10-Q 1 ekso-093018x10q.htm 10-Q Document

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q 
____________________________________________________________________________________________
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______ 
Commission File Number: 001-37854 
____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Nevada
 
99-0367049
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
1414 Harbour Way South, Suite 1201
Richmond, CA
 
94804
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
(510) 984-1761
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x     No ¨
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ¨
 
Accelerated filer x
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
 
Smaller reporting company ¨
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company  ¨ 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act  o 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
 
The number of shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding as of October 31, 2018 was 62,642,256.
 



 Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
 
Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 

Table of Contents
  
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
 
Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except par value)
 
 
September 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
(unaudited)
 
(Note 2)
Assets
 

 
 

Current assets:
 

 
 

Cash
$
12,995

 
$
27,813

Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $59 and $212, respectively
2,988

 
2,760

Inventories, net
3,361

 
3,025

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
509

 
1,339

Total current assets
19,853

 
34,937

Property and equipment, net
2,170

 
2,249

Intangible assets, net
90

 
491

Goodwill
189

 
189

Other assets
121

 
122

Total assets
$
22,423

 
$
37,988

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
3,438

 
$
2,420

Accrued liabilities
3,469

 
3,503

Deferred revenues, current
945

 
1,103

Note payable, current
2,333

 
2,139

Total current liabilities
10,185

 
9,165

Deferred revenues
1,535

 
816

Note payable, net
3,199

 
4,830

Warrant liability
1,810

 
1,648

Contingent liabilities
80

 
81

Other non-current liabilities
27

 
57

Total liabilities
16,836

 
16,597

Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)


 


Stockholders' equity:
 
 
 
Convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value; 141,429 shares authorized; 62,617 and 59,943, shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
63

 
60

Additional paid-in capital
172,721

 
165,825

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(183
)
 
(340
)
Accumulated deficit
(167,014
)
 
(144,154
)
Total stockholders' equity
5,587

 
21,391

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
$
22,423

 
$
37,988

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements

3


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Device and related
$
2,533

 
$
1,587

 
$
8,008

 
$
4,862

Engineering services
17

 
10

 
28

 
38

Total revenue
2,550

 
1,597

 
8,036

 
4,900

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Device and related
1,445

 
1,045

 
5,182

 
3,593

Engineering services
22

 
8

 
35

 
15

Total cost of revenue
1,467

 
1,053

 
5,217

 
3,608

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross profit
1,083

 
544

 
2,819

 
1,292

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
3,106

 
3,226

 
10,892

 
9,563

Research and development
1,282

 
1,986

 
4,479

 
7,491

General and administrative
2,785

 
2,414

 
9,350

 
7,430

Restructuring

 

 

 
665

Change in fair value, contingent consideration
4

 
(16
)
 
(11
)
 
(191
)
Total operating expenses
7,177

 
7,610

 
24,710

 
24,958

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Loss from operations
(6,094
)
 
(7,066
)
 
(21,891
)
 
(23,666
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense), net:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(145
)
 
(165
)
 
(469
)
 
(482
)
Gain (loss) on warrant liabilities
(681
)
 
1,814

 
(162
)
 
4,851

Loss on repurchase of warrants

 
(1,067
)
 

 
(1,067
)
Other income (expense), net
(63
)
 
149

 
(338
)
 
220

Total other income (expense), net
(889
)
 
731

 
(969
)
 
3,522

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(6,983
)
 
$
(6,335
)
 
$
(22,860
)
 
$
(20,144
)
Foreign currency translation adjustments
44

 
(122
)
 
157

 
(356
)
Comprehensive loss
$
(6,939
)
 
$
(6,457
)
 
$
(22,703
)
 
$
(20,500
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net loss per share
$
(0.11
)
 
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.38
)
 
$
(0.73
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding, basic and diluted
61,381

 
34,720

 
60,721

 
27,425

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements

4


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Operating activities:
 

 
 

Net loss
$
(22,860
)
 
$
(20,144
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
1,174

 
1,314

Inventory allowance expense
161

 

Provision for doubtful accounts
(119
)
 
100

Loss on disposal of property and equipment
126

 

Loss (gain) on change in fair value of warrant liabilities
162

 
(4,851
)
Stock-based compensation expense
2,232

 
1,755

Accretion of final payment fee of debt
64

 
72

Amortization of debt discounts
55

 
63

Gain on change in fair value of contingent liabilities
(13
)
 
(72
)
Common stock contribution to 401(k) plan
156

 

Loss on repurchase of warrants

 
1,067

Unrealized loss (gain) on foreign currency transactions
291

 
(425
)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(109
)
 
(488
)
Inventories
(1,254
)
 
(1,239
)
Prepaid expense and other assets
831

 
(1,618
)
Deferred costs of revenue

 
(86
)
Accounts payable
1,058

 
(750
)
Accrued liabilities
477

 
(577
)
Deferred revenues
557

 
297

Net cash used in operating activities
(17,011
)
 
(25,582
)
 
 
 
 
Investing activities:
 
 
 
Acquisition of property and equipment
(51
)
 
(353
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(51
)
 
(353
)
 
 
 
 
Financing activities:
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants, net
3,961

 
42,463

Principal payments on note payable
(1,585
)
 
(46
)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
1

 
42

Net cash provided by financing activities
2,377

 
42,459

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(133
)
 
69

Net increase (decrease) in cash
(14,818
)
 
16,593

Cash at beginning of period
27,813

 
16,846

Cash at end of period
$
12,995

 
$
33,439

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow activities
 
 
 
Cash paid for interest
$
350

 
$
309

Cash paid for income taxes
$

 
$
2

 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activities
 
 
 
Transfer of inventory to equipment
$
757

 
$
417

Share issuance for common stock contribution to 401(k) plan
$
508

 
$

Share issuance for employee bonuses
$
230

 
$

Equipois sales earn-out
$
28

 
$
47

Equipois supply earn-out
$

 
$
189

Cumulative retrospective adjustment to retained earnings for ASU 2016-09 adoption
$

 
$
171

Repurchase of warrants and share issuance
$

 
$
2,245

April 2017 warrant issuance
$

 
$
3,301

 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements

5


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)


1.    Organization
 
Description of Business
 
Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc. (the “Company”) designs, develops and sells exoskeleton technology to augment human strength, endurance and mobility. The Company’s exoskeleton technology serves multiple markets and can be used both by able-bodied users as well as by persons with physical disabilities. The Company has sold or leased devices that (a) enable individuals with neurological conditions affecting gait (stroke and spinal cord injury) to rehabilitate and to walk again and (b) allow industrial workers to perform heavy duty work for extended periods. Founded in 2005, the Company is headquartered in the Bay Area and is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “EKSO”.
 
