485BPOS 1 affinity485b.htm 485BPOS

Filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 28, 2019

1933 Act Registration File No. 333-182417

1940 Act File No. 811-22718

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N-1A

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933  [ X ]

 

[ ] Pre-Effective Amendment No.                                    

[ X ] Post-Effective Amendment No. 194

and/or

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940   [ X ]

 

[ X ] Amendment No. 197

                                                                                                                             

(Check appropriate box or boxes.)

TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

17605 Wright Street, Suite 2

Omaha, NE  68130

(Address of Principal Executive Offices, including Zip Code)

Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code:

402-895-1600

 

The Corporation Trust Company

1209 Orange Street

Wilmington, DE  19801

(Name and. Address of Agent for Service)

Copy to:

 

Joshua Deringer

Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP

One Logan Square, Ste. 2000

Philadelphia, PA 19103

 

 

Richard A. Malinowski

Gemini Fund Services, LLC

80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110

Hauppauge, NY  11788

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box)

[X ] immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)

[ ]   on [date] pursuant to paragraph (b)

[    ]   60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(l)

[   ]   on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(l)

[    ]   75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)

[   ]   on (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.

[   ]   as soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement

If appropriate, check the following box: [ ] this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.

 
 

 

 

 

Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF

 

WLDR

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

February 28, 2019

 

 

 

 

Advised by:

Regents Park Funds, LLC

4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155

Newport Beach, CA 92660

 

 

RegentsParkFunds.com 1-866-866-4848

 

 

This Prospectus provides important information about the Fund that you should know before investing. Please read it carefully and keep it for future reference.

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission nor has the Securities and Exchange Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the Cboe BZX Exchange, Inc. (the “Exchange”).

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports like this one will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on the Fund’s website RegentsParkFunds.com, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

 

If you have already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. You may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications from the Fund or your financial intermediary electronically anytime by contacting your financial intermediary or, if you are a direct investor, by following the instructions included with paper Fund documents that have been mailed to you. You may also elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. You can inform the Fund or your financial intermediary that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports by contacting your financial intermediary or, if you are a direct investor, by following the instructions

 
 

included with paper Fund documents that have been mailed to you. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with the Trust and/or your financial intermediary.

 

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

FUND SUMMARY

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT

PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

Investment Objective

Principal Investment Strategies

Principal Investment Risks

Temporary Investments

Portfolio Holdings Disclosure

Cybersecurity

MANAGEMENT

Investment Adviser

Investment Sub-Adviser

Portfolio Managers

HOW SHARES ARE PRICED

HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

OTHER INFORMATION

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Privacy Notice

 

 

 
 

FUND SUMMARY - Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF

 

 

Investment Objective: The Fund seeks to provide investment results that correspond generally, before fees and expenses, to the performance of the Thomson Reuters StarMine Affinity World Leaders Index (the “TRSAWL Index” or the “Index”).

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund: This table describes the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. Investors purchasing or selling shares of the Fund in the secondary market may be subject to costs (including customary brokerage commissions) charged by their broker. These costs are not included in the expense example below.

 

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fees 0.47%
Distribution and Service (12b-1) Fees 0.00%
Other Expenses 4.19%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 4.66%
Fee Waiver and Expense Reimbursement (4.19)%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver and Expense Reimbursement(1) 0.47%
The Fund’s adviser has contractually agreed to reduce the Fund’s fees and/or absorb expenses of the Fund until at least December 31, 2020 to ensure that total annual Fund operating expenses after fee waiver and reimbursement (exclusive of any taxes, interest, brokerage commissions, expenses incurred in connection with any merger or reorganization, indirect expenses, expenses of other investment companies in which the Fund may invest, or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) will not exceed 0.47% of average daily net assets. This agreement may be terminated by the Fund’s Board of Trustees on 60 days’ written notice to the adviser. These fee waivers and expense reimbursements are subject to possible recoupment from the Fund in future years on a rolling three year basis (within the three years after the fees have been waived or reimbursed) if such recoupment can be achieved without exceeding the foregoing expense limits as well as any expense limitation in effect at the time the reimbursement is made.
(1)

 

Example: This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other mutual funds.

 

The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. You may pay brokerage commissions on the purchase or sale of Fund shares, which are not reflected in the Example. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based upon these assumptions your costs would be:

 

1Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
$48 $1,026 $2,010 $4,500

 

Portfolio Turnover: The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 135% of the average value of its portfolio.

 

Principal Investment Strategies: The Fund seeks to passively replicate the TRSAWL Index. The TRSAWL Index consists of equity securities issued and traded in the US as well as international countries. The TRSAWL Index is expected to consist of approximately 150 to 250 stocks of companies located in the U.S. and in at least three countries outside of the U.S., and may invest in up to 20 countries. The TRSAWL Index will be significantly invested in the securities of international companies in addition to securities of U.S. companies. The Fund normally invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities included in the Fund’s benchmark index. The Fund may also invest in American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) (collectively “Depositary Receipts”) based on the securities in the TRSAWL Index.

 

Constituents of the TRSAWL Index are characterized by strong global footprint (measured by market capitalization), rank high on measures of earnings quality, demonstrate improving fundamentals (positive earnings revisions on earnings estimates, revenue estimates, price targets, and analyst recommendations), show stock price momentum, and trade at relatively attractive valuations (based on a ranking from various trading multiples, which are, generally speaking, a ratio of the security's market price to financial or accounting metrics such as earnings, book value, etc., as well as a dividend discount model, which attempts to determine the current or future value of a security based in part on its dividend payments).

1 
 

 

The process of constructing the TRSAWL Index begins with sorting the companies in the Thomson Reuters Global Developed Index (excluding those in Greece and South Korea) (the “Benchmark Index”) by market capitalization. The next step involves selecting those companies that comprise the top 85% of cumulative market capitalization, and categorizing them into two regions: US and International. The final step involves scoring these securities on the above criteria within each region, and then narrowing this universe of companies to approximately 150 to 250 equity securities using a proprietary ranking system of the Fund’s sub-adviser, Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC (“Affinity” or the “Sub-Adviser”). The proprietary ranking system is known as the “Affinity Score” and is calculated by weighting the above criteria based on the Sub-Adviser’s assessment of the correlation between the score components and subsequent long-term stock performance. Stocks that rank in the top decile are candidates for purchase, while those that rank outside the top quartile are typically sold. A risk management overlay is then used to guide portfolio construction. The overlay calls for neutral business sector weights versus the Benchmark Index, approximately equal active weighting of each security within a business sector (active weight is the absolute percentage deviation of a security’s weight in the portfolio from its weight in the Benchmark Index), and limiting the deviation of the TRSAWL Index’s geographical distribution from that of the Benchmark Index. The TRSAWL Index is reconstituted and rebalanced on a semi-annual basis.

 

As of October 31, 2018, the Index was comprised of 164 issues with market capitalizations ranging from $3.49 billion to $808.41 billion. As of October 31, 2018, the countries in the Benchmark Index were: Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.

 

The TRSAWL Index is co-sponsored by the Sub-Adviser to the Fund and by Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC (the “Index Provider”), an organization that is independent of the Fund, the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser. The Sub-Adviser determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in the TRSAWL Index and the Index Provider publishes information regarding the market value of the Index.

 

The Fund uses a “passive” or indexing approach to attempt to approximate the investment performance of the TRSAWL Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the TRSAWL Index. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not try to “beat” the index it tracks and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued. The Fund may concentrate its investments in a particular country, region, industry or group of industries to the extent that the TRSAWL Index concentrates in a country, region, industry or group of industries.

 

Principal Investment Risks: As with all funds, there is the risk that you could lose money through your investment in the Fund. Many factors affect the Fund’s net asset value and performance.

 

As with any fund, there is no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (NAV) and may face delisting.

 

Calculation Methodology Risk: The TRSAWL Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser nor Thomson Reuters can offer assurances that the TRSAWL Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the TRSAWL Index.

 

Currency Risk: The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies.

 

Cybersecurity Risk. There is risk to the Fund of an unauthorized breach and access to fund assets, customer data (including private shareholder information), or proprietary information, or the risk of an incident occurring that causes the Fund, the investment adviser, custodian, transfer agent, distributor and other service providers and financial intermediaries to suffer data breaches, data corruption or lose operational functionality. Successful cyber-attacks or other cyber-failures or events affecting the Fund or its service providers may adversely impact the Fund or its shareholders.

 

Equity Risk. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change.

 

ETF Structure Risks: The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to the special risks, including:

oNot Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund
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at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.

oTrading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.
oMarket Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses.
§In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
§The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price.
§When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.
§In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk: The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk: Foreign (non-U.S.) securities present greater investment risks than investing in the securities of U.S. issuers and may experience more rapid and extreme changes in value than the securities of U.S. companies, due to less information about foreign (non-U.S.) companies in the form of reports and ratings than about U.S. issuers; different accounting, auditing and financial reporting requirements; smaller markets; nationalization; expropriation or confiscatory taxation; currency blockage; or political changes or diplomatic developments, foreign (non-U.S.) securities may also be less liquid and more difficult to value than securities of U.S. issuers.

 

Gap Risk: The Fund is subject to the risk that a stock price or derivative value will change dramatically from one level to another with no trading in between and/or before the Fund can exit from the investment. Usually such movements occur when there are adverse news announcements, which can cause a stock price or derivative value to drop substantially from the previous day’s closing price.

 

Geographic and Sector Risk. The risk that if the Fund invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same geographic region or economic sector, an adverse economic, business or political development affecting that region or sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so focused.

 

Index Tracking Error Risk: As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the TRSAWL Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the TRSAWL Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the TRSAWL Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.

 

3 
 

Industry Concentration Risk: The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse events that affect the Fund’s investment more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in securities of a particular industry, group of industries or sector.

 

Management Risk: The risk that investment strategies employed by the Sub-Adviser in selecting investments for the Fund may not result in an increase in the value of your investment or in overall performance equal to other similar investment vehicles having similar investment strategies. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Fund’s investment sub-adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets.

 

Market Capitalization Risk: The Fund’s anticipated weighting towards larger-sized companies subjects the Fund to the risk that larger companies may not be able to attain the high growth rates of successful smaller companies, especially during strong economic periods, and that they may be less capable of responding quickly to competitive challenges and industry changes. Medium–sized companies typically have less experienced management, narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, and less publicly available information than larger companies. The earnings and prospects of medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

 

Market Risk: Overall equity market risk, may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond markets, volatility in the equities markets or adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets and political events affect the securities markets. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Performance: Because the Fund has only recently commenced investment operations, no performance information is presented for the Fund at this time. In the future, performance information will be presented in this section of this Prospectus. Also, shareholder reports containing financial and performance information will be mailed to shareholders semi-annually. Updated performance information will be available at no cost by visiting RegentsParkFunds.com or by calling 1-866-866-4848.

 

Investment Adviser: Regents Park Funds, LLC (the “Adviser”)

 

Investment Sub-Adviser: Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC

 

Portfolio Managers: Gregory R. Lai, CFA, Principal of the Sub-Adviser, and Pushkar Murthy, CFA, Senior Portfolio Manager of the Sub-Adviser, have served the Fund as its portfolio managers since it commenced operations in January of 2018 and is responsible for the day to day management of the Fund.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares: The Fund will issue and redeem shares at NAV only in large blocks of 50,000 shares (each block of shares is called a “Creation Unit”). Creation Units are issued and redeemed for cash and/or in-kind for securities. Individual shares may only be purchased and sold in secondary market transactions through brokers.
Except when aggregated in Creation Units, the shares are not redeemable securities of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund are listed for trading on the Exchange and trade at market prices rather than NAV. Shares of the Fund may trade at a price that is greater than, at, or less than NAV.

 

Tax Information: The Fund’s distributions generally will be taxable as ordinary income, long-term capital gains or qualified dividend income, or a combination of the three. A sale of shares may result in capital gain or loss.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries: If you purchase the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

4 
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND RELATED RISKS

 

INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE:

 

Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide capital growth and income.

 

The Fund’s investment objective or underlying index may be changed by the Board of Trustees upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. If the Index Provider no longer calculates the underlying index of the Fund, if the underlying index is terminated for any reason, if the identity or the character of the underlying index is materially changed, or for any other reason determined by the Board of Trustees in good faith, the Board of Trustees determines that it is impracticable to substitute a replacement index, it will take whatever action is deemed to be in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders.

 

The Fund normally invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in securities included in the fund’s benchmark index. The Sub-Adviser anticipates that, generally, the Fund will hold all of the securities that compose the Index in proportion to their weightings in the Index. However, under various circumstances, it may not be possible or practicable to purchase all of those securities in those weightings. In these circumstances, the Fund may purchase a sample of securities in the Index. There also may be instances in which the Sub-Adviser may choose to underweight or overweight a security in the Index, purchase securities not in the Index that the Sub-Adviser believes are appropriate to substitute for certain securities in the Index, or utilize various combinations of other available investment techniques. The Fund may sell securities that are represented in the Index in anticipation of their removal from the Index or purchase securities not represented in the Index in anticipation of their addition to the Index. The Fund may also, in order to comply with the tax diversification requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (Code), temporarily invest in securities not included in the Index that are expected to be correlated with the securities included in the Index. Given the Fund’s investment objective of attempting to track the Index, the Fund does not follow traditional methods of active investment management, which may involve buying and selling securities based upon analysis of economic and market factors. Also, unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not attempt to outperform the Index that it tracks and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued. The Fund may concentrate its investments in a particular industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index concentrates in an industry or group of industries.

 

PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES:

 

The Fund seeks to passively replicate the TRSAWL Index. The TRSAWL Index consists of equity securities issued and traded in the US as well as international countries. The TRSAWL Index is expected to consist of approximately 150 to 250 stocks of companies located in the U.S. and in at least three countries outside of the U.S., and may invest in up to 20 countries. The TRSAWL Index will be significantly invested in the securities of international companies in addition to securities of U.S. companies. The Fund normally invests at least 80% of its net assets (plus any borrowings for investment purposes) in equity securities included in the Fund’s benchmark index. The Fund may also invest in American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) (collectively “Depositary Receipts”) based on the securities in the TRSAWL Index.

 

Constituents of the TRSAWL Index are characterized by strong global footprint (measured by market capitalization), rank high on measures of earnings quality, demonstrate improving fundamentals (positive earnings revisions on earnings estimates, revenue estimates, price targets, and analyst recommendations), show stock price momentum, and trade at relatively attractive valuations (based on a ranking from various trading multiples, which are, generally speaking, a ratio of the security's market price to financial or accounting metrics such as earnings, book value, etc., as well as a dividend discount model, which attempts to determine the current or future value of a security based in part on its dividend payments).

 

The process of constructing the TRSAWL Index begins with sorting the companies in the Thomson Reuters Global Developed Index (excluding those in Greece and South Korea) (the “Benchmark Index”) by market capitalization. The next step involves selecting those companies that comprise the top 85% of cumulative market capitalization, and categorizing them into two regions: US and International. The final step involves scoring these securities on the above criteria within each region, and then narrowing this universe of companies to approximately 150 to 250 equity securities using a proprietary ranking system of the Fund’s sub-adviser, Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC (“Affinity” or the “Sub-Adviser”). The proprietary ranking system is known as the “Affinity Score” and is calculated by weighting the above criteria based on the Sub-Adviser’s assessment of the correlation between the score components and subsequent long-term stock performance. Stocks that rank in the top decile are candidates for purchase, while those that rank outside the top quartile are typically sold. A risk management overlay is then used to guide portfolio construction. The overlay calls for neutral business sector weights versus the Benchmark Index, approximately equal active weighting of each security within a business sector (active weight is the absolute percentage deviation of a security’s weight in the portfolio from its weight in the Benchmark Index), and limiting the deviation of the TRSAWL Index’s geographical distribution from that of the Benchmark Index. The TRSAWL

5 
 

Index is reconstituted and rebalanced on a semi-annual basis.

 

As of October 31, 2018, the Index was comprised of 164 issues with market capitalizations ranging from $3.11 billion to $234.49 billion. As of October 31, 2018, the countries in the Thomson Reuters Global Developed Index were: Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.

 

The TRSAWL Index is co-sponsored by the Sub-Adviser to the Fund and by Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC (the “Index Provider”), an organization that is independent of the Fund, the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser. The Sub-Adviser determines the composition and relative weightings of the securities in the TRSAWL Index and the Index Provider publishes information regarding the market value of the Index.

 

The Fund uses a “passive” or indexing approach to attempt to approximate the investment performance of the TRSAWL Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicates the TRSAWL Index. Unlike many investment companies, the Fund does not try to “beat” the index it tracks and does not seek temporary defensive positions when markets decline or appear overvalued. The Fund may concentrate its investments in a particular country, region, industry or group of industries to the extent that the TRSAWL Index concentrates in a country, region, industry or group of industries.

 

PRINCIPAL AND OTHER INVESTMENT RISKS

 

The following describes the principal risks the Fund may bear from its investments.

 

Authorized Participant Concentration Risk. To the extent that authorized participants are unable or otherwise unavailable to proceed with creation and/or redemption orders and no other authorized participant is able to create or redeem in their place, shares may trade at a discount to net asset value (NAV) and may face delisting.

 

Calculation Methodology Risk: The TRSAWL Index relies on various sources of information to assess the criteria of issuers included in the Index, including information that may be based on assumptions and estimates. Neither the Fund, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser nor Thomson Reuters can offer assurances that the TRSAWL Index’s calculation methodology or sources of information will provide an accurate assessment of included issuers or correct valuation of securities, nor can they guarantee the availability or timeliness of the production of the TRSAWL Index.

 

Currency Risk: The risk that foreign (non-U.S.) currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s investments in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or in securities that trade in, and receive revenues in, or in derivatives that provide exposure to, foreign (non-U.S.) currencies. Currency risk may be particularly high to the extent that the Fund invests in foreign (non-U.S.) currencies or engages in foreign currency transactions that are economically tied to emerging markets.

 

Equity Risk. Equity securities are susceptible to general market fluctuations and volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change.

 

ETF Structure Risks: The Fund is structured as an ETF and as a result is subject to the special risks, including:

Not Individually Redeemable. Shares are not individually redeemable and may be redeemed by the Fund at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units.” You may incur brokerage costs purchasing enough shares to constitute a Creation Unit.

 

Trading Issues. Trading in shares on the Exchange may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable, such as extraordinary market volatility. There can be no assurance that shares will continue to meet the listing requirements of the Exchange. An active trading market for the Fund’s shares may not be developed or maintained. If the Fund’s shares are traded outside a collateralized settlement system, the number of financial institutions that can act as authorized participants that can post collateral on an agency basis is limited, which may limit the market for the Fund’s shares.

 

Market Price Variance Risk. The market prices of shares will fluctuate in response to changes in NAV and supply and demand for shares and will include a “bid-ask spread” charged by the exchange specialists, market makers or other participants that trade the particular security. There may be times when the market price and the NAV vary significantly. This means that shares may trade at a discount to NAV. If a shareholder purchases shares at a time when the market price is at a premium to the NAV or sells shares at a time when the market price is at a discount to NAV, the shareholder may sustain losses. In times of market stress, market makers may step away from their role market making in shares of ETFs and in executing trades, which can lead to differences between the market value of Fund shares and the Fund’s net asset value. The market price for the Fund’s shares may deviate from the Fund’s net asset value, particularly during times of

6 
 

market stress, with the result that investors may pay significantly more or significantly less for Fund shares than the Fund’s net asset value, which is reflected in the bid and ask price for Fund shares or in the closing price. When all or a portion of an ETFs underlying securities trade in a market that is closed when the market for the Fund’s shares is open, there may be changes from the last quote of the closed market and the quote from the Fund’s domestic trading day, which could lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value. In stressed market conditions, the market for the Fund’s shares may become less liquid in response to the deteriorating liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. This adverse effect on the liquidity of the Fund’s shares may, in turn, lead to differences between the market value of the Fund’s shares and the Fund’s net asset value.

 

Fluctuation of Net Asset Value Risk: The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s holdings. The market prices of the shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in NAV as well as the relative supply of and demand for the shares on the Exchange. The Adviser cannot predict whether the shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. Price differences may be due, in large part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for the shares will be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the Fund’s holdings trading individually or in the aggregate at any point in time.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investment Risk: Foreign securities include direct investments in non-U.S. dollar-denominated securities traded primarily outside of the United States and dollar-denominated securities of foreign issuers. Foreign securities also include indirect investments such as American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”) and Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”). ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated receipts representing shares of foreign-based corporations. ADRs are receipts that are traded in the United States, and entitle the holder to all dividend and capital gain distributions that are paid out on the underlying foreign shares. EDRs and GDRs are receipts that often trade on foreign exchanges. They represent ownership in an underlying foreign or U.S. security and generally are denominated in a foreign currency. Foreign government obligations may include debt obligations of supranational entities, including international organizations (such as The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, also known as the World Bank) and international banking institutions and related government agencies.

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Foreign securities involve special risks and costs, which are considered by the investment adviser in evaluating the creditworthiness of issuers and making investment decisions for the Fund. Foreign securities fluctuate in price because of political, financial, social and economic events in foreign countries (including, for example, military confrontations, war and terrorism). A foreign security could also lose value because of more or less stringent foreign securities regulations and less stringent accounting and disclosure standards. In addition, foreign markets may have greater volatility than domestic markets and foreign securities may be less liquid and harder to value than domestic securities.

 

Foreign securities, and in particular foreign debt securities, are sensitive to changes in interest rates. In addition, investment in the securities of foreign governments involves the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations or may otherwise not respect the integrity of their obligations. The performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency also will depend, in part, on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which otherwise could affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally results in an increase in value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally results in a decrease in value of a foreign currency-denominated security. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline.

 

Investment in foreign securities may involve higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also may involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls or freezes on the convertibility of currency, trade restrictions (including tariffs) or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements.

 

While the Fund’s investments may, if permitted, be denominated in foreign currencies, the portfolio securities and other assets held by the Fund are valued in U.S. dollars. Price fluctuations may occur in the dollar value of foreign securities because of changing currency exchange rates or, in the case of hedged positions, because the U.S. dollar declines in value relative to the currency hedged. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing the Fund’s or Underlying Fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that the Fund or Underlying Fund is invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater combined risk. The net currency positions of the Funds or Underlying Funds may expose them to risks independent of their securities positions.

 

The Fund may operate in euros and/or may hold euros and/or euro-denominated bonds and other obligations. The euro requires participation of multiple sovereign states forming the Euro zone and is therefore sensitive to the credit and general economic and political positions of each such state, including, each state’s actual and intended ongoing engagement with and/or support for the other sovereign states then forming the European Union (“EU”), in particular those within the Euro zone. Changes in these factors might materially and adversely impact the value of securities in which the Fund or Underlying Fund has invested.

 

In addition, voters in the United Kingdom (“UK”) have approved withdrawal from the European Union. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by those actions. Other countries may seek to withdraw from the EU and/or abandon the euro, the common currency of the EU, which could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Funds’ investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries. A number of countries in Europe have suffered terror attacks, and additional attacks may occur in the future. Ukraine has experienced ongoing military conflict; this conflict may expand and military attacks could occur in Europe. Europe has also been struggling with mass migration from the Middle East and Africa. Recent and upcoming European elections could, depending on the outcomes, further call into question the future direction of the EU. The ultimate effects of these events and other socio-political or geopolitical issues are not known but could profoundly affect global economies and markets. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear, but could be significant and far-reaching. Whether or not a Fund invests in securities of issuers located in Europe or with significant exposure to European issuers or countries, these events could negatively affect the value and liquidity of the Fund’s investments.

 

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Geographic and Sector Risk: The risk that if the Fund (invests a significant portion of its total assets in certain issuers within the same geographic region or economic sector, an adverse economic, business or political development affecting that region or sector may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if the Fund’s investments were not so focused.

 

Index Tracking Error Risk: As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and the TRSAWL Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the TRSAWL Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the TRSAWL Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.

 

Industry Concentration Risk: The Fund may be susceptible to an increased risk of loss, including losses due to adverse events that affect the Fund’s investment more than the market as a whole, to the extent that the Fund’s investments are concentrated in securities of a particular industry, group of industries or sector.

 

Management Risk: The net asset value of the Fund changes daily based on the performance of the securities in which it invests. The Sub-Adviser’s judgments about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of particular securities and derivatives in which the Fund invests may prove to be incorrect and may not produce the desired results. Management risk includes the risk that the quantitative model used by the Fund’s investment sub-adviser may not perform as expected, particularly in volatile markets.

 

Market Risk: Overall equity market risk, including volatility, may affect the value of individual instruments in which the Fund invests. Factors such as domestic and foreign (non-U.S.) economic growth and market conditions, real or perceived adverse economic or political conditions, inflation, changes in interest rate levels, lack of liquidity in the bond markets, volatility in the equities markets or adverse investor sentiment affect the securities markets and political events affect the securities markets. When the value of the Fund’s investments goes down, your investment in the Fund decreases in value and you could lose money.

 

Market Capitalization Risk: The Fund’s anticipated weighting towards larger-sized companies subjects the Fund to the risk that larger companies may not be able to attain the high growth rates of successful smaller companies, especially during strong economic periods, and that they may be less capable of responding quickly to competitive challenges and industry changes. Medium–sized companies typically have less experienced management, narrower product lines, more limited financial resources, and less publicly available information than larger companies. The earnings and prospects of medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

 

The earnings and prospects of small and medium sized companies are more volatile than larger companies and may experience higher failure rates than larger companies. Small and medium sized companies normally have a lower trading volume than larger companies, which may tend to make their market price fall more disproportionately than larger companies in response to selling pressures and may have limited markets, product lines, or financial resources and lack management experience.

 

Market Events Risk: Financial markets are subject to volatility, depressed valuations, decreased liquidity and heightened uncertainty such as what was experienced in around 2008. These conditions are an inevitable part of investing in capital markets and may continue, recur, worsen or spread. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve, as well as certain foreign governments and central banks, have taken steps to support financial markets, including by keeping interest rates at historically low levels. This and other government intervention may not work as intended, particularly if the efforts are perceived by investors as being unlikely to achieve the desired results. The U.S. government and the Federal Reserve have recently reduced market support activities. Such reduction, including interest rate increases, could negatively affect financial markets generally, increase market volatility and reduce the value and liquidity of securities in which the Fund invests. Policy and legislative changes in the United States and in other countries may also continue to contribute to decreased liquidity and increased volatility in the financial markets. The impact of these changes on the markets, and the practical implications for market participants, may not be fully known for some time.

