. In the event that a monthly payment exceeds the sum of the interest accrued at the applicable Mortgage Interest Rate and the principal payment which would have been necessary to amortize the outstanding principal balance over the remaining term of the loan, the excess (or “accelerated amortization”) further reduces the principal balance of the ARM. Negatively Amortizing ARMs do not provide for the extension of their original maturity to accommodate changes in their Mortgage Interest Rate. As a result, unless there is a periodic recalculation of the payment amount (which there generally is), the final payment may be substantially larger than the other payments. After the expiration of the initial fixed rate period and upon the periodic recalculation of the payment to cause timely amortization of the related mortgage loan, the monthly payment on such mortgage loan may increase substantially which may, in turn, increase the risk of the borrower defaulting in respect of such mortgage loan. These limitations on periodic increases in interest rates and on changes in monthly payments protect borrowers from unlimited interest rate and payment increases, but may result in increased credit exposure and prepayment risks for lenders. When interest due on a mortgage loan is added to the principal balance of such mortgage loan, the related mortgaged property provides proportionately less security for the repayment of such mortgage loan. Therefore, if the related borrower defaults on such mortgage loan, there is a greater likelihood that a loss will be incurred upon any liquidation of the mortgaged property which secures such mortgage loan.

ARMs also have the risk of prepayment. The rate of principal prepayments with respect to ARMs has fluctuated in recent years. The value of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by ARMs is less likely to rise during periods of declining interest rates than the value of fixed-rate securities during such periods. Accordingly, ARMs may be subject to a greater rate of principal repayments in a declining interest rate environment resulting in lower yields to the Fund. For example, if prevailing interest rates fall significantly, ARMs could be subject to higher prepayment rates (than if prevailing interest rates remain constant or increase) because the availability of low fixed-rate mortgages may encourage mortgagors to refinance their ARMs to “lock-in” a fixed-rate mortgage. On the other hand, during periods of rising interest rates, the value of ARMs will lag behind changes in the market rate. ARMs are also typically subject to maximum increases and decreases in the interest rate adjustment which can be made on any one adjustment

 

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date, in any one year, or during the life of the security. In the event of dramatic increases or decreases in prevailing market interest rates, the value of the Fund’s investment in ARMs may fluctuate more substantially because these limits may prevent the security from fully adjusting its interest rate to the prevailing market rates. As with fixed-rate mortgages, ARM prepayment rates vary in both stable and changing interest rate environments.

There are two main categories of indices which provide the basis for rate adjustments on ARMs: those based on U.S. Treasury securities and those derived from a calculated measure, such as a cost of funds index or a moving average of mortgage rates. Indices commonly used for this purpose include the one-year, three-year and five-year constant maturity Treasury rates, the three-month Treasury bill rate, the 180-day Treasury bill rate, rates on longer-term Treasury securities, the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds, the National Median Cost of Funds, the one-month, three-month, six-month or one-year London Interbank Offered Rate, the prime rate of a specific bank, or commercial paper rates. Some indices, such as the one-year constant maturity Treasury rate, closely mirror changes in market interest rate levels. Others, such as the 11th District Federal Home Loan Bank Cost of Funds index, tend to lag behind changes in market rate levels and tend to be somewhat less volatile. The degree of volatility in the market value of ARMs in the Fund’s portfolio and, therefore, in the net asset value of the Fund’s shares, will be a function of the length of the interest rate reset periods and the degree of volatility in the applicable indices.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans. Generally, fixed-rate mortgage loans included in mortgage pools (the “Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans”) will bear simple interest at fixed annual rates and have original terms to maturity ranging from 5 to 40 years. Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans generally provide for monthly payments of principal and interest in substantially equal installments for the term of the mortgage note in sufficient amounts to fully amortize principal by maturity, although certain Fixed-Rate Mortgage Loans provide for a large final “balloon” payment upon maturity.

Certain Legal Considerations of Mortgage Loans. The following is a discussion of certain legal and regulatory aspects of the mortgage loans in which the Fund may invest. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not address all of the legal or regulatory aspects affecting mortgage loans. These regulations may impair the ability of a mortgage lender to enforce its rights under the mortgage documents. These regulations may also adversely affect the Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities (including those issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities) by delaying the Fund’s receipt of payments derived from principal or interest on mortgage loans affected by such regulations.

 

1. Foreclosure. A foreclosure of a defaulted mortgage loan may be delayed due to compliance with statutory notice or service of process provisions, difficulties in locating necessary parties or legal challenges to the mortgagee’s right to foreclose. Depending upon market conditions, the ultimate proceeds of the sale of foreclosed property may not equal the amounts owed on the Mortgage-Backed Securities. Furthermore, courts in some cases have imposed general equitable principles upon foreclosure generally designed to relieve the borrower from the legal effect of default and have required lenders to undertake affirmative and expensive actions to determine the causes for the default and the likelihood of loan reinstatement.

 

2. Rights of Redemption. In some states, after foreclosure of a mortgage loan, the borrower and foreclosed junior lienors are given a statutory period in which to redeem the property, which right may diminish the mortgagee’s ability to sell the property.

 

3. Legislative Limitations. In addition to anti-deficiency and related legislation, numerous other federal and state statutory provisions, including the federal bankruptcy laws and state laws affording relief to debtors, may interfere with or affect the ability of a secured mortgage lender to enforce its security interest. For example, a bankruptcy court may grant the debtor a reasonable time to cure a default on a mortgage loan, including a payment default. The court in certain instances may also reduce the monthly payments due under such mortgage loan, change the rate of interest, reduce the principal balance of the loan to the then-current appraised value of the related mortgaged property, alter the mortgage loan repayment schedule and grant priority of certain liens over the lien of the mortgage loan. If a court relieves a borrower’s obligation to repay amounts otherwise due on a mortgage loan, the mortgage loan servicer will not be required to advance such amounts, and any loss may be borne by the holders of securities backed by such loans. In addition, numerous federal and state consumer protection laws impose penalties for failure to comply with specific requirements in connection with origination and servicing of mortgage loans.

 

4. “Due-on-Sale” Provisions. Fixed-rate mortgage loans may contain a so-called “due-on-sale” clause permitting acceleration of the maturity of the mortgage loan if the borrower transfers the property. The Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982 sets forth nine specific instances in which no mortgage lender covered by that Act may exercise a “due-on-sale” clause upon a transfer of property. The inability to enforce a “due-on-sale” clause or the lack of such a clause in mortgage loan documents may result in a mortgage loan being assumed by a purchaser of the property that bears an interest rate below the current market rate.

 

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5. Usury Laws. Some states prohibit charging interest on mortgage loans in excess of statutory limits. If such limits are exceeded, substantial penalties may be incurred and, in some cases, enforceability of the obligation to pay principal and interest may be affected.

 

6. Recent Governmental Action, Legislation and Regulation. The rise in the rate of foreclosures of properties in certain states or localities has resulted in legislative, regulatory and enforcement action in such states or localities seeking to prevent or restrict foreclosures, particularly in respect of residential mortgage loans. Actions have also been brought against issuers and underwriters of residential mortgage-backed securities collateralized by such residential mortgage loans and investors in such residential mortgage-backed securities. Legislative or regulatory initiatives by federal, state or local legislative bodies or administrative agencies, if enacted or adopted, could delay foreclosure or the exercise of other remedies, provide new defenses to foreclosure, or otherwise impair the ability of the loan servicer to foreclose or realize on a defaulted residential mortgage loan included in a pool of residential mortgage loans backing such residential mortgage-backed securities. While the nature or extent of limitations on foreclosure or exercise of other remedies that may be enacted cannot be predicted, any such governmental actions that interfere with the foreclosure process could increase the costs of such foreclosures or exercise of other remedies in respect of residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund, delay the timing or reduce the amount of recoveries on defaulted residential mortgage loans which collateralize Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund, and consequently, could adversely impact the yields and distributions the Fund may receive in respect of its ownership of Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by residential mortgage loans. For example, the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 authorized bankruptcy courts to assist bankrupt borrowers by restructuring residential mortgage loans secured by a lien on the borrower’s primary residence. Bankruptcy judges are permitted to reduce the interest rate of the bankrupt borrower’s residential mortgage loan, extend its term to maturity to up to 40 years or take other actions to reduce the borrower’s monthly payment. As a result, the value of, and the cash flows in respect of, the Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans may be adversely impacted, and, as a consequence, the Fund’s investment in such Mortgage-Backed Securities could be adversely impacted. Other federal legislation, including the Home Affordability Modification Program (“HAMP”), encourages servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are either already in default or are at risk of imminent default. Furthermore, HAMP provides incentives for servicers to modify residential mortgage loans that are contractually current. This program, as well other legislation and/or governmental intervention designed to protect consumers, may have an adverse impact on servicers of residential mortgage loans by increasing costs and expenses of these servicers while at the same time decreasing servicing cash flows. Such increased financial pressures may have a negative effect on the ability of servicers to pursue collection on residential mortgage loans that are experiencing increased delinquencies and defaults and to maximize recoveries on the sale of underlying residential mortgaged properties following foreclosure. Other legislative or regulatory actions include insulation of servicers from liability for modification of residential mortgage loans without regard to the terms of the applicable servicing agreements. The foregoing legislation and current and future governmental regulation activities may have the effect of reducing returns to the Fund to the extent it has invested in Mortgage-Backed Securities collateralized by these residential mortgage loans.

