485BPOS 1 leadershares485b.htm 485BPOS

Filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2019

1933 Act Registration File No. 333-182417

1940 Act File No. 811-22718

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  [ X ]

 

[ ] Pre-Effective Amendment No.                                    

[ X ] Post-Effective Amendment No. 196        

and/or

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940   [ X ]

 

[ X ] Amendment No. 199

                                                                                                                             

(Check appropriate box or boxes.)

TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

17605 Wright Street, Suite 2

Omaha, NE  68130

(Address of Principal Executive Offices, including Zip Code)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code:

402-895-1600

 

The Corporation Trust Company

1209 Orange Street

Wilmington, DE  19801

(Name and. Address of Agent for Service)

Copy to:

 

Joshua Deringer

Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP

One Logan Square, Ste. 2000

Philadelphia, PA 19103

 

 

Richard A. Malinowski

Gemini Fund Services, LLC

80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110

Hauppauge, NY  11788

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

[ X ] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

[ ]   on [date] pursuant to paragraph (b)

[ ]   60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(l)

[   ]   on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(l)

[ ]   75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

[   ]   on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.

[   ]   as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement

If appropriate, check the following box: [ ] this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

 

LSAF

 

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

February 28, 2019

 

 

 

 

www.leadersharesetfs.com

 

1-480-757-4277

 

 

 

 

 

This Prospectus provides important information about the Fund that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission nor has the Securities and Exchange Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on NYSE.

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from your financial intermediary, such as a broker dealer or bank.. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website www.leadersharesetfs.com, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

 

If you have already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund or your financial intermediary electronically anytime by contacting your financial intermediary or, if you are a direct investor, by following the instructions included with paper Fund documents that have been mailed to you. You may also elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. You can inform the Fund or your financial intermediary that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports, or if you are a direct investor, by

 
 

following the instructions included with paper Fund documents that have been mailed to you. Your election to have reports in paper will apply to all funds held with the Trust and/or your financial intermediary.

 

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FUND SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT

PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

Investment Objective

Principal Investment Strategies

Principal Investment Risks

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure

Cybersecurity

MANAGEMENT

Investment Adviser

Portfolio Managers

HOW SHARES ARE PRICED

HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

OTHER INFORMATION

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Privacy Notice

 
 

FUND SUMMARY – LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

 

Investment Objective: The Fund seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the AlphaFactor® US Core Equity Index.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund: This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing or selling shares of the Fund in the secondary market may be subject to costs (including customary brokerage commissions) charged by their broker. These costs are not included in the expense example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fee(1) 0.75%
Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 0.75%
(1)The Fund’s adviser provides investment advisory service, and pays most of the Fund’s operating expenses (except all brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expense on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) in return for a “unitary fee.”

 

Example: This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds.

 

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$77 $240 $417 $930

 

Portfolio Turnover: The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period from the commencement of operations on October 1, 2018 through October 31, 2018, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 0% of the average value of its portfolio.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund seeks to replicate the Adviser’s proprietary index, the AlphaFactor® US Core Equity Index (the “Index”). The Index utilizes a quantitative rules-based investment methodology that applies a multi-factor ranking process and is focused on the largest 1,000 U.S. common stocks based on market capitalization. Companies within this group of top 1,000 market capitalization may be considered large or mid-cap companies. As of January 31, 2019, the market capitalization range of this universe of companies is between $2 billion and $840 billion. Due to future market fluctuations, the market capitalization of this universe may be lower or higher at any given time. The methodology selects stocks based on a number of characteristics that include, but are not limited to, net share count reduction, free cash flow growth, and debt/asset ratios. The final selection of stocks is based on market characteristics including, but not limited to, liquidity and market capitalization.

 

Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in a diversified portfolio of equity securities of U.S. common stocks included in the Index. The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in certain equity options, index options, swap contracts or other derivatives, as related to its Index, as well as in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Adviser believes will help the Fund track its Index. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the marked-to-market exposure of its derivatives.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the Index was comprised of one hundred issues. It is rebalanced to equal weight and reconstituted on a quarterly basis. The composition of the Index will change over time.

 

The Fund uses as its index calculation agent Solactive, AG (“Calculation Agent”), an organization that is independent of the Fund and the Adviser. The Adviser determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in the Index and the Calculation Agent publishes information regarding the market value of the Index.

 

The Fund uses a “passive” or indexing approach to attempt to approximate the investment performance of the Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the Index. The Fund may concentrate its investments in certain sectors, which may include the information technology sector, industrials sector, consumer discretionary sector, and financials sector, to the extent that the Index concentrates in such sectors.

1 
 

 

 

Principal Investment Risks. As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. The Fund is not intended to be a complete investment program but rather one component of a diversified investment portfolio. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance

 

As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (NAV) and may face delisting.

 

Calculation Methodology Risk. The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Adviser, nor the Calculation Agent can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

 

Concentration Risk. If the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same economic sector, an adverse economic, business or political development affecting that sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so concentrated.

 

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.

 

Derivatives Risk. The derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest in order to better track the Index may be more volatile than other instruments. The risks associated with investments in derivatives also include liquidity, interest rate, market, credit and management risks, mispricing or improper valuation. Changes in the market value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the underlying asset, rate or index, and the Fund could lose more than the principal amount invested.

 

Equity Risk. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. Factors that may influence the price of equity securities include developments affecting a specific company or industry, or the changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to the special risks, including:

·Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
·Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
·Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
oIn times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
oThe market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price.
oWhen all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
2 
 
o In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Financials Sector Risk. The financials sector includes companies in the banks, capital markets, diversified financials, and insurance industry groups. Performance of companies in the financials sector may be adversely impacted by many factors, including, among others, changes in government regulations, economic conditions, and interest rates, credit rating downgrades, and decreased liquidity in credit markets. The extent to which the Fund may invest in a company that engages in securities-related activities or banking is limited by applicable law. The impact of changes in capital requirements and recent or future regulation of any individual financial company, or of the financials sector as a whole, cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber-attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses to companies in this sector, which may negatively impact the Fund.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time.

 

Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price.

 

Index Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.

 

Industrials Sector Risk. The industrials sector includes companies in the commercial and professional services and transportation industry groups, including companies engaged in the business of human capital management, business research and consulting, air freight and logistics, airlines, maritime shipping and transportation, railroads and trucking, transportation infrastructure, and aerospace and defense. The value of securities issued by companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by supply and demand changes related to their specific products or services and industrials sector products in general. The products of manufacturing companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments and frequent new product introduction. Global events and changes in government regulations, economic conditions and exchange rates may adversely affect the performance of companies in the industrials sector. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage and product liability claims. The industrials sector may also be adversely affected by changes or trends in commodity prices, which may be influenced by unpredictable factors. Companies in the industrials sector, particularly aerospace and defense companies, may also be adversely affected by government spending policies because companies in this sector tend to rely to a significant extent on government demand for their products and services.

 

Information Technology Sector Risk.  The information technology sector includes companies in the software and services, technology hardware and equipment and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment industry groups. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on their profit margins. Like other technology companies, information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments, frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights. The loss or impairment of these rights may adversely affect the profitability of these companies

 

Management Risk. The risk that a strategy used by the Fund’s investment adviser may fail to produce the intended results or that imperfections, errors or limitations in the tools and data used by the investment adviser may cause unintended results. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Fund’s investment adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets.

 

Market Capitalization Risk. The Fund’s anticipated weighting towards larger-sized companies subjects the Fund to the risk that larger companies may not be able to attain the high growth rates of successful smaller companies, especially during strong economic periods, and that they may be less capable of responding quickly to competitive challenges and industry changes. Medium–sized companies typically have less experienced management, narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, and less publicly available information than larger companies. The earnings and prospects of medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

3 
 

 

 

Market Risk. Overall equity market risk may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond markets, volatility in the equities market or adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets and political events affect the securities markets. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Market Events Risk. There has been increased volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty in the financial markets during the past several years. These conditions may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have recently reduced market support activities. Further reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

New Fund Risk. The Fund is recently formed. Investors bear the risk that the Fund may not grow to or maintain economically viable size, not be successful in implementing its investment strategy, and may not employ a successful investment strategy, any of which could result in the Fund being liquidated at any time without shareholder approval and/or at a time that may not be favorable for certain shareholders. Such a liquidation could have negative tax consequences for shareholders.

 

Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry, or sector, unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a reconstitution of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology. The Fund invests in securities included in, or representative of securities included in, the Index, regardless of their investment merits. The Fund does not take defensive positions under any market conditions, including conditions that are adverse to the performance of the Fund.

 

Rules-Based Strategy Risk. A rules-based investment strategy may not be successful on an ongoing basis or could contain unknown errors. In addition, the data used may be inaccurate.

 

Performance: Because the Fund has only recently commenced investment operations, no performance information is presented for the Fund at this time. In the future, performance information will be presented in this section of this Prospectus. In addition, shareholder reports containing financial and performance information will be mailed to shareholders semi-annually. Updated performance information will be available at no cost by visiting www.leadersharesetfs.com or by calling 1-480-757-4277.

 

Investment Adviser: Redwood Investment Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers: The Fund is jointly managed by Michael T. Messinger, Portfolio Manager and Principal of Redwood, Michael T. Cheung, Portfolio Manager and Senior Quantitative Analyst of Redwood, and Richard M. Duff, President of Redwood. Messrs. Messinger, Cheung and Duff have managed the Fund since it commenced operations in September, 2018.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares: The Fund will issue and redeem shares at NAV only in large blocks of 25,000 shares (each block of shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed for cash and/or in-kind for securities. Individual shares may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE” or the “Exchange”) and trade at market prices rather than NAV. Shares of the Fund may trade at a price that is greater than, at, or less than NAV.

 

Tax Information: The Fund’s distributions generally will be taxable at ordinary income or long-term capital gain rates. A sale of shares may result in capital gain or loss.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries: If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Adviser and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE:

 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the AlphaFactor® US Core Equity Index (the “Index”).

 

The Fund’s investment objective or underlying index may be changed by the Board of Trustees upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. If the Calculation Agent no longer calculates the underlying index of the Fund, if the underlying index is terminated for any reason, if the identity or the character of the underlying index is materially changed, or for any other reason determined by the Board of Trustees in good faith, that it is impracticable to substitute a replacement index, it will take whatever action is deemed to be in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders.

 

Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in a diversified portfolio of equity securities of U.S. common stocks included in the Index. The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in certain equity options, index options, swap contracts or other derivatives, as related to its Index, as well as in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Adviser believes will help the Fund track its Index. The Adviser anticipates that, generally, the Fund will hold all of the securities that compose the Index in proportion to their weightings in the Index. However, under various circumstances, it may not be possible or practicable to purchase all of those securities in those weightings. In these circumstances, the Fund may purchase a sample of securities in the Index. There also may be instances in which the Adviser may choose to purchase securities not in the Index that the Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Index, or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques. The Fund may sell securities that are represented in the Index in anticipation of their removal from the Index or purchase securities not represented in the Index in anticipation of their addition to the Index. The Fund may also, in order to comply with the tax diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), temporarily invest in securities not included in the Index that are expected to be correlated with the securities included in the Index. Given the Fund’s investment strategy of tracking the Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors.

 

PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES:

 

The Fund seeks to replicate the Adviser’s proprietary index, the AlphaFactor® US Core Equity Index. The Index utilizes a quantitative rules-based investment methodology that applies a multi-factor ranking process and is focused on the largest 1,000 U.S. common stocks based on market capitalization. Companies within this group of top 1,000 market capitalization may be considered large or mid-cap companies. As of January 31, 2019, the market capitalization range of this universe of companies is between $2 billion and $840 billion. Due to future market fluctuations, the market capitalization of this universe may be lower or higher at any given time. The methodology selects stocks based on a number of characteristics that include, but are not limited to, net share count reduction, free cash flow growth, and debt/asset ratios. The final selection of stocks is based on market characteristics including, but not limited to, liquidity and market capitalization.

 

Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s net assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, will be invested in a diversified portfolio of equity securities of U.S. common stocks included in the Index. The Fund may also invest up to 20% of its assets in certain equity options, index options, swap contracts or other derivatives, as related to its Index, as well as in securities and other instruments not included in its Index but which the Adviser believes will help the Fund track its Index. Federal law generally requires the Fund to segregate or “earmark” liquid assets or otherwise cover the marked-to-market exposure of its derivatives.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the Index was comprised of one hundred issues. It is rebalanced to equal weight and reconstituted on a quarterly basis. The composition of the Index will change over time.

 

The Fund will use as its index calculation agent Solactive AG (“Calculation Agent”), an organization that is independent of the Fund and the Adviser. The Adviser determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in the Index and the Calculation Agent publishes information regarding the market value of the Index.

 

The Fund uses a “passive” or indexing approach to attempt to approximate the investment performance of the Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the Index. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not try to “beat” the index it tracks and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued. The Fund may concentrate its investments in certain sectors, which may include the information technology sector, industrials sector, consumer discretionary sector, and financials sector, to the extent that the Index concentrates in such sectors.

 

 

5 
 


PRINCIPAL AND OTHER INVESTMENT RISKS

 

The following describes the principal risks the Fund may bear from its investments.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (NAV) and may face delisting.

 

Calculation Methodology Risk. The Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Adviser, nor Solactive, AG can offer assurances that the Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the Index.

 

Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.

 

Derivatives Risk. The Fund may invest in derivatives, which are financial instruments whose value is typically based on the value of a security, commodity or index, in order to better track the Index. These instruments include options, futures contracts, swap agreements, including total return swap agreements, and similar instruments. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments involves risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments, and certain derivatives may create a risk of loss greater than the amount invested.

 

The market value of derivative instruments and securities may be more volatile than that of other instruments, and each type of derivative instrument may have its own special risks, including the risk of mispricing or improper valuation of derivatives and the inability of derivatives to correlate perfectly with underlying assets, rates, and indices. Many derivatives, in particular privately negotiated derivatives, are complex and often valued subjectively. Improper valuations can result in increased cash payment requirements to counterparties or a loss of value to the Fund. The value of derivatives may not correlate perfectly, or at all, with the value of the assets, reference rates or indices they are designed to closely track.

 

Derivatives are subject to a number of other risks, including liquidity risk (the possibility that the derivative may be difficult to purchase or sell and the Adviser may be unable to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price), leverage risk (the possibility that adverse changes in the value or level of the underlying asset, reference rate or index can result in loss of an amount substantially greater than the amount invested in the derivative), interest rate risk (some derivatives are more sensitive to interest rate changes and market price fluctuations), and counterparty risk (the risk that a counterparty may be unable to perform according to a contract, and that any deterioration in a counterparty’s creditworthiness could adversely affect the instrument). In addition, because derivative products are highly specialized, investment techniques and risk analyses employed with respect to investments in derivatives are different from those associated with stocks and bonds. Finally, the Fund’s use of derivatives may cause the Fund to realize higher amounts of short-term capital gains (generally taxed at ordinary income tax rates) than if the Fund had not used such instruments. Derivative instruments are also subject to the risk that the market value of an instrument will change to the detriment of the Fund. If the Adviser inaccurately forecast the values of securities, interest rates or other economic factors in using derivatives, the Fund might have been in a better position if it had not entered into the transaction at all. Some strategies involving derivative instruments can reduce the risk of loss, but they can also reduce the opportunity for gain or result in losses by offsetting favorable price movements in other investments held by the Fund. The Fund may also have to buy or sell a security at a disadvantageous time or price because regulations require funds to maintain offsetting positions or asset coverage in connection with certain derivatives transactions.

 

The Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) provides a more detailed description of the types of derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest and their associated risks.

 

Equity Risk. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. Factors that may influence the price of equity securities include developments affecting a specific company or industry, or the changing economic, political or market conditions.

 

6 
 

 

ETF Structure Risks. The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to the special risks, including:

·Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.
·Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
·Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses. In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value. The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price. When all or a portion of an ETF’s underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value. In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Financials Sector Risk. The financials sector includes companies in the banks, capital markets, diversified financials, and insurance industry groups. Performance of companies in the financials sector may be adversely impacted by many factors, including, among others, changes in government regulations, economic conditions, and interest rates, credit rating downgrades, and decreased liquidity in credit markets. The extent to which the Fund may invest in a company that engages in securities-related activities or banking is limited by applicable law. The impact of changes in capital requirements and recent or future regulation of any individual financial company, or of the financials sector as a whole, cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber-attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses to companies in this sector, which may negatively impact the Fund.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time.

 

Gap Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price. For example, the price of a stock can drop from its closing price one night to its opening price the next morning. The difference between the two prices is the gap.

 

Index Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.

 

Industrials Sector Risk. The industrials sector includes companies in the commercial and professional services and transportation industry groups, including companies engaged in the business of human capital management, business research and consulting, air freight and logistics, airlines, maritime shipping and transportation, railroads and trucking, transportation infrastructure, and aerospace and defense. The value of securities issued by companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by supply and demand changes related to their specific products or services and industrials sector products in general. The products of manufacturing companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments and frequent new product introduction. Global events and changes in government regulations, economic conditions and exchange rates may adversely affect the performance of companies in the industrials sector. Companies in the industrials sector may be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage and product liability claims. The industrials sector may also be adversely affected by changes or trends in commodity prices, which may be influenced by unpredictable factors. Companies in the industrials sector, particularly aerospace and defense companies, may also be adversely affected by government spending policies because companies in this sector tend to rely to a significant extent on government demand for their products and services.

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Industry Concentration Risk. The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse events that affect the Fund’s investments more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in a particular industry, group of industries or sector.

 

Information Technology Sector Risk.  The information technology sector includes companies in the software and services, technology hardware and equipment and semiconductors and semiconductor equipment industry groups. Information technology companies face intense competition, both domestically and internationally, which may have an adverse effect on their profit margins. Like other technology companies, information technology companies may have limited product lines, markets, financial resources or personnel. The products of information technology companies may face obsolescence due to rapid technological developments, frequent new product introduction, unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel. Companies in the information technology sector are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights. The loss or impairment of these rights may adversely affect the profitability of these companies.

 

Limited History of Operations Risk. The Fund is a new fund with a limited history of operations for investors to evaluate.

 

Management Risk. The net asset value of the Fund changes daily based on the performance of the securities in which it invests. The Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of particular securities and derivatives in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results. The risk that a strategy used by the Fund’s investment adviser may fail to produce the intended results or that imperfections, errors or limitations in the tools and data used by the investment adviser may cause unintended results. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Fund’s investment adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets.

 

Market Capitalization Risk. The Fund’s anticipated weighting towards larger-sized companies subjects the Fund to the risk that larger companies may not be able to attain the high growth rates of successful smaller companies, especially during strong economic periods, and that they may be less capable of responding quickly to competitive challenges and industry changes. Medium–sized companies typically have less experienced management, narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, and less publicly available information than larger companies. The earnings and prospects of medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

 

Market Risk. Overall equity market risk, including volatility, may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond markets, volatility in the equities market or adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Market Events Risk. Financial markets are subject to volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty such as what was experienced in or around 2008. These conditions may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments are an inevitable part of investing in capital markets and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have recently reduced market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

In June 2016, voters in the UK approved a referendum to leave the EU (“Brexit”). There is significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic, and market outcomes are difficult to predict. Political events, including nationalist unrest in Europe and uncertainties surrounding the sovereign debt of a number of EU countries and the viability of the EU itself, also may cause market disruptions. If one or more countries leave the EU or the EU dissolves, the world’s securities markets likely will be significantly disrupted. Moreover, the uncertainty about the ramifications of Brexit may cause significant volatility and/or declines in the value of the Euro and British pound.  If no agreement is reached as to the terms of the UK’s exit from the EU prior to the March 2019 exit date (“hard Brexit”), these impacts may be exaggerated.  Brexit (and in particular a hard Brexit) may cause greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, deterioration in economic activity, a decrease in business confidence, and increased likelihood of a recession in the UK. This may increase redemptions from funds that hold impacted securities. Market factors, such as the demand for particular portfolio securities, may cause the price of certain portfolio securities to fall while the price of other securities rise or remain unchanged.

 

Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed and its Adviser would not sell shares of an equity security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry, or sector, unless that security is removed from the Index or the selling of shares of that security is otherwise required upon a reconstitution of the Index as addressed in the Index methodology. The Fund invests in

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securities included in, or representative of securities included in, the Index, regardless of their investment merits. The Fund does not take defensive positions under any market conditions, including conditions that are adverse to the performance of the Fund.

 

Rules-Based Strategy Risk. A rules-based investment strategy may not be successful on an ongoing basis or could contain unknown errors. In addition, the data used may be inaccurate.

 

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE: A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information.

 

CYBERSECURITY: The computer systems, networks and devices used by the Fund and its service providers to carry out routine business operations employ a variety of protections designed to prevent damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons and security breaches. Despite the various protections utilized by the Fund and its service providers, systems, networks, or devices potentially can be breached. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of a cybersecurity breach.

 

Cybersecurity breaches can include unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices; infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. Cybersecurity breaches may cause disruptions and impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses; interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV; impediments to trading; the inability of the Fund, the Adviser, and other service providers to transact business; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs; as well as the inadvertent release of confidential information.

 

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity breaches affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests; counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions; governmental and other regulatory authorities; exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for the Fund’s shareholders); and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred by these entities in order to prevent any cybersecurity breaches in the future.

 

 

MANAGEMENT

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER: Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Redwood” or the “Adviser”), with principal offices at 1117 S. Robertson Boulevard, Los Angeles, California, 90035, serves as the investment adviser for the Fund. In addition to advising the Fund, Redwood provides discretionary investment advice to certain individuals, high net worth individuals, pension and profit sharing plans, trusts, estates, corporations, other investment advisory firms, affiliated registered investment companies and a pooled investment vehicle. Redwood also serves as a sub-advisor to other investment advisers. Subject to the supervision of the Fund’s Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for managing the Fund’s investments, executing transactions and providing related administrative services and facilities under an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Fund and the Adviser. As of December 31, 2018 the Portfolio had approximately 48.1 million in assets under management.

 

The Adviser has entered into an investment advisory agreement with the Fund. Under the agreement, the Adviser is entitled to receive, and did receive for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, an annual management fee equal to 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Fund’s management fee is a “unitary” fee that includes all operating expenses payable by the Fund, except for brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expenses on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, and such extraordinary or non-recurring expenses as may arise, including litigation expenses.

 

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the advisory agreement is available in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders dated October 31, 2018.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

Michael T. Messinger

 

Mr. Messinger is a Portfolio Manager and Principal at Redwood with eighteen years of experience in financial services. Mr. Messinger is responsible for overseeing the development, implementation, and live risk management of Redwood’s investment strategies. Prior to launching Redwood in 2010, he served as a Regional Vice President for RiverSource Investments (now known as Columbia Management) from 2007 to 2010. Mr. Messinger also worked as a marketer with ING’s investment management and insurance divisions from 2003 to 2007. Mr. Messinger began his career with UBS Wealth Management in 2000. Mr. Messinger holds a Bachelor’s degree in Finance from the University of Arizona.

 

Michael T. Cheung

 

Mr. Cheung is a Portfolio Manager and Senior Quantitative Analyst at Redwood. He has been with Redwood since 2013, and conducts research and macro analysis on current and prospective investments. His primary focus is on research, development, and testing of systematic

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investment strategies. He is also responsible for proprietary research software design and development, having experience working with a variety of programming languages and database structures. Mr. Cheung brings several years of quantitative investing experience, previously positioned as a head trader at a proprietary equities trading desk, responsible for overseeing both automated and discretionary trading systems. Prior to joining Redwood, Mr. Cheung was a quantitative trader at Coastal Trade Securities, LLC form 2010 to 2012 and at Agoge Capital, LLC from 2012 to 2013. Mr. Cheung studied quantitative economics and mathematics at the University of California, Irvine.

 

Richard M. Duff

 

Mr. Duff is President of Redwood Investment Management, responsible for overseeing Redwood’s investment solutions from initial ideation to final implementation. Mr. Duff has been with Redwood since 2015. Mr. Duff began his career in 1994 as a member of the equity portfolio management committee at Pacific Income Advisers, that used a proprietary quantitative screening process combined with a team based qualitative overlay to manage U.S. core equity portfolios. Later he was a Managing Director at BlackRock, where he was Co-Head of the Private Client Group and a member of the Equity Operating Committee. Under his leadership, BlackRock launched its first quantitative factor-based suite of equity focused closed end funds. Immediately prior to joining Redwood, Mr. Duff was a partner and member of the investment committee at OMT Capital Management from 2010 to 2015, the general partner for Hawthorne Capital Partners, a long-short equity hedge fund focused on small cap U.S. equities. Mr. Duff received his Bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and received his Juris Doctorate from University of San Francisco, School of Law.

 

The Statement of Additional Information provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation, other accounts managed and ownership of Fund shares.

 

HOW SHARES ARE PRICED

 

The net asset value (“NAV”) and offering price (NAV plus any applicable sales charges) of the Fund’s shares is determined at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on each day the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open. NAV is computed by determining, on a per class basis, the aggregate market value of all assets of the applicable Fund, less its liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding ((assets-liabilities)/number of shares = NAV). The NYSE is closed on weekends and New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The NAV takes into account, on a per class basis, the expenses and fees of the Fund, including management, administration, and distribution fees, which are accrued daily. The determination of NAV for the Fund for a particular day is applicable to all applications for the purchase of shares, as well as all requests for the redemption of shares, received by the Fund (or an authorized broker or agent, or its authorized designee) before the close of trading on the NYSE on that day.

 

Generally, the Fund’s securities are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges (whether domestic or foreign) for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity.

 

If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined using the “fair value” procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. The fair value prices can differ from market prices when they become available or when a price becomes available. The Board has delegated execution of these procedures to a fair value team composed of one or more representatives from each of the (i) Trust, (ii) administrator, and (iii) adviser. The team may also enlist third party consultants such as an audit firm or financial officer of a security issuer on an as-needed basis to assist in determining a security-specific fair value. The Board reviews and ratifies the execution of this process and the resultant fair value prices at least quarterly to assure the process produces reliable results.

 

The Fund may use independent pricing services to assist in calculating the value of the Fund’s securities. In addition, market prices for foreign securities are not determined at the same time of day as the NAV for the Fund. Because the Fund may invest in securities primarily listed on foreign exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of some of the Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares. In computing the NAV, the Fund values foreign securities held by the Fund at the latest closing price on the exchange in which they are traded immediately prior to closing of the NYSE. Prices of foreign securities quoted in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at current rates. If events materially affecting the value of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, particularly foreign securities, occur after the close of trading on a foreign

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market but before the Fund prices its shares, the security will be valued at fair value. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Adviser may need to price the security using the Fund’s fair value pricing guidelines. Without a fair value price, short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that fair value pricing policies will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short term traders. The determination of fair value involves subjective judgments. As a result, using fair value to price a security may result in a price materially different from the prices used by other funds to determine net asset value, or from the price that may be realized upon the actual sale of the security.

 

With respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets that are invested in one or more open-end management investment companies registered under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s net asset value is calculated based upon the net asset values of those open-end management investment companies, and the prospectuses for these companies explain the circumstances under which those companies will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.

 

Premium/Discount Information

 

Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers at market prices and the Fund’s shares will trade at market prices. The market price of shares of the Fund may be greater than, equal to, or less than NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of shares of the Fund.

 

Information regarding the intraday value of shares of the Funds, also known as the “indicative optimized portfolio value” (“IOPV”), is disseminated every 15 seconds throughout each trading day by the securities exchange on which the Fund’s shares are listed or by market data vendors or other information providers. The IOPV is based on the current market value of each Fund’s securities, including cash required to be deposited in exchange for a Creation Unit. The IOPV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries that may trade in a Fund’s portfolio securities. The IOPV may not reflect the exact composition of a Fund’s current portfolio of securities at a particular point in time or the best possible valuation of a Fund’s current portfolio. As a result, the IOPV should not be confused with the NAV, which is computed only once a day. Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund traded at a price above (at a premium to) or below (at a discount to) the NAV of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters, when available, can be found at www.leadersharesetfs.com.

 

 

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HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

 

Shares of the Fund will be listed for trading on NYSE under the symbol LSAF. Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share. Shares can be bought and sold on the secondary market throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares, and shares typically trade in blocks of less than a Creation Unit. There is no minimum investment required. Shares may only be purchased and sold on the secondary market when the Exchange is open for trading. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays, as observed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

When buying or selling shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction.

 

Authorized participants (“APs”) may acquire shares directly from the Fund, and APs may tender their shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in large blocks, or Creation Units, of 25,000 shares. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, which are described in the SAI.

 

The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

 

Share Trading Prices

 

The approximate value of shares of the Fund, an amount representing on a per share basis the sum of the current market price of the securities accepted by the Fund in exchange for shares of the Fund and an estimated cash component will be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout the trading day through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per share of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, generally at the end of the business day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value of the shares, and the Fund does not make any warranty as to the accuracy of these values.