Liquidity and Going Concern
 
As of September 30, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $167,014.  Largely as a result of significant research and development activities related to the development of the Company’s advanced technology and commercialization of this technology into its medical device business, the Company has incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. In the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company used $17,011 of cash in its operations.
 
Cash on hand at September 30, 2018 was $12,995, compared to $27,813 at December 31, 2017. As noted in Note 9, Long-Term Debt, borrowings under the Company’s long-term debt agreement have a requirement of minimum cash on hand roughly equivalent to three months of cash burn. As of September 30, 2018, the most recent determination of this restriction, $6,380 of cash must remain as unrestricted, with such amounts to be re-computed at each month end period. After considering cash restrictions, effective unrestricted cash as of September 30, 2018 is estimated to be $6,615. Based on the current forecast, the Company’s cash on hand will not be sufficient to satisfy the Company’s operations for the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these condensed consolidated financial statements, which raises substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.
 
Based upon the Company’s current cash resources, the recent rate of using cash for operations and investment, and assuming modest increases in current revenue offset by incremental increases in expenses related to increased sales and marketing, the Company believes it has sufficient resources to meet its financial obligations into the first quarter of 2019. The Company will require significant additional financing. The Company’s actual capital requirements may vary significantly and will depend on many factors. The Company plans to continue its investments (i) in its clinical and sales initiatives to accelerate adoption of the Ekso robotic exoskeleton in the rehabilitation market, (ii) in its research, development and commercialization activities with respect to an Ekso robotic exoskeleton for rehabilitation, and/or (iii) in the development and commercialization of able-bodied exoskeletons for industrial use.

The Company is actively pursuing opportunities to obtain additional financing in the future through public or private equity and/or debt financings, corporate collaborations, or warrant solicitations. Sales of additional equity securities by the Company could result in the dilution of the interests of existing stockholders. There can be no assurance that financing will be available when required in sufficient amounts, on acceptable terms or at all. In the event that the necessary additional financing is not obtained, the Company may be required to further reduce its discretionary overhead costs substantially, including research and development, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses or otherwise curtail operations.
 
2.    Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Basis of Presentation
 
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a consistent basis with the audited consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the information set forth herein. The condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and therefore, omit certain information and footnote disclosure necessary to present the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, which was filed with the SEC on March

6


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

13, 2018. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire fiscal year or any future periods.
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to: revenue recognition, deferred revenue and the deferral of the associated costs, future warranty costs, useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, valuation of inventory, realizability of deferred tax assets, the valuation of employee stock options and warrants, and contingencies. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
Inventory
 
Inventories are recorded at the lower of standard cost (which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis) or market. Parts from vendors are received and recorded as raw material. Once the raw materials are incorporated in the fabrication of the product, the related value of the component is recorded as work in progress (“WIP”). Direct labor and manufacturing overhead costs are also allocated and recorded to WIP inventory. Finished goods are comprised of completed products that are ready for customer shipment. The Company periodically evaluates the carrying value of inventory on hand for potential excess amounts over sales and forecasted demand. Excess, obsolete, and impaired inventories identified, if any, are recorded as an inventory impairment charge to the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company’s estimate of write downs for excess and obsolete inventory is based on a detailed analysis of on-hand inventory and purchase commitments in excess of forecasted demand.  Subsequent disposals of inventories are recorded as a reduction of an inventory reserve.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations.
 
Nature of Products and Services
 
The Company’s medical device segment revenue is primarily generated through the sale and lease of the Ekso GT and associated software (SmartAssist, VariableAssist), and sale of accessories, and support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care). Revenue from medical device product sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility for sales of the Ekso GT, software, and accessories. Ekso Care support and maintenance contracts extend coverage beyond the Company’s standard warranty agreements. The separately priced Ekso Care contracts range from 12 to 48 months. The Company receives payment at the inception of the contract and recognize revenue over the term of the agreement. Revenue from medical device leases is recognized over the lease term, typically over 12 months.

The Company’s industrial device segment revenue is generated by the sales of the support arm (EksoZeroG) and the upper body exoskeleton (EksoVest). Revenue from industrial device sales is recognized at the point in time when control of the product transfers to the customer. Transfer of control generally occurs upon shipment from the Company’s facility for sales of the EksoZeroG and EksoVest.
 
The Company’s engineering services segment revenue is generated by collaborative arrangements or government grants. Cost reimbursements or grant revenue are recognized over the life of the contract in proportion to the costs incurred in satisfying the obligations under the contract.
 
Refer to Note 6 – Revenue Recognition for further information, including revenue disaggregated by source.
 

7


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Going Concern
 
The Company assesses its ability to continue as a going concern at every interim and annual period in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 205-40. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern.
 
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and accounts receivable. The Company maintains its cash accounts in excess of federally insured limits. However, the Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which these deposits are held. The Company extends credit to customers in the normal course of business and performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exist to the full extent of amounts presented in the condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company does not require collateral from its customers to secure accounts receivable.
 
Accounts receivable are derived from the sale of products shipped to and services performed for customers. Invoices are aged based on contractual terms with the customer. The Company reviews accounts receivable for collectability and records an allowance for credit losses, as needed. The Company has not experienced any material losses related to accounts receivable as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
 
Many of the sales contracts with customers outside of the U.S. are settled in a foreign currency. The Company does not enter into any foreign currency hedging agreements and is susceptible to gains and losses from foreign currency fluctuations. To date, the Company has not experienced significant gains or losses upon settling foreign currency denominated accounts receivable.
 
As of September 30, 2018, the Company had no customers with an accounts receivable balance totaling 10% or more of the Company’s total accounts receivable compared with one customer as of December 31, 2017 (10%).
 
In the three months ended September 30, 2018, the Company had no customers with sales of 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue, compared with one customer in the three months ended September 30, 2017 (16%).
 