Mortgage Pass-Through Securities

To the extent consistent with its investment policies, the Fund may invest in both government guaranteed and privately issued mortgage pass-through securities (“Mortgage Pass-Throughs”) that are fixed or adjustable rate Mortgage-Backed Securities which provide for monthly payments that are a “pass-through” of the monthly interest and principal payments (including any prepayments) made by the individual borrowers on the pooled mortgage loans, net of any fees or other amounts paid to any guarantor, administrator and/or servicer of the underlying mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally may be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

The following discussion describes certain aspects of only a few of the wide variety of structures of Mortgage Pass-Throughs that are available or may be issued.

General Description of Certificates. Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be issued in one or more classes of senior certificates and one or more classes of subordinate certificates. Each such class may bear a different pass-through rate. Generally, each certificate will evidence the specified interest of the holder thereof in the payments of principal or interest or both in respect of the mortgage pool comprising part of the trust fund for such certificates.

 

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Any class of certificates may also be divided into subclasses entitled to varying amounts of principal and interest. If a REMIC election has been made, certificates of such subclasses may be entitled to payments on the basis of a stated principal balance and stated interest rate, and payments among different subclasses may be made on a sequential, concurrent, pro rata or disproportionate basis, or any combination thereof. The stated interest rate on any such subclass of certificates may be a fixed rate or one which varies in direct or inverse relationship to an objective interest index.

Generally, each registered holder of a certificate will be entitled to receive its pro rata share of monthly distributions of all or a portion of principal of the underlying mortgage loans or of interest on the principal balances thereof, which accrues at the applicable mortgage pass-through rate, or both. The difference between the mortgage interest rate and the related mortgage pass-through rate (less the amount, if any, of retained yield) with respect to each mortgage loan will generally be paid to the servicer as a servicing fee. Because certain adjustable rate mortgage loans included in a mortgage pool may provide for deferred interest (i.e., negative amortization), the amount of interest actually paid by a mortgagor in any month may be less than the amount of interest accrued on the outstanding principal balance of the related mortgage loan during the relevant period at the applicable mortgage interest rate. In such event, the amount of interest that is treated as deferred interest will generally be added to the principal balance of the related mortgage loan and will be distributed pro rata to certificate-holders as principal of such mortgage loan when paid by the mortgagor in subsequent monthly payments or at maturity.

Government Guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities. There are several types of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities currently available, including guaranteed mortgage pass-through certificates and multiple class securities, which include guaranteed Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit Certificates (“REMIC Certificates”), other collateralized mortgage obligations and stripped Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Fund is permitted to invest in other types of Mortgage-Backed Securities that may be available in the future to the extent consistent with its investment policies and objective.

The Fund’s investments in Mortgage-Backed Securities may include securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, such as the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Ginnie Mae securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which means that the U.S. Government guarantees that the interest and principal will be paid when due. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have the ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, and as a result, they are generally viewed by the market as high quality securities with low credit risks. From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac that issue guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress as regards such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities and the liquidity and value of the Fund’s portfolio.

There is risk that the U.S. Government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The Fund may purchase U.S. Government Securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. Government Securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed such issuers’ current resources, including such issuers’ legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that issuers of U.S. Government Securities will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

Below is a general discussion of certain types of guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Fund may invest.

 

   

Ginnie Mae Certificates. Ginnie Mae is a wholly-owned corporate instrumentality of the United States. Ginnie Mae is authorized to guarantee the timely payment of the principal of and interest on certificates that are based on and backed by a pool of mortgage loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration (“FHA”), or guaranteed by the Veterans Administration (“VA”), or by pools of other eligible mortgage loans. In order to meet its obligations under any guaranty, Ginnie Mae is authorized to borrow from the United States Treasury in an unlimited amount. The National Housing Act provides that the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government is pledged to the timely payment of principal and interest by Ginnie Mae of amounts due on Ginnie Mae certificates.

 

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Fannie Mae Certificates. Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an act of the United States Congress. Generally, Fannie Mae Certificates are issued and guaranteed by Fannie Mae and represent an undivided interest in a pool of mortgage loans (a “Pool”) formed by Fannie Mae. A Pool consists of residential mortgage loans either previously owned by Fannie Mae or purchased by it in connection with the formation of the Pool. The mortgage loans may be either conventional mortgage loans (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any U.S. Government agency) or mortgage loans that are either insured by the FHA or guaranteed by the VA. However, the mortgage loans in Fannie Mae Pools are primarily conventional mortgage loans. The lenders originating and servicing the mortgage loans are subject to certain eligibility requirements established by Fannie Mae. Fannie Mae has certain contractual responsibilities. With respect to each Pool, Fannie Mae is obligated to distribute scheduled installments of principal and interest after Fannie Mae’s servicing and guaranty fee, whether or not received, to Certificate holders. Fannie Mae also is obligated to distribute to holders of Certificates an amount equal to the full principal balance of any foreclosed mortgage loan, whether or not such principal balance is actually recovered. The obligations of Fannie Mae under its guaranty of the Fannie Mae Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

 

   

Freddie Mac Certificates. Freddie Mac is a publicly held U.S. Government sponsored enterprise. A principal activity of Freddie Mac currently is the purchase of first lien, conventional, residential and multifamily mortgage loans and participation interests in such mortgage loans and their resale in the form of mortgage securities, primarily Freddie Mac Certificates. A Freddie Mac Certificate represents a pro rata interest in a group of mortgage loans or participations in mortgage loans (a “Freddie Mac Certificate group”) purchased by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees to each registered holder of a Freddie Mac Certificate the timely payment of interest at the rate provided for by such Freddie Mac Certificate (whether or not received on the underlying loans). Freddie Mac also guarantees to each registered Certificate holder ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans, without any offset or deduction, but does not, generally, guarantee the timely payment of scheduled principal. The obligations of Freddie Mac under its guaranty of Freddie Mac Certificates are obligations solely of Freddie Mac. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae” below.

The mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans with original terms to maturity of up to forty years. These mortgage loans are usually secured by first liens on one-to-four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Conventional Mortgage Loans. The conventional mortgage loans underlying the Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae Certificates consist of adjustable rate or fixed-rate mortgage loans normally with original terms to maturity of between five and thirty years. Substantially all of these mortgage loans are secured by first liens on one- to four-family residential properties or multi-family projects. Each mortgage loan must meet the applicable standards set forth in the law creating Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae. A Freddie Mac Certificate group may include whole loans, participation interests in whole loans, undivided interests in whole loans and participations comprising another Freddie Mac Certificate group.

Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 6, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”). Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury Department (the “Treasury”) has entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which establish the Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior

 

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preferred stock place significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things, (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock to the Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions are placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and Mortgage-Backed Securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. On June 16, 2010, FHFA ordered Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac’s stock de-listed from the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) after the price of common stock in Fannie Mae fell below the NYSE minimum average closing price of $1 for more than 30 days.

The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things) the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator, the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the Treasury, market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any Mortgage-Backed Securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such Mortgage-Backed Securities held by the Fund.

Privately Issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. To the extent consistent with its investment policies, the Fund may invest in privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities. Privately issued Mortgage-Backed Securities are generally backed by pools of conventional (i.e., non-government guaranteed or insured) mortgage loans. The seller or servicer of the underlying mortgage obligations will generally make representations and warranties to certificate-holders as to certain characteristics of the mortgage loans and as to the accuracy of certain information furnished to the trustee in respect of each such mortgage loan. Upon a breach of any representation or warranty that materially and adversely affects the interests of the related certificate-holders in a mortgage loan, the seller or servicer generally will be obligated either to cure the breach in all material respects, to repurchase the mortgage loan or, if the related agreement so provides, to substitute in its place a mortgage loan pursuant to the conditions set forth therein. Such a repurchase or substitution obligation may constitute the sole remedy available to the related certificate-holders or the trustee for the material breach of any such representation or warranty by the seller or servicer.

Ratings. The ratings assigned by a rating organization to Mortgage Pass-Throughs generally address the likelihood of the receipt of distributions on the underlying mortgage loans by the related certificate-holders under the agreements pursuant to which such certificates are issued. A rating organization’s ratings normally take into consideration the credit quality of the related mortgage pool, including any credit support providers, structural and legal aspects associated with such certificates, and the extent to which the payment stream on such mortgage pool is adequate to make payments required by such certificates. A rating organization’s ratings on such certificates do not, however, constitute a statement regarding frequency of prepayments on the related mortgage loans. In addition, the rating assigned by a rating organization to a certificate may not address the possibility that, in the event of the insolvency of the issuer of certificates where a subordinated interest was retained, the issuance and sale of the senior certificates may be recharacterized as a financing and, as a result of such recharacterization, payments on such certificates may be affected. A rating organization may downgrade or withdraw a rating assigned by it to any Mortgage Pass-Through at any time, and no assurance can be made that any ratings on any Mortgage Pass-Throughs included in the Fund will be maintained, or that if such ratings are assigned, they will not be downgraded or withdrawn by the assigning rating organization.

Recently, rating agencies have placed on credit watch or downgraded the ratings previously assigned to a large number of mortgage-backed securities (which may include certain of the Mortgage-Backed Securities in which the Fund may have invested or may in the future be invested), and may continue to do so in the future. In the event that any Mortgage-Backed Security held by the Fund is placed on credit watch or downgraded, the value of such Mortgage-Backed Security may decline and the Fund may consequently experience losses in respect of such Mortgage-Backed Security.