 

Book Entry

 

Shares are held in book entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes.

 

Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

 

 

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

 

The Fund’s shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by APs, and the vast majority of trading in the Fund’s shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Fund shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that the Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Fund’s shares.

 

 

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DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

 

The Fund has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees to the distributor and other firms that provide distribution and shareholder services (“Service Providers”). If a Service Provider provides these services, the Fund may pay fees at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act.

 

No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries: Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, the Fund’s distributor, its affiliates, and the Fund’s Adviser or its affiliates may, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide additional cash payments to financial intermediaries who sell shares of the Fund, including affiliates of the Adviser. Financial intermediaries include brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others. These payments are generally made to financial intermediaries that provide shareholder or administrative services, or marketing support. Marketing support may include access to sales meetings, sales representatives and financial intermediary management representatives, inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, or other sales programs. These payments also may be made as an expense reimbursement in cases where the financial intermediary provides shareholder services to Fund shareholders.

 

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

 

Unlike interests in conventional mutual funds, which typically are bought and sold from and to the fund only at closing NAVs, the Fund’s shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis and are created and redeemed in-kind and/or for cash in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV. In-kind arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from the adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders if the mutual fund needs to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet net fund redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains for the ongoing shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to a tax event for the Fund or its ongoing shareholders.

 

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid annually by the Fund. The Fund distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually.

 

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through whom you purchased shares makes such option available.

 

Taxes

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in shares.

 

Unless your investment in shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

·The Fund makes distributions,
·You sell your shares listed on the Exchange, and
·You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

 

Taxes on Distributions

 

As stated above, dividends from net investment income, if any, ordinarily are declared and paid annually by the Fund. The Fund may also pay a special distribution at the end of a calendar year to comply with federal tax requirements. Distributions from the Fund’s net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions), if any, generally are subject to federal income tax for non-corporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the rate for net capital gain -- a maximum of 20%. In addition, a 3.8% Medicare tax will also apply. A part of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations -- the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to federal income tax (excluding REITs) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations -- subject to similar restrictions.

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In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund (if that option is available). Distributions reinvested in additional shares of the Fund through the means of a dividend reinvestment service, if available, will be taxable to shareholders acquiring the additional shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the shares.

 

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of your basis in the shares and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per Share and may be taxable to you at ordinary income or capital gain rates (as described above) even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

 

By law, the Fund is required to withhold 28% of your distributions and redemption proceeds if you have not provided the Fund with a correct Social Security number or other taxpayer identification number and in certain other situations.

 

Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses from sales of shares may be limited.

 

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

 

An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any Cash Component it pays. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received plus any cash equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares being redeemed and the value of the securities. The Internal Revenue Service (“Service”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” or for other reasons. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

 

If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many shares you purchased or sold and at what price. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for a description of the newly effective requirement regarding basis determination methods applicable to Share redemptions and the Fund’s obligation to report basis information to the Service.

 

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in the shares under all applicable tax laws. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for more information.

 

 

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the Fund’s administrator and fund accountant. It has its principal office at 80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110, Hauppauge, NY 11788, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. It is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, is the Fund’s custodian and transfer agent.

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”), 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200, Omaha, NE 68130, is the distributor for the shares of the Fund. The Distributor is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

Drinker Biddle & Reath, LLP, One Logan Square, Suite 2000, Philadelphia, PA 19103, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

 

Grant Thornton LLP, located at 757 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, serves as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, providing services including (i) audit of annual financial statements, (ii) review of certain documents to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and (iii) other audit related and tax services including preparation of the Funds’ tax returns.

 

14 
 

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

Investment by Other Investment Companies

 

The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Adviser and the Trust permitting, among other relief, registered investment companies and unit investment trusts that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions. Section 12(d)(1) of the Investment Company Act restricts investments by registered investment companies and companies relying on Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act in the securities of other investment companies.

 

Continuous Offering

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Householding: To reduce expenses, the Fund mails only one copy of the prospectus and each annual and semi-annual report to those addresses shared by two or more accounts. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Fund at 1-480-757-4277 on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. The Fund will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request.

 

Additional Compensation to Financial Intermediaries: Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, the Fund’s distributor, its affiliates, and the Fund’s Adviser or its affiliates may, at their own expense and out of their own legitimate profits, provide additional cash payments to financial intermediaries who sell shares of the Fund, including affiliates of the Adviser. Financial intermediaries include brokers, financial planners, banks, insurance companies, retirement or 401(k) plan administrators and others. These payments may be in addition to any Rule 12b-1 fees that the Fund could charge pursuant to a Rule 12b-1 plan and any sales charges that are disclosed elsewhere in this Prospectus. These payments are generally made to financial intermediaries that provide shareholder or administrative services, or marketing support. Marketing support may include access to sales meetings, sales representatives and financial intermediary management representatives, inclusion of the Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, or other sales programs. These payments also may be made as an expense reimbursement in cases where the financial intermediary provides shareholder services to Fund shareholders.

 

Index and Calculation Agent

 

The Index was developed by the Adviser to the Fund. The Adviser has entered into an agreement with Solactive, AG to maintain, calculate and distribute information about the market value of the Index. Solactive, AG serves as the Index administrator and is responsible for Index governance.

 

15 
 

Index Disclaimers

 

Neither Redwood Investment Management, LLC nor Solactive, AG guarantees the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Index or any data included therein, and neither Redwood Investment Management, LLC nor Solactive, AG shall have any liability for any errors, omissions or interruptions therein. Neither Redwood Investment Management, LLC nor Solactive, AG make any warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Fund, owners of the shares of the Fund or any other person or entity from the use of the Index, trading based on the Index, or any data included therein, either in connection with the Fund or for any other use. Neither Redwood Investment Management, LLC nor Solactive, AG makes any express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall either Redwood Investment Management, LLC or Solactive, AG have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits) arising out of matters relating to the use of the Index, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

The Fund and the Adviser make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund in particular or the ability of the Index to track general stock market performance. Redwood Investment Management, LLC has no obligation to take the needs of the Trust, the Fund or the owners of the Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index.

 

The Index is the property of Redwood Investment Management, LLC, which has contracted with the Calculation Agent to calculate and maintain the Index. Solactive, AG will not be liable for any errors or omissions in calculating the Index. The Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Solactive, AG. Solactive, AG does not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly or the ability of the Index to track general market performance. Solactive, AG’s only relationship to Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Index is the licensing of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of Solactive, AG, and the provision of the calculation services related to the Index. Solactive, AG is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the prices and amount of the Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Fund may converted into cash or other redemption mechanics. Solactive, AG has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund. Solactive, AG is not an investment adviser. Inclusion of a security within the Index is not a recommendation by Solactive, AG to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it investment advice.

 

SOLACTIVE, AG DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION WITH RESPECT THERETO, INCLUDING, ORAL, WRITTEN, OR ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS. SOLACTIVE, AG SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. SOLACTIVE, AG MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY REDWOOD INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT, LLC, OWNERS OF THE FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL SOLACTIVE, AG BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME, OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE.

 

 

16 
 

 

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund’s financial performance for the period of the Fund’s or share class’s operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned (or lost) on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment if all dividends and distributions). This information for the Fund for the period ended October 31, 2018 has been derived from the financial statements audited by Grant Thornton, LLP, whose report, along with the Funds’ financial statements and related notes, are included in the Funds’ October 31, 2018 annual report, which is available upon request and incorporated by reference in the Statement of Additional Information.

 

 

Per Share Data and Ratios for a Share of Beneficial Interest Outstanding Throughout The Period Presented

 

    For the Period  
    Ended  
    October 31, 2018*  
Net asset value, beginning of period   $ 25.00  
         
Activity from investment operations:        
Net investment loss (1)     (0.00 ) **
Net realized and unrealized loss on investments     (2.15 )
Total from investment operations     (2.15 )
         
Net asset value, end of period   $ 22.85  
         
Total return (2,4)     (8.60 )%
         
Net assets, at end of period (000s)   $ 50,849  
         
Ratio of net expenses to average net assets (3)     0.75 %
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets (3)     (0.01 )%
Portfolio Turnover Rate (4,5)     0 %

 

 

  * Fund commenced operation on October 1, 2018.
  ** Represents less than $0.01 per share.
  (1) Per share amounts calculated using the average shares method, which more appropriately presents the per share data for each year.
  (2) Total return is calculated assuming a purchase of shares at net asset value on the first day and a sale at net asset value on the last day of the period. Distributions are assumed, for the purpose of this calculation, to be reinvested at the ex-dividend date net asset value per share on their respective payment dates.
  (3) Annualized
  (4) Not annualized
  (5) Portfolio turnover rate excludes portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of processing capital share transactions in Creation Units. (Note 5)


17 
 

PRIVACY NOTICE

FACTS WHAT DOES TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST DO WITH YOUR
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Why? Financial companies choose how they share your personal information.  Federal law gives consumers the right to limit some but not all sharing.  Federal law also requires us to tell you how we collect, share, and protect your personal information.  Please read this notice carefully to understand what we do.
What?

THE TYPES OF PERSONAL INFORMATION WE COLLECT AND SHARE DEPENDS ON THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT YOU HAVE WITH US. THIS INFORMATION CAN INCLUDE:

  • Social Security number and income
  • Account transactions and transaction history
  • Investment experience and purchase history

 

When you are no longer our customer, we continue to share your information as described in this notice.

How? All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday business.  In the section below, we list the reasons financial companies can share their customers’ personal information; the reason Two Roads Shared Trust chooses to share and whether you can limit this sharing.

 

Reasons we can share your personal information Does Two Roads Shared Trust share? Can you limit
this sharing?

For our everyday business purposes –

such as to process your transactions, maintain your account(s), respond to court orders and legal investigations, or report to credit bureaus

YES NO

For our marketing purposes –

to offer our products and services to you

NO We do not share
For joint marketing with other financial companies NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your transactions and experiences

NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your creditworthiness

NO We do not share
For our affiliates to market to you NO We do not share
For nonaffiliates to market to you NO We do not share
     

 

Questions? Call 1-402-895-1600

 

 

18 
 

What we do

How does Two Roads Shared Trust protect my personal information?

To protect your personal information from unauthorized access and use, we use security measures that comply with federal law.

 

These measures include computer safeguards and secured files and buildings.

 

Our service providers are held accountable for adhering to strict policies and procedures to prevent any misuse of your nonpublic personal information.

How does Two Roads Shared Trust collect my personal information?

We collect your personal information, for example, when you

  • open an account or give us contact information
  • provide account information or give us your income information
  • make deposits or withdrawals from your account

We also collect your personal information from other companies.

Why can’t I limit all sharing?

Federal law gives you the right to limit only

  • sharing for affiliates’ everyday business purposes – information about your creditworthiness
  • affiliates from using your information to market to you
  • sharing for nonaffiliates to market to you

State laws and individual companies may give you additional rights to limit sharing

 

 

Definitions

Affiliates

Companies related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust has no affiliates.
   
Nonaffiliates

Companies not related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not share with nonaffiliates so they can market to you.
   
Joint marketing

A formal agreement between nonaffiliates financial companies that together market financial products or services to you.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not jointly market.

 

 

19 
 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

 

Adviser

Redwood Investment Management, LLC

1117 S. Robertson Boulevard

Los Angeles, CA 90035

Distributor

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC

17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200

Omaha, NE 68130

Custodian & Transfer Agent

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.

50 Post Office Square

Boston, MA 02110

Legal
Counsel

Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP

One Logan Square, Ste. 2000

Philadelphia, PA 19103-6996

Administrator

Gemini Fund Services, LLC

17645 Wright Street, Suite 200

Omaha, NE 68130

Independent

Registered Public Accountant

Grant Thornton LLP

757 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10017

 

Additional information about the Fund is included in the Fund’s SAI dated February 28, 2019 and annual report to shareholders. The SAI and the financial statements included in the Fund’s most recent annual report to shaerholders for the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, including the notes thereto and report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, are incorporated into this Prospectus by reference (i.e., legally made a part of this Prospectus). The SAI provides more details about the Fund’s policies and management. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will also be available in the Fund’s annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the Fund’s annual report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

 

To obtain a free copy of the SAI and the annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders, or other information about the Fund, or to make shareholder inquiries about the Fund, please call 1-480-757-4277. The SAI, annual and semi-annual reports (when available) and other information relating to the Fund can be found, free of charge, at www.leadersharesetfs.com. You may also write to:

 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

PO Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Reports and other information about the Fund are available on the EDGAR Database on the SECs Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of the information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following E-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

 

 

Investment Company Act File # 811-22718

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

 

LSAF

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

February 28, 2019

 

Listed and traded on:

NYSE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of the LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF (the "Fund"”) dated February 28, 2019. The Fund’s Prospectus is hereby incorporate by reference, which means it is legally part of this document. You can obtain copies of the Fund’s Prospectus, annual or semi-annual reports without charge by contacting the Fund’s Distributor, Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200, Omaha, NE 68130-2095 or by calling 1-480-757-4277. You may also obtain a Prospectus by visiting the website at www.leadersharesetfs.com.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE FUND  
TYPES OF INVESTMENTS, STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS  
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS  
POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS
 
MANAGEMENT  
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS  
INVESTMENT ADVISER  
THE DISTRIBUTOR  
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS  
ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE  
PORTFOLIO TURNOVER  
OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS  
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES  
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM  
PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES  
TAX STATUS  
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM  
LEGAL COUNSEL  
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS  
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES  

 

  

 

 
 

 

THE FUND

 

The Fund is a series of Two Roads Shared Trust, a Delaware statutory trust organized on June 8, 2012 (the "Trust"). The Trust is registered as an open-end management investment company, currently consisting of twenty separate active portfolios. The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the "Board" or "Trustees"). The Fund may issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. All shares of the Fund have equal rights and privileges. Each share of the Fund is entitled to one vote on all matters as to which shares are entitled to vote. In addition, each share of the Fund is entitled to participate equally with other shares (i) in dividends and distributions declared by such Fund and (ii) on liquidation to its proportionate share of the assets remaining after satisfaction of outstanding liabilities. Shares of such Fund are fully paid, non-assessable and fully transferable when issued and have no pre-emptive, conversion or exchange rights. Fractional shares have proportionately the same rights, including voting rights, as are provided for a full share.

 

The Fund is a “diversified” series of the Trust, meaning that the Fund is subject to diversification requirements of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”), which generally limit investments, as to 75% of a fund’s net assets, to no more than 5% in securities in a single issuer and 10% of an issuer’s voting securities.

 

The Fund’s investment objective, restrictions and policies are more fully described here and in the Prospectus. The Board may launch other series and offer shares of a new fund under the Trust at any time.

 

Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust, each Trustee will continue in office until the termination of the Trust or his/her earlier death, incapacity, resignation or removal. Shareholders can remove a Trustee to the extent provided by the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Vacancies may be filled by a majority of the remaining Trustees, except insofar as the 1940 Act may require the election by shareholders. As a result, normally no annual or regular meetings of shareholders will be held unless matters arise requiring a vote of shareholders under the Agreement and Declaration of Trust or the 1940 Act.

 

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at net asset value ("NAV") only in aggregations of 25,000 Shares (a "Creation Unit"). The Fund will issue and redeem Creation Units principally in exchange for an in-kind deposit of a basket of designated securities (the "Deposit Securities"), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the "Cash Component"), plus a transaction fee. The Fund is expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) (the "Exchange"). Shares will trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV. In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, a share split, reverse split or the like, the Trust may revise the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

The Fund reserves the right to offer creations and redemptions of Shares for cash. In addition, Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash equal to up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees, may be imposed and may be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. See PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES below.

 

Exchange Listing and Trading

 

In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of the Fund, the Exchange or a market data vendor will disseminate every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means an updated "intraday indicative value" ("IIV") for the Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIV and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIV.

 

TYPES OF INVESTMENTS, STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

 

The investment objective of the Fund and the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies are set forth under “Additional Information about Principal Investment Strategies and Related Risks” in the Prospectus. The Fund’s

1 
 

investment objective is not a fundamental policy and may be changed without the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust.

 

The Fund has adopted a non-fundamental investment policy in accordance with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the value of its assets, including any borrowings for investment purposes, in a diversified portfolio of equity securities or investments that are economically tied to equity securities (i.e., derivatives), such as equity options, that replicate the Fund’s underlying index. The Fund will provide its shareholders with at least 60 days’ prior written notice of any change in such policy. For these purposes, “net assets” is measured at the time of purchase.

 

The following pages contain more detailed information about the types of instruments in which the Fund may invest directly as a principal or non-principal investment strategy. These instruments include other strategies Redwood Investment Management, LLC (the “Adviser”) employs in pursuit of the Fund’s investment objective and a summary of related risks.

 

Securities of Other Investment Companies

 

Investments in ETFs and mutual funds involve certain additional expenses and certain tax results, which would not be present in a direct investment in such funds. Due to legal limitations, the Fund will be prevented from: 1) purchasing more than 3% of an investment company's (including ETFs) outstanding shares; 2) investing more than 5% of the Fund’s assets in any single such investment company, and 3) investing more than 10% of the Fund’s assets in investment companies overall; unless: (i) the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from such limitations from the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"); and (ii) the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. In the alternative, the Fund may rely on Rule 12d1-3, which allows unaffiliated mutual funds to exceed the 5% limitation and the 10% limitation, provided the aggregate sales loads any investor pays (i.e., the combined distribution expenses of both the acquiring fund and the acquired fund) does not exceed the limits on sales loads established by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) for funds of funds. In addition to ETFs, the Fund may invest in other investment companies such as open-end mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, and closed-end funds within the limitations described above. Each investment company is subject to specific risks, depending on the nature of the Fund. ETFs and mutual funds may employ leverage, which magnifies the changes in the underlying stock or other index upon which they are based.

 

Open-End Investment Companies  

The Fund may invest in shares of open-end investment companies. The Fund and any “affiliated persons,” as defined by the 1940 Act, may purchase in the aggregate only up to 3% of the total outstanding securities of any underlying fund unless: (i) the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from such limitations from the SEC; and (ii) the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. Accordingly, when affiliated persons hold shares of any of the underlying funds, the Fund’s ability to invest fully in shares of those funds is restricted, and the adviser must then, in some instances, select alternative investments that would not have been its first preference. The 1940 Act also provides that an underlying fund whose shares are purchased by the Fund will be obligated to redeem shares held by the Fund only in an amount up to 1% of the underlying fund’s outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days. Shares held by the Fund in excess of 1% of an underlying fund’s outstanding securities therefore, will be considered not readily marketable securities, which, together with other such securities, may not exceed 15% of the Fund’s total assets.  Under certain circumstances an underlying fund may determine to make payment of a redemption by the Fund wholly or partly by a distribution in kind of securities from its portfolio, in lieu of cash, in conformity with the rules of the SEC. In such cases, the Fund may hold securities distributed by an underlying fund until the adviser determines that it is appropriate to dispose of such securities.

Investment decisions by the investment advisers of the underlying funds are made independently of the Fund and its Adviser. Therefore, the investment adviser of one underlying fund may be purchasing shares of the same issuer whose shares are being sold by the adviser of the Fund. The result would be an indirect expense to the Fund without accomplishing any investment purpose.  

2 
 

Money Market Fund Investments

Certain money market funds in which the Fund may invest may operate as “institutional money market funds” under Rule 2a-7 of the 1940 Act and must calculate their NAV per share to the fourth decimal place (e.g., $1.0000) reflecting market-based values of the money market fund’s holdings. Because the share price of these money market funds will fluctuate, when the Fund sells its shares they may be worth more or less than what the Fund originally paid for them. The Fund could also lose money if the money market fund holds defaulted securities or as a result of adverse market conditions. These money market funds may impose a “liquidity fee” upon the redemption of their shares or may temporarily suspend the ability to redeem shares if the money market fund’s liquidity falls below the required minimums because of market conditions or other factors.

These measures may result in an investment loss or prohibit the Fund from redeeming shares when the Adviser would otherwise redeem shares. If a liquidity fee is imposed or redemptions are suspended, the Fund may have to sell other investments at less than opportune times to raise cash to meet shareholder redemptions or for other purposes. The Adviser, as a result of imposition of liquidity fees or suspension of redemptions, or the potential risk of such actions, may determine not to invest the Fund’s assets in a money market fund when it otherwise would, and may potentially be forced to invest in more expensive, lower-performing investments.

Imposition of a liquidity fee or temporary suspension of redemptions is at the discretion of a money market fund’s board of directors or trustees; however, they must impose a liquidity fee or suspend redemptions if they determine it would be in the best interest of the money market fund. Such a determination may conflict with the interest of the Fund.

The Fund may also invest in money market funds that invest at least 99.5% of their assets in U.S. government securities and operate as “government money market funds” under Rule 2a-7. Government money market funds may seek to maintain a stable price of $1.00 per share and are generally not required to impose liquidity fees or temporarily suspend redemptions. However, government money market funds typically offer materially lower yields than other money market funds with fluctuating share prices.

The Fund could lose money invested in a money market fund. An investment in a money market fund, including a government money market fund, is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) or any other government agency. A money market fund’s sponsor has no legal obligation to provide financial support to the money market fund, and you should not expect that the sponsor or any person will provide financial support to a money market fund at any time.

In addition to the fees and expenses that the Fund directly bears, the Fund indirectly bears the fees and expenses of any money market funds in which it invests. By investing in a money market fund, the Fund will be exposed to the investment risks of the money market fund in direct proportion to such investment. The money market fund may not achieve its investment objective. The Fund, through its investment in the money market fund, may not achieve its investment objective. To the extent the Fund invests in instruments such as derivatives, the Fund may hold investments, which may be significant, in money market fund shares to cover its obligations resulting from the Fund’s investments in derivatives. Money market funds are subject to comprehensive regulations. The enactment of new legislation or regulations, as well as changes in interpretation and enforcement of current laws, may affect the manner of operation, performance and/or yield of money market funds.

Exchange-Traded Funds

ETFs are typically passively managed funds that track their related index and have the flexibility of trading like a security. They are managed by professionals and typically provide the investor with diversification, cost and tax efficiency, liquidity, marginability, are useful for hedging, have the ability to go long and short, and some provide quarterly dividends. Additionally, some ETFs are unit investment trusts (UITs). ETFs typically have two markets. The primary market is where institutions swap “creation units” in block-multiples of, for example 50,000 shares for in-kind securities and cash in the form of dividends. The secondary market

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is where individual investors can trade as little as a single share during trading hours on the exchange. This is different from open-ended mutual funds that are traded after hours once the net asset value (NAV) is calculated. ETFs share many similar risks with open-end and closed-end funds.

ETFs are shares issued by investment companies that are traded like traditional equity securities on a national stock exchange or the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the price of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional open-end mutual funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a discount to their net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are de-listed from the exchange or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.

ETF shares are not individually redeemable from the ETF, except upon termination of the ETF. To redeem from the ETF, an investor must accumulate enough ETF shares to reconstitute a creation unit. Upon redemption of a creation unit, an investor will receive securities underlying the ETF and cash identical to the portfolio deposit required of an investor wishing to purchase a creation unit that day. The Fund may sell ETF shares through a broker dealer.

The price of an ETF’s shares is derived from and based upon the securities held by the ETF. Accordingly, the level of risk involved in the purchase or sale of an ETF is similar to the risk involved in the purchase or sale of traditional common stock, with the exception that the pricing mechanism for ETFs generally is based on a basket of stocks. Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on ETFs.

Closed-End Investment Companies  

The Fund may invest its assets in “closed-end” investment companies (or “closed-end funds”), subject to the investment restrictions set forth below. The Fund may purchase in the aggregate only up to 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of any closed-end fund. Shares of closed-end funds are typically offered to the public in a one-time initial public offering by a group of underwriters who retain a spread or underwriting commission of between 4% or 6% of the initial public offering price. Such securities are then listed for trading on the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (commonly known as “NASDAQ”) and, in some cases, may be traded in other over-the-counter markets. Because the shares of closed-end funds cannot be redeemed upon demand to the issuer like the shares of an open-end investment company (such as the Fund), investors seek to buy and sell shares of closed-end funds in the secondary market.  

The Fund generally will purchase shares of closed-end funds only in the secondary market. The Fund will incur normal brokerage costs on such purchases similar to the expenses the Fund would incur for the purchase of securities of any other type of issuer in the secondary market. The Fund may, however, also purchase securities of a closed-end fund in an initial public offering when, in the opinion of the adviser, based on a consideration of the nature of the closed-end fund’s proposed investments, the prevailing market conditions and the level of demand for such securities, they represent an attractive opportunity for growth of capital. The initial offering price typically will include a dealer spread, which may be higher than the applicable brokerage cost if the Fund purchased such securities in the secondary market.  

The shares of many closed-end funds, after their initial public offering, frequently trade at a price per share, which is less than the net asset value per share, the difference representing the “market discount” of such shares. This market discount may be due in part to the investment objective of long-term appreciation, which is sought by many closed-end funds, as well as to the fact that the shares of closed-end funds are not redeemable by the holder upon demand to the issuer at the next determined net asset value but rather are

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subject to the principles of supply and demand in the secondary market. A relative lack of secondary market purchasers of closed-end fund shares also may contribute to such shares trading at a discount to their net asset value.

The Fund may invest in shares of closed-end funds that are trading at a discount to net asset value or at a premium to net asset value. There can be no assurance that the market discount on shares of any closed-end fund purchased by the Fund will ever decrease. In fact, it is possible that this market discount may increase and the Fund may suffer realized or unrealized capital losses due to further decline in the market price of the securities of such closed-end funds, thereby adversely affecting the net asset value of the Fund’s shares. Similarly, there can be no assurance that any shares of a closed-end fund purchased by the Fund at a premium will continue to trade at a premium or that the premium will not decrease subsequent to a purchase of such shares by the Fund.  

Closed-end funds may issue senior securities (including preferred stock and debt obligations) for the purpose of leveraging the closed-end fund’s common shares in an attempt to enhance the current return to such closed-end fund’s common shareholders. The Fund’s investment in the common shares of closed-end funds that are financially leveraged may create an opportunity for greater total return on its investment, but at the same time may be expected to exhibit more volatility in market price and net asset value than an investment in shares of investment companies without a leveraged capital structure.

Business Development Companies

Business development companies (“BDCs”) are regulated under the 1940 Act and are taxed as regulated investment companies (“RICs”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). BDCs typically operate as publicly traded private equity firms that invest in early stage to mature private companies and small public companies. BDCs realize operating income when their investments are sold off, and therefore maintain complex organizational, operational, tax and compliance requirements, and must distribute at least 90% of their taxable earnings as dividends. Additionally, a BDC’s expenses are not direct expenses paid by Fund shareholders and are not used to calculate the Fund’s net asset value.

Borrowing

While the Fund does not anticipate doing so, the Fund may borrow money for investment purposes. Borrowing for investment purposes is one form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique that increases investment risk, but also increases investment opportunity. Because substantially all of the Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV per share of the Fund will increase more when the Fund’s portfolio assets increase in value and decrease more when the Fund’s portfolio assets decrease in value than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. Under adverse conditions, the Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales. The Fund may borrow to employ leverage during periods when the Adviser believes that the Fund’s investment objective would be furthered.

The Fund may also borrow money to facilitate management of the Fund’s portfolio by enabling the Fund to meet redemption requests when the liquidation of portfolio instruments would be inconvenient or disadvantageous. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by the Fund promptly. As required by the 1940 Act, the Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If, at any time, the value of the Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, the Fund, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays), will reduce the amount of the Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations otherwise indicate that it would be disadvantageous to do so.

In addition to the foregoing, the Fund is authorized to borrow money as a temporary measure for extraordinary or emergency purposes in amounts not in excess of 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets. Borrowings for extraordinary or emergency purposes are not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement.

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Certificates of Deposit and Bankers' Acceptances

 

Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds.
The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate. The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Bankers' acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions. Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise. The draft is then "accepted" by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date. The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity. Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.

 

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Commercial Paper

 

Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance their current operations. It may be secured by letters of credit, a surety bond or other forms of collateral. Commercial paper is usually repaid at maturity by the issuer from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to the risk the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper may become illiquid or may suffer from reduced liquidity in certain circumstances. Like all fixed income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. If interest rates rise, commercial paper prices will decline. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to interest rate risk than many other fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Commercial paper tends to yield smaller returns than longer-term corporate debt because securities with shorter maturities typically have lower effective yields than those with longer maturities. As with all fixed income securities, there is a chance that the issuer will default on its commercial paper obligation.

 

Convertible Securities

 

Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer's underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of "usable" bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer's capital structure, but are usually subordinated to non-convertible fixed income securities. While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security's underlying common stock.

