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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
- OR -
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 001-37470


 
TransUnion
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware 61-1678417
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
555 West Adams,Chicago,Illinois 60661
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
312-985-2000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s)  Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareTRUNew York Stock Exchange

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232-405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
YesNo



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
YesNo

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
YesNo

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $21.0 billion as of June 30, 2021 (based on the closing stock price of such stock as quoted on the New York Stock Exchange).

As of January 31, 2022, there were 191.9 million shares of TransUnion common stock outstanding, par value $0.01 per share.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement of TransUnion for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held May 11, 2022 are incorporated by reference to the extent specified in Part III of this Form 10-K.




TRANSUNION
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2021
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
ITEM 6. RESERVED
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Consolidated Statements of Income
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURES REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
PART III
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
PART IV
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY




Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the exhibits hereto, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of TransUnion’s management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. Any statements made in this report that are not statements of historical fact, including statements about our beliefs and expectations, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include information concerning possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business plans and strategies. These statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “expect,” “guidance,” “suggest,” “plan,” “believe,” “intend,” “estimate,” “target,” “project,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “may,” “will,” “forecast,” “outlook,” “potential,” “continues,” “seeks,” “predicts,” or the negatives of these words and other similar expressions.
Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements, or that could materially affect our financial results or such forward-looking statements include:
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the timing of the economic recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic;
the prevalence and severity of variants of the COVID-19 virus and the effectiveness of vaccines against those variants;
macroeconomic and industry trends and adverse developments in the debt, consumer credit and financial services markets;
our ability to provide competitive services and prices;
our ability to retain or renew existing agreements with large or long-term customers;
our ability to maintain the security and integrity of our data;
our ability to deliver services timely without interruption;
our ability to maintain our access to data sources;
government regulation and changes in the regulatory environment;
litigation or regulatory proceedings;
regulatory oversight of “critical activities”;
our ability to effectively manage our costs;
economic and political stability in the United States and international markets where we operate;
our ability to effectively develop and maintain strategic alliances and joint ventures;
our ability to timely develop new services and the market’s willingness to adopt our new services;
our ability to manage and expand our operations and keep up with rapidly changing technologies;
our ability to acquire businesses, successfully secure financing for our acquisitions and timely consummate such acquisitions;
the possibility that we will not successfully integrate the operations of our acquisitions, control the costs of integrating our acquisitions or realize the intended benefits of such acquisitions;
our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property, trade secrets and other forms of unpatented intellectual property;
our ability to defend our intellectual property from infringement claims by third parties;
the ability of our outside service providers and key vendors to fulfill their obligations to us;
further consolidation in our end-customer markets;
the increased availability of free or inexpensive consumer information;
losses against which we do not insure;
our ability to make timely payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness;
our ability to satisfy covenants in the agreements governing our indebtedness;
our ability to maintain our liquidity;
share repurchase plans; and
our reliance on key management personnel.



There may be other factors, many of which are beyond our control, that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements, including factors disclosed under the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this report. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this report in the context of these risks and uncertainties.
The forward-looking statements contained in this report speak only as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to publicly release the result of any revisions to these forward-looking statements, to reflect the impact of events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this report.



PART I
Unless the context indicates otherwise, any reference to the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refers to TransUnion and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.

ITEM 1 BUSINESS
Overview
TransUnion is a leading global information and insights company that makes trust possible between businesses and consumers, working to help people around the world access opportunities that can lead to a higher quality of life. That trust is built on TransUnion’s ability to deliver safe, innovative solutions with credibility and consistency. We call this Information for Good.
Grounded in our heritage as a credit reporting agency, we have built robust and accurate databases of information for a large portion of the adult population in the markets we serve. We use our data fusion methodology to link and match an increasing set of disparate data to further enrich our database. We use this enriched data, combined with our expertise, to continuously develop more insightful solutions for our customers, all in accordance with global laws and regulations. Because of our work, organizations can better understand consumers in order to make more informed decisions, and earn consumer trust through great, personalized experiences, and the proactive extension of the right opportunities, tools and offers. In turn, we believe consumers can be confident that their data identities will result in better offers and opportunities.
We provide solutions that enable businesses to manage and measure credit risk, market to new and existing customers, verify consumer identities, mitigate fraud, and effectively manage call center operations. Businesses embed our solutions into their process workflows to deliver critical insights and enable effective actions. Consumers use our solutions to view their credit profiles and access analytical tools that help them understand and manage their personal financial information and take precautions against identity theft. We have deep domain expertise across a number of attractive industries, which we also refer to as verticals, including Financial Services and Emerging Verticals, which consists of Insurance, Services and Collections, Tenant and Employment, Technology, Commerce & Communications, Public Sector, Media, and other emerging verticals we serve, as well as our Neustar business. We have a global presence in over 30 countries and territories across North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.
Our addressable market includes the global data and analytics market, which continues to grow as companies around the world increasingly recognize the benefits of data and analytics-based decision making, and as consumers recognize the important role that their data identities play in their ability to procure goods and services. There are several underlying trends supporting this market growth, including the proliferation of data, advances in technology and analytics that enable data to be processed more quickly and efficiently to provide business insights, and growing demand for these business insights across industries and geographies. Leveraging our established position as a leading provider of information and insights, we have grown our business by expanding the breadth and depth of our data, strengthening our analytics capabilities to deliver innovative solutions, expanding into complementary adjacencies and vertical markets, investing in technology infrastructure to leverage capabilities to best serve our customers, and enhancing our global operating model. As a result, we believe we are well positioned to expand our share within the markets we currently serve and capitalize on the larger data and analytics opportunity.
Our solutions are based on a foundation of data assets across financial, credit, alternative credit, identity, phone activity, digital device information, marketing, bankruptcy, lien, judgment, insurance claims, automotive and other relevant information obtained from thousands of sources including financial institutions, private databases and public records repositories. We refine, standardize and enhance this data using sophisticated algorithms to create proprietary databases. Our acquisition of Neustar, Inc. (“Neustar”), and particularly its OneID platform, will further enhance our ability to deliver real-time, persistent identity resolution of disparate data fragments and attributes in a privacy compliant manner. Our technology infrastructure allows us to efficiently integrate our data with our analytics and technology capabilities to create and deliver innovative solutions to our customers and to quickly adapt to changing customer needs. Our deep analytics resources, including our people and tools driving predictive modeling and scoring, customer segmentation, benchmarking and forecasting, enable us to provide businesses and consumers with better insights.
We leverage our differentiated capabilities in order to serve a global customer base across multiple geographies and industry verticals. We offer our solutions to business customers in Financial Services, Insurance and other industries, and our customer base includes many of the largest companies in the industries we serve. We sell our solutions to leading consumer lending banks, credit card issuers, alternative lenders, online-only lenders (“FinTechs”), Point of Sale (“POS”)/Buy Now Pay Later (“BNPL”) lenders, auto lenders, auto insurance carriers, cable and telecom operators, retailers, and federal, state and local government agencies. We have been successful in leveraging our brand, our expertise and our solutions and have a leading presence in several high-growth international markets. Millions of consumers across the globe also use our data to help manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft.
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We believe we have an attractive business model that has recurring and diversified revenue streams, low capital requirements, significant operating leverage and strong and stable cash flows. The proprietary and embedded nature of our solutions and the integral role that we play in our customers’ decision-making processes have historically translated into high customer retention and revenue visibility. We continue to deliver organic growth by increasing our sales to existing customers, developing new solutions and gaining new customers. We have a diversified portfolio of businesses across our segments, reducing our exposure to cyclical trends in any particular industry vertical or geography. We operate primarily on contributory data models in which we typically obtain updated information including a growing set of public record and alternative data at little or no cost, as we develop new solutions and expand into new industries and geographies. We are evolving our hybrid public-private cloud technology infrastructure to ensure that our systems remain highly secure, reliable, scalable, and performant by design. We are focused on processes and foundational technology that allows us to leverage demand-led consumption from public cloud providers and from our high performance privately owned infrastructure.
During 2020, the economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic had a material and adverse impact on numerous aspects of our business, including our results of operations in all of the markets where we operate. During 2021, we saw ongoing improvements in our results of operations in all the markets where we operate. However, given ongoing uncertainty and the unpredictable nature of the pandemic, including the rise of variants of the virus and the effectiveness of vaccines against those variants, COVID-19 may have a material and adverse impact on various aspects of our business in the future, including our results of operations.
Total revenues increased to $2,960.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $2,530.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a year-over-year increase of 17.0%. Our income from continuing operations increased to $370.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $305.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a year-over-year increase of 21.2%.
Adjusted EBITDA increased to $1,156.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 from $953.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, representing a year-over-year increase of 21.3%. As of December 31, 2021, the book value of our debt was $6,365.9 million. See Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations - Key Performance Measures,” for our definition of Adjusted EBITDA and the reconciliation to net income attributable to TransUnion.
Our Evolution
We are dedicated to building upon our foundation as a global information and insights company that makes trust possible, so people around the world can access the opportunities that can lead to a higher quality of life. We have been in business for over 50 years and have established a long track record of providing innovative solutions to businesses and consumers. Since our founding as a provider of regional credit reporting services, we have built a comprehensive, valuable, and unique database of U.S. consumer information to build products that span many industry verticals. We have also strengthened our data, analytics and technology delivery capabilities and acquired complementary businesses enabling us to enhance our solutions. Leveraging our foundational strength in credit risk oriented products, we have also expanded our solution sets into complementary competencies such as fraud mitigation and digital marketing, which are further strengthened by our acquisition of Neustar and several acquisitions in our Media vertical.
Globally, we continue to grow our presence, building and acquiring credit reporting agencies in new geographies, establishing strong international footholds to expand into other emerging markets, and expanding the verticals served and solutions offered in local markets. We have also expanded the reach of our consumer solutions both directly and by partnering with other market leaders and innovators.
As part of our continued evolution, we have invested in a number of strategic initiatives that we believe will allow us to cater to the growing demand for data and analytics, provide differentiated solutions and better serve our customers. These initiatives include:
Growing our Data: We continue to invest in the breadth and depth of our data. We introduced the concept of trended data to provide the trajectory of a consumer’s risk profile, used public records data to enhance the scope of business issues we can address, incorporated alternative data into our databases to allow for a more comprehensive risk assessment of banked and unbanked consumers, and have made several recent acquisitions in our Media vertical to add yet another dimension to our ability to match data in a digital world. Our acquisition of Neustar adds new digital identifier datasets, most notably phone activity data, as well as improved capabilities to link and match certain of our datasets. We believe we are the largest provider in the United States of both nationwide consumer credit data and comprehensive, diverse public records data. We continue to improve the quality of our data, provide deeper insights and create differentiated solutions for our customers.
Expanding into New Verticals and Geographic Markets: We have established and grown our presence in diversified verticals such as Insurance, Public Sector, and Media, as well as expanded our reach into the
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communications market with our acquisition of Neustar and the reach of our consumer offerings by partnering with traditional and emerging providers in new verticals. We have also diversified geographically by establishing a presence in attractive high-growth and strategic international markets such as the United Kingdom, India, Colombia and the Philippines.
Broadening our Solution Sets: From our foundation in the credit risk space, we have expanded into adjacent solution areas that can leverage our datasets and competencies, most notably fraud and marketing. Our Neustar acquisition adds scale and broadens the scope of our fraud and marketing solutions, which can be sold across verticals.
Strengthening our Analytics Capabilities: We have strengthened our analytics capabilities by leveraging modern technology and differentiated data assets, strategic acquisitions, utilizing more advanced tools and growing our analytics team. This has allowed us to create solutions that produce greater insights and more predictive results, which help our customers make better decisions. Our strengthened analytics capabilities have also shortened our time-to-market to create and deliver these solutions to our customers.
Investing in our Technology: Technology is at the core of the solutions we provide to our customers. We continue to make significant investments to evolve our technology infrastructure by leveraging both internal and external resources. We also leverage the latest data and analytics technologies, enabling us to be quicker and increase our operational efficiency. Our significant ongoing investments allow us to organize and handle high volumes of disparate data, improve delivery speeds, provide better availability, strengthen product development capabilities and continuously enhance our information security measures. With the acquisition of Neustar, we have bolstered our identity resolution capabilities through its OneID platform. Our technology also allows us to build and leverage capabilities across multiple geographies and industry verticals.
Enhancing our Global Operating Model: We continue to enhance our business processes and capabilities to support our growth. We have structured our Global Solutions organization around key capabilities such as credit, fraud, marketing, analytics, decisioning, and others, and staffed the teams with experienced leaders to develop and diffuse configurable platform solutions across our geographies and vertical markets. Our Global Operations organization has centralized previously disparate functions, focusing on high-volume, repeatable activities that deliver consistent and predictable outcomes at speed. Our Global Technology organization has invested to further streamline our application ecosystem and optimize to more modern and services oriented architecture. To address our customers’ needs, we have hired additional industry experts, which has allowed us to create and sell new vertical-specific solutions. Our global sales force structure includes dedicated teams for our largest customers, shared sales teams for our mid-sized customers, and call center support teams for our smaller customers, which increases our sales team’s effectiveness across our target markets.
We believe that our ongoing focus on evolving with the market and with our customers’ needs ensures continued improvement in our overall services to businesses and consumers. Leveraging our trusted brand, global scale and strong market position in the verticals we serve will allow us to capitalize on business opportunities worldwide and contribute to our long-term growth.
Our Market Opportunity
We believe we are well-positioned to capitalize on the long-term trend of businesses and consumers using data and analytics to make more informed decisions and manage risk more effectively. As worldwide spending on data and analytics increases, we believe there are several key trends in the global macroeconomic environment affecting the geographies and industry verticals we serve that will create increasing demand for our solutions:
Rapid Growth in Data Creation and Application: Larger and more diversified datasets are now assembled faster while the breadth of analytical applications and solutions has expanded. Companies are increasingly relying on business analytics and data technologies to help process this data in a cost-efficient manner. Non-traditional sources of data have become important in deriving alternative metrics.
Proliferation of Digital Commerce: Increases in online purchasing activity, particularly since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, is creating new challenges and opportunities for businesses and consumers. Businesses are looking for solutions to improve targeting precision and identity verification in these digital environments, in order to enable better consumer experiences. We believe there is ample demand for data and insights to help businesses make better decisions, leveraging digital identity information and advanced analytics. Additionally, consumers are seeking more frictionless digital experiences, while also gaining a heightened awareness of and concern about the risks of identity theft.
Advances in Technology and Analytics Unlocking the Value of Data: Ongoing advances in data collection, storage and analytics technology have contributed to the greater use and value of data and analytics in decision making. As businesses have gained the ability to rapidly aggregate and analyze data, they increasingly expect access to real-time data and analytics from their information providers as well as solutions that fully integrate into their workflows. We
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believe this has made sophisticated technology critical for gaining and retaining business in the risk and information services industry.
Greater Adoption of Data Solutions Across New and Existing Industry Verticals: With the proliferation of data, we believe companies across new and existing industry verticals recognize the value of risk information and analytical tools, particularly when tailored to their specific needs.
Financial Services Industry: There is strong competition in the financial services space, with traditional financial services companies and consumer lenders competing against an increasing number of new FinTechs and POS/BNPL lenders. FinTechs and POS/BNPL lenders provide access to credit in a fast and efficient manner by utilizing sophisticated risk assessment tools that leverage data, such as behavioral data, transactional data and employment and credit information. Traditional lenders are also increasing their use of these new applications and data in order to grow their businesses while addressing regulatory requirements, lowering operating costs and better serving their customers.
Insurance Industry: As consumers increasingly obtain quotes from multiple insurers in an effort to lower their costs, insurers are trying to improve the accuracy of their risk assessments and initial quotes. For example, insurance carriers are using driver violation data to uncover offenses that will impact pricing earlier in the quoting process so consumers have a more accurate view of the premiums they will be charged.
Other Emerging Verticals: In addition to insurance, we offer solutions in a diversified portfolio of other emerging verticals, which now includes our recent acquisition of Neustar, as well as Tenant and Employment, Services and Collections, Public Sector, Media and others. Neustar provides solutions across marketing, risk and communications, with strong customer relationships across financial services, telecommunications, and media verticals, among others. Our Tenant and Employment business provides data and insights to make informed investment, hiring, and rental decisions. In Services and Collections, our solutions improve third party collectors’ bottom line and help provide a quality customer experience by delivering actionable consumer insights and services. Within the Media vertical, our highly accurate consumer data helps companies improve their marketing investments, providing identity and audience solutions to reach the right consumers across digital channels. Our suite of solutions in the Public Sector gives government agencies the superior data assets, analytics, and security they need to manage compliance and boost services for the constituents they serve. We also offer data-driven solutions in other verticals that address the entire customer lifecycle in industries such as technology, commerce and communications, services, and retail.
Increasing Lending Activity in Emerging International Markets: As economies in emerging markets continue to develop and mature, we believe there will continue to be favorable socio-economic trends, such as an increase in the size of the middle class and a significant increase in the use of financial services by under-served and under-banked consumers. In addition, credit penetration, as measured by the proportion of credit active adults, is relatively low in emerging markets, such as India. Furthermore, the widespread adoption and use of mobile phones in emerging markets have enabled greater levels of financial inclusion and access to banking and credit. We expect the populations in emerging markets to continue to become more credit active, resulting in increased demand for our services.
Increased Management and Monitoring of Personal Financial Information and Identity Protection by Consumers: We expect demand for consumer solutions to continue to rise with greater consumer awareness of the importance and usage of their credit information, increased risk of identity theft due to data breaches and increasingly available free credit information. The proliferation of mobile devices has also made data much more accessible, enabling consumers to manage their finances and monitor their information in real-time. We believe these trends will continue to drive growth for our consumer business. Our acquisition of Sontiq, Inc. (“Sontiq”) in particular expands our value proposition in the identity protection space.
Our Competitive Strengths
Comprehensive and Unique Datasets
Our long operating history and thought leadership in the industry have allowed us to build comprehensive and unique data assets that would be difficult for a new market entrant to replicate. Our solutions are based on a foundation of financial, credit, alternative credit, fraud, marketing, identity, bankruptcy, lien, judgment, automotive and other relevant information obtained from thousands of sources including financial institutions, private databases, public records repositories, and other alternative data sources. We refine, standardize and enhance this data using sophisticated algorithms to create proprietary databases. We are constantly updating our data to keep it current, and we continue to identify opportunities to acquire additional data. We believe that our data is unique and differentiates us from our competitors. We own several proprietary datasets such as consumer credit information, driver violation history, phone activity, digital device identifiers, business data and rental payment history. Our global data assets encompass alternative data, such as the voter registry in India, a vehicle information database in
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South Africa, and a mobile device database from our acquisition of iovation, Inc. (“iovation”). We believe we are the largest provider of scale in the United States to possess both nationwide consumer credit data and comprehensive, diverse public records data, which allows us to better predict behaviors, assess risk and address a broader set of business issues for our customers.
Innovative and Differentiated Solutions
We consistently focus on innovation to develop new and enhanced solutions that meet the evolving needs of our customers. We believe our specialized data, analytics and solution service, as well as our collaborative approach with our customers, differentiates us from our competitors. Our solutions are often scalable across different customers, geographies and verticals. Several examples of our innovative and differentiated solutions include:
CreditVision: We continue to enhance our credit data by including new data fields, enriching values in existing data fields and expanding account history. Our enhanced credit data has been combined with hundreds of algorithms to produce CreditVision and CreditVision Link, the market-leading trended data and alternative data solutions that provide greater granularity and evaluate consumer behavior patterns over time. This results in a more predictive view of the consumer, increases the total population of consumers who can effectively be scored, and helps consumers gain improved pricing.
Marketing: Our Marketing Solutions offer advanced depth, breadth, and sophistication of the marketing identity graph, leveraging new identity signals, such as in-home connected devices, and new matching models/algorithms that deepen the configurability of matched outcomes, and expanding always-on points of distribution to connect to more technology and media end-points. We have continued the expansion of audience creation tools and data availability, including an expanded set of available attributes and tools available to marketers for the rapid development and deployment of highly targeted audience segments. Our Advanced Automation for Analytics suite includes ongoing development of scenario planning and automated allocation tools that enable rapid marketing investment optimization based on detailed performance analysis.
TruValidate: Our TruValidate solutions secure trust across channels and deliver friction-right experiences that empower businesses and consumers to safely and seamlessly transact in a digital world. TruValidate provides an enhanced suite of identity management, authentication, and fraud analytics solutions that protect businesses from fraud, increase acquisition rates and consumer loyalty, and optimize business operations. We continue to invest in innovative identity proofing and authentication services and to expand our comprehensive consumer identity graph to translate the connections between personal and digital data into consumer trust decisions across their omni-channel journey. Further, we expanded our capabilities in the fraud space with our acquisition of Neustar. Neustar’s capabilities enhances our ability to provide superior consumer identity insights and make trust possible between businesses and consumers.
TLOxp: TLOxp leverages proprietary data linking and matching capabilities across thousands of data sources to identify and provide insights on relationships among specific people, assets, locations, and businesses. This allows us to offer enhanced due diligence, investigation, risk management, threat assessment, identity authentication, and fraud prevention and detection solutions. Our ongoing investment in data, analytics, and innovation allows us to continue to help our customers improve critical aspects of their business and to expand our value proposition to serve additional use cases and verticals such as government, law enforcement, insurance, and healthcare.
CreditView: CreditView is an interactive, customer-branded dashboard that empowers consumers to take control of their credit health by providing them with credit information, insights, and educational tools in a comprehensive, user-friendly format. Consumers are able to easily view their credit profiles, see how they have changed over time, receive alerts on key credit changes, simulate the impact of financial decisions on their credit score, understand recommended actions to attain a desired score range, and receive relevant offers for financial products.
With our acquisitions of Neustar and Sontiq, we enhanced our innovative suite of solutions, including the following notable solutions:
Caller Name Services (“CNAM”): Caller Name Services (CNAM) is a Neustar solution that manages the CallerID ecosystem for the majority of U.S. communication services providers. CNAM applies proprietary methodologies to aggregate, build, cleanse, and manage data to clearly and efficiently display a caller’s identity.
Trusted Call Solutions: Trusted Call Solutions is a Neustar solution that helps enterprises and communications providers reduce robocalling and spoofing, promote their brand, and improve call answer rates. Solutions include caller name optimization, robocall mitigation, certified caller, and branded call display.
IdentityForce: IdentityForce is a Sontiq solution that provides identity protection services to consumers, including credit report monitoring, dark web monitoring, identity restoration services, and stolen fund disbursement, all in a
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flexible and user-friendly interface. Additional premium services include credit score simulators, bank monitoring, and reputation monitoring, among other features.
Technology Infrastructure
While technology advances never cease, we continue to evolve our infrastructure and our capabilities to efficiently interface with our clients in the business ecosystems in which we participate. The need to further expand and evolve our enterprise approach to technology has become more significant as TransUnion has become an increasingly global company. Our technology infrastructure allows us to continually improve our overall services to businesses and consumers and ensures that we are well positioned to differentiate our datasets and capabilities. We believe our technology infrastructure capabilities have resulted in increased throughput, improved data matching, greater efficiency, advanced platform flexibility, better information security, and lower operating costs.
Powerful Data Capabilities: Our technology gives us the ability to process, organize and analyze high volumes of data across multiple operating systems, databases and file types as well as to deal with both structured and unstructured data that changes frequently. We process billions of transactions on a daily basis.
Enhanced Linking and Matching: Because our data matching technology is able to interrelate data across disparate sources, industries and time periods, we believe that we are able to create differentiated datasets and provide our customers with comprehensive insights that allow them to better evaluate risk. Neustar’s OneID platform will further enhance our ability to deliver real-time, persistent identity resolution of disparate data fragments and attributes in a privacy compliant manner.
Continuing Evolution of Our Hybrid Public-Private Cloud Infrastructure: At the beginning of 2020, we announced an initiative to further enhance our technology infrastructure through a multi-year investment that we refer to as Project Rise. This investment is a continuing evolution of our hybrid public-private cloud infrastructure, and is a significant upgrade to our existing infrastructure. Project Rise is an initiative designed to ensure that our technology is even more effective, efficient, secure and reliable, which we believe will enable us to perform at our highest level across all of TransUnion. Our investment will be concentrated in streamlining processes, increasing automation, and rapidly adopting a hybrid public and private cloud approach globally for a state-of-the-art technology infrastructure. We are focused on building new capabilities and developing our talent internally, to create an efficient cloud-native workforce that will provide us long-term, sustained benefits.
The benefits we expect to realize under Project Rise include:
refactoring and optimizing our applications into a more modern API-based and microservices-oriented architecture.
simplifying the delivery of our intellectual property on a global basis, further increasing our speed-to-market. We will more easily push our intellectual property into the public cloud and then pull it down for use in a given market. This approach will help us continue our rapid international expansion and more effortlessly deploy solutions across our markets.
creating meaningful scaled economies around company-driven consumption of our infrastructure using cloud-based technology. We will consume and pay for only needed infrastructure as we develop new applications. Using this infrastructure-as-code approach eliminates the time-consuming manual provisioning process and replaces it with auto-provisioning from either the private cloud or a public cloud provider.
utilizing readily available innovative tools from cloud-service providers instead of developing them ourselves. This shift will enable faster product development through new compliance tools, model training, machine learning and other cutting-edge technologies. By employing more highly automated tools with auto-provisioning infrastructure, our developers will focus on value-added, revenue generating work, freeing them from traditional preparation and enablement activities.
accessing the new public cloud business models. For example, public cloud providers have been building application and data marketplaces. This move will help ensure that no matter how data and applications are delivered to customers, whether through a public cloud marketplace or our own Prama DataHub, we will be able to participate.
We have made considerable progress with Project Rise, including the development of a global credit reporting platform to enable consistently higher performance across all global markets. The platform is already deployed locally in Brazil, where we recently received approval to operate as a credit bureau.
With the acquisition of Neustar, we have a unique opportunity to expand the scope of Project Rise, leveraging Neustar’s OneID platform and their established cloud competence to power our non-credit products. We believe this will result in a more scalable, secure, efficient and effective environment, with an upskilled technology workforce, while being cloud provider
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agnostic. This set of capabilities and customer solutions will help us pursue the objectives of Project Rise in a more comprehensive way.
Deep and Specialized Industry Expertise
We have deep expertise in a number of attractive industry verticals including Financial Services, Insurance and other verticals. Our expertise has allowed us to develop sophisticated vertical-specific solutions within these targeted industries that play an integral role in our customers’ decision-making processes and are often embedded into their workflows. Our team includes industry experts with significant experience in the verticals that we target and relationships with leading companies in those verticals. We also have regulatory compliance expertise across the industries that we serve. Together, this expertise provides us with a comprehensive understanding of business trends and insights for customers in these verticals, allowing us to build solutions that cater to these customers’ specific requirements. We have been able to apply our industry knowledge, data assets, technology and analytics capabilities to develop new solutions and revenue opportunities within key verticals. For example, in Financial Services, our differentiated position allowed us to anticipate the increased demand from alternative consumer lending providers, including the prevalence of POS/BNPL lending, to create solutions that catered to these emerging providers. In Insurance, we partnered with a vehicle history data provider to launch a vehicle history score that helps insurance carriers further segment risk based on the attributes of a specific automobile. In Marketing, we recognized that we already had the foundational datasets we needed to compete in audience segmentation and identity resolution, made strategic bolt-on acquisitions, and acquired Neustar to broaden our customer base and deepen our solution capabilities.
Leading Presence in Attractive International Markets
We have been operating internationally for over 30 years and have strong global brand recognition. We have strategically targeted attractive international markets in both developed and emerging economies and have a diversified global presence, including a strong presence in Canada, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific. Local senior management in our International markets provide us with deeper insights into these markets and stronger relationships with our customers. We have leveraged our brand, operating history, global footprint and technology infrastructure to establish new credit bureaus in several international markets, such as Canada in 1989, India in 2001 and the Philippines in 2011. Once we establish a foothold in a region, our model is to expand the services we offer within these markets and then move into adjacent emerging markets. For example, we have used our operations in Hong Kong to expand into other Asia Pacific countries and provide analytic scoring models in the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. We have used our operations in South Africa to expand into neighboring African countries. We have also entered new markets through strategic acquisitions, including Brazil in 2011, Colombia in 2016, and the United Kingdom in 2018.
Proven and Experienced Management Team
Our senior management team has a proven track record of strong performance and significant expertise in the markets we serve, with decades of industry experience. We continue to attract and retain experienced management talent for our businesses. Our team has deep knowledge of the data and analytics sector and expertise across the various industries that we serve. Our team has overseen our expansion into new industries and geographies, while managing ongoing strategic initiatives including our significant technology investments. As a result of the sustained focus of our management team, we have been successful in consistently driving growth, both organically and through acquiring and integrating businesses.
Our Growth Strategy
Enhance Underlying Data, Technology and Analytics Capabilities to Develop Innovative Solutions
As the demand for data and analytics solutions grows across industries and geographies, we will continue to expand the scope of our underlying data, improve our tools and technology and enhance our analytics and technology solutions capabilities to provide innovative solutions that address this demand. As the needs of businesses and consumers continue to evolve, we continue to help them meet their challenges, which our ongoing investments in data, technology and analytics enable us to do more quickly and efficiently, for example with machine learning, artificial intelligence and deep learning. With our insights and information, our customers can explore connections between people, businesses, assets and locations; identify assets, uncover inconsistencies and identify misrepresentations; and uncover evidence of financial distress.
Our continuous technology investments have also reduced the time to market for new solutions, which allow us to react quickly to customer requirements. In addition, these investments also improve efficiency, reliability, security, and performance. We also continue to take advantage of strategic partnerships that differentiate us from our competitors. For example, by leveraging our fast, available, and secure technology infrastructure and working together with one of our strategic partners we were able to provide real-time credit decisions in a matter of seconds, enabling the use of a new virtual credit card through consumers’ digital wallets.