In the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no customers with sales comprising 10% or more of the Company's total customer sales.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02-Leases (ASC 842) and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2017-13, ASU 2018-10 and ASU 2018-11 (collectively, Topic 842) to supersede existing guidance on accounting for leases in ASC 840, Leases (ASC 840). Topic 842 requires the Company to recognize on its balance sheet a lease liability representing the present value of future lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the lessee's right to use, or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term for any operating lease with a term greater than one year. This standard is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company will adopt the new standard effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective approach, under which the Company will initially apply the new leases standard at the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements

The Company is still in the process of quantifying the impact at this time, but anticipates that this standard will impact its condensed consolidated balance sheets with material increases in current and non-current assets and current and non-current lease liabilities associated with our property leases representing our office locations. The Company does not anticipate a material impact on its condensed consolidated statements of operations, as the majority of its leases will remain operating leases for which the right-of-use assets amortization will be similar to previously required straight-line expense treatment for operating leases. The adoption of Topic 842 will not have a material impact on the financial covenants set forth in the Company's long-term debt agreement.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 eliminated the requirement to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, entities are required to record an impairment charge based on the excess of the carrying amount over its fair value. This update will be effective for

8


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

the Company beginning January 1, 2020 and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the impact of adopting ASU 2017-04 to be material on its consolidated financial statements.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The Update expands the scope of ASC 718 to include all share-based payment arrangements related to the acquisition of goods and services from both nonemployees and employees. Under the amended guidance, equity-classified share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees will be measured at grant date fair value. Upon transition, the entity is required to remeasure these nonemployee awards at fair value as of the adoption date.  The improvement is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of the amendments in this update will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The standard modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820 by removing the requirement to disclose the reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy and the policy for timing of such transfers. The standard expands the disclosure requirements for Level 3 fair value measurement, primarily focused on changes in unrealized gains and losses included in other comprehensive income. The amendments in this Update will be effective for all the Company in the first quarter of 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of the amendments in this update will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
 
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP. The new standard introduces a five-step process to be followed in determining the amount and timing of revenue recognition. It also provides guidance on accounting for costs incurred to obtain or fulfill contracts with customers, and establishes disclosure requirements which are more extensive than those required under prior U.S. GAAP. The FASB has issued numerous amendments to ASU 2014-09 from August 2015 through January 2018, which provide supplemental and clarifying guidance, as well as amend the effective date of the new standard. ASU 2014-09, as amended, is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2018. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or modified retrospective (cumulative effect) transition method. Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption did not result in a cumulative adjustment to the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018, nor did it materially impact the aggregate amount and timing of the Company’s revenue recognition subsequent to adoption. The Company has provided enhanced revenue recognition disclosures as required by the new standard (Refer to Note 6, Revenue Recognition).
 
3.    Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
The following table sets forth the changes to accumulated comprehensive loss, net of tax, by component for the nine months ended September 30, 2018:
 
Foreign Currency Translation
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
(340
)
Other comprehensive gain before reclassification
157

Balance at September 30, 2018
$
(183
)
 
4.    Fair Value Measurements
 
Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, may be used to measure fair value which are the following:

9


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

 
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Company considers a market to be active when transactions for the asset occur with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis.
Level 2—Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. The valuation of Level 3 investments requires the use of significant management judgments or estimation.

The Company’s fair value hierarchies for its financial assets and liabilities which require fair value measurement are as follows:
 
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
September 30, 2018
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Liabilities
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Warrant liabilities
 
$
1,810

 
$

 
$

 
$
1,810

Contingent consideration liability
 
$
47

 
$

 
$

 
$
47

Contingent success fee liability
 
$
33

 
$

 
$

 
$
33

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Warrant liability
 
$
1,648

 
$

 
$

 
$
1,648

Contingent consideration liability
 
$
42

 
$

 
$

 
$
42

Contingent success fee liability
 
$
39

 
$

 
$

 
$
39

 
The following table sets forth a summary of the changes in the fair value of the Company’s Level 3 financial liabilities for the period ended September 30, 2018, which were measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
 
 
Warrant Liability
 
Contingent
Consideration Liability
 
Contingent Success
Fee Liability
Balance at December 31, 2017
 
$
1,648

 
$
42

 
$
39

Loss on revaluation of warrants issued in conjunction with 2015 financing
 
162

 

 

Gain on revaluation of liability
 

 
(5
)
 
(6
)
Reclassification from accrued liabilities
 

 
10

 

Balance at September 30, 2018
 
$
1,810

 
$
47

 
$
33

 
Refer to Note 11 Capitalization and Equity Structure – Warrants for additional information regarding the valuation of warrants.
 
5.    Inventories, net
 
Inventories consisted of the following:
 
September 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Raw materials
$
2,144

 
$
1,737

Work in progress
254

 

Finished goods
1,299

 
1,463

 
3,697

 
3,200

Less: inventory reserve
(336
)
 
(175
)
Inventories, net
$
3,361

 
$
3,025



10


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

6.    Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which when capable of being distinct, are accounted for as separate performance obligations. Revenue recognition is evaluated based on the following five steps: (i) identification of the contract with the customer; (ii) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determination of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognition of revenue when or as a performance obligation is satisfied.
 
For multiple-element arrangements, revenue is allocated to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling prices are determined based on observable prices at which the Company separately sells its products or services. If a standalone selling price is not directly observable, the Company estimates the selling price based on market conditions and entity-specific factors including features and functionality of the product and/or services, the geography of the Company’s customers, type of the Company’s markets. Any discounts or other reductions to the transaction price are allocated proportionately to all performance obligations within the multiple-element arrangement.
 
Contract Balances
 
Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers and receipt of payment. For the sale of its products, the Company generally recognizes revenue at a point in time through the ship-and-bill performance obligations. For the lease of its products, the Company generally recognizes revenue over the lease term commencing upon the completion of customer training. For service agreements, the Company generally invoices customers at the beginning of the coverage period and record revenue related to the billed amounts over time, equivalent to the coverage period of the maintenance and support contract.
 
Deferred revenue is comprised mainly of unearned revenue related to extended support and maintenance contracts (Ekso Care) but also includes other offerings for which the Company has been paid in advance and earns revenue when the Company transfers control of the product or service.
 
Deferred revenues consisted of the following:
 
September 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Deferred extended maintenance and support
$
2,358

 
$
1,763

Deferred rental income
32

 
73

Customer deposits and advances
56

 
52

Deferred device revenues
34

 
31

Total deferred revenues
2,480

 
1,919

Less current portion
(945
)
 
(1,103
)
Deferred revenues, non-current
$
1,535

 
$
816

 
Deferred revenue activity consisted of the following:
 
Nine months ended September 30, 2018
Beginning balance
$
1,919

Deferral of revenue
1,828

Recognition of deferred revenue
(1,267
)
Ending balance
$
2,480

 
At September 30, 2018, the Company’s deferred revenue, was $2,480. Excluding customer deposits, the Company expects to recognize approximately $311 of the deferred revenue in the remainder of 2018$744 in 2019, and $1,369 thereafter.

11


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

 
As of September 30, 2018, and December 31, 2017, accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, were $2,988 and $2,760, respectively, and are included in current assets on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
 
The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects the Company’s best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. The Company determines the allowance based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 60 days.
 