Cyber Security Risk

 

The Fund and its service providers may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from breaches in cyber security. A breach in cyber security refers to both intentional and unintentional events that may cause the Fund to lose proprietary information, suffer data corruption, or lose operational capacity. Breaches in cyber security include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber-attacks. Cyber security breaches affecting the Fund or its Adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact the Fund. For instance, cyber security breaches may interfere with the processing of shareholders transactions, impact the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAVs, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject the Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. The Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which the Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause the Fund’s investment in such companies to lose value.

 

Depositary Receipts

 

Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs"), are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. Unsponsored ADRs may be created without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.

 

Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), receipts issued by non-U.S. financial institutions evidencing ownership of underlying foreign or U.S. securities and are usually denominated in foreign currencies. GDRs may not be

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denominated in the same currency as the securities they represent. Generally, GDRs are designed for use in the foreign securities markets.

 

Derivative Instruments

The Fund may purchase and write call and put options on securities, securities indices and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, and enter into futures contracts and use options on futures contracts as further described below. The Fund may also enter into swap agreements with respect to foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, interest rates and securities indices. The Fund may use these techniques to hedge against changes in interest rates, foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange rates or securities prices or to attempt to achieve investment returns as part of its overall investment strategies. The Fund may also purchase and sell options relating to foreign (non-U.S.) currencies for purposes of increasing exposure to a foreign (non-U.S.) currency or to shift exposure to foreign (non-U.S.) currency fluctuations from one country to another. The Fund will segregate or “earmark” assets determined to be liquid by the adviser in accordance with procedures established by the Board (or, as permitted by applicable regulation, enter into certain offsetting positions) to cover its obligations under options, futures, and swaps to avoid leveraging the portfolio of the Fund as described below.

The Fund considers derivative instruments to consist of securities or other instruments whose value is derived, at least in part, from or related to the price or value of another instrument or asset, or the level of an index, such as the S&P 500 Indx, or indices, and not to include those securities whose payment of principal and/or interest depends upon cash flows from underlying assets, such as mortgage-related or asset-backed securities. The value of some derivative instruments in which the Fund invests may be particularly sensitive to changes in prevailing interest rates, and, like other investments of the Fund, the ability of the Fund to successfully utilize these instruments may depend in part upon the ability of the Adviser to correctly forecast interest rates and other economic factors. If the Adviser incorrectly forecasts such factors and has taken positions in derivative instruments contrary to prevailing market trends, the Fund could be exposed to the risk of loss. In addition, while the use of derivatives for hedging purposes can reduce losses, it can also reduce or eliminate gains, and hedges are sometimes subject to imperfect matching between the derivative and security it is hedging, which means that a hedge might not be effective. The Fund might not employ any of the strategies described above, and no assurance can be given that any strategy used will succeed. A decision as to whether, when and how to utilize derivative instruments involves skill and judgment, and even a well-conceived derivatives strategy may be unsuccessful. The use of derivative instruments involves brokerage fees and/or other transaction costs.

Investment in futures-related and commodity-linked derivatives may subject the Fund to additional risks, and in particular may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The value of futures-related and commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs, and international economic, political and regulatory developments. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment available to regulated investment companies under the Code, the Fund must derive at least 90% of its gross income each taxable year from certain specified types of investments. It is currently unclear which types of commodities-linked derivatives fall within these specified investment types. As a result, if the Fund’s investment in commodities-linked derivatives were to exceed a certain threshold, the Fund could fail to qualify for the special tax treatment available to regulated investment companies under the Code.

Some forms of derivative instruments, such as exchange-traded futures and certain options, are traded on regulated exchanges. These types of derivative instruments are standardized contracts for which market quotations are published daily Non-standardized derivative instruments, on the other hand, tend to be more specialized or complex, and may be harder to value. While derivative instruments may be useful for investment and hedging, they also carry additional risks. Some derivative instruments have the effect of leverage on the Fund, meaning that a small investment in derivative instruments could have a potentially large impact on the Fund’s returns. The use of derivative instruments involve risks different from, and/or possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the underlying assets or references. The use of derivative instruments is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary securities transactions. The Fund may choose not to invest in derivative instruments because of their cost, limited availability or any number of other reasons deemed relevant by the Adviser.

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Regulatory Risks of Derivative Use

In February 2012, the CFTC adopted certain regulatory changes that will subject advisers to certain registered investment companies to registration with the CFTC as a commodity pool operator (“CPO”) if an investment company is unable to meet certain trading and marketing limitations. These rules became effective on January 1, 2013. In relation to these regulatory changes adopted by the CFTC, the Fund’s Adviser intends to rely on an exemption from the CFTC’s CPO registration requirements. However, it is possible that the Adviser may be required to register as a CPO in the future and comply with any applicable reporting, disclosure or other regulatory requirements. Compliance with CFTC regulatory requirements will increase Fund expenses. Other potentially adverse regulatory initiatives could also develop.

It is also possible that additional government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, including futures, options and swap agreements, may limit or prevent the Fund from using such instruments as a part of its investment strategy, and could ultimately prevent the Fund from being able to achieve its investment objective. It is impossible to fully predict the effects of past, present or future legislation and regulation in this area, but the effects could be substantial and adverse. It is possible that legislative and regulatory activity could limit or restrict the ability of the Fund to use certain instruments as a part of its investment strategy. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund may engage in derivative transactions could also prevent the Fund from using certain instruments.

There is a possibility of future regulatory changes altering, perhaps to a material extent, the nature of an investment in the Fund or the ability of the Fund to continue to implement its investment strategy. The futures, options and swaps markets are subject to comprehensive statutes, regulations, and margin requirements. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading. The regulation of futures, options and swaps transactions in the U.S. is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action.

In 2010, the U.S. government enacted legislation that provides for new regulation of the derivatives market, including clearing, margin, reporting and registration requirements. The CFTC and certain futures exchanges have also established limits, referred to as “position limits,” on the maximum net long or net short positions which any person may hold or control in particular options and futures contracts. All positions owned or controlled by the same person or entity, even if in different accounts, may be aggregated for purposes of determining whether the applicable position limits have been exceeded. Thus, even if the Fund does not intend to exceed applicable position limits, it is possible that different clients managed by the Adviser and any of its affiliates may be aggregated for this purpose. The trading decisions of the Adviser may have to be modified and positions held by the Fund may have to be liquidated in order to avoid exceeding such limits. The modification of investment decisions or the elimination of open positions, if it occurs, may adversely affect the profitability of the Fund.

The SEC has in the past adopted interim rules requiring reporting of all short positions on securities above a certain de minimis threshold and is expected to adopt rules requiring monthly public disclosure in the future. In addition, other non-U.S. jurisdictions where the Fund may trade have adopted reporting requirements. If the Fund’s securities short positions or its strategy become generally known, it could have a significant effect on the Adviser’s ability to implement its investment strategy. In particular, it would make it more likely that other investors could cause a “short squeeze” in the securities held short by the Fund forcing the Fund to cover its positions at a loss. Such reporting requirements may also limit the Adviser’s ability to access management and other personnel at certain companies where the Adviser seeks to take a short position. In addition, if other investors engage in copycat behavior by taking positions in the same issuers as the Fund, the cost of borrowing securities to sell short could increase drastically and the availability of such securities to the Fund could decrease drastically. Such events could make the Fund unable to execute its investment strategy. In addition, the SEC recently proposed additional restrictions on short sales. If the SEC were to adopt additional restrictions regarding short sales, they could restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in short sales of securities in certain circumstances, and the Fund may be unable to execute its investment strategy as a result.

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The SEC and regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may adopt (and in certain cases, have adopted) bans on short sales of certain securities in response to market events. Bans on short selling may make it impossible for the Fund to execute certain investment strategies and may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to generate returns.

Margin Deposits and Cover Requirements

Margin Deposits for Futures Contracts

Unlike the purchase or sale of portfolio securities, no price is paid or received by the Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. Initially, the Fund will be required to deposit with the broker an amount of cash or cash equivalents, known as initial margin, based on the value of the contract. The nature of initial margin in futures transactions is different from that of margin in securities transactions in that futures contract margin does not involve the borrowing of funds by the customer to finance the transactions. Rather, the initial margin is in the nature of a performance bond or good faith deposit on the contract which is returned to the Fund upon termination of the futures contract, assuming all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Subsequent payments, called variation margin, to and from the broker, will be made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying instruments fluctuates, making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking to the market.” For example, when the Fund has purchased a futures contract and the price of the contract has risen in response to a rise in the price of the underlying instruments, that position will have increased in value and the Fund will be entitled to receive from the broker a variation margin payment equal to that increase in value. Conversely, where the Fund has purchased a futures contract and the price of the futures contract has declined in response to a decrease in the underlying instruments, the position would be less valuable and the Fund would be required to make a variation margin payment to the broker. At any time prior to expiration of the futures contract, the Adviser may elect to close the position by taking an opposite position, subject to the availability of a secondary market, which will operate to terminate the Fund’s position in the futures contract. A final determination of variation margin is then made, additional cash is required to be paid by or released to the Fund, and the Fund realizes a loss or gain.

Cover Requirements for Forward Contracts, Swap Agreements, Options, Futures and Options on Futures

The Fund will comply with guidelines established by the SEC with respect to coverage of forwards, futures, swaps and options. These guidelines may, in certain instances, require segregation by the Fund of cash or liquid securities with its custodian or a designated sub-custodian to the extent the Fund’s obligations with respect to these strategies are not otherwise “covered” through ownership of the underlying security, financial instrument or currency or by other portfolio positions or by other means consistent with applicable regulatory policies. Segregated assets cannot be sold or transferred unless equivalent assets are substituted in their place or it is no longer necessary to segregate them. As a result, there is a possibility that segregation of a large percentage of the Fund’s assets could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

For example, when entering into a futures contract that will be cash settled, the Fund will cover (and mark-to-market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the mark-to-market amount, if any, owed by the Fund on the futures contract. When entering into a futures contract that does not need to be settled in cash, the Fund will maintain with its custodian (and mark to market on a daily basis) liquid assets that, when added to the amounts deposited with a futures commission merchant as margin, are equal to the full notional value of the contract. Alternatively, the Fund may “cover” its position by purchasing an option on the same futures contract with a strike price as high or higher than the price of the contract held by the Fund or by entering into an agreement that enables the Fund to settle such futures contracts in cash.

To the extent the Fund writes credit default swaps, the Fund will segregate or “earmark” cash or assets determined to be liquid by the Fund in accordance with procedures established by the Fund’s Board of Trustees, or enter into offsetting positions, with a value at least equal to the full notional amount of the swap (minus any amounts owed to the Fund). Such segregation or “earmarking” will ensure that the Fund has assets available to satisfy its obligations with respect to the transaction and will limit any potential leveraging of the Fund’s portfolio. Also, the Fund does not invest more than 25% of its assets in contracts with any one counterparty.

Equity Securities

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Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stocks, such as convertible bonds, warrants, rights and options. The value of equity securities varies in response to many factors, including the activities and financial condition of individual companies, the business market in which individual companies compete and general market and economic conditions. Equity securities fluctuate in value, often based on factors unrelated to the value of the issuer of the securities, and such fluctuations can be significant.

 

Common Stock

 

Common stock represents an equity (ownership) interest in a company, and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company's stock price.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Preferred stock is a class of stock having a preference over common stock as to the payment of dividends and the recovery of investment should a company be liquidated, although preferred stock is usually junior to the debt securities of the issuer. Preferred stock typically does not possess voting rights and its market value may change based on changes in interest rates.

 

The Fundamental risk of investing in common and preferred stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed-income securities and money market investments. The market value of all securities, including common and preferred stocks, is based upon the market's perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measures of a company's worth.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Currency Transactions

The Fund may engage in foreign (non-U.S.) currency transactions, including foreign (non-U.S.) currency forward contracts, options, swaps, and other strategic transactions in connection with investments in securities of non-U.S. companies. The Fund will conduct its foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange market or through forward contracts to purchase or sell foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

The Fund may enter into forward foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange contracts (forward contracts) in order to protect against possible losses on foreign (non-U.S.) investments resulting from adverse changes in the relationship between the U.S. dollar and foreign (non-U.S.) currencies, as well as to increase exposure to a foreign (non-U.S.) currency or to shift exposure to foreign (non-U.S.) currency fluctuations from one country to another. A forward contract is an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency for an agreed price on a future date which is individually negotiated and privately traded by currency traders and their customers. Although foreign (non-U.S.) exchange dealers often do not charge a fee for conversion, they do realize a profit based on the difference (spread) between the price at which they are buying and selling various currencies. However, forward contracts may limit the potential gains which could result from a positive change in such currency relationships. The Fund will segregate or “earmark” assets determined to be liquid by the Adviser in accordance with procedures established by the Board, to cover the Fund’s obligations under forward foreign (non-U.S.) currency exchange contracts entered into for non-hedging purposes.

The Fund may purchase and write put and call options on foreign (non-U.S.) currencies for the purpose of protecting against declines in the U.S. dollar value of foreign (non-U.S.) portfolio securities and against increases in the U.S. dollar cost of foreign (non-U.S.) securities to be acquired. As with other kinds of options, however, the writing of an option on foreign (non-U.S.) currency will constitute only a partial hedge, up to the amount of the premium received,

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and the Fund could be required to purchase or sell foreign (non-U.S.) currencies at disadvantageous exchange rates, thereby incurring losses. The purchase of an option on foreign (non-U.S.) currency may constitute an effective hedge against fluctuation in exchange rates although, in the event of rate movements adverse to the Fund’s position, the Fund may forfeit the entire amount of the premium plus related transaction costs.

The Fund may enter into interest rate swaps on either an asset-based or liability-based basis, depending on whether it is hedging its assets or its liabilities, and will usually enter into interest rate swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments). The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlement with respect to each interest rate swap will be calculated on a daily basis and an amount of cash or other liquid assets (marked to market daily) having an aggregate net asset value at least equal to the accrued excess will be segregated or “earmarked.” The Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of all counterparties on an ongoing basis. If there is a default by the other party to such a transaction, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction. There is no limit on the amount of interest rate swap transactions that may be entered into by the Fund, subject to the segregation requirement described above. These transactions may in some instances involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets by the Fund or its counterparty to collateralize obligations under the swap. Under the documentation currently used in those markets, the risk of loss with respect to interest rate swaps is limited to the net amount of the payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make. If the other party to an interest rate swap that is not collateralized defaults, the Fund would risk the loss of the net amount of the payments that it contractually is entitled to receive.

While the Adviser is authorized to hedge against currency risk, it is not required to do so. The adviser may choose not to hedge currency exposure.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investments – General

To the extent consistent with its investment objective and strategies, the Fund may invest in foreign securities. Investment in foreign securities involves special risks. These include market risk, interest rate risk and the risks of investing in securities of foreign issuers and of companies whose securities are principally traded outside the United States on foreign exchanges or foreign over-the-counter markets and in investments denominated in foreign currencies. Market risk involves the possibility that security prices will decline over short or even extended periods. The markets tend to be cyclical, with periods of generally rising prices and periods of generally declining prices. These cycles will affect the value of a Fund to the extent that it invests in foreign securities. The holdings of the Fund, to the extent that they invest in fixed-income securities, will be sensitive to changes in interest rates and the interest rate environment. Generally, the prices of bonds and debt securities fluctuate inversely with interest rate changes. In addition, the performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency will depend on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which could otherwise affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally can be expected to increase the value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A rise in foreign interest rates or decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally can be expected to depress the value of a foreign currency-denominated security.

There are other risks and costs involved in investing in foreign securities which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. Investment in foreign securities involves higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls, or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks are subject to less stringent reserve requirements, and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements. Also, the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than

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the remedies available in the United States. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. For example, the decline in the U.S. subprime mortgage market quickly spread throughout global credit markets, triggering a liquidity crisis that affected fixed-income and equity markets around the world.

European countries can be affected by the significant fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several European Union (“EU”) countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

In June of 2016, the United Kingdom (the “UK”) approved a referendum to leave the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” which sparked depreciation in the value of the British pound and heightened risk of continued worldwide economic volatility. Pursuant to Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon, the UK gave notice in March 2017 of its withdrawal from the EU and commenced negotiations on the terms of withdrawal. With notice given, the negotiation period could last for two years or more. The UK is currently scheduled to withdraw from the EU on March 29, 2019. It is unclear what the potential consequences may be. In addition, it is possible that measures could be taken to revote the issue of the withdrawal, or that regions of the UK could seek to separate and remain a part of the EU. As a result of the scheduled withdrawal, the Fund may be exposed to volatile trading markets and significant and unpredictable currency fluctuations over a short period of time, and potentially lower economic growth in the UK, Europe and globally. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by these actions. Further insecurity in EU membership or the abandonment of the euro could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Fund’s investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts; many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations; financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired in their ability to extend credit; and financial markets in Europe and elsewhere have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen or spread within and without Europe. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro, the common currency of the European Union, and/or withdraw from the European Union. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

To the extent consistent with its investment objectives and strategies, the Fund may invest in foreign debt, including the securities of foreign governments. Several risks exist concerning such investments, including the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations, may not respect the integrity of such debt, may attempt to renegotiate the debt at a lower rate, and may not honor investments by U.S. entities or citizens.

Although the Fund may invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, its portfolio securities and other assets are valued in U.S. dollars. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing, together with other factors, a Fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect a

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Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, are denominated in the currencies of foreign countries, a Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

Dividends and interest payable on the Fund’s foreign portfolio securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes. To the extent such taxes are not offset by credits or deductions allowed to investors under U.S. federal income tax law, they may reduce the net return to the shareholders.

The Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the United States and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates.

The Fund also is subject to the possible imposition of exchange control regulations or freezes on the convertibility of currency. In addition, the use of forward currency exchange contracts with other instruments may expose them to risks independent of their securities positions. Although the net long and short foreign currency exposure of the Fund will not exceed its total asset values, to the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater risk than it would have if it did not maintain the currency positions.

The Fund’s foreign securities are generally held outside the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies, as permitted under the 1940 Act (“foreign sub-custodians”). Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to the Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that the Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to deliver payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk.

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result in missed attractive investment opportunities, losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, possible liability to the purchaser. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper record keeping by registrars and issuers.

Share blocking refers to a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where a vote of shareholders takes place. The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent the Fund from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country.

The Fund may invest a significant percentage of its assets in the securities of issuers located in geographic regions with securities markets that are highly developed, liquid and subject to extensive regulation, including Japan. Japan’s economy has historically lagged that of its Asian neighbors and other major developed economies, and it has experienced lengthy periods of recession and deterioration of its competitiveness. Although Japan has attempted to reform its political process and deregulate its economy to address the situation, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed.

Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade, and is especially sensitive to trade barriers and disputes. Domestic or foreign trade sanctions or other protectionist measures may also adversely impact Japan’s economy. In particular, Japan relies on large imports of agricultural products, raw materials and fuels. Japan also

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remains heavily dependent on oil imports, and a substantial rise in commodity prices, or a fall-off in Japan’s manufactured exports, may affect Japan’s economy adversely. Additionally, slowdowns in the economies of key trading partners such as the United States, China and countries in Southeast Asia could have a negative impact on the Japanese economy.

Furthermore, Japan has an aging workforce. It is a labor market undergoing fundamental structural changes, as traditional lifetime employment clashes with the need for increased labor mobility, which may adversely affect Japan’s economic competitiveness.

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely at times and any increase in its value may cause a decline in exports that could weaken the economy. The Japanese yen may also be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. The Japanese securities markets are less regulated than the U.S. markets. Evidence has emerged from time to time of distortion of market prices to serve political or other purposes. Shareholders’ rights also are not always enforced.

Japan has had territorial disputes and/or defense issues with China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, among others. In the past several years, Japan’s relationship with North Korea has been especially strained because of increased nuclear and military activity by North Korea. Japan’s disputes with neighboring countries have the potential to cause uncertainty in the Japanese markets and affect the overall Japanese economy in times of crisis.

Japan is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event could result in a significant adverse impact on the Japanese economy.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Government Securities

The Fund may invest in foreign (non-U.S.) government securities, including securities issued by foreign (non-U.S.) governments, including political subdivisions, or their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities or by supra-national agencies. Different kinds of foreign (non-U.S.) government securities have different types of government support. For example, some foreign (non-U.S.) government securities are supported by the full faith and credit of a foreign (non-U.S.) national government or a political subdivision and some are not. Foreign (non-U.S.) government securities of some countries may involve varying degrees of credit risk as a result of financial or political instability in those countries or the possible inability of the Fund to enforce its rights against a foreign (non-U.S.) government. As with issuers of other fixed income securities, sovereign issuers may be unable or unwilling to satisfy their obligations to pay principal or interest payments.

Supra-national agencies are agencies whose member nations make capital contributions to support the agencies’ activities. Examples include the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.

As with other fixed income securities, foreign (non-U.S.) government securities expose their holders to market risk because their values typically change as interest rates fluctuate.  For example, the value of foreign (non-U.S.) government securities may fall during times of rising interest rates.  Also, yields on foreign (non-U.S.) government securities tend to be lower than those of corporate securities of comparable maturities.

In addition to investing directly in foreign (non-U.S.) government securities, the Fund may purchase certificates of accrual or similar instruments evidencing undivided ownership interests in interest payments and/or principal payments of foreign (non-U.S.) government securities. Certificates of accrual and similar instruments may be more volatile than other foreign (non-U.S.) government securities.

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

 

The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. However, if more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets are illiquid, the Fund’s Adviser will reduce illiquid assets such that they do not represent more than 15% of the Fund’s assets, subject to timing and other considerations that are in the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders.

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Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale (e.g., because they have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act")) and securities that are otherwise not readily marketable (e.g., because trading in the security is suspended or because market makers do not exist or will not entertain bids or offers). Securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act are referred to as private placements or restricted securities and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market. Foreign (non-U.S.) securities that are freely tradable in their principal markets are not considered to be illiquid.

 

Restricted and other illiquid securities may be subject to the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. The Fund might be unable to dispose of illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty in satisfying redemption requests from shareholders. The Fund might have to register restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities.

 

In October 2016, the SEC adopted a new liquidity risk management rule, Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, requiring open-end funds, such as the Fund, to establish a liquidity risk management program and to enhance disclosures regarding fund liquidity. As required by Rule 22e-4, the Fund will implement the liquidity risk management program, including the security classification and classification-related elements and the enhanced disclosures regarding fund liquidity, by June 1, 2019, and the Board will appoint the administrator of the liquidity risk management program. The effect the new rule will have on the Fund is not yet known, but the rule may impact the Fund’s performance and ability to achieve its investment objective.

 

 

A large institutional market exists for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including foreign (non-U.S.) securities. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments. Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows such a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restrictions on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a "safe harbor" from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resale of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A has produced enhanced liquidity for many restricted securities, and market liquidity for such securities may continue to expand as a result of this regulation and the consequent existence of the PORTAL system, which is an automated system for the trading, clearance and settlement of unregistered securities of domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) issuers sponsored by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.

 

Under the current guidelines of the staff of the SEC, illiquid securities are also considered to include, among other securities, purchased OTC options, certain cover for OTC options, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days, and certain securities whose disposition is restricted under federal securities laws.

 

 

Under guidelines adopted by the Trust's Board, the Fund’s Adviser may determine that particular Rule 144A securities, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the private placement exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(2) of the Securities Act, are liquid even though they are not registered. A determination of whether such a security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Adviser will consider, as it deems appropriate under the circumstances and among other factors: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; (3) the number of other potential purchasers of the security; (4) dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; (5) the nature of the security (e.g., debt or equity, date of maturity, terms of dividend or interest payments, and other material terms) and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer); and (6) the rating of the security and the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. In the case of commercial paper, the Adviser will also determine that the paper (1) is not traded flat or in default as to principal and interest, and (2) is rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two National Statistical Rating Organizations ("NRSROs") or, if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or, if the security is unrated, the Adviser determines that it is of equivalent quality.

 

Rule 144A securities and Section 4(2) commercial paper that have been deemed liquid as described above will continue to be monitored by the Adviser to determine if the security is no longer liquid as the result of changed conditions. Investing in Rule 144A securities or Section 4(2) commercial paper could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.

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Insured Bank Obligations

 

The Fund may invest in insured bank obligations. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") insures the deposits of federally insured banks and savings and loan associations (collectively referred to as "banks"), currently up to $250,000. The Fund may purchase bank obligations, which are fully insured as to principal by the FDIC. Currently, to remain fully insured as to principal, these investments must be limited to $250,000 per bank; if the principal amount and accrued interest together exceed $250,000, the excess principal and accrued interest will not be insured. Insured bank obligations may have limited marketability.

 

Lending Portfolio Securities

 

For the purpose of achieving income, the Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided (1) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities or cash or cash equivalents (cash, U.S. Government securities, negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned, (2) the Fund may at any time call the loan and obtain the return of securities loaned, (3) the Fund will receive any interest or dividends received on the loaned securities, and (4) the aggregate value of the securities loaned will not at any time exceed one-third of the total assets of the Fund.  

As with other extensions of credit, there are risks that collateral could be inadequate in the event of the borrower failing financially, which could result in actual financial loss, and risks that recovery of loaned securities could be delayed, which could result in interference with portfolio management decisions or exercise of ownership rights. The Fund will be responsible for the risks associated with the investment of cash collateral, including the risk that the Fund may lose money on the investment or may fail to earn sufficient income to meet its obligations to the borrower. In addition, the Fund may lose its right to vote its shares of the loaned securities at a shareholders meeting if the Adviser does not recall or does not timely recall the loaned securities, or if the borrower fails to return the recalled securities in advance of the record date for the meeting.

Securities lending involves counterparty risk, including the risk that the loaned securities may not be returned or returned in a timely manner and/or a loss of rights in the collateral if the borrower or the lending agent defaults or fails financially. This risk is increased when the Fund’s loans are concentrated with a single or limited number of borrowers. There are no limits on the number of borrowers to which the Fund may lend securities and the Fund may lend securities to only one or a small group of borrowers. As of the date of this SAI, the Fund does not engage in securities lending.

 

Regulation as a Commodity Pool Operator

 

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, will file with the National Futures Association, a notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term "commodity pool operator" under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission promulgated thereunder, with respect to the Fund’s operation. Accordingly, the Fund will not be subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator.

 

Securities Options

 

The Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options. Such options may relate to particular securities or stock indices, and may or may not be listed on a domestic or foreign securities exchange and may or may not be issued by the Options Clearing Corporation. Options trading is a highly specialized activity that entails greater than ordinary investment risk. Options may be more volatile than the underlying instruments, and therefore, on a percentage basis, an investment in options may be subject to greater fluctuation than an investment in the underlying instruments themselves.

 

A call option for a particular security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) the obligation to sell, the underlying security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option, regardless of the market price of the security. The premium paid to the writer is in consideration for undertaking the obligation under the option contract. A put option for a particular security gives the purchaser the right to sell the security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the market price of the security.

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Stock index options are put options and call options on various stock indices. In most respects, they are identical to listed options on common stocks. The primary difference between stock options and index options occurs when index options are exercised. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of an index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market value of the stocks included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500® Index or the Value Line Composite Index or a narrower market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 100®. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment, such as the NYSE AMEX Oil and Gas Index or the Computer and Business Equipment Index. Options on stock indices are currently traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, the Pacific Stock Exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, and the NASDAQ PHLX.

 

The Fund’s obligation to sell an instrument subject to a call option written by it, or to purchase an instrument subject to a put option written by it, may be terminated prior to the expiration date of the option by the Fund’s execution of a closing purchase transaction, which is effected by purchasing on an exchange an option of the same series (i.e., same underlying instrument, exercise price and expiration date) as the option previously written. A closing purchase transaction will ordinarily be effected to realize a profit on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying instrument from being called, to permit the sale of the underlying instrument or to permit the writing of a new option containing different terms on such underlying instrument. The cost of such a liquidation purchase plus transactions costs may be greater than the premium received upon the original option, in which event the Fund will have incurred a loss in the transaction. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option. An option writer unable to effect a closing purchase transaction will not be able to sell the underlying instrument or liquidate the assets held in a segregated account, as described below, until the option expires or the optioned instrument is delivered upon exercise. In such circumstances, the writer will be subject to the risk of market decline or appreciation in the instrument during such period.

 

If an option purchased by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a loss equal to the premium paid. If the Fund enters into a closing sale transaction on an option purchased by it, the Fund will realize a gain if the premium received by the Fund on the closing transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, or a loss if it is less. If an option written by the Fund expires on the stipulated expiration date or if the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction, it will realize a gain (or loss if the cost of a closing purchase transaction exceeds the net premium received when the option is sold). If an option written by the Fund is exercised, the proceeds of the sale will be increased by the net premium originally received and the Fund will realize a gain or loss.