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Further Penetrate Existing Industry Verticals with Current and New Solutions
We are a leading provider of risk and information solutions in several industry verticals today, including Financial Services and Insurance. We believe there is significant opportunity for further growth within these industries by expanding the number of customers to whom we sell our current solutions as well as by creating innovative new solutions that we can use to grow our presence in these industries. We focus on developing new solutions that address evolving customer needs within our industry verticals. In order to more effectively address these opportunities, we have redeployed and reallocated our sales resources to focus either on new customer opportunities or on selling additional services and solutions to existing customers. With our leading market positions, existing strong relationships in the Financial Services and Insurance verticals, and with our consumer partners, we believe we have the opportunity to further penetrate our existing customer base and capture a strong proportion of their spending across the consumer lifecycle.
Establish Positions in New, Adjacent Industry Verticals
In addition to increasing penetration in industries where we have a substantial presence, we continue to create solutions that address customer needs in attractive new industries. Our strategy is to identify new solutions that can then be deployed to other markets where they may be applicable. We believe that our capabilities allow us to quickly create and deliver solutions to new industries and geographies where information-based analytics and technology solutions capabilities are currently underutilized. We continue to target other verticals such as Public Sector, Tenant and Employment, and Media, where we see opportunities to leverage our existing data, analytics and technology solutions capabilities. Our Neustar acquisition is highly complementary from a vertical perspective, with strong positions in Financial Services, Retail, Telecom, and Media. Neustar’s heritage strength with Telecom providers represents an expanded growth opportunity for TransUnion.
Extend Further Into Fraud and Marketing Solutions
From our heritage in the credit risk space, we have expanded into adjacent solution areas that can leverage our datasets and competencies, most notably fraud and marketing. These solutions have broad applicability across the customers that we serve, including in key verticals such as financial services, insurance and public sector. We have broadened these capabilities through acquisitions, most notably iovation in 2018 and three subsequent acquisitions in 2019 and 2020, to build out our Media vertical. In addition, our 2021 acquisition of Neustar adds scale and broadens the scope of our fraud and marketing solutions, which can be sold across verticals.
Expand our Presence in Attractive International Markets
We believe international markets present a significant opportunity for growth. We have significant scale in some of the world’s fastest growing markets, such as India and Latin America, which positions us to take advantage of the favorable dynamics in these regions as their populations become more credit active. We leverage solutions developed in the United States and deploy them to international markets, after localizing them to individual market requirements. For example, after launching CreditVision in the United States, we have expanded our offerings with similar solutions globally. In markets where we have established a presence, we will expand further into adjacent verticals, such as Insurance and Consumer Solutions, as well as complementary solutions, such as marketing and fraud. We intend to continue to expand into new geographic markets by forming alliances with financial services institutions, industry associations and other local partners, and by pursuing strategic acquisitions. Across all our international expansion initiatives, we will continue to leverage our technology infrastructure to drive speed to market, scale and differentiation.
Broaden Our Reach in Consumer Market through Direct and Indirect Channels
Our consumer business continues to deliver growth with strong margins, driven by our innovative solutions and flexible and collaborative partnership model that has expanded the market for consumer services, along with greater consumer awareness of the value of their credit information and increased risk of identity theft. With our acquisition of Sontiq, we have added to our foundational credit monitoring solutions with a comprehensive set of identity protection offerings. Our strategy is to grow our own member base in the direct channel as well as expand our reach through partnerships in the indirect channel. Across both channels, our focus is on delivering value-added solutions and features while continuing to improve the consumer experience with more user-friendly interfaces and better customer service and educational tools. Within our indirect channel, we will continue to leverage and enhance our flexible technology platform to expand our relationship with existing partners as well as develop relationships with new partners and enter new verticals. We believe that partnerships not only enable us to grow our own business, but also expand the overall market and provide us access to new consumer segments. We will also continue to leverage our approach in the U.S. consumer market to further expand our consumer operations globally.
Pursue Strategic Acquisitions
We will continue to pursue acquisitions to accelerate growth within our existing businesses and diversify into new businesses. We are focused primarily on opportunities that expand our geographic footprint, increase the breadth and depth of our datasets,
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enhance our services, provide us with industry expertise in our key verticals and deepen our presence in our international markets.
On December 1, 2021, we completed two of our largest investments in the history of the company with the acquisitions of Neustar and Sontiq. Neustar, a premier identity resolution company with leading solutions in Marketing, Risk and Communications, enables customers to build connected consumer experiences by combining decision analytics with real-time identity resolution services driven by its OneID platform. We believe the acquisition of Neustar provides immediate scale to our identity resolution services through Neustar’s large, well-established customer base, accelerates the future growth of our identity-based solutions and expands our powerful digital identity capabilities through the addition of Neustar’s distinctive data and analytics, enabling consumers and businesses to transact online with greater confidence.
Sontiq provides solutions including identity monitoring, restoration, and response products and services to empower consumers and businesses to help proactively protect against identity theft and cyber threats. The acquisition of Sontiq enables access to an attractive new base of customers and consumers through a recurring subscription-based revenue model and also complements and expands our Consumer Interactive solutions portfolio by providing valuable identity protection services for consumers. Sontiq’s identity security monitoring products incorporate our credit data, are highly complementary to our capabilities and are expected to significantly increase our opportunities for growth.
In our Media vertical, we have made three recent acquisitions, Tru Optik Data Corp. (“TruOptik”), Signal Digital, Inc. (“Signal”) and TruSignal, Inc. (TruSignal”), which provide us with an industry-leading position within a clearly defined part of the Media industry. These acquisitions allow us to deliver more real-time targeted data across online streaming services to improve our customers’ digital marketing campaigns. Together with TransUnion’s complementary capabilities, we believe these acquisitions allow us to enhance the customer base with higher accuracy and transparency that is missing in current identity and audience development products in the digital marketing space.
We enhanced our fraud and identity management service offerings when we acquired iovation in June 2018, one of the most advanced providers of device-based information in the world. We launched IDVision with iovation, which combines our extensive personal data with iovation’s digital data to offer an enhanced suite of identity management, authentication and fraud prevention solutions that protect businesses from fraud while improving the online user experience. This results in a global network of fraud and risk insights that help businesses to quickly and accurately determine authentic customers from fraudulent ones.
We continue to seek opportunities to expand our geographic footprint and further accelerate our growth. In June 2018, we entered the world’s second largest credit market in the U.K. Our U.K. business provides data, analytics and technology solutions to help businesses and consumers make informed decisions across a diverse group of industries. With a strong record of growth and innovation in both core credit and emerging solutions we have achieved strong market success.
In addition to the above, over the years we have completed a number of other acquisitions. We have also made a number of minority investments in businesses, which typically include strategic partnership arrangements that allow us to develop, expand, and deepen relationships with innovative companies with promising technologies and capabilities. We have a strong track record of integrating our acquisitions and driving long-term value creation, and we will continue to maintain a disciplined approach to pursuing acquisitions.
Segment Overview
We manage our business and report our financial results in three reportable segments: U.S. Markets, International and Consumer Interactive. We also report expenses for Corporate, which provides shared services and conducts enterprise functions. See Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” and Note 20, “Reportable Segments,” for further information about our reportable segments.
U.S. Markets
Our U.S. Markets segment provides consumer reports, actionable insights and analytics to businesses. These businesses use our services to acquire customers, assess consumer ability to pay for services, identify cross-selling opportunities, measure and manage debt portfolio risk, collect debt, verify consumer identities and mitigate fraud risk.
We deliver our solutions across multiple industry vertical markets and report disaggregated revenue as follows:
Financial Services: The Financial Services vertical, which accounts for approximately 60.2% of our 2021 U.S. Markets revenue, consists of our consumer lending, mortgage, auto and cards and payments lines of business. Our financial services customers consist of most banks, credit unions, finance companies, auto lenders, mortgage lenders, FinTechs, and other consumer lenders in the United States. We also distribute our solutions through most major resellers, secondary market players and sales agents. Beyond traditional lenders, we work with a variety of credit arrangers, such as auto dealers and peer-to-peer lenders. We provide solutions across every aspect of the lending lifecycle; customer acquisition and engagement, fraud and ID
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management, retention and recovery. Our products are focused on mitigating risk and include credit reporting, credit marketing, analytics and consulting, identity verification and authentication and debt recovery solutions.
Emerging Verticals: Emerging Verticals include Insurance, Services and Collections, Tenant and Employment, Technology, Commerce & Communications, Public Sector, Media, and other emerging verticals we serve, as well as our Neustar business. Our solutions in these verticals are also data-driven and address the entire customer lifecycle. We offer onboarding and transaction processing products, scoring and analytic products, marketing solutions, fraud and identity management solutions and customer retention solutions.
Within U.S. Markets, we leverage our comprehensive data assets, data matching expertise and predictive analytics to develop solutions:
Comprehensive Data Assets: Our credit database contains the name and address of substantially all of the U.S. credit-active population, a listing of their existing credit relationships and their timeliness in repaying debt obligations. The information in our database is voluntarily provided by thousands of credit-granting institutions and other data furnishers. We enhance our data assets with alternative credit sources. We also actively source information from courts, government agencies and other public records including suits, liens, judgments, bankruptcies, professional licenses, real property, vehicle ownership, other assets, driver violations, criminal records and contact information for certain databases. We also have proprietary datasets including device-based information and phone activity data, and continue to look for opportunities to gain access to new datasets. Our databases are updated, reviewed and monitored on a regular basis.
Predictive Analytics: Our predictive analytics capabilities allow us to analyze our proprietary datasets and provide insights to our customers to allow them to drive better business decisions. Our tools allow customers to investigate past behavior, reasonably predict the likelihood of future events and strategize actions based on those predictions. We have numerous tools such as predictive modeling and scoring, customer segmentation, benchmarking, forecasting, fraud modeling and campaign optimization, all of which cater to specific customer requirements. Our predictive analytics capabilities are developed by an analytics team with deep industry experience and a broad array of specialized qualifications.
International
The International segment provides services similar to our U.S. Markets segment to businesses in select regions outside the United States. Depending on the maturity of the credit economy in each country, services may include credit reports, analytics and technology solutions services and other value-added risk management services. We also have insurance, business and automotive databases in select geographies. These services are offered to customers in a number of industries including financial services, retail credit, insurance, automotive, collections, public sector and communications, and are delivered through both direct and indirect channels. The International segment also provides consumer solutions similar to those offered by our Consumer Interactive segment to help consumers proactively manage their personal finances. We report disaggregated revenue of our International segment for the following regions:
Canada: We have operated in Canada since 1989 and are one of only two nationwide consumer reporting agencies in the Canadian market. We operate across multiple verticals in Canada with leading positions in insurance and automotive with a strong and growing presence in Financial Services. Our Canadian customer base encompasses some of the largest companies in their verticals, including many of the top banks, credit card issuers, insurance companies and auto manufacturer lenders.
Latin America: We have been active in Latin America since 1985 when we entered the Puerto Rican market, and now operate in numerous Central and South American countries, including a strong presence in two major markets - Colombia and Brazil. We also have significant credit bureau businesses in the Dominican Republic and Chile, and a 25.69% ownership interest in Trans Union de México, S.A., the primary credit reporting agency in Mexico. In Guatemala, we maintain a centralized database that services Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
United Kingdom: In June 2018, we entered the world’s second largest credit market, the United Kingdom, when we acquired Callcredit, the second largest consumer credit bureau in the U.K. Our U.K. business provides data, analytics and technology solutions to help businesses and consumers make informed decisions across a diverse group of industries, and serves a broad set of customers including leading financial institutions and customers in other attractive, high-growth segments.
Africa: We launched our operations in Africa by entering South Africa in 1993, and have since expanded into many surrounding countries. We are highly diversified and serve a variety of industries through traditional consumer credit reporting services, insurance solutions, auto information solutions, and commercial credit information services. We provide risk and information solutions in Africa to many of the leading banks, retailers, auto dealer groups, and insurance companies.
India: In 2001, we partnered with prominent Indian financial institutions to create CIBIL, the first consumer and business credit reporting agency in India. We have since launched the country’s first generic credit score, which is the most widely used credit
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score across the financial services industry in India. In the absence of a comprehensive national ID, we created an innovative matching algorithm that allowed us to create the most extensive consumer credit database in India. We also own or have access to several non-credit data sources that we use to enhance our solutions, including the national voters’ registry, the confirmed and suspected fraud registry, property registry and tax ID database. We offer a suite of risk and information solutions across the credit lifecycle for banks, telecommunication companies and insurance companies, as well as consumer solutions such as online credit reports and scores. India has become our second largest and our fastest growing region.
Asia Pacific: Our operations in Asia Pacific include markets such as Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, and China. Asia Pacific is a growing market with increasing demand for credit driven by a rising middle class that offers significant growth potential in analytics and technology solutions. We do business with many of the top financial institutions in the countries we serve. We have had a majority ownership interest in the principal consumer credit reporting company in Hong Kong since 1998. In partnership with leading credit card issuers in the Philippines, we launched the first consumer credit reporting agency in that market in 2011. We have also built credit risk scores for the National Credit Bureau of Thailand, in which we have a 12.25% ownership interest, the Credit Bureau of Singapore and the Credit Bureau of Malaysia.
Consumer Interactive
The Consumer Interactive segment offers solutions that help consumers manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft. Services in this segment include credit reports and scores, credit monitoring, identity protection and resolution, and financial management for consumers. The segment also provides solutions that help businesses respond to data breach events. Our products are provided through user-friendly online and mobile interfaces and are supported by educational content and customer support. With our acquisition of Sontiq in 2021, we have added to our foundational credit monitoring solutions with a comprehensive set of identity protection offerings. Our Consumer Interactive segment serves consumers through both direct and indirect channels.
Direct: We provide services directly to consumers, primarily on a subscription basis through websites and mobile applications. Product features include credit reports, credit scores and analysis, alerts to changes in credit information, debt analysis, debt and retirement calculators, identity protection services, and the ability to restrict third-party access to a consumer’s TransUnion and Equifax credit reports, commonly known as a “credit freeze,” through our paid subscription offering, and free credit freezes and credit reports. We complement these features with educational content that explains how credit and financial data is used in various industries to evaluate consumers and how a consumer’s financial choices impact this evaluation. Our integrated, data-driven marketing strategy spans multiple channels including paid search, online display and email, which allows us to efficiently acquire and retain high quality consumers.
Indirect: We also provide our services to partners who may offer them on a stand-alone basis or with their own or other branded services as a bundle to consumers, governmental agencies and businesses in support of fraud or credit protection, credit monitoring, identity protections, and data breach services. We offer a broad suite of solutions that include many of the features, educational content and customer support available in our direct channel. We have taken a proactive and flexible partnership approach, which has resulted in long-term strategic relationships with some of the largest providers of credit information or identity protection services in the U.S. consumer market as well as with several large financial institutions. Through these partnerships, we have significantly expanded the overall market as well as our ability to provide consumers with the information and tools they want.
Corporate
Corporate provides support services to each segment, holds investments and conducts enterprise functions. Certain costs incurred in Corporate that are not directly attributable to one or more of the segments remain in Corporate. These costs are typically enterprise-level costs and are primarily administrative in nature.
Markets and Customers
We have a highly diversified customer base that includes companies across multiple industries, including Financial Services and Insurance. A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from companies in the financial services industry and from sales in the United States.
We leverage our comprehensive data assets, industry expertise and our technology infrastructure, allowing us to build solutions once and deploy them multiple times across the different verticals and regions. Our evolution to a hybrid public-private cloud infrastructure augments this capability. We provide services to our customers through real-time, online delivery for services such as credit reports and predictive scores, in batch form for services that help our customers proactively acquire new customers, cross-sell to existing customers and help them monitor and manage risk, and through our software-as-a-service offerings, which include a number of solutions that help businesses interpret data, maximize reimbursements, visualize insights, predict model results and apply their customer-specific criteria to facilitate real-time automated decisions at the time of customer interaction, and through our websites to consumers, for various subscription-based and transaction-based products in the United States and in other regions we serve.
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We market our services globally, primarily through our own sales force. We have dedicated sales teams for our largest customers focused by industry group and geography. These dedicated sales teams provide strategic account management and direct support to customers. We use shared sales teams to sell our services to mid-size customers. Smaller customers’ sales needs are serviced primarily through call centers. We also market our services through indirect channels such as resellers, who sell directly to businesses and consumers. Our interactive direct-to-consumer services are sold primarily through our website.
Seasonality
Seasonality in the U.S. Markets segment is correlated to volumes of online credit data purchased by our financial services and mortgage customers, and our sales have generally been higher during the second and third quarters. Seasonality in our International segment is driven by local economic conditions and relevant macroeconomic market trends. In our Consumer Interactive segment, demand for our products is usually higher in the first half of the year, impacted by seasonality and our advertising spend.
Competition
The market for our services is highly competitive. We compete primarily on the basis of differentiated solutions, datasets, analytics capabilities, ease of integration with our customers’ technology, stability of services, customer relationships, innovation and price. We believe that we compete favorably in each of these categories. Our competitors vary based on the business segment, industry vertical and geographical market that our solutions address.
In our U.S. Markets segment, our competition generally includes Equifax, Experian and LexisNexis, in addition to certain competitors with whom we only compete in specific industry verticals. For example, we compete with FICO in the Financial Services vertical and with Verisk Analytics, Inc. in the Insurance vertical. In marketing solutions, we compete with Experian and LiveRamp.
In our International segment, we generally compete with Equifax and Experian directly or indirectly through their subsidiaries or investments. We also compete with other competitors that may focus on a particular vertical, country or region.
In our Consumer Interactive segment, we generally compete with Equifax, Experian, FICO and LifeLock as well as personal finance websites, some of whom offer free credit information.
In addition to these competitors, we also compete with a number of other companies that may offer niche solutions catering to more specific customer requirements.
We believe the services we provide to our customers reflect our understanding of our customers’ businesses, the depth and breadth of our data and the quality of our analytics and technology solutions capabilities. By integrating our services into our customers’ workflows, we ensure efficiency, continuous improvement and long-lasting relationships.
Information Technology
Technology
The continuous operation of our information technology systems is fundamental to our business. Our information technology systems collect, refine, access, process, deliver and store the data that is used to provide our solutions. Our technology relies on several third-party best-of-breed solutions as well as proprietary software and tools which we integrate into our platforms. Our control of our technology and infrastructure allows us to prioritize any changes and manage the roll-out of any upgrades or changes. We contract with various third-party providers to help us maintain and support our systems.
We have established technology Centers-of-Excellence that utilize similar tools and technology in order to provide scale and efficiency in modifying existing applications and developing new applications for our businesses. We deploy new development methodologies globally to enable rapid delivery of solutions and increase our speed-to-market. Our technology team includes both our own employees as well as additional resources from third-party providers.
We believe that our technology is at the core of our innovative solutions, and we continually invest in our technology and thought leaders to be a market leader. We continue to make significant investments in our infrastructure to leverage the latest data and analytics technologies.
We believe that our technology platform enables us to be quicker, more efficient and more cost-effective across each step of our process chain, including receiving, consolidating and updating data, implementing analytics and technology solutions capabilities, creating innovative solutions, delivering those solutions to our customers and incorporating customer feedback. Our platform has significant scale and capacity and enables us to deliver actionable information immediately to our customers as well as expand customer segments and develop solutions to meet new needs. Our technology infrastructure gives us the ability to organize and handle high volumes of disparate data, maintain and improve our delivery speeds, increase availability and enhance our product development capabilities, while at the same time lowering our overall cost structure. We are also
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investing in our digital employee experience; we believe that to attract and retain talent we need to ensure an efficient and productive environment.
Data Centers and Business Continuity
In order to create redundancy and increase resiliency, we utilize multiple data centers in all of our major markets. We generally employ similar technologies and infrastructures in each data center to enable the optimal sharing of technical resources across geographies.
We maintain a framework for business continuity that includes written policies requiring each business and operating unit to identify critical functions. Our businesses and operating units have processes in place that are designed to maintain such functions in case there is a disruptive event. We also have a specific disaster recovery plan that will take effect if critical infrastructure or systems fail or become disabled.
As part of our program, each business unit’s continuity plan is periodically updated and stored in a centralized database. These plans are monitored and reviewed by our compliance team. From time to time, our compliance team tests one or more of these plans using desktop exercises or in connection with actual events. We also periodically confirm the state of preparedness of our most critical disaster recovery procedures. We maintain systems redundancy plans for our primary U.S. data centers that allow for the transfer of capacity between geographically disbursed environments in the event there is a failure of computer hardware or a loss of our primary telecommunications lines or power sources. On an enterprise basis, our systems are designed to recover most of our operational capacity in a scenario where our primary data centers become inoperable.
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, our business continuity plans have kept us well positioned to continue to successfully operate our business. In each of the markets we serve, we quickly and effectively moved to a work-from-home model that we generally continue to adhere to today. This has allowed us to protect our associates and the broader population while continuing to operate our businesses and provide services and solutions to customers and consumers.
Security
The security and protection of personal data is TransUnion’s highest priority. TransUnion’s written information security program focuses on managing risk and fulfilling global information security regulations and standards, including ISO/IEC 27001:2013, NIST CSF, PCI-DSS, HIPAA, and other international regulatory expectations in locations where we operate. Our information security program follows a risk-based approach that continuously evaluates threats, industry events and asset values to introduce enhancements when necessary. We deploy a wide range of physical and technical safeguards that provide security around the collection, storage, use, access and delivery of information we have in our possession or with our partners. These safeguards include firewalls, intrusion protection and monitoring, anti-virus and malware protection, vulnerability threat analysis, management and testing, advanced persistent threat monitoring, forensic tools, encryption technologies, data transmission standards, contractual provisions, customer and partner credentialing, identity and access management, data loss, access and anomaly reports and training programs for associates. We, with other global financial services organizations, including U.S. nationwide consumer credit reporting companies, share cyber threat and attack information through our participation in the Financial Information Sharing and Analysis Council and other forums that may be targeted at our industry to better understand and monitor our systems and our connectivity to our customers and partners, as well as how specific solutions that were implemented to protect against such attacks are performing. We undergo SSAE 18 reviews annually, and many of our major customers routinely audit our security controls. We conduct an annual Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) compliance program and remain PCI certified. We regularly engage independent third-party organizations to evaluate TransUnion’s security program via testing and assessments. Additionally, we hire third parties to conduct independent information security assessments.
Intellectual Property and Licensing Agreements
Our intellectual property is a strategic advantage and protecting it is critical to our business. Because of the importance of our intellectual property, we treat our brand, software, technology, know-how, concepts and databases as proprietary. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights under the trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret and other intellectual property laws of the United States and other countries, as well as through the use of licenses and contractual agreements, such as nondisclosure agreements. While we hold various patents, we do not rely primarily on patents to protect our core intellectual property. Through contractual arrangements, disclosure controls and continual associate training programs, our principal focus is to treat our key proprietary information and databases as trade secrets. Also, we have registered certain trademarks, trade names, service marks, logos, internet URLs and other marks of distinction in the United States and foreign countries, the most important of which is the trademark TransUnion name and logo. This trademark is used in connection with most of the services we sell and we believe it is a known mark in the industry.
We own proprietary software that we use to maintain our databases and to develop and deliver our services. We develop and maintain business-critical software that transforms data furnished by various sources into databases upon which our services are
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built. We also develop and maintain software to manage our consumer interactions, including providing disclosures and resolving disputes. In all business segments, we develop and maintain software applications that we use to deliver services to our customers, through a software-as-a-service model. In particular, we develop and maintain analytics and technology solutions infrastructure that we host and make available for our customers to develop and deploy analytics to improve business performance.
We license certain data and other intellectual property to other companies on arms-length terms that are designed to protect our rights to our intellectual property. We generally use standard licensing agreements and do not provide our intellectual property to third parties without a nondisclosure and license agreement in place.
We also license certain intellectual property that is important for our business from third parties. For example, we license credit-scoring algorithms and the right to sell credit scores derived from those algorithms from third parties for a fee.
Legal and Regulatory Matters
Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements is a top priority. We are subject to numerous laws governing the collection, protection, dissemination and use of non-public personal information, credit information and other types of information. These laws are enforced by U.S. federal, state and local regulatory agencies, foreign regulatory authorities and, in some instances, through private civil litigation. Our failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements could have a negative impact on our financial condition or overall operations.
We proactively manage our compliance with laws and regulations through a global legal, risk and compliance department that ensures enterprise standards are followed. Through the legal, risk and compliance functions, we provide training to our associates, monitor all material laws and regulations, establish compliance policies, routinely review internal processes to determine whether business practice changes are warranted, assist in the development of new products and services, and regularly meet with principal regulators and legislators to ensure transparent engagement regarding our operations.
U.S. Data and Privacy Protection
Our U.S. operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations governing privacy, data security, consumer protection and the use of consumer credit information. Certain of these laws provide for civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized release of, or access to, this protected information. The laws and regulations that affect our U.S. business include, but are not limited to, the following:
Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA): FCRA applies to consumer credit reporting agencies, including us, as well as data furnishers and users of consumer reports. FCRA promotes the accuracy, fairness and privacy of information in the files of consumer reporting agencies that engage in the practice of assembling or evaluating information relating to consumers for certain specified purposes. FCRA limits what information may be reported by consumer reporting agencies, limits the distribution and use of consumer reports, establishes consumer rights to access and dispute their own credit files, includes provisions designed to prevent identity theft and assist fraud victims, requires consumer reporting agencies to make a free annual credit report available to consumers and imposes many other requirements on consumer reporting agencies, data furnishers and users of consumer report information. Violation of FCRA can result in civil and criminal penalties. Regulatory enforcement of FCRA is under the purview of the Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”), the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) and state attorneys general, acting alone or in concert with one another.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”): The Dodd-Frank Act prohibits unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices (“UDAAP”) with respect to consumer financial products and provides the CFPB with authority to enforce those provisions. The CFPB has stated that its UDAAP authority may allow it to find statutory violations even where a specific regulation does not prohibit the relevant conduct, or prior published regulatory guidance or judicial interpretation has found the activity to be in accordance with law.
The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the “EGRRCPA”): The EGRRCPA amended certain parts of the Dodd-Frank Act, FCRA and other U.S. federal laws applicable to us. Among other things, the EGRRCPA requires that credit reporting agencies provide consumers with at least one year to submit a fraud alert, establishes a national security freeze that prevents credit reporting agencies from disclosing the content of a consumer report and must be provided free of charge upon formal request, and mandates that credit reporting agencies notify consumers of their right to a credit freeze and provide instructions on how to implement and lift a freeze. The EGRRCPA also requires credit reporting agencies to provide additional credit protections and services to veterans and active duty U.S. military consumers.
State unfair and deceptive practices acts and practices laws: Many states have enacted statutes that prohibit unfair and deceptive acts and practices, relating to, among other things, marketing, disclosures and billing practices within the state or directed to consumers within the state. The Company and others in the industry may be subject to these laws with respect to the marketing of consumer credit information products.
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Gramm-Leach Bliley Act (the “GLBA”): The GLBA regulates, among other things, the receipt, use and disclosure of non-public personal information of consumers held by financial institutions, including us. Several of our datasets are subject to GLBA provisions, including limitations on the use or disclosure of the underlying data and rules relating to the technological, physical and administrative safeguarding of non-public personal information. Violation of the GLBA can result in civil and criminal liability.
Drivers’ Privacy Protection Act (the “DPPA”):  The DPPA requires all states to safeguard certain personal information included in licensed drivers’ motor vehicle records from improper use or disclosure. The DPPA limits the use of this information sourced from State departments of motor vehicles to certain specified purposes, and does not apply if a driver has consented to the release of their data. The DPPA imposes criminal fines for non-compliance and grants individuals a private right of action, including actual and punitive damages and attorneys’ fees. The DPPA provides a federal baseline of protections for individuals, and is only partially preemptive, meaning that except in a few narrow circumstances, state legislatures may pass laws to supplement the protections made by the DPPA. Many states’ laws are more restrictive than the federal law.
Data security breach laws:  All states and some territories have adopted data security breach laws that may require notice be given to affected consumers in the event of a breach of personal information, and in some cases the provision of additional benefits such as free credit monitoring to affected individuals. Some of these laws require additional data protection measures over and above the GLBA data safeguarding requirements. If data within our system is compromised, we may be subject to provisions of various state security breach laws, including regulatory investigations or enforcement actions from state attorneys general, who enforce state data breach or unfair and deceptive practices laws.
Identity theft laws: Under the federal EGRRCPA, consumers can place a security freeze on their credit reports o and obtain one-year of fraud alerts free of charge. In addition, all states and the District of Columbia have passed laws that give consumers the right to place a security freeze on their credit report. Generally, these state laws require us to respond to requests for a freeze within a certain period of time, to send certain notices or confirmations to consumers in connection with a security freeze and to unfreeze files upon request within a specified time period.
Federal Trade Commission Act (the “FTC Act”):  The FTC Act prohibits unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices. We must comply with the FTC Act when we market our services, such as consumer credit monitoring services. Our data collection, use and disclosure practices and the security measures we employ to safeguard the personal data of consumers could also be subject to the FTC Act, and our data practices or our failure to safeguard data adequately may subject us to regulatory scrutiny or enforcement action.
The Credit Repair Organizations Act (“CROA”):  CROA regulates companies that claim to be able to assist consumers in improving their credit standing. Some courts have applied CROA to credit monitoring services offered by consumer reporting agencies and others. CROA allows for a private right of action and permits consumers to recover all money paid for alleged “credit repair” services in the event of violation.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (“HIPAA”) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”):  HIPAA and HITECH require companies to implement reasonable safeguards to prevent intentional or unintentional misuse or wrongful disclosure of protected health information. We obtain protected health information from healthcare providers and payors of healthcare claims under a “business associate” agreement that is subject to the privacy, security and transactional requirements imposed by HIPAA and HITECH. As a business associate, we are obligated to limit our use and disclosure of health-related data to certain statutorily permitted purposes, HIPAA regulations, as outlined in our business associate agreements, and to preserve the confidentiality, integrity and availability of this data. HIPAA and HITECH also require, in certain circumstances, the reporting of breaches of protected health information to affected individuals and to the United States Department of Health and Human Services. A violation of any of the terms of a business associate agreement or noncompliance with HIPAA or HITECH data privacy or security requirements could result in administrative enforcement action and/or imposition of statutory penalties by the United States Department of Health and Human Services or a state attorney general. HIPAA and HITECH requirements supplement but do not preempt state laws regulating the use and disclosure of health-related information; state law remedies, which can include a private right of action, remain available to individuals affected by an impermissible use or disclosure of health-related data.