Credit Enhancement. Mortgage pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher yield than government and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency payment guarantees. To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, Mortgage Pass-Throughs may contain elements of credit support. Credit support falls generally into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, generally by the entity administering the pools of mortgages, the provision of a reserve fund, or a combination thereof, to ensure, subject to certain limitations, that scheduled payments on the underlying pool are made in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from default ensures ultimate payment of the obligations on at least a portion of the assets in the pool. Such credit support can be provided by, among other things, payment guarantees, letters of credit, pool insurance, subordination, or any combination thereof.

 

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Subordination; Shifting of Interest; Reserve Fund. In order to achieve ratings on one or more classes of Mortgage Pass-Throughs, one or more classes of certificates may be subordinate certificates which provide that the rights of the subordinate certificate-holders to receive any or a specified portion of distributions with respect to the underlying mortgage loans may be subordinated to the rights of the senior certificate holders. If so structured, the subordination feature may be enhanced by distributing to the senior certificate-holders on certain distribution dates, as payment of principal, a specified percentage (which generally declines over time) of all principal payments received during the preceding prepayment period (“shifting interest credit enhancement”). This will have the effect of accelerating the amortization of the senior certificates while increasing the interest in the trust fund evidenced by the subordinate certificates. Increasing the interest of the subordinate certificates relative to that of the senior certificates is intended to preserve the availability of the subordination provided by the subordinate certificates. In addition, because the senior certificate-holders in a shifting interest credit enhancement structure are entitled to receive a percentage of principal prepayments which is greater than their proportionate interest in the trust fund, the rate of principal prepayments on the mortgage loans may have an even greater effect on the rate of principal payments and the amount of interest payments on, and the yield to maturity of, the senior certificates.

In addition to providing for a preferential right of the senior certificate-holders to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool, a reserve fund may be established relating to such certificates (the “Reserve Fund”). The Reserve Fund may be created with an initial cash deposit by the originator or servicer and augmented by the retention of distributions otherwise available to the subordinate certificate-holders or by excess servicing fees until the Reserve Fund reaches a specified amount.

The subordination feature, and any Reserve Fund, are intended to enhance the likelihood of timely receipt by senior certificate-holders of the full amount of scheduled monthly payments of principal and interest due to them and will protect the senior certificate-holders against certain losses; however, in certain circumstances the Reserve Fund could be depleted and temporary shortfalls could result. In the event that the Reserve Fund is depleted before the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, senior certificate-holders will nevertheless have a preferential right to receive current distributions from the mortgage pool to the extent of the then outstanding subordinated amount. Unless otherwise specified, until the subordinated amount is reduced to zero, on any distribution date any amount otherwise distributable to the subordinate certificates or, to the extent specified, in the Reserve Fund will generally be used to offset the amount of any losses realized with respect to the mortgage loans (“Realized Losses”). Realized Losses remaining after application of such amounts will generally be applied to reduce the ownership interest of the subordinate certificates in the mortgage pool. If the subordinated amount has been reduced to zero, Realized Losses generally will be allocated pro rata among all certificate-holders in proportion to their respective outstanding interests in the mortgage pool.

Alternative Credit Enhancement. As an alternative, or in addition to the credit enhancement afforded by subordination, credit enhancement for Mortgage Pass-Throughs may be provided through bond insurers, or at the mortgage loan-level through mortgage insurance, hazard insurance, or through the deposit of cash, certificates of deposit, letters of credit, a limited guaranty or by such other methods as are acceptable to a rating agency. In certain circumstances, such as where credit enhancement is provided by bond insurers, guarantees or letters of credit, the security is subject to credit risk because of its exposure to the credit risk of an external credit enhancement provider.

Voluntary Advances. Generally, in the event of delinquencies in payments on the mortgage loans underlying the Mortgage Pass-Throughs, the servicer may agree to make advances of cash for the benefit of certificate-holders, but generally will do so only to the extent that it determines such voluntary advances will be recoverable from future payments and collections on the mortgage loans or otherwise.

Optional Termination. Generally, the servicer may, at its option with respect to any certificates, repurchase all of the underlying mortgage loans remaining outstanding at such time if the aggregate outstanding principal balance of such mortgage loans is less than a specified percentage (generally 5-10%) of the aggregate outstanding principal balance of the mortgage loans as of the cut-off date specified with respect to such series.

Multiple Class Mortgage-Backed Securities and Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. The Fund may invest in multiple class securities including collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and REMIC Certificates. These securities may be issued by U.S. Government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac or by trusts formed by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, insurance companies, investment banks and special purpose subsidiaries of the foregoing. In general, CMOs are debt obligations of a legal entity that are collateralized by, and multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities represent direct ownership interests in, a pool of mortgage loans or Mortgage-Backed Securities the payments on which are used to make payments on the CMOs or multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities.

 

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Fannie Mae REMIC Certificates are issued and guaranteed as to timely distribution of principal and interest by Fannie Mae. In addition, Fannie Mae will be obligated to distribute the principal balance of each class of REMIC Certificates in full, whether or not sufficient funds are otherwise available.

Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest on Freddie Mac REMIC Certificates and also guarantees the payment of principal as payments are required to be made on the underlying mortgage participation certificates (“PCs”). PCs represent undivided interests in specified level payment, residential mortgages or participations therein purchased by Freddie Mac and placed in a PC pool. With respect to principal payments on PCs, Freddie Mac generally guarantees ultimate collection of all principal of the related mortgage loans without offset or deduction but the receipt of the required payments may be delayed. Freddie Mac also guarantees timely payment of principal of certain PCs.

CMOs and guaranteed REMIC Certificates issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are types of multiple class Mortgage-Backed Securities. The REMIC Certificates represent beneficial ownership interests in a REMIC trust, generally consisting of mortgage loans or Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac or Ginnie Mae guaranteed Mortgage-Backed Securities (the “Mortgage Assets”). The obligations of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac under their respective guaranty of the REMIC Certificates are obligations solely of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, respectively. See “Certain Additional Information with Respect to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.”

CMOs and REMIC Certificates are issued in multiple classes. Each class of CMOs or REMIC Certificates, often referred to as a “tranche,” is issued at a specific adjustable or fixed interest rate and must be fully retired no later than its final distribution date. Principal prepayments on the mortgage loans or the Mortgage Assets underlying the CMOs or REMIC Certificates may cause some or all of the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates to be retired substantially earlier than their final distribution dates. Generally, interest is paid or accrues on all classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates on a monthly basis.

The principal of and interest on the Mortgage Assets may be allocated among the several classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in various ways. In certain structures (known as “sequential pay” CMOs or REMIC Certificates), payments of principal, including any principal prepayments, on the Mortgage Assets generally are applied to the classes of CMOs or REMIC Certificates in the order of their respective final distribution dates. Thus, no payment of principal will be made on any class of sequential pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates until all other classes having an earlier final distribution date have been paid in full.

Additional structures of CMOs and REMIC Certificates include, among others, “parallel pay” CMOs and REMIC Certificates. Parallel pay CMOs or REMIC Certificates are those which are structured to apply principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets to two or more classes concurrently on a proportionate or disproportionate basis. These simultaneous payments are taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class.

A wide variety of REMIC Certificates may be issued in parallel pay or sequential pay structures. These securities include accrual certificates (also known as “Z-Bonds”), which only accrue interest at a specified rate until all other certificates having an earlier final distribution date have been retired and are converted thereafter to an interest-paying security, and planned amortization class (“PAC”) certificates, which are parallel pay REMIC Certificates that generally require that specified amounts of principal be applied on each payment date to one or more classes or REMIC Certificates (the “PAC Certificates”), even though all other principal payments and prepayments of the Mortgage Assets are then required to be applied to one or more other classes of the PAC Certificates. The scheduled principal payments for the PAC Certificates generally have the highest priority on each payment date after interest due has been paid to all classes entitled to receive interest currently. Shortfalls, if any, are added to the amount payable on the next payment date. The PAC Certificate payment schedule is taken into account in calculating the final distribution date of each class of PAC. In order to create PAC tranches, one or more tranches generally must be created that absorb most of the volatility in the underlying mortgage assets. These tranches tend to have market prices and yields that are much more volatile than other PAC classes.

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities. Commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”) are a type of Mortgage Pass-Through that is primarily backed by a pool of commercial mortgage loans. The commercial mortgage loans are, in turn, generally secured by commercial mortgaged properties (such as office properties, retail properties, hospitality properties, industrial properties, healthcare related properties or other types of income producing real property). CMBS generally entitle the holders thereof to receive payments that depend primarily on the cash flow from a specified pool of commercial or multifamily mortgage loans. CMBS will be affected by payments, defaults, delinquencies and losses on the underlying mortgage loans. The underlying mortgage loans generally are secured by income producing properties such as office properties, retail properties, multifamily properties, manufactured housing, hospitality properties, industrial properties and self storage properties. Because issuers of CMBS have no significant assets other than the underlying commercial real estate loans and because of the significant credit risks inherent in the underlying collateral, credit risk is a correspondingly important consideration with respect to the related CMBS Securities. Certain of the mortgage loans underlying CMBS Securities constituting part of the collateral interests may be delinquent, in default or in foreclosure.