 

In June 2016, voters in the UK approved a referendum to leave the EU (“Brexit”). There is significant market uncertainty regarding Brexit’s ramifications, and the range and potential implications of possible political, regulatory, economic, and market outcomes are difficult to predict. Political events, including nationalist unrest in Europe and uncertainties surrounding the sovereign debt of a number of EU countries and the viability of the EU itself, also may cause market disruptions. If one or more countries leave the EU or the EU dissolves, the world’s securities markets likely will be significantly disrupted.

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Moreover, the uncertainty about the ramifications of Brexit may cause significant volatility and/or declines in the value of the Euro and British pound.  If no agreement is reached as to the terms of the UK’s exit from the EU prior to the March 2019 exit date (“hard Brexit”), these impacts may be exaggerated.  Brexit (and in particular a hard Brexit) may cause greater market volatility and illiquidity, currency fluctuations, deterioration in economic activity, a decrease in business confidence, and increased likelihood of a recession in the UK. This may increase redemptions from funds that hold impacted securities. Market factors, such as the demand for particular portfolio securities, may cause the price of certain portfolio securities to fall while the price of other securities rise or remain unchanged.

 

TEMPORARY INVESTMENTS: To respond to adverse market, economic, political or other conditions, the Fund may invest 100% of its total assets, without limitation, in high-quality short-term debt securities and money market instruments. These short-term debt securities and money market instruments include: shares of money market mutual funds, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, bankers’ acceptances, U.S. Government securities and repurchase agreements. While the Fund is in a defensive position, the opportunity to achieve its investment objective will be limited. Furthermore, to the extent that the Fund invests in money market mutual funds for cash positions, there will be some duplication of expenses because the Fund pays its pro-rata portion of such money market funds’ advisory fees and operational fees.

 

PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE: A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures regarding the release of portfolio holdings information is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”)

 

CYBERSECURITY: The computer systems, networks and devices used by the Fund and its service providers to carry out routine business operations employ a variety of protections designed to prevent damage or interruption from computer viruses, network failures, computer and telecommunication failures, infiltration by unauthorized persons and security breaches. Despite the various protections utilized by the Fund and its service providers, systems, networks, or devices potentially can be breached. The Fund and its shareholders could be negatively impacted as a result of a cybersecurity breach.

 

Cybersecurity breaches can include unauthorized access to systems, networks, or devices; infection from computer viruses or other malicious software code; and attacks that shut down, disable, slow, or otherwise disrupt operations, business processes, or website access or functionality. Cybersecurity breaches may cause disruptions and impact the Fund’s business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses; interference with the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV; impediments to trading; the inability of the Fund, the adviser, and other service providers to transact business; violations of applicable privacy and other laws; regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs; as well as the inadvertent release of confidential information.

 

Similar adverse consequences could result from cybersecurity breaches affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests; counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions; governmental and other regulatory authorities; exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions (including financial intermediaries and service providers for the Fund’s shareholders); and other parties. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred by these entities in order to prevent any cybersecurity breaches in the future.

 

MANAGEMENT

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER: Regents Park Funds, LLC, located at 4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660, serves as the Fund’s investment adviser. The Adviser is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. As of December 31, 2018 had approximately $91,951,398 million in assets under management.

 

Subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for managing the Fund’s investments, executing transactions and providing related administrative services and facilities under an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Fund and the Adviser.

 

The management fee set forth in the Investment Advisory Agreement is 0.47% annually, to be paid on a monthly basis. In addition to investment advisory fees, the Fund pays other expenses including costs incurred in connection with the maintenance of securities law registration, printing and mailing prospectuses and Statements of Additional Information to shareholders, certain financial accounting services, taxes or governmental fees, custodial, transfer and shareholder servicing agent costs, expenses of outside counsel and independent accountants, preparation of shareholder reports and expenses of trustee and shareholders meetings. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the aggregate fee paid to the Adviser was 0.00% of the Fund’s average daily net assets.

 

The Adviser has contractually agreed to reduce its fees and/or absorb expenses of the Fund, until at least December 31,

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2020, to ensure that total annual fund operating expenses after fee waiver and/or reimbursement (exclusive of any front-end or contingent deferred loads, taxes, brokerage fees and commissions, borrowing costs (such as interest and dividend expense on securities sold short), acquired fund fees and expenses, fees and expenses associated with investments in other collective investment vehicles or derivative instruments (including for example option and swap fees and expenses), or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) will not exceed 0.47% of the Fund’s average daily net assets; subject to possible recoupment from the Fund in future years within the three years after the fees have been waived or reimbursed if such recoupment can be achieved without exceeding the foregoing expense limits as well as any expense limitation in effect at the time the reimbursement is made. Fee waiver and reimbursement arrangements can decrease the Fund’s expenses and boost its performance. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the advisory agreement and sub-advisory agreement is available in the Fund’s semi-annual report to shareholders dated April 30, 2018.

 

INVESTMENT SUB-ADVISER

 

Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, 4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 150, Newport Beach, CA 92660 serves as Sub-Adviser to the Fund. The Sub-Adviser was formed in 1992 and currently manages assets for a variety of institutional clients and high net worth individuals. As of December 31, 2018, it had approximately $673 million in assets under management. The Sub-Adviser is paid by the Adviser, not the Fund.

 

Affinity is the co-sponsor of the TRSAWL Index and serves as the investment sub-adviser of the Fund. Affinity has adopted policies and procedures designed to minimize or eliminate potential conflicts of interest; prevent certain persons from having any advantage over other market participants with respect to prior knowledge of companies that may be added to, or deleted from, an Affinity index or from the portfolios of any fund that tracks an Affinity index; and prevent the dissemination or use of non-public information about pending changes to index constituents or methodology.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

Gregory R. Lai, CFA

 

Mr. Lai has been a Principal and Lead Portfolio Manager for Affinity since 1992 and has 28 years of investment experience. He developed the firm’s quantitative stock selection, risk management, and portfolio construction models. Previous work experience includes Senior Portfolio Manager and Managing Director at Morgan Stanley Investment Management, Van Kampen and Invesco, Ltd., as well as Quantitative Specialist and co-portfolio manager at Pacific Investment Management Company (PIMCO). Mr. Lai earned his M.B.A from the Paul Merage School at the University of California, Irvine, and a B.S. in Chemistry from UCLA. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.

 

Pushkar V. Murthy, CFA

 

Mr. Murthy is a Senior Portfolio Manager at Affinity. He has 8 years of investment experience. Previous work experience includes Investment Analyst at ClariVest Asset Management LLC, and Director of Business Intelligence at Epocrates, a healthcare technology firm. He began his career as a management consultant with ZS Associates. Mr. Murthyearned an M.B.A. from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, a M.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and a B.Tech. in Civil Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.

 

The SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation, other accounts managed and ownership of Fund shares.

 

HOW SHARES ARE PRICED

 

The net asset value (“NAV”) and offering price (NAV plus any applicable sales charges) of each class of shares is determined at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time) on each day the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open. NAV is computed by determining, on a per class basis, the aggregate market value of all assets of the applicable Fund, less its liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding ((assets-liabilities)/number of shares = NAV). The NYSE is closed on weekends and New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. The NAV takes into account, on a per class basis, the expenses and fees of the Fund, including management, administration, and distribution fees, which are accrued daily. The determination of NAV for the Fund for a particular day is applicable to all applications for the purchase of shares, as well as all requests for the redemption of shares, received by the Fund (or an authorized broker or agent, or its authorized designee) before the close of trading on the NYSE on that day.

 

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Generally, the Fund’s securities are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges (whether domestic or foreign) for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity.

 

If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined using the “fair value” procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that the fair value determined for a security may be materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of that security. The fair value prices can differ from market prices when they become available or when a price becomes available. The Board has delegated execution of these procedures to a fair value team composed of one or more representatives from each of the (i) Trust, (ii) administrator, and (iii) adviser. The team may also enlist third party consultants such as an audit firm or financial officer of a security issuer on an as-needed basis to assist in determining a security-specific fair value. The Board reviews and ratifies the execution of this process and the resultant fair value prices at least quarterly to assure the process produces reliable results.

 

The Fund may use independent pricing services to assist in calculating the value of the Fund’s securities. In addition, market prices for foreign securities are not determined at the same time of day as the NAV for the Fund. Because the Fund may invest in securities primarily listed on foreign exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of some of the Fund’s portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares. In computing the NAV, the Fund values foreign securities held by the Fund at the latest closing price on the exchange in which they are traded immediately prior to closing of the NYSE. Prices of foreign securities quoted in foreign currencies are translated into U.S. dollars at current rates. If events materially affecting the value of a security in the Fund’s portfolio, particularly foreign securities, occur after the close of trading on a foreign market but before the Fund prices its shares, the security will be valued at fair value. For example, if trading in a portfolio security is halted and does not resume before the Fund calculates its NAV, the Adviser may need to price the security using the Fund’s fair value pricing guidelines. Without a fair value price, short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that fair value pricing policies will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short term traders. The determination of fair value involves subjective judgments. As a result, using fair value to price a security may result in a price materially different from the prices used by other mutual funds to determine net asset value, or from the price that may be realized upon the actual sale of the security.

 

With respect to any portion of the Fund’s assets that are invested in one or more open-end management investment companies registered under the 1940 Act, the Fund’s net asset value is calculated based upon the net asset values of those open-end management investment companies, and the prospectuses for these companies explain the circumstances under which those companies will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.

 

Premium/Discount Information

 

Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund in secondary market transactions through brokers at market prices and the Fund’s shares will trade at market prices. The market price of shares of the Fund may be greater than, equal to, or less than NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of shares of the Fund.

 

Information regarding the intraday value of shares of the Fund, also known as the “indicative optimized portfolio value” (“IOPV”), is disseminated every 15 seconds throughout each trading day by the securities exchange on which the Funds' shares are listed or by market data vendors or other information providers. The IOPV is based on the current market value of each Fund’s securities, including cash required to be deposited in exchange for a Creation Unit. The IOPV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and price quotations obtained from broker-dealers and other market intermediaries that may trade in a Fund’s portfolio securities. The IOPV may not reflect the exact composition of a Fund’s current portfolio of securities at a particular point in time or the best possible valuation of a Fund’s current portfolio. As a result, the IOPV should not be confused with the NAV, which is computed only once a day. Information regarding how often the shares of the Fund traded at a price above (at a premium to) or below (at a discount to) the NAV of the Fund during the past four calendar quarters, when available, can be found at RegentsParkFunds.com.

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HOW TO BUY AND SELL SHARES

 

Shares of the Fund will be listed for trading on the Exchange under the symbol WLDR. Share prices are reported in dollars and cents per Share. Shares can be bought and sold on the secondary market throughout the trading day like other publicly traded shares, and shares typically trade in blocks of less than a Creation Unit. There is no minimum investment required. Shares may only be purchased and sold on the secondary market when the Exchange is open for trading. The Exchange is open for trading Monday through Friday and is closed on weekends and the following holidays, as observed: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

When buying or selling shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offered price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction.

 

Authorized participants (“APs”) may acquire shares directly from the Fund, and APs may tender their shares for redemption directly to the Fund, at NAV per Share only in large blocks, or Creation Units, of 50,000 shares. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, which are described in the SAI.

 

The Fund may liquidate and terminate at any time without shareholder approval.

 

Share Trading Prices

 

The approximate value of shares of the Fund, an amount representing on a per share basis the sum of the current market price of the securities accepted by the Fund in exchange for shares of the Fund and an estimated cash component will be disseminated every 15 seconds throughout the trading day through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV per Share of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, generally at the end of the business day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the approximate value of the shares, and the Fund does not make any warranty as to the accuracy of these values.

 

Book Entry

 

Shares are held in book entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares of the Fund and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes.

 

Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all shares. Participants in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC.
As a beneficial owner of shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” form.

 

 

FREQUENT PURCHASES AND REDEMPTIONS OF FUND SHARES

 

The Fund’s shares can only be purchased and redeemed directly from the Fund in Creation Units by APs, and the vast majority of trading in the Fund’s shares occurs on the secondary market. Because the secondary market trades do not directly involve the Fund, it is unlikely those trades would cause the harmful effects of market timing, including dilution, disruption of portfolio management, increases in the Fund’s trading costs and the realization of capital gains. With regard to the purchase or redemption of Creation Units directly with the Fund, to the extent effected in-kind (i.e., for securities), those trades do not cause the harmful effects that may result from frequent cash trades. To the extent trades are effected in whole or in part in cash, those trades could result in dilution to the Fund and increased transaction costs, which could negatively impact the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. However, direct trading by APs is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. The Fund also employs fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. In addition, the Fund imposes transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Fund shares to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by the Fund in effecting trades. These fees increase if an investor substitutes cash in part or in whole for securities, reflecting the fact that the Fund’s trading costs increase in those circumstances. Given this structure, the Trust has determined that it is not necessary to adopt policies and procedures to detect and deter market timing of the Fund’s shares.

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DISTRIBUTION AND SERVICE PLAN

 

The Fund has adopted a distribution and service plan (“Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. Under the Plan, the Fund is authorized to pay distribution fees to the distributor and other firms that provide distribution and shareholder services (“Service Providers”). If a Service Provider provides these services, the Fund may pay fees at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act.

 

No distribution or service fees are currently paid by the Fund, and there are no current plans to impose these fees. In the event Rule 12b-1 fees were charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

 

DIVIDENDS, OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS AND TAXES

 

Unlike interests in conventional mutual funds, which typically are bought and sold from and to the fund only at closing NAVs, the Fund’s shares are traded throughout the day in the secondary market on a national securities exchange on an intra-day basis and are created and redeemed in-kind and/or for cash in Creation Units at each day’s next calculated NAV.


In-kind arrangements are designed to protect ongoing shareholders from the adverse effects on the Fund’s portfolio that could arise from frequent cash redemption transactions. In a conventional mutual fund, redemptions can have an adverse tax impact on taxable shareholders if the mutual fund needs to sell portfolio securities to obtain cash to meet net fund redemptions. These sales may generate taxable gains for the ongoing shareholders of the mutual fund, whereas the shares’ in-kind redemption mechanism generally will not lead to a tax event for the Fund or its ongoing shareholders.

 

Ordinarily, dividends from net investment income, if any, are declared and paid quarterly by the Fund. The Fund distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually.

 

Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through whom you purchased shares makes such option available.

 

Taxes

 

As with any investment, you should consider how your investment in shares will be taxed. The tax information in this Prospectus is provided as general information. You should consult your own tax professional about the tax consequences of an investment in shares.

 

Unless your investment in shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-deferred retirement account, such as an individual retirement account, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when:

·The Fund makes distributions,
·You sell your shares listed on the Exchange, and
·You purchase or redeem Creation Units.

 

Taxes on Distributions

 

As stated above, dividends from net investment income, if any, ordinarily are declared and paid quarterly by the Fund.
The Fund may also pay a special distribution at the end of a calendar year to comply with federal tax requirements. Distributions from the Fund’s net investment income, including net short-term capital gains, if any, are taxable to you as ordinary income, except that the Fund’s dividends attributable to its “qualified dividend income” (i.e., dividends received on stock of most domestic and certain foreign corporations with respect to which the Fund satisfies certain holding period and other restrictions), if any, generally are subject to federal income tax for non-corporate shareholders who satisfy those restrictions with respect to their Fund shares at the rate for net capital gain -- a maximum of 20%. A part of the Fund’s dividends also may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction allowed to corporations -- the eligible portion may not exceed the aggregate dividends the Fund receives from domestic corporations subject to federal income tax (excluding REITs) and excludes dividends from foreign corporations -- subject to similar restrictions. However, dividends a corporate shareholder deducts pursuant to that deduction are subject indirectly to the federal alternative minimum tax.

 

In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax when they are paid, whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in the Fund (if that option is available). Distributions reinvested in additional shares of the Fund through the means of a dividend reinvestment service, if available, will be taxable to shareholders acquiring the additional shares to the same extent as if such distributions had been received in cash. Distributions of net long-term capital gains, if any, in excess of

14 
 

net short-term capital losses are taxable as long-term capital gains, regardless of how long you have held the shares.

 

Distributions in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits are treated as a tax-free return of capital to the extent of your basis in the shares and as capital gain thereafter. A distribution will reduce the Fund’s NAV per Share and may be taxable to you as ordinary income or capital gain (as described above) even though, from an investment standpoint, the distribution may constitute a return of capital.

 

By law, the Fund is required to withhold 24% of your distributions and redemption proceeds if you have not provided the Fund with a correct Social Security number or other taxpayer identification number and in certain other situations.

 

Taxes on Exchange-Listed Share Sales

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of shares is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less. The ability to deduct capital losses from sales of shares may be limited.

 

Taxes on Purchase and Redemption of Creation Units

 

An AP who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus any Cash Component it pays. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of the securities received plus any cash equal to the difference between the NAV of the shares being redeemed and the value of the securities. The Internal Revenue Service (“Service”), however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales” or for other reasons. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.

 

Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as short-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for one year or less.

 

If you purchase or redeem Creation Units, you will be sent a confirmation statement showing how many shares you purchased or sold and at what price. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for a description of the requirement regarding basis determination methods applicable to Share redemptions and the Fund’s obligation to report basis information to the Service.

 

The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in the Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in the shares under all applicable tax laws. See “Tax Status” in the SAI for more information.

 

 

FUND SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the Fund’s administrator and fund accountant. It has its principal office at 80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110, Hauppauge, NY 11788, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. It is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”), 50 Post Office Square, Boston, MA 02110, is the Fund’s custodian and transfer agent.

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC (the “Distributor”), 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200 Omaha, NE 68130, is the distributor for the shares of the Fund. The Distributor is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

 

Drinker Biddle & Reath, LLP, One Logan Square, Suite 2000, Philadelphia, PA 19103, serves as legal counsel to the Trust.

 

RSM US LLP, 555 17th Street, Suite 1200, Denver, CO 80202, serves as the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm. The independent registered public accounting firm is responsible for auditing the annual financial statements of the Fund.

 

 

15 
 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

Investment by Other Investment Companies

 

The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Adviser permitting, among other relief, registered investment companies and unit investment trusts that enter into an agreement with respect to certain investment companies that the Adviser or an affiliate advises (“Investing Funds”) to invest in such investment companies beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, subject to certain terms and conditions. This aspect of the exemptive order is not applicable to the Fund. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act when investing in the Fund.

 

Continuous Offering

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Householding: To reduce expenses, the Fund mails only one copy of the prospectus and each annual and semi-annual report to those addresses shared by two or more accounts. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Fund at 1-866-866-4848 on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. The Fund will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request.

 

Index, Index Provider, and Calculation Agent

 

The TRSAWL Index is created and co-sponsored by an affiliated person of the Fund. The TRSAWL Index was developed by Affinity, which also serves as Sub-Adviser to the Fund. Affinity has entered into a Client Contracting Agreement with Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC (the “Index Provider”) to maintain, calculate and distribute information about the market value of the Index. Thomson Reuters serves as the Index administrator and is responsible for Index governance. The Index is governed by a published methodology. Changes to the methodology will be publicly disclosed prior to implementation. The Fund is entitled to use the Index pursuant to a sublicensing arrangement with Regents Park, the Adviser to the Fund, which in turn has a licensing agreement with Affinity.

 

Index Disclaimers

 

Neither Regents Park Funds, LLC , Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, nor Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Index or any data included therein, and neither Regents Park Funds, LLC , Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, nor Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC shall have any liability for any errors, omissions or

16 
 

interruptions therein. Neither Regents Park Funds, LLC , Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, nor Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC make any warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Fund, owners of the shares of the Fund or any other person or entity from the use of the Index, trading based on the Index, or any data included therein, either in connection with the Fund or for any other use. Neither Regents Park Funds, LLC , Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, nor Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC makes any express or implied warranties, and expressly disclaim all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall either Regents Park Funds, LLC , Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, or Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits) arising out of matters relating to the use of the Index, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

The Fund, the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund in particular or the ability of the Index to track general stock market performance. Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC has no obligation to take the needs of the Trust, the Fund or the owners of the Fund into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the Index.

 

The Index is the property of Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC, which has contracted with the Index Provider to calculate and maintain the Index. Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC will not be liable for any errors or omissions in calculating the Index. The Fund is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC . Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC does not make any representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly or the ability of the Index to track general market performance. Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC’s only relationship to Regents Park Funds, LLC and Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC with respect to the Index is the licensing of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC , and the provision of the calculation services related to the Index. Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC is not responsible for and has not participated in the determination of the prices and amount of the Fund or the timing of the issuance or sale of the Fund or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Fund may converted into cash or other redemption mechanics. Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC has no obligation or liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the Fund. Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC is not an investment adviser. Inclusion of a security within the Index is not a recommendation by Thomson Reuters (Markets) LLC to buy, sell, or hold such security, nor is it investment advice. THOMSON REUTERS (MARKETS) LLC DOES NOT GUARANTEE THE ADEQUACY, ACCURACY, TIMELINESS AND/OR THE COMPLETENESS OF THE INDEX OR ANY DATA RELATED THERETO OR ANY COMMUNICATION WITH RESPECT THERETO, INCLUDING, ORAL, WRITTEN, OR ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS. THOMSON REUTERS (MARKETS) LLC SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY FOR ANY ERRORS, OMISSIONS, OR DELAYS THEREIN. THOMSON REUTERS (MARKETS) LLC MAKES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE OR AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY AFFINITY INVESTMENT ADVISORS, LLC, OWNERS OF THE FUND, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE INDEX OR WITH RESPECT TO ANY DATA RELATED THERETO. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT WHATSOEVER SHALL THOMSON REUTERS (MARKETS) LLC BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS, TRADING LOSSES, LOST TIME, OR GOODWILL, EVEN IF THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE.

 

The Thomson Reuters Kinesis Logo and “Thomson Reuters” are registered trademarks of Thomson Reuters Corporation or its affiliates.

17 
 

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

 

The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand the Fund's financial performance for the period of the Fund's operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Fund share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned (or lost) on an investment in the Fund (assuming reinvestment if all dividends and distributions). This information for the Fund has been derived from the financial statements audited by RSM US LLP, whose report, along with the Fund's financial statements, are included in the Fund's October 31, 2018 annual report, which is available upon request and is incorporated by reference in the SAI.

 

Per Share Data and Ratios for a Share of Beneficial Interest Outstanding Throughout the Period Presented

 

    For the  
    Period Ended  
    October 31, 2018 (a)  
       
Net asset value, beginning of period   $ 25.00  
Activity from investment operations:        
Net investment income (h)     0.47  
Net realized and unrealized loss on investments     (2.74 )
Total loss from investment operations     (2.27 )
Less distributions from:        
Net investment income     (0.35 )
Total distributions     (0.35 )
Net asset value, end of period   $ 22.38  
Market price, end of period   $ 22.52  
Total return (b)(c)(d)(e)     (9.92 )%
Net assets, end of period (000s)   $ 5,595  
Ratio of gross expenses to average net assets (f)(i)     4.66 %
Ratio of net expenses to average net assets (f)     0.47 %
Ratio of net investment income to average net assets (f)(g)     2.47 %
Portfolio Turnover Rate (d)     135 %

 

  (a) The Affinity World Leades Equity ETF commenced operations on January 16, 2018.
  (b) Total return is calculated assuming a purchase of shares at net asset value on the first day and a sale at net asset value on the last day of the period. Distributions are assumed, for the purpose of this calculation, to be reinvested at the ex-dividend date net asset value per share on their respective payment dates. Had the Advisor not waived or reimbursed a portion of the Fund’s expenses, total returns would have been lower.
  (c) Includes adjustments in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States and, consequently, the net asset value for financial reporting purposes and the returns based upon those net asset values may differ from the net asset values and returns for shareholder transactions.
  (d) Not annualized.
  (e) Represents total return based on net asset values per share from commencement of investment operations on January 16, 2018 through October 31, 2018. Total return based on net asset value per share, as of the close of business on the day of commencement of trading on the BATS on January 16, 2018 through October 31, 2018 was (9.92)%.
  (f) Annualized.
  (g) Recognition of net investment income (loss) by the Fund is affected by the timing of the declaration of dividends by the underlying investment companies in which the Fund invests.
  (h) Per share amounts calculated using the average shares method, which more appropriately presents the per share data for the period.
  (i) Represents the ratio of expenses to average net assets absent fee waivers and/or expense reimbursements by the Adviser.

 

18 
 

 

PRIVACY NOTICE

FACTS WHAT DOES TWO ROADS SHARED TRUST DO WITH YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION
Why?

Financial companies choose how they share your personal information.

Federal law gives consumers the right to limit some but not all sharing.
Federal law also requires us to tell you how we collect, share, and protect your personal information. Please read this notice carefully to understand what we do.

What?

THE TYPES OF PERSONAL INFORMATION WE COLLECT AND SHARE DEPENDS ON THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE THAT YOU HAVE WITH US. THIS INFORMATION CAN INCLUDE:

  • Social Security number and income
  • Account transactions and transaction history
  • Investment experience and purchase history

 

When you are no longer our customer, we continue to share your information as described in this notice.

How? All financial companies need to share customers’ personal information to run their everyday business.  In the section below, we list the reasons financial companies can share their customers’ personal information; the reason Two Roads Shared Trust chooses to share and whether you can limit this sharing.

 

Reasons we can share your personal information Does Two Roads Shared Trust share? Can you limit this sharing?

For our everyday business purposes –

such as to process your transactions, maintain your account(s), respond to court orders and legal investigations, or report to credit bureaus

YES NO

For our marketing purposes –

to offer our products and services to you

NO We do not share
For joint marketing with other financial companies NOW We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your transactions and experiences

NO We do not share

For our affiliates’ everyday business purposes –

information about your creditworthiness

NO We do not share
For our affiliates to market to you NO We do not share
For nonaffiliates to market to you NO We do not share

 

 

19 
 

 

Questions? Call 1-402-895-1600

 

What we do

How does Two Roads Shared Trust protect my personal information?