 

Certain Risks Regarding Options

 

There are several risks associated with transactions in options. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. In addition, a liquid secondary market for particular options, whether traded over-the-counter or on an exchange, may be absent for reasons which include the following: there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities or currencies; unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading value; or one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

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Successful use by the Fund of options on stock indices will be subject to the ability of the Adviser to correctly predict movements in the directions of the stock market. This requires different skills and techniques than predicting changes in the prices of individual securities. In addition, the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge all or a portion of the securities in its portfolio, in anticipation of or during a market decline, through transactions in put options on stock indices, depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying index correlate with the price movements of the securities held by the Fund. Inasmuch as the Fund’s securities will not duplicate the components of an index, the correlation will not be perfect. Consequently, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its securities being hedged will not move in the same amount as the prices of its put options on the stock indices. It is also possible that there may be a negative correlation between the index and the Fund’s securities that would result in a loss on both such securities and the options on stock indices acquired by the Fund.

 

The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. The purchase of options is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The purchase of stock index options involves the risk that the premium and transaction costs paid by the Fund in purchasing an option will be lost as a result of unanticipated movements in prices of the securities comprising the stock index on which the option is based.

 

There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and for some options no secondary market on an exchange or elsewhere may exist. If the Fund is unable to close out a call option on securities that it has written before the option is exercised, the Fund may be required to purchase the optioned securities in order to satisfy its obligation under the option to deliver such securities. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options on securities that it has purchased, it would have to exercise the option in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.

 

Cover for Options Positions

 

Transactions using options (other than options that the Fund has purchased) expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (i) an offsetting ("covered") position in securities or other options or (ii) cash or liquid securities with a value sufficient at all times to cover its potential obligations not covered as provided in (i) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for these instruments and, if the guidelines so require, set aside cash or liquid securities in a segregated account with the Fund’ custodian in the prescribed amount. Under current SEC guidelines, the Fund will segregate assets to cover transactions in which the Fund writes or sells options.

 

Assets used as cover or held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding option is open, unless they are replaced with similar assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of the Fund’s assets to cover or segregated accounts could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

Options on Futures Contracts

The Fund may purchase and sell options on the same types of futures in which it may invest. Options on futures are similar to options on underlying instruments except that options on futures give the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in a futures contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put), rather than to purchase or sell the futures contract, at a specified exercise price at any time during the period of the option. Upon exercise of the option, the delivery of the futures position by the writer of the option to the holder of the option will be accompanied by the delivery of the accumulated balance in the writer’s futures margin account which represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract, at exercise, exceeds (in the case of a call) or is less than (in the case of a put) the exercise price of the option on the futures contract. Purchasers of options who fail to exercise their options prior to the exercise date suffer a loss of the premium paid.  

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Dealer Options

The Fund may engage in transactions involving dealer options as well as exchange-traded options. Certain additional risks are specific to dealer options. While the Fund might look to a clearing corporation to exercise exchange-traded options, if the Fund were to purchase a dealer option it would need to rely on the dealer from which it purchased the option to perform if the option were exercised. Failure by the dealer to do so would result in the loss of the premium paid by the Fund as well as loss of the expected benefit of the transaction.

Exchange-traded options generally have a continuous liquid market while dealer options may not. Consequently, the Fund may generally be able to realize the value of a dealer option it has purchased only by exercising or reselling the option to the dealer who issued it. Similarly, when the Fund writes a dealer option, the Fund may generally be able to close out the option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the dealer to whom the Fund originally wrote the option.

While the Fund will seek to enter into dealer options only with dealers who will agree to and which are expected to be capable of entering into closing transactions with the Fund, there can be no assurance that the Fund will at any time be able to liquidate a dealer option at a favorable price at any time prior to expiration. Unless the Fund, as a covered dealer call option writer, is able to effect a closing purchase transaction, it will not be able to liquidate securities (or other assets) used as cover until the option expires or is exercised. In the event of insolvency of the other party, the Fund may be unable to liquidate a dealer option. With respect to options written by the Fund, the inability to enter into a closing transaction may result in material losses to the Fund. For example, because the Fund must maintain a secured position with respect to any call option on a security it writes, the Fund may not sell the assets, which it has segregated to secure the position while it is obligated under the option. This requirement may impair the Fund’s ability to sell portfolio securities at a time when such sale might be advantageous.

The Staff of the SEC has taken the position that purchased dealer options are illiquid securities. The Fund may treat the cover used for written dealer options as liquid if the dealer agrees that the Fund may repurchase the dealer options they have written for a maximum price to be calculated by a predetermined formula. In such cases, the dealer option would be considered illiquid only to the extent the maximum purchase price under the formula exceeds the intrinsic value of the option. Accordingly, the Fund will treat dealer options as subject to the Fund’s limitation on illiquid securities. If the SEC changes its position on the liquidity of dealer options, the Fund will change their treatment of such instruments accordingly.

Spread Transactions

The Fund may purchase covered spread options from securities dealers. These covered spread options are not presently exchange-listed or exchange-traded. The purchase of a spread option gives the Fund the right to put securities that it owns at a fixed dollar spread or fixed yield spread in relationship to another security that the Fund does not own, but which is used as a benchmark. The risk to the Fund, in addition to the risks of dealer options described above, is the cost of the premium paid as well as any transaction costs. The purchase of spread options will be used to protect the Fund against adverse changes in prevailing credit quality spreads, i.e., the yield spread between high quality and lower quality securities. This protection is provided only during the life of the spread options.

Short Sales

The Fund may employ “short selling” for both (1) investment purposes and (2) for defensive purposes as a hedging strategy.  For investment purposes, when the Adviser believes that particular index, company or sector is relatively overvalued, the Fund may sell a security short with the expectation that it can be repurchased at a lower price, thus generating a gain for the Fund. For defensive purposes, when the Adviser believes that a security or group of securities in the Fund is susceptible to a decline in value, the Fund may sell a security short with the expectation any decline in value of the security sold short will serve to offset some of the decline in value suffered by the Fund’s portfolio of securities.  A short sale strategy is different than a long-only strategy because it consists of selling borrowed shares in the hope that they can be bought back later at a lower price.

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The Fund may sell securities short involving the use of derivative instruments and to offset potential declines in long positions in similar securities. A short sale is a transaction in which the Fund sells a security it does not own or have the right to acquire (or that it owns but does not wish to deliver) in anticipation that the market price of that security will decline.  

When the Fund makes a short sale, the broker-dealer through which the short sale is made must borrow the security sold short and deliver it to the party purchasing the security. The Fund is required to make a margin deposit in connection with such short sales; the Fund may have to pay a fee to borrow particular securities and will often be obligated to pay over any dividends and accrued interest on borrowed securities.  

If the price of the security sold short increases between the time of the short sale and the time the Fund covers its short position, the Fund will incur a loss; conversely, if the price declines, the Fund will realize a capital gain. Any gain will be decreased, and any loss increased, by the transaction costs described above. The successful use of short selling may be adversely affected by imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the security sold short and the securities being hedged.

To the extent the Fund sells securities short, it will provide collateral to the broker-dealer and (except in the case of short sales “against the box”) will maintain additional asset coverage in the form of cash, U.S. government securities or other liquid securities with its custodian in a segregated account in an amount at least equal to the difference between the current market value of the securities sold short and any amounts required to be deposited as collateral with the selling broker (not including the proceeds of the short sale). The Fund does not intend to enter into short sales (other than short sales “against the box”) if immediately after such sales the aggregate of the value of all collateral plus the amount in such segregated account exceeds 50% of the value of the Fund’s net assets. This percentage may be varied by action of the Board of Trustees. A short sale is “against the box” to the extent the Fund contemporaneously owns, or has the right to obtain at no added cost, securities identical to those sold short.

Short sales create a risk that the Fund will be required to close the short position by buying the security at a time when the security has appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the Fund. A short position in a security poses more risk than holding the same security long. Because a short position loses value as the security’s price increases, the loss on a short sale is theoretically unlimited.  

To the extent that the Fund uses short sales as a hedging technique, the Fund is subject to correlation risk. Specifically, the correlation between the security sold short and the hedged security may be imperfect, reducing the expected benefit to the Fund of a short sale, or there may be no correlation at all.  It is possible that the market value of the securities the Fund holds in long positions will decline at the same time that the market value of the securities the Fund has sold short increases, thereby increasing the Fund’s potential volatility.

In addition, any gain on a short sale is decreased, and any loss is increased, by the amount of any payments, such as lender fees, replacement of dividends or interest that the Fund may be required to make with respect to the borrowed securities.  Market factors may prevent the Fund from closing out a short position at the most desirable time or at a favorable price. The lender of the borrowed securities may require the Fund to return the securities on short notice, which may require the Fund to purchase the borrowed securities at an unfavorable price, resulting in a loss.  You should be aware that any strategy that includes selling securities short could suffer significant losses.  Short selling will also result in higher transaction costs (such as interest and dividends), which reduce the Fund’s return, and may result in higher taxes.

Structured Notes, Bonds and Debentures

Typically, the value of the principal and/or interest on these instruments is determined by reference to changes in the value of specific currencies, interest rates, commodities, indexes or other financial indicators (the “Reference”) or the relevant change in two or more References. The interest rate or the principal amount payable upon maturity or redemption may be increased or decreased depending upon changes in the applicable Reference. The terms of the structured securities may provide that in certain circumstances no principal is due at maturity and, therefore, may result in the loss of the Fund’s entire investment. The value of structured securities may move in the same or the opposite direction as the value of the Reference, so that appreciation of the Reference may produce an increase or decrease in the interest rate or value of the security at maturity. In addition, the change in interest rate or the value of

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the security at maturity may be a multiple of the change in the value of the Reference so that the security may be more or less volatile than the Reference, depending on the multiple. Consequently, structured securities may entail a greater degree of market risk and volatility than other types of debt obligations.

Swaps

The swap market has grown substantially in recent years with a large number of banks and investment banking firms acting both as principals and as agents utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap market has become relatively liquid in comparison with the markets for other similar instruments that are traded in the over-the-counter market.  The Fund’s Adviser, under the supervision of the Board, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s transactions in swap agreements. The use of equity swaps is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions.

Credit Default Swaps

In a credit default swap, one party makes a stream of payments to another party in exchange for the right to receive a specified return in the event of a default by a third party, typically an emerging country, on its obligation. The Fund may use credit default swaps to provide a measure of protection against defaults of sovereign issuers (i.e., to reduce risk where the Fund owns or has exposure to the sovereign issuer) and may use credit default swaps to take an active long or short position with respect to the likelihood of a particular issuer’s default. In connection with these agreements, cash or liquid securities may be set aside as collateral by the Fund’s custodian in accordance with the terms of the swap agreement. The Fund earns interest on cash set aside as collateral. Swaps are marked to market daily based upon quotations from market makers and the change in value, if any, is recorded as unrealized gain or loss. These financial instruments are not actively traded on financial markets. The values assigned to these instruments are based upon the best available information and because of the uncertainty of the valuation, these values may differ significantly from the values that would have been realized had a ready market for these instruments existed, and the differences could be material. Payments received or made at the end of the measurement period are recorded as realized gain or loss. Entering into these agreements involves, to varying degrees, elements of credit, market, and documentation risk. Such risks involve the possibility that there will be no liquid market for these agreements, that the counterparty to the agreements may default on its obligation to perform or disagree as to the meaning of contractual terms in the agreements, and that there may be unfavorable changes in interest rates.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments requires the clearing and exchange-trading of certain interest rate swaps and credit default swaps. The Dodd-Frank Act will ultimately require the clearing of many additional types of OTC derivative instruments that the Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and SEC recently defined as “swaps” including non-deliverable foreign (non-U.S.) exchange forwards, OTC foreign (non-U.S.) exchange options and swaptions. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will take place on a phased-in basis based on type of market participant and CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing. The Adviser will continue to monitor developments in this area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the Fund’s ability to enter into swap agreements.

Swap Agreements

Swap agreements are typically two-party, uncleared contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors for periods ranging from a day to more than one year. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments.  The gross returns to be exchanged or “swapped” between the parties are calculated with respect to a “notional amount,” i.e., the return on or increase in value of a particular dollar amount invested in a “basket” of securities representing a particular index.  Most swap agreements entered into by the Fund calculate the obligations of the parties to the agreement on a “net basis.”  Consequently, the Fund’s current obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement will generally be equal only to the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the positions held by each party to the agreement (the “net amount”).  Payments may be made at the conclusion of a swap agreement or periodically during its term.  Swap agreements often do not involve the delivery of securities or other underlying assets.  Accordingly, if a swap is

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entered into on a net basis, if the other party to a swap agreement defaults, the Fund’s risk of loss consists of the net amount of payments that such Fund is contractually entitled to receive, if any.  The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to a swap agreement entered into on a net basis will be accrued daily and an amount of cash or liquid asset having an aggregate NAV at least equal to the accrued excess will be maintained in an account with the Fund’s custodian that satisfies the 1940 Act.  The Fund will also establish and maintain such accounts with respect to its total obligations under any swaps that are not entered into on a net basis.  Obligations under swap agreements so covered will not be construed to be “senior securities” for purposes of the Fund’s investment restriction concerning senior securities.  Because most swap agreements are two-party contracts and may have terms of greater than seven days, swap agreements may be considered to be illiquid for the Fund illiquid investment limitations.  The Fund will not enter into any swap agreement unless the Adviser believes that the other party to the transaction is creditworthy.  The Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty.  

The Fund may enter into a swap agreement in circumstances where the Adviser believes that it may be more cost effective or practical than buying the underlying securities or a futures contract or an option on such securities.  The counterparty to any swap agreement will typically be a bank, investment banking firm or broker/dealer.  The counterparty will generally agree to pay the Fund the amount, if any, by which the notional amount of the swap agreement would have increased in value had it been invested in the particular stocks, futures contracts or other underlying assets represented in the index, plus the dividends that would have been received on those instruments.  The Fund will agree to pay to the counterparty a floating rate of interest on the notional amount of the swap agreement plus the amount, if any, by which the notional amount would have decreased in value had it been invested in such stocks, futures contracts or other underlying assets.  Therefore, the return to the Fund on any swap agreement should be the gain or loss on the notional amount plus dividends on the stocks less the interest paid by the Fund on the notional amount.  

The Fund may enter into total return swap agreements. Total return swap agreements are contracts in which one party agrees to make periodic payments based on the change in market value of underlying assets, which may include a specified security, futures contract, basket of securities or futures contracts, defined portfolios of bonds, loans and mortgages, or securities indices during the specified period, in return for periodic payments based on a fixed or variable interest rate or the total return from other underlying assets. Total return swap agreements may be used to obtain exposure to a security, commodity or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security, commodity or market. Total return swap agreements may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its total net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap. Total return swaps are a mechanism for the user to accept the economic benefits of asset ownership without utilizing the balance sheet. The other leg of the swap, usually the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), is spread to reflect the non-balance sheet nature of the product. Total return swaps can be designed with any underlying asset agreed between two parties. Typically no notional amounts are exchanged with total return swaps. Total return swap agreements entail the risk that a party will default on its payment obligations to the Fund thereunder. Swap agreements also entail the risk that the Fund will not be able to meet its obligation to the counterparty. Generally, the Fund will enter into total return swaps on a net basis (i.e., the two payment streams are netted out with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net amount of the two payments).

Technology Risk

The Adviser uses various technologies in managing the Fund, consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and strategy described in the Prospectus. For example, proprietary and third-party data and systems are utilized to support decision making for the Fund. Data imprecision, software or other technology malfunctions, programming inaccuracies and similar circumstances may impair the performance of these systems, which may negatively impact the Fund.

Temporary Defensive Position

In anticipation of or in response to adverse market, economic, political or other conditions, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions (up to 100% of its assets) in cash, cash equivalents and short term U.S. government

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securities. If the Fund were to take a temporary defensive position, its opportunity to achieve upside return may be limited; however, the ability to be fully defensive is an integral part of achieving the Fund’s investment objective.

Time Deposits and Variable Rate Notes

 

The Fund may invest in fixed time deposits, whether or not subject to withdrawal penalties. The commercial paper obligations which the Fund may buy are unsecured and may include variable rate notes. The nature and terms of a variable rate note (i.e., a “Master Note”) permit the Fund to invest fluctuating amounts at varying rates of interest pursuant to a direct arrangement between the Fund as lender, and the issuer, as borrower. It permits daily changes in the amounts borrowed. The Fund has the right at any time to increase, up to the full amount stated in the note agreement, or to decrease the amount outstanding under the note. The issuer may prepay at any time and without penalty any part of or the full amount of the note. The note may or may not be backed by one or more bank letters of credit. Because these notes are direct lending arrangements between the Fund and the issuer, it is not generally contemplated that they will be traded; moreover, there is currently no secondary market for them. Except as specifically provided in the Prospectus, there is no limitation on the type of issuer from whom these notes may be purchased; however, in connection with such purchase and on an ongoing basis, the adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuer, and its ability to pay principal and interest on demand, including a situation in which all holders of such notes made demand simultaneously. Variable rate notes are subject to the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid securities unless such notes can be put back to the issuer on demand within seven days.

Trading in Futures Contracts

A futures contract provides for the future sale by one party and purchase by another party of a specified amount of a specific financial instrument (e.g., units of a stock index) for a specified price, date, time and place designated at the time the contract is made. Brokerage fees are incurred when a futures contract is bought or sold and margin deposits must be maintained. Entering into a contract to buy is commonly referred to as buying or purchasing a contract or holding a long position. Entering into a contract to sell is commonly referred to as selling a contract or holding a short position.  

Unlike when the Fund purchases or sells a security, no price would be paid or received by the Fund upon the purchase or sale of a futures contract. Upon entering into a futures contract, and to maintain the Fund’s open positions in futures contracts, the Fund would be required to deposit with its futures broker in a segregated account an amount of cash, U.S. Government securities, suitable money market instruments, or other liquid securities, known as “initial margin.”

The margin required for a particular futures contract is set by the exchange on which the contract is traded, and may be significantly modified from time to time by the exchange during the term of the contract. Futures contracts are customarily purchased and sold on margins that may range upward from less than 5% of the value of the contract being traded.

If the price of an open futures contract changes (by increase in underlying instrument or index in the case of a sale or by decrease in the case of a purchase) so that the loss on the futures contract reaches a point at which the margin on deposit does not satisfy margin requirements, the broker will require an increase in the margin. However, if the value of a position increases because of favorable price changes in the futures contract so that the margin deposit exceeds the required margin, the broker will pay the excess to the Fund.

These subsequent payments, called “variation margin,” to and from the futures broker, are made on a daily basis as the price of the underlying assets fluctuate making the long and short positions in the futures contract more or less valuable, a process known as “marking to the market.” The Fund expects to earn interest income on its margin deposits.

Although certain futures contracts, by their terms, require actual future delivery of and payment for the underlying instruments, in practice most futures contracts are usually closed out before the delivery date. Closing out an open futures contract purchase or sale is effected by entering into an offsetting futures contract sale or purchase, respectively, for the same aggregate amount of the identical underlying instrument or index and the same delivery

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date. If the offsetting purchase price is less than the original sale price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is more, the Fund realizes a loss. Conversely, if the offsetting sale price is more than the original purchase price, the Fund realizes a gain; if it is less, the Fund realizes a loss. The transaction costs must also be included in these calculations. There can be no assurance, however, that the Fund will be able to enter into an offsetting transaction with respect to a particular futures contract at a particular time. If the Fund is not able to enter into an offsetting transaction, the Fund will continue to be required to maintain the margin deposits on the futures contract.  

For example, one contract in the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index future is a contract to buy 25 pounds sterling multiplied by the level of the UK Financial Times 100 Share Index on a given future date. Settlement of a stock index futures contract may or may not be in the underlying instrument or index. If not in the underlying instrument or index, then settlement will be made in cash, equivalent over time to the difference between the contract price and the actual price of the underlying asset at the time the stock index futures contract expires.  

United States Government Agency  

The Fund may invest in securities issued by United States Government Agencies. These consist of fixed income securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the United States Government, including the various types of instruments currently outstanding or which may be offered in the future. Agencies include, among others, the Federal Housing Administration, Government National Mortgage Association (“GNMA”), Export-Import Bank of the United States, Maritime Administration, and General Services Administration. Instrumentalities include, for example, each of the Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Bank for Cooperatives, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“FHLMC”), the Farm Credit Banks, the Federal National Mortgage Association (“FNMA”), and the United States Postal Service. These securities are either: (i) backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government (e.g., United States Treasury Bills); (ii) guaranteed by the United States Treasury (e.g., GNMA mortgage-backed securities); (iii) supported by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s right to borrow from the United States Treasury (e.g., FNMA Discount Notes); or (iv) supported only by the issuing agency’s or instrumentality’s own credit (e.g., Tennessee Valley Association).

Mortgage-backed securities issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) include Fannie Mae Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates, which are solely the obligations of Fannie Mae and are not backed by or entitled to the full faith and credit of the United States, except as described below, but are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury. Fannie Mae is a stockholder-owned corporation chartered under an Act of the U.S. Congress. Fannie Mae certificates are guaranteed as to timely payment of the principal and interest by Fannie Mae. Mortgage-related securities issued by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”) include Freddie Mac Mortgage Participation Certificates. Freddie Mac is a corporate instrumentality of the United States, created pursuant to an Act of Congress. Freddie Mac certificates are not guaranteed by the United States or by any Federal Home Loan Banks and do not constitute a debt or obligation of the United States or of any Federal Home Loan Bank. Freddie Mac certificates entitle the holder to timely payment of interest, which is guaranteed by Freddie Mac. Freddie Mac guarantees either ultimate collection or timely payment of all principal payments on the underlying mortgage loans. When Freddie Mac does not guarantee timely payment of principal, Freddie Mac may remit the amount due on account of its guarantee of ultimate payment of principal after default.

From time to time, proposals have been introduced before Congress for the purpose of restricting or eliminating federal sponsorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The Trust cannot predict what legislation, if any, may be proposed in the future in Congress with regard to such sponsorship or which proposals, if any, might be enacted. Such proposals, if enacted, might materially and adversely affect the availability of government guaranteed mortgage-backed securities and the Fund’s liquidity and value.

There is risk that the U.S. government will not provide financial support to its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities or sponsored enterprises. The Fund may purchase U.S. government securities that are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States, such as those issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities held by the Fund may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.

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The volatility and disruption that impacted the capital and credit markets during late 2008 and into 2009 have led to increased market concerns about Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s ability to withstand future credit losses associated with securities held in their investment portfolios, and on which they provide guarantees, without the direct support of the federal government. On September 7, 2008, both Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae were placed under the conservatorship of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”).

Under the plan of conservatorship, the FHFA has assumed control of, and generally has the power to direct, the operations of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, and is empowered to exercise all powers collectively held by their respective shareholders, directors and officers, including the power to: (1) take over the assets of and operate Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae with all the powers of the shareholders, the directors, and the officers of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and conduct all business of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (2) collect all obligations and money due to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; (3) perform all functions of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which are consistent with the conservator’s appointment; (4) preserve and conserve the assets and property of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and (5) contract for assistance in fulfilling any function, activity, action or duty of the conservator. In addition, in connection with the actions taken by the FHFA, the U.S. Treasury Department (the “Treasury”) entered into certain preferred stock purchase agreements with each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae which established the Treasury as the holder of a new class of senior preferred stock in each of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, which stock was issued in connection with financial contributions from the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.

The conditions attached to the financial contribution made by the Treasury to Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae and the issuance of this senior preferred stock placed significant restrictions on the activities of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae must obtain the consent of the Treasury to, among other things: (i) make any payment to purchase or redeem its capital stock or pay any dividend other than in respect of the senior preferred stock issued to the Treasury, (ii) issue capital stock of any kind, (iii) terminate the conservatorship of the FHFA except in connection with a receivership, or (iv) increase its debt beyond certain specified levels. In addition, significant restrictions were placed on the maximum size of each of Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s respective portfolios of mortgages and mortgage-backed securities, and the purchase agreements entered into by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae provide that the maximum size of their portfolios of these assets must decrease by a specified percentage each year. The future status and role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae could be impacted by (among other things): the actions taken and restrictions placed on Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae by the FHFA in its role as conservator; the restrictions placed on Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s operations and activities as a result of the senior preferred stock investment made by the Treasury; market responses to developments at Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae; and future legislative and regulatory action that alters the operations, ownership, structure and/or mission of these institutions, each of which may, in turn, impact the value of, and cash flows on, any mortgage-backed securities guaranteed by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, including any such mortgage-backed securities held by the Fund.

As a result of the economic recession that commenced in the United States in 2008, there is a heightened risk that the receivables and loans underlying the asset-backed securities purchased by the Fund may suffer greater levels of default than was historically experienced.

 

United States Government Obligations

 

These consist of various types of marketable securities issued by the United States Treasury, i.e., bills, notes and bonds. Such securities are direct obligations of the United States government and differ mainly in the length of their maturity. Treasury bills, the most frequently issued marketable government security, have a maturity of up to one year and are issued on a discount basis.

 

Receipts

Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. Treasury Receipts (“TRs”) and Separately Traded Registered Interest and Principal Securities (“STRIPS”) are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

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U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities

STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

U.S. Treasury Obligations

U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as STRIPS and TRs.

 Warrants

 

Warrants are options to purchase common stock at a specific price (usually at a premium above the market value of the optioned common stock at issuance) valid for a specific period of time. Warrants may have a life ranging from less than one year to twenty years, or they may be perpetual. However, most warrants have expiration dates after which they are worthless. In addition, a warrant is worthless if the market price of the common stock does not exceed the warrant's exercise price during the life of the warrant. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. The percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.

 

 

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When-Issued, Forward Commitments and Delayed Settlements

 

The Fund may purchase and sell securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis. In this event, the Custodian (as defined under the section entitled "Custodian") will segregate liquid assets equal to the amount of the commitment in a separate account. Normally, the Custodian will set aside portfolio securities to satisfy a purchase commitment. In such a case, the Fund may be required subsequently to segregate additional assets in order to assure that the value of the account remains equal to the amount of the Fund’s commitment. It may be expected that the Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash.

 

The Fund does not intend to engage in these transactions for speculative purposes but only in furtherance of its investment objectives. Because the Fund will segregate liquid assets to satisfy purchase commitments in the manner described, the Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Adviser to manage them may be affected in the event the Fund’s forward commitments, commitments to purchase when-issued securities and delayed settlements ever exceeded 15% of the value of its net assets.

 

The Fund will purchase securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis only with the intention of completing the transaction. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it is entered into, and may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. In these cases the Fund may realize a taxable capital gain or loss. When the Fund engages in when-issued, forward commitment and delayed settlement transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the trade. Failure of such party to do so may result in the Fund incurring a loss or missing an opportunity to obtain a price credited to be advantageous.

 

The market value of the securities underlying a when-issued purchase, forward commitment to purchase securities, or a delayed settlement and any subsequent fluctuations in their market value is taken into account when determining the market value of the Fund starting on the day the Fund agrees to purchase the securities. The Fund does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until it has paid for and delivered on the settlement date.

The Index

 

AlphaFactor® US Core Equity Index (the “Index”)

 

NUMBER OF COMPONENTS: APPROXIMATELY 100

 

INDEX DESCRIPTION: The Index utilizes a quantitative rules-based investment methodology that applies a multi-factor ranking process and is focused on the largest 1,000 U.S. common stocks based on market capitalization. Companies within this group of top 1,000 market capitalization may be considered large or mid-cap companies. As of September 11, 2018, the market capitalization range of this universe of companies is between $2.776 billion and $1.081 trillion. Due to future market fluctuations, the market capitalization of this universe may be lower or higher at any given time. The methodology selects stocks based on a number of characteristics that include, but are not limited to, net share count reduction, free cash flow growth, and debt/asset ratios. The final selection of stocks is based on market characteristics including, but not limited to, liquidity and market capitalization. The Index is rebalanced to equal weight and reconstituted on a quarterly basis.