 

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Commercial real estate lending may expose a lender (and the related Mortgage-Backed Security) to a greater risk of loss than certain other forms of lending because it typically involves making larger loans to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. In addition, in the case of certain commercial mortgage loans, repayment of loans secured by commercial and multifamily properties depends upon the ability of the related real estate project to generate income sufficient to pay debt service, operating expenses and leasing commissions and to make necessary repairs, tenant improvements and capital improvements, and in the case of loans that do not fully amortize over their terms, to retain sufficient value to permit the borrower to pay off the loan at maturity through a sale or refinancing of the mortgaged property. The net operating income from and value of any commercial property is subject to various risks, including changes in general or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments; declines in real estate values; declines in rental or occupancy rates; increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses; changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies; acts of God; terrorist threats and attacks and social unrest and civil disturbances. In addition, certain of the mortgaged properties securing the pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have a higher degree of geographic concentration in a few states or regions. Any deterioration in the real estate market or economy or adverse events in such states or regions, may increase the rate of delinquency and default experience (and as a consequence, losses) with respect to mortgage loans related to properties in such state or region. Pools of mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may also have a higher degree of concentration in certain types of commercial properties. Accordingly, such pools of mortgage loans represent higher exposure to risks particular to those types of commercial properties. Certain pools of commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS consist of a fewer number of mortgage loans with outstanding balances that are larger than average. If a mortgage pool includes mortgage loans with larger than average balances, any realized losses on such mortgage loans could be more severe, relative to the size of the pool, than would be the case if the aggregate balance of the pool were distributed among a larger number of mortgage loans. Certain borrowers or affiliates thereof relating to certain of the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have had a history of bankruptcy. Certain mortgaged properties securing the commercial mortgage loans underlying CMBS may have been exposed to environmental conditions or circumstances. The ratings in respect of certain of the CMBS comprising the Mortgage-Backed Securities may have been withdrawn, reduced or placed on credit watch since issuance. In addition, losses and/or appraisal reductions may be allocated to certain of such CMBS and certain of the collateral or the assets underlying such collateral may be delinquent and/or may default from time to time.

CMBS held by the Fund may be subordinated to one or more other classes of securities of the same series for purposes of, among other things, establishing payment priorities and offsetting losses and other shortfalls with respect to the related underlying mortgage loans. Realized losses in respect of the mortgage loans included in the CMBS pool and trust expenses generally will be allocated to the most subordinated class of securities of the related series. Accordingly, to the extent any CMBS is or becomes the most subordinated class of securities of the related series, any delinquency or default on any underlying mortgage loan may result in shortfalls, realized loss allocations or extensions of its weighted average life and will have a more immediate and disproportionate effect on the related CMBS than on a related more senior class of CMBS of the same series. Further, even if a class is not the most subordinate class of securities, there can be no assurance that the subordination offered to such class will be sufficient on any date to offset all losses or expenses incurred by the underlying trust. CMBS are typically not guaranteed or insured, and distributions on such CMBS generally will depend solely upon the amount and timing of payments and other collections on the related underlying commercial mortgage loans.

Options on Securities and Securities Indices

Writing Covered Options. The Fund may write (sell) covered call and put options on any securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent it invests in foreign securities, write (sell) put and call options on foreign currencies. A call option written by the Fund obligates that Fund to sell specified securities to the holder of the option at a specified price if the option is exercised on or before the expiration date. Depending upon the type of call option, the purchaser of the call option either (i) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over a fixed price (the “exercise price”) on a certain date in the future (the “expiration date”) or (ii) has the right to any appreciation in the value of the security over the exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option. If the purchaser does not exercise the option, the Fund pays the purchaser the difference between the price of the security and the exercise price of the option. The premium, the exercise price and the market value of the security determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund as the seller of the call option. The Fund can also repurchase the call option prior to the expiration date, ending its obligation. In this case, the cost of entering into closing purchase transactions will determine the gain or loss realized by the Fund. All call options written by the Fund are covered, which means that the Fund will own the securities subject to the option as long as the option is outstanding or the Fund will use the other methods described below. The Fund’s purpose in writing covered call options is to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities transactions alone. However, the Fund may forego the opportunity to profit from an increase in the market price of the underlying security.

 

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A put option written by the Fund would obligate the Fund to purchase specified securities from the option holder at a specified price if, depending upon the type of put option, either (i) the option is exercised at any time on or before the expiration date or (ii) the option is exercised on the expiration date. All put options written by the Fund would be covered, which means that the Fund will identify on its books cash or liquid assets with a value at least equal to the exercise price of the put option (less any margin on deposit) or will use the other methods described below. The purpose of writing such options is to generate additional income for the Fund. However, in return for the option premium, the Fund accepts the risk that it may be required to purchase the underlying securities at a price in excess of the securities’ market value at the time of purchase.

In the case of a call option, the option is “covered” if the Fund owns the instrument underlying the call or has an absolute and immediate right to acquire that instrument without additional cash consideration (or, if additional cash consideration is required, liquid assets in such amount are identified on the Fund’s books) upon conversion or exchange of other instruments held by it. A call option is also covered if the Fund holds a call on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or less than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) greater than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference. The Fund may also cover options on securities by segregating cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the securities in the case of a call option. A put option is also covered if the Fund holds a put on the same instrument as the option written where the exercise price of the option held is (i) equal to or higher than the exercise price of the option written, or (ii) less than the exercise price of the option written provided the Fund identifies liquid assets in the amount of the difference.

The Fund may also write (sell) covered call and put options on any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. Options on securities indices are similar to options on securities, except that the exercise of securities index options requires cash payments and does not involve the actual purchase or sale of securities. In addition, securities index options are designed to reflect price fluctuations in a group of securities or segment of the securities market rather than price fluctuations in a single security.

The Fund may cover call options on a securities index by owning securities whose price changes are expected to be similar to those of the underlying index, or by having an absolute and immediate right to acquire such securities without additional cash consideration (or for additional consideration which has been identified by the Fund on its books) upon conversion or exchange of other securities in its portfolio. The Fund may also cover call and put options on a securities index by segregating cash or liquid assets, as permitted by applicable law, with a value, when added to any margin on deposit, that is equal to the market value of the underlying securities in the case of a call option or the exercise price in the case of a put option, or by owning offsetting options as described above.

The Fund may terminate its obligations under an exchange traded call or put option by purchasing an option identical to the one it has written. Obligations under over-the-counter options may be terminated only by entering into an offsetting transaction with the counterparty to such option. Such purchases are referred to as “closing purchase transactions.”

Purchasing Options. The Fund may purchase put and call options on any securities in which it may invest or any securities index comprised of securities in which it may invest. The Fund may also, to the extent that it invests in foreign securities, purchase put and call options on foreign currencies. The Fund may also enter into closing sale transactions in order to realize gains or minimize losses on options it had purchased.

The Fund may purchase call options in anticipation of an increase in the market value of securities or other instruments of the type in which it may invest. The purchase of a call option would entitle the Fund, in return for the premium paid, to purchase specified securities or other instruments at a specified price during the option period. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain on the purchase of a call option if, during the option period, the value of such securities exceeded the sum of the exercise price, the premium paid and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the call option.

The Fund may purchase put options in anticipation of a decline in the market value of securities or other instruments in its portfolio (“protective puts”) or in securities in which it may invest. The purchase of a put option would entitle the Fund, in exchange for the premium paid, to sell specified securities at a specified price during the option period. The purchase of protective puts is designed to offset or hedge against a decline in the market value of the Fund’s securities. Put options may also be purchased by the Fund for the purpose of affirmatively benefiting from a decline in the price of securities which it does not own. The Fund would ordinarily realize a gain if, during the option period, the value of the underlying securities decreased below the exercise price sufficiently to more than cover the premium and transaction costs; otherwise the Fund would realize either no gain or a loss on the purchase of the put option. Gains and losses on the purchase of protective put options would tend to be offset by countervailing changes in the value of the underlying portfolio securities.

 

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The Fund would purchase put and call options on securities indices for the same purposes as it would purchase options on individual securities. For a description of options on securities indices, see “Writing Covered Options” above.

Yield Curve Options. The Fund may enter into options on the yield “spread” or differential between two securities. Such transactions are referred to as “yield curve” options. In contrast to other types of options, a yield curve option is based on the difference between the yields of designated securities, rather than the prices of the individual securities, and is settled through cash payments. Accordingly, a yield curve option is profitable to the holder if this differential widens (in the case of a call) or narrows (in the case of a put), regardless of whether the yields of the underlying securities increase or decrease.

The Fund may purchase or write yield curve options for the same purposes as other options on securities. For example, the Fund may purchase a call option on the yield spread between two securities if it owns one of the securities and anticipate purchasing the other security and want to hedge against an adverse change in the yield spread between the two securities. The Fund may also purchase or write yield curve options in an effort to increase current income if, in the judgment of an Underlying Manager, the Fund will be able to profit from movements in the spread between the yields of the underlying securities. The trading of yield curve options is subject to all of the risks associated with the trading of other types of options. In addition, however, such options present risk of loss even if the yield of one of the underlying securities remains constant, or if the spread moves in a direction or to an extent which was not anticipated.

Yield curve options written by the Fund will be “covered.” A call (or put) option is covered if the Fund holds another call (or put) option on the spread between the same two securities and identifies on its books cash or liquid assets sufficient to cover the Fund’s net liability under the two options. Therefore, the Fund’s liability for such a covered option is generally limited to the difference between the amount of the Fund’s liability under the option written by the Fund less the value of the option held by the Fund. Yield curve options may also be covered in such other manner as may be in accordance with the requirements of the counterparty with which the option is traded and applicable laws and regulations. Yield curve options are traded over-the-counter and established trading markets for these options may not exist.

Risks Associated with Options Transactions. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular exchange-traded option or at any particular time. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing purchase transaction with respect to covered options it has written, the Fund will not be able to sell the underlying securities or dispose of the assets identified on its books to cover the position until the options expire or are exercised. Similarly, if the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options it has purchased, it will have to exercise the options in order to realize any profit and will incur transaction costs upon the purchase or sale of underlying securities.