To protect your personal information from unauthorized access and use, we use security measures that comply with federal law.

 

These measures include computer safeguards and secured files and buildings.

 

Our service providers are held accountable for adhering to strict policies and procedures to prevent any misuse of your nonpublic personal information.

How does Two Roads Shared Trust collect my personal information?

We collect your personal information, for example, when you

  • open an account or give us contact information
  • provide account information or give us your income information
  • make deposits or withdrawals from your account

We also collect your personal information from other companies.

Why can’t I limit all sharing?

Federal law gives you the right to limit only

  • sharing for affiliates’ everyday business purposes – information about your creditworthiness
  • affiliates from using your information to market to you
  • sharing for nonaffiliates to market to you

State laws and individual companies may give you additional rights to limit sharing

 

 

Definitions

Affiliates

Companies related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust has no affiliates.
Nonaffiliates

Companies not related by common ownership or control. They can be financial and nonfinancial companies.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not share with nonaffiliates so they can market to you.
Joint marketing

A formal agreement between nonaffiliates financial companies that together market financial products or services to you.

  • Two Roads Shared Trust does not jointly market.

 

20 
 

Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF

 

Adviser

Regents Park Funds, LLC

4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155

Newport Beach, CA 92660

Distributor

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC

17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200

Omaha, NE 68130

Custodian & Transfer Agent

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.

50 Post Office Square

Boston, MA 02110

Legal
Counsel

Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP

One Logan Square, Ste. 2000

Philadelphia, PA 19103-6996

Administrator

Gemini Fund Services, LLC

17645 Wright Street, Suite 200

Omaha, NE 68130

Independent

Registered
Public
Accounting Firm

RSM US LLP

555 17th Street, Suite 1200

Denver, CO 80202

 

Additional information about the Fund is included in the Fund’s SAI dated February 28, 2019 and annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. The SAI and the financial statements included in the Fund's most recent annual report to shareholders for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, including the notes thereto and report of the independent registered public accounting firm thereon, are incorporated into this Prospectus by reference (i.e., legally made a part of this Prospectus). The SAI provides more details about the Fund’s policies and management. In the Fund’s Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year.

 

To obtain a free copy of the SAI and the Annual and Semi-Annual Reports to Shareholders, or other information about the Fund, or to make shareholder inquiries about the Fund, please call 1-866-866-4848. The Fund does not have a website; however information relating to the Fund can be found on the website at RegentsParkFunds.com. You may also write to:

 

Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF

c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

Po Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Reports and other information about the Funds are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of the information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following E-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

 

Investment Company Act File # 811-22718

 

21 
 

Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF

 

WLDR

 

a series of Two Roads Shared Trust

 

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

February 28, 2019

 

Listed and traded on:

Bats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This Statement of Additional Information ("SAI") is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus of the Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF (the "Fund"”) dated February 28, 2019. The Fund’s Prospectus is hereby incorporate by reference, which means it is legally part of this document. You can obtain copies of the Fund’s Prospectus, annual or semiannual reports without charge by contacting the Fund’s Distributor, Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200 Omaha, NE 68130-2095 or by calling 1-866-866-4848. You may also obtain a Prospectus by visiting the website at RegentsParkFunds.com.

 

 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

THE FUND

TYPES OF INVESTMENTS

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

MANAGEMENT

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS

INVESTMENT ADVISER

THE DISTRIBUTOR

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM

PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES

TAX STATUS

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

LEGAL COUNSEL

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

 
 

THE FUND

 

The Fund is a diversified series of Two Roads Shared Trust, a Delaware statutory trust organized on June 8, 2012 (the "Trust"). The Trust is registered as an open-end management investment company. The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the "Board" or "Trustees").

 

The Fund may issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. All shares of the Fund have equal rights and privileges. Each share of the Fund is entitled to one vote on all matters as to which shares are entitled to vote. In addition, each share of the Fund is entitled to participate equally with other shares (i) in dividends and distributions declared by such Fund and (ii) on liquidation to its proportionate share of the assets remaining after satisfaction of outstanding liabilities. Shares of such Fund are fully paid, non-assessable and fully transferable when issued and have no pre-emptive, conversion or exchange rights. Fractional shares have proportionately the same rights, including voting rights, as are provided for a full share.

 

The Fund’s investment objective, restrictions and policies are more fully described here and in the Prospectus. The Board may start other series and offer shares of a new fund under the Trust at any time.

 

The Fund will issue and redeem Shares at net asset value ("NAV") only in aggregations of 50,000 Shares (a "Creation Unit"). The Fund will issue and redeem Creation Units principally in exchange for an in-kind deposit of a basket of designated securities (the "Deposit Securities"), together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (the "Cash Component"), plus a transaction fee. The Fund is expected to be approved for listing, subject to notice of issuance, on Bats Global Markets, Inc. (the "Exchange"). Shares will trade on the Exchange at market prices that may be below, at, or above NAV. In the event of the liquidation of the Fund, a share split, reverse split or the like, the Trust may revise the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

The Fund reserves the right to offer creations and redemptions of Shares for cash. In addition, Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash equal to up to 115% of the market value of the missing Deposit Securities. In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, transaction fees, may be imposed and may be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. See PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES below.

 

Exchange Listing and Trading

 

In order to provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares of the Fund, the Exchange or a market data vendor will disseminate every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association or other widely disseminated means an updated "intraday indicative value" ("IIV") for the Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIV and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIV.

 

 

TYPES OF INVESTMENTS

 

The investment objective of the Fund and the description of the Fund’s principal investment strategies are set forth under "Investment Objective” and Principal Investment Strategies” in the Prospectus. The Fund’s investment objective is not fundamental and may be changed without the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust.

 

The Fund has adopted a non-fundamental investment policy in accordance with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”) to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the value of its net assets, plus the amount of any borrowings for investment purposes, in equity securities and depositary receipts of the Fund’s underlying index. The Fund will provide its shareholders with at least 60 days’ prior written notice of any change in such policy. For these purposes, “net assets” is measured at the time of purchase.

 

The following pages contain more detailed information about the types of instruments in which the Fund may invest directly as a principal or non-principal investment strategy. These instruments include other strategies that Regents Park Funds, LLC (the “Adviser”) or Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”) employ in pursuit of the Fund’s investment objective and a summary of related risks.

 

Securities of Other Investment Companies

 

Investments in ETFs and mutual funds involve certain additional expenses and certain tax results, which would not be present in a direct investment in such funds. Due to legal limitations, the Fund will be prevented from: 1) purchasing more than 3% of an investment company's (including ETFs) outstanding shares; 2) investing more than 5% of the Fund’s

1 
 

assets in any single such investment company, and 3) investing more than 10% of the Fund’s assets in investment companies overall; unless: (i) the underlying investment company and/or the Fund has received an order for exemptive relief from such limitations from the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"); and (ii) the underlying investment company and the Fund take appropriate steps to comply with any conditions in such order. In the alternative, the Fund may rely on Rule 12d1-3, which allows unaffiliated mutual funds to exceed the 5% limitation and the 10% limitation, provided the aggregate sales loads any investor pays (i.e., the combined distribution expenses of both the acquiring fund and the acquired fund) does not exceed the limits on sales loads established by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) for funds of funds. In addition to ETFs, the Fund may invest in other investment companies such as open-end mutual funds or exchange-traded funds, within the limitations described above. Each investment company is subject to specific risks, depending on the nature of the Fund. ETFs and mutual funds may employ leverage, which magnifies the changes in the underlying stock or other index upon which they are based.

 

Open-End Investment Companies

 

The Fund and any "affiliated persons," as defined by the 1940 Act, may purchase in the aggregate only up to 3% of the total outstanding securities of any underlying fund. Accordingly, when affiliated persons hold shares of any of the underlying fund, the Fund’s ability to invest fully in shares of those funds is restricted, and the Adviser must then, in some instances, select alternative investments that would not have been its first preference. The 1940 Act also provides that an underlying fund whose shares are purchased by the Fund will be obligated to redeem shares held by the Fund only in an amount up to 1% of the underlying fund’s outstanding securities during any period of less than 30 days. Shares held by the Fund in excess of 1% of an underlying fund’s outstanding securities therefore, will be considered not readily marketable securities, which, together with other such securities, may not exceed 15% of the Fund’s total assets.

 

Under certain circumstances an underlying fund may determine to make payment of a redemption by the Fund wholly or partly by a distribution in kind of securities from its portfolio, in lieu of cash, in conformity with the rules of the SEC. In such cases, the Fund may hold securities distributed by an underlying fund until the Adviser determines that it is appropriate to dispose of such securities.

 

Investment decisions by the investment advisers of the underlying fund(s) are made independently of the Fund and the Adviser. Therefore, the investment adviser of one underlying fund may be purchasing shares of the same issuer whose shares are being sold by the investment adviser of another such fund. The result would be an indirect expense to the Fund without accomplishing any investment purpose.

 

Exchange Traded Funds

 

ETFs are generally passive funds that track their related index and have the flexibility of trading like a security. They are managed by professionals and typically provide the investor with diversification, cost and tax efficiency, liquidity, marginability, are useful for hedging, have the ability to go long and short, and some provide quarterly dividends. Additionally, some ETFs are unit investment trusts (“UITs”). ETFs typically have two markets. The primary market is where institutions swap "creation units" in block-multiples of, for example, 50,000 shares for in-kind securities and cash in the form of dividends. The secondary market is where individual investors can trade as little as a single share during trading hours on the exchange. This is different from open-ended mutual funds that are traded after hours once the net asset value (“NAV”) is calculated. ETFs share many similar risks with open-end and closed-end funds.

 

ETFs are shares issued by investment companies that are traded like traditional equity securities on a national stock exchange or the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System. An investment in an ETF generally presents the same primary risks as an investment in a conventional fund (i.e., one that is not exchange traded) that has the same investment objectives, strategies, and policies. The price of an ETF can fluctuate within a wide range, and the Fund could lose money investing in an ETF if the prices of the securities owned by the ETF go down. In addition, ETFs are subject to the following risks that do not apply to conventional open-end mutual funds: (i) the market price of the ETF’s shares may trade at a discount to their net asset value; (ii) an active trading market for an ETF’s shares may not develop or be maintained; or (iii) trading of an ETF’s shares may be halted if the listing exchange’s officials deem such action appropriate, the shares are de-listed from the exchange, or the activation of market-wide “circuit breakers” (which are tied to large decreases in stock prices) halts stock trading generally.

 

ETF shares are not individually redeemable from the ETF, except upon termination of the ETF. To redeem from the ETF, an investor must accumulate enough ETF shares to reconstitute a creation unit. Upon redemption of a creation unit, an investor will receive securities underlying the ETF and cash identical to the portfolio deposit required of an investor wishing to purchase a creation unit that day. The Fund may sell ETF shares through a broker dealer.

 

The price of an ETF’s shares is derived from and based upon the securities held by the ETF. Accordingly, the level of risk involved in the purchase or sale of an ETF is similar to the risk involved in the purchase or sale of traditional common

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stock, with the exception that the pricing mechanism for ETFs generally is based on a basket of stocks. Disruptions in the markets for the securities underlying ETFs purchased or sold by the Fund could result in losses on ETFs.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investments – General

 

Investment in foreign securities involves special risks. These include market risk, interest rate risk and the risks of investing in securities of foreign issuers and of companies whose securities are principally traded outside the United States on foreign exchanges or foreign over-the-counter markets and in investments denominated in foreign currencies. Market risk involves the possibility that security prices will decline over short or even extended periods. The markets tend to be cyclical, with periods of generally rising prices and periods of generally declining prices. These cycles will affect the value of the Fund to the extent that it invests in foreign securities. The holdings of the Fund, to the extent that it invests in fixed-income securities, will be sensitive to changes in interest rates and the interest rate environment. Generally, the prices of bonds and debt securities fluctuate inversely with interest rate changes. In addition, the performance of investments in securities denominated in a foreign currency will depend on the strength of the foreign currency against the U.S. dollar and the interest rate environment in the country issuing the currency. Absent other events which could otherwise affect the value of a foreign security (such as a change in the political climate or an issuer’s credit quality), appreciation in the value of the foreign currency generally can be expected to increase the value of a foreign currency-denominated security in terms of U.S. dollars. A rise in foreign interest rates or decline in the value of the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar generally can be expected to depress the value of a foreign currency-denominated security.

 

There are other risks and costs involved in investing in foreign securities which are in addition to the usual risks inherent in domestic investments. Investment in foreign securities involves higher costs than investment in U.S. securities, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments also involve risks associated with the level of currency exchange rates, less complete financial information about the issuers, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible imposition of withholding taxes on dividend income, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls, or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign banks and foreign branches of domestic banks are subject to less stringent reserve requirements, and to different accounting, auditing and recordkeeping requirements. Also, the legal remedies for investors may be more limited than the remedies available in the United States. Additionally, many countries throughout the world are dependent on a healthy U.S. economy and are adversely affected when the U.S. economy weakens or its markets decline. For example, the decline in the U.S. subprime mortgage market quickly spread throughout global credit markets, triggering a liquidity crisis that affected fixed-income and equity markets around the world.

 

European countries can be affected by the significant fiscal and monetary controls that the European Economic and Monetary Union (“EMU”) imposes for membership. Europe’s economies are diverse, its governments are decentralized, and its cultures vary widely. Several European Union (“EU”) countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. There is continued concern about national-level support for the euro and the accompanying coordination of fiscal and wage policy among EMU member countries. Member countries are required to maintain tight control over inflation, public debt, and budget deficit to qualify for membership in the EMU. These requirements can severely limit the ability of EMU member countries to implement monetary policy to address regional economic conditions.

 

In June of 2016, the United Kingdom (the “UK”) approved a referendum to leave the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” which sparked depreciation in the value of the British pound and heightened risk of continued worldwide economic volatility. Pursuant to Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon, the UK gave notice in March 2017 of its withdrawal from the EU and commenced negotiations on the terms of withdrawal. With notice given, the negotiation period could last for two years or more. The UK is currently scheduled to withdraw from the EU on March 29, 2019. It is unclear what the potential consequences may be. In addition, it is possible that measures could be taken to revote the issue of the withdrawal, or that regions of the UK could seek to separate and remain a part of the EU. As a result of the scheduled withdrawal, the Fund may be exposed to volatile trading markets and significant and unpredictable currency fluctuations over a short period of time, and potentially lower economic growth in the UK, Europe and globally. Securities issued by companies domiciled in the UK could be subject to changing regulatory and tax regimes. Banking and financial services companies that operate in the UK or EU could be disproportionately impacted by these actions. Further insecurity in EU membership or the abandonment of the euro could exacerbate market and currency volatility and negatively impact the Fund’s investments in securities issued by companies located in EU countries. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

 

Many non-governmental issuers, and even certain governments, have defaulted on, or been forced to restructure, their debts; many other issuers have faced difficulties obtaining credit or refinancing existing obligations; financial institutions have in many cases required government or central bank support, have needed to raise capital, and/or have been impaired

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in their ability to extend credit; and financial markets in Europe and elsewhere have experienced extreme volatility and declines in asset values and liquidity. These difficulties may continue, worsen or spread within and without Europe. Responses to the financial problems by European governments, central banks and others, including austerity measures and reforms, may not work, may result in social unrest and may limit future growth and economic recovery or have other unintended consequences. Further defaults or restructurings by governments and others of their debt could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world. In addition, one or more countries may abandon the euro, the common currency of the European Union, and/or withdraw from the European Union. The impact of these actions, especially if they occur in a disorderly fashion, is not clear but could be significant and far-reaching.

 

To the extent consistent with its investment objectives and strategies, the Fund may invest in foreign debt, including the securities of foreign governments. Several risks exist concerning such investments, including the risk that foreign governments may default on their obligations, may not respect the integrity of such debt, may attempt to renegotiate the debt at a lower rate, and may not honor investments by U.S. entities or citizens.

 

Although the Fund may invest in securities denominated in foreign currencies, its portfolio securities and other assets are valued in U.S. dollars. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time causing, together with other factors, a Fund’s NAV to fluctuate as well. Currency exchange rates can be affected unpredictably by the intervention or the failure to intervene by U.S. or foreign governments or central banks, or by currency controls or political developments in the United States or abroad. To the extent that a Fund’s total assets, adjusted to reflect a Fund’s net position after giving effect to currency transactions, are denominated in the currencies of foreign countries, a Fund will be more susceptible to the risk of adverse economic and political developments within those countries.

 

Dividends and interest payable on the Fund’s foreign portfolio securities may be subject to foreign withholding taxes. To the extent such taxes are not offset by credits or deductions allowed to investors under U.S. federal income tax law, they may reduce the net return to the shareholders.

 

The Fund’s income and, in some cases, capital gains from foreign stocks and securities will be subject to applicable taxation in certain of the countries in which it invests, and treaties between the United States and such countries may not be available in some cases to reduce the otherwise applicable tax rates.

 

The Fund also is subject to the possible imposition of exchange control regulations or freezes on the convertibility of currency. In addition, the use of forward currency exchange contracts with other instruments may expose them to risks independent of their securities positions. Although the net long and short foreign currency exposure of the Fund will not exceed its total asset values, to the extent that the Fund is fully invested in foreign securities while also maintaining currency positions, it may be exposed to greater risk than it would have if it did not maintain the currency positions.

 

The Fund’s foreign securities are generally held outside the United States in the primary market for the securities in the custody of certain eligible foreign banks and trust companies, as permitted under the 1940 Act (“foreign sub-custodians”). Settlement practices for foreign securities may differ from those in the United States. Some countries have limited governmental oversight and regulation of industry practices, stock exchanges, depositories, registrars, brokers and listed companies, which increases the risk of corruption and fraud and the possibility of losses to the Fund. In particular, under certain circumstances, foreign securities may settle on a delayed delivery basis, meaning that the Fund may be required to make payment for securities before the Fund has actually received delivery of the securities or deliver securities prior to the receipt of payment. Typically, in these cases, the Fund will receive evidence of ownership in accordance with the generally accepted settlement practices in the local market entitling the Fund to deliver payment at a future date, but there is a risk that the security will not be delivered to the Fund or that payment will not be received, although the Fund and its foreign sub-custodians take reasonable precautions to mitigate this risk.

 

Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures, and in certain markets there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions, making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Such delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund remain uninvested and no return is earned on such assets. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could result in missed attractive investment opportunities, losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the portfolio securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, possible liability to the purchaser. Losses can also result from lost, stolen or counterfeit securities; defaults by brokers and banks; failures or defects of the settlement system; or poor and improper record keeping by registrars and issuers.

 

Share blocking refers to a practice in certain foreign markets under which an issuer’s securities are blocked from trading at the custodian or sub-custodian level for a specified number of days before and, in certain instances, after a shareholder meeting where a vote of shareholders takes place. The blocking period can last up to several weeks. Share blocking may prevent the Fund from buying or selling securities during this period, because during the time shares are

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blocked, trades in such securities will not settle. It may be difficult or impossible to lift blocking restrictions, with the particular requirements varying widely by country.

 

The Fund may invest a significant percentage of its assets in the securities of issuers located in geographic regions with securities markets that are highly developed, liquid and subject to extensive regulation, including Japan. Japan’s economy has historically lagged that of its Asian neighbors and other major developed economies and it has experienced lengthy periods of recession and deterioration of its competitiveness. Although Japan has attempted to reform its political process and deregulate its economy to address the situation, there is no guarantee that these efforts will succeed.

 

Japan’s economy is heavily dependent upon international trade, and is especially sensitive to trade barriers and disputes. Domestic or foreign trade sanctions or other protectionist measures may also adversely impact Japan’s economy. In particular, Japan relies on large imports of agricultural products, raw materials and fuels. Japan also remains heavily dependent on oil imports, and a substantial rise in commodity prices, or a fall-off in Japan’s manufactured exports, may affect Japan’s economy adversely. Additionally, slowdowns in the economies of key trading partners such as the United States, China and countries in Southeast Asia could have a negative impact on the Japanese economy.

 

Furthermore, Japan has an aging workforce. It is a labor market undergoing fundamental structural changes, as traditional lifetime employment clashes with the need for increased labor mobility, which may adversely affect Japan’s economic competitiveness.

 

The Japanese yen has fluctuated widely at times and any increase in its value may cause a decline in exports that could weaken the economy. The Japanese yen may also be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia, particularly Southeast Asia. The Japanese securities markets are less regulated than the U.S. markets. Evidence has emerged from time to time of distortion of market prices to serve political or other purposes. Shareholders’ rights also are not always enforced.

 

Japan has had territorial disputes and/or defense issues with China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, among others. In the past several years, Japan’s relationship with North Korea has been especially strained because of increased nuclear and military activity by North Korea. Japan’s disputes with neighboring countries have the potential to cause uncertainty in the Japanese markets and affect the overall Japanese economy in times of crisis.

 

Japan is located in a part of the world that has historically been prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis and is economically sensitive to environmental events. Any such event, could result in a significant adverse impact on the Japanese economy.

 

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Investments – Emerging Markets

The Fund, to the extent permitted by its investment objectives and strategies, may also invest in countries with emerging economies or securities markets. Emerging market countries are generally located in the Asia and Pacific regions, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Central America, South America and Africa. Political and economic structures in many of these countries may be undergoing significant evolution and rapid development, and these countries may lack the social, political and economic stability characteristics of more developed countries.

In general, the securities markets of emerging countries are less liquid, subject to greater price volatility and have a smaller market capitalization than the U.S. securities markets. In certain countries, there may be fewer publicly traded securities and the market may be dominated by a few issues or sectors. Issuers and securities markets in such countries are not subject to as extensive and frequent accounting, financial and other reporting requirements or as comprehensive government regulations as are issuers and securities markets in the United States. In particular, the assets and profits appearing on the financial statements of emerging country issuers may not reflect their financial position or results of operations in the same manner as financial statements for U.S. issuers. Substantially less information may be publicly available about emerging country issuers than is available about issuers in the United States.

Emerging country securities markets are typically marked by a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of ownership of such securities by a limited number of investors. The markets for securities in certain emerging countries are in the earliest stages of their development. Even the markets for relatively widely traded securities in emerging countries may not be able to absorb, without price disruptions, a significant increase in trading volume or trades of a size customarily undertaken by institutional investors in the securities markets of developed countries. The limited size of many of these securities markets can cause prices to be erratic for reasons apart from factors that affect the soundness and competitiveness of the securities issuers. For example, prices may be unduly influenced by traders who control large positions in these markets. Additionally, market making and arbitrage activities are generally less extensive in such markets, which may contribute to increased volatility and reduced liquidity of such markets. The limited liquidity of emerging country

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securities may also affect a Fund’s ability to accurately value its portfolio securities or to acquire or dispose of securities at the price and time it wishes to do so or in order to meet redemption requests.

Certain emerging market countries may have antiquated legal systems, which may adversely impact the Fund. For example, while the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation is generally limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain emerging market countries. Similarly, the rights of investors in emerging market companies may be more limited than those of shareholders in U.S. corporations. In addition, the systems of corporate governance to which issuers in certain emerging countries are subject may be less advanced than the systems to which issuers located in more developed countries are subject, and therefore, shareholders of such issuers may not receive many of the protections available to shareholders of issuers located in more developed countries.

Because of the recent formation of the Russian securities markets, the underdeveloped state of Russia’s banking and telecommunication system and the legal and regulatory framework in Russia, settlement, clearing and registration of securities transactions are subject to additional risks. Prior to 2013, there was no central registration system for equity share registration in Russia and registration was carried out either by the issuers themselves or by registrars located throughout Russia. These registrars may not have been subject to effective state supervision or licensed with any governmental entity. In 2013, Russia established the National Settlement Depository (“NSD”) as a recognized central securities depository, and title to Russian equities is now based on the records of the NSD and not on the records of local registrars. The implementation of the NSD is generally expected to decrease the risk of loss in connection with recording and transferring title to securities; however, loss may still occur. Additionally, issuers and registrars remain prominent in the validation and approval of documentation requirements for corporate action processing in Russia, and there remain inconsistent market standards in the Russian market with respect to the completion and submission of corporate action elections. To the extent that the Fund suffers a loss relating to title or corporate actions relating to its portfolio securities, it may be difficult for the Fund to enforce its rights or otherwise remedy the loss. In addition, Russia also may attempt to assert its influence in the region through economic or even military measures, as it did with Georgia in the summer of 2008 and the Ukraine in 2014. Such measures may have an adverse effect on the Russian economy, which may, in turn negatively impact the Fund.

The United States, the EU and other countries have imposed economic sanctions on certain Russian individuals and Russian corporations. Additional broader sanctions may be imposed in the future. These sanctions, or even the threat of further sanctions, may result in the decline of the value and liquidity of Russian securities, a weakening of the ruble or other adverse consequences to the Russian economy. These sanctions could also result in the immediate freeze of Russian securities, impairing the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities. Sanctions could also result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions, which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities.

The sanctions against certain Russian issuers include prohibitions on transacting in or dealing in new debt of longer than 30 or 90 days maturity or new equity of such issuers. Securities held by the Fund issued prior to the date of the sanctions being imposed are not currently subject to any restrictions under the sanctions. However, compliance with each of these sanctions may impair the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, hold, receive or deliver the affected securities or other securities of such issuers. If it becomes impracticable or unlawful for the Fund to hold securities subject to, or otherwise affected by, sanctions (collectively, “affected securities”), or if deemed appropriate by the Fund’s investment adviser, the Fund may prohibit in-kind deposits of the affected securities in connection with creation transactions and instead require a cash deposit, which may also increase the Fund’s transaction costs.

Current or future sanctions may result in Russia taking counter measures or retaliatory actions, which may further impair the value and liquidity of Russian securities. These retaliatory measures may include the immediate freeze of Russian assets held by the Fund. In the event of such a freeze of any Fund assets, including depositary receipts, the Fund may need to liquidate non-restricted assets in order to satisfy any Fund redemption orders. The liquidation of Fund assets during this time may also result in the Fund receiving substantially lower prices for its securities.

Transaction costs, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups, in emerging countries may be higher than in developed securities markets. In addition, existing laws and regulations are often inconsistently applied. As legal systems in emerging countries develop, foreign investors may be adversely affected by new or amended laws and regulations. In circumstances where adequate laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of the law.