  

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

The Fund has adopted the following investment restrictions that may not be changed without approval by a "majority of the outstanding shares" of the Fund, which, as used in this SAI, means the vote of the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund represented at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Fund may not:

1.             Issue senior securities, except as otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;

2.             Borrow money, except (a) from a bank, provided that immediately after such borrowing there is an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings of the Fund; or (b) from a bank or other persons for temporary purposes

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only, provided that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund’s total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from entering into reverse repurchase transactions, provided that the Fund has an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings and repurchase commitments of the Fund pursuant to reverse repurchase transactions;

3.             Purchase securities on margin, participate on a joint or joint and several basis in any securities trading account, or underwrite securities. (Does not preclude the Fund from obtaining such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of its portfolio securities, and except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act, by virtue of disposing of portfolio securities);

4.             Purchase or sell real estate or interests in real estate. This limitation is not applicable to investments in marketable securities that are secured by or represent interests in real estate. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from investing in mortgage-related securities or investing in companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including real estate investment trusts);

5.             Invest more than 25% of the market value of its assets in the securities of companies engaged in any one industry or group of industries, except that the Fund will concentrate to approximately the same extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of a given industry or group of industries. (Does not apply to investment in the securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.);

6.             Purchase or sell commodities (unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other investments) or commodity futures contracts, except that the Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and options to the full extent permitted under the 1940 Act, sell foreign currency contracts in accordance with any rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities, and invest in companies that are engaged in a commodities business or have a significant portion of their assets in commodities; or

7.             Make loans to others, except that the Fund may, in accordance with its investment objective and policies, (i) lend portfolio securities, (ii) purchase and hold debt securities or other debt instruments, including but not limited to loan participations and sub-participations, assignments, and structured securities, (iii) make loans secured by mortgages on real property, (iv) enter into repurchase agreements, (v) enter into transactions where each loan is represented by a note executed by the borrower, and (vi) make time deposits with financial institutions and invest in instruments issued by financial institutions. For purposes of this limitation, the term "loans" shall not include the purchase of a portion of an issue of publicly distributed bonds, debentures or other securities.

If a restriction on the Fund’s investments is adhered to at the time an investment is made, a subsequent change in the percentage of Fund assets invested in certain securities or other instruments of the Fund’s investment portfolio, resulting from changes in the value of the Fund’s total assets, will not be considered a violation of the restriction; provided, however, that the asset coverage requirement applicable to borrowings shall be maintained in the manner contemplated by applicable law.

 

With respect to fundamental investment limitation 2 above, if the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund will reduce borrowing within 3 days in order to ensure that the Fund has 300% asset coverage.

 

With respect to Fundamental Investment Restriction #5, if the Fund invests in one or more investment companies that concentrates its investments in a particular industry, the Fund will examine its other investment company holdings to ensure that the Fund is not indirectly concentrating its investments in a particular industry.

 

Although fundamental investment restriction #7 reserves for the Fund the ability to make loans, there is no present intent to loan money or portfolio securities and additional disclosure will be provided if such a strategy is implemented in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

29 
 

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that govern the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. These policies and procedures are designed to ensure that such disclosure is in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders.

It is the Trust’s policy to:  (1) ensure that any disclosure of portfolio holdings information is in the best interest of Trust shareholders; (2) protect the confidentiality of portfolio holdings information; (3) have procedures in place to guard against personal trading based on the information; and (4) ensure that the disclosure of portfolio holdings information does not create conflicts between the interests of the Trust’s shareholders and those of the Trust’s affiliates.

The Fund’s portfolio holdings are, or will be, disclosed on the Fund's website at www.leadersharesetfs.com each day the Fund is open for business. The Fund’s portfolio holdings information will also generally be provided for dissemination through the facilities of the National Securities Clearing Corporation ("NSCC") and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including Authorized Participants (as defined below), and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of the Fund in the secondary market. This information typically reflects the Fund’s anticipated holdings as of the next Business Day.

The Fund discloses its portfolio holdings by mailing its annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders approximately two months after the end of the fiscal year and semi-annual period. The Fund also discloses its portfolio holdings reports on Form N-CSR and Form N-Q two months after the end of each quarter/semi-annual period.

The Fund may choose to make portfolio holdings available to rating agencies such as Lipper, Morningstar or Bloomberg earlier and more frequently on a confidential basis.

Under limited circumstances, as described below, the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be disclosed to, or known by, certain third parties in advance of their filing with the SEC on Form N-CSR or Form N-Q.  In each case, a determination has been made that such advance disclosure is supported by a legitimate business purpose and that the recipient is subject to a duty to keep the information confidential.

· The Adviser. Personnel of the Adviser, including personnel responsible for managing the Fund’s portfolio, may have full daily access to Fund portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for the Adviser to provide its management, administrative, and investment services to the Fund. As required for purposes of analyzing the impact of existing and future market changes on the prices, availability, demand and liquidity of such securities, as well as for the assistance of the portfolio managers in the trading of such securities, Adviser personnel may also release and discuss certain portfolio holdings with various broker-dealers.

· Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the transfer agent, fund accountant, administrator and custody administrator for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

· Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. is custodian for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

· Grant Thornton LLP is the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with auditing of the Fund’s annual financial statements and preparation of the Fund’s tax returns.   

· Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP is counsel to the Fund; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with review of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports and SEC filings.

Additions to List of Approved Recipients. The Fund’s Chief Compliance Officer is the person responsible, and whose prior approval is required, for any disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities at any time or to any persons

30 
 

other than those described above.  In such cases, the recipient must have a legitimate business need for the information and must be subject to a duty to keep the information confidential. There are no ongoing arrangements in place with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings. In no event shall the Fund, the Adviser or any other party receive any direct or indirect compensation in connection with the disclosure of information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Compliance With Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Procedures. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will report periodically to the Board with respect to compliance with the Fund’s portfolio holdings disclosure procedures, and from time to time will provide the Board any updates to the portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures.

There is no assurance that the Trust’s policies on disclosure of portfolio holdings will protect the Fund from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of that information.

MANAGEMENT

 

The business of the Trust is managed under the direction of the Board in accordance with the Agreement and Declaration of Trust and the Trust’s By-laws (collectively, the “Governing Documents”), which have been filed with the SEC and are available upon request. The Board consists of four individuals, all of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the Trust and the Adviser (“Independent Trustees”). Pursuant to the Governing Documents of the Trust, the Trustees shall elect officers including, but not limited to, a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a Chief Compliance Officer. The Board retains the power to conduct, operate and carry on the business of the Trust and has the power to incur and pay any expenses, which, in the opinion of the Board, are necessary or incidental to carry out any of the Trust’s purposes. The Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust, when acting in such capacities, shall not be subject to any personal liability except for his or her own bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his or her duties.

 

Board Leadership Structure. The Board is led by Mark Gersten, who has served as the Chairman of the Board since the Trust was first registered with the SEC in 2012. Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust and By-Laws, the Chairman of the Board is responsible for (a) presiding at Board meetings, (b) calling special meetings on an as-needed basis, and (c) execution and administration of Trust policies, including (i) setting the agendas for Board meetings and (ii) providing information to Board members in advance of each Board meeting and between Board meetings. Generally, the Trust believes it best to have a non-executive Chairman of the Board, who together with the President (principal executive officer), are seen by our shareholders, business partners and other stakeholders as providing strong leadership. The Trust believes that its Chairman, the independent chair of the Audit Committee, and, as an entity, the full Board of Trustees, provide effective leadership that is in the best interests of the Trust, its funds and each shareholder.

 

Board Risk Oversight. The Board of Trustees is comprised entirely of Independent Trustees and has established an Audit Committee. The Board is responsible for overseeing risk management, and the full Board regularly engages in discussions of risk management and receives compliance reports that inform its oversight of risk management from its Chief Compliance Officer at quarterly meetings and on an ad hoc basis, when and if necessary. The Audit Committee considers financial and reporting the risk within its area of responsibilities. Generally, the Board believes that its oversight of material risks is adequately maintained through the compliance-reporting chain where the Chief Compliance Officer is the primary recipient and communicator of such risk-related information.

 

Trustee Qualifications. Generally, the Fund believe that each Trustee is competent to serve because of their individual overall merits including: (i) experience, (ii) qualifications, (iii) attributes and (iv) skills. Mark Garbin has over 30 years of experience in corporate balance sheet and income statement risk management for large asset managers. Mr. Garbin has extensive derivatives experience and has provided consulting services to alternative asset managers. Mr. Garbin holds both a Chartered Financial Analyst (“CFA”) and Professional Risk Manager (“PRM”) designation and has earned and holds advanced degrees in international business, negotiation and derivatives. Mark Gersten has over 35 years of business experience in the investment management business with a focus on mutual funds and alternative funds. He serves as a member of other mutual fund boards outside of the Fund Complex and possesses a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate based on his service to this board and extensive experience administering mutual funds. Mr. Gersten is a certified public accountant and holds an MBA in accounting. Neil Kaufman has over 30 years of experience as a corporate and securities attorney and

31 
 

possesses a deep understanding of the securities industry in general and financial statements in particular. Mr. Kaufman has previously served as the Chairman of a NASDAQ-listed technology company and the Chairman of the Banking & Securities Law committee of the Nassau County Bar Association. Anita Krug has 9 years of experience as an attorney advising investment advisory firms, particularly those managing hedge funds. She also has extensive experience as a law professor whose scholarship focuses on investment advisers, hedge funds and mutual funds. The Fund does not believe any one factor is determinative in assessing a Trustee’s qualifications, but that the collective experience of each Trustee makes them well qualified.

 

Trustees and Officers.  The Trustees and officers of the Trust, together with information as to their principal business occupations during the past five years and other information, are shown below.   Unless otherwise noted, the address of each Trustee and Officer is 17645 Wright Street, Suite 200, Omaha, Nebraska  68130.

 

 

Independent Trustees *

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Term and Length Served

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

Mark Garbin

Year of Birth: 1951

 

Trustee

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Managing Principal, Coherent Capital Management LLC (since 2008)

8

 

Northern Lights Fund Trust  (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (for series not affiliated with the Funds since 2013);  Forethought Variable Insurance Trust (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (since 2013);  OHA Mortgage Strategies Fund (offshore), Ltd. (2014 - 2017); and Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); and OFI Carlyle Private Credit Fund (since March 2018)
32 
 

 

Mark D. Gersten

Year of Birth: 1950

 

Chairman, Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Independent Consultant (since 2012); Senior Vice President – Global Fund Administration Mutual Funds & Alternative Funds, AllianceBernstein LP (1985 – 2011).

8

 

Northern Lights Fund Trust (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (for series not affiliated with the Fund since 2013); Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); previously, Ramius Archview Credit and Distressed Fund (2015-2017); and  Schroder Global Series Trust (2012 to 2017)

Neil M. Kaufman

Year of Birth: 1960

 

Trustee, Audit Committee Chairman

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

 

Managing Member, Kaufman & Associates, LLC (legal services)(Since 2016); Partner, Abrams Fensterman, Fensterman, Eisman, Formato, Ferrara & Wolf, LLP (legal services)(2010-2016)

8

 

Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014)

Anita K. Krug

Year of Birth: 1969

 

Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Interim Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs (since 2018) University of Washington Bothell; Interim Dean (2017-2018), Professor (since 2016), Associate Professor (2014-2016); and Assistant Professor (2010-2014), University of Washington School of Law

8

 

Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); Centerstone Investors Trust (since 2016)

* Information is as of October 31, 2018.

** As of October 31, 2018, the Trust was comprised of 21 active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services..The Funds do not hold themselves out as related to any other series within the Trust except for the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical Core Fund, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (“SMarT”) Fund and Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio. The Funds do not share the same investment adviser with any other series of the Trust.

33 
 

 

Officers of the Trust*

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

James Colantino

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1969

 

President

Since Feb. 2017

Treasurer

(2012 to 2017)

 

Senior Vice President (2012-present); Vice President (2004 to 2012); Gemini Fund Services, LLC.

N/A

 

N/A

 

Laura Szalyga

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1978

 

Treasurer

Since Feb. 2017

 

 

Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Assistant Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (2011-2014).

N/A

 

N/A

 

Richard A. Malinowski

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1983

 

Vice President Since Sep. 2018

Secretary

Since 2013

 

Senior Vice President (since 2017); Vice President and Counsel (2016-2017) and Assistant Vice President (2012 – 2016), Gemini Fund Services, LLC

N/A

 

N/A

 

William B. Kimme

Year of Birth: 1962

 

Chief Compliance Officer

Since Inception

Senior Compliance Officer, Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (September 2011 - present)

N/A

 

N/A

 

* Information is as of October 31, 2018.

** As of October 31, 2018, the Trust was comprised of 21 active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services..The Funds do not hold themselves out as related to any other series within the Trust except for the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical Core Fund, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro

34 
 

Trend (“SMarT”) Fund and Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio.. The Funds do not share the same investment adviser with any other series of the Trust.

 

Audit Committee. The Board has an Audit Committee that consists of all of the Trustees, none of whom is an "interested person" of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include, among other things: (i) the selection, retention or termination of the Trust’s independent auditors and approval of audit and non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors; (ii) reviewing with the independent auditors the scope, performance and anticipated cost of their audit; (iii) discussing with the independent auditors certain matters relating to the Trust’s financial statements, including any adjustment to such financial statements recommended by such independent auditors, or any other results of any audit; (iv) reviewing on a periodic basis a formal written statement from the independent auditors with respect to their independence, discussing with the independent auditors any relationships or services disclosed in the statement that may impact the objectivity and independence of the Trust’s independent auditors and recommending that the Board take appropriate action in response thereto to satisfy itself of the auditor’s independence; and (v) considering the comments of the independent auditors and management’s responses thereto with respect to the quality and adequacy of the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and internal controls. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter. During the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, the Audit Committee held six meetings.    

 

Compensation of Directors.

Effective January 1, 2019, the Trust pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $50,000 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board receives an additional annual fee of $12,500 and the Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an additional annual fee of $10,000. The Trust also pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 for each Board meeting (and/or Committee meeting held in connection with such a Board meeting) other than a regularly scheduled meeting (a “Special Meeting”), except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees.

Effective April 1, 2018, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $47,500 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $10,000 and the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $7,500. The Trust also paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 for Special Meeting, except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees.

 

Effective January 1, 2018, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $42,500 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $12,500, the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $10,000, the Chairman of the Valuation Committee (operative through March 13, 2018) received an additional annual fee of $5,000 and the Chairman of the Corporate Governance Committee (operative through March 13, 2018) received an additional annual fee of $5,000. The Trust’s Valuation Committee and Corporate Governance Committee were dissolved in March 2018.

 

Effective January 1, 2017, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $30,000 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $10,000, the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000, the Chairman of the Valuation Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000 and the Chairman of the Corporate Governance Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000.

 

No “interested persons” who serves as a Trustee of the Trust will receive any compensation for their services as Trustee. None of the executive officers receive compensation from the Trust. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, deferred compensation, pension or retirement plan.

 

35 
 

The table below details the amount of compensation the Trustees received from the Fund during the fiscal year ending October 31, 2018***. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, deferred compensation, pension or retirement plan.

 

Name and Position

 

LeaderSharesTM AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees**

 

Mark Garbin $0 $19,400
Mark Gersten $0 $20,628
Neil Kaufman $0 $17,436
Anita Krug $0 $17,436

 

** The term “Fund Complex” includes the Fund and Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor® Core Equity Fund (liquidated October 30, 2018), Redwood AlphaFactor® Tactical Core Fund, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor® Tactical International Fund, and Redwood Systematic Macro Trend ("SMarT") Fund, and not to any other series of the Trust. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, the aggregate independent Trustees’ fee paid by the entire Trust were $190,625.

*** The Trust is comprised of multiple series with differing fiscal year ends. Each Fund in the Fund Complex, as defined below, may also have differing fiscal year ends. The compensation paid to the Board of Trustees is determined on a calendar quarter basis.

 

Trustees’ Ownership of Shares in the Fund. As of December 31, 2018, the Trustees beneficially owned the following amounts in the Fund and the family of investment companies overseen by the Trustees.

 

Name of Trustee Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund

 

Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Trustee in Family of Investment Companies

 

 

Mark Garbin

 

None

 

None

 

Mark Gersten

 

None

 

$50,001-$100,000

 

 

 

Neil Kaufman

 

None

 

None

 

Anita Krug

 

None

 

None

 

Management Ownership

 

As of the date of this SAI the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned less than 1% of the Fund Complex’s outstanding shares.

 

  

36 
 

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS

 

A principal shareholder is any person who owns (of record or beneficially) 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a fund. A control person is one who owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control.

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes. Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. As of February 15, 2019, the Trust does not have information regarding the record or beneficial ownership of shares of the Fund held in the names of DTC participants, as DTC has not provided the Trust with access to such information.

 

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

Investment Adviser and Investment Advisory Agreement

 

Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Adviser” or “Redwood”), located at 1117 S. Robertson Boulevard, Los Angeles, California, 90035, serves as investment adviser to the Fund. Subject to the authority of the Board, the Adviser is responsible for the overall management of the Fund’s business affairs. Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC owns 99% of Redwood Investment Management, LLC. Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC is controlled and majority owned by Michael T. Messinger and related trusts formed by him.

 

Under the investment advisory agreement (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”) with the Trust, the Adviser, under the supervision of the Board, agrees to invest the assets of the Fund in accordance with applicable law and the investment objective, policies and restrictions set forth in the Fund’s current Prospectus and Statement of Additional Information, and subject to such further limitations as the Trust may from time to time impose by written notice to the Adviser.  The Adviser shall act as the investment adviser to the Fund and, as such shall: (i) obtain and evaluate such information relating to the economy, industries, business, securities markets and securities as it may deem necessary or useful in discharging its responsibilities hereunder; (ii) formulate a continuing program for the investment of the assets of the Fund in a manner consistent with its investment objective, policies and restrictions; and (iii) determine from time to time securities to be purchased, sold, retained or lent by the Fund, and implement those decisions, including the selection of entities with or through which such purchases, sales or loans are to be effected; provided, that the Adviser will place orders pursuant to its investment determinations either directly with the  issuer or with a broker or dealer, and if with a broker or dealer, will attempt to obtain the best price and execution of its orders, and may nevertheless in its discretion purchase and sell portfolio securities from and to brokers who provide the Adviser with research, analysis, advice and similar services and pay such brokers in return a higher commission or spread than may be charged by other brokers, subject to best execution.  The Adviser also provides the Fund with all necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the Fund’s investments, compensates all officers, Trustees and employees of the Trust who are officers, directors or employees of the Adviser, and all personnel of the Fund or the Adviser performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities. The Investment Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund, was approved by the Board of the Trust, including a majority of the Independent Trustees, at a meeting held on March 13, 2018.

 

The Adviser provides investment advisory services and pays most of the Fund’s operating expenses (with certain exceptions) in return for a “unitary” advisory fee. For its services to the Fund, the Adviser is entitled to receive an annual fee equal to 0.75% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. The Fund, not the Adviser, pays the following expenses: all brokerage fees and commissions, taxes, borrowing costs (such as dividend expense on securities sold short and interest), fees and expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, and such extraordinary or non-recurring expenses as may arise, including litigation to which the Fund may be a party and indemnification of the Board of Trustees and officers with respect thereto. Expenses not expressly assumed by the Adviser under the Investment Advisory Agreement are paid by the Fund.

 

Fiscal Year Management Fee Fees Earned by the Advisor Advisory Fees Waived Net Fees Earned by the Advisor Expense Reimbursed Amount Subject to Recoupment
37 
 

 

October 31, 2018* 0. 75% $ 18,415 $ 334 $ 18,081 $ 0 $ 334

 

 

The Investment Advisory Agreement will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year provided such continuance is approved at least annually by (a) a vote of the majority of the Independent Trustees, cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval and by (b) the majority vote of either all of the Trustees or the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Investment Advisory Agreement may be terminated without penalty on 60 days’ written notice by a vote of a majority of the Trustees, the Adviser, or by holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares. The Investment Advisory Agreement shall terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.

 

Codes of Ethics

 

The Trust, the Adviser, and the Distributor each have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that govern the personal securities transactions of their board members, officers and employees who may have access to current trading information of the Trust. Under the code of ethics adopted by the Trust (for purposes of this subsection only, the “Code”), the Trustees are permitted to invest in securities that may also be purchased by the Fund.  

In addition, the Trust has adopted a separate code of ethics that applies only to the Trust’s executive officers to ensure that these officers promote professional conduct in the practice of corporate governance and management. The purpose behind these guidelines is to promote i) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; ii) full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that a registrant files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Fund; iii) compliance with applicable governmental laws, rule and regulations; iv) the prompt internal reporting of violations of this Code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the Code; and v) accountability for adherence to the Code. 

Proxy Voting Policies

 

The Board has adopted Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (“Policies”) on behalf of the Trust, which delegate the responsibility for voting proxies to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s continuing oversight. The Policies require that the Adviser vote proxies received in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Policies also require the Adviser to present to the Board, at least annually, the Adviser’s Proxy Policies and a record of each proxy voted by the Adviser on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by the Adviser as involving a conflict of interest.

 

Where a proxy proposal raises a material conflict between the Adviser’s interests and the Fund’s interests, the Adviser will resolve the conflict by voting in accordance with the policy guidelines or at the client’s directive using the recommendation of an independent third party. If the third party’s recommendations are not received in a timely fashion, the Adviser will abstain from voting the securities held by that client’s account. A copy of the Adviser’s proxy voting policies are attached hereto as Appendix A.

 

More information. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund at 1-480-757-4277 and (2) on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov and will be sent within three business days of receipt of a request.

 

THE DISTRIBUTOR

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, located at 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200 Omaha, Nebraska 68130 (the "Distributor") serves as the principal underwriter and national distributor for the shares of the Fund pursuant to an underwriting agreement with the Trust (the "Underwriting Agreement"). The Distributor is registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and each state's securities laws and is a member of the FINRA. The

38 
 

offering of the Fund’s shares is continuous. The Underwriting Agreement provides that the Distributor, as agent in connection with the distribution of the Fund’s shares, will use reasonable efforts to facilitate the sale of the Fund’s shares.

 

The Underwriting Agreement provides that, unless sooner terminated, it will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year, subject to annual approval by (a) the Board or a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares, and (b) by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust or of the Distributor by vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

 

The Underwriting Agreement may be terminated by the Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the entire Board of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund on 60 days written notice to the Distributor, or by the Distributor at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on 60 days written notice to the Fund. The Underwriting Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

 

The Distributor may enter into selling agreements with broker-dealers that solicit orders for the sale of shares of the Fund and may allow concessions to dealers that sell shares of the Fund.

 

Rule 12b-1 Plan

 

The Trust, with respect to the Fund, has adopted a Distribution Plan pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (the "Plan") for Shares pursuant to which the Fund is authorized to pay the Distributor, as compensation for Distributor's account maintenance services under the Plan. The Board has approved a distribution and shareholder servicing fee at the rate of up to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. Such fees are to be paid by the Fund monthly, or at such other intervals as the Board shall determine. Such fees shall be based upon the Fund’s average daily net assets during the preceding month, and shall be calculated and accrued daily. The Fund may pay fees to the Distributor at a lesser rate, as agreed upon by the Board of Trustees of the Trust and the Distributor. The Plan authorizes payments to the Distributor as compensation for providing account maintenance services to Fund shareholders, including arranging for certain securities dealers or brokers, administrators and others ("Recipients") to provide these services and paying compensation for these services. The Fund will bear their own costs of distribution with respect to its shares. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. No fees are currently paid by the Fund under the Plan, and there are no current plans to impose such fees. In the event such fees were to be charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

The services to be provided by Recipients may include, but are not limited to, the following: assistance in the offering and sale of Fund shares and in other aspects of the marketing of the shares to clients or prospective clients of the respective recipients; answering routine inquiries concerning the Fund; assisting in the establishment and maintenance of accounts or sub-accounts in the Fund and in processing purchase and redemption transactions; making the Fund’s investment plan and shareholder services available; and providing such other information and services to investors in shares of the Fund as the Distributor or the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, may reasonably request. The distribution services shall also include any advertising and marketing services provided by or arranged by the Distributor with respect to the Fund.

 

The Distributor is required to provide a written report, at least quarterly to the Board of Trustees of the Trust, specifying in reasonable detail the amounts expended pursuant to the Rule Plan and the purposes for which such expenditures were made. Further, the Distributor will inform the Board of any Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Distributor to Recipients.

 

The initial term of the Plan is one year and will continue in effect from year to year thereafter, provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a majority of the Board of Trustees of the Trust and a majority of the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust and do not have a direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”) by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on the Plan. The Plan may be terminated at any time by the Trust or the Fund by vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting shares of the Fund.

 

The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of the Distributor’s compensation to be paid by the Fund, unless such amendment is approved by the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the affected

39 
 

class of the Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act). All material amendments must be approved by a majority of the Board of Trustees of the Trust and a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on the Plan. During the term of the Plan, the selection and nomination of non-interested Trustees of the Trust will be committed to the discretion of current non-interested Trustees. The Distributor will preserve copies of the Plan, any related agreements, and all reports, for a period of not less than six years from the date of such document and for at least the first two years in an easily accessible place.

 

Any agreement related to the Plan will be in writing and provide that: (a) it may be terminated by the Trust or the Fund at any time upon sixty days’ written notice, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the respective Rule 12b-1 Trustees, or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust or the Fund; (b) it will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act); and (c) it will continue in effect for a period of more than one year from the date of its execution or adoption only so long as such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a majority of the Board and a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such agreement. No “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund nor any Trustee had a direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the plans or related agreements.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

Michael T. Messinger, Michael T. Cheung, and Richard M. Duff serve as the portfolio managers of the Fund. As of August 31, 2018 the portfolio managers are responsible for the portfolio management of the following types of accounts in addition to the Fund:

 

Michael T. Messinger

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type  Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

(in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 8 $766.4 million None None
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 1 $8.4 million None None
Other Accounts 2278 $327.6 million None None

 

 

Michael T. Cheung

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type  Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

(in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 8 $766.4 million None None
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 1 $8.4 million None None
Other Accounts 2278 $327.6 million None None

 

Richard M. Duff

40 
 

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type  Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

(in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 4 $225.9 million None None
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles None None None None
Other Accounts None None None None

 

Conflicts of Interest

 

Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC owns 99% of Redwood Investment Management, LLC. Redwood Investment Holdco, LLC is controlled and majority owned by Michael T. Messinger and related trusts formed by him. Many of the Adviser’s clients participate in investment programs that have investment objectives, policies and strategies that are substantially similar to the Fund. Other clients of the Adviser may have differing investment programs, objectives, policies and strategies. In general, when a portfolio manager has responsibility for managing more than one account, potential conflicts of interest may arise. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of allocation of resources or of investment opportunities. For instance, the Adviser may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fees it receives from the Fund, or the Adviser could receive performance-based fees on certain accounts. The procedures to address conflicts of interest, if any, are described below.

 

The Adviser attempts to avoid conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of the management of multiple client accounts. From time to time, a portfolio manager may recommend or cause a client to invest in a security or other instrument in which another client of the Adviser has an ownership position. The Adviser has adopted certain procedures intended to treat all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. To the extent that a portfolio manager seeks to purchase or sell the same security or other instrument for multiple client accounts, the Adviser may aggregate, or bunch, these orders where a portfolio manager deems this to be appropriate and consistent with applicable regulatory requirements. When a bunched order is filled in its entirety, each participating client account will participate at the average share prices for the bunched order. When a bunched order is only partially filled, the securities or other instruments purchased will be allocated on a pro-rata basis to each account participating in the bunched order based upon the initial amount requested for the account, subject to certain exceptions. Each participating account will receive the average share price for the bunched order on the same business day.

 

Compensation

 

As of the date of this SAI, due to Mr. Messinger’s direct ownership interest in the Adviser, he may receive compensation through his ownership interest to the extent that the Adviser distributes any profits or the value of his ownership interest increases. Messrs. Cheung and Duff receive a salary and a discretionary bonus based on the Fund and Redwood performance and profitability.

 

Ownership of Securities

 

As of the date of this SAI, no portfolio managers beneficially owned any securities of the Fund.

 

 ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE

 

Specific decisions to purchase or sell securities for the Fund are made by the portfolio managers who are employees of the Adviser. The Adviser is authorized by the Trustees to allocate the orders placed by them on behalf of the Fund to brokers or dealers who may, but need not, provide research or statistical material or other services to the Fund or the Adviser for the Fund’s use. Such allocation is to be in such amounts and proportions as the Adviser may determine.

41 
 

 

In selecting a broker or dealer to execute each particular transaction, the Adviser will take the following into consideration:

  the best net price available;

 

  the reliability, integrity and financial condition of the broker or dealer;

 

  the size of and difficulty in executing the order; and

 

  the value of the expected contribution of the broker or dealer to the investment performance of the Fund on a continuing basis.

 

Brokers or dealers executing a portfolio transaction on behalf of the Fund may receive a commission in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for executing the transaction if the Adviser determines in good faith that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of brokerage and research services provided to the Fund. In allocating portfolio brokerage, the Adviser may select brokers or dealers who also provide brokerage, research and other services to other accounts over which the Adviser exercises investment discretion. Some of the services received as the result of Fund transactions may primarily benefit accounts other than the Fund, while services received as the result of portfolio transactions effected on behalf of those other accounts may primarily benefit the Fund.

 

For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018 the Fund paid $0 in brokerage commissions.