California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”) and the Colorado Privacy Act (“CPA”): The CCPA gives California consumers certain rights regarding the collection and disclosure of their personal information and requires businesses to make certain disclosures and take certain other acts in furtherance of those rights. The CCPA exempts much of the data whose use is covered by FCRA, GLBA, HIPAA and DPPA and therefore much of our data is not subject to the CCPA. The CCPA creates a private right of action for security breaches. In 2020, California adopted the California Privacy Rights Act (the “CPRA”), which amends and expands CCPA. Most of the substantive provisions of CPRA will go into effect in 2023. Two additional
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comprehensive state privacy laws, the VCDPA and the CPA, which apply to Virginia and Colorado consumers, respectively, will go into effect in 2023. These laws are similar to the CCPA, but provide additional rights and restrictions, such as the right to correction and restrictions on the use of sensitive personal information.
Requirements for Government Contractors: Special requirements may apply to TransUnion when providing services to U.S. federal, state and local government agencies. For example and without limitation, TransUnion may need to abide by the Privacy Act of 1974, the Internal Revenue Service’s Publication 4812, and various Federal Acquisition Regulation and associated supplemental contract clauses. Each of these laws, regulations and contract clauses dictates particular measures for the protection of personal information or information that is otherwise categorized as sensitive by the government. Government agencies frequently modify or supplement these requirements, and consequences for violations of applicable requirements may include penalties, civil liability and for severe infractions, criminal liability.
We are also subject to U.S. federal and state laws that are generally applicable to any U.S. business with national or international operations, such as antitrust laws, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act and various employment laws. We continuously monitor U.S. federal and state legislative and regulatory activities that involve credit reporting, data privacy and security, and other relevant subjects to identify issues in order to remain in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.
International Data and Privacy Protection
We are subject to data protection, privacy and consumer credit laws and regulations in other jurisdictions where we conduct business. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, the following:
Canada: The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act of 2000 (“PIPEDA”) and substantially similar provincial laws govern how private sector organizations collect, use and disclose personal information in the course of commercial activities. The PIPEDA gives individuals the right to access and request correction of their personal information collected by such organizations. The PIPEDA requires compliance with the Canadian Standard Association Model Code for the Protection of Personal Information. Most Canadian provinces also have laws dealing with consumer reporting. These laws typically impose an obligation on credit reporting agencies to have reasonable processes in place to maintain the accuracy of the information, place limits on the disclosure of the information and give consumers the right to have access to, and challenge the accuracy of, the information.
Colombia: The Colombian Financial Data Protection Regime (Law 1266 of 2008) regulates the collection, use and transfer of personal data pertaining to financial services, including credit reporting. The Colombian General Data Protection Regime (Law 1581 of 2012 and Decree 1377 of 2013) covers regulation of all other personal data. Both of these regimes have applicability to credit reporting services in Colombia and together address obligations of information furnishers, database owners, consumer right of access, consumer consent and permitted information disclosures.
European Union: Our data management activities and the commercial solutions we make available to the European market are subject to the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). This law establishes significant data protection and privacy standards that empower European Union consumers to exercise significant control over their personal data. In addition to a litany of substantive provisions empowering consumers to limit how data may be used, GDPR also imposes operational, data processing, and other technical requirements with which we must comply. Failure to comply with any provision of GDPR could result in significant regulatory or other enforcement penalties.
United Kingdom: Our UK operations are subject to GDPR and the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulation (the “PECR”), which together govern the processing of personal data pertaining to UK citizens. Enforcement of data regulation and consumer privacy matters in the UK resides with the Information Commissioner’s Office, an independent body set up to uphold the rights of individuals in relation to the use of their personal data. The provision of credit referencing services in the UK is also a regulated activity that is authorized by the Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”). The FCA has regulated credit reference agencies since 2014 with the objectives of protecting consumers, protecting financial markets and promoting competition. TransUnion UK (previously Callcredit), Experian and Equifax were granted full FCA authorization in early 2016 and are therefore all required to follow the rules and principles issued by the FCA.
In 2018, the FCA introduced Open Banking which aims to improve customer experience and to increase competition in the banking sector. Consumers can share transaction data with third parties via application program interfaces (“APIs”) to identify best products and take up multi-bank products. As part of Open Banking, the Second Payment Services Directive allows merchants to retrieve a customer’s account data from their bank with their consent. The implementation of Open Banking platforms has increased the number of payment service providers available to consumers beyond traditional banks. TransUnion UK is an authorized information services provider under this regime.
South Africa: The National Credit Act of 2005 (the “NCA”) and its implementing regulations govern credit bureaus and consumer credit information. The NCA sets standards for filing, retaining and reporting consumer credit
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information. The NCA also defines consumers’ rights with respect to accessing their own information and addresses the process for disputing information in a credit file. The NCA is enforced by The National Credit Regulator who has authority to supervise and examine credit bureaus. In addition, the Protection of Personal Information Act (“POPIA”), went into effect on July 1, 2020, with enforcement commencing on July 1, 2021. POPIA regulates the processing of personal information of legal and juristic persons, and imposes compliance obligations and sanctions.
India: The Credit Information Companies Regulation Act of 2005 (“CICRA”) requires entities that collect and maintain personal credit information to ensure that it is complete, accurate and protected. Entities must adopt certain privacy principles in relation to collecting, processing, preserving, sharing and using credit information. Data protection is currently covered under provisions of the Information Technology Act of 2000 as well as regulations promulgated by the Reserve Bank of India. In addition, India has pending privacy legislation that proposes to cover personal and non-personal data and provides for penalties to be paid to the government, compensation to individuals, as well as criminal liability in certain cases.
Hong Kong: Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance (“PDPO”) and The Code of Practice on Consumer Credit Data regulate the operation of consumer credit reference agencies. They prescribe the methods and security controls under which credit providers and credit reference agencies may collect, access and manage credit data. The PDPO was amended in 2021 to provide new powers to the Privacy Commissioner and to make criminal the act of publicly releasing information identifying an individual or organization – a practice known as “doxxing.”
Brazil: The Brazilian General Data Protection Law (“LGPD”), went into effect on September 18, 2020. LGPD regulates the processing of personal information and imposes compliance obligations and sanctions comparable to those of GDPR. The sanctions provisions of the LGPD went into effect on August 1, 2021.
Other International Laws
Credit information and credit information companies have also become subject to, directly or indirectly, further governance regulations, such as those historically reserved for banks. We are also subject to various laws and regulations generally applicable to all businesses in the other countries where we operate.
Sustainability
We are dedicated to making meaningful, positive contributions to the world and the communities we serve. We are making an impact through our commitments to advancing underrepresented people, enabling life-changing access to credit in mature and emerging markets, and using trended data to help consumers improve their access to credit.
We focus our environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) efforts on issues that are important to our business and to our key stakeholders. In 2021, we conducted our first global ESG materiality assessment, which confirmed the importance of cybersecurity, privacy, and corporate governance to the continued success of our business. The assessment also confirmed the importance of TransUnion continuing to focus efforts on enhancing financial inclusion, employee wellness, diversity, equity, and inclusion (“DEI”), and climate change.
Climate Change
Climate change continues to be a key issue for companies worldwide. In 2021, in partnership with an external consultant, we completed a survey of our greenhouse gas emissions and designed new climate change commitments. We set two climate change targets: reaching net zero scope 1 and scope 2 greenhouse gas emissions by 2025; and 30 percent reductions on leased real estate scope 3 emissions by 2030, using a 2019 baseline. We plan to achieve these reduction targets through renewable energy purchases, an environmentally-friendly cloud migration, and our real estate consolidation strategy. For emissions that TransUnion is unable to reasonably avoid, we expect to mitigate our impact through annual offset purchases until we reach our target.
Human Capital Management
We employed approximately 10,200 employees at December 31, 2021. Central to our long-term strategy is attracting, developing and retaining the best talent globally with the right skills to drive our success. Our board of directors receives regular updates on human capital topics such as sustainability, employee retention, engagement and survey results, enterprise compliance, investigations and associate health and safety.
Other than certain employees in Brazil, none of our employees is currently represented by a labor union or has terms of employment that are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationships with our employees to be good and have not experienced any work stoppages.
Diversity Strategy
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We see diversity as a source of strength and know that it is essential to our mission, innovation and growth. At TransUnion, we know that diversity helps us win. We have a three-pronged approach to our diversity, equity and inclusion strategy consisting of the following:
Hire: We seek to expand the diversity of our talent pool through a dedicated diversity recruiter, targeted sourcing methods and job postings.
Develop: We cultivate diverse talent internally through development plans and customized programming for underrepresented groups.
Promote: We continue to expand our rigorous pay and promotion practices designed to remove bias, including ongoing pay equity analysis and compensation review, and development opportunities designed to ensure fair and equitable treatment of all employees.
We believe that a critical component of continuing to deliver innovative products to consumers and customers is maintaining diverse and inclusive teams. Detailed below is our progress in advancing diversity in our leadership and associate population in alignment with Sustainability Accounting Standards Board reporting standards. Select workforce diversity statistics for 2021, 2020, and 2019 are as follows:
For the Year Ended December 31,
2021 5
2020
2019
Percent of TransUnion’s Worldwide Workforce Based in the United States
42%
51%
51%
Worldwide Gender
Women Senior Leaders (1)
32%
30%
27%
Women Overall (2)
40%
40%
41%
U.S. Race/Ethnicity (3)
Black Senior Leaders (1)
5%
3%
3%
Black Overall (2)
9%
9%
9%
Hispanic Senior Leaders (1)
7%
7%
6%
Hispanic Overall (2)
8%
8%
8%
Asian Senior Leaders (1)
12%
10%
9%
Asian Overall (2)
20%
20%
20%
Other Senior Leaders (1,4)
1%
2%
2%
Other Overall (2,4)
2%
2%
2%
1.Senior Leaders include all employees at a Vice President level or above.
2.Overall includes all employees, inclusive of the Senior Leader grouping.
3.U.S. race/ethnicity diversity demographic information includes only U.S. employees who chose to self-identify and excludes those who did not self-identify.
4.Other race/ethnicity includes American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, and those employees who disclosed two or more categories.
5.Excludes employee populations from our recent acquisitions of Neustar and Sontiq that are predominately located in the United States. We will incorporate these employee populations in our Human Capital metrics in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, and our 2022 Sustainability Report. The employee population from our Healthcare business, which we divested on December 17, 2021, is included in 2019 and 2020 data, but excluded from 2021 data.
Talent Acquisition and Retention
Our talent acquisition and retention strategy is multi-faceted. We aim to recruit the most qualified candidates, and strive for a diverse and well-balanced workforce.
We reward and support employees through competitive pay, benefits, and perquisite programs that allow employees and their families to thrive. Our benefit offerings are designed to meet the varied and evolving needs of a diverse workforce tailored to the variety of businesses and geographies in which we operate.
We continue to support our employees and their families, especially in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes child care benefits that provide access to onsite or community centers, enhanced back-up care choices that include personal caregivers, child care referral assistance and child care provider discounts, help with homework and a variety of parenting educational resources. We also provide our employees with access to free mental and behavioral health resources, including on-
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demand access to the Employee Assistance Program for employees and their dependents. We continue to look for new ways to support our employees and their families through the pandemic.
Employee Engagement, Training and Development
We prioritize and invest in helping our employees grow and build their careers through several training and development programs. These include online, instructor-led and on-the-job learning formats as well as executive talent and succession planning paired with an individualized development approach.
Safety and Wellness
We have heightened our focus on the health and safety of our associates, our customers, and the wider communities in which we operate. We quickly and effectively moved to a work-from-home model in the early days of the pandemic in every market we serve, and continue to generally adhere to that model. This has allowed us to protect our associates and the broader population while continuing to operate our businesses and provide services and solutions to customers and consumers. In addition, we have taken several actions to support those who are financially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in the locations where we operate.
See our upcoming 2021 Sustainability Report and 2021 Diversity Report for additional information on these topics. Information contained in such reports are not incorporated herein by reference and should not be considered part of this report.
Available Information
Through our corporate website under the heading “About Us - Investor Relations,” at http://www.transunion.com, you can access electronic copies of our governing documents free of charge, including our Corporate Governance Guidelines and the charters of the committees of our board of directors. In addition, through our website, you can access the documents we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments thereto, as soon as reasonably practicable after we file or furnish them. You also may request printed copies of our SEC filings or governance documents, free of charge, by writing to our corporate secretary at the address on the cover of this report. Information contained on our website is not incorporated herein by reference and should not be considered part of this report.
In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
Our corporate headquarters are located at 555 West Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois 60661, and our telephone number is (312) 985-2000.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the following risks as well as the other information included in this report, including “Selected Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and related notes. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. However, the selected risks described below are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or those we currently view to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Our results of operations have been materially and adversely impacted and could be materially and adversely impacted in the future by the COVID-19 global pandemic or the outbreak of other highly infectious diseases.
The global spread and unprecedented impact of COVID-19 has created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption. The countries and territories in which our services and solutions are sold are in varying stages of restrictions and re-opening to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain jurisdictions have begun re-opening only to return to restrictions in the face of increases in new COVID-19 cases. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic continues to materially and adversely impact our business, operations, and consolidated financial statements remains highly uncertain and will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including: the duration, scope, severity, and any resurgences of the pandemic; the emergence of new variants; the development, availability, distribution and effectiveness of vaccines; the public’s perception of the safety of the vaccines and their willingness to take the vaccines; the continued impact on worldwide macroeconomic conditions, including interest rates, employment rate, consumer confidence, and foreign exchange rates in each of the markets in which we operate; governmental, business, and individuals’ actions that have been, and continue to be, taken in response to the pandemic (which could include limitations on or changes to our operations or mandates to provide services); the effect on our customers; changes in customer and consumer demand for our services; the effect on consumer confidence and spending; our ability to sell and provide our services, including the impact of travel restrictions and people working from home; the ability of our customers to pay for our services; the health of, and the effect on, our workforce; and the potential effects on our internal controls, including those over financial reporting, as a result of changes in working environments for our employees and business partners.
During 2020, the economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic had a material and adverse impact on numerous aspects of our business, including customer demand for our services and solutions, our consolidated financial statements and the price of our securities. During 2021, we saw ongoing improvements in our results of operations in all the markets where we operate. However, given ongoing uncertainty and the unpredictable nature of the pandemic, including the rise of variants of the virus and the effectiveness of vaccines against those variants, COVID-19 may have a material and adverse impact in the future on various aspects of our business, including our consolidated financial statements and the price of our securities. The impact of COVID-19 may also heighten other risks discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, which could materially and adversely impact various aspects of our business, including our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our revenues are concentrated in the U.S. financial services and consumer credit industries. When these industries or the broader financial markets experience a downturn, demand for our services and revenues may be adversely affected.
Our largest customers, and therefore our business and revenues, depend on favorable macroeconomic conditions and are impacted by the availability of credit, the level and volatility of interest rates, inflation, employment levels, consumer confidence and housing demand. In addition, a significant amount of our revenues are concentrated among certain customers, industries, product offerings and in distinct geographic regions, primarily in the United States. In 2021 and 2020, 53% and 56% of our consolidated gross revenues, respectively, were concentrated in our U.S. Markets Financial Services vertical and our Consumer Interactive segment, collectively. Our customer base suffers when financial markets experience volatility, liquidity issues and disruption, which has occurred in the past and which could reoccur, and the potential for increased and continuing disruptions going forward, present considerable risks to our business and revenue. Changes in the economy have resulted, and may continue to result, in fluctuations in volumes, pricing and operating margins for our services. If businesses in these industries experience economic hardship, we cannot assure you that we will be able to generate future revenue growth. In addition, if consumer demand for financial services and products and the number of credit applications decrease, the demand for our services could also be materially reduced. These types of disruptions could lead to a decline in the volumes of services we provide our customers and could negatively impact our revenue and results of operations.
We are subject to significant competition in the markets in which we operate and we may face significant competition in the new markets that we plan to enter.
The markets for our services are highly competitive, and we may not be able to compete successfully against our competitors, which could impair our ability to sell our services. We compete on the basis of differentiated solutions, datasets, analytics
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capabilities, ease of integration with our customers’ technology, stability of services, customer relationships, innovation and price. Our regional and global competitors vary in size, financial and technical capability, and in the scope of the products and services they offer. Some of our competitors may be better positioned to develop, promote and sell their products. Larger competitors may benefit from greater cost efficiencies and may be able to win business simply based on pricing. We consistently face downward pressure on the pricing of our products, which could result in reduced prices for certain products, or a loss of market share. Our competitors may also be able to respond to opportunities before we do, by taking advantage of new technologies, changes in customer requirements or market trends.
Our Consumer Interactive segment experiences competition from emerging companies. For example, prior to 2008, Equifax and Experian were our top competitors for direct-to-consumer credit services, such as credit reports and identity theft protection services. In the past several years, there has been an influx of other companies offering similar services, some of whom leverage the free services mandated by law to be provided by nationwide credit reporting agencies. These developments have resulted in increased competition.
Many of our competitors have extensive customer relationships, including relationships with our current and potential customers. New competitors, or alliances among competitors, may emerge and gain significant market share. Existing or new competitors may develop products and services that are superior to ours or that achieve greater market acceptance. If we are unable to respond to changes in customer requirements as quickly and effectively as our competition, our ability to expand our business and sell our services may be adversely affected.
Our competitors may be able to sell services at lower prices than we do, individually or as part of integrated suites of several related services. This ability may cause our customers to purchase from our competitors rather than from us. Price reductions by our competitors could also negatively impact our operating margins or harm our ability to obtain new long-term contracts or renewals of existing contracts on favorable terms. Additionally, some of our customers may develop products of their own that replace the products they currently purchase from us, which would result in lower revenue.
We also expect that there will be significant competition in the new markets that we enter. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete effectively against current and future competitors. If we fail to successfully compete, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
To the extent the availability of free or relatively inexpensive consumer information increases, the demand for some of our services may decrease.
Public and commercial sources of free or relatively inexpensive consumer information have become increasingly available and this trend is expected to continue. Public and commercial sources of free or relatively inexpensive consumer information, including free credit information from lead generation companies and from banks, may reduce demand for our services. Beginning in April 2020, we began offering free credit reports on a weekly basis. To the extent that our customers choose not to obtain services from us and instead rely on information obtained at little or no cost from these public and commercial sources, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our relationships with key long-term customers may be materially diminished or terminated.
We have long-standing relationships with a number of our customers, many of whom could unilaterally terminate their relationship with us or materially reduce the amount of business they conduct with us at any time. Our customer agreements relating to our core credit reporting service offered through our U.S. Markets segment are terminable upon advance written notice (typically ranging from 30 days to six months) by either us or the customer, which provides our customers with the opportunity to renegotiate their contracts with us or to award more business to our competitors.
We also provide our services to business partners who may combine them with their own or other branded services to be offered as a bundle to consumers, governmental agencies and businesses in support of fraud or credit protection, credit monitoring, identity authentication, insurance or credit underwriting, and collections. Some of these partners are the largest providers of credit information or identity protection services to the U.S. consumer market.
Market competition, business requirements, financial condition and consolidation through mergers or acquisitions, could adversely affect our ability to continue or expand our relationships with our customers and business partners. There is no guarantee that we will be able to retain or renew existing agreements, maintain relationships with any of our customers or business partners on acceptable terms or at all, or collect amounts owed to us from insolvent customers or business partners. The loss of one or more of our major customers or business partners could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to develop successful new services in a timely manner, or if the market does not adopt our new services, our ability to maintain or increase our revenue could be adversely affected.
In order to keep pace with customer demands for increasingly sophisticated service offerings, to sustain expansion into growth industries and to maintain our profitability, we must continue to innovate and introduce new services to the market. The process
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of developing new services is complex and uncertain. Our industry solutions require extensive experience and knowledge from within the relevant industry. We must commit significant resources to this effort before knowing whether the market will accept new service offerings. Additionally, our business strategy is dependent on our ability to expand into new markets and to bring new products to market. We may not successfully enter into new markets or execute on our new services because of challenges in planning or timing, technical hurdles, difficulty in predicting market demand, changes in regulation or a lack of appropriate resources. Additionally, even if we successfully develop new products, our existing customers might not accept these new products or new markets might not adopt our products due to operational constraints, high switching costs or general lack of market readiness. Failure to successfully introduce new services to the market could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our outside service providers and key vendors are not able to or do not fulfill their service obligations, our operations could be disrupted and our operating results could be harmed.
We depend on a number of service providers and key vendors such as telecommunication companies, software engineers, data processors, software and hardware vendors and providers of credit score algorithms, who are critical to our operations. These service providers and vendors are involved with our service offerings, communications and networking equipment, computer hardware and software and related support and maintenance. Although we have implemented service-level agreements and have established monitoring controls, our operations could be disrupted if we do not successfully manage relationships with our service providers, if they do not perform or are unable to perform agreed-upon service levels, or if they are unwilling to make their services available to us at reasonable prices. If our service providers and vendors do not perform their service obligations, it could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
There may be further consolidation in our end-customer markets, which may adversely affect our revenues.
There has been, and we expect there will continue to be, merger, acquisition and consolidation activity in our customer markets. If our customers merge with, or are acquired by, other entities that are not our customers, or that use fewer of our services, our revenue may be adversely impacted. In addition, industry consolidation could affect the base of recurring transaction-based revenue if consolidated customers combine their operations under one contract, since most of our contracts provide for volume discounts. In addition, our existing customers might leave certain geographic markets, which would no longer require them to purchase certain products from us and, consequently, we would generate less revenue than we currently expect.
Risks Related to Technology and Cybersecurity
Data security and integrity are critically important to our business, and cybersecurity incidents, including cyberattacks, breaches of security, unauthorized access to or disclosure of our intellectual property or confidential information, business disruption, or the perception that confidential information is not secure, could result in a material loss of business, regulatory enforcement, substantial legal liability and/or significant harm to our reputation.
As a global consumer credit reporting agency and provider of risk and information solutions, we collect, store and transmit a large amount of sensitive and confidential consumer information on over one billion consumers, including financial information, personally identifiable information and protected health information. We operate in an environment of significant risk of cybersecurity incidents resulting from unintentional events or deliberate attacks by third parties or insiders, which may involve exploiting highly obscure security vulnerabilities or sophisticated attack methods. These cyberattacks can take many forms, but they typically have one or more of the following objectives, among others:
obtain unauthorized access to confidential consumer information;
manipulate or destroy data; or
disrupt, sabotage or degrade service on our systems.
We experience numerous attempts to access our computer systems, software, networks, data and other technology assets on a daily basis, none of which has resulted in a material data incident or otherwise had any material impact on our business, operations or financial results.
The security and protection of non-public consumer information is TransUnion’s top priority. We devote significant resources to maintain and regularly upgrade the wide array of physical, technical, and contractual safeguards we employ to provide security around the collection, storage, use, access and delivery of information we have in our possession. We cannot assure you that our systems, databases and services will not be compromised or disrupted in the future, whether as a result of deliberate attacks by malicious actors, breaches due to employee error or malfeasance, or other disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures or natural disasters or other catastrophic events. We work to monitor and develop our information technology networks and infrastructure to prevent, detect, address and mitigate the risk of unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses and other events that could have a security impact.
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Further, it is possible that we may acquire a company that has experienced a security incident that the acquired company has yet to discover, investigate and remediate. It is possible that neither the acquired company nor TransUnion may identify the issue in a timely manner and the event could spread more broadly to other parts of TransUnion during the integration effort.
Highly publicized cybersecurity incidents, including the data incident announced by Equifax on September 7, 2017, and more recently, the December 13, 2020 announcement by SolarWinds that its software supply chain was compromised, have heightened consumer, legislative and regulatory awareness of cybersecurity risks. These events continue to embolden individuals or groups to target our systems more aggressively.
The preventive actions we take to address cybersecurity risk, including protection of our systems and networks, may be insufficient to repel or mitigate the effects of cyberattacks in the future as it may not always be possible to anticipate, detect or recognize threats to our systems, or to implement effective preventive measures against all cybersecurity risks. This is because, among other things:
the techniques used in cyberattacks change frequently and may not be recognized until after the attacks have succeeded;
cyberattacks can originate from a wide variety of sources, including sophisticated threat actors involved in organized crime, sponsored by nation-states, or linked to terrorist or hacktivist organizations; and
third parties may seek to gain access to our systems either directly or using equipment or security passwords belonging to employees, customers, third-party service providers or other users.
Unauthorized disclosure, loss or corruption of our data or inability of our customers to access our systems could disrupt our operations, subject us to substantial regulatory and legal proceedings and potential liability, result in a material loss of business and/or significantly harm our reputation.
We may not be able to immediately address the consequences of a cybersecurity incident because a successful breach of our computer systems, software, networks or other technology assets could occur and persist for an extended period of time before being detected due to, among other things:
the breadth and complexity of our operations and the high volume of transactions that we process;
the large number of customers, counterparties and third-party service providers with which we do business;
the proliferation and increasing sophistication of cyberattacks;
the possibility that a malicious third party compromises the software, hardware or services that we procure from a service provider unbeknownst to both the provider and to TransUnion; and
the possibility that a third party, after establishing a foothold on an internal network without being detected, might obtain access to other networks and systems.
The extent of a particular cybersecurity incident and the steps that we may need to take to investigate it may not be immediately clear, and it may take a significant amount of time before such an investigation can be completed and full and reliable information about the incident is known. While such an investigation is ongoing, we may not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, any or all of which could further increase the costs and consequences of a cybersecurity incident.
Due to concerns about data security and integrity, a growing number of legislative and regulatory bodies have adopted consumer notification and other requirements in the event that consumer information is accessed by unauthorized persons and additional regulations regarding the use, access, accuracy and security of such data are possible. In the United States, we are subject to federal and state laws that provide for more than 50 disparate notification regimes. In the event of unauthorized access, our failure to comply with the complexities of these various regulations could subject us to regulatory scrutiny and additional liability.
We may be unable to adequately anticipate, prevent or mitigate damage resulting from increasingly sophisticated methods of illegal or fraudulent activities committed against us, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations and could significantly harm our reputation.
The defensive measures that we take to manage threats, especially cyber-related threats, to our business may not adequately anticipate, prevent or mitigate harm we may suffer from such threats. Criminals use evolving and increasingly sophisticated methods of perpetrating illegal and fraudulent activities. For example, during the first week of September 2020, TransUnion experienced a series of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. While these attacks did not result in any unauthorized access to data or systems, there was disruption to TransUnion’s normal operations including degraded customer response time, intermittent timeouts and degraded internal information technology services utilized by TransUnion associates. TransUnion deploys a number of defensive measures to mitigate DDoS attacks, but persistent attackers can challenge these protections.
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Also, in July 2019 TransUnion Limited, a Hong Kong entity in which the Company holds a 56.25% interest, was the victim of criminal fraud involving employee impersonation and fraudulent requests that successfully targeted TransUnion Limited, which resulted in a series of fraudulently induced wire transfers totaling $17.8 million for which we recorded one-time pre-tax charge plus $3.0 million of administrative expense, for a total of $20.8 million, $17.3 million net of tax, in net income in 2019 ($10.0 million in net income attributable to TransUnion). Fraudulent activities committed against us could disrupt our operations, have an adverse effect on our financial results, subject us to substantial legal proceedings and potential liability, result in a material loss of business and/or significantly harm our reputation.
If we experience system failures, personnel disruptions or capacity constraints, or our customers do not modify their systems to accept new releases of our distribution programs, the delivery of our services to our customers could be delayed or interrupted, which could harm our business and reputation and result in the loss of revenues or customers.
Our ability to provide reliable service largely depends on our ability to maintain the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our computer network, systems and data centers, some of which have been outsourced to third-party providers. In addition, we generate a significant amount of our revenues through channels that are dependent on links to telecommunications providers. Our systems, personnel and operations could be exposed to damage or interruption from fire, natural disasters, pandemic illness, power loss, war, terrorist acts, civil disobedience, telecommunication failures, computer viruses, DDoS attacks or human error. We may not have sufficient redundant operations to cover a loss or failure of our systems in a timely manner. Any significant interruption could severely harm our business and reputation and result in a loss of revenue and customers. Additionally, from time to time we send our customers new releases of our distribution programs, some of which contain security updates. Any failure by our customers to install these new releases could expose our customers to computer security risks.
We could lose our access to data sources which could prevent us from providing our services.
Our services and products depend extensively upon continued access to and receipt of data from external sources, including data received from customers, strategic partners and various government and public records repositories. In some cases, we compete with our data providers. Our data providers could stop providing data, provide untimely data or increase the costs for their data for a variety of reasons, including a perception that our systems are insecure as a result of a data security incidents, budgetary constraints, a desire to generate additional revenue or for regulatory or competitive reasons. We could also become subject to increased legislative, regulatory or judicial restrictions or mandates on the collection, disclosure or use of such data, in particular if such data is not collected by our providers in a way that allows us to legally use the data. If we were to lose access to this external data or if our access or use were restricted or were to become less economical or desirable, our ability to provide services could be negatively impacted, which would adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot provide assurance that we will be successful in maintaining our relationships with these external data source providers or that we will be able to continue to obtain data from them on acceptable terms or at all. Furthermore, we cannot provide assurance that we will be able to obtain data from alternative sources if our current sources become unavailable.
If we fail to maintain and improve our systems, our data matching technology, and our interfaces with data sources and customers, demand for our services could be adversely affected.
In our markets, there are continuous improvements in computer hardware, network operating systems, programming tools, programming languages, operating systems, data matching, data filtering and other database technologies and the use of the internet. These improvements, as well as changes in customer preferences or regulatory requirements, may require changes in the technology used to gather and process our data and deliver our services. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to:
internally develop and implement new and competitive technologies;
use leading third-party technologies effectively;
respond to changing customer needs and regulatory requirements, including being able to bring our new products to the market quickly; and
transition customers and data sources successfully to new interfaces or other technologies.
We cannot provide assurance that we will successfully implement new technologies, cause customers or data furnishers to implement compatible technologies or adapt our technology to evolving customer, regulatory and competitive requirements. If we fail to respond, or fail to cause our customers or data furnishers to respond, to changes in technology, regulatory requirements or customer preferences, the demand for our services, the delivery of our services or our market reputation could be adversely affected. Additionally, our failure to implement important updates could affect our ability to successfully meet the timeline for us to generate cost savings resulting from our investments in improved technology. Failure to achieve any of these objectives would impede our ability to deliver strong financial results.