Certain emerging countries may restrict or control foreign investments in their securities markets. These restrictions may limit the Fund’s investment in those countries and may increase the expenses of the Fund. Certain emerging countries require governmental approval prior to investments by foreign persons or limit investment by foreign persons to only a specified percentage of an issuer’s outstanding securities or a specific class of securities which may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the company available for purchase by nationals. In addition, the repatriation of both investment income and capital from emerging countries may be subject to restrictions which require governmental consents or prohibit repatriation entirely for a period of time. Even where there is no outright restriction on repatriation of capital, the mechanics of repatriation may affect certain aspects of the operation of the Fund. Custodial and/or settlement systems in emerging countries may not be fully developed. To the extent the Fund invests in emerging countries,

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Fund assets that are traded in such markets and which have been entrusted to sub-custodians in these markets may be exposed to risks for which the sub-custodian will have no liability.

Emerging countries may be subject to a substantially greater degree of economic, political and social instability and disruption than more developed countries. This instability may result from, among other things, the following: (i) authoritarian governments or military involvement in political and economic decision making, including changes or attempted changes in governments through extra-constitutional means; (ii) social unrest associated with demands for improved political, economic or social conditions; (iii) internal insurgencies; (iv) hostile relations with neighboring countries; (v) ethnic, religious and racial disaffection or conflict; and (vi) the absence of developed legal structures governing foreign private investments and private property. Such economic, political and social instability could disrupt the principal financial markets in which the Fund may invest and adversely affect the value of the Fund’s assets. The Fund’s investments can also be adversely affected by any increase in taxes or by political, economic or diplomatic developments.

The Fund may invest in former “east bloc” countries in Eastern Europe. Most Eastern European countries had a centrally planned, socialist economy for a substantial period of time. The governments of many Eastern European countries have more recently been implementing reforms directed at political and economic liberalization, including efforts to decentralize the economic decision-making process and move towards a market economy. However, business entities in many Eastern European countries do not have an extended history of operating in a market-oriented economy, and the ultimate impact of Eastern European countries’ attempts to move toward more market-oriented economies is currently unclear. In addition, any change in the leadership or policies of Eastern European countries may halt the expansion of or reverse the liberalization of foreign investment policies now occurring and adversely affect existing investment opportunities.

Investment exposure to China subjects the Fund to risks specific to China. China may be subject to considerable degrees of economic, political and social instability. China is a developing market and demonstrates significantly higher volatility from time to time in comparison to developed markets. The Chinese government has undertaken reform of economic and market practices and expansion of the sphere for private ownership of property in China. However, Chinese markets generally continue to experience inefficiency, volatility and pricing anomalies resulting from governmental influence, a lack of publicly available information and/or political and social instability. Internal social unrest or confrontations with other neighboring countries, including military conflicts in response to such events, may also disrupt economic development in China and result in a greater risk of currency fluctuations, currency convertibility, interest rate fluctuations and higher rates of inflation. Export growth continues to be a major driver of China’s rapid economic growth. Reduction in spending on Chinese products and services, institution of tariffs or other trade barriers, or a downturn in any of the economies of China’s key trading partners may have an adverse impact on the Chinese economy.

A significant portion of the Fund may also be invested in issuers located in Central and South American countries. Securities markets in Central and South American countries may experience greater volatility than in other emerging countries. In addition, a number of Central and South American countries are among the largest emerging country debtors. There have been moratoria on, and reschedulings of, repayment with respect to these debts. Such events can restrict the flexibility of these debtor nations in the international markets and result in the imposition of onerous conditions on their economies.

Many of the currencies of Central and South American countries have experienced steady devaluation relative to the U.S. dollar, and major devaluations have historically occurred in certain countries. Any devaluations in the currencies in which the Fund’s portfolio securities are denominated may have a detrimental impact on the Fund. There is also a risk that certain Central and South American countries may restrict the free conversion of their currencies into other currencies. Some Central and South American countries may have managed currencies that are not free floating against the U.S. Dollar. This type of system can lead to sudden and large adjustments in the currency that, in turn, can have a disruptive and negative effect on foreign investors. Certain Central and South American currencies may not be internationally traded and it would be difficult for the Fund to engage in foreign currency transactions designed to protect the value of the Fund’s interests in securities denominated in such currencies.

The emergence of the Central and South American economies and securities markets will require continued economic and fiscal discipline that has been lacking at times in the past, as well as stable political and social conditions. Governments of many Central and South American countries have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. The political history of certain Central and South American countries has been characterized by political uncertainty, intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres and political corruption. Such developments, if they were to recur, could reverse favorable trends toward market and economic reform, privatization and removal of trade barriers.

International economic conditions, particularly those in the United States, as well as world prices for oil and other commodities may also influence the recovery of the Central and South American economies. Because commodities such as oil, gas, minerals and metals represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports, the economies of Central and South American countries are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. As a result, the economies in many of these countries can experience significant volatility.

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Certain Central and South American countries have entered into regional trade agreements that would, among other things, reduce barriers among countries, increase competition among companies and reduce government subsidies in certain industries. No assurance can be given that these changes will result in the economic stability intended. There is a possibility that these trade arrangements will not be implemented, will be implemented but not completed or will be completed but then partially or completely unwound. It is also possible that a significant participant could choose to abandon a trade agreement, which could diminish its credibility and influence. Any of these occurrences could have adverse effects on the markets of both participating and non-participating countries, including share appreciation or depreciation of participant’s national currencies and a significant increase in exchange rate volatility, a resurgence in economic protectionism, an undermining of confidence in the Central and South American markets, an undermining of Central and South American economic stability, the collapse or slowdown of the drive toward Central and South American economic unity, and/or reversion of the attempts to lower government debt and inflation rates that were introduced in anticipation of such trade agreements. Such developments could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s investments in Central and South America generally or in specific countries participating in such trade agreements.

The economies of emerging countries may suffer from unfavorable growth of gross domestic product, rates of inflation and hyperinflation, capital reinvestment, resources, self-sufficiency and balance of payments. Many emerging countries have experienced in the past, and continue to experience, high rates of inflation. In certain countries inflation has at times accelerated rapidly to hyperinflationary levels, creating a negative interest rate environment and sharply eroding the value of outstanding financial assets in those countries. Other emerging countries, on the other hand, have recently experienced deflationary pressures and are in economic recessions. The economies of many emerging countries are heavily dependent upon international trade and are accordingly affected by protective trade barriers and the economic conditions of their trading partners. In addition, the economies of some emerging countries are vulnerable to weakness in world prices for their commodity exports.

Risks related to currencies and corporate actions are also greater in emerging countries than in developed countries. For example, some emerging countries may have fixed or managed currencies that are not free-floating against the U.S. dollar. Certain emerging countries may experience sudden and large adjustments in their currency, which can have a disruptive and adverse effect on foreign investors. Some emerging countries have a higher risk of currency devaluations, and some of these countries may experience sustained periods of high inflation or rapid changes in inflation rates which can have negative effects on a country’s economy and securities markets. Some emerging countries may impose restrictions on the free conversion of their currencies into foreign currencies, including the U.S. dollar. Corporate action procedures in emerging countries may be less reliable and have limited or no involvement by the depositories and central banks. Lack of standard practices and payment systems can lead to significant delays in payment.

 

Equity Securities

 

Equity securities include common stocks, preferred stocks and securities convertible into common stocks, such as convertible bonds, warrants, rights and options. The value of equity securities varies in response to many factors, including the activities and financial condition of individual companies, the business market in which individual companies compete and general market and economic conditions. Equity securities fluctuate in value, often based on factors unrelated to the value of the issuer of the securities, and such fluctuations can be significant.

 

Common Stock

 

Common stock represents an equity (ownership) interest in a company, and usually possesses voting rights and earns dividends. Dividends on common stock are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the issuer. Common stock generally represents the riskiest investment in a company. In addition, common stock generally has the greatest appreciation and depreciation potential because increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a company's stock price.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Preferred stock is a class of stock having a preference over common stock as to the payment of dividends and the recovery of investment should a company be liquidated, although preferred stock is usually junior to the debt securities of the issuer. Preferred stock typically does not possess voting rights and its market value may change based on changes in interest rates.

 

The Fundamental risk of investing in common and preferred stock is the risk that the value of the stock might decrease. Stock values fluctuate in response to the activities of an individual company or in response to general market and/or economic conditions. Historically, common stocks have provided greater long-term returns and have entailed greater short-term risks than preferred stocks, fixed-income securities and money market investments. The market value of all

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securities, including common and preferred stocks, is based upon the market's perception of value and not necessarily the book value of an issuer or other objective measures of a company's worth.

 

Convertible Securities

 

Convertible securities include fixed income securities that may be exchanged or converted into a predetermined number of shares of the issuer's underlying common stock at the option of the holder during a specified period. Convertible securities may take the form of convertible preferred stock, convertible bonds or debentures, units consisting of "usable" bonds and warrants or a combination of the features of several of these securities. Convertible securities are senior to common stocks in an issuer's capital structure, but are usually subordinated to similar non-convertible securities. While providing a fixed-income stream (generally higher in yield than the income derivable from common stock but lower than that afforded by a similar nonconvertible security), a convertible security also gives an investor the opportunity, through its conversion feature, to participate in the capital appreciation of the issuing company depending upon a market price advance in the convertible security's underlying common stock.

 

Warrants

 

Warrants are options to purchase common stock at a specific price (usually at a premium above the market value of the optioned common stock at issuance) valid for a specific period of time. Warrants may have a life ranging from less than one year to twenty years, or they may be perpetual. However, most warrants have expiration dates after which they are worthless. In addition, a warrant is worthless if the market price of the common stock does not exceed the warrant's exercise price during the life of the warrant. Warrants have no voting rights, pay no dividends, and have no rights with respect to the assets of the corporation issuing them. The percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the warrant may tend to be greater than the percentage increase or decrease in the market price of the optioned common stock.

 

Depositary Receipts

 

Sponsored and unsponsored American Depositary Receipts ("ADRs"), are receipts issued by an American bank or trust company evidencing ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. ADRs, in registered form, are designed for use in U.S. securities markets. Unsponsored ADRs may be created without the participation of the foreign issuer. Holders of these ADRs generally bear all the costs of the ADR facility, whereas foreign issuers typically bear certain costs in a sponsored ADR. The bank or trust company depositary of an unsponsored ADR may be under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the foreign issuer or to pass through voting rights. Many of the risks described below regarding foreign securities apply to investments in ADRs.

 

Certificates of Deposit and Bankers' Acceptances

 

Certificates of deposit are receipts issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds.
The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the bearer of the receipt on the date specified on the certificate. The certificate usually can be traded in the secondary market prior to maturity. Bankers' acceptances typically arise from short-term credit arrangements designed to enable businesses to obtain funds to finance commercial transactions. Generally, an acceptance is a time draft drawn on a bank by an exporter or an importer to obtain a stated amount of funds to pay for specific merchandise. The draft is then "accepted" by a bank that, in effect, unconditionally guarantees to pay the face value of the instrument on its maturity date. The acceptance may then be held by the accepting bank as an earning asset or it may be sold in the secondary market at the going rate of discount for a specific maturity. Although maturities for acceptances can be as long as 270 days, most acceptances have maturities of six months or less.

 

Commercial Paper

 

Commercial paper consists of short-term (usually from 1 to 270 days) unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations in order to finance their current operations. It may be secured by letters of credit, a surety bond or other forms of collateral. Commercial paper is usually repaid at maturity by the issuer from the proceeds of the issuance of new commercial paper. As a result, investment in commercial paper is subject to the risk the issuer cannot issue enough new commercial paper to satisfy its outstanding commercial paper, also known as rollover risk. Commercial paper may become illiquid or may suffer from reduced liquidity in certain circumstances. Like all fixed income securities, commercial paper prices are susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates. If interest rates rise, commercial paper prices will decline. The short-term nature of a commercial paper investment makes it less susceptible to interest rate risk than many other fixed income securities because interest rate risk typically increases as maturity lengths increase. Commercial paper tends to yield smaller returns than longer-term corporate debt because securities with shorter maturities typically have lower effective yields than those with longer maturities. As with all fixed income securities, there is a chance that the issuer will default on its commercial paper obligation.

 

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Information on Time Deposits and Variable Rate Notes

 

Time deposits are issued by a depository institution in exchange for the deposit of funds. The issuer agrees to pay the amount deposited plus interest to the depositor on the date specified with respect to the deposit. Time deposits do not trade in the secondary market prior to maturity. However, some time deposits may be redeemable prior to maturity and may be subject to withdrawal penalties.

 

The commercial paper obligations are typically unsecured and may include variable rate notes. The nature and terms of a variable rate note (i.e., a "Master Note") permit the Fund to invest fluctuating amounts at varying rates of interest pursuant to a direct arrangement between the Fund and the issuer. It permits daily changes in the amounts invested. The Fund, typically, has the right at any time to increase, up to the full amount stated in the note agreement, or to decrease the amount outstanding under the note. The issuer may prepay at any time and without penalty any part of or the full amount of the note. The note may or may not be backed by one or more bank letters of credit. Because these notes are direct investment arrangements between the Fund and the issuer, it is not generally contemplated that they will be traded; moreover, there is currently no secondary market for them. Except as specifically provided in the Prospectus, there is no limitation on the type of issuer from whom these notes may be purchased; however, in connection with such purchase and on an ongoing basis, the Adviser will consider the earning power, cash flow and other liquidity ratios of the issuer, and its ability to pay principal and interest on demand, including a situation in which all holders of such notes made demand simultaneously. Variable rate notes are subject to the Fund’s investment restriction on illiquid securities unless such notes can be put back to the issuer (redeemed) on demand within seven days.

 

Insured Bank Obligations

 

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") insures the deposits of federally insured banks and savings and loan associations (collectively referred to as "banks"), currently up to $250,000. The Fund may elect to purchase bank obligations which are fully insured as to principal by the FDIC. Currently, to remain fully insured as to principal, these investments must be limited to $250,000 per bank; if the principal amount and accrued interest together exceed $250,000, the excess principal and accrued interest will not be insured. Insured bank obligations may have limited marketability.

 

United States Government Obligations

 

These consist of various types of marketable securities issued by the United States Treasury, i.e., bills, notes and bonds. Such securities are direct obligations of the United States government and differ mainly in the length of their maturity. Treasury bills, the most frequently issued marketable government security, have a maturity of up to one year and are issued on a discount basis.

 

United States Government Agencies

 

These consist of debt securities issued by agencies and instrumentalities of the United States government, including the various types of instruments currently outstanding or which may be offered in the future. Agencies include, among others, the Federal Housing Administration, Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), Farmer's Home Administration, Export-Import Bank of the United States, Maritime Administration, and General Services Administration. Instrumentalities include, for example, each of the Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Bank for Cooperatives, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac"), the Farm Credit Banks, the Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae"), and the United States Postal Service. These securities are either: (i) backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government (e.g., United States Treasury Bills); (ii) guaranteed by the United States Treasury (e.g., Ginnie Mae mortgage-backed securities); (iii) supported by the issuing agency's or instrumentality's right to borrow from the United States Treasury (e.g., Fannie Mae Discount Notes); or (iv) supported only by the issuing agency's or instrumentality's own credit (e.g., Tennessee Valley Association).

 

Government-related guarantors (i.e. not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government) include Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation owned entirely by private stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Fannie Mae purchases conventional (i.e., not insured or guaranteed by any government agency) residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers which include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks and credit unions and mortgage bankers. Pass-through securities issued by Fannie Mae are guaranteed as to timely payment of principal and interest by Fannie Mae but are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government.

 

Freddie Mac was created by Congress in 1970 for the purpose of increasing the availability of mortgage credit for residential housing. It is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks

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and now owned entirely by private stockholders. Freddie Mac issues PCs, which represent interests in conventional mortgages from Freddie Mac's national portfolio. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal, but PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States Government. Commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers also create pass-through pools of conventional residential mortgage loans. Such issuers may, in addition, be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-related securities. Pools created by such nongovernmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than government and government-related pools because there are no direct or indirect government or agency guarantees of payments in the former pools. However, timely payment of interest and principal of these pools may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool and hazard insurance and letters of credit. The insurance and guarantees are issued by governmental entities, private insurers and the mortgage poolers.

 

Securities Options

 

The Fund may purchase and write (i.e., sell) put and call options. Such options may relate to particular securities or stock indices, and may or may not be listed on a domestic or foreign securities exchange and may or may not be issued by the Options Clearing Corporation. Options trading is a highly specialized activity that entails greater than ordinary investment risk. Options may be more volatile than the underlying instruments, and therefore, on a percentage basis, an investment in options may be subject to greater fluctuation than an investment in the underlying instruments themselves.

 

A call option for a particular security gives the purchaser of the option the right to buy, and the writer (seller) the obligation to sell, the underlying security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration of the option, regardless of the market price of the security. The premium paid to the writer is in consideration for undertaking the obligation under the option contract. A put option for a particular security gives the purchaser the right to sell the security at the stated exercise price at any time prior to the expiration date of the option, regardless of the market price of the security.

 

Stock index options are put options and call options on various stock indices. In most respects, they are identical to listed options on common stocks. The primary difference between stock options and index options occurs when index options are exercised. In the case of stock options, the underlying security, common stock, is delivered. However, upon the exercise of an index option, settlement does not occur by delivery of the securities comprising the index. The option holder who exercises the index option receives an amount of cash if the closing level of the stock index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the stock index and the exercise price of the option expressed in dollars times a specified multiple. A stock index fluctuates with changes in the market value of the stocks included in the index. For example, some stock index options are based on a broad market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500® Index or the Value Line Composite Index or a narrower market index, such as the Standard & Poor's 100®. Indices may also be based on an industry or market segment, such as the NYSE Arca Oil and Gas Index or the Computer and Business Equipment Index. Options on stock indices are currently traded on the Chicago Board Options Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ PHLX.

 

The Fund’s obligation to sell an instrument subject to a call option written by it, or to purchase an instrument subject to a put option written by it, may be terminated prior to the expiration date of the option by the Fund’s execution of a closing purchase transaction, which is effected by purchasing on an exchange an option of the same series (i.e., same underlying instrument, exercise price and expiration date) as the option previously written. A closing purchase transaction will ordinarily be effected to realize a profit on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying instrument from being called, to permit the sale of the underlying instrument or to permit the writing of a new option containing different terms on such underlying instrument. The cost of such a liquidation purchase plus transactions costs may be greater than the premium received upon the original option, in which event the Fund will have incurred a loss in the transaction. There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option. An option writer unable to effect a closing purchase transaction will not be able to sell the underlying instrument or liquidate the assets held in a segregated account, as described below, until the option expires or the optioned instrument is delivered upon exercise. In such circumstances, the writer will be subject to the risk of market decline or appreciation in the instrument during such period.

 

If an option purchased by the Fund expires unexercised, the Fund realizes a loss equal to the premium paid. If the Fund enters into a closing sale transaction on an option purchased by it, the Fund will realize a gain if the premium received by the Fund on the closing transaction is more than the premium paid to purchase the option, or a loss if it is less. If an option written by the Fund expires on the stipulated expiration date or if the Fund enters into a closing purchase transaction, it will realize a gain (or loss if the cost of a closing purchase transaction exceeds the net premium received when the option is sold). If an option written by the Fund is exercised, the proceeds of the sale will be increased by the net premium originally received and the Fund will realize a gain or loss.

 

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Certain Risks Regarding Options

 

There are several risks associated with transactions in options. For example, there are significant differences between the securities and options markets that could result in an imperfect correlation between these markets, causing a given transaction not to achieve its objectives. In addition, a liquid secondary market for particular options, whether traded over-the-counter or on an exchange, may be absent for reasons which include the following: there may be insufficient trading interest in certain options; restrictions may be imposed by an exchange on opening transactions or closing transactions or both; trading halts, suspensions or other restrictions may be imposed with respect to particular classes or series of options or underlying securities or currencies; unusual or unforeseen circumstances may interrupt normal operations on an exchange; the facilities of an exchange or the Options Clearing Corporation may not at all times be adequate to handle current trading value; or one or more exchanges could, for economic or other reasons, decide or be compelled at some future date to discontinue the trading of options (or a particular class or series of options), in which event the secondary market on that exchange (or in that class or series of options) would cease to exist, although outstanding options that had been issued by the Options Clearing Corporation as a result of trades on that exchange would continue to be exercisable in accordance with their terms.

 

Successful use by the Fund of options on stock indices will be subject to the ability of the Adviser to correctly predict movements in the directions of the stock market. This requires different skills and techniques than predicting changes in the prices of individual securities. In addition, the Fund’s ability to effectively hedge all or a portion of the securities in its portfolio, in anticipation of or during a market decline, through transactions in put options on stock indices, depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying index correlate with the price movements of the securities held by the Fund. Inasmuch as the Fund’s securities will not duplicate the components of an index, the correlation will not be perfect. Consequently, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its securities being hedged will not move in the same amount as the prices of its put options on the stock indices. It is also possible that there may be a negative correlation between the index and the Fund’s securities that would result in a loss on both such securities and the options on stock indices acquired by the Fund.

 

The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded.
To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets. The purchase of options is a highly specialized activity that involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The purchase of stock index options involves the risk that the premium and transaction costs paid by the Fund in purchasing an option will be lost as a result of unanticipated movements in prices of the securities comprising the stock index on which the option is based.

 

There is no assurance that a liquid secondary market on an options exchange will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and for some options no secondary market on an exchange or elsewhere may exist. If the Fund is unable to close out a call option on securities that it has written before the option is exercised, the Fund may be required to purchase the optioned securities in order to satisfy its obligation under the option to deliver such securities. If the Fund is unable to effect a closing sale transaction with respect to options on securities that it has purchased, it would have to exercise the option in order to realize any profit and would incur transaction costs upon the purchase and sale of the underlying securities.

 

Cover for Options Positions

 

Transactions using options (other than options that the Fund has purchased) expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (i) an offsetting ("covered") position in securities or other options or (ii) cash or liquid securities with a value sufficient at all times to cover its potential obligations not covered as provided in (i) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for these instruments and, if the guidelines so require, set aside cash or liquid securities in a segregated account with the Fund’ custodian in the prescribed amount. Under current SEC guidelines, the Fund will segregate assets to cover transactions in which the Fund writes or sells options.

 

Assets used as cover or held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding option is open, unless they are replaced with similar assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of the Fund’s assets to cover or segregated accounts could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

Regulation as a Commodity Pool Operator

 

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, will file with the National Futures Association, a notice claiming an exclusion from the definition of the term "commodity pool operator" under the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, and the rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission promulgated thereunder, with respect to the Fund’s operation. Accordingly, the Fund will not be subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator.

 

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When-Issued, Forward Commitments and Delayed Settlements

 

The Fund may purchase and sell securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis. In this event, the Custodian (as defined under the section entitled "Custodian") will segregate liquid assets equal to the amount of the commitment in a separate account. Normally, the Custodian will set aside portfolio securities to satisfy a purchase commitment. In such a case, the Fund may be required subsequently to segregate additional assets in order to assure that the value of the account remains equal to the amount of the Fund’s commitment. It may be expected that the Fund’s net assets will fluctuate to a greater degree when it sets aside portfolio securities to cover such purchase commitments than when it sets aside cash.

 

The Fund does not intend to engage in these transactions for speculative purposes but only in furtherance of its investment objectives. Because the Fund will segregate liquid assets to satisfy purchase commitments in the manner described, the Fund’s liquidity and the ability of the Adviser to manage them may be affected in the event the Fund’s forward commitments, commitments to purchase when-issued securities and delayed settlements ever exceeded 15% of the value of its net assets.

 

The Fund will purchase securities on a when-issued, forward commitment or delayed settlement basis only with the intention of completing the transaction. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it is entered into, and may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. In these cases the Fund may realize a taxable capital gain or loss. When the Fund engages in when-issued, forward commitment and delayed settlement transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the trade. Failure of such party to do so may result in the Fund incurring a loss or missing an opportunity to obtain a price credited to be advantageous.

 

The market value of the securities underlying a when-issued purchase, forward commitment to purchase securities, or a delayed settlement and any subsequent fluctuations in their market value is taken into account when determining the market value of the Fund starting on the day the Fund agrees to purchase the securities. The Fund does not earn interest on the securities it has committed to purchase until it has paid for and delivered on the settlement date.

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts

 

The Fund may invest in securities of real estate investment trusts ("REITs"). REITs are publicly traded corporations or trusts that specialize in acquiring, holding and managing residential, commercial or industrial real estate. A REIT is not taxed at the entity level on income distributed to its shareholders or unitholders if it distributes to shareholders or unitholders at least 95% of its taxable income for each taxable year and complies with regulatory requirements relating to its organization, ownership, assets and income.

 

REITs generally can be classified as "Equity REITs", "Mortgage REITs" and "Hybrid REITs." An Equity REIT invests the majority of its assets directly in real property and derives its income primarily from rents and from capital gains on real estate appreciation, which are realized through property sales. A Mortgage REIT invests the majority of its assets in real estate mortgage loans and services its income primarily from interest payments. A Hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of an Equity REIT and a Mortgage REIT. Although the Fund can invest in all three kinds of REITs, its emphasis is expected to be on investments in Equity REITs.

 

Investments in the real estate industry involve particular risks. The real estate industry has been subject to substantial fluctuations and declines on a local, regional and national basis in the past and may continue to be in the future. Real property values and income from real property may decline due to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, regulatory limitations on rents, changes in neighborhoods and in demographics, increases in market interest rates, or other factors. Factors such as these may adversely affect companies that own and operate real estate directly, companies that lend to such companies, and companies that service the real estate industry.

 

Investments in REITs also involve risks. Equity REITs will be affected by changes in the values of and income from the properties they own, while Mortgage REITs may be affected by the credit quality of the mortgage loans they hold. In addition, REITs are dependent on specialized management skills and on their ability to generate cash flow for operating purposes and to make distributions to shareholders or unitholders. REITs may have limited diversification and are subject to risks associated with obtaining financing for real property, as well as to the risk of self-liquidation. REITs also can be adversely affected by their failure to qualify for tax-free pass-through treatment of their income under the Code, or their failure to maintain an exemption from registration under the 1940 Act. By investing in REITs indirectly through the Fund, a shareholder bears not only a proportionate share of the expenses of the Fund, but also may indirectly bear similar expenses of some of the REITs in which it invests.