Reasons for the absence of a liquid secondary market on an exchange include the following: (i) there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; (ii) restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening or closing transactions or both; (iii) trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options; (iv) unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; (v) the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading volume; or (vi) one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options on that exchange that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

There can be no assurance that higher trading activity, order flow or other unforeseen events might not, at times, render certain of the facilities of the Options Clearing Corporation or various exchanges inadequate. Such events have, in the past, resulted in the institution by an exchange of special procedures, such as trading rotations, restrictions on certain types of order or trading halts or suspensions with respect to one or more options. These special procedures may limit liquidity.

The Fund may purchase and sell both options that are traded on U.S. and foreign exchanges and options traded over-the-counter with broker-dealers who make markets in these options. The ability to terminate over-the-counter options is more limited than with exchange-traded options and may involve the risk that broker-dealers participating in such transactions will not fulfill their obligations.

 

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Transactions by the Fund in options on securities and indices will be subject to limitations established by each of the exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facilities on which such options are traded governing the maximum number of options in each class which may be written or purchased by a single investor or group of investors acting in concert regardless of whether the options are written or purchased on the same or different exchanges, boards of trade or other trading facility or are held in one or more accounts or through one or more brokers. Thus, the number of options which the Fund may write or purchase may be affected by options written or purchased by other investment advisory clients of the Investment Adviser or an Underlying Manager. An exchange, board of trade or other trading facility may order the liquidation of positions found to be in excess of these limits, and it may impose certain other sanctions.

The writing and purchase of options is a highly specialized activity which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The potential benefit or losses from the use of options to increase total return involves also depends on the skills of the Underlying Manager in its expectation of fluctuations in securities prices or interest rates. The successful use of options for hedging purposes also depends in part on the ability of an Underlying Manager to manage future price fluctuations and the degree of correlation between the options and securities (or currency) markets. The potential for losses depends on the Underlying Managers’ analysis and decision making process around, but not limited to, expectations of changes in market prices or determination of the correlation between the instruments or indices on which options are written and purchased and the instruments in the Fund’s investment portfolio. The writing of options could increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate and, therefore, associated brokerage commissions or spreads.

Pooled Investment Vehicles

The Fund may invest in securities of pooled investment vehicles including other investment companies, ETFs, UCITS and private investment funds. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any management fees and other expenses paid by the pooled investment vehicles in which it invests, in addition to the management fees (and other expenses) paid by the Fund.

The Fund’s investments in other investment companies are subject to statutory limitations prescribed by the Act, including in certain circumstances a prohibition on the Fund acquiring more that 3% of the voting shares of any other investment company, and a prohibition on investing more than 5% of the Fund’s total assets in securities of any one investment company or more than 10% of its total assets in the securities of all investment companies. Many ETFs have, however, obtained exemptive relief to permit unaffiliated funds (such as the Fund) to invest in their shares beyond these statutory limits, subject to certain conditions and pursuant to contractual arrangements between the ETFs and the investing funds. The Fund may rely on these exemptive orders in investing in ETFs.

Other Investment Companies

Pursuant to an exemptive order obtained from the SEC or under an exemptive rule adopted by the SEC, the Fund may invest in investment companies and money market funds for which an Investment Adviser, or any of its affiliates, serves as investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor. However, to the extent that the Fund invests in a money market fund for which an Investment Adviser or any of its affiliates acts as investment adviser, the management fees payable by the Fund to the Investment Adviser will, to the extent required by the SEC, be reduced by an amount equal to the Fund’s proportionate share of the management fees paid by such money market fund to its investment adviser. Although the Fund does not expect to do so in the foreseeable future, the Fund is authorized to invest substantially all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof that has substantially the same investment objective, policies and fundamental restrictions as the Fund. Additionally, to the extent that the Fund serves as an “underlying Fund” to another Goldman Sachs Fund, the Fund may invest a percentage of its assets in other investment companies if those investments are consistent with applicable law and/or exemptive orders obtained from the SEC.

ETFs

ETFs are pooled investment vehicles issuing shares that are traded like traditional equity securities on a stock exchange. ETFs hold a portfolio of securities (or other assets) that is often designed to track a particular market segment or index. An investment in an ETF, like one in any pooled investment vehicle, carries the risks of the ETF’s underlying securities. An ETF may fail to accurately track the returns of the market segment or index that it is designed to track, and the price of an ETF’s shares may fluctuate. In addition, because ETFs, unlike other pooled investment vehicles, are traded on an exchange, ETFs are subject to the following risks: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a premium or discount to the ETF’s net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF may not develop or be maintained; and (iii) there is no assurance that the ETF will continue to meet the requirements necessary to be listed on an exchange, or that the exchange will not change its listing requirements. In the event substantial market or other disruptions affecting ETFs should occur in the future, the liquidity and value of the Fund’s shares could also be substantially and adversely affected.

 

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UCITS

The Fund may also invest in “UCITS” (Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities) Funds. UCITS is a regulatory regime governing the marketing and distribution of securities with the European Union.

Private Investment Funds

The Investment Adviser may invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in securities issued by private investment funds. For example, the Investment Adviser may invest a portion of the Fund’s assets in an investment partnership whose manager the Investment Adviser believes is especially skillful, but which is closed to new separate accounts, is unwilling to manage assets directly on the Fund’s behalf, or whose services can be purchased indirectly at a lower cost by investment in securities issued by an existing partnership or other investment fund. Investments by the Fund in a private investment fund are not subject to the limitations imposed under the 1940 Act on shares held by a mutual fund in other registered investment companies. The securities of a private investment company are generally illiquid, but may be deemed liquid in accordance with procedures approved by the Board. To the extent such interests are illiquid, they will be subject to the Fund’s 15% limitation on illiquid securities.

Preferred Securities

The Fund may invest in preferred securities. Unlike debt securities, the obligations of an issuer of preferred stock, including dividend and other payment obligations, may not typically be accelerated by the holders of preferred stock on the occurrence of an event of default (such as a covenant default or filing of a bankruptcy petition) or other non-compliance by the issuer with the terms of the preferred stock. Often, however, on the occurrence of any such event of default or non-compliance by the issuer, preferred stockholders will be entitled to gain representation on the issuer’s board of directors or increase their existing board representation. In addition, preferred stockholders may be granted voting rights with respect to certain issues on the occurrence of any event of default.

Publicly-Traded Partnerships

In addition to the risks associated with the underlying assets and exposures within a PTP, the Fund’s investments in PTPs are subject to other risks. The value of a PTP will depend in part upon specialized skills of the PTP’s manager, and a PTP may not achieve its investment objective. A PTP and/or its manager may lack, or have limited, operating histories. The Fund will be subject to its proportionate share of a PTP’s expenses. A PTP may be subject to a lack of liquidity and may trade on an exchange at a discount or a premium to its net asset value. Unlike ownership of common stock of a corporation, the Fund would have limited voting and distribution rights in connection with its investment in a PTP.

Real Estate Investment Trusts

The Fund may invest in shares of REITs. REITs are pooled investment vehicles which invest primarily in real estate or real estate related loans. REITs are generally classified as equity REITs, mortgage REITs or a combination of equity and mortgage REITs. Equity REITs invest the majority of their assets directly in real property and derive income primarily from the collection of rents. Equity REITs can also realize capital gains by selling properties that have appreciated in value. Mortgage REITs invest the majority of their assets in real estate mortgages and derive income from the collection of interest payments. Like regulated investment companies such as the Fund, REITs are not taxed on income distributed to shareholders provided they comply with certain requirements under the Code. The Fund will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any expenses paid by REITs in which it invests in addition to the expenses paid by the Fund.

Investing in REITs involves certain unique risks. Equity REITs may be affected by changes in the value of the underlying property owned by such REITs, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of any credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, are not diversified (except to the extent the Code requires), and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, default by borrowers, self-liquidation, and the possibilities of failing to qualify for the exemption from tax for distributed income under the Code and failing to maintain their exemptions from the Act. REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are also subject to interest rate risks.

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements with banks, brokers and securities dealers which furnish collateral at least equal in value or market price to the amount of their repurchase obligations. The Fund may also enter into repurchase agreements involving certain foreign government securities. A repurchase agreement is an arrangement under which the Fund purchases

 

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securities and the seller agrees to repurchase the securities within a particular time and at a specified price for the duration of the agreement. Custody of the securities is maintained by the Fund’s custodian (or subcustodian). The repurchase price may be higher than the purchase price, the difference being income to the Fund, or the purchase and repurchase prices may be the same, with interest at a stated rate due to the Fund together with the repurchase price on repurchase. In either case, the income to the Fund is unrelated to the interest rate on the security subject to the repurchase agreement.

For purposes of the Act and generally for tax purposes, a repurchase agreement is deemed to be a loan from the Fund to the seller of the security. For other purposes, it is not always clear whether a court would consider the security purchased by the Fund subject to a repurchase agreement as being owned by the Fund or as being collateral for a loan by the Fund to the seller. In the event of commencement of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings with respect to the seller of the security before repurchase of the security under a repurchase agreement, the Fund may encounter delay and incur costs before being able to sell the security. Such a delay may involve loss of interest or a decline in price of the security. If the court characterizes the transaction as a loan and the Fund has not perfected a security interest in the security, the Fund may be required to return the security to the seller’s estate and be treated as an unsecured creditor of the seller. As an unsecured creditor, the Fund would be at risk of losing some or all of the principal and interest involved in the transaction.