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Risks Related to Laws, Regulations and Government Oversight:
Our business is subject to various governmental regulations, laws and orders, compliance with which may cause us to incur significant expenses or reduce the availability or effectiveness of our solutions, and the failure to comply with which could subject us to civil or criminal penalties or other liabilities.
Our businesses are subject to regulation under the FCRA, the GLBA, the DPPA, HIPAA, HITECH, the Dodd-Frank Act, the FTC Act and various other international, federal, state and local laws and regulations. See “Business-Legal and Regulatory Matters” for a description of select regulatory regimes to which we are subject. These laws and regulations, which generally are designed to protect the privacy of the public and to prevent the misuse of personal information available in the marketplace, are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. We already incur significant expenses to ensure compliance with these laws.
Currently, public concern is high with regard to the operation of credit reporting agencies in the United States, as well as the collection, use, accuracy, correction and sharing of personal information, including Social Security numbers, dates of birth, financial information, medical information, department of motor vehicle data and other behavioral data. In addition, many consumer advocates, privacy advocates, legislatures and government regulators believe that existing laws and regulations do not adequately protect privacy and have become increasingly concerned with the collection and use of this type of personal information. As a result, several U.S. states have recently introduced and passed legislation to expand data security breach notification rules and to mirror some of the data use limitations required by laws and regulations in the European Union and the U.K. These state laws are intended to provide consumers with greater transparency and control over their personal data. For example, CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020, applies to certain businesses that collect personal information from California residents and establishes several consumer rights, including a right to know what personal information is being collected about them and whether and to whom it is sold, a right to access their personal information and have it deleted, a right to opt out of the sale of their personal information, and a right to equal service and price regardless of exercise of these rights. While the CCPA includes specific exemptions for practices and activities regulated by GLBA or FCRA, including our credit reporting and financial services business lines, it requires, among other things, new disclosures to California consumers, imposes new rules for collecting or using information about minors, and affords consumers new abilities to opt out of certain disclosures of personal information in other portions of our business that are not regulated by GLBA or FCRA. On November 3, 2020, California adopted the California Privacy Rights Act (the “CPRA”), which amends and expands CCPA. It is anticipated that most of the substantive provisions of CPRA will go into effect in 2023.
Public concern regarding identity theft also has led to more transparency for consumers as to what is in their credit reports. We provide credit reports and scores and monitoring services to consumers for a fee, and this income stream could be reduced or restricted by legislation that requires us to provide these services to consumers free of charge. For example, under U.S. federal law today, we are required to provide consumers with one credit report per year free of charge, and beginning in April 2020, we began offering consumers free weekly credit reports.
The following legal and regulatory developments also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations:
amendment, enactment or interpretation of laws and regulations that restrict the access and use of personal information and reduce the availability or effectiveness of our solutions or the supply of data available to customers;
changes in governmental, cultural and consumer attitudes in favor of further restrictions on information collection and sharing, which may lead to regulations that prevent full utilization of our solutions;
failure of data suppliers or customers to comply with laws or regulations, where mutual compliance is required;
failure of our solutions to comply with current laws and regulations; and
failure of our solutions to adapt to changes in the regulatory environment in an efficient, cost-effective manner.
Changes in applicable legislation or regulations that restrict or dictate how we collect, maintain, combine and disseminate information, or that require us to provide services to consumers or a segment of consumers without charge, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In the future, we may be subject to significant additional expense to ensure continued compliance with applicable laws and regulations and to investigate, defend or remedy actual or alleged violations. Any failure by us to comply with applicable laws or regulations could also result in significant liability to us, including liability to private plaintiffs as a result of individual or class action litigation, or may result in the cessation of our operations or portions of our operations or impositions of fines and restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations. Moreover, our compliance with privacy laws and regulations and our reputation depend in part on our customers’ adherence to privacy laws and regulations and their use of our services in ways consistent with consumer expectations and regulatory requirements. Certain of the laws and regulations governing our business are subject to interpretation by judges, juries and administrative entities, creating substantial uncertainty for our business. We cannot predict what effect the interpretation of existing or new laws or regulations may have on our business. See “Business-Legal and Regulatory Matters.”
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The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has supervisory and examination authority over our business and may initiate enforcement actions with regard to our compliance with federal consumer financial laws.
The CFPB has broad authority over our business. This includes authority to issue regulations under federal consumer financial protection laws, such as under FCRA and other laws applicable to us and our financial customers. The CFPB is authorized to prevent “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices” through its regulatory, supervisory and enforcement authority.
In 2012, credit reporting companies like us became subject to a federal supervision program for the first time under the CFPB’s authority to supervise and examine certain non-depository institutions that are “larger participants” of the consumer credit reporting market. The CFPB conducts examinations and investigations, and may issue subpoenas and bring civil actions in federal court for violations of the federal consumer financial laws including FCRA. In these proceedings, the CFPB can seek relief that includes: rescission or reformation of contracts, restitution, disgorgement of profits, payment of damages, limits on activities and civil money penalties of up to $1.0 million per day for knowing violations. The CFPB conducts periodic examinations of us and the consumer credit reporting industry, which could result in new regulations or enforcement actions or proceedings. Actions by the CFPB could result in requirements to alter or cease offering affected products and services, making them less attractive and restricting our ability to offer them.
For example, in January 2017, as part of an agreed settlement with the CFPB, we agreed among other things, to implement certain practice changes in the way we advertise, market and sell products and services offered directly to consumers. In June 2021, we received a Notice and Opportunity to Respond and Advise (“NORA”) letter from the CFPB, informing us that the CFPB’s Enforcement Division is considering whether to recommend that the CFPB take legal action against us and certain of our executive officers. The NORA letter alleges that we failed to comply with and timely implement the Consent Order issued by the CFPB in January 2017, and further alleges additional violations related to Consumer Interactive’s marketing practices. On September 27, 2021, the Enforcement Division advised us that it had obtained authority to pursue an enforcement action. We are currently engaged in active settlement discussions with the CFPB regarding this matter. If our ongoing discussions do not result in a negotiated resolution, we expect that the CFPB will pursue litigation against the Company and these executive officers, seeking restitution, civil money penalties, and injunctive relief. We cannot provide assurance that the CFPB will not ultimately commence litigation against us in this matter, nor are we able to predict the likely outcome of this matter. As of December 31, 2021, we have an accrual of $26.5 million recorded in connection with this matter and there is a reasonable possibility that a loss in excess of the amount accrued may be incurred, and such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition, however, any possible loss or range of loss in excess of the amount accrued is not reasonably estimable at this time. See “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 20, “Contingencies” for information regarding our legal proceedings.
Although we have committed resources to enhancing our risk and compliance programs, actions by the CFPB or other regulators against us could result in reputational harm, payment of damages and civil monetary penalties, injunctive relief and/or restitution, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our compliance costs and legal and regulatory exposure could increase materially if the CFPB or other regulators enact new regulations, change regulations that were previously adopted, modify through supervision or enforcement past regulatory guidance, or interpret existing regulations in a manner different or stricter than have been previously interpreted.
Regulatory oversight of our contractual relationships with certain of our customers may adversely affect our business.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s (the “OCC”) guidance to national banks and federal savings associations on assessing and managing risks associated with third-party relationships, which include all business arrangements between a bank and another entity, by contract or otherwise, requires banks to exercise comprehensive oversight throughout each phase of a bank’s business arrangement with third-party service providers, and instructs banks to adopt risk management processes commensurate with the level of risk and complexity of its third-party relationships. The OCC expects especially rigorous oversight of third-party relationships that involve certain “critical activities.” In light of this guidance, our existing or potential financial services customers subject to OCC regulation may continue to revise their third-party risk management policies and processes and the terms on which they do business with us, which may adversely affect our relationship with such customers.
The outcome of litigation, inquiries, investigations, examinations or other legal proceedings in which we are involved, in which we may become involved, or in which our customers or competitors are involved could subject us to significant monetary damages or restrictions on our ability to do business.
Legal proceedings arise frequently as part of the normal course of our business. These may include individual consumer cases, class action lawsuits and inquiries, investigations, examinations, regulatory proceedings or other actions brought by federal or state authorities or by consumers. The scope and outcome of these proceedings is often difficult to assess or quantify. Plaintiffs in lawsuits may seek recovery of large amounts and the cost to defend such litigation may be significant. There may also be adverse publicity and uncertainty associated with investigations, litigation and orders (whether pertaining to us, our customers or our competitors) that could decrease customer acceptance of our services or result in material discovery expenses. In addition, a court-ordered injunction or an administrative cease-and-desist order or settlement may require us to modify our
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business practices or may prohibit conduct that would otherwise be legal and in which our competitors may engage. Many of the technical and complex statutes to which we are subject, including state and federal credit reporting, medical privacy and financial privacy requirements, may provide for civil and criminal penalties and may permit consumers to maintain individual or class action lawsuits against us and obtain statutorily prescribed damages. Additionally, our customers might face similar proceedings, actions or inquiries, which could affect their business and, in turn, our ability to do business with those customers. While we do not believe that the outcome of any pending or threatened legal proceeding, investigation, examination or supervisory activity will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, such events are inherently uncertain and adverse outcomes could result in significant monetary damages, penalties or injunctive relief against us.
See “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 22, “Contingencies” for information regarding our legal proceedings.
Risks Related to Intellectual Property
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property adequately or cost-effectively, which may cause us to lose market share or force us to reduce our prices. We also rely on trade secrets and other forms of unpatented intellectual property that may be difficult to protect.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect and preserve the proprietary aspects of our technology and services. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, including trade secrets and other unpatented intellectual property, our competitors could use our intellectual property to market and deliver similar services, decreasing the demand for our services. We rely on the patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property laws of the United States and other countries, as well as contractual restrictions, such as nondisclosure agreements, to protect and control access to our proprietary intellectual property. These measures afford limited protection, however, and may be inadequate. We may be unable to prevent third parties from using our proprietary assets without our authorization or from breaching any contractual restrictions with us. Enforcing our rights could be costly, time-consuming, distracting and harmful to significant business relationships. Claims that a third party illegally obtained and is using trade secrets can be difficult to prove, and courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets. Additionally, others may independently develop non-infringing technologies that are similar or superior to ours. Any significant failure or inability to adequately protect and control our proprietary assets may harm our business and reduce our ability to compete.
We may face claims for intellectual property infringement, which could subject us to monetary damages or limit us in using some of our technologies or providing certain services.
There has been substantial litigation in the United States regarding intellectual property rights in the information technology industry. We cannot be certain that we do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties, including the intellectual property rights of third parties in other countries, which could result in a liability to us. Historically, patent applications in the United States and some foreign countries have not been publicly disclosed until eighteen months following submission of the patent application, and we may not be aware of currently filed patent applications that relate to our products or processes. If patents are later issued on these applications, we may be liable for infringement. In the event that claims are asserted against us, we may be required to obtain licenses from third parties (if available on acceptable terms or at all). Any such claims, regardless of merit, could be time consuming and expensive to litigate or settle, divert the attention of management and materially disrupt the conduct of our business, and we may not prevail. Intellectual property infringement claims against us could subject us to liability for damages and restrict us from providing services or require changes to certain products or services. Although our policy is to obtain licenses or other rights where necessary, we cannot provide assurance that we have obtained all required licenses or rights. If a successful claim of infringement is brought against us and we fail to develop non-infringing products or services, or to obtain licenses on a timely and cost-effective basis, our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Global Operations
Our ability to expand our operations in, and the portion of our revenue derived from, markets outside the United States is subject to economic, political and other inherent risks, which could adversely impact our growth rate and financial performance.
Over the last several years, we have derived a growing portion of our revenues from customers outside the United States, and it is our intent to continue to expand our international operations. We have sales and technical support personnel in numerous countries worldwide. We expect to continue to add personnel internationally to expand our abilities to deliver differentiated services to our international customers. Expansion into international markets will require significant resources and management attention and will subject us to new regulatory, economic and political risks. Moreover, the services we offer in developed and emerging markets must match our customers’ demand for those services. Due to price, limited purchasing power and differences in the development of consumer credit markets, there can be no assurance that our services will be accepted in any particular developed or emerging market, and we cannot be sure that our international expansion efforts will be successful. The
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results of our operations and our growth rate could be adversely affected by a variety of factors arising out of international commerce, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
currency exchange rate fluctuations;
foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating cash to the United States;
difficulties in managing and staffing international offices;
increased travel, infrastructure, legal and compliance costs of multiple international locations;
foreign laws and regulatory requirements;
terrorist activity, natural disasters and other catastrophic events;
restrictions on the import and export of technologies;
difficulties in enforcing contracts and collecting accounts receivable;
longer payment cycles;
failure to meet quality standards for outsourced work;
unfavorable tax rules;
political and economic conditions in foreign countries, particularly in emerging markets;
the presence and acceptance of varying level of business corruption in international markets;
varying business practices in foreign countries; and
reduced protection for intellectual property rights.
For example, revenue from our International segment increased 4.5% in 2021 and 3.5% in 2020 due to the impact of foreign currencies. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019-Revenue-International Segment.” As we continue to expand our business, our success will partially depend on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks. Our failure to manage these risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Growth Strategy
When we engage in acquisitions, investments in new businesses or divestitures of existing businesses, we face risks that may adversely affect our business.
We have acquired and may continue to acquire or make investments in businesses that offer complementary services and technologies. Acquisitions may not be completed on favorable terms and acquired assets, data or businesses may not be successfully integrated into our operations. Even if we devote substantial management attention and resources to integrating acquired businesses in order to fully realize the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions, the businesses and assets acquired may not be successful or continue to grow at the same rate as when operated independently or may require greater resources and investments than we originally anticipated. Acquisitions, such as the acquisitions of Neustar and Sontiq, involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:
failing to achieve the financial and strategic goals for the acquired business;
paying more than fair market value for an acquired company or assets;
failing to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired businesses in an efficient and timely manner;
disrupting our ongoing businesses, including loss of sales;
distracting management focus from our existing businesses;
assumption of unanticipated or contingent liabilities;
failing to retain key personnel;
incurring the expense of an impairment of assets due to the failure to realize expected benefits;
damaging relationships with employees, customers or strategic partners;
diluting the share value of existing stockholders; and
incurring additional debt or reducing available cash to service our existing debt.
We have divested our Healthcare business and may in the future divest certain assets or businesses that no longer fit with our growth strategy. Divestitures involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:
disrupting our ongoing businesses;
failure to effectively transfer liabilities, contracts, facilities and employees to buyers;
reducing our revenues;
losing key personnel;
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distracting management focus from our existing businesses;
the possibility that we will become subject to third-party claims arising out of such divestiture;
indemnification claims for breaches of representations and warranties in sale agreements;
damaging relationships with employees and customers as a result of transferring a business to new owners; and
failure to close a transaction due to conditions such as financing or regulatory approvals not being satisfied.
These risks could harm our business, financial condition or results of operations, particularly if they occur in the context of a significant acquisition or divestiture. In addition, changes in laws and regulations following a significant acquisition or divestiture could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. Acquisitions of businesses having a significant presence outside the United States will increase our exposure to the risks of conducting operations in international markets.
We depend, in part, on strategic alliances, joint ventures and acquisitions to grow our business. If we are unable to make strategic acquisitions and develop and maintain these strategic alliances and joint ventures, our growth may be adversely affected.
An important focus of our business is to identify business partners who can enhance our services and enable us to develop solutions that differentiate us from our competitors. We have entered into several alliance agreements or license agreements with respect to certain of our datasets and services and may enter into similar agreements in the future. These arrangements may require us to restrict our use of certain of our technologies among certain customer industries, or to grant licenses on terms that ultimately may prove to be unfavorable to us, either of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Relationships with our alliance agreement partners may include risks due to incomplete information regarding the marketplace and commercial strategies of our partners, and our alliance agreements or other licensing agreements may be the subject of contractual disputes. If we or our alliance agreements’ partners are not successful in maintaining or commercializing the alliance agreements’ services, such commercial failure could adversely affect our business.
In addition, a significant strategy for our international expansion is to establish operations through strategic alliances or joint ventures with local financial institutions and other partners. We cannot provide assurance that these arrangements will be successful or that our relationships with our partners will continue to be mutually beneficial. If these relationships cannot be established or maintained, it could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, our ownership in and control of our foreign investments may be limited by local law.
We also selectively evaluate and consider acquisitions as a means of expanding our business and entering into new markets. We may not be able to acquire businesses we target due to a variety of factors such as competition from companies that are better positioned to make the acquisition. Our inability to make such strategic acquisitions could restrict our ability to expand our business and enter into new markets which would limit our ability to generate future revenue growth. Additionally, given some of our equity interests in various companies, we may be limited in our ability to require or influence such companies to make acquisitions or take other actions that we believe to be in our or their best interests. Our inability to take such actions could have a material impact on our revenues or earnings.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We have a substantial amount of debt which could adversely affect our financial position and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under the debt instruments.
As of December 31, 2021, the book value of our debt was approximately $6,365.9 million consisting of outstanding borrowings under Trans Union LLC’s senior secured credit facility. We may also incur significant additional indebtedness in the future. Our substantial indebtedness may:
make it difficult for us to satisfy our financial obligations, including with respect to our indebtedness;
limit our ability to borrow additional funds for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;
limit our ability to use our cash flow or obtain additional financing for future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general business purposes;
require us to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make debt service payments;
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates as certain of our borrowings, including Trans Union LLC’s senior secured credit facility, are at variable rates of interest;
limit our ability to pay dividends;
limit our flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in our business and industry;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our less-leveraged competitors; and
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increase our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions.
In addition, the credit agreement governing Trans Union LLC’s senior secured credit facility contains restrictive covenants that may limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our debt.
We have incurred material expenses and indebtedness related to the acquisitions of Neustar and Sontiq.
We have incurred material expenses and indebtedness in acquiring and integrating the business, operations, practices, policies and procedures of each of Neustar and Sontiq. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur integration expenses in connection with the acquisitions, but such expenses are difficult to estimate at the present time and there are a number of factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount, or the timing, of such expenses, and actual integration expenses could be materially different than our current estimates. We financed the purchase price consideration for each of the Neustar and Sontiq acquisitions through debt financing, which increased our debt service obligations and has led to a downgrade of our credit rating by one credit rating agency and could lead to further downgrades from other credit rating agencies. We fully repaid the Sontiq debt in December of 2021. We cannot assure you the indebtedness related to the Neustar acquisition or the expenses related to Neustar and Sontiq acquisitions will not have an adverse effect on us or our results of operations.
Despite our current level of indebtedness, we may still be able to incur additional indebtedness. This could further the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the credit agreement govern our debt limit, but do not prohibit, us or our subsidiaries from incurring additional indebtedness, and any additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. If we incur any additional debt, the priority of that debt may impact the ability of existing debt holders to share ratably in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of us, subject to collateral arrangements. These restrictions will also not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness. We also have the ability to request incremental loans on the same terms under the existing senior secured credit facility up to the greater of $1.0 billion and 100% of consolidated EBITDA, and may incur additional incremental loans so long as the senior secured net leverage ratio does not exceed 4.25 to 1.0, subject to certain additional conditions and commitments by existing or new lenders to fund any additional borrowings. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we and our subsidiaries now face could intensify.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments due on our debt obligations or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control as discussed above. Our total scheduled principal repayments of debt made in 2021 and 2020 were $54.8 million and $58.8 million, respectively. Our total interest expense for 2021 and 2020 was $112.6 million and $126.3 million, respectively. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to implement any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The credit agreement governing Trans Union LLC’s senior secured credit facility restricts our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due. In addition, under the covenants of the credit agreement governing our senior secured credit facility, TransUnion Intermediate is restricted from making certain payments, including dividend payments to TransUnion, subject to certain exceptions.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations and our ability to satisfy our obligations.
If we cannot make our scheduled debt payments, we will be in default and all outstanding principal and interest on our debt may be declared due and payable, the lenders under Trans Union LLC’s senior secured credit facility could terminate their commitments to loan money, Trans Union LLC’s secured lenders (including the lenders under Trans Union LLC’s senior
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secured credit facility) could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
The expected LIBOR phase-out may have unpredictable impacts on contractual mechanics in the credit markets or the broader financial markets, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, intends to cease encouraging or requiring banks to submit rates for the calculation of most LIBOR tenors after June 2023 and is discouraging the use of LIBOR as a benchmark in new contracts. It is unclear whether LIBOR will cease to exist after June 2023 and there is currently no global consensus on what rate or rates will become acceptable alternatives. In the United States, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board-led industry group, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, selected the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as an alternative to LIBOR for U.S. dollar-denominated LIBOR-benchmarked obligations. SOFR is a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash in the overnight United States treasury repo market, and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has published the daily rate since 2018. Nevertheless, because SOFR is a backward-looking fully secured overnight rate and LIBOR is a forward-looking unsecured rate, SOFR is likely to be lower than LIBOR on most dates, and any spread adjustment applied by market participants to alleviate any mismatch during a transition period will be subject to methodology that remains undefined. Additionally, master agreements or other contracts drafted before consensus is reached on a variety of details related to a transition may not reflect provisions necessary to address it once LIBOR is fully phased out. Essentially all of our outstanding debt is variable-rate debt, including some based on LIBOR, though we have entered into interest rate swap agreements and cap agreements to limit our exposure to changes in LIBOR. The discontinuation of LIBOR and the transition from LIBOR to SOFR or other benchmark rates could have an unpredictable impact on contractual mechanics in the credit markets or result in disruption to the broader financial markets, including causing interest rates under our current or future agreements to perform differently than in the past, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you may not be able to resell shares of our common stock at or above the price you paid or at all.
The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile. The stock market routinely experiences price and volume fluctuations that are often unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the underlying businesses. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid. In addition to the risks described in this section, several factors that could cause the price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly include, among others, the following, most of which we cannot control:
quarterly variations in our operating results compared to market expectations;
guidance that we provide to the public, any changes in this guidance or our failure to meet this guidance;
changes in preferences of our customers;
announcements of new products or significant price reductions by us or our competitors;
size of our public float;
stock price performance of our competitors;
publication of research reports about our industry;
changes in market valuations of our competitors;
fluctuations in stock market prices and volumes;
default on our indebtedness;
actions by our competitors;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
negative earnings or other announcements by us or other credit reporting agencies;
downgrades in our credit ratings or the credit ratings of our competitors;
issuances of capital stock or future sales of our common stock or other securities;
investor perceptions or the investment opportunity associated with our common stock relative to other investment alternatives;
the public response to press releases or other public announcements by us or third parties, including our filings with the SEC;
announcements relating to litigation;
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the sustainability of an active trading market for our stock;
changes in accounting principles;
global economic, legal and regulatory factors unrelated to our performance; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from natural disasters, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.
In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our common stock is low, and the amount of public float on any given day can vary depending on whether our stockholders choose to hold their shares for the long term.
In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation against other issuers. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents might discourage, delay or prevent acquisition attempts for us that you might consider favorable.
Certain provisions of our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation (“Charter”) and third amended and restated bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.
These provisions provide for, among other things:
the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings; and
the removal of directors only for cause until our 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
At our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, our stockholders approved the phased declassification of our board of directors such that all directors will stand for election on an annual basis beginning with the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The ability to remove a director with or without cause will be implemented when the board of directors is fully declassified at our 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
The anti-takeover provisions discussed above could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.
Our ability to pay cash dividends may be limited by the terms of our secured credit facility.
On February 13, 2018, we announced that our board of directors approved a dividend policy pursuant to which we intend to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock. The terms of our senior secured credit facility impose certain limitations on our ability to pay dividends. We may, however, declare and pay cash dividends up to an unlimited amount unless a default or event of default exists under the senior secured credit facility. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.
General Risks
We may not be able to attract and retain the skilled employees that we need to support our business.
Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain experienced management, sales, research and development, analytics, marketing and technical support personnel. If any of our key personnel were unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, it may be difficult to replace them and our business could be seriously harmed. If we are unable to find qualified successors to fill key positions as needed, our business could be seriously harmed. The complexity of our services requires trained customer service and technical support personnel. We may not be able to hire and retain such qualified personnel at compensation levels consistent with our compensation structure. Some of our competitors may be able to offer more attractive terms of employment. In addition, we invest significant time and expense in training our employees, which increases their value to competitors who may seek to recruit them. If we fail to retain our employees, we could incur significant expense replacing employees and our ability to provide quality services could diminish, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business.