  

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

 

The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal year by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal year. The calculation excludes from both the numerator and the denominator securities with maturities at the time of acquisition of one year or less. High portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which will be borne directly by the Fund. A 100% turnover rate would occur if all of the Fund’s portfolio securities were replaced once within a one-year period. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Fund had a portfolio turnover rate of 0%

 

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

Fund Administration

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC, (the "Administrator"), which has its principal office at 80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110, Hauppauge, NY 11788, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. The Administrator is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Pursuant to Fund Services Agreement with the Fund, the Administrator provides administrative services to the Fund, subject to the supervision of the Board. The Administrator may provide persons to serve as officers of the Fund. Such officers may be directors, officers or employees of the Administrator or its affiliates.

 

The Fund Services Agreement is dated August 29, 2012. The Fund Services Agreement will remain in effect for two years from the effective date of the agreement, and will remain in effect subject to annual approval of the Board for one-year periods thereafter. The Fund Services Agreement is terminable by the Board or the Administrator on ninety days' written notice and may be assigned provided the non-assigning party provides prior written consent. This Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator or reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Administrator shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.

 

Under the Fund Services Agreement, the Administrator provides facilitating administrative services, including: (i) providing services of persons competent to perform such administrative and clerical functions as are necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (ii) facilitating the performance of administrative and professional

42 
 

services to the Fund by others, including the Fund's Custodian; (iii) preparing, but not paying for, the periodic updating of the Fund's Registration Statement, Prospectuses and Statement of Additional Information in conjunction with Fund counsel, including the printing of such documents for the purpose of filings with the SEC and state securities administrators, and preparing reports to the Fund's shareholders and the SEC; (iv) preparing in conjunction with Fund counsel, but not paying for, all filings under the securities or "Blue Sky" laws of such states or countries as are designated by the Distributor, which may be required to register or qualify, or continue the registration or qualification, of the Fund and/or its shares under such laws; (v) preparing notices and agendas for meetings of the Board and minutes of such meetings in all matters required by the 1940 Act to be acted upon by the Board; and (vi) monitoring daily and periodic compliance with respect to all requirements and restrictions of the 1940 Act, the Internal Revenue Code and the Prospectuses.

 

The Administrator also provides the Fund with accounting services, including: (i) daily computation of net asset value; (ii) maintenance of security ledgers and books and records as required by the 1940 Act; (iii) production of the Fund's listing of portfolio securities and general ledger reports; (iv) reconciliation of accounting records; (v) calculation of yield and total return for the Fund; (vi) maintaining certain books and records described in Rule 31a-1 under the 1940 Act, and reconciling account information and balances among the Fund's custodian and Adviser; and (vii) monitoring and evaluating daily income and expense accruals, and sales and redemptions of shares of the Fund.

 

For administrative services rendered to the Fund under the Fund Services Agreement, the Fund pay GFS the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. For the fund accounting services rendered to the Fund under the Fund Services Agreement, the Fund pay GFS the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pay GFS for any out-of-pocket expenses.

 

Effective February 1, 2019, NorthStar Financial Services Group, LLC, the parent company of GFS, the Distributor, and Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (collectively, the “Gemini Companies”), sold its interest in the Gemini Companies to a third party private equity firm that contemporaneously acquired Ultimus Fund Solutions, LLC (an independent mutual fund administration firm) and its affiliates (collectively, the “Ultimus Companies”). As a result of these separate transactions, the Gemini Companies and the Ultimus Companies are now indirectly owned through a common parent entity, The Ultimus Group, LLC. 

 

Transfer Agent

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, acts as transfer, dividend disbursing, and shareholder servicing agent for the Fund pursuant to written agreement with Fund (the “Transfer Agent”). Under the agreement, the Transfer Agent is responsible for administering and performing transfer agent functions, dividend distribution, shareholder administration, and maintaining necessary records in accordance with applicable rules and regulations.

 

Custodian

 

BBH (the "Custodian"), serves as the custodian of the Fund's assets pursuant to a Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement by and between the Custodian and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. The Custodian's responsibilities include safeguarding and controlling the Fund's cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities, and collecting interest and dividends on the Fund's investments. Pursuant to the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, the Custodian also maintains original entry documents and books of record and general ledgers; posts cash receipts and disbursements; and records purchases and sales based upon communications from the Adviser. The Fund may employ foreign sub-custodians that are approved by the Board to hold foreign assets.

 

Compliance Officer

 

Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (“NLCS”), 17645 Wright Street, Suite 200, Omaha, NE 68130, an affiliate of GFS and the Distributor, provides a Chief Compliance Officer to the Trust as well as related compliance services

43 
 

pursuant to a consulting agreement between NLCS and the Trust. NLCS’s compliance services consist primarily of reviewing and assessing the policies and procedures of the Trust and its service providers pertaining to compliance with applicable federal securities laws, including Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act. For the compliance services rendered to the Fund, the Fund pays NLCS a one-time fee plus an annual asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pays NLCS for any out-of-pocket expenses.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

Each share of beneficial interest of the Trust has one vote in the election of Trustees. Cumulative voting is not authorized for the Trust. This means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of Trustees can elect 100% of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in that event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any Trustees.

 

Shareholders of the Trust and any other future series of the Trust will vote in the aggregate and not by series except as otherwise required by law or when the Board determines that the matter to be voted upon affects only the interest of the shareholders of a particular series or classes. Matters such as election of Trustees are not subject to separate voting requirements and may be acted upon by shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series.

 

The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Each share has equal, per-class, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. There are no conversion or preemptive rights applicable to any shares of the Fund. All shares issued are fully paid and non-assessable.

 

The Trust’s by-laws state that unless the Trust consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forums for any Shareholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Trust; (ii) any action asserting a claim or breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any Trustee, officer or employee, if any, of the Trust to the Trust or the Trust’s Shareholders or its beneficial owners; (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act or the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust or by-laws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. The Trust’s by-laws also state that any person or entity that is a shareholder of the Trust shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions of the Trust’s by-laws.

 

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM

 

The Trust has established an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program (the “Program”) as required by the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”). To ensure compliance with this law, the Trust’s Program provides for the development of internal practices, procedures and controls, designation of anti-money laundering compliance officers, an ongoing training program and an independent audit function to determine the effectiveness of the Program. The Trust’s Secretary serves as its Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.

 

Procedures to implement the Program include, but are not limited to, determining that the Fund’s Distributor, and Transfer Agent have established proper anti-money laundering procedures, reported suspicious and/or fraudulent activity and a complete and thorough review of all new opening account applications. The Trust will not transact business with any person or entity whose identity cannot be adequately verified under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.

 

As a result of the Program, the Trust may be required to “freeze” the account of a shareholder if the shareholder appears to be involved in suspicious activity or if certain account information matches information on government lists of known terrorists or other suspicious persons, or the Trust may be required to transfer the account or proceeds of the account to a governmental agency. 

 

PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES

 

44 
 

Calculation of Share Price

 

As indicated in the Prospectus under the heading "Net Asset Value," ("NAV"), the NAV of the Fund's shares is determined by dividing the total value of the Fund's portfolio investments and other assets, less any liabilities, by the total number of shares outstanding of the Fund.

 

Generally, the Fund’s domestic securities (including underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges) are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board and as further described below. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market.

Certain securities or investments for which daily market quotes are not readily available may be valued, pursuant to guidelines established by the Board, with reference to other securities or indices. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be generally valued at amortized cost when it approximated fair value.

Exchange traded options are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on the exchange on which such options are traded. Futures and options on futures are valued at the settlement price determined by the exchange. Other securities for which market quotes are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or persons acting at their direction. Swap agreements and other derivatives are generally valued daily based upon quotations from market makers or by a pricing service in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board.

Under certain circumstances, the Fund may use an independent pricing service to calculate the fair market value of foreign equity securities on a daily basis by applying valuation factors to the last sale price or the mean price as noted above. The fair market values supplied by the independent pricing service will generally reflect market trading that occurs after the close of the applicable foreign markets of comparable securities or the value of other instruments that have a strong correlation to the fair-valued securities. The independent pricing service will also take into account the current relevant currency exchange rate. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures. Because foreign securities may trade on days when Fund shares are not priced, the value of securities held by the Fund can change on days when Fund shares cannot be redeemed or purchased. In the event that a foreign security’s market quotations are not readily available or are deemed unreliable (for reasons other than because the foreign exchange on which it trades closed before the Fund’s calculation of NAV), the security will be valued at its fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board as discussed below. Without fair valuation, it is possible that short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that it will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short-term traders. In addition, because the Fund may invest in underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the underlying ETFs do not price their shares, the value of these portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares.

Investments initially valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted to U.S. dollars using exchange rates obtained from pricing services. As a result, the NAV of the Fund's shares may be affected by changes in the value of

45 
 

currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar. The value of securities traded in markets outside the United States or denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar may be affected significantly on a day that the New York Stock Exchange is closed and an investor is not able to purchase, redeem or exchange shares.

Fund shares are valued at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) (the "NYSE Close") on each day that the New York Stock Exchange is open. For purposes of calculating the NAV, the Fund normally use pricing data for domestic equity securities received shortly after the NYSE Close and does not normally take into account trading, clearances or settlements that take place after the NYSE Close. Domestic fixed income and foreign securities are normally priced using data reflecting the earlier closing of the principal markets for those securities. Information that becomes known to the Fund or its agents after the NAV has been calculated on a particular day will not generally be used to retroactively adjust the price of the security or the NAV determined earlier that day.

When market quotations are insufficient or not readily available, the Fund may value securities at fair value or estimate their value as determined in good faith by the Board or its designees, pursuant to procedures approved by the Board. Fair valuation may also be used by the Board if extraordinary events occur after the close of the relevant market but prior to the NYSE Close.

 

Notice to Texas Shareholders

 

Under Section 72.1021(a) of the Texas Property Code, initial investors in a fund who are Texas residents may designate a representative to receive notices of abandoned property in connection with fund shares. Texas shareholders who wish to appoint a representative should notify the Trust’s Transfer Agent by writing to the address below to obtain a form for providing written notice to the Trust:

 

LeaderShares™ AlphaFactor® US Core Equity ETF

c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

PO Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Creation Units

 

The Fund sells and redeems Shares in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

A Creation Unit is an aggregation of 25,000 Shares. The Board may declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund or Trust, and make a corresponding change in the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

Authorized Participants

 

To purchase or redeem any Creation Units, you must be, or transact through, an Authorized Participant. In order to be an Authorized Participant, you must be either a broker-dealer or other participant (“Participating Party”) in the Continuous Net Settlement System (“Clearing Process”) of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement (“Participant Agreement”) with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Fund’s Creation Units.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants but want to transact in Creation Units may contact the Distributor for the names of Authorized Participants. An Authorized Participant may require investors to enter into a separate agreement to transact through it for Creation Units and may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in a particular form. Investors transacting through a broker that is not itself an Authorized Participant and therefore must still transact through an Authorized Participant may incur additional charges. There are expected to be a limited number of Authorized Participants at any one time.

46 
 

 

Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Market disruptions and telephone or other communication failures may impede the transmission of orders.

 

Transaction Fees

 

A fixed fee payable to the Custodian is imposed on each creation and redemption transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units involved in the transaction (“Fixed Fee”). Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units for cash or involving cash-in-lieu (as defined below) are required to pay an additional variable charge to compensate the Fund and its ongoing shareholders for brokerage and market impact expenses relating to Creation Unit transactions (“Variable Charge,” and together with the Fixed Fee, the “Transaction Fees”). With the approval of the Board, the Adviser may waive or adjust the Transaction Fees, including the Fixed Fee and/or Variable Charge (shown in the table below), from time to time. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Fund for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Fund and the cash-in-lieu amount, applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. In addition, purchasers of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the account of the Fund.

 

Investors who use the services of a broker, or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. The Transaction Fees for the Fund are listed in the table below.

 

Fee for In-Kind and Cash Purchases Minimum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases* Maximum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases*
$600 20 bps 200 bps

* As a percentage of the amount invested.

 

The Clearing Process

 

Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a Participating Party using the NSCC system are referred to as transactions “through the Clearing Process.” Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a DTC Participant using the DTC system are referred to as transactions “outside the Clearing Process.” The Clearing Process is an enhanced clearing process that is available only for certain securities and only to DTC participants that are also participants in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. In-kind (portions of) purchase orders not subject to the Clearing Process will go through a manual clearing process run by DTC. Portfolio Deposits that include government securities must be delivered through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system (“Federal Reserve System”). Fund Deposits that include cash may be delivered through the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System. In-kind deposits of securities for orders outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through the Federal Reserve System (for government securities) or through DTC (for corporate securities).

 

Foreign Securities

 

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their shares of the Fund, or to purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.

  

Purchasing Creation Units

 

Portfolio Deposit

 

The consideration for a Creation Unit generally consists of the Deposit Securities and a Cash Component. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit.” The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Deposit Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash

47 
 

Component to the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund.

 

On each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Deposit Security in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. The Deposit Securities announced are applicable to purchases of Creation Units until the next announcement of Deposit Securities.

 

Payment of any stamp duty or the like shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing a Creation Unit. The Authorized Participant must ensure that all Deposit Securities properly denote change in beneficial ownership.

 

Custom Orders and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Deposit Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash in lieu of Deposit Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities laws or policies from transacting in one or more Deposit Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in accepting Deposit Securities including that the Deposit Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All orders involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Orders.”

 

Purchase Orders

 

To order a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order to the Distributor.

 

Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” An order to create Creation Units is deemed received on a Business Day if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating custom orders and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve Bank wire system, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the “Settlement Date,” which is generally the Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date (“T+1”) for cash and the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date for securities (“T+2”).

 

Orders Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) orders may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits, on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Portfolio Deposit to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System.

 

Orders Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Portfolio Deposits will be made outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and

48 
 

that the creation of Creation Units will be effected through DTC. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant on the Transmittal Date in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of Deposit Securities (whether standard or custom) through DTC to the Fund account by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time, on T+1. The Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee, must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve System in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive both the Deposit Securities and the cash by the appointed time, the order may be canceled. A canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day but must conform to that Business Day’s Portfolio Deposit. Authorized Participants that submit a canceled order will be liable to the Fund for any losses incurred by the Fund in connection therewith.

 

Orders involving foreign Deposit Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable purchase order, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian of such order. The Custodian , who will have caused the appropriate local sub-custodian(s) of the Fund to maintain an account into which an Authorized Participant may deliver Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu), with adjustments determined by the Fund, will then provide information of the order to such local sub-custodian(s). The ordering Authorized Participant will then deliver the Deposit Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds in U.S. dollars estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component and Transaction Fee. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Settlement must occur by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the contractual settlement date.

 

Acceptance of Purchase Order

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund. The Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (c) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the Deposit Securities for the applicable date; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust, Fund or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust, Fund or the rights of beneficial owners; or (g) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Distributor and the Adviser make it for all practical purposes impossible to process purchase orders. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems resulting in telephone, telecopy or computer failures; fires, floods or extreme weather conditions; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other informational systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Adviser, the Fund’s Custodian, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process; and similar extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify an Authorized Participant of its rejection of the order. The Fund, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, and they shall not incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

 

Issuance of a Creation Unit

 

Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.

 

Except as provided below, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the Fund obtains good title to the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. The delivery of Creation Units will generally occur no later than T+2.

 

49 
 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Deposit Securities, when the applicable local sub-custodian(s) have confirmed to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu) have been delivered to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian(s), the Distributor and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. While, as stated above, Creation Units are generally delivered on T+2, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances.

 

The Fund may issue a Creation Unit prior to receiving good title to the Deposit Securities, under the following circumstances. Pursuant to the applicable Participant Agreement, the Fund may issue a Creation Unit notwithstanding that (certain) Deposit Securities have not been delivered, in reliance on an undertaking by the relevant Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking is secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery to and maintenance with the Custodian of collateral having a value equal to at least 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities (“Collateral”), as adjusted by time to time by the Adviser. Such Collateral will have a value greater than the NAV of the Creation Unit on the date the order is placed. Such collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. The only Collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. Dollars.

 

While (certain) Deposit Securities remain undelivered, the Collateral shall at all times have a value equal to at least 115% (as adjusted by the Adviser) of the daily marked-to-market value of the missing Deposit Securities. At any time, the Fund may use the Collateral to purchase the missing securities, and the Authorized Participant will be liable to the Fund for any costs incurred thereby or losses resulting therefrom, whether or not they exceed the amount of the Collateral, including any Transaction Fee, any amount by which the purchase price of the missing Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such securities on the Transmittal Date, brokerage and other transaction costs. The Trust will return any unused Collateral once all of the missing securities have been received by the Fund. More information regarding the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization is available from the Distributor.

 

Cash Purchase Method

 

When cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases In the case of a cash purchase, the investor must pay the cash equivalent of the Portfolio Deposit. In addition, cash purchases will be subject to Transaction Fees, as described above.

 

Redeeming a Creation Unit

 

Redemption Basket

 

The consideration received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit generally consists of an in-kind basket of designated securities (“Redemption Securities”) and a Cash Component. Together, the Redemption Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Redemption Basket.”

 

There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in Shares in the secondary market to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. In addition, investors may incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a Creation Unit.

 

The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Redemption Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Redemption Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund.

 

50 
 

If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Redemption Security in the current Redemption Basket (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, all redemption requests that day will be processed outside the Clearing Process.

 

The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed: (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares or determination of the ETF’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as permitted by the SEC, including as described below.

 

Custom Redemptions and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of cash-in-lieu to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Redemption Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Redemption Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Redemption Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities law or policies from transacting in one or more Redemption Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in satisfying redemptions with Redemption Securities, including that the Redemption Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All redemption requests involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Redemptions.”

 

Redemption Requests

 

To redeem a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption request to the Distributor.

 

An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Fund that it has ascertained or has reasonable grounds to believe that as of the time of the contractual settlement date, that (i) it or its customer, as the case may be, owns, will own or have the authority and right to tender for redemption the Creation Unit to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) all of the Shares that are in the Creation Unit to be redeemed have not been borrowed, loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement that would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Fund on the contractual settlement date. The Fund reserves the absolute right, in its sole discretion, to verify these representations, but will typically require verification in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of the requested representations, the redemption request will not be considered to be in proper form and may be rejected by the Fund.

 

Timing of Submission of Redemption Requests

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption order no later than the Cut-off Time. The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” A redemption request is deemed received if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating Custom Redemptions and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve System, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the Settlement Date, as defined above.

 

Requests Using the Clearing Process

 

51 
 

If available, (portions of) redemption requests may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the redemption. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Creation Unit(s) to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System, as described above.

 

Requests Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Redemption Baskets will be delivered outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the redemption will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant must transfer or cause to be transferred the Creation Unit(s) of shares being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be delivered through DTC to the Custodian by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on received T+1. In addition, the Cash Component must be received by the Custodian by 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive the Creation Unit(s) and Cash Component by the appointed times on T+1, the redemption will be rejected, except in the circumstances described below. A rejected redemption request may be resubmitted the following Business Day.

 

Orders involving foreign Redemption Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable redemption request, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian. The Custodian will then provide information of the redemption to the Fund’s local sub-custodian(s). The redeeming Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf is acting, will have established appropriate arrangements with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which the Redemption Securities are customarily traded and to which such Redemption Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) can be delivered from the Fund’s accounts at the applicable local sub-custodian(s).

 

Acceptance of Redemption Requests

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust. The Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

Delivery of Redemption Basket

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption request, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Redemption Basket, against receipt of the Creation Unit(s) at such NAV, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. A Creation Unit tendered for redemption and the payment of the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf it is acting, will be recorded on the book-entry system of DTC.

 

The Redemption Basket will generally be delivered to the redeeming Authorized Participant within T+2. Except under the circumstances described below, however, a Redemption Basket generally will not be issued until the Creation Unit(s) are delivered to the Fund, along with the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee.

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Redemption Securities, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Listed below are the dates in calendar year 2019 in which the regular holidays in non-U.S. markets may impact Fund settlement. This list is based on information available to the Fund. The list may not be accurate or complete and is subject to change:

 

 

52 
 

 

Argentina Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Bahrain Monday, December 16, 2019
Argentina Thursday, April 18, 2019 Bahrain Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Argentina Friday, April 19, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, February 21, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Argentina Thursday, June 20, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Argentina Monday, August 19, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, May 20, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, September 25, 2019 Bangladesh Friday, May 31, 2019
Argentina Monday, October 14, 2019 Bangladesh Sunday, June 02, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, November 06, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Argentina Monday, November 18, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, June 06, 2019
Australia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, July 01, 2019
Australia Monday, January 28, 2019 Bangladesh Sunday, August 11, 2019
Australia Friday, April 19, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, August 12, 2019
Australia Monday, April 22, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Australia Thursday, April 25, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, August 15, 2019
Australia Monday, June 10, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Australia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Bangladesh Saturday, November 09, 2019
Australia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, December 16, 2019
Australia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Australia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Austria Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Belgium Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Austria Friday, April 19, 2019 Belgium Friday, April 19, 2019
Austria Monday, April 22, 2019 Belgium Monday, April 22, 2019
Austria Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Belgium Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Austria Thursday, May 30, 2019 Belgium Thursday, May 30, 2019
Austria Monday, June 10, 2019 Belgium Monday, June 10, 2019
Austria Thursday, June 20, 2019 Belgium Wednesday, December 25, 2019
53 
 

 

Austria Thursday, August 15, 2019 Belgium Thursday, December 26, 2019
Austria Friday, November 01, 2019 Bermuda Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Austria Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Bermuda Friday, April 19, 2019
Austria Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bermuda Friday, May 31, 2019
Austria Thursday, December 26, 2019 Bermuda Monday, June 17, 2019
Austria Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Bermuda Thursday, August 01, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bermuda Friday, August 02, 2019
Bahrain Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bermuda Monday, September 02, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, June 04, 2019 Bermuda Monday, November 11, 2019
Bahrain Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Bermuda Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Bahrain Thursday, June 06, 2019 Bermuda Thursday, December 26, 2019
Bahrain Sunday, August 11, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Bahrain Monday, August 12, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, January 07, 2019
Bahrain Sunday, September 08, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, January 09, 2019
Bahrain Monday, September 09, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Friday, March 01, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, April 22, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, March 04, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Friday, April 26, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, April 19, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, April 29, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, April 22, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, April 26, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, May 02, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, April 29, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, May 09, 2019 Bulgaria Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, May 06, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, June 06, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, May 24, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, August 12, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, September 06, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, November 21, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, September 23, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, November 25, 2019 Bulgaria Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bulgaria Wednesday, December 25, 2019
54 
 

 

Botswana Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bulgaria Thursday, December 26, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Canada Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Botswana Friday, April 19, 2019 Canada Monday, February 18, 2019
Botswana Saturday, April 20, 2019 Canada Friday, April 19, 2019
Botswana Monday, April 22, 2019 Canada Monday, May 20, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Canada Monday, July 01, 2019
Botswana Thursday, May 30, 2019 Canada Monday, August 05, 2019
Botswana Monday, July 01, 2019 Canada Monday, September 02, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, July 02, 2019 Canada Monday, October 14, 2019
Botswana Monday, July 15, 2019 Canada Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, July 16, 2019 Canada Thursday, December 26, 2019
Botswana Monday, September 30, 2019 Chile Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Chile Friday, April 19, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Chile Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Botswana Thursday, December 26, 2019 Chile Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Chile Tuesday, July 16, 2019
Brazil Friday, January 25, 2019 Chile Thursday, August 15, 2019
Brazil Monday, March 04, 2019 Chile Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Chile Thursday, September 19, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, March 06, 2019 Chile Friday, September 20, 2019
Brazil Friday, April 19, 2019 Chile Friday, November 01, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Chile Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Brazil Thursday, June 20, 2019 Chile Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, July 09, 2019 China Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Brazil Saturday, September 07, 2019 China Monday, February 04, 2019
Brazil Saturday, October 12, 2019 China Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Brazil Saturday, November 02, 2019 China Wednesday, February 06, 2019
55 
 

 

Brazil Friday, November 15, 2019 China Thursday, February 07, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, November 20, 2019 China Friday, February 08, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, December 25, 2019 China Friday, April 05, 2019
Bulgaria Tuesday, January 01, 2019 China Wednesday, May 01, 2019
China Friday, June 07, 2019 Croatia Thursday, December 26, 2019
China Friday, September 13, 2019 Croatia Tuesday, December 31, 2019
China Monday, September 30, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, January 01, 2019
China Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, March 11, 2019
China Wednesday, October 02, 2019 Cyprus Monday, March 25, 2019
China Thursday, October 03, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 01, 2019
China Friday, October 04, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Colombia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Cyprus Friday, April 19, 2019
Colombia Monday, January 07, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 22, 2019
Colombia Monday, March 25, 2019 Cyprus Friday, April 26, 2019
Colombia Thursday, April 18, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 29, 2019
Colombia Friday, April 19, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, June 17, 2019
Colombia Monday, June 03, 2019 Cyprus Thursday, August 15, 2019
Colombia Monday, June 24, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, October 01, 2019
Colombia Monday, July 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, October 28, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, August 07, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Colombia Monday, August 19, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Colombia Monday, October 14, 2019 Cyprus Thursday, December 26, 2019
Colombia Monday, November 04, 2019 Czech Republic Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Colombia Monday, November 11, 2019 Czech Republic Friday, April 19, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Czech Republic Monday, April 22, 2019
Costa Rica Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, May 01, 2019
56 
 

 

Costa Rica Thursday, April 11, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, May 08, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, April 18, 2019 Czech Republic Friday, July 05, 2019
Costa Rica Friday, April 19, 2019 Czech Republic Monday, October 28, 2019
Costa Rica Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Czech Republic Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, July 25, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Costa Rica Friday, August 02, 2019 Czech Republic Thursday, December 26, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, August 15, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Costa Rica Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Denmark Thursday, April 18, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Denmark Friday, April 19, 2019
Croatia Friday, April 19, 2019 Denmark Monday, April 22, 2019
Croatia Monday, April 22, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Croatia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 10, 2019
Croatia Thursday, June 20, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 17, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, June 25, 2019 Denmark Thursday, May 30, 2019
Croatia Monday, August 05, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 31, 2019
Croatia Thursday, August 15, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Croatia Friday, November 01, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Denmark Thursday, December 26, 2019
Croatia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Ecuador Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Finland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Ecuador Monday, March 04, 2019 Finland Thursday, May 30, 2019
Ecuador Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Finland Friday, June 21, 2019
Ecuador Friday, April 19, 2019 Finland Friday, December 06, 2019
Ecuador Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Finland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Ecuador Friday, May 24, 2019 Finland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Ecuador Friday, August 09, 2019 Finland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Ecuador Friday, October 11, 2019 Finland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Ecuador Friday, November 01, 2019 France Tuesday, January 01, 2019
57 
 

 

Ecuador Monday, November 04, 2019 France Friday, April 19, 2019
Ecuador Wednesday, December 25, 2019 France Monday, April 22, 2019
Egypt Tuesday, January 01, 2019 France Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Egypt Monday, January 07, 2019 France Thursday, May 30, 2019
Egypt Thursday, April 25, 2019 France Monday, June 10, 2019
Egypt Sunday, April 28, 2019 France Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Egypt Monday, April 29, 2019 France Thursday, December 26, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Germany Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Germany Friday, April 19, 2019
Egypt Thursday, June 06, 2019 Germany Monday, April 22, 2019
Egypt Sunday, June 30, 2019 Germany Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Egypt Monday, July 01, 2019 Germany Thursday, May 30, 2019
Egypt Tuesday, July 23, 2019 Germany Monday, June 10, 2019
Egypt Sunday, August 11, 2019 Germany Thursday, June 20, 2019
Egypt Monday, August 12, 2019 Germany Thursday, October 03, 2019
Egypt Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Germany Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Germany Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Egypt Sunday, September 01, 2019 Germany Thursday, December 26, 2019
Egypt Sunday, October 06, 2019 Ghana Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Egypt Sunday, November 10, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, March 06, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Ghana Friday, April 19, 2019
Estonia Friday, April 19, 2019 Ghana Monday, April 22, 2019
Estonia Monday, April 22, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Estonia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Ghana Monday, May 27, 2019
Estonia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Estonia Monday, June 24, 2019 Ghana Monday, July 01, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, August 20, 2019 Ghana Monday, August 12, 2019
58 
 

 

Estonia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Ghana Saturday, September 21, 2019
Estonia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Ghana Friday, December 06, 2019
Estonia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Ghana Thursday, December 26, 2019
Finland Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Greece Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Finland Friday, April 19, 2019 Greece Monday, March 11, 2019
Finland Monday, April 22, 2019 Greece Monday, March 25, 2019
Greece Friday, April 19, 2019 Hungary Friday, December 27, 2019
Greece Monday, April 22, 2019 Hungary Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Greece Friday, April 26, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Greece Monday, April 29, 2019 Iceland Thursday, April 18, 2019
Greece Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Iceland Friday, April 19, 2019
Greece Monday, June 17, 2019 Iceland Monday, April 22, 2019
Greece Thursday, August 15, 2019 Iceland Thursday, April 25, 2019
Greece Monday, October 28, 2019 Iceland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Greece Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Iceland Thursday, May 30, 2019
Greece Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Iceland Monday, June 10, 2019
Greece Thursday, December 26, 2019 Iceland Monday, June 17, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Iceland Monday, August 05, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, February 04, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, February 05, 2019 Iceland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, February 06, 2019 Iceland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, February 07, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, April 05, 2019 India Friday, April 19, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, April 19, 2019 India Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, April 22, 2019 India Thursday, August 15, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, May 01, 2019 India Wednesday, October 02, 2019
59 
 