Disaggregation of revenue
 
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by major source for the three months ended September 30, 2018:
 
Device and related
 
Engineering
 
 
 
Medical
 
Industrial
 
Total
 
services
 
Total
Device revenue
$
1,084

 
$
736

 
$
1,820

 
$

 
$
1,820

Service, support and rentals
644

 
9

 
653

 

 
653

Parts and other
16

 
44

 
60

 

 
60

Collaborative arrangements

 

 

 
17

 
17

 
$
1,744

 
$
789

 
$
2,533

 
$
17

 
$
2,550


The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by major source for the nine months ended September 30, 2018:
 
Device and related
 
Engineering
 
 
 
Medical
 
Industrial
 
Total
 
services
 
Total
Device revenue
$
4,691

 
$
1,669

 
$
6,360

 
$

 
$
6,360

Service, support and rentals
1,425

 
9

 
1,434

 

 
1,434

Parts and other
150

 
64

 
214

 

 
214

Collaborative arrangements

 

 

 
28

 
28

 
$
6,266

 
$
1,742

 
$
8,008

 
$
28

 
$
8,036

 
7.    Intangible Assets

The following table reflects the amortization of the purchased intangible assets as of September 30, 2018:
 
Cost
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Net
Developed technology
$
1,160

 
$
(1,095
)
 
$
65

Customer relationships
70

 
(66
)
 
4

Customer trade name
380

 
(359
)
 
21

 
$
1,610

 
$
(1,520
)
 
$
90

 
Estimated future amortization for the remainder of 2018 is $90.


12


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

8.    Accrued Liabilities
 
Accrued liabilities consisted of the following:
 
September 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Salaries, benefits and related expenses
$
2,275

 
$
2,850

Severance
488

 

Device warranty
300

 
232

Clinical trials
214

 
136

Device maintenance
78

 
121

Capital lease obligation
35

 
34

Other
79

 
130

Total
$
3,469

 
$
3,503

 
A reconciliation of the changes in the current portion of device maintenance and warranty liabilities for the nine-month period ended September 30, 2018 is as follows:
 
Maintenance
 
Warranty
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2017
$
121

 
$
232

 
$
353

Additions for estimated future expense

 
312

 
312

Incurred costs
(43
)
 
(244
)
 
(287
)
Balance at September 30, 2018
$
78

 
$
300

 
$
378

 
9.    Long-Term Debt
 
In December 2016, the Company entered into a loan agreement and received $7,000 that bears interest on the outstanding daily balance at a floating per annum rate equal to the 30-day U.S. LIBOR plus 5.41%. The loan agreement created a first priority security interest with respect to substantially all assets of the Company, including proceeds of intellectual property, but expressly excluding intellectual property itself.
 
The Company was required to pay accrued interest on the current loan on the first day of each month through and including January 1, 2018. Commencing on February 1, 2018, the Company is required to make equal monthly payments of principal, together with accrued and unpaid interest. The principal balance of the current loan amortizes ratably over 36 months, and matures on January 1, 2021, at which time all unpaid principal and accrued and unpaid interest shall be due and payable in full. In addition, a final payment of $245 will be due on the maturity date, of which $161 has accreted as of September 30, 2018, to be paid in 2021 and is included as a component of note payable on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
 
In December 2016, and pursuant to the loan agreement, the Company entered into a success fee agreement with the lender under which the Company agreed to pay the lender a $250 success fee upon the first to occur of any of the following events: (a) a sale or other disposition by the Company of all or substantially all of its assets; (b) a merger or consolidation of the Company into or with another person or entity, where the holders of the Company’s outstanding voting equity securities immediately prior to such merger or consolidation hold less than a majority of the issued and outstanding voting equity securities of the successor or surviving person or entity immediately following the consummation of such merger or consolidation; or (c) the closing price per share for the Company’s common stock being $8.00 or more for five successive business days. The estimated fair value of the success fee was determined using the Binomial Lattice Model and was recorded as a discount to the debt obligation. The fair value of the contingent success fee is re-measured each reporting period with any adjustments in fair value being recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The success fee is classified as a liability on the condensed consolidated balance sheets. At September 30, 2018, the fair value of the contingent success fee liability was $33.

The loan agreement includes a liquidity covenant requiring that the Company maintain unrestricted cash and cash equivalents in accounts of the lender or subject to control agreements in favor of the lender in an amount equal to at least three months of “Monthly

13


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Cash Burn,” which is the Company’s average monthly net income (loss) for the trailing six-month period plus certain expenses and plus the average monthly principal due and payable on interest-bearing liabilities in the immediately succeeding three-month period. Such amount was determined to be $6,380 as of September 30, 2018, the most current determination, with the amount subject to change on a month-to-month basis. At September 30, 2018, with cash on hand of $12,995, the Company was compliant with this liquidity covenant and all other covenants. 

The final payment fee, debt issuance costs, and the initial fair value of the success fee combined with the stated interest resulted in an effective interest rate of 10.11% for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 9.92% for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. The final payment fee, initial fair value of the success fee and debt issuance costs was and will be accreted, amortized and amortized, respectively, to interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the loan.
 
The following table presents scheduled principal payments of the Company’s long-term debt and final payment fee as of September 30, 2018:
Period
 
Amount
2018 - remainder
 
$
583

2019
 
2,333

2020
 
2,333

2021
 
440

Total principal payments
 
5,689

Less accreted portion of final payment fee, net of issuance cost and success fee discounts
 
157

Long-term debt, net
 
$
5,532

 
 
 
Current portion
 
2,333

Long-term portion
 
3,199

Long-term debt, net
 
$
5,532

 
10.    Lease Obligations

In May 2017, the Company renewed its operating lease agreement for its headquarters and manufacturing facility in Richmond, California. The lease term will expire in May 2022.
 
In July 2017, the Company entered into an operating lease agreement for its European operations office in Hamburg, Germany. The initial Hamburg lease term will expire in July 2022, and the Company has an option to extend the lease for another five-year term. The Company has an unoccupied leased sales office in Freiburg, which has a lease term expiring in December 2020. In the second quarter of 2018, the Company recorded a $175 charge in sales and marketing expense in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss relating to remaining obligation of the lease.
 