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We are subject to losses from risks for which we do not insure.
For certain risks, we do not maintain insurance coverage because of cost and/or availability. Because we retain some portion of insurable risks, and in some cases retain our risk of loss completely, unforeseen or catastrophic losses in excess of insured limits could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we fail to implement and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and have a negative effect on our stock price.
Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be reevaluated frequently. Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, within our company will have been detected. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to prevent fraud. In July, 2019, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that we remediated as of December 31, 2019. See Part II, Item 9A “Controls and Procedures.” Any failure to maintain or implement new or improved controls over financial reporting could result in additional material weaknesses or result in the failure to detect or prevent material misstatements in our financial statements, which could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and harm our stock price.
The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union, commonly referred to as Brexit, may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business.
Following a national referendum and enactment of legislation by the government of the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the European Union and ratified a trade and cooperation agreement governing its future relationship with the European Union. The agreement, which became effective May 1, 2021, addresses trade, economic arrangements, law enforcement, judicial cooperation and a governance framework including procedures for dispute resolution, among other things. Because the agreement merely sets forth a framework in many respects and will require complex additional bilateral negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union as both parties continue to work on the rules for implementation, significant political and economic uncertainty remains about how the precise terms of the relationship between the parties will differ from the terms before withdrawal. The U.K.’s withdrawal could potentially disrupt the free movement of goods, services and people between the U.K. and the European Union, undermine bilateral cooperation in key geographic areas and significantly disrupt trade between the U.K. and the European Union or other nations as the U.K. pursues 30 independent trade relations. In addition, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which European Union laws to replace or replicate. The effects of Brexit will depend on any agreements the U.K. makes to retain access to the European Union or other markets either during a transitional period or more permanently. Because this is an unprecedented event, it is unclear what long-term economic, financial, trade and legal implications the withdrawal of the U.K. from the European Union would have and how such withdrawal would affect our business globally and in the region. In addition, Brexit may lead other European Union member countries to consider referendums regarding their European Union membership. These developments, or the perception that any related developments could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and global financial markets, and may significantly reduce global market liquidity, restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets or restrict our access to capital. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce the price of our common stock. Our U.K. operations represented approximately 7.3% of consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.
If we experience changes in tax laws or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our tax returns, it could adversely affect our results of operations.
We are subject to federal, state and local income and other taxes in the United States and in foreign jurisdictions. From time to time the United States federal, state, local and foreign governments make substantive changes to tax rules and the application thereof, which could result in materially different corporate taxes than would be incurred under existing tax law or interpretation and could adversely impact profitability. Governments have strengthened their efforts to increase revenues through changes in tax law, including laws regarding transfer pricing, economic presence and apportionment to determine the tax base.
Consequently, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Our future effective tax rates and the value of our deferred tax assets could be adversely affected by changes in tax laws. In addition, we are subject
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to the examination of our income tax returns and other tax returns by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from such examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes and reserves for other taxes. Although we believe we have made appropriate provisions for taxes in the jurisdictions in which we operate, changes in tax laws, or challenges from tax authorities under existing tax laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Properties
Our corporate headquarters and main data center are located in Chicago, Illinois, in an office building that we own. As of December 31, 2021, we lease space in over 100 other locations, including office space and additional data centers. These locations are geographically dispersed to meet our sales and operating needs. We anticipate that suitable additional or alternative space will be available at commercially reasonably terms for future expansion.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Part II, ITEM 8 “FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 22, “Contingencies” for information regarding our legal proceedings.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
Our executive officers, and their positions and ages as of February 22, 2022, are set forth below:
NameAgePosition
Christopher A. Cartwright56President & Chief Executive Officer and Director
Venkat Achanta49Executive Vice President, Chief Data & Analytics Officer
Todd M. Cello46Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Steven M. Chaouki49President, U.S. Markets and Consumer Interactive
Abhinav (Abhi) Dhar50Executive Vice President, Chief Information & Technology Officer
Timothy J. Martin51Executive Vice President, Chief Global Solutions Officer
R. Dane Mauldin51Executive Vice President, Chief Operations Officer
Susan W. Muigai52Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer
Heather J. Russell50Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer
Todd C. Skinner52President, International
Christopher A. Cartwright has served as the President & Chief Executive Officer of TransUnion and a member of the board of directors since May 2019. He joined the Company in August 2013, previously serving as Executive Vice President - U.S. Information Services, where he helped drive TransUnion’s transformation into a global information and insights company as the head of the largest business unit, including providing consumer reports, risk scores, analytical services and decision technology to customers in the U.S. across the financial services, insurance, tenant and employment screening and public sector industries.
Prior to joining TransUnion, Mr. Cartwright was the Chief Executive Officer of Decision Insight Information Group, a portfolio of independent businesses providing real property information, software and services to insurance, finance, legal and real estate professionals in the United States, Canada and Europe. Mr. Cartwright also spent almost 14 years at Wolters Kluwer, a global information services and workflow solutions company, where he held a variety of executive positions of increasing responsibility. Prior to Wolters Kluwer, he was Senior Vice President, Strategic Planning & Operations for Christie’s Inc. and Strategy Consultant for Coopers and Lybrand.
Mr. Cartwright earned his bachelor's degree in business administration and his master's in public accountancy from The University of Texas at Austin.
Venkat Achanta has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Data & Analytics Officer for TransUnion since February 2022. Mr. Achanta was appointed to this position following completion of TransUnion’s acquisition of Neustar, Inc. in December 2021. He previously served as Executive Vice President and Chief Data & Technology Officer of Neustar, where he led data science, data strategy and technology teams across Neustar. While at Neustar, he helped lead the creation of the OneID platform and technology transformation across all products.
Prior to joining Neustar in 2016, Mr. Achanta was Chief Data Officer and Head of Data and Analytics at Walmart, beginning in 2014, leading all data and analytics delivery platforms across the company globally. While at Walmart, he spearheaded the data fabric, advanced analytics platforms and decision services groups. Prior to Walmart, Mr. Achanta was Global Head of Analytics and Big Data at AIG. Mr. Achanta also has held senior leadership positions in data and analytics at Capital One and Experian.
Mr. Achanta earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Andhra University in India and his M.B.A. from UCLA’s Anderson School of Management.
Todd M. Cello joined the Company in October 1997 and has held numerous roles with increasing levels of responsibility in the corporate finance department. Mr. Cello has served as our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer since August 2017. Prior to his current role, Mr. Cello served as Senior Vice President and International CFO from August 2015 to August 2017, overseeing financial operations for the International segment. Prior to that, Mr. Cello served as Vice President, Financial Planning and Analysis from January 2009 to August 2015, overseeing the enterprise financial planning and analysis function, where he played a lead role in the two leveraged buyouts of TransUnion in 2010 and 2012 and the initial public offering of TransUnion in 2015. Prior to that, Mr. Cello served as Vice President and U.S. Information Services CFO from October 2005 to December 2008, overseeing financial operations of the U.S. Information Services segment. Mr. Cello also serves on the University of Illinois at Chicago’s College of Business Advisory Council.
Mr. Cello earned his bachelor’s degree in Accounting from University of Illinois at Chicago and is a certified public accountant.
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Steven M. Chaouki is President, U.S. Markets & Consumer Interactive, overseeing two TransUnion business lines. U.S. Markets provides information and insights to business customers across financial services, insurance, public sector, media and diversified markets. Consumer Interactive provides credit, financial and identity protection services to consumers. He previously held the role of Executive Vice President, Financial Services from 2013 until May 2019, responsible for the company’s financial services business, which provides solutions to banks, credit unions, capital markets, financial services resellers, auto lenders and other customers. Before joining TransUnion, Mr. Chaouki held roles at HSBC in card/retail services and auto finance. Mr. Chaouki serves on the boards of MAIA Biotechnology, Inc. and Spring Labs.
Mr. Chaouki earned his M.B.A. from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and his bachelor’s degree from Boston University.
Abhinav (Abhi) Dhar joined the Company in January 2019 as Executive Vice President, Chief Information & Technology Officer. In this role, Mr. Dhar is responsible for all aspects of the company’s technology, including strategy, security, applications, operations, infrastructure and delivery of solutions that support TransUnion’s global information systems. Prior to TransUnion, Mr. Dhar co-founded Packyge, Inc. in April 2017, a last-mile delivery startup focused on enabling last step in-store digital experiences. Prior to Packyge, he held technology leadership roles at Walgreen Boots Alliance (WBA), a pharmacy retail and wholesale company, including Chief Digital Officer, WBA and Chief Information Officer, Retail Pharmacy USA from November 2016 to April 2017, Chief Information Officer and SVP, Digital Product Management and Innovation from December 2015 to November 2016 and SVP and Chief Information Officer, Walgreens, a pharmacy retail company, from November 2014 to December 2015. Mr. Dhar joined WBA in 2009 as CTO for the Walgreens Digital Division. Prior to joining WBA, Mr. Dhar held roles of increasing technology management responsibility in travel distribution companies.
Mr. Dhar earned his B.E. in Mechanical Engineering from the National Institute of Engineering in Mysore, India and his M.S. in Industrial Engineering from the New Jersey Institute of Technology.
Timothy J. Martin has served as Executive Vice President, Chief Global Solutions Officer since May 2019. In this role, Mr. Martin is responsible for managing revenue growth and profitability through the strategy, planning, innovation and commercialization of nearly all of TransUnion’s products and solutions globally. He previously held business management roles at TransUnion leading both a number of industry vertical-focused teams and a high growth horizontal solution called the Specialized Risk Group. Prior to joining TransUnion in September 2009, Mr. Martin was President and Chief Operating Officer of HSBC Auto Finance where he had direct profit & loss responsibility for all strategy, business development, sales, marketing, pricing, risk management, underwriting operations, customer service and collections. Prior to joining HSBC, he was a consultant with Booz Allen Hamilton (now PWC Strategy&) from 1998 to 2003, and senior marketing analyst with American Airlines from 1992 to 1996. Mr. Martin serves on the board of Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation of South Florida and the Child Rescue Coalition.
Mr. Martin earned his B.S. in Management from Purdue University and his M.B.A. from the University of Michigan Business School.
R. Dane Mauldin has served as Executive Vice President, Chief Operations Officer for TransUnion since May 2019. In this role, Mr. Mauldin leads the organization’s focus on operations across the enterprise, including vision, planning and execution required throughout the customer journey. He previously held the role of Chief Product Officer from 2013 until May 2019, where he was responsible for content acquisition, analytic discovery, product development and product delivery across the company’s global footprint. Mr. Mauldin has an extensive background in the information solutions industry. Prior to joining TransUnion, he served as Chief Executive Officer of Screening Solutions and Customer Operations for LexisNexis Risk Solutions, a division of Reed Elsevier. Prior roles at LexisNexis included Vice President of Total Customer Experience and Vice President of Collections Market Planning. He also held management positions at Commercial Financial Services and Experian.
Mr. Mauldin earned his bachelor’s degree in Journalism from the University of Oklahoma.
Susan W. Muigai has served as Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer since 2021. She is responsible for leading TransUnion’s human resource strategy and function, and nurturing an inclusive, high-performance culture to help TransUnion achieve its vision and strategy. Ms. Muigai brings deep expertise in talent strategy with an extensive background in global HR, human capital management, organizational leadership, diversity and inclusion, legal and compliance, business transformation and more. She previously spent 16 years at Walmart, based in the U.S., Canada and India, serving as Senior Vice President, People from March 2020 to September 2021, Executive Vice President People/Corporate Affairs, Walmart Canada from August 2016 to August 2020, Senior Vice President People, Walmart Canada from January 2016 to July 2016, Vice President People, Walmart Canada from February 2015 to December 2015, Vice President, International Real Estate and Vice President International Real Estate, Walmart International Real Estate from March 2014 to February 2015, Senior Vice President Legal, General Counsel & Chief Ethics Officer, Walmart India from November 2012 to March 2014, Vice President Audit, Walmart Canada from September 2009 to October 2012, and Senior Director, Risk Management, Walmart Canada from June 2005 to September 2009. She previously worked at Lang Michener LLP.
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Ms. Muigai earned her Master of Law in International Business from the University of London, and her Bachelor of Law from the University of Windsor in Canada. She sits on the Board of Breakfast Club of Canada and previously sat on the boards of MassMart Holdings Ltd and the Walmart Foundation.
Heather J. Russell is Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer of TransUnion. Ms. Russell is an accomplished legal executive with more than 25 years of diverse experience across the global financial services and technology sectors. She is responsible for legal, risk, compliance, government and regulatory relations, corporate governance, consumer privacy and ESG functions for TransUnion and its subsidiaries around the world. Prior to joining the Company in 2018, Ms. Russell was a partner at the law firm of Buckley, LLP, from October 2016 until May 2018, where she led the firm’s Financial Institutions Regulation, Supervision and FinTech practices. Previously, she served as Executive Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary at Fifth Third Bank from September 2015 until July 2016. From July 2011 until August 2015, Ms. Russell was Managing Director and Global Head of Public Policy and Regulatory Affairs at Bank of New York Mellon. Prior to that, she spent five years as Senior Vice President and Associate General Counsel at Bank of America and eight years at Skadden in Washington, D.C. and London focused on financial services, corporate finance, and mergers and acquisitions.
Ms. Russell earned her B.A. from the College of William & Mary and her J.D. with honors from American University’s Washington College of Law, where she received the Outstanding Graduate Award. Ms. Russell serves on the board of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, which advances policy solutions and fosters dialogue on critical global issues. She is also a board member of Illinois Legal Aid Online and serves in fundraising advisory roles for the National Women’s Law Center, Pitch Your Peers Chicago and the National Immigrant Justice Center.
Todd C. Skinner has served as President International since August 2021 and is responsible for leading TransUnion’s growth across international markets. Mr. Skinner has nearly 30 years of experience delivering information solutions at leading global companies. He joined TransUnion in 2014, previously serving as TransUnion’s Regional President of Canada, Latin American and Caribbean. Prior to joining TransUnion, Skinner held leadership roles at First Canadian Title and HSBC.
Mr. Skinner earned his M.B.A. from Schulich – Kellogg School of Management and his bachelor’s of commerce from St. Mary’s University. He serves as TransUnion’s representative on the Global Board of the U.S.-India Business Council (USIBC) and is on the Board of Directors for Buro De Credito and Cliffside Capital.
Our executive officers are elected annually by our board of directors. There are no family relationships among any of the Company’s executive officers.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock has been listed on The New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TRU” since June 25, 2015.
Holders of Record
As of January 31, 2022, we had 15 stockholders of record. We have a greater number of beneficial owners of our stock who own their shares through brokerage firms and other nominees.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number of
Shares Purchased(1)
Average Price
Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs(2)
October 1 to October 313,482 $113.45 — $166.5 
November 1 to November 30— — — $166.5 
December 1 to December 3114,073 110.73 — $166.5 
Total17,555 — 