 

Hong Kong SAR Monday, May 13, 2019 India Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, June 07, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, July 01, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Indonesia Thursday, March 07, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, October 07, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, April 03, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, December 16, 2019 Indonesia Friday, April 19, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Indonesia Thursday, May 30, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, December 26, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Indonesia Monday, August 12, 2019
Hungary Friday, March 15, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hungary Friday, April 19, 2019 Ireland Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Hungary Monday, April 22, 2019 Ireland Friday, April 19, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Ireland Monday, April 22, 2019
Hungary Monday, June 10, 2019 Ireland Monday, May 06, 2019
Hungary Monday, August 19, 2019 Ireland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, August 20, 2019 Ireland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, October 23, 2019 Israel Thursday, March 21, 2019
Hungary Friday, November 01, 2019 Israel Monday, April 22, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Israel Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Israel Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Hungary Thursday, December 26, 2019 Israel Thursday, April 25, 2019
Israel Wednesday, May 08, 2019 Japan Monday, September 23, 2019
Israel Thursday, May 09, 2019 Japan Monday, October 14, 2019
Israel Monday, September 30, 2019 Japan Monday, November 04, 2019
Israel Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Japan Tuesday, December 31, 2019
60 
 

 

Israel Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Israel Wednesday, October 09, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Israel Monday, October 14, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Israel Tuesday, October 15, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Israel Wednesday, October 16, 2019 Jordan Thursday, June 06, 2019
Israel Thursday, October 17, 2019 Jordan Sunday, August 11, 2019
Israel Sunday, October 20, 2019 Jordan Monday, August 12, 2019
Israel Monday, October 21, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Italy Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Italy Friday, April 19, 2019 Jordan Saturday, August 31, 2019
Italy Monday, April 22, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Italy Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Italy Thursday, December 26, 2019 Kazakhstan Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Ivory Coast Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, January 07, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, April 22, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, March 08, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Thursday, March 21, 2019
Ivory Coast Thursday, May 30, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, March 22, 2019
Ivory Coast Sunday, June 02, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, March 25, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Kazakhstan Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, June 10, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, May 07, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, August 07, 2019 Kazakhstan Thursday, May 09, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, August 12, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, July 08, 2019
Ivory Coast Thursday, August 15, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, August 30, 2019
Ivory Coast Friday, November 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, December 02, 2019
Ivory Coast Sunday, November 10, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, December 16, 2019
Ivory Coast Friday, November 15, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, December 17, 2019
61 
 

 

Ivory Coast Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Kenya Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Japan Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Kenya Friday, April 19, 2019
Japan Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Kenya Monday, April 22, 2019
Japan Thursday, January 03, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Japan Monday, January 14, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Japan Monday, February 11, 2019 Kenya Monday, August 12, 2019
Japan Thursday, March 21, 2019 Kenya Monday, October 21, 2019
Japan Monday, April 29, 2019 Kenya Monday, December 02, 2019
Japan Friday, May 03, 2019 Kenya Thursday, December 12, 2019
Japan Monday, May 06, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Japan Monday, July 15, 2019 Kuwait Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Japan Monday, August 12, 2019 Kuwait Monday, February 25, 2019
Japan Monday, September 16, 2019 Kuwait Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Kuwait Thursday, April 04, 2019 Malaysia Friday, February 01, 2019
Kuwait Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Malaysia Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Kuwait Thursday, June 06, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, February 06, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, August 11, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Kuwait Monday, August 12, 2019 Malaysia Monday, May 20, 2019
Kuwait Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, September 01, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, November 10, 2019 Malaysia Thursday, June 06, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Malaysia Monday, August 12, 2019
Latvia Friday, April 19, 2019 Malaysia Monday, September 09, 2019
Latvia Monday, April 22, 2019 Malaysia Monday, September 16, 2019
Latvia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Malaysia Monday, October 28, 2019
Latvia Monday, May 06, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Latvia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, January 01, 2019
62 
 

 

Latvia Monday, June 24, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Latvia Monday, November 18, 2019 Mauritius Monday, January 21, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Mauritius Friday, February 01, 2019
Latvia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Latvia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Mauritius Monday, March 04, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Lithuania Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Lithuania Saturday, February 16, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Lithuania Monday, March 11, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, September 03, 2019
Lithuania Friday, April 19, 2019 Mauritius Friday, November 01, 2019
Lithuania Monday, April 22, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Lithuania Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Mexico Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Lithuania Thursday, May 30, 2019 Mexico Monday, February 04, 2019
Lithuania Monday, June 24, 2019 Mexico Monday, March 18, 2019
Lithuania Saturday, July 06, 2019 Mexico Thursday, April 18, 2019
Lithuania Friday, November 01, 2019 Mexico Friday, April 19, 2019
Lithuania Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Mexico Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Lithuania Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Mexico Monday, September 16, 2019
Lithuania Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Mexico Monday, November 18, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Mexico Thursday, December 12, 2019
Luxembourg Friday, April 19, 2019 Mexico Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Luxembourg Monday, April 22, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Luxembourg Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Morocco Friday, January 11, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Luxembourg Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Morocco Monday, August 12, 2019
Luxembourg Thursday, December 26, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Morocco Wednesday, August 14, 2019
63 
 

 

Malaysia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Malaysia Monday, January 21, 2019 Morocco Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Morocco Monday, September 02, 2019 New Zealand Monday, October 28, 2019
Morocco Wednesday, November 06, 2019 New Zealand Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Morocco Monday, November 11, 2019 New Zealand Thursday, December 26, 2019
Morocco Tuesday, November 12, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Mozambique Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Nigeria Friday, April 19, 2019
Mozambique Monday, February 04, 2019 Nigeria Monday, April 22, 2019
Mozambique Monday, April 08, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Mozambique Tuesday, June 25, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, September 25, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Mozambique Friday, October 04, 2019 Nigeria Monday, August 12, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, October 01, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Nigeria Saturday, November 09, 2019
Namibia Thursday, March 21, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Namibia Friday, April 19, 2019 Nigeria Thursday, December 26, 2019
Namibia Monday, April 22, 2019 Norway Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Namibia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Norway Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Namibia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Norway Thursday, April 18, 2019
Namibia Monday, June 17, 2019 Norway Friday, April 19, 2019
Namibia Friday, August 09, 2019 Norway Monday, April 22, 2019
Namibia Monday, August 26, 2019 Norway Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, September 24, 2019 Norway Friday, May 17, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, December 10, 2019 Norway Thursday, May 30, 2019
Namibia Monday, December 16, 2019 Norway Monday, June 10, 2019
Namibia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Norway Tuesday, December 24, 2019
64 
 

 

Namibia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Norway Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Netherlands Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Norway Thursday, December 26, 2019
Netherlands Friday, April 19, 2019 Norway Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Netherlands Monday, April 22, 2019 Oman Wednesday, April 03, 2019
Netherlands Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Oman Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Netherlands Thursday, May 30, 2019 Oman Thursday, June 06, 2019
Netherlands Monday, June 10, 2019 Oman Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Netherlands Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Oman Sunday, August 11, 2019
Netherlands Thursday, December 26, 2019 Oman Monday, August 12, 2019
New Zealand Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Oman Tuesday, August 13, 2019
New Zealand Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Oman Wednesday, August 14, 2019
New Zealand Monday, January 21, 2019 Oman Thursday, August 15, 2019
New Zealand Monday, January 28, 2019 Oman Sunday, September 01, 2019
New Zealand Wednesday, February 06, 2019 Oman Sunday, November 10, 2019
New Zealand Friday, April 19, 2019 Oman Monday, November 18, 2019
New Zealand Monday, April 22, 2019 Oman Tuesday, November 19, 2019
New Zealand Thursday, April 25, 2019 Pakistan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
New Zealand Monday, June 03, 2019 Pakistan Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Poland Monday, November 11, 2019
Pakistan Monday, May 06, 2019 Poland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Poland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Pakistan Thursday, June 06, 2019 Poland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Pakistan Monday, July 01, 2019 Poland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Pakistan Sunday, August 11, 2019 Portugal Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Pakistan Monday, August 12, 2019 Portugal Friday, April 19, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Portugal Monday, April 22, 2019
Pakistan Tuesday, September 10, 2019 Portugal Thursday, April 25, 2019
65 
 

 

Pakistan Wednesday, September 11, 2019 Portugal Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Pakistan Saturday, November 09, 2019 Portugal Monday, June 10, 2019
Peru Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Portugal Thursday, June 13, 2019
Peru Thursday, April 18, 2019 Portugal Thursday, June 20, 2019
Peru Friday, April 19, 2019 Portugal Thursday, August 15, 2019
Peru Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Portugal Friday, November 01, 2019
Peru Monday, July 29, 2019 Portugal Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Peru Friday, August 30, 2019 Portugal Thursday, December 26, 2019
Peru Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Peru Friday, November 01, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, February 12, 2019
Peru Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Qatar Sunday, March 03, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, February 05, 2019 Qatar Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Philippines Monday, February 25, 2019 Qatar Thursday, June 06, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, April 09, 2019 Qatar Sunday, August 11, 2019
Philippines Thursday, April 18, 2019 Qatar Monday, August 12, 2019
Philippines Friday, April 19, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Qatar Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, June 12, 2019 Romania Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, August 21, 2019 Romania Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Philippines Monday, August 26, 2019 Romania Thursday, January 24, 2019
Philippines Friday, November 01, 2019 Romania Monday, April 29, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Romania Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Romania Monday, June 17, 2019
Philippines Monday, December 30, 2019 Romania Thursday, August 15, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Romania Wednesday, December 25, 2019
66 
 

 

Poland Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Romania Thursday, December 26, 2019
Poland Friday, April 19, 2019 Russia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Poland Monday, April 22, 2019 Russia Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Poland Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Russia Thursday, January 03, 2019
Poland Friday, May 03, 2019 Russia Friday, January 04, 2019
Poland Thursday, June 20, 2019 Russia Monday, January 07, 2019
Poland Thursday, August 15, 2019 Russia Tuesday, January 08, 2019
Poland Friday, November 01, 2019 Russia Friday, March 08, 2019
Russia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Russia Thursday, May 02, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Russia Friday, May 03, 2019 Singapore Friday, August 09, 2019
Russia Thursday, May 09, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Russia Friday, May 10, 2019 Slovakia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Russia Wednesday, June 12, 2019 Slovakia Friday, April 19, 2019
Russia Monday, November 04, 2019 Slovakia Monday, April 22, 2019
Rwanda Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Rwanda Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, May 08, 2019
Rwanda Friday, February 01, 2019 Slovakia Friday, July 05, 2019
Rwanda Monday, April 08, 2019 Slovakia Thursday, August 29, 2019
Rwanda Friday, April 19, 2019 Slovakia Friday, November 01, 2019
Rwanda Monday, April 22, 2019 Slovakia Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Rwanda Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Rwanda Monday, July 01, 2019 Slovakia Thursday, December 26, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, July 04, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, July 25, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Rwanda Friday, August 02, 2019 Slovenia Friday, February 08, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, August 15, 2019 Slovenia Friday, April 19, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, December 26, 2019 Slovenia Monday, April 22, 2019
67 
 

 

Saudi Arabia Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Saudi Arabia Thursday, June 06, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, May 02, 2019
Saudi Arabia Sunday, June 09, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, June 25, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, June 10, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, August 15, 2019
Saudi Arabia Sunday, August 11, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, October 31, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, August 12, 2019 Slovenia Friday, November 01, 2019
Saudi Arabia Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Saudi Arabia Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, September 23, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, December 26, 2019
Serbia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Serbia Wednesday, January 02, 2019 South Africa Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Serbia Monday, January 07, 2019 South Africa Thursday, March 21, 2019
Serbia Friday, February 15, 2019 South Africa Friday, April 19, 2019
Serbia Saturday, February 16, 2019 South Africa Monday, April 22, 2019
Serbia Friday, April 26, 2019 South Africa Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Serbia Monday, April 29, 2019 South Africa Monday, June 17, 2019
Serbia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 South Africa Friday, August 09, 2019
Serbia Thursday, May 02, 2019 South Africa Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Serbia Monday, November 11, 2019 South Africa Monday, December 16, 2019
Singapore Tuesday, January 01, 2019 South Africa Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Singapore Tuesday, February 05, 2019 South Africa Thursday, December 26, 2019
Singapore Wednesday, February 06, 2019 South Korea Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Singapore Friday, April 19, 2019 South Korea Monday, February 04, 2019

 

 

    Wednesday, December 26, 2018 Saturday, November 10, 2018
    Monday, December 31, 2018 Saturday, December 01, 2018
      Saturday, December 15, 2018
68 
 

 

      Monday, December 24, 2018
      Tuesday, December 25, 2018
      Wednesday, December 26, 2018
      Monday, December 31, 2018

 

 

Cash Redemption Method

 

When cash redemptions of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. In the case of a cash redemption, the investor will receive the cash equivalent of the Redemption Basket minus any Transaction Fees, as described above.

  

TAX STATUS

 

The following discussion is general in nature and should not be regarded as an exhaustive presentation of all possible tax ramifications. All shareholders should consult a qualified tax advisor regarding their investment in the Fund.

 

The Fund has qualified and intends to continue to qualify and has elected to be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), and intends to continue to so qualify, which requires compliance with certain requirements concerning the sources of its income, diversification of its assets, and the amount and timing of its distributions to shareholders. Such qualification does not involve supervision of management or investment practices or policies by any government agency or bureau. By so qualifying, the Fund should not be subject to federal income or excise tax on its investment company taxable income or net capital gain, which are distributed to shareholders in accordance with the applicable timing requirements. Investment company taxable income and net capital gain of the Fund will be computed in accordance with Section 852 of the Code.

 

Investment company taxable income is made up of dividends and interest less expenses, plus any excess of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses. Net capital gain (that is, the excess of net long-term capital gains over net-short-term capital losses) for a fiscal year is computed by taking into account any capital loss carryforward of the Fund. Capital losses incurred in tax years beginning after December 22, 2010 may now be carried forward indefinitely and retain the character of the original loss. Under pre-enacted laws, capital losses could be carried forward to offset any capital gains for eight years, and carried forward as short-term capital, irrespective of the character of the original loss. Capital loss carry forwards are available to offset future realized capital gains. To the extent that these carry forwards are used to offset future capital gains it is probable that the amount offset will not be distributed to shareholders.

 

To be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, the Fund must (a) derive at least 90% of its gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, net income from certain publicly traded partnerships and gains from the sale or other disposition of securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including, but not limited to, gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to the business of investing in such securities or currencies, and (b) diversify its holding so that, at the end of each fiscal quarter, (i) at least 50% of the market value of the Fund's assets is represented by cash, U.S. government securities and securities of other regulated investment companies, and other securities (for purposes of this calculation, generally limited in respect of any one issuer, to an amount not greater than 5% of the market value of the Fund's assets and 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer) and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of its assets is invested in the securities of (other than U.S. government securities or the securities of other regulated investment companies) any one issuer, two or more issuers that the Fund controls and that are determined to be engaged in the same or similar trades or businesses, or the securities of certain publicly traded partnerships.

 

If the Fund qualifies as a regulated investment company and distributes to its shareholders each taxable year an amount equal to or exceeding the sum of (i) 90% of its investment company taxable income without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and (ii) 90% of the excess of its gross tax-exempt interest, if any, over certain disallowed deductions,

69 
 

the Fund generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any income of the Fund, including net capital gain distributed to shareholders. If, however, the Fund meets such distribution requirements, but chooses to retain a portion of its investment company taxable income or net capital gain, it generally will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates on the amount retained.

The Fund intends to distribute all of its investment company taxable income and any net capital gains in accordance with the timing requirements imposed by the Code and therefore should not be required to pay any federal income or excise taxes. Distributions of investment company taxable income, if any, will be made quarterly, and net capital gain, if any, will be made annually no later than December 31 of each year. Both types of distributions will be in shares of the Fund unless a shareholder elects to receive cash. 

 

If the Fund fails to qualify as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M in any fiscal year, it will be treated as a corporation for federal income tax purposes. As such the Fund would be required to pay income taxes on its investment company taxable income and net capital gains, if any, at the rates generally applicable to corporations. Shareholders of the Fund generally would not be liable for income tax on the Fund's investment company taxable income or net capital gains in their individual capacities. Distributions to shareholders, whether from the Fund's investment company taxable income or net capital gains, would be treated as taxable dividends to the extent of current or accumulated earnings and profits of the Fund.

 

The Fund is subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on certain undistributed amounts of ordinary income and capital gain under a prescribed formula contained in Section 4982 of the Code. The formula requires payment to shareholders during a calendar year of distributions representing at least 98% of the Fund's ordinary income for the calendar year and at least 98.2% of its capital gain net income (i.e., the excess of its capital gains over capital losses) realized during the one-year period ending October 31 during such year plus 100% of any income that was neither distributed nor taxed to the Fund during the preceding calendar year. Under ordinary circumstances, the Fund expects to time its distributions so as to avoid liability for this tax.

 

The following discussion of tax consequences is for the general information of shareholders that are subject to tax. Shareholders that are IRAs or other qualified retirement plans are exempt from income taxation under the Code.

 

Distributions of investment company taxable income are taxable to shareholders as ordinary income.

 

Distributions of net capital gain ("capital gain dividends") generally are taxable to shareholders as long-term capital gain; regardless of the length of time the shares of the Trust have been held by such shareholders.

 

The Fund may be able to report a portion of its income as “qualified dividend income,” which, if certain conditions, including holding period requirements, are met by the Fund and the shareholders, is taxable to noncorporate shareholders at rates of up to 20%. In general, dividends may be reported by the Fund as qualified dividend income if they are attributable to qualified dividend income received by the Fund. Qualified dividend income is, in general, dividend income from U.S. corporations and certain foreign corporations (i.e., certain foreign corporations incorporated in a possession of the U.S. or in certain countries with a comprehensive tax treaty with the U.S., and certain other foreign corporations if the stock with respect to which the dividend is paid is readily tradable on an established securities market in the U.S.). Passive foreign investment companies are not qualified foreign corporations for this purpose, and dividends received by the Fund from REITs generally are not expected to qualify for treatment as qualified dividend income.

 

Certain U.S. shareholders, including individuals and estates and trusts, are subject to an additional 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which should include dividends from the Fund and net gains from the disposition of shares of the Fund. U.S. shareholders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the implications of the additional Medicare tax resulting from an investment in the Fund.

 

Redemption of Fund shares by a shareholder will result in the recognition of taxable gain or loss in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized and the shareholder's tax basis in his or her Fund shares. Such gain or loss is treated as a capital gain or loss if the shares are held as capital assets. However, any loss realized upon the redemption of shares within six months from the date of their purchase will be treated as a long-term capital loss to

70 
 

the extent of any amounts treated as capital gain dividends during such six-month period. All or a portion of any loss realized upon the redemption of shares may be disallowed to the extent shares are purchased (including shares acquired by means of reinvested dividends) within 30 days before or after such redemption.

 

Distributions of investment company taxable income and net capital gain will be taxable as described above, whether received in additional cash or shares. Shareholders electing to receive distributions in the form of additional shares will have a cost basis for federal income tax purposes in each share so received equal to the net asset value of a share on the reinvestment date.

 

All distributions of investment company taxable income and net capital gain, whether received in shares or in cash, must be reported by each taxable shareholder on his or her federal income tax return. Dividends or distributions declared in October, November or December as of a record date in such a month, if any, will be deemed to have been received by shareholders on December 31, if paid during January of the following year. Redemptions of shares may result in tax consequences (gain or loss) to the shareholder and are also subject to these reporting requirements.

 

Under the Code, the Fund will be required to report to the Internal Revenue Service all distributions of taxable income and capital gains as well as gross proceeds from the redemption or exchange of Fund shares, except in the case of certain exempt shareholders. Under the backup withholding provisions of Section 3406 of the Code, distributions of investment company taxable income and net capital gain and proceeds from the redemption or exchange of the shares of a regulated investment company may be subject to withholding of federal income tax in the case of non-exempt shareholders who fail to furnish the regulated investment company with their taxpayer identification numbers and with required certifications regarding their status under the federal income tax law, or if the Fund is notified by the IRS or a broker that withholding is required due to an incorrect TIN or a previous failure to report taxable interest or dividends. If the withholding provisions are applicable, any such distributions and proceeds, whether taken in cash or reinvested in additional shares, will be reduced by the amounts required to be withheld.

 

Options, Futures, Forward Contracts and Swap Agreements

 

To the extent such investments are permissible for the Fund, the Fund's transactions in options, futures contracts, hedging transactions, forward contracts, straddles and foreign currencies will be subject to special tax rules (including mark-to-market, constructive sale, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules), the effect of which may be to accelerate income to the Fund, defer losses to the Fund, cause adjustments in the holding periods of the Fund's securities, convert long-term capital gains into short-term capital gains and convert short-term capital losses into long-term capital losses. These rules could therefore affect the amount, timing and character of distributions to shareholders.

 

To the extent such investments are permissible, certain of the Fund's hedging activities (including its transactions, if any, in foreign currencies or foreign currency-denominated instruments) are likely to produce a difference between its book income and its taxable income. If the Fund's book income exceeds its taxable income, the distribution (if any) of such excess book income will be treated as (i) a dividend to the extent of the Fund's remaining earnings and profits (including earnings and profits arising from tax-exempt income), (ii) thereafter, as a return of capital to the extent of the recipient's basis in the shares, and (iii) thereafter, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. If the Fund's book income is less than taxable income, the Fund could be required to make distributions exceeding book income to qualify as a regulated investment company that is accorded special tax treatment.

 

Passive Foreign Investment Companies

 

Investment by the Fund in certain "passive foreign investment companies" ("PFICs") could subject the Fund to a U.S. federal income tax (including interest charges) on distributions received from the company or on proceeds received from the disposition of shares in the company, which tax cannot be eliminated by making distributions to Fund shareholders. However, the Fund may elect to treat a PFIC as a "qualified electing fund" ("QEF"), in which case the Fund will be required to include its share of the company's income and net capital gains annually, regardless of whether it receives any distribution from the company.

 

The Fund also may make an election to mark the gains (and to a limited extent losses) in such holdings "to the market" as though it had sold and repurchased its holdings in those PFICs on the last day of the Fund's taxable year. Such gains and losses are treated as ordinary income and loss. The QEF and mark-to-market elections may accelerate the

71 
 

recognition of income (without the receipt of cash) and increase the amount required to be distributed for the Fund to avoid taxation. Making either of these elections, therefore, may require the Fund to liquidate other investments (including when it is not advantageous to do so) to meet its distribution requirement, which also may accelerate the recognition of gain and affect the Fund's total return.

 

Foreign Currency Transactions

 

The Fund's transactions in foreign currencies, foreign currency-denominated debt securities and certain foreign currency options, futures contracts and forward contracts (and similar instruments) may give rise to ordinary income or loss to the extent such income or loss results from fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency concerned.

 

Foreign Taxation

 

Income received by the Fund from sources within foreign countries may be subject to withholding and other taxes imposed by such countries. Tax treaties and conventions between certain countries and the U.S. may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If more than 50% of the value of the Fund's total assets at the close of its taxable year consists of securities of foreign corporations, the Fund may be able to elect to "pass through" to the Fund's shareholders the amount of eligible foreign income and similar taxes paid by the Fund. If this election is made, a shareholder generally subject to tax will be required to include in gross income (in addition to taxable dividends actually received) his or her pro rata share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund, and may be entitled to use it as a foreign tax credit against his or her U.S. federal income tax liability, subject to certain limitations. In particular, a shareholder must hold his or her shares (without protection from risk of loss) on the ex-dividend date and for at least 15 more days during the 30-day period surrounding the ex-dividend date to be eligible to claim a foreign tax credit with respect to a gain dividend. No deduction for foreign taxes may be claimed by a shareholder who does not itemize deductions. Each shareholder will be notified within 60 days after the close of the Fund's taxable year whether the foreign taxes paid by the Fund will "pass through" for that year.

 

Generally, a credit for foreign taxes is subject to the limitation that it may not exceed the shareholder's U.S. tax attributable to his or her total foreign source taxable income. For this purpose, if the pass-through election is made, the source of the Fund's income will flow through to shareholders of the Fund. With respect to the Fund, gains from the sale of securities will be treated as derived from U.S. sources and certain currency fluctuation gains, including fluctuation gains from foreign currency-denominated debt securities, receivables and payables will be treated as ordinary income derived from U.S. sources. The limitation on the foreign tax credit is applied separately to foreign source passive income, and to certain other types of income. A shareholder may be unable to claim a credit for the full amount of his or her proportionate share of the foreign taxes paid by the Fund.

 

Shareholders of the Fund may be subject to state and local taxes on distributions received from the Fund and on redemptions of the Fund’s shares.

 

A brief explanation of the form and character of the distribution accompany each distribution. In January of each year the Fund issues to each shareholder a statement of the federal income tax status of all distributions.

 

Shareholders should consult their tax advisors about the application of federal, state and local and foreign tax law in light of their particular situation.

 

72 
 

 

 

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

The Board has selected Grant Thornton LLP, located at 757 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm, providing services including (i) audit of annual financial statements, (ii) review of certain documents to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and (iii) other audit related and tax services including preparation of the Funds’ tax returns.

 

LEGAL COUNSEL

 

Drinker Biddle & Reath, LLP, located at One Logan Square, Suite 2000, Philadelphia, PA 19103, serves as the Trust's legal counsel. 

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

The financial statements of the Fund included in the Fund’s most recent annual reports to shareholders for the fiscal year period ended October 31, 2018, including the notes thereto and reports of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, are incorporated by reference into this SAI. These financial statements include the Fund’s schedule of investments, statements of assets and liabilities, statements of operations, statements of changes in net assets, financial highlights and notes. You may obtain a copy of the Fund’s annual or semi-annual report by calling the Fund at 1-480-757-4277.

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APPENDIX A

 

REDWOOD INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT, LLC

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures September 30, 2013

 

 

Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Redwood”) has a general policy of not voting proxies on behalf of clients for any securities held in a client’s managed account. including our affiliated private hedge fund However, Redwood has been delegated proxy voting responsibility by its affiliated registered mutual fund, the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund (the “Fund”), for proxies solicited on the securities held in the Fund’s portfolio, which is managed by Redwood. These policies and procedures, which may be amended from time to time, only apply to the voting of such proxies by Redwood.

SECTION 1 - VOTING RESPONSIBILITY

Redwood’s Chief Compliance Officer has the responsibility of voting the Fund’s proxies received by Redwood (the “Responsible Voting Party”). Redwood may delegate to a non-affiliated third party vendor, the responsibility to review proxy proposals and make voting recommendations. Redwood will ensure that any third party recommendations followed will be consistent with the Proxy Voting Guidelines.

SECTION 2- PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

The fundamental guidelines followed by Redwood in voting proxies on behalf of the Fund is to make every effort to ensure that the manner in which shares are voted is in the best interest of the Fund and the value of the specific investment. Absent special circumstances of the types described below, it is the policy of Redwood to exercise its proxy voting discretion in accordance with the guidelines set forth below.

Proposals Specific to Mutual Funds

Redwood will invest a majority of the Fund’s assets in other registered investment companies that are not affiliated with the Fund ("Underlying Funds"), generally under the reliance of Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) and is therefore required by Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the 1940 Act to vote proxies received from Underlying Funds in a certain manner. Notwithstanding any other guidelines provided in these procedures, it is the policy of Redwood to vote all Fund proxies received from Underlying Funds in the same proportion that all shares of the Underlying Funds are voted, or in accordance with instructions received from und shareholders, pursuant to Section 12(d)(1)(F) of the 1940 Act.

Other Proposals

Proxies received by Redwood from issuers of securities held by the Fund that are not Underlying Funds, are initially referred to the Responsible Voting Party for voting. Redwood will vote all proxies based upon its policies or instructions. In keeping with its fiduciary obligations to the Fund, Redwood reviews all proxy proposals, even those that may be considered to be routine matters. Although these guidelines are to be followed as a general policy, in all cases each proxy proposal received from a non-Underlying Fund issuer will be considered based on the relevant facts and circumstances. Redwood may deviate from these general guidelines when it determines that the particular facts and circumstances warrant such deviation to protect the interests of Fund. These guidelines cannot provide an exhaustive list of all the issues that may arise nor can Redwood anticipate all future situations. Corporate governance issues are diverse and continually evolving and Redwood devotes time and resources to monitor these changes. The following guidelines reflect what Redwood believes to be good corporate governance and behavior:

I.              Board of Directors – Redwood supports an independent board of directors, and prefers that key committees such as audit, nominating, and compensation committees be comprised of independent directors.