Apart from the risk of bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings, there is also the risk that the seller may fail to repurchase the security. However, if the market value of the security subject to the repurchase agreement becomes less than the repurchase price (including accrued interest), the Fund will direct the seller of the security to deliver additional securities so that the market value of all securities subject to the repurchase agreement equals or exceeds the repurchase price. Certain repurchase agreements which provide for settlement in more than seven days can be liquidated before the nominal fixed term on seven days or less notice. Such repurchase agreements will be regarded as liquid instruments.

The Fund, together with other registered investment companies having advisory agreements with the Investment Adviser or its affiliates, may transfer uninvested cash balances into a single joint account, the daily aggregate balance of which will be invested in one or more repurchase agreements.

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may borrow money by entering into transactions called reverse repurchase agreements. Under these arrangements, the Fund may sell portfolio securities to dealers in U.S. Government Securities or members of the Federal Reserve System, with an agreement to repurchase the security on an agreed date, price and interest payment. These reverse repurchase agreements may involve foreign government securities. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the possible risk that the value of portfolio securities the Fund relinquishes may decline below the price the Fund must pay when the transaction closes. Borrowings may magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested resulting in an increase in the speculative character of the Fund’s outstanding shares.

When the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, it identifies on its books cash or liquid assets that have a value equal to or greater than the repurchase price. The amount of cash or liquid assets so identified is then continuously monitored by the Investment Adviser and applicable Underlying Manager, to make sure that an appropriate value is maintained. Reverse repurchase agreements are considered to be borrowings under the Act.

Short Sales

The Fund may engage in short sales. Short sales are transactions in which the Fund sells a security it does not own in anticipation of a decline in the market value of that security. To complete such a transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund then is obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be more or less than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay to the lender amounts equal to any dividend which accrues during the period of the loan. To borrow the security, the Fund also may be required to pay a premium, which would increase the cost of the security sold. There will also be other costs associated with short sales.

The Fund will incur a loss as a result of the short sale if the price of the security increases between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will realize a gain if the security declines in price between those dates. This result is the opposite of what one would expect from a cash purchase of a long position in a security. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss increased, by the amount of any premium or amounts in lieu of interest the Fund may be required to pay in connection with a short sale, and will be also decreased by any transaction or other costs.

 

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Until the Fund replaces a borrowed security in connection with a short sale, the Fund will (a) identify cash or liquid assets at such a level that such assets plus any amount deposited with the broker as collateral will equal the current value of the security sold short or (b) otherwise cover its short position in accordance with applicable law.

There is no guarantee that the Fund will be able to close out a short position at any particular time or at an acceptable price. During the time that the Fund is short a security, it is subject to the risk that the lender of the security will terminate the loan at a time when the Fund is unable to borrow the same security from another lender. If that occurs, the Fund may be “bought in” at the price required to purchase the security needed to close out the short position, which may be a disadvantageous price.

The Fund may engage in short sales against the box. As noted above, a short sale is made by selling a security the seller does not own. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent that the seller contemporaneously owns or has the right to obtain, at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short. It may be entered into by the Fund, for example, to lock in a sales price for a security the Fund does not wish to sell immediately. If the Fund sells securities short against the box, it may protect itself from loss if the price of the securities declines in the future, but will lose the opportunity to profit on such securities if the price rises.

If the Fund effects a short sale of securities at a time when it has an unrealized gain on the securities, it may be required to recognize that gain as if it had actually sold the securities (as a “constructive sale”) on the date it effects the short sale. However, such constructive sale treatment may not apply if the Fund closes out the short sale with securities other than the appreciated securities held at the time of the short sale and if certain other conditions are satisfied. Uncertainty regarding the tax consequences of effecting short sales may limit the extent to which the Fund may effect short sales.

Special Note Regarding Market Events

Events in the financial sector over the past several years have resulted in reduced liquidity in credit and fixed income markets and in an unusually high degree of volatility in the financial markets, both domestically and internationally. While entire markets have been impacted, issuers that have exposure to the real estate, mortgage and credit markets have been particularly affected. These events and the potential for continuing market turbulence may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s investments. It is uncertain how long these conditions will continue.

The instability in the financial markets led the U.S. government to take a number of unprecedented actions designed to support certain financial institutions and certain segments of the financial markets. Federal, state, and foreign governments, regulatory agencies, and self-regulatory organizations may take actions that affect the regulation of the instruments in which the Fund invests, or the issuers of such instruments, in ways that are unforeseeable. Such legislation or regulation could limit or preclude the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective.

Governments or their agencies may also acquire distressed assets from financial institutions and acquire ownership interests in those institutions. The implications of government ownership and disposition of these assets are unclear, and such ownership or disposition may have positive or negative effects on the liquidity, valuation and performance of the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Temporary Investments

The Fund may, for temporary defensive purposes, invest up to 100% of its total assets in: U.S. Government Securities; commercial paper rated at least A-2 by Standard & Poor’s, P-2 by Moody’s or having a comparable rating by another NRSRO (or if unrated, determined by the Investment Adviser or an Underlying Manager to be of comparable quality); certificates of deposit; bankers’ acceptances; repurchase agreements; non-convertible preferred stocks with a remaining maturity of less than one year; ETFs; other Investment Companies; and cash items. When the Fund’s assets are invested in such instruments, the Fund may not be achieving its investment objective.

U.S. Government Securities

The Fund may invest in securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises (“U.S. Government Securities”). Some U.S. Government Securities (such as Treasury bills, notes and bonds, which differ only in their interest rates, maturities and times of issuance) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Others, such as obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises, are supported either by (i) the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, (ii) the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the issuer or (iii) only the credit of the issuer. The U.S. government is under no legal obligation, in general, to purchase the obligations of its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to the U.S. government agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises in the future.

 

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U.S. Government Securities include (to the extent consistent with the Act) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. government, or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. U.S. Government Securities may also include (to the extent consistent with the Act) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the U.S. government or its agencies, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited. In the absence of a suitable secondary market, such participations are regarded as illiquid.

The Fund may also purchase U.S. Government Securities in private placements and may also invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities guaranteed or issued by the U.S. Treasury that are traded independently under the separate trading of registered interest and principal of securities program (“STRIPS”). The Fund may also invest in zero coupon U.S. Treasury Securities and in zero coupon securities issued by financial institutions which represent a proportionate interest in underlying U.S. Treasury Securities. A zero coupon security pays no interest to its holder during its life and its value consists of the difference between its face value at maturity and its cost. The market prices of zero coupon securities generally are more volatile than the market prices of securities that pay interest periodically.

Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”). The Fund may invest in TIPS, which are fixed income securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. The interest rate on TIPS is fixed at issuance, but over the life of the bond this interest may be paid on an increasing or decreasing principal value that has been adjusted for inflation. Although repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity is guaranteed, the market value of TIPS is not guaranteed, and will fluctuate.

The values of TIPS generally fluctuate in response to changes in real interest rates, which are in turn tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. If inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in the value of TIPS. In contrast, if nominal interest rates were to increase at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in the value of TIPS. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds TIPS, the Fund may earn less on the TIPS than on a conventional bond. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in the currency exchange rates), investors in TIPS may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bonds’ inflation measure. There can be no assurance that the inflation index for TIPS will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services.

Any increase in principal value of TIPS caused by an increase in the consumer price index is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though the Fund holding TIPS will not receive cash representing the increase at that time. As a result, the Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments, including when it is not advantageous to do so, in order to satisfy its distribution requirements as a regulated investment company.

If the Fund invests in TIPS, it will be required to treat as original issue discount any increase in the principal amount of the securities that occurs during the course of its taxable year. If the Fund purchases such inflation protected securities that are issued in stripped form either as stripped bonds or coupons, it will be treated as if it had purchased a newly issued debt instrument having original issue discount.

Because the Fund is required to distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including accrued original issue discount), the Fund’s investment in either zero coupon bonds or TIPS may require it to distribute to shareholders an amount greater than the total cash income it actually receives. Accordingly, in order to make the required distributions, the Fund may be required to borrow or liquidate securities.

Variable and Floating Rate Securities

The interest rates payable on certain debt securities in which the Fund may invest are not fixed and may fluctuate based upon changes in market rates. A variable rate obligation has an interest rate which is adjusted at pre-designated periods in response to changes in the market rate of interest on which the interest rate is based. Variable and floating rate obligations are less effective than fixed rate instruments at locking in a particular yield. Nevertheless, such obligations may fluctuate in value in response to interest rate changes if there is a delay between changes in market interest rates and the interest reset date for the obligation, or for other reasons.

 

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Warrants and Stock Purchase Rights

The Fund may invest in warrants or stock purchase rights (“rights”) (in addition to those acquired in units or attached to other securities) which entitle the holder to buy equity securities at a specific price for a specific period of time. The Fund will invest in warrants and rights only if such equity securities are deemed appropriate by an Underlying Manager for investment by the Fund. Warrants and rights have no voting rights, receive no dividends and have no rights with respect to the assets of the issuer.

When-Issued Securities and Forward Commitments

The Fund may purchase securities on a when-issued basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis beyond the customary settlement time. These transactions involve a commitment by the Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date beyond the customary settlement time. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. When-issued purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or negotiate a commitment after entering into it. The Fund may also sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Fund may realize a capital gain or loss in connection with these transactions. For purposes of determining the Fund’s duration, the maturity of when-issued or forward commitment securities will be calculated from the commitment date. The Fund is generally required to identify on its books, until three days prior to the settlement date, cash and liquid assets in an amount sufficient to meet the purchase price unless the Fund’s obligations are otherwise covered. Alternatively, the Fund may enter into offsetting contracts for the forward sale of other securities that it owns. Securities purchased or sold on a when-issued or forward commitment basis involve a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines prior to the settlement date or if the value of the security to be sold increases prior to the settlement date.