In August 2015, the Company entered into a long-term capital lease obligation for equipment. The aggregate principal of the lease at inception was $166, with an interest rate of 4.7%, minimum monthly payments of $3 and a July 1, 2020 maturity. This capital lease is classified as a component of accrued liabilities and other non-current liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
 

14


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

The Company estimates future minimum payments as of September 30, 2018 to be the following:
Period
 
Capital Lease
 
Operating Leases
2018 - remainder
 
$
6

 
$
134

2019
 
37

 
543

2020
 
22

 
555

2021
 

 
568

2022
 

 
263

Total minimum payments
 
65

 
$
2,063

Less interest
 
(3
)
 
 
Present value minimum payments
 
62

 
 
Less current portion
 
(35
)
 
 
Long-term portion
 
$
27

 
 
 
Rent expense under the Company’s operating leases was $130 and $138 for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $589 and $347 for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
 
11.    Capitalization and Equity Structure

Summary
 
The Company’s authorized capital stock at September 30, 2018 consisted of 141,429 shares of common stock and 10,000 shares of preferred stock. At September 30, 2018, 62,617 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were issued and outstanding.

Common Stock

On August 21, 2018, the Company entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement ("ATM Agreement") with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (the “Agent”) under which the Company may issue and sell shares of its common stock, from time to time, to or through the Agent, by methods deemed to be an “at the market offering.” Shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $25,000 may be offered pursuant to a prospectus dated August 21, 2018 (the “ATM Prospectus”) under the Company’s previously filed and currently effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-218517). For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company sold 1,747 shares of common stock under the ATM Agreement at an average price of $2.48 per share, for aggregate proceeds of $3,961, net of commission and issuance costs, to the Company. As of September 30, 2018, approximately $20,664 aggregate offering price of the Company's common stock remained available for issuance pursuant to the ATM Prospectus.

Warrants
 
Warrant shares outstanding as of December 31, 2017 and September 30, 2018 were as follows:  
Source
 
Exercise
Price
 
Term
(Years)
 
December 31,
2017
 
Issued
 
Expired
 
September 30, 2018
Information Agent Warrants
 
$
1.50

 
3
 
200

 

 

 
200

2015 Warrants
 
$
3.74

 
5
 
1,604

 

 

 
1,604

2014 PPO and Merger
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Placement agent warrants
 
$
7.00

 
5
 
426

 

 

 
426

PPO warrants
 
$
14.00

 
5
 
1,078

 

 

 
1,078

Pre-2014 warrants
 
$
9.66

 
9-10
 
88

 

 

 
88

 
 
 
 
 
 
3,396

 

 

 
3,396


15


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

 
Information Agent Warrants
 
In September 2017, in connection with the Rights Offering in August 2017, the Company issued warrants to purchase 200 shares of the Company’s common stock with an exercise price of $1.50 per share to an information agent (the “Information Agent Warrants”). The Information Agent Warrants became exercisable immediately upon issuance. These warrants were recorded in stockholders’ equity on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet.
 
2015 Warrants
 
In December 2015, the Company issued warrants to purchase 2,122 shares with an exercise price of $3.74 per share (the “2015 Warrants”). The 2015 Warrants contain a put-option provision. Under this provision, while the 2015 Warrants are outstanding, if the Company enters into a Fundamental Transaction, defined as a merger, consolidation or similar transaction, the Company or any successor entity will, at the option of each warrant holder, exercisable at any time within 30 days after the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction, purchase the warrant from the holder exercising such option by paying to the holder an amount of cash equal to the Black-Scholes value of the remaining unexercised portion of such holder’s warrant on the date of the consummation of the Fundamental Transaction. Because of this put-option provision, the 2015 Warrants are classified as a liability and are marked to market at each reporting date. During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017, 488 shares and 30 shares, respectively, of the 2015 warrants, were exercised.
 
The warrant liability related to the 2015 Warrants is measured at fair value at each reporting date using certain estimated inputs, which are classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. The following assumptions were used in the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model to measure the fair value of the 2015 warrants as of September 30, 2018:
Current share price
$
2.34

Conversion price
$
3.74

Risk-free interest rate
2.83%

Term (years)
2.25

Volatility of stock
105.5%


12.    Stock-based Compensation
 
In June 2018, the Company’s stockholders ratified an amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated 2014 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”), which was first approved by the stockholders in December 2017, to increase the number of shares available for grant by 4,400 shares.  As of September 30, 2018, the total shares authorized for grant under the 2014 Plan was 9,114, of which 1,837 were available for future grants.
 

16


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Stock Options
 
The following table summarizes information about the Company’s stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2018, and activity during the nine months then ended:
 
Stock
Awards
 
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
 
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Balance as of December 31, 2017
3,156

 
$
4.96

 
 
 
 
Options granted
3,295

 
$
1.90

 
 
 
 
Options exercised
(1
)
 
1.13

 
 
 
 
Options forfeited
(427
)
 
$
4.68

 
 
 
 
Options cancelled
(135
)
 
$
8.07

 
 
 
 
Balance as of September 30, 2018
5,888

 
$
3.20

 
8.36
 
$
2,358

Vested and expected to vest at September 30, 2018
5,888

 
$
3.20

 
8.36
 
$
2,358

Exercisable as of September 30, 2018
2,065

 
$
5.45

 
5.98
 
$
308

 
As of September 30, 2018, total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock options was $5,569. This amount is expected to be recognized as stock-based compensation expense in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income over the remaining weighted average vesting period of 3.3 years.
 
The per-share fair value of each stock option was determined on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model using the following assumptions:
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Dividend yield

 

 

 

Risk-free interest rate
2.75%-2.99%

 
1.83%-1.94%

 
2.70% - 2.99%

 
1.83%-2.29%

Expected term (in years)
5-6

 
5-6

 
5-10

 
5-9

Volatility
106
%
 
87
%
 
104
%
 
82
%
 
Restricted Stock Units
 
Beginning in 2017, the Company issued restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to employees and non-employee service providers as permitted by the 2014 Plan. Each restricted stock unit represents the right to receive one share of the Company’s common stock upon vesting and subsequent settlement. The fair value of restricted stock units is determined based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
 
RSU activity for the period ended September 30, 2018 is summarized below:
 
Number of
Shares
 
Weighted-
Average Grant
Date Fair Value
Unvested as of December 31, 2017
617

 
$
1.65

Granted
354

 
$
1.78

Vested
(584
)
 
$
1.45

Forfeited
(94
)
 
$
2.78

Unvested at September 30, 2018
293

 
$
1.82

 

17


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

As of September 30, 2018, $475 of total unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested RSUs was expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 3.68 years.
   
Compensation Expense
 
Total stock-based compensation expense related to options and RSUs granted to employees and non-employees is included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as follows:
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Sales and marketing
$
171

 
$
187

 
$
446

 
$
365

Research and development
87

 
103

 
312

 
287

General and administrative
680

 
360

 
1,474

 
917

Restructuring charges

 

 

 
186

 
$
938

 
$
650

 
$
2,232

 
$
1,755

 
401(k) Plan Share Match
 
In August 2017, the Company’s Board of Directors approved a match benefit to the Ekso Bionics 401(k) plan (the “401(k) Plan”) in the form of shares of the Company’s common stock. The Company made a matching contribution to the 401(k) Plan in an amount equal to 100% of each eligible employee’s elected deferral (up to the statutory limit) for the year ending December 31, 2017 and will make a matching contribution equal to 50% of each employee’s elected deferral for each year thereafter.
 