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II.           Auditors – Redwood will review the role and performance of auditors. Redwood will generally vote against the ratification of auditors when there is clear and compelling evidence of accounting irregularities or negligence attributable to the auditors.

III.         Compensation – A company’s equity-based compensation plan should be in alignment with the shareholders’ long-term interests. Redwood believes that executive compensation should be directly linked to the performance of the company. In addition, Redwood generally opposes any supermajority voting requirements as well as the payment of “greenmail.” Redwood usually supports “fair price” provisions and confidential voting.

IV.         Corporate Structure – Redwood generally opposes anti-takeover measures since they tend

to reduce shareholder rights. However, as with all proxy issues, Redwood conducts an independent review of each anti-takeover proposal.

V.           Capital Structure – Redwood realizes that a company's financing decisions have a

significant impact on its shareholders, particularly when they involve the issuance of additional shares of common or preferred stock or the assumption of additional debt. Redwood will carefully review, on a case-by-case basis, proposals by companies to increase authorized shares and the purpose for the increase. Redwood will generally not vote in favor of dual-class capital structures to increase the number of authorized shares where that class of stock would have superior voting rights. Redwood will generally vote in favor of the issuance of preferred stock in cases where the company specifies the voting, dividend, conversion and other rights of such stock and the terms of the preferred stock issuance are deemed reasonable. Redwood will review proposals seeking preemptive rights on a case-by-case basis.

VI.         Social and Corporate Policy Issues – Redwood will take a holistic approach considering both the long-term and the short-term impact a social and/or corporate issue can have on the company and its value. Redwood will generally give management discretion with regard to social, environmental and ethical issues although Redwood may vote in favor of those issues that are believed to have significant economic benefits or implications.

Special Situations

Redwood may choose not to vote proxies in certain situations, such as: 1) where Redwood deems the cost of voting would exceed any anticipated benefit to the Fund, or 2) where a proxy is received for a security no longer held in the Fund’s portfolio (i.e., Redwood had previously sold the entire position).

Any changes to the Proxy Voting Guidelines must be pre-approved in writing by Redwood’s Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”).

SECTION 3 - APPLICATION OF PROXY VOTING GUIDELINES

It is intended that the Proxy Voting Guidelines will be applied with a measure of flexibility. Accordingly, except as otherwise provided in these policies and procedures, the Responsible Voting Party (with the pre-approval of the CCO) may vote a proxy contrary to the Proxy Voting Guidelines if it is determined that such action is in the best interests of the Fund. In the exercise of such discretion, the Responsible Voting Party may take into account a wide array of factors relating to the matter under consideration, the nature of the proposal, and the company involved. Similarly, poor past performance, uncertainties about management and future directions, and other factors may lead to a conclusion that particular proposals by an issuer present unacceptable investment risks and should not be supported. In addition, the proposals should be evaluated in context. For example, a particular proposal may be acceptable standing alone, but objectionable when part of an existing or proposed package, such as where the effect may be to entrench management. Special circumstances or instructions from the Fund may also justify casting different votes.

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The Responsible Voting Party will document the rationale for any proxy voted contrary to the Proxy Voting Guidelines. Such information will be maintained as part of the recordkeeping process.

SECTION 4 - CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

Redwood may occasionally be subject to conflicts of interest in the voting of proxies due to business or personal relationships it maintains with persons having an interest in the outcome of certain votes. For example, Redwood and/or one of its, or the Fund’s affiliates may provide investment management, brokerage, underwriting, and related services to accounts owned or controlled by companies whose management is soliciting proxies. Redwood, its, or the Fund’s affiliates and/or employees may also occasionally have business or personal relationships with other proponents of proxy proposals, participants in proxy contests, corporate directors or candidates for directorships.

If at any time, Redwood and/or the Responsible Voting Party become aware of any type of potential or actual conflict of interest relating to a particular proxy proposal, they will promptly report such conflict to the CCO. Conflicts of interest will be handled in various ways depending on the type and materiality. This includes:

I.                 Where the Proxy Voting Guidelines outline Redwood’s voting position, as either “for” or “against” such proxy proposal, voting will be in accordance with the Proxy Voting Guidelines.

II.              Where the Proxy Voting Guidelines outline Redwood’s voting position to be determined on a “case by case” basis for such proxy proposal, or such proposal is not listed in the Proxy Voting Guidelines, then one of the two following methods will be selected by Redwood depending upon the facts and circumstances of each situation and the requirements of applicable law:

A.                    Voting the proxy in accordance with the voting recommendation of non-affiliated third party vendors. If the third party vendor’s recommendations are not received in a timely fashion, Redwood will abstain from voting the proxy.

B.                     Voting the proxy pursuant to direction by the Board of Trustees of the Fund.

SECTION 5 - PROXY VOTING RECORDS

Redwood will maintain the following records under these policies and procedures:

I.                 A copy of all policies and procedures.

II.              A copy of each proxy statement received regarding the Fund’s securities.

III.            A record of each vote cast by Redwood on behalf of the Fund.

IV.            A copy of any document created by Redwood that was material to making a decision on how to vote proxies on behalf of the Fund or that memorialize the basis for that decision.

V.              A copy of each written request by the Fund for information on how Redwood voted proxies on behalf of the Fund, and a copy of any written response by Redwood to any (written or verbal) request for information on how Redwood voted proxies on behalf of the Fund.

The foregoing records will be retained for at least six (6) years from the end of the year the document was created. Redwood may rely on one or more third parties to create and retain the records referred to in items II and III above.

SECTION 6 – REPORTING AND DISCLOSURES

A copy of these policies and procedures will be provided to the Fund and the Board of Trustees anytime upon request and at least annually for review and approval. In addition, information on each proxy voted will be provided to the Fund, in accordance with its written policies and procedures as follows:

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I.                 The Responsible Voting Party shall complete a Form N-PX Report at the time a proxy is voted on behalf of the Fund and deliver a copy to the CCO.

II.              On or around July 1st of each year, the CCO shall review the proxy voting records to determine whether any proxy votes were cast on behalf of the Fund for which reports were not filed. If an unreported vote is discovered, the CCO shall contact the Responsible Voting Party for an explanation and documentation.

III.            Upon completion of the review, the CCO shall compile all Form N-PX reports submitted for the 12-month period ended June 30 and complete Form N-PX. The CCO will send a completed Form N-PX to the Fund Administrator who is responsible for filing the Form N- PX with the SEC by August 1 of each year.

IV.            The CCO shall provide the Board of Trustees, at least annually, a copy of Redwood’s Proxy Voting Policy, along with a record of each proxy voted on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by Redwood as involving a conflict of interest.

The CCO will ensure that Redwood’s proxy voting policy is disclosed in the firm’s Form ADV Part 2A.

 

 

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TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST

 

PART C

OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 28.   Financial Statements and Exhibits
     
(a) (1) Amended Agreement and Declaration of Trust dated October 15, 2012 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on March 14, 2013.
  (2) Certificate of Trust as filed with the State of Delaware on June 8, 2012 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on June 28, 2012.
     
(b)   Registrant’s Amended and Restated By–Laws is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
     
(c)   Instruments Defining Rights of Security Holders – see relevant portions of Certificate of Trust and By-Laws
     
(d) (1) Amended and Restated Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Superfund Advisors, Inc. with respect to the Superfund Managed Futures Strategy Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 23, 2015.
  (2) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (3) Amended and Restated Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and IronHorse Capital, LLC with respect to the Conductor Global Equity Value Fund (formerly called the Conductor Global Fund) is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2015.
  (4) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 11, 2014.
  (5) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 22, 2014.
  (6) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Affinity Small Cap Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (7) Sub-Advisory Agreement among Registrant, Anfield Capital Management, LLC and Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC with respect to the Affinity Small Cap Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (8) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Hanlon Investment Management, Inc., with respect to the Hanlon Managed Income Fund and Hanlon Tactical Dividend and Momentum Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 12, 2015.  
  (9) Amended Exhibit A to Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (10) Amended Exhibit A to Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (11) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Holbrook Holdings, Inc. with respect to the Holbrook Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on June 13, 2016.
  (12) Amended Exhibit A to Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and IronHorse Capital, LLC with respect to the Conductor Global Equity Value Fund (formerly called the Conductor Global Fund) is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 4, 2016.
  (13) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC dated February 21, 2017 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on March 8, 2017.
  (14) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Recurrent Investment Advisors, LLC with respect to the Recurrent Natural Resources Fund and the Recurrent MLP & Infrastructure Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 24, 2017.
  (15) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Regents Park Funds, LLC with respect to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF and Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 27, 2017.
  (16) Investment Sub-advisory Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC with respect to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 27, 2017.
  (17) Amended Appendix A to the Investment Advisory Agreement dated February 21, 2017 between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC to be filed by amendment.
  (18) Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Affinity Investment Advisors LLC with respect to the Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 27, 2017.
  (19) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Wealthfront Strategies, LLC (formerly, WFAS, LLC) with respect to the Wealthfront Risk Parity Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on January 16, 2018.
  (20) Novation of Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant, Anfield Capital Management, LLC and Regents Park Funds, LLC with respect to the Affinity Small Cap Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on November 29, 2017.
  (21) Novation of Investment Sub-Advisory Agreement between Registrant, Anfield Capital Management, LLC and Regents Park Funds, LLC with respect to the Affinity Small Cap Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on November 29, 2017.
  (22) Amended Exhibit A to Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Regents Park Funds, LLC with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 29, 2018.
  (23) Investment Sub-advisory Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 29, 2018.
  (24) Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the LeaderShares AlphaFactor US Core Equity ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
  (25) Second Amendment to Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Wealthfront Strategies LLC with respect to the Wealthfront Risk Parity Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2019.  
     
(e) (1) Underwriting Agreement between Registrant and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 12, 2015.
  (2) ETF Distribution Agreement between Registrant and Northern Lights Distributors, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 26, 2017.
     
(f)   Bonus or Profit Sharing Contracts – None
     
(g) (1) Custodial Agreement between the Registrant and MUFG Union Bank, N.A. (formerly Union Bank, N.A.) is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 26, 2012.
  (2) Custodial Agreement between the Registrant and Huntington Bank, N.A. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 27, 2015.
  (3) Custodial Agreement between the Registrant and The Bank of New York Mellon is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 12, 2015.
  (4) Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement between the Registrant and Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 26, 2017.
  (5) Custody Agreement between the Registrant and U.S. Bank, N.A. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on January 16, 2018.
     
(h) (1) Fund Services Agreement between the Registrant and Gemini Fund Services, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 26, 2012.
  (2) Amended Consulting Agreement between the Registrant and Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28. 2017.
  (3) Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC dated September 18, 2013, with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (4) Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and IronHorse Capital, LLC with respect to the Conductor Global Equity Value Fund (formerly called the Conductor Global Fund) is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 20, 2013.
  (5) Fee Waiver Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2014.
  (6) Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 11, 2014.
  (7) Amended Expense Limitation Agreement dated September 18, 2014 between the Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
  (8) Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC with respect to the Affinity Small Cap Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (9) Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Hanlon Investment Management, Inc., with respect to the Hanlon Managed Income Fund and Hanlon Tactical Dividend and Momentum Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 12, 2015.
  (10) Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Holbrook Holdings, Inc. with respect to the Holbrook Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on June 13, 2016.
  (11) Amended Appendix A to Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Hanlon Investment Management, Inc., with respect to the Hanlon Managed Income Fund and Hanlon Tactical Dividend and Momentum Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on May 31, 2016.
  (12) Amended Appendix A to Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and IronHorse Capital, LLC with respect to the Conductor Global Equity Value Fund (formerly called the Conductor Global Fund) is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 4, 2016.
  (13) Expense Limitation Agreement dated February 21, 2017 between the Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on March 8, 2017.
  (14) Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Recurrent Investment Advisors, LLC with respect to the Recurrent Natural Resources Fund and the Recurrent MLP & Infrastructure Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 24, 2017.
  (15) Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Regents Park Funds, LLC with respect to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 26, 2017.
  (16) Amended Appendix A to Expense Limitation Agreement dated February 21, 2017 between the Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC with respect to the Redwood AlphaFactor Core Equity Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical Core Fund, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical International Fund and Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (“SMarT”) Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on November 1, 2017.  
  (17) ETF Services Agreement between the Registrant and Gemini Fund Services, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 26, 2017.
 

(18)

 

Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Regents Park Funds, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 27, 2017.
  (19) Novation of Operating Expenses Limitation and Security Agreement between Registrant, Anfield Capital Management, LLC and Regents Park Funds, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on November 29, 2017.
  (20) Amended Appendix A to the Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2018.
  (21) Amended Appendix A to the Expense Limitation Agreement between Registrant Regents Park Funds, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 29, 2018.
  (22) Amended Appendix A to the Expense Limitation Agreement dated September 18, 2013 between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC, with respect to the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2018.
  (23) Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Superfund Advisors, Inc. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2019.
  (24) Fee Waiver Agreement between Registrant and Superfund Advisors, LLC, with respect to the Superfund Managed Futures Strategy Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2019.
  (25) Amendment No. 1 to the Amended and Restated Operating Expenses Limitation and Security Agreement between the Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC, with respect to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant's Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2019.
     
(i)   Legal Opinion and Consent is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.
     
(j) (1) Consent of Independent Public Accounting Firm – is filed herewith.
  (2) Powers of Attorney are incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 10, 2017.
  (3) Resolution of the Board Authorizing Use of Powers of Attorney is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 16, 2016.
  (4) Consent of Counsel is filed herewith.
     
(k)   Omitted Financial Statements – None
     
(l) (1) Subscription Agreement is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 26, 2012.
  (2) Form of Authorized Participation Agreement is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 26, 2017.
     
(m) (1) Class A Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (2) Class C Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (3) Class R Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (4) Class N Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (5) Amended Exhibit A to Class A Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 2, 2016.
  (6) Amended Exhibit A to Class C Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2017.
  (7) Amended Exhibit A to Class R Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2017.
  (8) Amended Exhibit A to Class N Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on November 1, 2017.
  (9) Investor Class Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on May 31, 2016.
  (10) Amended Exhibit A to Investor Class Master Distribution and Shareholder Servicing Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 2, 2016.
  (11) ETF 12b-1 Distribution Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on December 27, 2017.
  (12) Amended Exhibit A to ETF 12b-1 Distribution Plan Pursuant to Rule 12b-1 is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.   
     
(n) (1) Amended Rule 18f-3 Plan is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 22, 2013.
  (2) Amended Appendix A to Rule 18f-3 Plan is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
     
(o)   Reserved
     
(p) (1) Code of Ethics for the Trust is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 26, 2012.
  (2) Code of Ethics for Northern Lights Distributors, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 28, 2018.
  (3) Code of Ethics for Anfield Capital Management, LLC i s incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
  (4) Code of Ethics for Superfund Advisors, Inc. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 27, 2018.
  (5) Code of Ethics for Redwood Investment Management, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2018.
  (6) Code of Ethics for IronHorse Capital, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on February 28, 2018.
  (7) Code of Ethics for Affinity Investment Advisors is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on July 24, 2015.
  (8) Code of Ethics for Hanlon Investment Management, Inc. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on August 12, 2015.
  (9) Code of Ethics for Holbrook Holdings, Inc. is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on June 13, 2016.
  (10) Code of Ethics for Recurrent Investment Advisors, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on October 24, 2017.
  (11) Code of Ethics for Regents Park Funds, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on September 25, 2018.  
  (12) Code of Ethics for Wealthfront Strategies, LLC (formerly, WFAS, LLC)is incorporated herein by reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement filed on January 16, 2018.
     

 

Item 29. Control Persons.

 

None.

 

Item 30. Indemnification.

 

Article VIII, Section 2(a) of the Amended Agreement and Declaration of Trust provides that to the fullest extent that limitations on the liability of Trustees and officers are permitted by the Delaware Statutory Trust Act of 2002, the officers and Trustees shall not be responsible or liable in any event for any act or omission of: any agent or employee of the Trust; any investment adviser or principal underwriter of the Trust; or with respect to each Trustee and officer, the act or omission of any other Trustee or officer, respectively. The Trust, out of the Trust Property, is required to indemnify and hold harmless each and every officer and Trustee from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever arising out of or related to such officer’s or Trustee’s performance of his or her duties as an officer or Trustee of the Trust. This limitation on liability applies to events occurring at the time a person serves as a Trustee or officer of the Trust whether or not such person is a Trustee or officer at the time of any proceeding in which liability is asserted. Nothing contained in the Amended Agreement and Declaration of Trust indemnifies, holds harmless or protects any officer or Trustee from or against any liability to the Trust or any shareholder to which such person would otherwise be subject by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person’s office.

 

Article VIII, Section 2(b) of the Amended Agreement and Declaration of Trust provides that every note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking and every other act or document whatsoever issued, executed or done by or on behalf of the Trust, the officers or the Trustees or any of them in connection with the Trust shall be conclusively deemed to have been issued, executed or done only in such Person’s capacity as Trustee and/or as officer, and such Trustee or officer, as applicable, shall not be personally liable therefore, except as described in the last sentence of the first paragraph of Section 2 of Article VIII.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, may be permitted to trustees, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the provisions of Delaware law and the Amended Agreement and Declaration of the Registrant or the By-Laws of the Registrant, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a trustee, officer or controlling person of the Trust in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such trustee, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

Section 11 of the Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Superfund Advisors, Inc. (“Superfund”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(1), provides for the indemnification of Superfund against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Investment Advisory Agreements between Registrant and Redwood Investment Management, LLC (“Redwood”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibits (d)(2), (d)(5), (d)(13), and (d)(24) provides for the indemnification of Redwood against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Investment Advisory Agreement between Registrant and IronHorse Capital, LLC (“IronHorse”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(3), provides for the indemnification of IronHorse against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Investment Advisory Agreements between Registrant and Anfield Capital Management, LLC (“Anfield”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(4) and (d)(6), and the Sub-Advisory Agreement between Registrant, Anfield and Regents Park Funds, LLC (“Regents Park”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(16), provide for the indemnification of Anfield against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Sub-Advisory Agreements between Registrant, Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC (“Affinity”) and Anfield and Regents Park, respectively, incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(7) and (d)(18), provides for the indemnification of Affinity against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Hanlon Investment Management, Inc. (“Hanlon”), incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(8), provides for the indemnification of Hanlon against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Holbrook Holdings, Inc., incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(11), provides for the indemnification of Holbrook against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Form of Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Regents Park Funds, LLC (“Regents Park”) incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(15) provides for the indemnification of Regents Park against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Recurrent Investment Advisors, LLC (“Recurrent”) incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(14) provides for the indemnification of Recurrent against certain losses.

 

Section 5 of the Advisory Agreement between Registrant and Wealthfront Strategies, LLC (formerly, WFAS, LLC)(“Wealthfront”) incorporated herein by reference to exhibit (d)(19) provides for the indemnification of Wealthfront against certain losses.

 

The Underwriting Agreement provides that the Registrant agrees to indemnify, defend and hold Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (NLD), its several officers and directors, and any person who controls NLD within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act free and harmless from and against any and all claims, demands, liabilities and expenses (including the reasonable cost of investigating or defending such claims, demands or liabilities and any reasonable counsel fees incurred in connection therewith) which NLD, its officers and directors, or any such controlling persons, may incur under the Securities Act, the 1940 Act, or common law or otherwise, arising out of or based upon: (i) any untrue statement, or alleged untrue statement, of a material fact required to be stated in either any Registration Statement or any Prospectus, (ii) any omission, or alleged omission, to state a material fact required to be stated in any Registration Statement or any Prospectus or necessary to make the statements in any of them not misleading, (iii) the Registrant’s  failure to maintain an effective Registration statement and Prospectus with respect to Shares of the Funds that are the subject of the claim or demand, or (iv)  the Registrant’s failure to provide NLD with advertising or sales materials to be filed with the FINRA on a timely basis.

 

The Fund Services Agreement with Gemini Fund Services, LLC (GFS) provides that the Registrant agrees to indemnify and hold GFS harmless from and against any and all losses, damages, costs, charges, reasonable counsel fees, payments, expenses and liability arising out of or attributable to the Registrant’s refusal or failure to comply with the terms of the Agreement, or which arise out of the Registrant’s lack of good faith, gross negligence or willful misconduct with respect to the Registrant’s performance under or in connection with this Agreement.

 

The Consulting Agreement with Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (NLCS) provides that the Registrant agree to indemnify and hold NLCS harmless from and against any and all losses, damages, costs, charges, reasonable counsel fees, payments, expenses and liability arising out of or attributable to the Trust’s refusal or failure to comply with the terms of the Agreement, or which arise out of the Trust’s lack of good faith, gross negligence or willful misconduct with respect to the Trust’s performance under or in connection with the Agreement.  NLCS shall not be liable for, and shall be entitled to rely upon, and may act upon information, records and reports generated by the Trust, advice of the Trust, or of counsel for the Trust and upon statements of the Trust’s independent accountants, and shall be without liability for any action reasonably taken or omitted pursuant to such records and reports.

 

The ETF Distribution Agreement with NLD provides that the Registrant agrees to indemnify and hold harmless each of NLD, its managers and officers and each person, if any, who controls NLD within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act against any loss, liability, claim, damages or expense (including the reasonable cost of investigating or defending any alleged loss, liability, claim, damages, or expense and reasonable counsel fees and disbursements incurred in connection therewith), arising by reason of any person acquiring any Shares or Creation Units, based upon (i) the ground that the registration statement, prospectus, shareholder reports or other information filed or made public by the Registrant (as from time to time amended) included an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated or necessary in order to make the statements made not misleading, (ii) the Registrant’s failure to maintain an effective registration statement and prospectus with respect to Shares of the Fund that are the subject of the claim or demand, (iii) the Registrant’s failure to properly register Fund Shares under applicable state laws, (iv) instructions given by the Registrant, the Registrant’s failure to perform its duties hereunder or any inaccuracy of its representations, (v) any claim brought under Section 11 of the Securities Act, or (vi) all actions taken by NLD hereunder resulting from NLD’s reliance on instructions received from an officer, agent or approved service provider of the Registrant.

 

Item 31. Activities of Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser.

 

Certain information pertaining to the business and other connections of each Adviser of each series of the Trust is hereby incorporated herein by reference to the section of the respective Prospectus captioned “Investment Adviser” and to the section of the respective Statement of Additional Information captioned “Investment Advisory and Other Services.” The information required by this Item 31 with respect to each director, officer or partner of each Adviser is incorporated by reference to the Adviser’s Uniform Application for Investment Adviser Registration (Form ADV) on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Each Adviser’s Form ADV may be obtained, free of charge, at the SEC’s website at www.adviserinfo.sec.gov, and may be requested by File No. as follows:

 

Anfield Capital Management, LLC, the Adviser to the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund, Sub-Adviser to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF and Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF– File No. 801-77714

 

Superfund Advisors, Inc., the Adviser to the Superfund Managed Futures Strategy Fund – File No. 801-77984

 

Redwood Investment Management, LLC, the Adviser to the Redwood Managed Volatility Fund, Redwood Managed Volatility Portfolio, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical Core Fund, Redwood Managed Municipal Income Fund, Redwood Activist Leaders Fund, Redwood AlphaFactor Tactical International Fund, Redwood Systematic Macro Trend (“SMarT”) Fund and LeaderShares AlphaFactor US Core Equity ETF – File No. 801-78563

 

IronHorse Capital, LLC, the Adviser to the Conductor Global Equity Value Fund – File No. 801-78730

 

Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, the Sub-Adviser to the Affinity Small Cap Fund and Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF – File No. 801-42015

 

Hanlon Investment Management, Inc., the Adviser to the Hanlon Managed Income Fund and Hanlon Tactical Dividend and Momentum Fund – File No. 801-60889

 

Holbrook Holdings, Inc., the Adviser to the Holbrook Income Fund – File No. 801-107682

 

Recurrent Investment Advisors LLC, the Adviser to the Recurrent MLP & Infrastructure Fund –File No. 801-110728

 

Regents Park Funds, LLC, the Adviser to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF, Affinity Small Cap Fund, Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF and Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF– File No. 801-108885

 

Wealthfront Strategies, LLC, the Adviser to the Wealthfront Risk Parity Fund – File No. 801-111023

 

Item 32. Principal Underwriter.

(a) Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (“NLD”), the principal underwriter of the Registrant, also acts as principal underwriter for the following: AdvisorOne Funds, Arrow ETF Trust, Arrow Investments Trust, Centerstone Investors Trust, Copeland Trust, Equinox Funds Trust, Forethought Variable Insurance Trust, Miller Investment Trust, Multi-Strategy Growth & Income Fund, Mutual Fund Series Trust, Mutual Fund and Variable Insurance Trust, Neiman Funds, Nile Capital Investment Trust, North Country Funds, Northern Lights Fund Trust, Northern Lights Fund Trust II, Northern Lights Fund Trust III, Northern Lights Fund Trust IV, Northern Lights Variable Trust, OCM Mutual Fund, PREDEX, The Saratoga Advantage Trust, Tributary Funds, Inc., and Vertical Capital Income Fund.

 

(b) Northern Lights Distributors, LLC is registered with Securities and Exchange Commission as a broker-dealer and is a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. The principal business address of Northern Lights Distributors, LLC is 17605 Wright Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68130. To the best of Registrant’s knowledge, the following are the members and officers of Northern Lights Distributors, LLC:

 

 

Name

Positions and Offices

with Underwriter

Positions and Offices

with the Trust

William J. Strait President and General Counsel None
Daniel Applegarth Treasurer and Financial Operations Principal None
Mike Nielsen Chief Compliance Officer and AML Compliance Officer None

 

(c) Not Applicable.

 

Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records.

 

The following entities prepare, maintain and preserve the records required by Section 31 (a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, for the Registrant.  These services are provided to the Registrant for such periods prescribed by the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission under the 1940 Act and such records are the property of the entity required to maintain and preserve such records and will be surrendered promptly on request.

 

1.MUFG Union Bank, National Association, 350 California Street 6th Floor, San Francisco, California 94104 (records relating to its function as custodian)
2.Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 17605 Wright Street, Suite 2, Omaha, Nebraska 68130 (records relating to its functions as administration, accounting and transfer agent and Registrant’s Declaration of Trust, By-Laws and Minutes)
3.Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, 17605 Wright Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68130 (records relating to its function as principal underwriter)
4.Superfund Advisors, Inc., Superfund Office Building, Grand Anse P.O. Box 1803 St. Georges, Grenada W.I (records relating to its function as investment adviser)
5.Redwood Investment Management, LLC, 1117 S. Robertson Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90035 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)
6.IronHorse Capital LLC, 3102 West End Avenue, Suite 400, Nashville, TN 37203 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)
7.Anfield Capital Management, LLC, 4041 Macarthur Boulevard, Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)
8.Huntington Bank, N.A., 7 Easton Oval, Columbus, OH 43219 (records relating to its function as custodian)
9.Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, 4041 Macarthur Boulevard, Suite 150, Newport Beach, CA 92660 (records relating to its function as sub-adviser)
10.Hanlon Investment Management, Inc., 3393 Bargaintown Road, Egg Harbor Twp., NJ 08234 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)
11.The Bank of New York Mellon, 225 Liberty Street, New York, NY 10286 (records relating to its function as custodian)

 

12.Holbrook Holdings, Inc., 2670 NW Lovejoy Street, Portland, OR 97210 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)

 

13.Recurrent Investment Advisors LLC, 3801 Kirby Dr., Suite 654, Houston, TX 77908 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)

 

14.Regents Park Funds, LLC, 4041 Macarthur Boulevard, Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)

 

15.Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110 (records relating to its function as custodian and transfer agent)

 

16.Wealthfront Strategies, LLC, 900 Middlefield Road, 2nd Floor, Redwood City, CA 94063 (records relating to its function as investment adviser)

 

17.U.S. Bank, N.A, 425 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (records relating to its function as custodian)

 

 

Item 34. Management Services. Not Applicable.

 

Item 35. Undertakings. Not Applicable.

SIGNATURES

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it meets all of the requirements for effectiveness of this Registration Statement under Rule 485(b) under the 1933 Act and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Hauppauge, State of New York, on the 28th day of February 2019.

 

Two Roads Shared Trust

 

By:

James Colantino*

President and Principal Executive Officer

 

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

 

Signature Title Date
     
Mark D. Gersten*

_________________________

Trustee & Chairman

February 28, 2019
Mark Garbin*

_________________________

Trustee

February 28, 2019
Neil M. Kaufman*

_________________________

Trustee

February 28, 2019
Anita K. Krug*

_________________________

Trustee

February 28, 2019
James Colantino*

_________________________

President and Principal Executive Officer

February 28, 2019
Laura Szalyga*

_________________________

Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer

February 28, 2019

 

 

*By: /s/ Richard A. Malinowski

Richard A. Malinowski

Attorney in fact

 

 


 

 

 

 

Exhibit Index

 

 

(j)(1) Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
(j)(4) Consent of Counsel