Zero Coupon Bonds

The Fund’s investments in fixed income securities may include zero coupon bonds. Zero coupon bonds are debt obligations issued or purchased at a discount from face value. The discount approximates the total amount of interest the bonds would have accrued and compounded over the period until maturity. Zero coupon bonds do not require the periodic payment of interest. Such investments benefit the issuer by mitigating its need for cash to meet debt service but also require a higher rate of return to attract investors who are willing to defer receipt of such cash. Such investments may experience greater volatility in market value than debt obligations which provide for regular payments of interest. In addition, if an issuer of zero coupon bonds held by the Fund defaults, the Fund may obtain no return at all on its investment. The Fund will accrue income on such investments for each taxable year which (net of deductible expenses, if any) is distributable to shareholders and which, because no cash is generally received at the time of accrual, may require the liquidation of other portfolio securities to obtain sufficient cash to satisfy the Fund’s distribution obligations.

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund may engage in active short-term trading to benefit from price disparities among different issues of securities or among the markets for equity securities, or for other reasons. As a result of active management, it is anticipated that the portfolio turnover rate may vary greatly from year to year as well as within a particular year, and may be affected by changes in the holdings of specific issuers, changes in country and currency weightings, cash requirements for redemption of shares and by requirements which enable the Fund to receive favorable tax treatment. The Fund is not restricted by policy with regard to portfolio turnover and will make changes in its investment portfolio from time to time as business and economic conditions as well as market prices may dictate.

Non-Diversified Status

Because the Fund is “non-diversified” under the Act, it is subject only to certain federal tax diversification requirements. Pursuant to such requirements, the Fund must diversify its holdings so that, in general, at the close of each quarter of its taxable year, (a) at least 50% of the fair market value of the Fund’s total (gross) assets is comprised of cash, cash items, U.S. Government securities, securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities limited in respect of any one issuer to an amount not greater in value than 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets and to not more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (b) not more than 25% of the value of its total (gross) assets is invested in the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. Government Securities and securities of other regulated investment companies), two or more issuers controlled by the Fund and engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses, or certain publicly traded partnerships.

 

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INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

The investment restrictions set forth below have been adopted by the Trust as fundamental policies that cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund. The investment objective of the Fund and all other investment policies or practices of the Fund are considered by the Trust not to be fundamental and accordingly may be changed without shareholder approval. For purposes of the Act, a “majority” of the outstanding voting securities means the lesser of the vote of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Trust (or to the extent the matter relates only to the Fund, the Fund) present at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Trust or the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the shares of the Trust (or to the extent the matter relates only to the Fund, the Fund).

For purposes of the following limitations, any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, the Fund. In applying fundamental investment restriction number (1) below to derivative transactions or instruments, including, but not limited to, futures, swaps, forwards, options and structured notes, the Fund will look to the industry of the reference asset(s) and not to the counterparty or issuer. With respect to the Fund’s fundamental investment restriction number (2) below, in the event that asset coverage (as defined in the Act) at any time falls below 300%, the Fund, within three days thereafter (not including Sundays and holidays) or such longer period as the SEC may prescribe by rules and regulations, will reduce the amount of its borrowings to the extent required so that the asset coverage of such borrowings will be at least 300%.

As a matter of fundamental policy, the Fund may not:

 

  (1) Invest more than 25% of its total assets in the securities of one or more issuers conducting their principal business activities in the same industry (for the purposes of this restriction, the U.S. Government, state and municipal governments and their agencies, authorities and instrumentalities are not deemed to be industries);

 

  (2) Borrow money, except (a) the Fund may borrow from banks (as defined in the Act), other affiliated investment companies and other persons or through reverse repurchase agreements in amounts up to 33-1/3% of its total assets (including the amount borrowed), (b) the Fund may, to the extent permitted by applicable law, borrow up to an additional 5% of its total assets for temporary purposes, (c) the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities, (d) the Fund may purchase securities on margin to the extent permitted by applicable law and (e) the Fund may engage in portfolio transactions, such as mortgage dollar rolls which are accounted for as financings.

The following interpretation applies to, but is not part of, this fundamental policy: In determining whether a particular investment in portfolio instruments or participation in portfolio transactions is subject to this borrowing policy, the accounting treatment of such instrument or participation shall be considered, but shall not by itself be determinative. Whether a particular instrument or transaction constitutes a borrowing shall be determined by the Board, after consideration of all of the relevant circumstances.

 

  (3) Make loans, except through (a) the purchase of debt obligations in accordance with the Fund’s investment objective and policies, (b) repurchase agreements with banks, brokers, dealers and other financial institutions, (c) loans of securities as permitted by applicable law and (d) loans to affiliates of the Fund to the extent permitted by law.

 

  (4) Underwrite securities issued by others, except to the extent that the sale of portfolio securities by the Fund may be deemed to be an underwriting.

 

  (5) Purchase, hold or deal in real estate, although the Fund may purchase and sell securities or instruments that are secured by real estate or interests therein or that reflect the return of an index of real estate values, securities of real estate investment trusts, and mortgage-related securities, and may hold and sell real estate acquired by the Fund as a result of the ownership of securities.

 

  (6) Invest in physical commodities, except that the Fund may invest in currency and financial instruments and contracts in accordance with its investment objective and policies, including, without limitation, structured notes, futures contracts, swaps, options on commodities, currencies, swaps and futures, ETFs, investment pools and other instruments, regardless of whether such instrument is considered to be a commodity.

 

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  (7) Issue senior securities to the extent such issuance would violate applicable law.

The Fund may, notwithstanding any other fundamental investment restriction or policy, invest some or all of its assets in a single open-end investment company or series thereof with substantially the same fundamental investment objective, restrictions and policies as the Fund.

In addition to the fundamental policies mentioned above, the Trustees have adopted the following non-fundamental policies which can be changed or amended by action of the Trustees without approval of shareholders. Again, for purposes of the following limitations, any limitation which involves a maximum percentage shall not be considered violated unless an excess over the percentage occurs immediately after, and is caused by, an acquisition or encumbrance of securities or assets of, or borrowings by, the Fund.

The Fund may not:

 

  (a) Invest in companies for the purpose of exercising control or management.

 

  (b) Invest more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets in illiquid investments including illiquid repurchase agreements with a notice or demand period of more than seven days, securities which are not readily marketable and restricted securities not eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 (“1933 Act”).

 

  (c) Purchase additional securities if the Fund’s borrowings (excluding covered mortgage dollar rolls and such short-term credits as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of portfolio securities) exceed 5% of its net assets.

 

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TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS

The Trust’s Leadership Structure

The business and affairs of the Fund are managed under the direction of the Board of Trustees (the “Board”), subject to the laws of the State of Delaware and the Trust’s Declaration of Trust. The Trustees are responsible for deciding matters of overall policy and reviewing the actions of the Trust’s service providers. The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise the Fund’s daily business operations. Trustees who are not deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust as defined in the Act are referred to as “Independent Trustees.” Trustees who are deemed to be “interested persons” of the Trust are referred to as “Interested Trustees.” The Board is currently composed of three Independent Trustees and one Interested Trustee. The Board has selected an Independent Trustee to act as Chairman, whose duties include presiding at meetings of the Board and acting as a focal point to address significant issues that may arise between regularly scheduled Board and Committee meetings. In the performance of the Chairman’s duties, the Chairman will consult with the other Independent Trustees and the Fund’s officers and legal counsel, as appropriate. The Chairman may perform other functions as requested by the Board from time to time.

The Board meets as often as necessary to discharge its responsibilities. Currently, the Board conducts regular, in-person meetings at least four times a year, and holds special in-person or telephonic meetings as necessary to address specific issues that require attention prior to the next regularly scheduled meeting. In addition, the Independent Trustees meet at least annually to review, among other things, investment management agreements, distribution (Rule 12b-1) and/or service plans and related agreements, transfer agency agreements and certain other agreements providing for the compensation of Goldman Sachs and/or its affiliates by the Fund, and to consider such other matters as they deem appropriate.

The Board has established four standing committees – Audit, Governance and Nominating, Compliance and Contract Review Committees. The Board may establish other committees, or nominate one or more Trustees to examine particular issues related to the Board’s oversight responsibilities, from time to time. Each Committee meets periodically to perform its delegated oversight functions and reports its findings and recommendations to the Board. For more information on the Committees, see the section “STANDING BOARD COMMITTEES,” below.

The Trustees have determined that the Trust’s leadership structure is appropriate because it allows the Trustees to effectively perform their oversight responsibilities.

 

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Trustees of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Trustees of the Trust as of April 30, 2013 is set forth below.

Independent Trustees

 

Name, Address and

Age1

  

Position(s) Held

with

the Trust

  

Term of Office

and Length of

Time Served2

  

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

   Number of
Portfolios
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Trustee3
  

Other Directorships

Held by Trustee4

Ashok N. Bakhru

Age: 71

   Chairman of the Board of Trustees    Since 2012   

Mr. Bakhru is retired. He is Director, Apollo Investment Corporation (a business development company) (2008–Present); and Member of Cornell University Council (1992–2004 and 2006–Present); and was formerly President, ABN Associates (a management and financial consulting firm) (1994–1996 and 1998–2012); Trustee, Scholarship America (1998–2005); Trustee, Institute for Higher Education Policy (2003–2008); Director, Private Equity Investors–III and IV (1998–2007), and Equity-Linked Investors II (April 2002–2007).