 

Illiquid and Restricted Securities

 

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The Fund may invest up to 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. However, if more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets are illiquid, the Fund’s Sub-Adviser will reduce illiquid assets such that they do not represent more than 15% of the Fund’s assets subject to timing and other considerations that are in the best interests of the Fund and it shareholders. Illiquid securities include securities subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale (e.g., because they have not been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act")) and securities that are otherwise not readily marketable (e.g., because trading in the security is suspended or because market makers do not exist or will not entertain bids or offers). Securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act are referred to as private placements or restricted securities and are purchased directly from the issuer or in the secondary market. Foreign securities that are freely tradable in their principal markets are not considered to be illiquid.

 

Restricted and other illiquid securities may be subject to the potential for delays on resale and uncertainty in valuation. The Fund might be unable to dispose of illiquid securities promptly or at reasonable prices and might thereby experience difficulty in satisfying redemption requests from shareholders. The Fund might have to register restricted securities in order to dispose of them, resulting in additional expense and delay. Adverse market conditions could impede such a public offering of securities.

 

In October 2016, the SEC adopted a new liquidity risk management rule, Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act, requiring open-end funds, such as the Fund, to establish a liquidity risk management program and to enhance disclosures regarding fund liquidity. As required by Rule 22e-4, the Fund will implement the liquidity risk management program, including the security classification and classification-related elements and the enhanced disclosures regarding fund liquidity, by June 1, 2019, and the Board will appoint the administrator of the liquidity risk management program. The effect the new rule will have on the Fund is not yet known, but the rule may impact the Fund’s performance and ability to achieve its investment objective.

  

A large institutional market exists for certain securities that are not registered under the Securities Act, including foreign securities. The fact that there are contractual or legal restrictions on resale to the general public or to certain institutions may not be indicative of the liquidity of such investments. Rule 144A under the Securities Act allows such a broader institutional trading market for securities otherwise subject to restrictions on resale to the general public. Rule 144A establishes a "safe harbor" from the registration requirements of the Securities Act for resale of certain securities to qualified institutional buyers. Rule 144A has produced enhanced liquidity for many restricted securities, and market liquidity for such securities may continue to expand as a result of this regulation and the consequent existence of the PORTAL system, which is an automated system for the trading, clearance and settlement of unregistered securities of domestic and foreign issuers sponsored by NASDAQ.

 

Under the current guidelines of the staff of the SEC, illiquid securities are also considered to include, among other securities, purchased over-the-counter (“OTC”) options, certain cover for OTC options, repurchase agreements with maturities in excess of seven days, and certain securities whose disposition is restricted under the federal securities laws.

 

Under guidelines adopted by the Trust's Board, the Fund’s Adviser may determine that particular Rule 144A securities, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the private placement exemption from registration afforded by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, are liquid even though they are not registered. A determination of whether such a security is liquid or not is a question of fact. In making this determination, the Adviser will consider, as it deems appropriate under the circumstances and among other factors: (1) the frequency of trades and quotes for the security; (2) the number of dealers willing to purchase or sell the security; (3) the number of other potential purchasers of the security; (4) dealer undertakings to make a market in the security; (5) the nature of the security (e.g., debt or equity, date of maturity, terms of dividend or interest payments, and other material terms) and the nature of the marketplace trades (e.g., the time needed to dispose of the security, the method of soliciting offers, and the mechanics of transfer); and (6) the rating of the security and the financial condition and prospects of the issuer. In the case of commercial paper, the Adviser will also determine that the paper (1) is not traded flat or in default as to principal and interest, and (2) is rated in one of the two highest rating categories by at least two National Statistical Rating Organizations ("NRSROs") or, if only one NRSRO rates the security, by that NRSRO, or, if the security is unrated, the Adviser determines that it is of equivalent quality.

 

Rule 144A securities and Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper that have been deemed liquid as described above will continue to be monitored by the Adviser to determine if the security is no longer liquid as the result of changed conditions. Investing in Rule 144A securities or Section 4(a)(2) commercial paper could have the effect of increasing the amount of the Fund’s assets invested in illiquid securities if institutional buyers are unwilling to purchase such securities.

 

Lending Portfolio Securities

 

For the purpose of achieving income, the Fund may lend its portfolio securities, provided (1) the loan is secured continuously by collateral consisting of U.S. Government securities or cash or cash equivalents (cash, U.S. Government

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securities, negotiable certificates of deposit, bankers' acceptances or letters of credit) maintained on a daily mark-to-market basis in an amount at least equal to the current market value of the securities loaned, (2) the Fund may at any time call the loan and obtain the return of securities loaned, (3) the Fund will receive any interest or dividends received on the loaned securities, and (4) the aggregate value of the securities loaned will not at any time exceed one-third of the total assets of the Fund.

 

As with other extensions of credit, there are risks that collateral could be inadequate in the event of the borrower failing financially, which could result in actual financial loss, and risks that recovery of loaned securities could be delayed, which could result in interference with portfolio management decisions or exercise of ownership rights. The Fund will be responsible for the risks associated with the investment of cash collateral, including the risk that the Fund may lose money on the investment or may fail to earn sufficient income to meet its obligations to the borrower. In addition, the Fund may lose its right to vote its shares of the loaned securities at a shareholders meeting if the Adviser or Sub-Adviser does not recall or does not timely recall the loaned securities, or if the borrower fails to return the recalled securities in advance of the record date for the meeting.

 

Securities lending involves counterparty risk, including the risk that the loaned securities may not be returned or returned in a timely manner and/or a loss of rights in the collateral if the borrower or the lending agent defaults or fails financially. This risk is increased when the Fund’s loans are concentrated with a single or limited number of borrowers. There are no limits on the number of borrowers to which the Fund may lend securities and the Fund may lend securities to only one or a small group of borrowers.

  

The Index

 

Thomson Reuters StarMine Affinity World Leaders Index (the “TRSAWL Index” or the “Index”)

 

NUMBER OF COMPONENTS: APPROXIMATELY 150 to 250

 

INDEX DESCRIPTION: The TRSAWL Index consists of equity securities issued and traded in the US as well as international countries. The TRSAWL Index is expected to consist of approximately 150 to 250 stocks in at least 3 countries, but may span more than 20 countries. Constituents of the TRSAWL Index are characterized by strong global footprint (measured by market capitalization), rank high on measures of earnings quality, demonstrate improving fundamentals (positive earnings revisions on earnings estimates, revenue estimates, price targets, and analyst recommendations), show stock price momentum, and are trade at relatively attractive valuations (based on a ranking from various trading multiples, which are, generally speaking, a ratio of the security's market price to financial or accounting metrics such as earnings, book value, etc., as well as a dividend discount model, which attempts to determine the current or future value of a security based in part on its dividend payments).

 

The process of constructing the TRSAWL Index begins with sorting the companies in the Thomson Reuters Global Developed Index (excluding those in Greece and South Korea) (the “Benchmark Index”) by market capitalization. The next step involves selecting those companies that comprise the top 85% of cumulative market capitalization, and splitting them into two regions: US and International. The final step involves scoring these securities on the above criteria within each region, and then narrowing this universe of companies to approximately 150 to 250 equity securities using the Sub-Adviser’s proprietary ranking system. The proprietary ranking system is known as the “Affinity Score” and is calculated by weighting the above criteria based on the Sub-Adviser’s assessment of the correlation between the score components and subsequent long-term stock performance. Stocks that rank in the top decile are candidates for purchase, while those that rank outside the top quartile are typically sold. A risk management overlay is then used to guide portfolio construction. The overlay calls for neutral business sector weights versus the Benchmark Index, approximately equal active weighting of each security within a business sector (active weight is the absolute percentage deviation of a security’s weight in the portfolio from its weight in the Benchmark Index), and limiting the deviation of the TRSAWL Index’s geographical distribution from that of the Benchmark Index.

 

 

INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS

 

The Fund has adopted the following investment restrictions that may not be changed without approval by a "majority of the outstanding shares" of the Fund, which, as used in this SAI, means the vote of the lesser of (a) 67% or more of the shares of the Fund represented at a meeting, if the holders of more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (b) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Fund may not:

1.             Issue senior securities, except as otherwise permitted under the 1940 Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder;

2.             Borrow money, except (a) from a bank, provided that immediately after such borrowing there is an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings of the Fund; or (b) from a bank or other persons for temporary purposes only, provided

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that such temporary borrowings are in an amount not exceeding 5% of the Fund’s total assets at the time when the borrowing is made. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from entering into reverse repurchase transactions, provided that the Fund has an asset coverage of 300% for all borrowings and repurchase commitments of the Fund pursuant to reverse repurchase transactions;

3.             Purchase securities on margin, participate on a joint or joint and several basis in any securities trading account, or underwrite securities. (Does not preclude the Fund from obtaining such short-term credit as may be necessary for the clearance of purchases and sales of its portfolio securities, and except to the extent that the Fund may be deemed an underwriter under the Securities Act, by virtue of disposing of portfolio securities);

4.             Purchase or sell real estate or interests in real estate. This limitation is not applicable to investments in marketable securities that are secured by or represent interests in real estate. This limitation does not preclude the Fund from investing in mortgage-related securities or investing in companies engaged in the real estate business or that have a significant portion of their assets in real estate (including real estate investment trusts);

5.             Invest more than 25% of the market value of its assets in the securities of companies engaged in any one industry or group of industries, except that the Fund will concentrate to approximately the same extent that the TRSAWL Index concentrates in the securities of a given industry or group of industries. (Does not apply to investment in the securities of the U.S. Government, its agencies or instrumentalities.);

6.             Purchase or sell commodities (unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other investments) or commodity futures contracts, except that the Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts and options to the full extent permitted under the 1940 Act, sell foreign currency contracts in accordance with any rules of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, invest in securities or other instruments backed by commodities, and invest in companies that are engaged in a commodities business or have a significant portion of their assets in commodities; or

7.             Make loans to others, except that the Fund may, in accordance with its investment objective and policies, (i) lend portfolio securities, (ii) purchase and hold debt securities or other debt instruments, including but not limited to loan participations and sub-participations, assignments, and structured securities, (iii) make loans secured by mortgages on real property, (iv) enter into repurchase agreements, (v) enter into transactions where each loan is represented by a note executed by the borrower, and (vi) make time deposits with financial institutions and invest in instruments issued by financial institutions. For purposes of this limitation, the term "loans" shall not include the purchase of a portion of an issue of publicly distributed bonds, debentures or other securities.

If a restriction on the Fund’s investments is adhered to at the time an investment is made, a subsequent change in the percentage of Fund assets invested in certain securities or other instruments of the Fund’s investment portfolio, resulting from changes in the value of the Fund’s total assets, will not be considered a violation of the restriction; provided, however, that the asset coverage requirement applicable to borrowings shall be maintained in the manner contemplated by applicable law.

 

With respect to fundamental investment limitation 2 above, if the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund will reduce borrowing within 3 days in order to ensure that the Fund has 300% asset coverage.

 

With respect to Fundamental Investment Restriction #5, if the Fund invests in one or more investment companies that concentrates its investments in a particular industry, the Fund will examine its other investment company holdings to ensure that the Fund is not indirectly concentrating its investments in a particular industry.

 

Although fundamental investment restriction #7 reserves for the Fund the ability to make loans, there is no present intent to loan money or portfolio securities and additional disclosure will be provided if such a strategy is implemented in the future.

 

 

POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that govern the disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio holdings. These policies and procedures are designed to ensure that such disclosure is in the best interests of the Fund’s shareholders.

It is the Trust’s policy to:  (1) ensure that any disclosure of portfolio holdings information is in the best interest of Trust shareholders; (2) protect the confidentiality of portfolio holdings information; (3) have procedures in place to guard against personal trading based on the information; and (4) ensure that the disclosure of portfolio holdings information does not create conflicts between the interests of the Trust’s shareholders and those of the Trust’s affiliates.

16 
 

The Fund discloses its portfolio holdings by mailing its annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders approximately two months after the end of the fiscal year and semi-annual period. The Fund also discloses its portfolio holdings reports on Form N-CSR and Form N-Q two months after the end of each quarter/semi-annual period.

The Fund may choose to make portfolio holdings available to rating agencies such as Lipper, Morningstar or Bloomberg earlier and more frequently on a confidential basis.

Under limited circumstances, as described below, the Fund’s portfolio holdings may be disclosed to, or known by, certain third parties in advance of their filing with the SEC on Form N-CSR or Form N-Q.  In each case, a determination has been made that such advance disclosure is supported by a legitimate business purpose and that the recipient is subject to a duty to keep the information confidential.

· The Adviser and the Sub-Adviser. Personnel of the Adviser and Sub-Adviser, including personnel responsible for managing the Fund’s portfolio, may have full daily access to portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for the Adviser to provide its management and administrative services to the Fund, and the Sub-Adviser to provide its investment services to the Fund. As required for purposes of analyzing the impact of existing and future market changes on the prices, availability, demand and liquidity of such securities, as well as for the assistance of the portfolio managers in the trading of such securities, Adviser and Sub-Adviser personnel may also release and discuss certain portfolio holdings with various broker-dealers.

· Gemini Fund Services, LLC is the fund accountant, administrator and custody administrator for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

· Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. is custodian for the Fund; therefore, its personnel have full daily access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings since that information is necessary in order for them to provide the agreed-upon services for the Trust.

·RSM US LLP is the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with auditing of the Fund’s annual financial statements.

· Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP is counsel to the Fund; therefore, its personnel have access to the Fund’s portfolio holdings in connection with review of the Fund’s annual and semi-annual shareholder reports and SEC filings.

Additions to List of Approved Recipients. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is the person responsible, and whose prior approval is required, for any disclosure of the Fund’s portfolio securities at any time or to any persons other than those described above.  In such cases, the recipient must have a legitimate business need for the information and must be subject to a duty to keep the information confidential. There are no ongoing arrangements in place with respect to the disclosure of portfolio holdings. In no event shall the Fund, the Adviser or any other party receive any direct or indirect compensation in connection with the disclosure of information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings.

Compliance With Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Procedures. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer will report periodically to the Board with respect to compliance with the Fund’s portfolio holdings disclosure procedures, and from time to time will provide the Board any updates to the portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures.

There is no assurance that the Trust’s policies on disclosure of portfolio holdings will protect the Fund from the potential misuse of holdings information by individuals or firms in possession of that information.

MANAGEMENT

 

The business of the Trust is managed under the direction of the Board in accordance with the Agreement and Declaration of Trust and the Trust’s By-laws (collectively, the “Governing Documents”), which have been filed with the SEC and are available upon request. The Board consists of four individuals, all of whom are not “interested persons” (as defined under the 1940 Act) of the Trust and the Adviser (“Independent Trustees”). Pursuant to the Governing Documents of the Trust, the Trustees shall elect officers including, but not limited to, a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a Chief Compliance Officer. The Board retains the power to conduct, operate and carry on the business of the Trust and has the power to incur and pay any expenses, which, in the opinion of the Board, are necessary or incidental to carry out any of the Trust’s purposes. The Trustees, officers, employees and agents of the Trust, when acting in such capacities, shall not be subject to any personal liability except for his or her own bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence or reckless disregard of his or her duties.

 

17 
 

Board Leadership Structure. The Board is led by Mark Gersten, who has served as the Chairman of the Board since the Trust was first registered with the SEC in 2012. Under the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust and By-Laws, the Chairman of the Board is responsible for (a) presiding at Board meetings, (b) calling special meetings on an as-needed basis, and (c) execution and administration of Trust policies, including (i) setting the agendas for Board meetings and (ii) providing information to Board members in advance of each Board meeting and between Board meetings. Generally, the Trust believes it best to have a non-executive Chairman of the Board, who together with the President (principal executive officer), are seen by our shareholders, business partners and other stakeholders as providing strong leadership. The Trust believes that its Chairman, the independent chair of the Audit Committee, and, as an entity, the full Board of Trustees, provide effective leadership that is in the best interests of the Trust, its funds and each shareholder.

 

Board Risk Oversight. The Board of Trustees is comprised entirely of Independent Trustees and has established an Audit Committee. The Board is responsible for overseeing risk management, and the full Board regularly engages in discussions of risk management and receives compliance reports that inform its oversight of risk management from its Chief Compliance Officer at quarterly meetings and on an ad hoc basis, when and if necessary. The Audit Committee considers financial and reporting the risk within its area of responsibilities. Generally, the Board believes that its oversight of material risks is adequately maintained through the compliance-reporting chain where the Chief Compliance Officer is the primary recipient and communicator of such risk-related information.

 

Trustee Qualifications. Generally, the Fund believe that each Trustee is competent to serve because of their individual overall merits including: (i) experience, (ii) qualifications, (iii) attributes and (iv) skills. Mark Garbin has over 30 years of experience in corporate balance sheet and income statement risk management for large asset managers. Mr. Garbin has extensive derivatives experience and has provided consulting services to alternative asset managers. Mr. Garbin holds both a Chartered Financial Analyst (“CFA”) and Professional Risk Manager (“PRM”) designation and has earned and holds advanced degrees in international business, negotiation and derivatives. Mark Gersten has over 35 years of business experience in the investment management business with a focus on mutual funds and alternative funds. He serves as a member of other mutual fund boards outside of the Fund Complex and possesses a strong understanding of the regulatory framework under which investment companies must operate based on his service to this board and extensive experience administering mutual funds. Mr. Gersten is a certified public accountant and holds an MBA in accounting. Neil Kaufman has over 30 years of experience as a corporate and securities attorney and possesses a deep understanding of the securities industry in general and financial statements in particular. Mr. Kaufman has previously served as the Chairman of a NASDAQ-listed technology company and the Chairman of the Banking & Securities Law committee of the Nassau County Bar Association. Anita Krug has 9 years of experience as an attorney advising investment advisory firms, particularly those managing hedge funds. She also has extensive experience as a law professor whose scholarship focuses on investment advisers, hedge funds and mutual funds. The Fund does not believe any one factor is determinative in assessing a Trustee’s qualifications, but that the collective experience of each Trustee makes them well qualified.

 

Trustees and Officers.  The Trustees and officers of the Trust, together with information as to their principal business occupations during the past five years and other information, are shown below.   Unless otherwise noted, the address of each Trustee and Officer is 17645 Wright Street, Suite 200, Omaha, Nebraska  68130.

  

Independent Trustees *

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Term and Length Served

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

Mark Garbin

Year of Birth: 1951

 

Trustee

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Managing Principal, Coherent Capital Management LLC (since 2008)

5

 

Northern Lights Fund Trust  (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (for series not affiliated with the Funds since 2013);  Forethought Variable Insurance Trust (since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust
18 
 

 

 

 

 

 

(since 2013);  OHA Mortgage Strategies Fund (offshore), Ltd. (2014 - 2017); and Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); and OFI Carlyle Private Credit Fund (since March 2018)

Mark D. Gersten

Year of Birth: 1950

 

Chairman, Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Independent Consultant (since 2012); Senior Vice President – Global Fund Administration Mutual Funds & Alternative Funds, AllianceBernstein LP (1985 – 2011).

5

 

Northern Lights Fund Trust (for series not affiliated with the Funds since 2013); Northern Lights Variable Trust (since 2013); Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); previously, Ramius Archview Credit and Distressed Fund (2015-2017); and  Schroder Global Series Trust (2012 to 2017)

Neil M. Kaufman

Year of Birth: 1960

 

Trustee, Audit Committee Chairman

 

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

 

Managing Member, Kaufman & Associates, LLC (legal services)(Since 2016); Partner, Abrams Fensterman, Fensterman, Eisman, Formato, Ferrara & Wolf, LLP (legal services)(2010-2016)

5

 

Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014)

Anita K. Krug

Year of Birth: 1969

 

Trustee

Indefinite, Since 2012

 

Interim Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs (since 2018) University of Washington Bothell; Interim Dean (2017-2018), Professor (since 2016), Associate Professor

5

 

Altegris KKR Commitments Master Fund (since 2014); Centerstone Investors Trust (since 2016)
19 
 

 

 

 

(2014-2016); and Assistant Professor (2010-2014), University of Washington School of Law

5

 

 

* Information is as of October 31, 2018.

** As of October 31, 2018, the Trust was comprised of 21 active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services. The Fund does not hold itself out as related to any other series within the Trust, except for the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund, which is advised by Anfield Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of the Fund’s Adviser, and the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF, Affinity Small Cap Fund and Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF, each of which is also advised by the Fund’s Adviser.

 

Officers of the Trust*

 

Name, Address,

Year of Birth

 

Position(s) Held with Registrant

 

Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios Overseen In The Fund Complex**

 

Other Directorships Held During Past 5 Years

 

James Colantino

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1969

 

President

Since Feb. 2017

Treasurer

(2012 to 2017)

 

Senior Vice President (2012-present); Vice President (2004 to 2012); Gemini Fund Services, LLC.

N/A

 

N/A

 

Laura Szalyga

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1978

 

Treasurer

Since Feb. 2017

 

 

Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Assistant Vice President, Gemini Fund Services, LLC (2011-2014).

N/A

 

N/A

 

Richard A. Malinowski

80 Arkay Drive

Hauppauge, NY  11788

Year of Birth: 1983

 

Vice President Since Sep. 2018

Secretary

Since 2013

 

Senior Vice President (since 2017); Vice President and Counsel (2016-2017) and Assistant Vice President (2012 – 2016), Gemini Fund Services, LLC

N/A

 

N/A

 

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William B. Kimme

Year of Birth: 1962

 

Chief Compliance Officer

Since Inception

Senior Compliance Officer, Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (September 2011 - present)

N/A

 

N/A

 

 

* Information is as of October 31, 2018.

** As of October 31, 2018, the Trust was comprised of 21 active portfolios managed by seven unaffiliated investment advisers and two affiliated investment advisers. The term “Fund Complex” applies only to those funds that (i) are advised by a common investment adviser or by an investment adviser that is an affiliated person of the investment adviser of any of the other funds in the Trust or (ii) hold themselves out to investors as related companies for purposes of investment and investor services. The Fund does not hold itself out as related to any other series within the Trust, except for the Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund, which is advised by Anfield Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of the Fund’s Adviser, and the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF, Affinity Small Cap Fund and Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF, each of which is also advised by the Fund’s Adviser.

 

Audit Committee. The Board has an Audit Committee that consists of all of the Trustees none of whom is an "interested persons" of the Trust within the meaning of the 1940 Act. The Audit Committee’s responsibilities include, among other things: (i) the selection, retention or termination of the Trust’s independent auditors and approval of audit and non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors; (ii) reviewing with the independent auditors the scope, performance and anticipated cost of their audit; (iii) discussing with the independent auditors certain matters relating to the Trust’s financial statements, including any adjustment to such financial statements recommended by such independent auditors, or any other results of any audit; (iv) reviewing on a periodic basis a formal written statement from the independent auditors with respect to their independence, discussing with the independent auditors any relationships or services disclosed in the statement that may impact the objectivity and independence of the Trust’s independent auditors and recommending that the Board take appropriate action in response thereto to satisfy itself of the auditor’s independence; and (v) considering the comments of the independent auditors and management’s responses thereto with respect to the quality and adequacy of the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting policies and practices and internal controls. The Audit Committee operates pursuant to an Audit Committee Charter. During the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Audit Committee held six meetings.    

 

Compensation of Trustees.

Effective January 1, 2019, the Trust pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $50,000 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board receives an additional annual fee of $12,500 and the Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an additional annual fee of $10,000. The Trust also pays each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 for each Board meeting (and/or Committee meeting held in connection with such a Board meeting) other than a regularly scheduled meeting (a “Special Meeting”), except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees.

 

Effective April 1, 2018, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $47,500 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $10,000 and the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $7,500. The Trust also paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 each for Special Meeting, except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees.

 

Effective January 1, 2018, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $42,500 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $12,500, the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $10,000, the Chairman of the Valuation Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000 and the Chairman of the Corporate Governance Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000. The Trust also paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $1,000 for each Board meeting (and/or Committee meeting held in connection with such a Board meeting) other than a regularly scheduled meeting (a “Special Meeting”), except that the Audit Committee will permit up to four Special Meetings a year without any additional fees. The Valuation Committee and Corporate Governance Committee were dissolved in March 2018.

21 
 

 

Effective January 1, 2017, the Trust paid each Independent Trustee a fee of $30,000 per annum, as well as reimbursements for any reasonable expenses incurred attending the meetings, to be paid at the end of each calendar quarter. In addition, the Chairman of the Board received an additional annual fee of $10,000, the Chairman of the Audit Committee received an additional annual fee of $5,000, the Chairman of the Valuation Committee (operative through March 13, 2018) received an additional annual fee of $5,000 and the Chairman of the Corporate Governance Committee (operative through March 13, 2018) received an additional annual fee of $5,000. No “interested persons” who serves as a Trustee of the Trust will receive any compensation for their services as Trustee.

  

No “interested persons” who serves as a Trustee of the Trust will receive any compensation for their services as Trustee. None of the executive officers receive compensation from the Trust. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, deferred compensation, pension or retirement plan.

 

The table below details the amount of compensation the Trustees received from the Fund during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018. The Trust does not have a bonus, profit sharing, deferred compensation, pension or retirement plan.

 

Name and Position

 

Aggregate Compensation From Affinity World Leaders Equity ETF*

 

Aggregrate Compensation From Affinity Small Cap Fund Aggregrate Compensation From Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund Aggregrate Compensation From Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF

Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees**

 

Mark Garbin

 

$1,343.65 $2,659.74 $2,659.75 $2,033.79 $8,696.93

Mark Gersten

 

$1,428.69 $2,828.08 $2,828.09 $2,162.51 $9,247.37

Neil Kaufman

 

$1,207.58 $2,390.40 $2,390.41 $1,827.84 $7,816.23

Anita Krug

 

$1,207.58 $2,390.40 $2,390.41 $1,827.84 $7,816.23

 

*There are currently 20 active series comprising the Trust. The term “Fund Complex” refers only to the Fund and to the Anfield Capital Diversified Alternatives ETF, Affinity Small Cap Fund, Anfield Universal Fixed Income ETF, which are advised by the Adviser and Anfield Universal Fixed Income Fund, which is advised by Anfield Capital Management, LLC, an affiliate of the Adviser, and not to any other series of the Trust. For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2018, the aggregate Independent Trustees’ fees paid by the entire Trust were $190,625.