During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company issued 221 shares of common stock to the eligible employees’ deferral accounts for the 401(k) Plan matching contribution for the year ended December 31, 2017.
 
13.    Income Taxes

There were no material changes to the unrecognized tax benefits in the nine months ended September 30, 2018, and the Company does not expect significant changes to unrecognized tax benefits through the end of the fiscal year. Because of the Company’s history of tax losses, all years remain open to tax examination.
 
14.    Commitments and Contingencies

Material Contracts
 
The Company enters various license, research collaboration and development agreements which provide for payments to the Company for government grants, fees, cost reimbursements typically with a markup, technology transfer and license fees, and royalty payments on sales.
 
The Company has two license agreements with the Regents of the University of California to maintain exclusive rights to certain patents. Pursuant to those license agreements, the Company is required to pay 1% of net sales of products sold to entities other than the U.S. government and, in the event of a sub-license, the Company will owe 21% of license fees and must pass through 1% of the sub-licensee’s net sales of products sold to entities other than the U.S. government. The agreements also stipulate minimum annual royalties of $50.
 
In connection with acquisition of Equipois, the Company assumed the rights and obligations of Equipois under a license agreement with the developer of certain intellectual property related to mechanical balance and support arm technologies, which grants the Company an exclusive license with respect to the technology and patent rights for certain fields of use. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, the Company pays the developer a single-digit royalty on net receipts, subject to a $50 annual minimum royalty requirement.
 

18


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

The Company purchases components from a variety of suppliers and use contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for its products. Purchase obligations are defined as agreements that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. The Company had purchase obligations primarily for purchases of inventory and manufacturing related service contracts totaling $2,033 as of September 30, 2018, which is expected to be paid within a year. Timing of payments and actual amounts paid may be different depending on the time of receipt of goods or services or changes to agreed-upon amounts for some obligations.
 
Contingencies
 
In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to various legal matters. In the opinion of management, the resolution of such matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
 
15.    Net Loss Per Share
 
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share:
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Numerator:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Net loss applicable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
$
(6,983
)
 
$
(6,335
)
 
$
(22,860
)
 
$
(20,144
)
Denominator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average number of shares, basic and diluted
61,381

 
34,720

 
60,721

 
27,425

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$
(0.11
)
 
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.38
)
 
$
(0.73
)
 
The following table sets forth potential shares of common stock that are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would be anti-dilutive as of the end of each period presented:
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Options to purchase common stock
5,888

 
2,972

 
5,888

 
2,972

Restricted stock
293

 
609

 
293

 
609

Warrants for common stock
3,396

 
3,426

 
3,396

 
3,426

Total common stock equivalents
9,577

 
7,007

 
9,577

 
7,007


16.    Segment Disclosures
 
The Company has three reportable segments: Medical Devices, Industrial Sales, and Engineering Services. The Medical Devices segment designs and engineers technology for, and commercializes, manufactures, and sells exoskeletons for applications in the medical markets. The Industrial Sales segment designs, engineers, commercializes, manufactures, and sells exoskeleton devices to allow able-bodied users to perform heavy duty work for extended periods. Engineering Services generates revenue principally from collaborative research and development service arrangements, technology license agreements, and government grants where the Company uses its robotics domain knowledge in bionic exoskeletons to bid on and procure contracts and grants from entities such as the National Science Foundation and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
 
The Company evaluates performance and allocates resources based on segment gross profit margin. The reportable segments are each managed separately because they serve distinct markets, and one segment provides a service and the others manufacture and distribute unique products. The Company does not consider net assets as a segment measure and, accordingly, assets are not allocated.
 

19


Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
($ and share amounts in thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Segment reporting information is as follows:
 
Device and Related
 
Engineering
 
 
 
Medical
 
Industrial
 
Total
 
Services
 
Total
Three months ended September 30, 2018
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
1,744

 
$
789

 
$
2,533

 
$
17

 
$
2,550

Cost of revenue
827

 
618

 
1,445

 
22

 
1,467

Gross profit
$
917

 
$
171

 
$
1,088

 
$
(5
)
 
$
1,083

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three months ended September 30, 2017
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
1,320

 
$
267

 
$
1,587

 
$
10

 
$
1,597

Cost of revenue
880

 
165

 
1,045

 
8

 
1,053

Gross profit
$
440

 
$
102

 
$
542

 
$
18

 
$
544

 
 
Device and Related
 
Engineering
 
 
 
Medical
 
Industrial
 
Total
 
Services
 
Total
Nine months ended September 30, 2018
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
6,266

 
$
1,742

 
$
8,008

 
$
28

 
$
8,036

Cost of revenue
3,699

 
1,483

 
5,182

 
35

 
5,217

Gross profit
$
2,567

 
$
259

 
$
2,826

 
$
(7
)
 
$
2,819

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nine months ended September 30, 2017
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Revenue
$
3,692

 
$
1,170

 
$
4,862

 
$
38

 
$
4,900

Cost of revenue
2,786

 
807

 
3,593

 
15

 
3,608

Gross profit
$
906

 
$
363

 
$
1,269

 
$
23

 
$
1,292

 
Geographic information for revenue based on location of customers is as follows:
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
United States
$
1,845

 
$
1,130

 
$
4,976

 
$
3,092

All Other
705

 
467

 
3,060

 
1,808

 
$
2,550

 
$
1,597

 
$
8,036

 
$
4,900


17.    Related Party Transactions

One of the Company’s directors, Dr. Ted Wang, is the founder, general partner and Chief Investment Officer of Puissance Capital Management LP (“Puissance Capital”), which is an affiliate of Puissance Cross-Border Opportunities II LLC, one of the Company’s significant stockholders. Prior to Dr. Wang’s appointment to the Board in September 2017, the Company entered into a one-year consulting agreement with Angel Pond Capital LLC (“Angel Pond”), an entity affiliated with Puissance Capital. Angel Pond assists the Company with strategic positioning in the Asia Pacific region, including the introduction to potential strategic and capital partners and the development of strategic partnerships for the sale and manufacture of the Company’s products in that market. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company made aggregate payments of $2,150 to Angel Pond, representing consulting services for one year.  These fees were recognized ratably to expense over the one-year period, resulting $1,075 expense charged to general and administrative expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company made additional aggregate payments of $90 to Angel Pond in connection with consulting services provided by Angel Pond, which were expensed in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
  

20


Item 2.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operation in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.
 