 

Chairman of the Board of Trustees—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

   105    Apollo Investment Corporation (a business development company)

John P. Coblentz, Jr.

Age: 71

   Trustee    Since 2012   

Mr. Coblentz is retired. Formerly, he was Partner, Deloitte & Touche LLP (1975–2003); Director, Emerging Markets Group, Ltd. (2004–2006); and Director, Elderhostel, Inc. (2006–2012).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex

   105    None

Richard P. Strubel

Age: 73

   Trustee    Since 2012   

Mr. Strubel is retired. Formerly, he was Director, Cardean Learning Group (provider of educational services via the internet) (2003–2008); Trustee Emeritus, The University of Chicago (1987–Present).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

   105    The Northern Trust Mutual Fund Complex (64 Portfolios) (Chairman of the Board of Trustees); Gildan Activewear Inc. (a clothing marketing and manufacturing company)
Interested Trustees

James A. McNamara*

Age: 50

  

President and

Trustee

   Since 2012   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 1998–Present); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998–December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993–April 1998).

 

President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (November 2007–Present); Senior Vice President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (May 2007–November 2007); and Vice President—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (2001–2007).

 

Trustee—Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (since November 2007 and December 2002–May 2004).

   105    None

 

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* Mr. McNamara is considered to be an “Interested Trustee” because he holds a position with Goldman Sachs and owns securities issued by The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Mr. McNamara holds comparable positions with certain other companies of which Goldman Sachs, GSAM or an affiliate thereof is the investment adviser, administrator and/or distributor.
1 Each Trustee may be contacted by writing to the Trustee, c/o Goldman Sachs, 200 West Street, New York, New York, 10282, Attn: Caroline Kraus.
2 Each Trustee holds office for an indefinite term until the earliest of: (a) the election of his or her successor; (b) the date the Trustee resigns or is removed by the Board of Trustees or shareholders, in accordance with the Trust’s Declaration of Trust; or (c) the termination of the Trust.
3 The Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex consists of the Trust, Goldman Sachs Trust, Goldman Sachs Municipal Opportunity Fund, Goldman Sachs Credit Strategies Fund and Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust. As of the date of this SAI, the Trust consisted of one portfolio, Goldman Sachs Trust consisted of 90 portfolios (81 of which offered shares to the public), Goldman Sachs Variable Insurance Trust consisted of 12 portfolios and Goldman Sachs Municipal Opportunity Fund did not offer shares to the public.
4 This column includes only directorships of companies required to report to the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (i.e., “public companies”) or other investment companies registered under the Act.

The significance or relevance of a Trustee’s particular experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills is considered by the Board on an individual basis. Experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills common to all Trustees include the ability to critically review, evaluate and discuss information provided to them and to interact effectively with the other Trustees and with representatives of the Investment Adviser and its affiliates, other service providers, legal counsel and the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, the capacity to address financial and legal issues and exercise reasonable business judgment, and a commitment to the representation of the interests of the Funds and their shareholders. The Governance and Nominating Committee’s charter contains certain other factors that are considered by the Governance and Nominating Committee in identifying and evaluating potential nominees to serve as Independent Trustees. Based on each Trustee’s experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills, considered individually and with respect to the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of other Trustees, the Board has concluded that each Trustee should serve as a Trustee. Below is a brief discussion of the experience, qualifications, attributes and/or skills of each individual Trustee as of April 30, 2013 that led the Board to conclude that such individual should serve as a Trustee.

Ashok N. Bakhru. Mr. Bakhru has served the Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex as a Trustee since 1991 and as Chairman of the Board since 1996. Mr. Bakhru is a Director of Apollo Investment Corporation, a business development company. Previously, Mr. Bakhru served as President of ABN Associates, a management and financial consulting firm, and was the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Administrative Officer and Director of Coty Inc., a multinational cosmetics, fragrance and personal care company. Previously, Mr. Bakhru held several senior management positions at Scott Paper Company, a major manufacturer of paper products, including Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Bakhru also serves on the Governing Council of the Independent Directors Council and the Board of Governors of the Investment Company Institute. He also serves on the Advisory Board of BoardIQ, an investment publication. In addition, Mr. Bakhru has served as Director of Equity-Linked Investments II and Private Equity Investors III and IV, which are private equity partnerships based in New York City. Mr. Bakhru was also a Director of Arkwright Mutual Insurance Company. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Bakhru is experienced with financial and investment matters.

John P. Coblentz, Jr. Mr. Coblentz has served the Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex as Trustee since 2003. Mr. Coblentz has been designated as the Board’s “audit committee financial expert” given his extensive accounting and finance experience. Mr. Coblentz was a partner with Deloitte & Touche LLP for 28 years. While at Deloitte & Touche LLP, Mr. Coblentz was lead partner responsible for all auditing and accounting services to a variety of large, global companies, a significant portion of which operated in the financial services industry. Mr. Coblentz was also the national managing partner for the firm’s risk management function, a member of the firm’s Management Committee and the first managing partner of the firm’s Financial Advisory Services practice, which brought together the firm’s mergers and acquisition services, forensic and dispute services, corporate finance, asset valuation and reorganization businesses under one management structure. He served as a member of the firm’s Board of Directors. Mr. Coblentz is a certified public accountant. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Coblentz is experienced with accounting, financial and investment matters.

Richard P. Strubel. Mr. Strubel has served the Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex as Trustee since 1987. Mr. Strubel also serves as Chairman of the Northern Funds, a family of retail and institutional mutual funds managed by The Northern Trust Company. He also serves on the board of Gildan Activewear Inc., which is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”). Mr. Strubel was Vice-Chairman of the Board of Cardean Learning Group (formerly known as Unext), and previously served as Unext’s President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Strubel was Managing Director of Tandem Partners, Inc., a privately-held management services firm, and served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Microdot, Inc. Previously, Mr. Strubel served as President of Northwest Industries, then a NYSE-listed company, a conglomerate with various operating entities located around the country. Before joining Northwest, Mr. Strubel was an associate and later managing principal of Fry Consultants, a management consulting firm based in Chicago. Mr. Strubel is also a Trustee Emeritus of the University of Chicago and is an adjunct professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Based on the foregoing, Mr. Strubel is experienced with financial and investment matters.

James A. McNamara. Mr. McNamara has served the Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex as Trustee and as President of the Trust since 2007 and has served as an officer of the Trust since 2001. Mr. McNamara is a Managing Director at Goldman Sachs. Mr. McNamara is currently head of Global Third Party Distribution at GSAM, where he was previously head of U.S. Third Party Distribution. Prior to that role, Mr. McNamara served as Director of Institutional Fund Sales. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs, Mr. McNamara was Vice President and Manager at Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation. Based on the foregoing, Mr. McNamara is experienced with financial and investment matters.

 

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Officers of the Trust

Information pertaining to the Officers of the Trust as of April 30, 2013 is set forth below.

 

Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust

  

Term of Office and

Length of Time

Served1

  

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

James A. McNamara

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: 50

  

Trustee and

President

   Since 2012   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (December 1998 – Present); Director of Institutional Fund Sales, GSAM (April 1998 – December 2000); and Senior Vice President and Manager, Dreyfus Institutional Service Corporation (January 1993 – April 1998).

 

President, Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (November 2007 – Present); Senior Vice President, Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (May 2007 – November 2007); and Vice President, Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (2001 – 2007).

 

Trustee – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (November 2007 – Present and December 2002 – May 2004).

Scott McHugh

200 West Street

New York, NY

10282

Age: 41

  

Treasurer and

Senior Vice

President

   Since 2012   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (February 2007 – Present); Assistant Treasurer of certain mutual funds administered by DWS Scudder (2005 – 2007); and Director (2005 – 2007), Vice President (2000 – 2005), and Assistant Vice President (1998 – 2000), Deutsche Asset Management or its predecessor (1998 – 2007).

 

Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (October 2009 – Present); Senior Vice President – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (November 2009 – Present); and Assistant Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex (May 2007 – October 2009).

George F. Travers

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: 45

  

Senior Vice

President and

Principal Financial

Officer

   Since 2012   

Managing Director, Goldman Sachs (2007 – Present); Managing Director, UBS Ag (2005 – 2007); and Partner, Deloitte & Touche LLP (1990 – 2005, partner from 2000 – 2005).

 

Senior Vice President and Principal Financial Officer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

Philip V. Giuca, Jr.

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: 51

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2012   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (May 1992 – Present).

 

Assistant Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

Peter Fortner

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: 55

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2012   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (July 2000 – Present); Principal Financial Officer, Commerce Bank Mutual Fund Complex (2008 – Present); Associate, Prudential Insurance Company of America (November 1985 –June 2000); and Assistant Treasurer, certain closed-end funds administered by Prudential (1999 – 2000).

 

Assistant Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

Kenneth G. Curran

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: 49

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2012   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (November 1998 – Present); and Senior Tax Manager, KPMG Peat Marwick (accountants) (August 1995 – October 1998).

 

Assistant Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

Sarah Walton

30 Hudson Street

Jersey City, NJ

07302

Age: 41

   Assistant Treasurer    Since 2012   

Vice President, Goldman Sachs (December 2002 – Present); and Associate, Goldman Sachs (February 2000 – December 2002).

 

Assistant Treasurer – Goldman Sachs Mutual Fund Complex.

 

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Name, Age and Address

  

Position(s) Held

with the Trust