(1)Represents shares that were repurchased from employees for withholding taxes for share-based awards pursuant to the Company’s equity compensation plans.    
(2)On February 13, 2017, our board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of our common stock through February 13, 2020. Our board of directors removed the three-year time limitation on February 8, 2018. Prior to the fourth quarter of 2017, we had purchased approximately $133.5 million of common stock under the program and may purchase up to an additional $166.5 million. Additional repurchases may be made from time to time at management’s discretion at prices management considers to be attractive through open market purchases or through privately negotiated transactions, subject to availability. Open market purchases will be conducted in accordance with the limitations set forth in Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act and other applicable legal requirements. We have no obligation to repurchase additional shares, and the timing, actual number and value of the shares that are repurchased, if any, will be at the discretion of management and will depend on a number of factors, including market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, liquidity, and other factors deemed appropriate. Repurchases may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason. Any repurchased shares will have the status of treasury shares and may be used, if and when needed, for general corporate purposes.
Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of TransUnion under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total shareholder return for the Company’s common stock, the Russell 3000 and the Dow Jones U.S. Financials Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested at market close on December 31, 2016, in each of the Company’s common stock, the Russell 3000 and the Dow Jones U.S. Financial Index. The cumulative total returns for the Russell 3000 and the Dow Jones U.S. Financial Index assume reinvestment of dividends. The stock price performance of the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