 

Trustees’ Ownership of Shares in the Fund. As of December 31, 2018, the Trustees beneficially owned the following amounts in the Fund and the Two Roads Shared Trust.

 

Name of Trustee Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund

 

Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities in All Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Trustee in Family of Investment Companies

 

 

Mark Garbin

 

 

None

 

None

 

Mark Gersten

 

 

None

 

$50,001-$100,000

 

Neil Kaufman

 

 

None

 

None

 

Anita Krug

 

 

None

 

None

22 
 

 

Management Ownership

 

As of the date of this SAI the Trustees and officers, as a group, owned less than 1% of the Fund Complex’s outstanding shares. 

 

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS

 

A principal shareholder is any person who owns (either of record or beneficially) 5% or more of the outstanding shares of a fund. A control person is one who owns, either directly or indirectly more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. A control person is one who owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledged the existence of control.

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding shares and is recognized as the owner of all shares for all purposes. Investors owning shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. As of February 15, 2019, the Trust does not have information regarding the record or beneficial ownership of shares of the Fund held in the names of DTC participants, as DTC has not provided the Trust with access to such information.

 

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER

 

Investment Adviser and Advisory Agreement

 

Regents Park Funds, LLC, 4041 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 155, Newport Beach, CA 92660, serves as the Fund’s investment adviser. The Adviser is registered with the SEC as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended.

 

Subject to the authority of the Board of Trustees, the Adviser is responsible for the overall management of the Fund’s investment-related business affairs. Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement (the "Advisory Agreement") with the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, the Adviser, subject to the supervision of the Board of the Trust, and in conformity with the stated policies of the Fund, manages the portfolio investment operations of the Fund. The Adviser has overall supervisory responsibilities for the general management and investment of the Fund’s securities portfolio, as detailed below, which are subject to review and approval by the Board of Trustees. In general, the Adviser's duties include setting the Fund’s overall investment strategies and asset allocation.

 

Pursuant to the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, agrees to invest the assets of the Fund in accordance with applicable law and the investment objective, policies and restrictions set forth in the Fund’s current Prospectus and Statement of Additional Information, and subject to such further limitations as the Trust may from time to time impose by written notice to the Adviser. The Adviser shall act as the investment adviser to the Fund and, as such shall, (i) obtain and evaluate such information relating to the economy, industries, business, securities markets and securities as it may deem necessary or useful in discharging its responsibilities hereunder, (ii) formulate a continuing program for the investment of the assets of the Fund in a manner consistent with its investment objective, policies and restrictions, and (iii) determine from time to time securities to be purchased, sold, retained or lent by the Fund, and implement those decisions, including the selection of entities with or through which such purchases, sales or loans are to be effected; provided, that the Adviser or its designee, directly, will place orders pursuant to its investment determinations either directly with the issuer or with a broker or dealer, and if with a broker or dealer, (a) will attempt to obtain the best price and execution of its orders, and (b) may nevertheless in its discretion purchase and sell portfolio securities from and to brokers who provide the Adviser with research, analysis, advice and similar services and pay such brokers in return a higher commission or spread than may be charged by other brokers. The Adviser also provides the Fund with all necessary office facilities and personnel for servicing the Fund’s investments, compensates all officers, Trustees and employees of the Trust who are officers, directors or employees of the Adviser, and all personnel of the Fund or the Adviser performing services relating to research, statistical and investment activities.

 

In addition, the Adviser, subject to the supervision of the Board of Trustees, provides the management and supplemental administrative services necessary for the operation of the Fund. These services include providing assisting in the supervising of relations with custodians, transfer and pricing agents, accountants, underwriters and other persons dealing with the Fund; assisting in the preparing of all general shareholder communications and conducting shareholder relations; assisting in maintaining the Fund’s records and the registration of the Fund’s shares under federal securities laws and making necessary filings under state securities laws; assisting in developing management and shareholder services for the Fund; and furnishing reports, evaluations and analyses on a variety of subjects to the Trustees.

 

The Fund pays an annual management fee (computed daily and payable monthly) of 0.47% of the Fund’s average daily net assets to the Adviser pursuant to the Advisory Agreement.

 

23 
 

The Adviser has contractually agreed to reduce its fees and/or absorb expenses of the Fund, until at least December 31, 2020 to ensure that total annual fund operating expenses after fee waiver and/or reimbursement (exclusive of any front-end or contingent deferred loads, taxes, brokerage fees and commissions, borrowing costs (such as interest and dividend expense on securities sold short), acquired fund fees and expenses, fees and expenses associated with investments in other collective investment vehicles or derivative instruments (including for example option and swap fees and expenses), or extraordinary expenses such as litigation) will not exceed 0.47% of the Fund’s average daily net assets; subject to possible recoupment from the Fund in future years within the three years after the fees have been waived or reimbursed if such recoupment can be achieved within the foregoing expense limits or the expense limits in place at the time of the recoupment.

 

Expenses not expressly assumed by the Adviser under the Advisory Agreement are paid by the Fund. Under the terms of the Advisory Agreement, the Fund is responsible for the payment of the following expenses among others: (a) the fees payable to the Adviser, (b) the fees and expenses of Trustees who are not affiliated persons of the Adviser or Distributor (as defined under the section entitled ("The Distributor") (c) the fees and certain expenses of the Custodian and Transfer and Dividend Disbursing Agent, including the cost of maintaining certain required records of the Fund and of pricing the Fund’s shares, (d) the charges and expenses of legal counsel and independent accountants for the Fund, (e) brokerage commissions and any issue or transfer taxes chargeable to the Fund in connection with its securities transactions, (f) all taxes and corporate fees payable by the Fund to governmental agencies, (g) the fees of any trade association of which the Fund may be a member, (h) the cost of fidelity and liability insurance, (i) the fees and expenses involved in registering and maintaining registration of the Fund and of shares with the SEC, qualifying its shares under state securities laws, including the preparation and printing of the Fund’s registration statements and prospectuses for such purposes, (j) all expenses of shareholders and Trustees' meetings (including travel expenses of trustees and officers of the Trust who are not directors, officers or employees of the Adviser) and of preparing, printing and mailing reports, proxy statements and prospectuses to shareholders in the amount necessary for distribution to the shareholders and (k) litigation and indemnification expenses and other extraordinary expenses not incurred in the ordinary course of the Fund’s business.

 

The Advisory Agreement will continue in effect for two (2) years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year provided such continuance is approved at least annually by (a) a vote of the majority of the Independent Trustees, cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval and by (b) the majority vote of either all of the Trustees or the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund. The Advisory Agreement may be terminated without penalty on 60 days written notice by a vote of a majority of the Trustees or by the Adviser, or by holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares (with respect to the Fund). The Advisory Agreement shall terminate automatically in the event of its assignment.

 

The table below provides information about the advisory fees paid to the Adviser by the Fund for the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018:

 

Fiscal Year Management Fee Fees Earned by the Advisor Advisory Fees Waived Net Fees Earned by the Advisor Expense Reimbursed Amount Subject to Recoupment
October 31, 2018* 0.47 % $19,189 $19,189 $0 $152,167 $171,356

 

 

Sub-Adviser and Sub-Advisory Agreement

 

The Adviser has engaged Affinity Investment Advisors, LLC to serve as Sub-Adviser to the Fund. The Sub-Adviser, with respect to the portion of the Fund’s assets allocated to the Sub-Adviser, is responsible for selecting investments and assuring that investments are made in accordance with the Fund's investment objective, policies and restrictions.

 

The Sub-Advisory Agreement shall continue in effect for two (2) years initially and then from year to year, provided it is approved at least annually by a vote of the majority of the Trustees, who are not parties to the agreement or interested persons of any such party, cast in person at a meeting specifically called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Sub-Advisory Agreement may be terminated without penalty at any time by the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser on 60 days written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its "assignment" (as that term is defined in the 1940 Act).

 

The Sub-Advisory Agreement provides that the Sub-Adviser will formulate and implement a continuous investment program for the Fund, in accordance with the Fund's objective, policies and limitations and any investment guidelines established by the Adviser. The Sub-Adviser will, subject to the supervision and control of the Adviser, determine in its discretion which issuers and securities will be purchased, held, sold or exchanged by the Fund, and will place orders with and give instruction to brokers and dealers to cause the execution of such transactions. The Sub-Adviser is required to furnish, at its own expense, all investment facilities necessary to perform its obligations under the respective Sub-Advisory Agreement. Pursuant to the relevant Sub-Advisory Agreement between the Adviser and Sub-Adviser, the Sub-Adviser is entitled to receive an annual sub-advisory fee on its portion of the Fund's average daily net assets. The Sub-Adviser is paid by the Adviser, not the Fund.

24 
 

 

Codes of Ethics

 

The Trust, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and the Distributor each have adopted codes of ethics under Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that govern the personal securities transactions of their board members, officers and employees who may have access to current trading information of the Trust. Under the code of ethics adopted by the Trust (the “Code”), the Trustees are permitted to invest in securities that may also be purchased by the Fund.  

In addition, the Trust has adopted a separate code of ethics that applies only to the Trust’s executive officers to ensure that these officers promote professional conduct in the practice of corporate governance and management. The purpose behind these guidelines is to promote i) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships; ii) full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that a registrant files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the Fund; iii) compliance with applicable governmental laws, rule and regulations; iv) the prompt internal reporting of violations of this Code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the Code; and v) accountability for adherence to the Code.

Proxy Voting Policies

 

The Board has adopted Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures (“Policies”) on behalf of the Trust, which delegate the responsibility for voting proxies to the Adviser or Sub-Adviser, as applicable, subject to the Board’s continuing oversight. The Policies require that the Adviser or Sub-Adviser vote proxies received in a manner consistent with the best interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Policies also require the Adviser or Sub-Adviser to present to the Board, at least annually, the Adviser’s (and Sub-Adviser’s) Proxy Policies and a record of each proxy voted by the Adviser or Sub-Adviser on behalf of the Fund, including a report on the resolution of all proxies identified by the Adviser as involving a conflict of interest.

 

Where a proxy proposal raises a material conflict between the Adviser’s or Sub-Adviser’s interests and the Fund’s interests, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will resolve the conflict by voting in accordance with the policy guidelines or at the client’s directive using the recommendation of an independent third party. If the third party’s recommendations are not received in a timely fashion, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will abstain from voting the securities held by that client’s account. A copy of the Adviser’s and Sub-Adviser’s proxy voting policies are attached hereto as Appendix A.

 

More information. Information regarding how the Fund voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 is available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling the Fund at 1-866-866-4848 and (2) on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov and will be sent within three business days of receipt of a request.

 

 

THE DISTRIBUTOR

 

Northern Lights Distributors, LLC, located at 17645 Wright Street, Ste. 200 Omaha, Nebraska 68130 (the "Distributor") serves as the principal underwriter and national distributor for the shares of the Fund pursuant to an underwriting agreement with the Trust (the "Underwriting Agreement"). The Distributor is registered as a broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and each state's securities laws and is a member of the FINRA. The offering of the Fund’s shares is continuous. The Underwriting Agreement provides that the Distributor, as agent in connection with the distribution of the Fund’s shares, will use reasonable efforts to facilitate the sale of the Fund’s shares.

 

The Underwriting Agreement provides that, unless sooner terminated, it will continue in effect for two years initially and thereafter shall continue from year to year, subject to annual approval by (a) the Board or a vote of a majority of the outstanding shares, and (b) by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust or of the Distributor by vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval.

 

The Underwriting Agreement may be terminated by the Fund at any time, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the entire Board of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund on 60 days written notice to the Distributor, or by the Distributor at any time, without the payment of any penalty, on 60 days written notice to the Fund. The Underwriting Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment.

 

The Distributor may enter into selling agreements with broker-dealers that solicit orders for the sale of shares of the Fund and may allow concessions to dealers that sell shares of the Fund.

 

Rule 12b-1 Plan

 

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The Trust, with respect to the Fund, has adopted Distribution Plans pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act (the "Plan") for Shares pursuant to which the Fund is authorized to pay the Distributor, as compensation for Distributor's account maintenance services under the Plans. The Board has approved a distribution and shareholder servicing fee at the rate of up to 0.25% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. Such fees are to be paid by the Fund monthly, or at such other intervals as the Board shall determine. Such fees shall be based upon the Fund’s average daily net assets during the preceding month, and shall be calculated and accrued daily. The Fund may pay fees to the Distributor at a lesser rate, as agreed upon by the Board of Trustees of the Trust and the Distributor. The Plans authorize payments to the Distributor as compensation for providing account maintenance services to Fund shareholders, including arranging for certain securities dealers or brokers, administrators and others ("Recipients") to provide these services and paying compensation for these services. The Fund will bear their own costs of distribution with respect to its shares. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. No fees are currently paid by the Fund under the Plan, and there are no current plans to impose such fees. In the event such fees were to be charged, over time they would increase the cost of an investment in the Fund.

 

The services to be provided by Recipients may include, but are not limited to, the following: assistance in the offering and sale of Fund shares and in other aspects of the marketing of the shares to clients or prospective clients of the respective recipients; answering routine inquiries concerning the Fund; assisting in the establishment and maintenance of accounts or sub-accounts in the Fund and in processing purchase and redemption transactions; making the Fund’s investment plan and shareholder services available; and providing such other information and services to investors in shares of the Fund as the Distributor or the Trust, on behalf of the Fund, may reasonably request. The distribution services shall also include any advertising and marketing services provided by or arranged by the Distributor with respect to the Fund.

 

The Distributor is required to provide a written report, at least quarterly to the Board of Trustees of the Trust, specifying in reasonable detail the amounts expended pursuant to the Rule Plans and the purposes for which such expenditures were made. Further, the Distributor will inform the Board of any Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by the Distributor to Recipients.

 

The initial term of each Plan is one year and will continue in effect from year to year thereafter, provided such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a majority of the Board of Trustees of the Trust and a majority of the Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust and do not have a direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”) by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on a Plan. A Plan may be terminated at any time by the Trust or the Fund by vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting shares of the Fund.

 

A Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of the Distributor’s compensation to be paid by the Fund, unless such amendment is approved by the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the affected class of the Fund (as defined in the 1940 Act). All material amendments must be approved by a majority of the Board of Trustees of the Trust and a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on a Plan. During the term of a Plan, the selection and nomination of non-interested Trustees of the Trust will be committed to the discretion of current non-interested Trustees. The Distributor will preserve copies of each Plan, any related agreements, and all reports, for a period of not less than six years from the date of such document and for at least the first two years in an easily accessible place.

 

Any agreement related to a Plan will be in writing and provide that: (a) it may be terminated by the Trust or the Fund at any time upon sixty days’ written notice, without the payment of any penalty, by vote of a majority of the respective Rule 12b-1 Trustees, or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Trust or the Fund; (b) it will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act); and (c) it will continue in effect for a period of more than one year from the date of its execution or adoption only so long as such continuance is specifically approved at least annually by a majority of the Board and a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees by votes cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such agreement. No “interested person” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund nor any Trustee had a direct or indirect financial interest in the operation of the plans or related agreements.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

Gregory R. Lai and Pushkar V. Murthy serve as the portfolio managers of the Fund. As of October 31, 2018 the portfolio managers are responsible for the portfolio management of the following types of accounts in addition to the Fund:

 

Gregory R. Lai

 

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Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type  Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

(in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 2 $153.0 0 0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0 0 0 0
Other Accounts 185 $650.8 1 $10.4

 

Pushkar V. Murthy

 

Total Other Accounts

By Type

Total Number of Accounts by Account Type

Total Assets By Account Type

(in millions)

Number of Accounts by Type  Subject to a Performance Fee

Total Assets By Account Type Subject to a Performance Fee

(in millions)

Registered Investment Companies 2 $153.0 0 0
Other Pooled Investment Vehicles 0 0 0 0
Other Accounts 185 $650.8 1 $10.4

 

Conflicts of Interest

 

In addition to sub-advising the Fund, the Sub-Adviser manages assets for other separately managed accounts. Many of the Sub-Adviser’s clients participate in investment programs that have investment objectives, policies and strategies that are substantially similar to the Fund. Other clients of the Sub-Adviser may have differing investment programs, objectives, policies and strategies. In general, when a portfolio manager has responsibility for managing more than one account, potential conflicts of interest may arise. Those conflicts could include preferential treatment of one account over others in terms of allocation of resources or of investment opportunities. For instance, the Sub-Adviser may receive fees from certain accounts that are higher than the fee it receives from the Fund, or the Sub-Adviser could receive performance-based fees on certain accounts. The procedures to address conflicts of interest, if any, are described below.

 

The Sub-Adviser attempts to avoid conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of the management of multiple client accounts. From time to time, a portfolio manager may recommend or cause a client to invest in a security or other instrument in which another client of the Sub-Adviser has an ownership position. The Sub-Adviser has adopted certain procedures intended to treat all client accounts in a fair and equitable manner. To the extent that the portfolio manager seeks to purchase or sell the same security or other instrument for multiple client accounts, the Sub-Adviser may aggregate, or bunch, these orders where the portfolio manager deems this to be appropriate and consistent with applicable regulatory requirements. When a bunched order is filled in its entirety, each participating client account will participate at the average share prices for the bunched order. When a bunched order is only partially filled, the securities or other instruments purchased will be allocated on a pro-rata basis to each account participating in the bunched order based upon the initial amount requested for the account, subject to certain exceptions. Each participating account will receive the average share price for the bunched order on the same business day.

 

In addition, certain activities of the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, their affiliates, and their respective directors, officers, or employees, give rise to potential other conflicts of interest. The Adviser and Sub-Adviser share common office space. Additionally, Mr. Lai holds a non-voting, de minimis interest (less than 1%) in Anfield Capital Management, LLC (“Anfield”) through a promissory note issued by Anfield, as well as an option to purchase a non-material equity interest in Anfield of less than 1% of its net asset value. Anfield and the Adviser are under common control by virtue of both being wholly owned by the Anfield Group, LLC. The Adviser and Sub-Adviser each understand their duty to act in the best interests of Fund shareholders. 

 

Compensation

 

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Messrs. Lai and Murthy are compensated through a combination of base salary, discretionary bonus and equity participation in the Sub-Adviser.

 

Ownership of Securities

 

The following table shows the dollar range of equity securities beneficially owned by the portfolio managers in the Fund as of the date of this SAI.

 

Name of Portfolio Manager Dollar Range of Equity Securities in the Fund
Gregory R. Lai $100,001-$500,000
Pushkar V. Murthy $$50,001-$100,000

 

ALLOCATION OF PORTFOLIO BROKERAGE

 

Specific decisions to purchase or sell securities for the Fund are made by the portfolio managers who are employees of the Adviser or the Sub-Adviser. The Adviser and the Sub-Adviser are authorized by the Trustees to allocate the orders placed by them on behalf of the Fund to brokers or dealers who may, but need not, provide research or statistical material or other services to the Fund or the Adviser or Sub-Adviser for the Fund’s use. Such allocation is to be in such amounts and proportions as the Adviser may determine.

 

In selecting a broker or dealer to execute each particular transaction, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will take the following into consideration:

·the best net price available;
·the reliability, integrity and financial condition of the broker or dealer;
·the size of and difficulty in executing the order; and
·the value of the expected contribution of the broker or dealer to the investment performance of the Fund on a continuing basis.

 

Brokers or dealers executing a portfolio transaction on behalf of the Fund may receive a commission in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged for executing the transaction if the Adviser or Sub-Adviser determines in good faith that such commission is reasonable in relation to the value of brokerage and research services provided to the Fund. In allocating portfolio brokerage, the Adviser or Sub-Adviser may select brokers or dealers who also provide brokerage, research and other services to other accounts over which the Adviser or Sub-Adviser exercises investment discretion. Some of the services received as the result of Fund transactions may primarily benefit accounts other than the Fund, while services received as the result of portfolio transactions effected on behalf of those other accounts may primarily benefit the Fund.

 

For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018 the Fund paid $5,153 in brokerage commissions.

  

PORTFOLIO TURNOVER

 

The Fund’s portfolio turnover rate is calculated by dividing the lesser of purchases or sales of portfolio securities for the fiscal year by the monthly average of the value of the portfolio securities owned by the Fund during the fiscal year. The calculation excludes from both the numerator and the denominator securities with maturities at the time of acquisition of one year or less. High portfolio turnover involves correspondingly greater brokerage commissions and other transaction costs, which will be borne directly by the Fund. A 100% turnover rate would occur if all of the Fund’s portfolio securities were replaced once within a one-year period. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Fund had a portfolio turnover rate of 135%.

 

 

OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS

 

Fund Administration

 

Gemini Fund Services, LLC, (the "Administrator"), which has its principal office at 80 Arkay Drive, Suite 110, Hauppauge, NY 11788, and is primarily in the business of providing administrative, fund accounting and transfer agent services to retail and institutional mutual funds. The Administrator is an affiliate of the Distributor.

 

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Pursuant to Fund Services Agreement with the Fund, the Administrator provides administrative services to the Fund, subject to the supervision of the Board. The Administrator may provide persons to serve as officers of the Fund. Such officers may be directors, officers or employees of the Administrator or its affiliates.

 

The Fund Services Agreement is dated August 29, 2012. The Agreement will remain in effect for two years from the effective date of the agreement, and will remain in effect subject to annual approval of the Board for one-year periods thereafter. The Administration Service Agreement is terminable by the Board or the Administrator on ninety days' written notice and may be assigned provided the non-assigning party provides prior written consent. This Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Administrator or reckless disregard of its obligations thereunder, the Administrator shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.

 

Under the Fund Services Agreement, the Administrator provides facilitating administrative services, including: (i) providing services of persons competent to perform such administrative and clerical functions as are necessary to provide effective administration of the Fund; (ii) facilitating the performance of administrative and professional services to the Fund by others, including the Fund's Custodian; (iii) preparing, but not paying for, the periodic updating of the Fund's Registration Statement, Prospectuses and Statement of Additional Information in conjunction with Fund counsel, including the printing of such documents for the purpose of filings with the SEC and state securities administrators, and preparing reports to the Fund's shareholders and the SEC; (iv) preparing in conjunction with Fund counsel, but not paying for, all filings under the securities or "Blue Sky" laws of such states or countries as are designated by the Distributor, which may be required to register or qualify, or continue the registration or qualification, of the Fund and/or its shares under such laws; (v) preparing notices and agendas for meetings of the Board and minutes of such meetings in all matters required by the 1940 Act to be acted upon by the Board; and (vi) monitoring daily and periodic compliance with respect to all requirements and restrictions of the 1940 Act, the Internal Revenue Code and the Prospectuses.

 

The Administrator also provides the Fund with accounting services, including: (i) daily computation of net asset value; (ii) maintenance of security ledgers and books and records as required by the 1940 Act; (iii) production of the Fund's listing of portfolio securities and general ledger reports; (iv) reconciliation of accounting records; (v) calculation of yield and total return for the Fund; (vi) maintaining certain books and records described in Rule 31a-1 under the 1940 Act, and reconciling account information and balances among the Fund's custodian and Adviser; and (vii) monitoring and evaluating daily income and expense accruals, and sales and redemptions of shares of the Fund.

 

For administrative services rendered to the Fund under the Agreement, the Fund pay GFS the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. For the fund accounting services rendered to the Fund under the Agreement, the Fund pay GFS the greater of an annual minimum fee or an asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pay GFS for any out-of-pocket expenses. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Fund incurred $35,449 in fund administration fees.

 

Effective February 1, 2019, NorthStar Financial Services Group, LLC, the parent company of GFS, the Distributor, and Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (collectively, the “Gemini Companies”), sold its interest in the Gemini Companies to a third party private equity firm that contemporaneously acquired Ultimus Fund Solutions, LLC (an independent mutual fund administration firm) and its affiliates (collectively, the “Ultimus Companies”). As a result of these separate transactions, the Gemini Companies and the Ultimus Companies are now indirectly owned through a common parent entity, The Ultimus Group, LLC.

 

Transfer Agent

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. acts as transfer, dividend disbursing, and shareholder servicing agent for the Fund pursuant to written agreement with Fund (the “Transfer Agent”). Under the agreement, the Transfer Agent is responsible for administering and performing transfer agent functions, dividend distribution, shareholder administration, and maintaining necessary records in accordance with applicable rules and regulations. For the fiscal period ended October 31, 2018, the Fund incurred $9,054 in transfer agency fees.

 

 

Custodian

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (the "Custodian"), serves as the custodian of the Fund's assets pursuant to a Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement by and between the Custodian and the Trust on behalf of the Fund. The Custodian's responsibilities include safeguarding and controlling the Fund's cash and securities, handling the receipt and delivery of securities, and collecting interest and dividends on the Fund's investments. Pursuant to the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, the Custodian also maintains original entry documents and books of record and general ledgers; posts cash receipts and disbursements; and records purchases and sales based upon communications from the Adviser. The Fund may employ foreign sub-custodians that are approved by the Board to hold foreign assets.

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Chief Compliance Officer

 

Northern Lights Compliance Services, LLC (“NLCS”), 17645 Wright Street, Suite 200, Omaha, NE 68130, an affiliate of GFS and the Distributor, provides a Chief Compliance Officer to the Trust as well as related compliance services pursuant to a consulting agreement between NLCS and the Trust. NLCS’s compliance services consist primarily of reviewing and assessing the policies and procedures of the Trust and its service providers pertaining to compliance with applicable federal securities laws, including Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act. For the compliance services rendered to the Fund, the Fund pays NLCS a one-time fee plus an annual asset based fee, which scales downward based upon net assets. The Fund also pays NLCS for any out-of-pocket expenses.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF SHARES

 

Each share of beneficial interest of the Trust has one vote in the election of Trustees. Cumulative voting is not authorized for the Trust. This means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of Trustees can elect 100% of the Trustees if they choose to do so, and, in that event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any Trustees.

 

Shareholders of the Trust and any other future series of the Trust will vote in the aggregate and not by series except as otherwise required by law or when the Board determines that the matter to be voted upon affects only the interest of the shareholders of a particular series or classes. Matters such as ratification of the independent public accountants and election of Trustees are not subject to separate voting requirements and may be acted upon by shareholders of the Trust voting without regard to series.