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include all statements other than statements of historical facts contained or incorporated by reference in this quarterly report, including statements regarding (i) the plans and objectives of management for future operations, including plans or objectives relating to the design, development and commercialization of human exoskeletons, (ii) a projection of income (including income/loss), earnings (including earnings/loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items, (iii) our future financial performance, including any such statement contained in a discussion and analysis of financial condition by management or in the results of operations included pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, (iv) our beliefs regarding the potential for commercial opportunity for exoskeleton technology in general and our exoskeleton products in particular, (v) our beliefs regarding potential clinical and other health benefits of our medical devices, and (vi) the assumptions underlying or relating to any statement described in points (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) or (v) above. The words “may,” “might,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “project,” “estimate,” “pro-forma,” “predict,” “potential,” “strategy,” “anticipate,” “attempt,” “develop,” “plan,” “help,” “believe,” “continue,” “intend,” “expect,” “future,” and similar expressions (including the negative of any of the foregoing) are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
 
The following factors, among others, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, as updated and supplemented in this Quarterly Report under the heading “Part II – Item 1A. Risk Factors”, could cause our future results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking information:
 
our ability to obtain adequate financing to fund operations and to develop or enhance our technology;
our ability to obtain or maintain regulatory approval to market the Company’s medical devices;
the anticipated timing, cost and progress of the development and commercialization of new products or services, and improvements to our existing products, and related impacts on our profitability and cash position;
our ability to effectively market and sell our products and expand our business, both in unit sales and product diversification;
our ability to achieve broad customer adoption of our products and services;
our ability to complete clinical trials on a timely basis and that completed clinical trials will be sufficient to support commercialization of our products;
existing or increased competition;
rapid changes in technological solutions available to our markets;
volatility with our business, including long and variable sales cycles, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations for any given quarter;
our ability to obtain or maintain patent protection for the Company’s intellectual property;
the scope, validity and enforceability of our and third-party intellectual property rights;
significant government regulation of medical devices and the healthcare industry;
our customers’ ability to get third-party reimbursement for our products and services associated with them;
our failure to implement our business plan or strategies;
our ability to retain or attract key employees;
stock volatility or illiquidity;
our ability to maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting; and
overall economic and market conditions.

Although we believe that the assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements and forward-looking information contained herein are reasonable, any of the assumptions could be inaccurate, and therefore such statements and information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may not prove to be accurate. In light of the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements and forward-looking information included herein, the inclusion of such statements and information should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other person that the results or conditions described in such statements and information or that our objectives and plans will be achieved. Such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
 

21


Overview
 
We design, develop and sell exoskeleton technology to augment human strength, endurance and mobility. Our exoskeleton technology serves multiple markets and can be used both by able-bodied users as well as by persons with physical disabilities. We have sold, rented or leased devices that (a) enable individuals with neurological conditions affecting gait (stroke and spinal cord injury) to rehabilitate and to walk again and (b) allow industrial workers to perform heavy duty work for extended periods.
 
Today, our medical exoskeleton, Ekso GT, is used as a rehabilitation tool to allow physicians and therapists to rehabilitate patients who have suffered a stroke or spinal cord injury. With its unique features designed specifically for hospitals and its proprietary SmartAssist software, Ekso GT allows for the early mobilization of patients, with high step count and high dosage treatments. The intent is to allow the patient’s central nervous system to take advantage of a person’s neuroplasticity to maximize a patient’s recovery.
 
For able-bodied industrial workers, we introduced in 2017 a second commercial product for industrial applications, the EksoVest, an upper body exoskeleton that elevates and supports a worker's arms to assist them with tasks ranging from chest height to overhead. It is lightweight and low profile, making it comfortable to wear in all conditions while enabling freedom of motion. The goal is for workplaces with the EksoVest to experience fewer on-site injuries while tasks are completed faster and with higher quality results, for workers to stay healthier and experience increased stamina, and for companies to gain greater productivity in factories and on construction sites. In 2018, we are focusing on increasing sales of the EksoVest and EksoZeroG by pursuing alternative channels such as rental agreements with construction equipment and heavy tool providers and working with automotive and related manufacturers to roll out our product(s) globally within their assembly operations. In addition, we believe there is additional mid-to-long-term potential in the industrial markets, and accordingly, we will continue our development efforts to expand our EksoWorks product offerings.
 
We believe the commercial opportunity for exoskeleton technology adoption is accelerating as a result of recent advancements in material technologies, electronic and electrical engineering, control technologies, and sensor and software development. Taken individually, many of these advancements have become ubiquitous in peoples’ everyday lives. We believe that we have learned how to integrate these existing technologies and wrap the result around a human being efficiently, elegantly and safely, supported by an industry leading intellectual property portfolio. We further believe that we can do so across a broad spectrum of applications, from persons with lower limb paralysis to able-bodied users.
 
Clinical Update
 
Our strategy continues to be to expand clinical data associated with robotic exoskeleton use and, in particular, Ekso GT. To date, there have been 90 studies announced utilizing the Ekso GT, including 54 completed studies and 36 ongoing studies, encompassing a total of over 2,000 patients. This includes our sponsored clinical trial entitled WISE (Walking Improvement for SCI with Exoskeletons) which evaluates improvement in independent gait speeds of Spinal Cord Injury (“SCI”) patients undergoing rehabilitation with the Ekso GT and compares it to both conventional therapy and a control group. The U.S.-based, multi-center study is ongoing at five rehabilitation centers and seeks to enroll approximately 50 people with chronic incomplete SCI. The primary endpoint of the WISE study seeks to demonstrate that a 12-week robotic gait training regimen can lead to a clinically meaningful improvement in independent walking speed. Secondary endpoints from the trial are examining economic factors such as number of physical therapists and staff required during training, the physical burden on physical therapists assisting and supervising during training, and the influence of factors that may modify the gait recovery.
 
We also continue to work with investigators who have independently initiated large clinical trials to study the use of the Ekso GT, including: a randomized controlled trial of 162 acute and chronic stroke patients (conducted in Italy);  a Kessler Foundation study that is enrolling acute stroke patients in a grant-funded randomized, controlled trial with the goal of demonstrating the benefits of early intervention with gait therapy using the Ekso GT; a registry headed up by the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago focusing on the clinical efficacy of the Ekso GT in both SCI and stroke survivors; and a study being conducted by the Moritz Klink entitled The MOST Study (mobility improved after stroke when a robotic device was used in comparison to physical therapy) investigating the impact of gait training with the Ekso GT on functional independence of 60 patients with impaired gait as a consequence of stroke when compared to conventional physiotherapy alone.
 