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ITEM 6. RESERVED
Reserved


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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of TransUnion’s financial condition and results of operations is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” and Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Information,” including TransUnion’s audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. In addition to historical data, this discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business, operations and financial performance based on current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those discussed in “Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
References in this discussion and analysis to the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to TransUnion and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including TransUnion Intermediate Holdings, Inc.
Overview
TransUnion is a leading global information and insights company that makes trust possible between businesses and consumers, working to help people around the world access opportunities that can lead to a higher quality of life. That trust is built on TransUnion’s ability to deliver safe, innovative solutions with credibility and consistency. We call this Information for Good.
Grounded in our heritage as a credit reporting agency, we have built robust and accurate databases of information for a large portion of the adult population in the markets we serve. We use our data fusion methodology to link and match an increasing set of disparate data to further enrich our database. We use this enriched data, combined with our expertise, to continuously develop more insightful solutions for our customers, all in accordance with global laws and regulations. Because of our work, organizations can better understand consumers in order to make more informed decisions, and earn consumer trust through great, personalized experiences, and the proactive extension of the right opportunities, tools and offers. In turn, we believe consumers can be confident that their data identities will result in better offers and opportunities.
We provide solutions that enable businesses to manage and measure credit risk, market to new and existing customers, verify consumer identities, mitigate fraud, and effectively manage call center operations. Businesses embed our solutions into their process workflows to deliver critical insights and enable effective actions. Consumers use our solutions to view their credit profiles and access analytical tools that help them understand and manage their personal financial information and take precautions against identity theft. We have deep domain expertise across a number of attractive industries, which we also refer to as verticals, including Financial Services and the Emerging Verticals, consisting of Insurance, Services and Collections, Tenant and Employment, Technology, Commerce & Communications, Public Sector, Media, and other emerging verticals we serve, as well as our Neustar business. We have a global presence in over 30 countries and territories across North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.
Our addressable market includes the global data and analytics market, which continues to grow as companies around the world increasingly recognize the benefits of data and analytics-based decision making, and as consumers recognize the important role that their data identities play in their ability to procure goods and services. There are several underlying trends supporting this market growth, including the proliferation of data, advances in technology and analytics that enable data to be processed more quickly and efficiently to provide business insights, and growing demand for these business insights across industries and geographies. Leveraging our established position as a leading provider of information and insights, we have grown our business by expanding the breadth and depth of our data, strengthening our analytics capabilities to deliver innovative solutions, expanding into complementary adjacencies and vertical markets, investing in technology infrastructure to leverage capabilities to best serve our customers and enhancing our global operating model. As a result, we believe we are well positioned to expand our share within the markets we currently serve and capitalize on the larger data and analytics opportunity.
Our solutions are based on a foundation of data assets across financial, credit, alternative credit, identity, phone activity, digital device information, marketing, bankruptcy, lien, judgment, insurance claims, automotive and other relevant information obtained from thousands of sources including financial institutions, private databases and public records repositories. We refine, standardize and enhance this data using sophisticated algorithms to create proprietary databases. Our acquisition of Neustar, Inc. (“Neustar”), and particularly its OneID platform, will further enhance our ability to deliver real-time, persistent identity resolution of disparate data fragments and attributes, in a privacy compliant manner. Our technology infrastructure allows us to efficiently integrate our data with our analytics and technology capabilities to create and deliver innovative solutions to our customers and to quickly adapt to changing customer needs. Our deep analytics resources, including our people and tools driving predictive modeling and scoring, customer segmentation, benchmarking and forecasting, enable us to provide businesses and consumers with better insights.
We leverage our differentiated capabilities in order to serve a global customer base across multiple geographies and industry verticals. We offer our solutions to business customers in Financial Services, Insurance and other industries, and our customer base includes many of the largest companies in the industries we serve. We sell our solutions to leading consumer lending
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banks, credit card issuers, alternative lenders, online-only lenders (“FinTechs”), Point of Sale (“POS”)/Buy Now Pay Later (“BNPL”) lenders, auto lenders, auto insurance carriers, cable and telecom operators, retailers, and federal, state and local government agencies. We have been successful in leveraging our brand, our expertise and our solutions and have a leading presence in several high-growth international markets. Millions of consumers across the globe also use our data to help manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft.
We believe we have an attractive business model that has recurring and diversified revenue streams, low capital requirements, significant operating leverage and strong and stable cash flows. The proprietary and embedded nature of our solutions and the integral role that we play in our customers’ decision-making processes have historically translated into high customer retention and revenue visibility. We continue to deliver organic growth by increasing our sales to existing customers, developing new solutions and gaining new customers. We have a diversified portfolio of businesses across our segments, reducing our exposure to cyclical trends in any particular industry vertical or geography. We operate primarily on contributory data models in which we typically obtain updated information including a growing set of public record and alternative data, at little or no cost, as we develop new solutions and expand into new industries and geographies. We are evolving our hybrid public-private cloud technology infrastructure to ensure that our systems remain highly secure, reliable, scalable, and performant by design. We are focused on processes and foundational technology that allows us to leverage demand-led consumption from public cloud providers and from our high performance privately owned infrastructure.
Segments
We manage our business and report our financial results, including disaggregated revenue, in three reportable segments: U.S. Markets, International and Consumer Interactive.
U.S. Markets
The U.S. Markets segment provides consumer reports, actionable insights and analytics to businesses. These businesses use our services to acquire customers, assess consumers’ ability to pay for services, identify cross-selling opportunities, measure and manage debt portfolio risk, collect debt, verify consumer identities and mitigate fraud risk. The core capabilities and delivery methods in our U.S. Markets segment allow us to serve a broad set of customers across industries. We report disaggregated revenue of our U.S. Markets segment for Financial Services and Emerging Verticals. The results of operations of Neustar are included in the Emerging Verticals and our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
International
The International segment provides services similar to our U.S. Markets segment to businesses in select regions outside the United States. Depending on the maturity of the credit economy in each country, services may include credit reports, analytics and technology solutions services, and other value-added risk management services. We also have insurance, business and automotive databases in select geographies. These services are offered to customers in a number of industries including financial services, retail credit, insurance, automotive, collections, public sector, and communications, and are delivered through both direct and indirect channels. The International segment also provides consumer services similar to those offered by our Consumer Interactive segment that help consumers proactively manage their personal finances.
We report disaggregated revenue of our International segment for the following regions: Canada, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.
Consumer Interactive
The Consumer Interactive segment offers solutions that help consumers manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft. Services in this segment include credit reports and scores, credit monitoring, identity protection and resolution, and financial management for consumers. The segment also provides solutions that help businesses respond to data breach events. Our products are provided through user-friendly online and mobile interfaces and are supported by educational content and customer support. Our Consumer Interactive segment serves consumers through both direct and indirect channels. The results of operations of Sontiq are included in the Consumer Interactive segment and our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
Corporate
In addition, Corporate provides support services for each of the segments, holds investments, and conducts enterprise functions. Certain costs incurred in Corporate that are not directly attributable to one or more of the segments remain in Corporate. These costs are typically enterprise-level costs and are primarily administrative in nature.
Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
The following are certain key factors that affect, or have recently affected, our results of operations:
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Macroeconomic and Industry Trends, Including the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on our Business and Results of Operations
Our revenues can be significantly influenced by general macroeconomic conditions, including the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the availability of credit and capital, interest rates, inflation, employment levels, consumer confidence and housing demand. During 2020, the economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic had a material and adverse impact on numerous aspects of our business, including our results of operations in all of the markets where we operate. During 2021, we saw steady improvements in our results of operations in all these markets. This dynamic impacts the comparability of our results of operations, including our revenue and expenses, for each of the periods presented below. Also, given ongoing uncertainty and the unpredictable nature of the pandemic, including the rise of variants of the virus and the effectiveness of vaccines against those variants, COVID-19 may have a material and adverse impact on various aspects of our business in the future, including our results of operations.
In the markets where we compete, we have seen generally improving macroeconomic conditions since the second quarter of 2020. In the United States, we saw strong and improving macroeconomic conditions throughout 2021, including strong gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, falling unemployment rates, and mortgage interest rates that are still near historic lows, all of which are evident in the significantly improved 2021 results of all of our segments. During 2021, we saw similar improvements in our international markets, although in certain of these markets there remains higher ongoing concerns about the impact of COVID-19. These macroeconomic improvements are evident in our 2021 results of operations, with all of our segments showing ongoing signs of improvements compared with last year.
While we believe that a strong but slowing global GDP growth is expected for the coming year, such expectations are tempered by increasing concerns around rising inflation, geopolitical tensions and existing and new coronavirus variants, as well as waning consumer confidence, interest rate pressures and increasing supply chain and ongoing labor shortage concerns. Also, in certain of our markets, there remains concern regarding the impact COVID-19 could have on our business.
Effects of Inflation
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. The impact of recent and expected future inflation increases could have a significant negative impact on our business, including decreased demand for our services as a result of rising interest rates.
Recent Developments
The following developments impact the comparability of our balance sheets, results of operations and cash flows between years:
On January 24, 2022, we reached a tentative class settlement with the plaintiffs in Ramirez v. Trans Union LLC (“Ramirez” or the “Ramirez Litigation”), which will require court approval. We expect this matter to be resolved by the end of 2022. Accordingly, in 2021, we revised the amount of the probable loss that we previously estimated, resulting in a reduction of our estimated liability and partially offsetting insurance receivable, and a corresponding net reduction recorded in selling, general and administrative expense for the year end December 31, 2021. See Item 8, “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 22, “Contingencies” for additional information.
During 2020, the economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic had a material and adverse impact on numerous aspects of our business, including the results of operations in all of our segments. During 2021, we saw ongoing improvements in our results of operations in all of the markets where we operate. This dynamic impacts the comparability of our results of operations between all of the periods presented below.
On December 23, 2021, we entered into a tranche of interest rate swap agreements with various counter-parties that effectively fix our LIBOR exposure on a portion of our Senior Secured Term Loan or similar replacement debt. The tranche commenced on December 31, 2021, and expires on December 31, 2026, with a current aggregate notional amount of $1,600.0 million that amortizes each quarter. The tranche requires TransUnion to pay fixed rates varying between 1.428% and 1.4360% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. We have designated these swap agreements as cash flow hedges.
On December 17, 2021, we completed the sale of our Healthcare business. The Healthcare business met the criteria for discontinued operations at December 31, 2021, as the sale represented a strategic shift in our business that will have a major effect on our results of operations. The results of operations are classified as discontinued operations, net of tax, in our consolidated statement of income for all periods presented. Discontinued operations, net of tax, also includes a gain on the disposal of the Healthcare business of $982.5, net of tax, in the consolidated statements of income for 2021. All tables and discussions below exclude the impact of the Healthcare business.
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On December 1, 2021, we entered into an agreement to amend certain provisions of the Senior Secured Credit Facility and exercise our right to draw additional debt in an amount of $3,100.0 million, less original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $7.8 million and $43.6 million, respectively. Proceeds from the incremental loan on the Senior Secured Credit Facility were used to finance the acquisition of Neustar.
On December 1, 2021, we entered into a Second Lien Credit Agreement to obtain term loans in an aggregate amount of $640.0 million (the “Second Lien Term Loan”), less original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $3.2 million and $14.3 million, respectively, used to fund the acquisition of Sontiq. On December 23, 2021, we fully repaid the Second Lien Term Loan using a portion of the proceeds from our sale of the Healthcare business. As a result of the prepayment, we expensed the unamortized original issue discount and deferred fees to other income and expense in the consolidated statement of income.
In March 2021, we prepaid $85.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loans, funded from our cash on hand. In December 2020,
we prepaid $150.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loans, funded from our cash on hand.
On March 10, 2020, we entered into two tranches of interest rate swap agreements with various counter-parties that effectively fix our LIBOR exposure on a portion of our Senior Secured Term Loans or similar replacement debt. The first tranche commenced on June 30, 2020, and expires on June 30, 2022, with a current aggregate notional amount of $1,120.0 million that amortizes each quarter. The first tranche requires TransUnion to pay fixed rates varying between 0.5200% and 0.5295% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. The second tranche commences on June 30, 2022, and expires on June 30, 2025, with an initial aggregate notional amount of $1,110.0 million that amortizes each quarter after it commences. The second tranche requires TransUnion to pay fixed rates varying between 0.9125% and 0.9280% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. We have designated these swap agreements as cash flow hedges.
In December 2020, we prepaid $150.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loans, funded from our cash on hand. During 2019, we prepaid $340.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loans, also funded from cash on hand. These transactions affect the comparability of interest expense between 2021, 2020 and 2019 as further discussed in “Results of Operations - Non-Operating Income and Expense” below.
On November 15, 2019, we refinanced our B-3 and B-4 loans with a new tranche of Senior Secured Term Loan B (“Senior Secured Term Loan B-5”) which, along with cash of $9.0 million, was used to pay-off the Senior Secured Term Loan B-3 and Senior Secured Term Loan B-4 loans. On December 10, 2019, we refinanced our A-2 loan with a new tranche of Senior Secured Term Loan A (“Senior Secured Term Loan A-3”), which was used to pay-off our existing Senior Secured Term Loan A-2 loans. With this refinance, we also converted the existing Senior Secured Revolving Line of Credit into a new Senior Secured Revolving Line of Credit.
Recent Acquisitions
We selectively evaluate acquisitions as a means to expand our business and to enter new markets. Since January 1, 2019, we have completed the following acquisitions, including those that impact the comparability of our results between periods:
On December 1, 2021, we acquired 100% of the equity of Neustar. Neustar, a premier identity resolution company with leading solutions in Marketing, Risk and Communications, enables customers to build connected consumer experiences by combining decision analytics with real-time identity resolution services driven by its OneID platform. The results of operations of Neustar are included in Emerging Verticals as part of our U.S. Markets segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition. See Item 8, “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 2, “Business Acquisitions.”
On December 1, 2021, we acquired 100% of the equity of Sontiq. Sontiq, a leader in digital identity protection and security, provides solutions including identity monitoring, restoration, and response products and services to help empower consumers and businesses to proactively protect against identity theft and cyber threats. The results of operations of Sontiq, which are not material to our consolidated financial statements, are included in the Consumer Interactive segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition. See Item 8, “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 2, “Business Acquisitions,” for additional information.
On October 14, 2020, we acquired 100% of the equity of Tru Optik Data Corp (“Tru Optik”). Tru Optik uses its custom audience-building platform to deliver predictive scoring to improve the performance of custom digital marketing campaigns. The results of operations of Tru Optik, which are not material to our consolidated financial statements, have been included as part of our U.S. Markets segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
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On August 14, 2020, we acquired 100% of the equity of Signal Digital, Inc. (“Signal”). Signal is a digital marketing company that provides tag management, data collection, and onboarding capabilities to customers for activation in the marketing ecosystem. The results of operations of Signal, which are not material to our consolidated financial statements, have been included as part of our U.S. Markets segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
On May 22, 2019, we acquired 100% of the equity of TruSignal, Inc. (“TruSignal”). TruSignal is an innovative leader in people-based marketing technology for Fortune 500 brands, agencies, platforms, publishers and data owners. TruSignal uses predictive scoring, powered by artificial intelligence, to make data actionable for one-to-one addressable marketing. The results of operations of TruSignal, which are not material to our consolidated financial statements, have been included as part of our U.S. Markets segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
Key Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
The following is a more detailed description of how we derive and report revenue for our three reportable segments:
U.S. Markets
U.S. Markets provides consumer reports, actionable insights and analytics such as credit and other scores, and solutions capabilities to businesses. We report disaggregated revenue of our U.S. Markets segment for the following verticals:
Financial Services:    The Financial Services vertical, which accounts for approximately 60.2% of our 2021 U.S. Markets revenue, consists of our consumer lending, mortgage, auto and cards and payments lines of business. Our financial services customers consist of most banks, credit unions, finance companies, POS/BNPL lenders, auto lenders, mortgage lenders, FinTechs, and other consumer lenders in the United States. We also distribute our solutions through most major resellers, secondary market players and sales agents. Beyond traditional lenders, we work with a variety of credit arrangers, such as auto dealers and peer-to-peer lenders. We provide solutions across every aspect of the lending lifecycle; customer acquisition and engagement, fraud and ID management, retention and recovery. Our products are focused on mitigating risk and include credit reporting, credit marketing, analytics and consulting, identity verification and authentication and debt recovery solutions.
Emerging Verticals:    Emerging verticals include Insurance, Services and Collections, Tenant and Employment, Technology, Commerce & Communications, Public Sector, Media, and other emerging verticals we serve, as well as our Neustar business. Our solutions in these verticals are also data-driven and address the entire customer lifecycle. We offer onboarding and transaction processing products, scoring and analytic products, marketing solutions, fraud and identity management solutions and customer retention solutions.
International
The International segment provides services similar to our U.S. Markets segment to businesses in select regions outside the United States. Depending on the maturity of the credit economy in each country, services may include credit reports, analytics and solutions services, and other value-added risk management services. In addition, we have insurance, business and automotive databases in select geographies. These services are offered to customers in a number of industries including financial services, retail credit, insurance, automotive, collections, public sector and communications, and are delivered through both direct and indirect channels. The International segment also provides consumer services similar to those offered by our Consumer Interactive segment to help consumers proactively manage their personal finances.
We report disaggregated revenue of our International segment for the following regions: Canada, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.
Consumer Interactive
The Consumer Interactive segment offers solutions that help consumers manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft. Services in this segment include credit reports and scores, credit monitoring, identity protection and resolution and financial management for consumers. The segment also provides solutions that help businesses respond to data breach events. Our products are provided through user-friendly online and mobile interfaces and are supported by educational content and customer support. Our Consumer Interactive segment serves consumers through both direct and indirect channels. With our acquisition of Sontiq in 2021, we have added to our foundational credit monitoring solutions with a comprehensive set of identity protection offerings. The results of operations of Sontiq, which are not material to our consolidated financial statements, are included in the Consumer Interactive segment in our consolidated statements of income since the date of the acquisition.
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Cost of Services
Costs of services include data acquisition and royalty fees, personnel costs related to our databases and software applications, consumer and call center support costs, hardware and software maintenance costs, telecommunication expenses and occupancy costs associated with the facilities where these functions are performed.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses include personnel-related costs for sales, administrative and management employees, costs for professional and consulting services, advertising and occupancy and facilities expense of these functions.
Non-Operating Income and Expense
Non-operating income and expense includes interest expense, interest income, earnings from equity-method investments, dividends from cost-method investments, fair-value adjustments of equity-method and Cost Method investments, if any, expenses related to successful and unsuccessful business acquisitions, loan fees, debt refinancing expenses, certain acquisition-related gains and losses and other non-operating income and expenses.
Results of Operations—Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019
Key Performance Measures
Management, including our chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), evaluates the financial performance of our businesses based on a variety of key indicators. These indicators include the GAAP measures of revenue, segment Adjusted EBITDA, cash provided by operating activities and cash paid for capital expenditures and the non-GAAP measures Adjusted Revenue and consolidated Adjusted EBITDA. Refer to the “Non-GAAP Key Performance Indicators” section immediately below the table for more information, including the definitions of our non-GAAP measures.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, these key performance indicators were as follows:
 Change
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
(dollars in millions)202120202019$%$%
Revenue:
Consolidated revenue as reported$2,960.2 $2,530.6 $2,463.2 $429.6 17.0 %$67.4 2.7 %
   Acquisition-related revenue adjustments(1)
— — 5.6 — nm(5.6)nm
Consolidated Adjusted Revenue$2,960.2 $2,530.6 $2,468.8 $429.6 17.0 %$61.9 2.5 %
U.S. Markets gross revenue$1,791.0 $1,510.7 $1,416.7 $280.3 18.6 %$94.0 6.6 %
   Acquisition-related revenue adjustments(1)
— — — — nm— nm
U.S. Markets gross Adjusted Revenue$1,791.0 $1,510.7 $1,416.7 $280.3 18.6 %$94.0 6.6 %
International gross revenue$701.9 $582.7 $623.5 $119.2 20.5 %$(40.8)(6.5)%
   Acquisition-related revenue adjustments(1)
— — 5.6 — nm(5.6)nm
International gross Adjusted Revenue$701.9 $582.7 $629.1 $119.2 20.5 %$(46.4)(7.4)%
Consumer Interactive gross revenue$545.8 $513.1 $497.8 $32.7 6.4 %$15.3 3.1 %
nm: not meaningful
As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the table above.
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    Change
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
(dollars in millions)202120202019$%$%
Reconciliation of net income attributable to TransUnion to consolidated Adjusted EBITDA:
Net income attributable to TransUnion$1,387.1 $343.2 $346.9 $1,043.9 nm$(3.7)(1.1)%
Discontinued operations(1,031.7)(49.8)(48.0)(981.8)nm(1.8)nm
Net income from continuing operations attributable to TransUnion$355.5 $293.4 $298.9 $62.1 21.2 %$(5.5)(1.9)%
   Net interest expense109.2 120.6 166.2 (11.5)(9.5)%(45.6)(27.4)%
   Provision (benefit) for income taxes130.9 83.7 70.5 47.1 56.3 %13.2 18.8%
   Depreciation and amortization377.0 346.8 338.6 30.3 8.7 %8.2 2.4 %
EBITDA$972.5 $844.5 $874.2 $128.0 15.2 %$(29.7)(3.4)%
Adjustments to EBITDA:
   Acquisition-related revenue adjustments(1)
— — 5.6 — nm(5.6)nm
   Stock-based compensation(2)
70.1 45.9 55.3 24.3 52.8 %(9.4)(17.1)%
   Mergers and acquisitions, divestitures and
   business optimization(3)
52.6 8.5 1.1 44.1 nm7.4 nm
   Technology Transformation(4)
42.3 19.3 — 23.0 nm19.3 nm
   Net other(5)
19.4 35.5 29.7 (16.1)(45.4)%5.7 19.3 %
Total adjustments to EBITDA184.4 109.1 91.7 75.2 68.9 %17.4 19.0 %
Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA$1,156.9 $953.6 $965.9 $203.2 21.3 %$(12.3)(1.3)%
Other Metrics:
Cash provided by continuing operations$759.4 $716.3 $710.9 $43.2 6.0 %$5.4 0.8 %
Capital expenditures$(224.2)$(205.6)$(188.4)$(18.6)9.0 %$(17.2)9.1 %
nm: not meaningful
As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the table above.
1.This adjustment represents certain non-cash adjustments related to acquired entities, predominantly adjustments to increase revenue resulting from purchase accounting reductions to deferred revenue we record on the opening balance sheet of acquired entities. Beginning in the third quarter of 2019, we no longer have these adjustments to revenue.
2.Consisted of stock-based compensation and cash-settled stock-based compensation.
3.For the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, consisted of the following adjustments: $48.1 million of acquisition expenses; $9.1 million of Neustar integration costs; $8.4 million of adjustments to contingent consideration expense from previous acquisitions; a $1.1 million gain reduction to notes receivable that were converted into equity upon acquisition and consolidation of an entity; a ($12.5) million gain on a Cost Method investment resulting from an observable price change for a similar investment of the same issuer; a ($1.1) million reimbursement for transition services related to divested businesses, net of separation expenses; and a ($0.5) million gain on the sale of a Cost Method investment.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, consisted of the following adjustments: $7.5 million of Callcredit integration costs; $7.0 million of acquisition expenses; a $4.8 million loss on the impairment of a Cost Method investment; $1.7 million of adjustments to contingent consideration expense from previous acquisitions; an ($8.1) million remeasurement gain on notes receivable that were converted into equity upon acquisition and consolidation of an entity; a ($2.5) million gain on a Cost Method investment resulting from an observable price change for a similar investment of the same issuer; a ($1.8) million gain on the disposal of assets of a small business in our United Kingdom region; and a ($0.1) million reimbursement for transition services provided to the buyers of certain of our discontinued operations.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, consisted of the following adjustments: a ($31.2) million gain on a Cost Method investment resulting from an observable price change for a similar investment of the same issuer; a ($0.5) million reimbursement for transition services provided to the buyers of certain of our discontinued operations; $15.8 million of Callcredit integration costs; a $10.0 million loss on the impairment of certain Cost Method investments; a $3.7 million loss on assets of a small business in our United Kingdom region that are classified as held-for-sale; $2.4
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million of acquisition expenses; and a $0.8 million adjustment to contingent consideration expense from previous acquisitions.
4.Represents expenses associated with our accelerated technology investment to migrate to the cloud.
5.For the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, consisted of the following adjustments: $17.9 million of deferred loan fees written off as a result of the prepayments on our debt; $1.2 million for certain legal and regulatory expenses; a ($3.5) million recovery from the Fraud Incident, net of additional administrative expense; and a $3.7 million net loss from currency remeasurement of our foreign operations, loan fees and other.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, consisted of the following adjustments: $34.7 million for certain legal expenses; $0.9 million of deferred loan fees written off as a result of the prepayments on our debt; a $(1.5) million recovery from the Fraud Incident, net of additional administrative expense; and $1.4 million net loss from currency remeasurement of our foreign operations, loan fees and other.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2019, consisted of the following adjustments: $13.5 million of expenses associated with the Fraud Incident, net of the portion that is attributable to the non-controlling interest; $13.0 million of fees related to the refinancing of senior secured credit facility; $2.0 million of deferred loan fees written off as a result of the prepayments on our debt; and $1.3 million loss from currency remeasurement, loan fees, reduction to expenses for certain legal and regulatory matters and other.