 

The Trust’s by-laws state that unless the Trust consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forums for any Shareholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Trust; (ii) any action asserting a claim or breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any Trustee, officer or employee, if any, of the Trust to the Trust or the Trust’s Shareholders or its beneficial owners; (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware Statutory Trust Act or the Trust’s Agreement and Declaration of Trust or by-laws; or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Trust, its Trustees, officers or employees, if any, governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall be a state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. The Trust’s by-laws also state that any person or entity that is a shareholder of the Trust shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions of the Trust’s by-laws.

 

The Trust is authorized to issue an unlimited number of shares of beneficial interest. Each share has equal, per-class, dividend, distribution and liquidation rights. There are no conversion or preemptive rights applicable to any shares of the Fund. All shares issued are fully paid and non-assessable.

 

 

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING PROGRAM

 

The Trust has established an Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program (the “Program”) as required by the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (“USA PATRIOT Act”). To ensure compliance with this law, the Trust’s Program provides for the development of internal practices, procedures and controls, designation of anti-money laundering compliance officers, an ongoing training program and an independent audit function to determine the effectiveness of the Program. The Trust’s Secretary serves as its Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer.

 

Procedures to implement the Program include, but are not limited to, determining that the Fund’s Distributor, and Transfer Agent have established proper anti-money laundering procedures, reported suspicious and/or fraudulent activity and a complete and thorough review of all new opening account applications. The Trust will not transact business with any person or entity whose identity cannot be adequately verified under the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act.

 

As a result of the Program, the Trust may be required to “freeze” the account of a shareholder if the shareholder appears to be involved in suspicious activity or if certain account information matches information on government lists of known terrorists or other suspicious persons, or the Trust may be required to transfer the account or proceeds of the account to a governmental agency.

 

PURCHASE, REDEMPTION AND PRICING OF SHARES

 

Calculation of Share Price

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As indicated in the Prospectus under the heading "Net Asset Value," ("NAV"), the NAV of the Fund's shares is determined by dividing the total value of the Fund's portfolio investments and other assets, less any liabilities, by the total number of shares outstanding of the Fund.

 

Generally, the Fund’s domestic securities (including underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges) are valued each day at the last quoted sales price on each security’s primary exchange. Securities traded or dealt in upon one or more securities exchanges for which market quotations are readily available and not subject to restrictions against resale shall be valued at the last quoted sales price on the primary exchange or, in the absence of a sale on the primary exchange, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on such exchange. Securities primarily traded in the National Association of Securities Dealers’ Automated Quotation System (“NASDAQ”) National Market System for which market quotations are readily available shall be valued using the NASDAQ Official Closing Price. If market quotations are not readily available, securities will be valued at their fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board and as further described below. Securities that are not traded or dealt in any securities exchange (whether domestic or foreign) and for which over-the-counter market quotations are readily available generally shall be valued at the last sale price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask price on such over-the- counter market.

 

Certain securities or investments for which daily market quotes are not readily available may be valued, pursuant to guidelines established by the Board, with reference to other securities or indices. Debt securities not traded on an exchange may be valued at prices supplied by a pricing agent(s) based on broker or dealer supplied valuations or matrix pricing, a method of valuing securities by reference to the value of other securities with similar characteristics, such as rating, interest rate and maturity. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be generally valued at amortized cost when it approximated fair value.

 

Exchange traded options are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean between the current bid and ask prices on the exchange on which such options are traded. Futures and options on futures are valued at the settlement price determined by the exchange. Other securities for which market quotes are not readily available are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Board or persons acting at their direction. Swap agreements and other derivatives are generally valued daily based upon quotations from market makers or by a pricing service in accordance with the valuation procedures approved by the Board.

 

Under certain circumstances, the Fund may use an independent pricing service to calculate the fair market value of foreign equity securities on a daily basis by applying valuation factors to the last sale price or the mean price as noted above. The fair market values supplied by the independent pricing service will generally reflect market trading that occurs after the close of the applicable foreign markets of comparable securities or the value of other instruments that have a strong correlation to the fair-valued securities. The independent pricing service will also take into account the current relevant currency exchange rate. A security that is fair valued may be valued at a price higher or lower than actual market quotations or the value determined by other funds using their own fair valuation procedures. Because foreign securities may trade on days when Fund shares are not priced, the value of securities held by the Fund can change on days when Fund shares cannot be redeemed or purchased. In the event that a foreign security’s market quotations are not readily available or are deemed unreliable (for reasons other than because the foreign exchange on which it trades closed before the Fund’s calculation of NAV), the security will be valued at its fair market value as determined in good faith by the Fund’s fair value committee in accordance with procedures approved by the Board as discussed below. Without fair valuation, it is possible that short-term traders could take advantage of the arbitrage opportunity and dilute the NAV of long-term investors. Fair valuation of the Fund’s portfolio securities can serve to reduce arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that it will prevent dilution of the Fund’s NAV by short-term traders. In addition, because the Fund may invest in underlying ETFs which hold portfolio securities primarily listed on foreign (non-U.S.) exchanges, and these exchanges may trade on weekends or other days when the underlying ETFs do not price their shares, the value of these portfolio securities may change on days when you may not be able to buy or sell Fund shares.

 

Investments initially valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted to U.S. dollars using exchange rates obtained from pricing services. As a result, the NAV of the Fund's shares may be affected by changes in the value of currencies in relation to the U.S. dollar. The value of securities traded in markets outside the United States or denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar may be affected significantly on a day that the New York Stock Exchange is closed and an investor is not able to purchase, redeem or exchange shares.

 

Fund shares are valued at the close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern time) (the "NYSE Close") on each day that the New York Stock Exchange is open. For purposes of calculating the NAV, the Fund normally use pricing data for domestic equity securities received shortly after the NYSE Close and does not normally take into account trading, clearances or settlements that take place after the NYSE Close. Domestic fixed income

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and foreign securities are normally priced using data reflecting the earlier closing of the principal markets for those securities. Information that becomes known to the Fund or its agents after the NAV has been calculated on a particular day will not generally be used to retroactively adjust the price of the security or the NAV determined earlier that day.

 

When market quotations are insufficient or not readily available, the Fund may value securities at fair value or estimate their value as determined in good faith by the Board or its designees, pursuant to procedures approved by the Board. Fair valuation may also be used by the Board if extraordinary events occur after the close of the relevant market but prior to the NYSE Close.

 

The Administrator calculates the Fund’s NAV at the close of regular trading (normally 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time) every day that the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open. NAV is calculated by deducting all of the Fund’s liabilities from the total value of its assets and dividing the result by the number of Shares outstanding, rounding to the nearest cent. All valuations are subject to review by the Trust’s Board or its delegate.

 

In determining NAV, expenses are accrued and applied daily and securities and other assets for which market quotations are readily available are valued at market value. The NAV for the Fund will be calculated and disseminated daily. The value of the Fund’s portfolio securities is based on market value when market quotations are readily available.

 

Exchange-traded securities, such as common and preferred stocks, ETFs, ETPs, ETNs, closed-end funds, REITs, MLPs, REOCs and similar instruments, generally are valued by using market quotations, but may be valued on the basis of prices furnished by a pricing service when the Adviser believes such prices accurately reflect the fair market value of such securities. Securities that are traded on any stock exchange or on the Exchange are generally valued by the pricing service at the last quoted sale price. Lacking a last sale price, an equity security is generally valued by the pricing service at its last bid price. When market quotations are not readily available, when the Adviser determines that the market quotation or the price provided by the pricing service does not accurately reflect the current market value, or when restricted or illiquid securities are being valued, such securities are valued as determined in good faith by the Adviser. If a security’s market price is not readily available, the security will be valued at fair value as determined by the Trust’s Fair Value Committee in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board. The values of assets denominated in foreign currencies are converted into U.S. dollars based on the mean of the current bid and asked prices by major banking institutions and currency dealers.

 

Bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments are valued by a pricing service when the Adviser believes such prices are accurate and reflect the fair market value of such securities. If the Adviser decides that a price provided by the pricing service does not accurately reflect the fair market value of the securities, when prices are not readily available from a pricing service, or when restricted or illiquid securities are being valued, securities are valued at fair value as determined in good faith by the Adviser, subject to review by the Board of Trustees. Short-term investments having a maturity of 60 days or less may be amortized to maturity, provided such valuations represent par value.

 

Futures contracts listed for trading on a futures exchange or board of trade for which market quotations are readily available are valued at the last quoted sales price or, in the absence of a sale, at the mean of the last bid and ask prices.

 

Even when market quotations are available, they may be stale or unreliable because the validity of market quotations appears to be questionable; the number of quotations is such as to indicate that there is a thin market in the security; a significant event occurs after the close of a market but before the Fund's NAV calculation that may affect a security's value; or the Adviser is aware of any other data that calls into question the reliability of market quotations such as issuer-specific events, which may include a merger or insolvency, events which affect a geographical area or an industry segment, such as political events or natural disasters, or market events, such as a significant movement in the U.S. market. Where market quotations are not readily available, including where the Adviser determines that the closing price of the security is unreliable, the Adviser will value the security at fair value in good faith using procedures approved by the Board. Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could be realized upon the sale of the security.

 

Because foreign markets may be open on different days than the days during which a shareholder may purchase Shares, the value of the Fund’s investments may change on days when shareholders are not able to purchase Shares.

 

Notice to Texas Shareholders

 

Under section 72.1021(a) of the Texas Property Code, initial investors in a Fund who are Texas residents may designate a representative to receive notices of abandoned property in connection with Fund shares. Texas shareholders who wish to appoint a representative should notify the Trust’s Transfer Agent by writing to the address below to obtain a form for providing written notice to the Trust:

 

Anfield World Leaders Equity ETF

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c/o Gemini Fund Services, LLC

Po Box 541150

Omaha, Nebraska 68154

 

Creation Units

 

The Fund sells and redeems Shares in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load, at the NAV next determined after receipt of an order in proper form on any Business Day. A “Business Day” is any day on which the NYSE is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

A Creation Unit is an aggregation of 50,000 Shares. The Board may declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund or Trust, and make a corresponding change in the number of Shares in a Creation Unit.

 

Authorized Participants

 

To purchase or redeem any Creation Units, you must be, or transact through, an Authorized Participant. In order to be an Authorized Participant, you must be either a broker-dealer or other participant (“Participating Party”) in the Continuous Net Settlement System (“Clearing Process”) of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) or a participant in DTC with access to the DTC system (“DTC Participant”), and you must execute an agreement (“Participant Agreement”) with the Distributor that governs transactions in the Fund’s Creation Units.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants but want to transact in Creation Units may contact the Distributor for the names of Authorized Participants. An Authorized Participant may require investors to enter into a separate agreement to transact through it for Creation Units and may require orders for purchases of shares placed with it to be in a particular form. Investors transacting through a broker that is not itself an Authorized Participant and therefore must still transact through an Authorized Participant may incur additional charges. There are expected to be a limited number of Authorized Participants at any one time.

 

Orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Market disruptions and telephone or other communication failures may impede the transmission of orders.

 

Transaction Fees

 

A fixed fee payable to the Custodian is imposed on each creation and redemption transaction regardless of the number of Creation Units involved in the transaction (“Fixed Fee”). Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units for cash or involving cash-in-lieu (as defined below) are required to pay an additional variable charge to compensate the Fund and its ongoing shareholders for brokerage and market impact expenses relating to Creation Unit transactions (“Variable Charge,” and together with the Fixed Fee, the “Transaction Fees”). With the approval of the Board, the Adviser may waive or adjust the Transaction Fees, including the Fixed Fee and/or Variable Charge (shown in the table below), from time to time. In such cases, the Authorized Participant will reimburse the Fund for, among other things, any difference between the market value at which the securities and/or financial instruments were purchased by the Fund and the cash-in-lieu amount, applicable registration fees, brokerage commissions and certain taxes. In addition, purchasers of Creation Units are responsible for the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities to the account of the Fund.

 

Investors who use the services of a broker, or other such intermediary may be charged a fee for such services. The Transaction Fees for the Fund are listed in the table below.

 

Fee for In-Kind and Cash Purchases Minimum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases* Maximum Additional Variable Charge for Cash Purchases*
$1,800 0.20% 2.00%
*As a percentage of the amount invested.

The Clearing Process

 

Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a Participating Party using the NSCC system are referred to as transactions “through the Clearing Process.” Transactions by an Authorized Participant that is a DTC Participant using the DTC system are referred to as transactions “outside the Clearing Process.” The Clearing Process is an enhanced clearing process that is available only for certain securities and only to DTC participants that are also participants in the Continuous Net Settlement System of the NSCC. In-kind (portions of) purchase orders not subject to the Clearing Process will go through a manual clearing

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process run by DTC. Portfolio Deposits that include government securities must be delivered through the Federal Reserve Bank wire transfer system (“Federal Reserve System”). Fund Deposits that include cash may be delivered through the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System. In-kind deposits of securities for orders outside the Clearing Process must be delivered through the Federal Reserve System (for government securities) or through DTC (for corporate securities).

 

Foreign Securities

 

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to redeem their shares of the Fund, or to purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant foreign markets.

 

Purchasing Creation Units

 

Portfolio Deposit

 

The consideration for a Creation Unit generally consists of the Deposit Securities and a Cash Component. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Portfolio Deposit.” The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Deposit Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund.

 

On each Business Day, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Deposit Security in the current Portfolio Deposit (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. The Deposit Securities announced are applicable to purchases of Creation Units until the next announcement of Deposit Securities.

 

Payment of any stamp duty or the like shall be the sole responsibility of the Authorized Participant purchasing a Creation Unit. The Authorized Participant must ensure that all Deposit Securities properly denote change in beneficial ownership.

 

Custom Orders and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash (“cash-in-lieu”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Deposit Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash in lieu of Deposit Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities laws or policies from transacting in one or more Deposit Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in accepting Deposit Securities including that the Deposit Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All orders involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Orders.”

 

Purchase Orders

 

To order a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order to the Distributor.

 

Timing of Submission of Purchase Orders

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable purchase order no later than the earlier of (i) 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time or (ii) the closing time of the bond markets and/or the trading session on the Exchange, on any Business Day in order to receive that Business Day’s NAV (“Cut-off Time”). The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” An order to create Creation Units is deemed received on a Business Day if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating custom orders and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve Bank wire system, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the “Settlement Date,” which is generally the Business Day immediately following the Transmittal Date (“T+1”) for cash and the second Business Day following the Transmittal Date for securities (“T+2”).

 

Orders Using the Clearing Process

 

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If available, (portions of) orders may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits, on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the creation order. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Portfolio Deposit to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System.

 

Orders Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Portfolio Deposits will be made outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the creation of Creation Units will be effected through DTC. The Portfolio Deposit transfer must be ordered by the DTC Participant on the Transmittal Date in a timely fashion so as to ensure the delivery of Deposit Securities (whether standard or custom) through DTC to the Fund account by 11:00 a.m., Eastern time, on T+1. The Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee, must be transferred directly to the Custodian through the Federal Reserve System in a timely manner so as to be received by the Custodian no later than 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive both the Deposit Securities and the cash by the appointed time, the order may be canceled. A canceled order may be resubmitted the following Business Day but must conform to that Business Day’s Portfolio Deposit. Authorized Participants that submit a canceled order will be liable to the Fund for any losses incurred by the Fund in connection therewith.

 

Orders involving foreign Deposit Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable purchase order, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian of such order. The Custodian , who will have caused the appropriate local sub-custodian(s) of the Fund to maintain an account into which an Authorized Participant may deliver Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu), with adjustments determined by the Fund, will then provide information of the order to such local sub-custodian(s). The ordering Authorized Participant will then deliver the Deposit Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian. The Authorized Participant must also make available on or before the contractual settlement date, by means satisfactory to the Fund, immediately available or same day funds in U.S. dollars estimated by the Fund to be sufficient to pay the Cash Component and Transaction Fee. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Settlement must occur by 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the contractual settlement date.

 

Acceptance of Purchase Order

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund. The Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a purchase order transmitted to it by the Distributor if (a) the order is not in proper form; (b) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (c) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the Deposit Securities for the applicable date; (d) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (e) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (f) the acceptance of the Portfolio Deposit would otherwise, in the discretion of the Trust, Fund or the Adviser, have an adverse effect on the Trust, Fund or the rights of beneficial owners; or (g) in the event that circumstances outside the control of the Trust, the Distributor and the Adviser make it for all practical purposes impossible to process purchase orders. Examples of such circumstances include acts of God; public service or utility problems resulting in telephone, telecopy or computer failures; fires, floods or extreme weather conditions; market conditions or activities causing trading halts; systems failures involving computer or other informational systems affecting the Trust, the Distributor, DTC, NSCC, the Adviser, the Fund’s Custodian, a sub-custodian or any other participant in the creation process; and similar extraordinary events. The Distributor shall notify an Authorized Participant of its rejection of the order. The Fund, the Custodian, any sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Portfolio Deposits, and they shall not incur any liability for the failure to give any such notification.

 

Issuance of a Creation Unit

 

Once the Fund has accepted an order, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order.

 

Except as provided below, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the Fund obtains good title to the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component, along with any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. Except as provided in Appendix C, the delivery of Creation Units will generally occur no later than T+2.

35 
 

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Deposit Securities, when the applicable local sub-custodian(s) have confirmed to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities (or cash -in-lieu) have been delivered to the Fund’s account at the applicable local sub-custodian(s), the Distributor and the Adviser shall be notified of such delivery, and the Fund will issue and cause the delivery of the Creation Unit. While, as stated above, Creation Units are generally delivered on T+2, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances.

 

The Fund may issue a Creation Unit prior to receiving good title to the Deposit Securities, under the following circumstances. Pursuant to the applicable Participant Agreement, the Fund may issue a Creation Unit notwithstanding that (certain) Deposit Securities have not been delivered, in reliance on an undertaking by the relevant Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking is secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery to and maintenance with the Custodian of collateral having a value equal to at least 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities (“Collateral”), as adjusted by time to time by the Adviser. Such Collateral will have a value greater than the NAV of the Creation Unit on the date the order is placed. Such collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. The only Collateral that is acceptable to the Fund is cash in U.S. Dollars.

 

While (certain) Deposit Securities remain undelivered, the Collateral shall at all times have a value equal to at least 115% (as adjusted by the Adviser) of the daily marked-to-market value of the missing Deposit Securities. At any time, the Fund may use the Collateral to purchase the missing securities, and the Authorized Participant will be liable to the Fund for any costs incurred thereby or losses resulting therefrom, whether or not they exceed the amount of the Collateral, including any Transaction Fee, any amount by which the purchase price of the missing Deposit Securities exceeds the market value of such securities on the Transmittal Date, brokerage and other transaction costs. The Trust will return any unused Collateral once all of the missing securities have been received by the Fund. More information regarding the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization is available from the Distributor.

 

Cash Purchase Method

 

When cash purchases of Creation Units are available or specified for the Fund, they will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases In the case of a cash purchase, the investor must pay the cash equivalent of the Portfolio Deposit. In addition, cash purchases will be subject to Transaction Fees, as described above.

 

Redeeming a Creation Unit

 

Redemption Basket

 

The consideration received in connection with the redemption of a Creation Unit generally consists of an in-kind basket of designated securities (“Redemption Securities”) and a Cash Component. Together, the Redemption Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Redemption Basket.”

 

There can be no assurance that there will be sufficient liquidity in Shares in the secondary market to permit assembly of a Creation Unit. In addition, investors may incur brokerage and other costs in connection with assembling a Creation Unit.

 

The Cash Component serves the function of compensating for any differences between the net asset value per Creation Unit and the Redemption Securities. Thus, the Cash Component is equal to the difference between (x) the net asset value per Creation Unit of the Fund and (y) the market value of the Redemption Securities. If (x) is more than (y), the Authorized Participant will receive the Cash Component from the Fund. If (x) is less than (y), the Authorized Participant will pay the Cash Component to the Fund.

 

If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, prior to the opening of business on the Exchange (currently 9:30 a.m., Eastern Time), the Adviser through the Custodian makes available through NSCC the name and amount of each Redemption Security in the current Redemption Basket (based on information at the end of the previous Business Day) for the Fund and the (estimated) Cash Component, effective through and including the previous Business Day, per Creation Unit. If the Redemption Securities on a Business Day are different from the Deposit Securities, all redemption requests that day will be processed outside the Clearing Process.

 

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The right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed: (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings); (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted; (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the Shares or determination of the ETF’s NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstances as permitted by the SEC, including as described below.

 

Custom Redemptions and Cash-in-lieu

 

The Fund may, in its sole discretion, permit or require the substitution of cash-in-lieu to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Redemption Security. The Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu when, for example, a Redemption Security may not be available in sufficient quantity for delivery or may not be eligible for transfer through the systems of DTC or the Clearing Process. Similarly, the Fund may permit or require cash-in-lieu of Redemption Securities when, for example, the Authorized Participant or its underlying investor is restricted under U.S. or local securities law or policies from transacting in one or more Redemption Securities. The Fund will comply with the federal securities laws in satisfying redemptions with Redemption Securities, including that the Redemption Securities are sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. All redemption requests involving cash-in-lieu are considered to be “Custom Redemptions.”

 

Redemption Requests

 

To redeem a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption request to the Distributor.

 

An Authorized Participant submitting a redemption request is deemed to represent to the Fund that it has ascertained or has reasonable grounds to believe that as of the time of the contractual settlement date, that (i) it or its customer, as the case may be, owns, will own or have the authority and right to tender for redemption the Creation Unit to be redeemed and can receive the entire proceeds of the redemption, and (ii) all of the Shares that are in the Creation Unit to be redeemed have not been borrowed, loaned or pledged to another party nor are they the subject of a repurchase agreement, securities lending agreement or such other arrangement that would preclude the delivery of such Shares to the Fund on the contractual settlement date. The Fund reserves the absolute right, in its sole discretion, to verify these representations, but will typically require verification in connection with higher levels of redemption activity and/or short interest in the Fund. If the Authorized Participant, upon receipt of a verification request, does not provide sufficient verification of the requested representations, the redemption request will not be considered to be in proper form and may be rejected by the Fund.

 

Timing of Submission of Redemption Requests

 

An Authorized Participant must submit an irrevocable redemption order no later than the Cut-off Time. The Cut-off Time for Custom Orders is generally two hours earlier. The Business Day the order is deemed received by the Distributor is referred to as the “Transmittal Date.” A redemption request is deemed received if (i) such order is received by the Distributor by the Cut-off Time on such day and (ii) all other procedures set forth in the Participant Agreement are properly followed. Persons placing or effectuating Custom Redemptions and/or orders involving cash should be mindful of time deadlines imposed by intermediaries, such as DTC and/or the Federal Reserve System, which may impact the successful processing of such orders to ensure that cash and securities are transferred by the Settlement Date, as defined above.

 

Requests Using the Clearing Process

 

If available, (portions of) redemption requests may be settled through the Clearing Process. In connection with such orders, the Distributor transmits on behalf of the Authorized Participant, such trade instructions as are necessary to effect the redemption. Pursuant to such trade instructions, the Authorized Participant agrees to deliver the requisite Creation Unit(s) to the Fund, together with such additional information as may be required by the Distributor. Cash Components will be delivered using either the Clearing Process or the Federal Reserve System, as described above.

 

Requests Outside the Clearing Process

 

If the Clearing Process is not available for (portions of) an order, Redemption Baskets will be delivered outside the Clearing Process. Orders outside the Clearing Process must state that the DTC Participant is not using the Clearing Process and that the redemption will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant must transfer or cause to be transferred the Creation Unit(s) of shares being redeemed through the book-entry system of DTC so as to be delivered through DTC to the Custodian by 10:00 a.m., Eastern Time, on received T+1. In addition, the Cash Component must be received by the Custodian by 12:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on T+1. If the Custodian does not receive the Creation Unit(s) and Cash Component by the appointed times on T+1, the redemption will be rejected, except in the circumstances described below. A rejected redemption request may be resubmitted the following Business Day.

 

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Orders involving foreign Redemption Securities are expected to be settled outside the Clearing Process. Thus, upon receipt of an irrevocable redemption request, the Distributor will notify the Adviser and the Custodian. The Custodian will then provide information of the redemption to the Fund’s local sub-custodian(s). The redeeming Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf is acting, will have established appropriate arrangements with a broker-dealer, bank or other custody provider in each jurisdiction in which the Redemption Securities are customarily traded and to which such Redemption Securities (and any cash-in-lieu) can be delivered from the Fund’s accounts at the applicable local sub-custodian(s).

 

Acceptance of Redemption Requests

 

All questions as to the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Trust. The Trust’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

Delivery of Redemption Basket

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption request, upon next determination of the Fund’s NAV, the Fund will confirm the issuance of a Redemption Basket, against receipt of the Creation Unit(s) at such NAV, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee. A Creation Unit tendered for redemption and the payment of the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee will be effected through DTC. The Authorized Participant, or the investor on whose behalf it is acting, will be recorded on the book-entry system of DTC.

 

The Redemption Basket will generally be delivered to the redeeming Authorized Participant within T+2. Except under the circumstances described below, however, a Redemption Basket generally will not be issued until the Creation Unit(s) are delivered to the Fund, along with the Cash Component, any cash-in-lieu and Transaction Fee.

 

In certain cases, Authorized Participants will create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Trust reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis.