Non-GAAP Key Performance Indicators
Adjusted Revenue
We define Adjusted Revenue as GAAP revenue adjusted for certain acquisition-related deferred revenue and non-core contract-related revenue. We present Adjusted Revenue as a supplemental measure of revenue because we believe it provides a basis to compare revenue between periods. Beginning in the third quarter of 2019, we no longer have these adjustments to revenue.
Adjusted EBITDA
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) attributable to TransUnion plus (less) loss (income) from discontinued operations, net of tax plus net interest expense, plus (less) provision (benefit) for income taxes, plus depreciation and amortization, plus (less) the revenue adjustments included in Adjusted Revenue, plus stock-based compensation, plus mergers, acquisitions, divestitures and business optimization-related expenses including Neustar and Callcredit integration-related expenses, plus certain accelerated technology investment expenses to migrate to the cloud, plus (less) certain other expenses (income).
We present Adjusted EBITDA as a supplemental measure of our operating performance because it eliminates the impact of certain items that we do not consider indicative of our cash operations and ongoing operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA is also a measure frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in their evaluation of the operating performance of companies similar to ours. Our board of directors and executive management team use Adjusted EBITDA as a compensation measure under our incentive compensation plan. Under the credit agreement governing our Senior Secured Credit Facility, our ability to engage in activities such as incurring additional indebtedness, making investments and paying dividends is tied to a ratio based on Adjusted EBITDA. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Debt.” Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our capital expenditures, interest, income tax, depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation and certain other income and expense. Other companies in our industry may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently than we do, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure. Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of financial condition or profitability under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to cash flows from operating activities, as a measure of liquidity or as an alternative to operating income or net income as indicators of operating performance. We believe that the most directly comparable GAAP measure to Adjusted EBITDA is net income (loss) attributable to TransUnion. The table above provides a reconciliation from our net income (loss) attributable to TransUnion to consolidated Adjusted EBITDA for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019.
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Revenue
As mentioned above, the effects of COVID-19 impact the comparability of revenue between periods for all discussions below.
For 2021, revenue increased $429.6 million compared with 2020, due primarily to improving macroeconomic conditions in all of our markets, revenue from new product initiatives, revenue from our recent acquisitions in the U.S. Markets and Consumer Interactive segments, and an increase of 1.1% increase from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
For 2020, revenue increased $67.4 million compared with 2019, due primarily to organic growth in the Financial Services vertical in the U.S. Markets segment, the Consumer Interactive segment, and the Canada region in the International segment, revenue from recent acquisitions in U.S. Markets Emerging Verticals, and revenue from new product initiatives, partially offset by a decrease in organic revenue in U.S. Markets Emerging Verticals and the other regions of the International segment, and a 0.9% decrease from the impact of weakening foreign currencies.
Revenue by segment and a more detailed explanation of revenue within each segment are as follows:
    Change
 Twelve months ended December 31,2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
(dollars in millions)202120202019$%$%
U.S. Markets:
     Financial Services$1,078.9 $939.6 $849.0 $139.3 14.8 %$90.6 10.7 %
     Emerging Verticals712.1 571.1 567.7 141.0 24.7 %3.3 0.6 %
U.S. Markets gross revenue$1,791.0 $1,510.7 $1,416.7 $280.3 18.6 %$94.0 6.6 %
International:
     Canada$126.9 $108.0 $104.1 $19.0 17.6 %$3.9 3.7 %
     Latin America103.2 86.5 104.2 16.7 19.3 %(17.7)(17.0)%
     UK216.5 183.1 186.7 33.4 18.2 %(3.6)(1.9)%
     Africa59.5 49.0 61.2 10.5 21.4 %(12.2)(20.0)%
     India133.1 100.0 108.1 33.1 33.1 %(8.1)(7.5)%
     Asia Pacific62.7 56.2 59.1 6.5 11.6 %(3.0)(5.0)%
International gross revenue$701.9 $582.7 $623.5 $119.2 20.5 %$(40.8)(6.5)%
Consumer Interactive gross revenue$545.8 $513.1 $497.8 $32.7 6.4 %$15.3 3.1 %
Total gross revenue$3,038.7 $2,606.5 $2,538.0 $432.2 16.6 %$68.5 2.7 %
Intersegment revenue eliminations:
U.S. Markets
$(70.5)$(68.9)$(68.7)$(1.6)nm$(0.2)nm
International
(5.9)(5.2)(5.1)(0.7)nm(0.1)nm
Consumer Interactive
(2.0)(1.7)(1.0)(0.3)nm(0.8)nm
Total intersegment revenue eliminations(78.4)(75.9)(74.8)(2.5)nm(1.1)nm
Total revenue as reported$2,960.2 $2,530.6 $2,463.2 $429.6 17.0 %$67.4 2.7 %
nm: not meaningful
As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the table above.
U.S. Markets Segment
For 2021, U.S. Markets revenue increased $280.3 million compared with 2020, primarily due to increases in revenue in both verticals including revenue from our acquisition of Neustar.
For 2020, U.S. Markets revenue increased $94.0 million compared with 2019, due primarily to an increase in revenue in the Financial Services vertical.
Financial Services: For 2021, Financial Services revenue increased $139.3 million due primarily to improvements in macroeconomic conditions and new product initiatives in our consumer lending, card and banking, and auto lines of business, partially offset by a decrease in revenue in our mortgage line of business as volumes have declined due to rising interest rates.
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We anticipate a decline in our mortgage line of business will continue for the foreseeable future as interest rates are expected to continue to rise.
For 2020, Financial Services revenue increased $90.6 million due primarily to improvements in market conditions in our mortgage line of business, as historically low interest rates drove refinance activity and the home purchase market experienced modest growth. The growth in the mortgage line of business was partially offset by decreases in our other lines of business, which have shown signs of improvement since the lows in April 2020.
Emerging Verticals: For 2021, Emerging Verticals revenue increased $141.0 million due primarily to improving macroeconomic conditions in most of our verticals, revenue from new product initiatives, and an increase from recent acquisitions. Every vertical had an increase in revenue during the year, except Services and Collections, which was down slightly. Our recent acquisitions accounted for an increase in revenue of 12.0%.
For 2020, Emerging Verticals revenue increased $3.3 million due primarily to an increase in the Media, Public Sector, Insurance and Tenant & Employment verticals, partially offset by a decrease in the Collections and Diversified Markets verticals. Recent acquisitions accounted for an increase in revenue of 1.8%.
International Segment
For 2021, International revenue increased $119.2 million, or 20.5%, compared with 2020, due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives, and an increase of 4.5% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
For 2020, International revenue decreased $40.8 million, or 6.5%, compared with 2019. The decrease was due primarily to the impact of COVID-19, and a decrease of 3.5% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies.
Canada: For 2021, Canada revenue increased $19.0 million, or 17.6%, compared with 2020. The increase was due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives and an increase of 7.7% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
For 2020, Canada revenue increased $3.9 million, or 3.7% compared with 2019. The increase was due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives, partially offset by a decrease from the impact of COVID-19 primarily in the second and third quarters, and a decrease of less than 1.0% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies.
Latin America: For 2021, Latin America revenue increased $16.7 million, or 19.3%, compared with 2020. The increase was due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives, partially offset by a decrease of 1.4% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies.
For 2020, Latin America revenue decreased $17.7 million, or 17.0%, compared with 2019. The decrease was due primarily to a decrease in local currency revenue as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second, third and fourth quarters, and a decrease of 11.5% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies, partially offset by higher local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives in the first quarter.
United Kingdom: For 2021, United Kingdom revenue increased $33.4 million, or 18.2%, compared with 2020. The increase was due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives and an increase of 7.9% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
For 2020, United Kingdom revenue decreased $3.6 million, or 1.9%, compared with 2019. The decrease was due primarily to a decrease in local currency revenue as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second, third and fourth quarters, partially offset by higher local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives in the first quarter and an increase of 0.7% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
Africa: For 2021, Africa revenue increased $10.5 million, or 21.4%. The increase was due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives, and an increase of 10.3% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
For 2020, Africa revenue decreased $12.2 million, or 20.0%, due primarily to a decrease in local currency revenue as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second, third and fourth quarters, and a decrease of 10.1% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies, partially offset by higher local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives in the first quarter.
India: For 2021, India revenue increased $33.1 million, or 33.1%, due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives, and an increase of 0.1% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies.
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For 2020, India revenue decreased $8.1 million, or 7.5%, due primarily to a decrease in local currency revenue as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second and third quarters, and a decrease of 4.5% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies, partially offset by an increase in local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives in the first and fourth quarters.
Asia Pacific: For 2021, Asia Pacific revenue increased $6.5 million, or 11.6%, due primarily to higher local currency revenue from increased volumes resulting from improving economic conditions and from new product initiatives, partially offset by a decrease of 0.2% from the impact of weakening foreign currencies.
For 2020, Asia Pacific revenue decreased $3.0 million, or 5.0%, due primarily to a decrease in local currency revenue as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second, third and fourth quarters, partially offset by an increase of 1.5% from the impact of strengthening foreign currencies and an increase in local currency revenue from increased volumes including new product initiatives in the first quarter.
Consumer Interactive Segment
For 2021, Consumer Interactive revenue increased $32.7 million, or 6.4%, compared with 2020, due primarily to an increase in revenue from both our direct and indirect channels including revenue from our acquisition of Sontiq. In our indirect channel, revenue increased primarily due to a large breach services contract which was recognized in the second half of 2021.
For 2020, Consumer Interactive revenue increased $15.3 million compared with 2019, due primarily to an increase in revenue from our direct channel, partially offset by a decrease in our indirect channel as a result of COVID-19 primarily in the second, third and fourth quarters.
Operating Expenses
As mentioned above, the effects of COVID-19 impact the comparability of expenses between periods for all discussions below. Operating expenses for the periods reported were as follows:
    Change
 Twelve months ended December 31,2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
(dollars in millions)202120202019$%$%
Cost of services$991.6 $853.9 $805.5 $137.7 16.1 %$48.4 6.0 %
Selling, general and administrative943.9 829.7 777.4 114.2 13.8 %52.3 6.7 %
Depreciation and amortization377.0 346.8 338.6 30.3 8.7 %8.2 2.4 %
Total operating expenses$2,312.5 $2,030.4 $1,921.4 $282.2 13.9 %$108.9 5.7 %
As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the table above.
Cost of Services
For 2021, cost of services increased $137.7 million compared with 2020. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase in product costs resulting from the increase in revenue, primarily in our U.S. Markets segment;
operating and integration-related costs relating to the business acquisitions in our U.S. Markets and Consumer Interactive segments;
an increase in labor costs, primarily in our International segment, as we continue to invest in key strategic growth initiatives;
an increase in costs from our accelerated technology investment; and
the impact of strengthening foreign currencies on the expenses of our International segment.
For 2020, cost of services increased $48.4 million compared with 2019. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase in labor costs in our U.S. Markets segment, primarily due to key strategic growth initiatives;
an increase in product costs in our U.S. Markets and Consumer Interactive segments; and
an increase in costs from our accelerated technology investment;
partially offset by:
a decrease in travel and entertainment expenses due to travel restrictions and shelter in place orders related to COVID-19; and
the impact of weakening foreign currencies on the expenses of our International segment.
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Selling, General and Administrative
For 2021, selling, general and administrative expenses increased $114.2 million compared with 2020. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase in labor costs across all segments and Corporate, including an increase in incentive and stock-based compensation due to improved performance, as we continue to invest in key strategic growth initiatives;
operating and integration-related costs from our recent acquisitions in our U.S. Markets and Consumer Interactive segments;
an increase in costs from our accelerated technology investment; and
the impact of strengthening foreign currencies on the expenses of our International segment,
partially offset by:
a decrease in costs for certain legal and regulatory matters; and
a decrease in bad debt expense, as we have reversed reserves that were recorded at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic;
For 2020, selling, general and administrative expenses increased $52.3 million compared with 2019. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase of $58.1 million for legal and regulatory matters, primarily related to the Ramirez litigation;
an increase in bad debt expense due to an increase in our estimated reserves including the expected impact of COVID-19 primarily in our U.S. Markets and International segments;
an increase in advertising costs, primarily in our Consumer Interactive segment; and
an increase in costs from our accelerated technology investment;
partially offset by:
a decrease in travel and entertainment expenses due to travel restrictions and shelter in place orders related to COVID-19;
a decrease in incentive and stock-based compensation from lower expected achievement on certain performance-based awards due to COVID-19; and
the impact of overall weakening foreign currencies on the expenses of our International segment.
Depreciation and amortization
For 2021, depreciation and amortization increased $30.3 million compared with 2020, due primarily to recent acquisitions of tangible and intangible assets.
For 2020, depreciation and amortization increased $8.2 million compared with 2019, due primarily to recent acquisitions of tangible and intangible assets, partially offset by a decrease in amortization related to certain intangible assets from our 2012 change in control transaction that have become fully amortized. partially offset by a decrease in amortization related to certain intangible assets from our 2012 change in control transaction that have become fully amortized.
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Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin
As mentioned above, the effects of COVID-19 impact the comparability of Adjusted EBITDA between periods for all discussions below.
 Twelve months ended December 31,2021 vs. 20202020 vs. 2019
(dollars in millions)202120202019$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Adjusted Revenue(1):
U.S. Markets gross Adjusted Revenue
$1,791.0 $1,510.7 $1,416.7 $280.3 18.6 %$94.0 6.6 %
International gross Adjusted Revenue701.9 582.7 629.1 119.2 20.5 %(46.4)(7.4)%
Consumer Interactive gross Adjusted Revenue545.8 513.1 497.8 32.7 6.4 %15.3 3.1 %
Total gross Adjusted Revenue3,038.7 2,606.5 2,543.6 432.2 16.6 %63.0 2.5 %
Less: intersegment revenue eliminations(78.4)(75.9)(74.8)(2.5)nm(1.1)nm
Consolidated Adjusted Revenue$2,960.2 $2,530.6 $