 

With respect to orders involving foreign Redemption Securities, the Fund may settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to accommodate foreign market holiday schedules, to account for different treatment among foreign and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (that is the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security), and in certain other circumstances. When a relevant local market is closed due to local market holidays, the local market settlement process will not commence until the end of the local holiday period. Listed below are the dates in calendar year 2019 in which the regular holidays in non-U.S. markets may impact Fund settlement. This list is based on information available to the Fund. The list may not be accurate or complete and is subject to change:

 

Argentina Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Bahrain Monday, December 16, 2019
Argentina Thursday, April 18, 2019 Bahrain Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Argentina Friday, April 19, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, February 21, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Argentina Thursday, June 20, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Argentina Monday, August 19, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, May 20, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, September 25, 2019 Bangladesh Friday, May 31, 2019
Argentina Monday, October 14, 2019 Bangladesh Sunday, June 02, 2019
Argentina Wednesday, November 06, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Argentina Monday, November 18, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, June 06, 2019
Australia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, July 01, 2019
Australia Monday, January 28, 2019 Bangladesh Sunday, August 11, 2019
Australia Friday, April 19, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, August 12, 2019
Australia Monday, April 22, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Australia Thursday, April 25, 2019 Bangladesh Thursday, August 15, 2019
Australia Monday, June 10, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Australia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Bangladesh Saturday, November 09, 2019
Australia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bangladesh Monday, December 16, 2019
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Australia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Bangladesh Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Australia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Bangladesh Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Austria Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Belgium Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Austria Friday, April 19, 2019 Belgium Friday, April 19, 2019
Austria Monday, April 22, 2019 Belgium Monday, April 22, 2019
Austria Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Belgium Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Austria Thursday, May 30, 2019 Belgium Thursday, May 30, 2019
Austria Monday, June 10, 2019 Belgium Monday, June 10, 2019
Austria Thursday, June 20, 2019 Belgium Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Austria Thursday, August 15, 2019 Belgium Thursday, December 26, 2019
Austria Friday, November 01, 2019 Bermuda Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Austria Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Bermuda Friday, April 19, 2019
Austria Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bermuda Friday, May 31, 2019
Austria Thursday, December 26, 2019 Bermuda Monday, June 17, 2019
Austria Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Bermuda Thursday, August 01, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bermuda Friday, August 02, 2019
Bahrain Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bermuda Monday, September 02, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, June 04, 2019 Bermuda Monday, November 11, 2019
Bahrain Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Bermuda Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Bahrain Thursday, June 06, 2019 Bermuda Thursday, December 26, 2019
Bahrain Sunday, August 11, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Bahrain Monday, August 12, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Bahrain Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, January 07, 2019
Bahrain Sunday, September 08, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, January 09, 2019
Bahrain Monday, September 09, 2019 Bosnia-Herzegovina Friday, March 01, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, April 22, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, March 04, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Friday, April 26, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, April 19, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, April 29, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, April 22, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, April 26, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, May 02, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, April 29, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, May 09, 2019 Bulgaria Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, May 06, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, June 06, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, May 24, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, August 12, 2019 Bulgaria Friday, September 06, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Thursday, November 21, 2019 Bulgaria Monday, September 23, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Monday, November 25, 2019 Bulgaria Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Bosnia-Herzegovina Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Bulgaria Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Bulgaria Thursday, December 26, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Canada Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Botswana Friday, April 19, 2019 Canada Monday, February 18, 2019
Botswana Saturday, April 20, 2019 Canada Friday, April 19, 2019
Botswana Monday, April 22, 2019 Canada Monday, May 20, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Canada Monday, July 01, 2019
Botswana Thursday, May 30, 2019 Canada Monday, August 05, 2019
Botswana Monday, July 01, 2019 Canada Monday, September 02, 2019
39 
 

 

Botswana Tuesday, July 02, 2019 Canada Monday, October 14, 2019
Botswana Monday, July 15, 2019 Canada Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, July 16, 2019 Canada Thursday, December 26, 2019
Botswana Monday, September 30, 2019 Chile Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Botswana Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Chile Friday, April 19, 2019
Botswana Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Chile Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Botswana Thursday, December 26, 2019 Chile Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Chile Tuesday, July 16, 2019
Brazil Friday, January 25, 2019 Chile Thursday, August 15, 2019
Brazil Monday, March 04, 2019 Chile Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Chile Thursday, September 19, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, March 06, 2019 Chile Friday, September 20, 2019
Brazil Friday, April 19, 2019 Chile Friday, November 01, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Chile Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Brazil Thursday, June 20, 2019 Chile Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Brazil Tuesday, July 09, 2019 China Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Brazil Saturday, September 07, 2019 China Monday, February 04, 2019
Brazil Saturday, October 12, 2019 China Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Brazil Saturday, November 02, 2019 China Wednesday, February 06, 2019
Brazil Friday, November 15, 2019 China Thursday, February 07, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, November 20, 2019 China Friday, February 08, 2019
Brazil Wednesday, December 25, 2019 China Friday, April 05, 2019
Bulgaria Tuesday, January 01, 2019 China Wednesday, May 01, 2019
China Friday, June 07, 2019 Croatia Thursday, December 26, 2019
China Friday, September 13, 2019 Croatia Tuesday, December 31, 2019
China Monday, September 30, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, January 01, 2019
China Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, March 11, 2019
China Wednesday, October 02, 2019 Cyprus Monday, March 25, 2019
China Thursday, October 03, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 01, 2019
China Friday, October 04, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, April 10, 2019
Colombia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Cyprus Friday, April 19, 2019
Colombia Monday, January 07, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 22, 2019
Colombia Monday, March 25, 2019 Cyprus Friday, April 26, 2019
Colombia Thursday, April 18, 2019 Cyprus Monday, April 29, 2019
Colombia Friday, April 19, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, June 17, 2019
Colombia Monday, June 03, 2019 Cyprus Thursday, August 15, 2019
Colombia Monday, June 24, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, October 01, 2019
Colombia Monday, July 01, 2019 Cyprus Monday, October 28, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, August 07, 2019 Cyprus Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Colombia Monday, August 19, 2019 Cyprus Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Colombia Monday, October 14, 2019 Cyprus Thursday, December 26, 2019
Colombia Monday, November 04, 2019 Czech Republic Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Colombia Monday, November 11, 2019 Czech Republic Friday, April 19, 2019
Colombia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Czech Republic Monday, April 22, 2019
40 
 

 

Costa Rica Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, April 11, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, May 08, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, April 18, 2019 Czech Republic Friday, July 05, 2019
Costa Rica Friday, April 19, 2019 Czech Republic Monday, October 28, 2019
Costa Rica Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Czech Republic Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, July 25, 2019 Czech Republic Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Costa Rica Friday, August 02, 2019 Czech Republic Thursday, December 26, 2019
Costa Rica Thursday, August 15, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Costa Rica Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Denmark Thursday, April 18, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Denmark Friday, April 19, 2019
Croatia Friday, April 19, 2019 Denmark Monday, April 22, 2019
Croatia Monday, April 22, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Croatia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 10, 2019
Croatia Thursday, June 20, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 17, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, June 25, 2019 Denmark Thursday, May 30, 2019
Croatia Monday, August 05, 2019 Denmark Friday, May 31, 2019
Croatia Thursday, August 15, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Croatia Friday, November 01, 2019 Denmark Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Croatia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Denmark Thursday, December 26, 2019
Croatia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Denmark Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Ecuador Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Finland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Ecuador Monday, March 04, 2019 Finland Thursday, May 30, 2019
Ecuador Tuesday, March 05, 2019 Finland Friday, June 21, 2019
Ecuador Friday, April 19, 2019 Finland Friday, December 06, 2019
Ecuador Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Finland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Ecuador Friday, May 24, 2019 Finland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Ecuador Friday, August 09, 2019 Finland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Ecuador Friday, October 11, 2019 Finland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Ecuador Friday, November 01, 2019 France Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Ecuador Monday, November 04, 2019 France Friday, April 19, 2019
Ecuador Wednesday, December 25, 2019 France Monday, April 22, 2019
Egypt Tuesday, January 01, 2019 France Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Egypt Monday, January 07, 2019 France Thursday, May 30, 2019
Egypt Thursday, April 25, 2019 France Monday, June 10, 2019
Egypt Sunday, April 28, 2019 France Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Egypt Monday, April 29, 2019 France Thursday, December 26, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Germany Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Germany Friday, April 19, 2019
Egypt Thursday, June 06, 2019 Germany Monday, April 22, 2019
Egypt Sunday, June 30, 2019 Germany Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Egypt Monday, July 01, 2019 Germany Thursday, May 30, 2019
Egypt Tuesday, July 23, 2019 Germany Monday, June 10, 2019
Egypt Sunday, August 11, 2019 Germany Thursday, June 20, 2019
Egypt Monday, August 12, 2019 Germany Thursday, October 03, 2019
41 
 

 

Egypt Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Germany Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Egypt Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Germany Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Egypt Sunday, September 01, 2019 Germany Thursday, December 26, 2019
Egypt Sunday, October 06, 2019 Ghana Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Egypt Sunday, November 10, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, March 06, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Ghana Friday, April 19, 2019
Estonia Friday, April 19, 2019 Ghana Monday, April 22, 2019
Estonia Monday, April 22, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Estonia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Ghana Monday, May 27, 2019
Estonia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Estonia Monday, June 24, 2019 Ghana Monday, July 01, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, August 20, 2019 Ghana Monday, August 12, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Ghana Saturday, September 21, 2019
Estonia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Ghana Friday, December 06, 2019
Estonia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Ghana Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Estonia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Ghana Thursday, December 26, 2019
Finland Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Greece Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Finland Friday, April 19, 2019 Greece Monday, March 11, 2019
Finland Monday, April 22, 2019 Greece Monday, March 25, 2019
Greece Friday, April 19, 2019 Hungary Friday, December 27, 2019
Greece Monday, April 22, 2019 Hungary Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Greece Friday, April 26, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Greece Monday, April 29, 2019 Iceland Thursday, April 18, 2019
Greece Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Iceland Friday, April 19, 2019
Greece Monday, June 17, 2019 Iceland Monday, April 22, 2019
Greece Thursday, August 15, 2019 Iceland Thursday, April 25, 2019
Greece Monday, October 28, 2019 Iceland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Greece Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Iceland Thursday, May 30, 2019
Greece Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Iceland Monday, June 10, 2019
Greece Thursday, December 26, 2019 Iceland Monday, June 17, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Iceland Monday, August 05, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, February 04, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, February 05, 2019 Iceland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, February 06, 2019 Iceland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, February 07, 2019 Iceland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, April 05, 2019 India Friday, April 19, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, April 19, 2019 India Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, April 22, 2019 India Thursday, August 15, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, May 01, 2019 India Wednesday, October 02, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, May 13, 2019 India Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Friday, June 07, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, July 01, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Indonesia Thursday, March 07, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, October 07, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, April 03, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Monday, December 16, 2019 Indonesia Friday, April 19, 2019
42 
 

 

Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Indonesia Thursday, May 30, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Thursday, December 26, 2019 Indonesia Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Hong Kong SAR Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Indonesia Monday, August 12, 2019
Hungary Friday, March 15, 2019 Indonesia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hungary Friday, April 19, 2019 Ireland Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Hungary Monday, April 22, 2019 Ireland Friday, April 19, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Ireland Monday, April 22, 2019
Hungary Monday, June 10, 2019 Ireland Monday, May 06, 2019
Hungary Monday, August 19, 2019 Ireland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, August 20, 2019 Ireland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, October 23, 2019 Israel Thursday, March 21, 2019
Hungary Friday, November 01, 2019 Israel Monday, April 22, 2019
Hungary Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Israel Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Hungary Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Israel Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Hungary Thursday, December 26, 2019 Israel Thursday, April 25, 2019
Israel Wednesday, May 08, 2019 Japan Monday, September 23, 2019
Israel Thursday, May 09, 2019 Japan Monday, October 14, 2019
Israel Monday, September 30, 2019 Japan Monday, November 04, 2019
Israel Tuesday, October 01, 2019 Japan Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Israel Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Israel Wednesday, October 09, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Israel Monday, October 14, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Israel Tuesday, October 15, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Israel Wednesday, October 16, 2019 Jordan Thursday, June 06, 2019
Israel Thursday, October 17, 2019 Jordan Sunday, August 11, 2019
Israel Sunday, October 20, 2019 Jordan Monday, August 12, 2019
Israel Monday, October 21, 2019 Jordan Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Italy Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Italy Friday, April 19, 2019 Jordan Saturday, August 31, 2019
Italy Monday, April 22, 2019 Jordan Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Italy Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Italy Thursday, December 26, 2019 Kazakhstan Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Ivory Coast Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, January 07, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, April 22, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, March 08, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Thursday, March 21, 2019
Ivory Coast Thursday, May 30, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, March 22, 2019
Ivory Coast Sunday, June 02, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, March 25, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Kazakhstan Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, June 10, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, May 07, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, August 07, 2019 Kazakhstan Thursday, May 09, 2019
Ivory Coast Monday, August 12, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, July 08, 2019
Ivory Coast Thursday, August 15, 2019 Kazakhstan Friday, August 30, 2019
Ivory Coast Friday, November 01, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, December 02, 2019
43 
 

 

Ivory Coast Sunday, November 10, 2019 Kazakhstan Monday, December 16, 2019
Ivory Coast Friday, November 15, 2019 Kazakhstan Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Ivory Coast Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Kenya Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Japan Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Kenya Friday, April 19, 2019
Japan Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Kenya Monday, April 22, 2019
Japan Thursday, January 03, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Japan Monday, January 14, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Japan Monday, February 11, 2019 Kenya Monday, August 12, 2019
Japan Thursday, March 21, 2019 Kenya Monday, October 21, 2019
Japan Monday, April 29, 2019 Kenya Monday, December 02, 2019
Japan Friday, May 03, 2019 Kenya Thursday, December 12, 2019
Japan Monday, May 06, 2019 Kenya Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Japan Monday, July 15, 2019 Kuwait Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Japan Monday, August 12, 2019 Kuwait Monday, February 25, 2019
Japan Monday, September 16, 2019 Kuwait Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Kuwait Thursday, April 04, 2019 Malaysia Friday, February 01, 2019
Kuwait Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Malaysia Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Kuwait Thursday, June 06, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, February 06, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, August 11, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Kuwait Monday, August 12, 2019 Malaysia Monday, May 20, 2019
Kuwait Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, September 01, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Kuwait Sunday, November 10, 2019 Malaysia Thursday, June 06, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Malaysia Monday, August 12, 2019
Latvia Friday, April 19, 2019 Malaysia Monday, September 09, 2019
Latvia Monday, April 22, 2019 Malaysia Monday, September 16, 2019
Latvia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Malaysia Monday, October 28, 2019
Latvia Monday, May 06, 2019 Malaysia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Latvia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Latvia Monday, June 24, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Latvia Monday, November 18, 2019 Mauritius Monday, January 21, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Mauritius Friday, February 01, 2019
Latvia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Latvia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Mauritius Monday, March 04, 2019
Latvia Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Lithuania Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Lithuania Saturday, February 16, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Lithuania Monday, March 11, 2019 Mauritius Tuesday, September 03, 2019
Lithuania Friday, April 19, 2019 Mauritius Friday, November 01, 2019
Lithuania Monday, April 22, 2019 Mauritius Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Lithuania Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Mexico Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Lithuania Thursday, May 30, 2019 Mexico Monday, February 04, 2019
Lithuania Monday, June 24, 2019 Mexico Monday, March 18, 2019
Lithuania Saturday, July 06, 2019 Mexico Thursday, April 18, 2019
Lithuania Friday, November 01, 2019 Mexico Friday, April 19, 2019
44 
 

 

Lithuania Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Mexico Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Lithuania Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Mexico Monday, September 16, 2019
Lithuania Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Mexico Monday, November 18, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Mexico Thursday, December 12, 2019
Luxembourg Friday, April 19, 2019 Mexico Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Luxembourg Monday, April 22, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Luxembourg Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Morocco Friday, January 11, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Luxembourg Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Morocco Monday, August 12, 2019
Luxembourg Thursday, December 26, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Luxembourg Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Morocco Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Malaysia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Morocco Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Malaysia Monday, January 21, 2019 Morocco Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Morocco Monday, September 02, 2019 New Zealand Monday, October 28, 2019
Morocco Wednesday, November 06, 2019 New Zealand Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Morocco Monday, November 11, 2019 New Zealand Thursday, December 26, 2019
Morocco Tuesday, November 12, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Mozambique Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Nigeria Friday, April 19, 2019
Mozambique Monday, February 04, 2019 Nigeria Monday, April 22, 2019
Mozambique Monday, April 08, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Mozambique Tuesday, June 25, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, September 25, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Mozambique Friday, October 04, 2019 Nigeria Monday, August 12, 2019
Mozambique Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Nigeria Tuesday, October 01, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Nigeria Saturday, November 09, 2019
Namibia Thursday, March 21, 2019 Nigeria Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Namibia Friday, April 19, 2019 Nigeria Thursday, December 26, 2019
Namibia Monday, April 22, 2019 Norway Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Namibia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Norway Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Namibia Thursday, May 30, 2019 Norway Thursday, April 18, 2019
Namibia Monday, June 17, 2019 Norway Friday, April 19, 2019
Namibia Friday, August 09, 2019 Norway Monday, April 22, 2019
Namibia Monday, August 26, 2019 Norway Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, September 24, 2019 Norway Friday, May 17, 2019
Namibia Tuesday, December 10, 2019 Norway Thursday, May 30, 2019
Namibia Monday, December 16, 2019 Norway Monday, June 10, 2019
Namibia Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Norway Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Namibia Thursday, December 26, 2019 Norway Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Netherlands Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Norway Thursday, December 26, 2019
Netherlands Friday, April 19, 2019 Norway Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Netherlands Monday, April 22, 2019 Oman Wednesday, April 03, 2019
Netherlands Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Oman Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Netherlands Thursday, May 30, 2019 Oman Thursday, June 06, 2019
Netherlands Monday, June 10, 2019 Oman Tuesday, July 23, 2019
45 
 

 

Netherlands Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Oman Sunday, August 11, 2019
Netherlands Thursday, December 26, 2019 Oman Monday, August 12, 2019
New Zealand Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Oman Tuesday, August 13, 2019
New Zealand Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Oman Wednesday, August 14, 2019
New Zealand Monday, January 21, 2019 Oman Thursday, August 15, 2019
New Zealand Monday, January 28, 2019 Oman Sunday, September 01, 2019
New Zealand Wednesday, February 06, 2019 Oman Sunday, November 10, 2019
New Zealand Friday, April 19, 2019 Oman Monday, November 18, 2019
New Zealand Monday, April 22, 2019 Oman Tuesday, November 19, 2019
New Zealand Thursday, April 25, 2019 Pakistan Tuesday, January 01, 2019
New Zealand Monday, June 03, 2019 Pakistan Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Poland Monday, November 11, 2019
Pakistan Monday, May 06, 2019 Poland Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Poland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Pakistan Thursday, June 06, 2019 Poland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Pakistan Monday, July 01, 2019 Poland Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Pakistan Sunday, August 11, 2019 Portugal Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Pakistan Monday, August 12, 2019 Portugal Friday, April 19, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Portugal Monday, April 22, 2019
Pakistan Tuesday, September 10, 2019 Portugal Thursday, April 25, 2019
Pakistan Wednesday, September 11, 2019 Portugal Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Pakistan Saturday, November 09, 2019 Portugal Monday, June 10, 2019
Peru Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Portugal Thursday, June 13, 2019
Peru Thursday, April 18, 2019 Portugal Thursday, June 20, 2019
Peru Friday, April 19, 2019 Portugal Thursday, August 15, 2019
Peru Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Portugal Friday, November 01, 2019
Peru Monday, July 29, 2019 Portugal Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Peru Friday, August 30, 2019 Portugal Thursday, December 26, 2019
Peru Tuesday, October 08, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Peru Friday, November 01, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, February 12, 2019
Peru Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Qatar Sunday, March 03, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, June 04, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, February 05, 2019 Qatar Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Philippines Monday, February 25, 2019 Qatar Thursday, June 06, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, April 09, 2019 Qatar Sunday, August 11, 2019
Philippines Thursday, April 18, 2019 Qatar Monday, August 12, 2019
Philippines Friday, April 19, 2019 Qatar Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Qatar Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, June 12, 2019 Romania Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, August 21, 2019 Romania Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Philippines Monday, August 26, 2019 Romania Thursday, January 24, 2019
Philippines Friday, November 01, 2019 Romania Monday, April 29, 2019
Philippines Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Romania Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Philippines Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Romania Monday, June 17, 2019
Philippines Monday, December 30, 2019 Romania Thursday, August 15, 2019
46 
 

 

Philippines Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Romania Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Poland Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Romania Thursday, December 26, 2019
Poland Friday, April 19, 2019 Russia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Poland Monday, April 22, 2019 Russia Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Poland Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Russia Thursday, January 03, 2019
Poland Friday, May 03, 2019 Russia Friday, January 04, 2019
Poland Thursday, June 20, 2019 Russia Monday, January 07, 2019
Poland Thursday, August 15, 2019 Russia Tuesday, January 08, 2019
Poland Friday, November 01, 2019 Russia Friday, March 08, 2019
Russia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Russia Thursday, May 02, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, June 05, 2019
Russia Friday, May 03, 2019 Singapore Friday, August 09, 2019
Russia Thursday, May 09, 2019 Singapore Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Russia Friday, May 10, 2019 Slovakia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Russia Wednesday, June 12, 2019 Slovakia Friday, April 19, 2019
Russia Monday, November 04, 2019 Slovakia Monday, April 22, 2019
Rwanda Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Rwanda Wednesday, January 02, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, May 08, 2019
Rwanda Friday, February 01, 2019 Slovakia Friday, July 05, 2019
Rwanda Monday, April 08, 2019 Slovakia Thursday, August 29, 2019
Rwanda Friday, April 19, 2019 Slovakia Friday, November 01, 2019
Rwanda Monday, April 22, 2019 Slovakia Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Rwanda Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Slovakia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Rwanda Monday, July 01, 2019 Slovakia Thursday, December 26, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, July 04, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, July 25, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Rwanda Friday, August 02, 2019 Slovenia Friday, February 08, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, August 15, 2019 Slovenia Friday, April 19, 2019
Rwanda Thursday, December 26, 2019 Slovenia Monday, April 22, 2019
Saudi Arabia Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Saudi Arabia Thursday, June 06, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, May 02, 2019
Saudi Arabia Sunday, June 09, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, June 25, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, June 10, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, August 15, 2019
Saudi Arabia Sunday, August 11, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, October 31, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, August 12, 2019 Slovenia Friday, November 01, 2019
Saudi Arabia Tuesday, August 13, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Saudi Arabia Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Slovenia Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Saudi Arabia Monday, September 23, 2019 Slovenia Thursday, December 26, 2019
Serbia Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Slovenia Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Serbia Wednesday, January 02, 2019 South Africa Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Serbia Monday, January 07, 2019 South Africa Thursday, March 21, 2019
Serbia Friday, February 15, 2019 South Africa Friday, April 19, 2019
Serbia Saturday, February 16, 2019 South Africa Monday, April 22, 2019
Serbia Friday, April 26, 2019 South Africa Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Serbia Monday, April 29, 2019 South Africa Monday, June 17, 2019
47 
 

 

Serbia Wednesday, May 01, 2019 South Africa Friday, August 09, 2019
Serbia Thursday, May 02, 2019 South Africa Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Serbia Monday, November 11, 2019 South Africa Monday, December 16, 2019
Singapore Tuesday, January 01, 2019 South Africa Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Singapore Tuesday, February 05, 2019 South Africa Thursday, December 26, 2019
Singapore Wednesday, February 06, 2019 South Korea Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Singapore Friday, April 19, 2019 South Korea Monday, February 04, 2019

 

South Korea Tuesday, February 05, 2019 Swaziland Thursday, April 25, 2019
South Korea Wednesday, February 06, 2019 Swaziland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
South Korea Friday, March 01, 2019 Swaziland Thursday, May 30, 2019
South Korea Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Swaziland Monday, July 22, 2019
South Korea Monday, May 06, 2019 Swaziland Monday, September 02, 2019
South Korea Thursday, June 06, 2019 Swaziland Friday, September 06, 2019
South Korea Thursday, August 15, 2019 Swaziland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
South Korea Thursday, September 12, 2019 Swaziland Thursday, December 26, 2019
South Korea Friday, September 13, 2019 Swaziland Saturday, December 28, 2019
South Korea Thursday, October 03, 2019 Sweden Tuesday, January 01, 2019
South Korea Wednesday, October 09, 2019 Sweden Thursday, April 18, 2019
South Korea Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Sweden Friday, April 19, 2019
South Korea Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Sweden Monday, April 22, 2019
Spain Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Sweden Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Spain Friday, April 19, 2019 Sweden Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Spain Monday, April 22, 2019 Sweden Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Spain Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Sweden Thursday, May 30, 2019
Spain Tuesday, December 24, 2019 Sweden Thursday, June 06, 2019
Spain Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Sweden Friday, June 21, 2019
Spain Thursday, December 26, 2019 Sweden Sunday, December 01, 2019
Spain Tuesday, December 31, 2019 Sweden Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Sri Lanka Tuesday, January 15, 2019 Sweden Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, February 04, 2019 Sweden Thursday, December 26, 2019
Sri Lanka Tuesday, February 19, 2019 Sweden Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, March 04, 2019 Switzerland Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, March 20, 2019 Switzerland Wednesday, January 02, 2019
Sri Lanka Friday, April 12, 2019 Switzerland Friday, April 19, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, April 15, 2019 Switzerland Monday, April 22, 2019
Sri Lanka Friday, April 19, 2019 Switzerland Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Switzerland Thursday, May 30, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, May 20, 2019 Switzerland Monday, June 10, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, June 05, 2019 Switzerland Thursday, August 01, 2019
Sri Lanka Tuesday, July 16, 2019 Switzerland Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, August 12, 2019 Switzerland Thursday, December 26, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, August 14, 2019 Taiwan Monday, February 04, 2019
Sri Lanka Friday, September 13, 2019 Taiwan Tuesday, February 05, 2019
Sri Lanka Monday, November 11, 2019 Taiwan Wednesday, February 06, 2019
48 
 

 

Sri Lanka Tuesday, November 12, 2019 Taiwan Thursday, February 07, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, December 11, 2019 Taiwan Friday, February 08, 2019
Sri Lanka Wednesday, December 25, 2019 Taiwan Thursday, February 28, 2019
Swaziland Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Taiwan Friday, March 01, 2019
Swaziland Friday, April 19, 2019 Taiwan Thursday, April 04, 2019
Swaziland Monday, April 22, 2019 Taiwan Friday, April 05, 2019

 

Taiwan Wednesday, May 01, 2019 Tunisia Sunday, September 01, 2019
Taiwan Friday, June 07, 2019 Tunisia Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Taiwan Friday, September 13, 2019 Tunisia Saturday, November 09, 2019
Taiwan Thursday, October 10, 2019 Turkey Tuesday, January 01, 2019
Taiwan Friday, October 11, 2019 Turkey Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Tanzania Tuesday, January 01, 2019 Turkey Wednesday, May 01, 2019
Tanzania Friday, April 19, 2019 Turkey Wednesday, June 05, 2019