Sales and Marketing Update - Rehabilitation
 
In conjunction with our Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) clearance in April 2016, including the first approved label in the industry that includes patients with hemiplegia due to stroke, we completed a full review of our sales and marketing efforts. We have begun to broaden the launch of our Ekso GT and our go-to-market plan in the U.S. and in Europe, including an increase in

22


marketing campaigns to educate the market on the benefits of stroke rehabilitation using exoskeletons, and arranging product demonstrations with various stakeholders at our target customers.
 
Today we have six direct salespersons in the U.S., one salesperson for the Asia Pacific region, and one direct sales representative for Germany and Switzerland. Additionally, we have a distributor manager for 15 distributors in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa ("EMEA"), covering 25 markets, as well as a sales operations manager that supports the efforts of both the U.S. and the EMEA teams. This sales team is supported by 10 physical therapists to provide customer demonstrations and training, and six sales operation and customer service personnel. Over the past several quarters the Company has endeavored to better understand its customer’s decision cycle for adopting the Company’s new technology, in order to optimize the pace of placements and adoption and has piloted acquisition programs through leasing and rent to own options. Given the track record of converting previous rentals to sales, we are confident that the lease and rental programs will facilitate expansion of the Company’s rehabilitation program, while also allowing us to reduce the timeline to place our Ekso GT units.
 
Recently we launched our Centers of Excellence program in both the U.S. and Europe, a unique peer-to-peer program through which some of our key customers and thought leaders share their knowledge and experience with potential and new customers. The program spans the operational areas of clinical, sales and marketing to bring together the user experience and share it with new customers to facilitate adoption and utilization. These Centers of Excellence will work with our integrated sales and marketing teams and will be available to prospective customers/partners to discuss the clinical, business and financial merits of using the Ekso GT as a tool in rehabilitation. These Centers of Excellence complement the more than 225 hospitals and clinics that already have incorporated over 300 Ekso GT units in their rehabilitation programs.
 
We have been granted a two-year renewal for our 35 Continuing Competence Units, through the Federation of State Board of Physical Therapy (FSBPT), for physical therapists that successfully complete the Ekso GT training program. The FSBPT recognized the comprehensive overview of gait analysis, robotic technology integration into gait training, and interactive learning through guided instruction during our training program.
 
Regulatory Status
 
On April 4, 2016, we received clearance from the FDA to market our Ekso GT robotic exoskeleton for use in the treatment of individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke, individuals with spinal cord injuries at levels T4 to L5, and individuals with spinal cord injuries at levels of T3 to C7 (ASIA D), in accordance with the device’s labeling. On July 19, 2016, we received clearance from the FDA to expand/clarify the indications and labeling to expressly include individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke who have upper extremity function of at least 4/5 in only one arm. Our prior cleared indications for use statement required that individuals with hemiplegia due to stroke have upper extremity function of at least 4/5 in both arms.

The U.S. government regulates the medical device industry through various agencies, including but not limited to, the FDA, which administers the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes (Class I, II or III) based on the degree of risk the FDA determines to be associated with a device and the extent of control deemed necessary to ensure the device’s safety and effectiveness. Devices requiring fewer controls because they are deemed to pose lower risk are placed in Class I or II. Class I devices are deemed to pose the least risk and are subject only to general controls applicable to all devices, such as requirements for device labeling, premarket notification, and adherence to the FDA’s current good manufacturing practice requirements, as reflected in its Quality System Regulation. Class II devices are intermediate risk devices that are subject to general controls and may also be subject to special controls such as performance standards, product-specific guidance documents, special labeling requirements, patient registries or post-market surveillance. Class III devices are those for which insufficient information exists to assure safety and effectiveness solely through general or special controls, and include life-sustaining, life-supporting, or implantable devices, and devices not “substantially equivalent” to a device that is already legally marketed. Most Class I devices, and some Class II devices are exempted by regulation from the 510(k) clearance requirement and can be marketed without prior authorization from FDA. Class I and Class II devices that have not been so exempted are eligible for marketing through the 510(k) clearance pathway. By contrast, devices placed in Class III generally require premarket approval, or PMA, prior to commercial marketing.
 
We believe that prior to April 4, 2016, our Ekso GT robotic exoskeleton had been appropriately marketed as a Class I 510(k) exempt Powered Exercise Equipment device since February 2012. On June 26, 2014, the FDA announced the creation of a new product classification for Powered Exoskeleton devices. On October 21, 2014, the FDA published the summary for the new Powered Exoskeleton classification and designated it as being Class II, which requires the clearance of a 510(k) notice.
 
On October 21, 2014, concurrent with the FDA’s publication of the reclassification of Powered Exoskeleton devices, the FDA issued the Company an “Untitled Letter” which informed us in writing of the agency’s belief that this new product classification applied to our Ekso GT device. On December 24, 2014, we filed a 510(k) notice for the Ekso robotic exoskeleton, which was

23


accepted by the FDA for substantive review on July 29, 2015. As discussed above, we received FDA clearance to market its Ekso GT in accordance with the device’s labeling on April 4, 2016.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these condensed consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and the related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Our estimates form the basis for our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
 
An accounting policy is considered to be critical if it requires an accounting estimate to be made based on assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made, and if different estimates that reasonably could have been used, or changes in the accounting estimate that are reasonably likely to occur, could materially impact the condensed consolidated financial statements. We believe that our critical accounting policies reflect the more significant estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02-Leases (ASC 842) and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance under ASU 2017-13, ASU 2018-10 and ASU 2018-11 (collectively, Topic 842) to supersede existing guidance on accounting for leases in ASC 840, Leases (ASC 840). Topic 842 requires us to recognize on our balance sheet a lease liability representing the present value of future lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the lessee's right to use, or control the use of a specified asset for the lease term for any operating lease with a term greater than one year. This standard is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. We will adopt the new standard effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective approach, under which we will initially apply the new leases standard at the beginning of the earliest period presented in our financial statements.

We are still in the process of quantifying the impact at this time, but anticipate this standard will impact our condensed consolidated balance sheets with material increases in current and non-current assets and current and non-current lease liabilities associated with our property leases representing our office locations. We do not anticipate a material impact on our condensed consolidated statements of operations, as the majority of our leases will remain operating leases for which the right-of-use assets amortization will be similar to previously required straight-line expense treatment for operating leases. The adoption of Topic 842 will not have a material impact on the financial covenants set forth in our long-term debt agreement.

Adoption of New Accounting Policy
 
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and the additional related amendments. We adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption did not result in a cumulative adjustment to our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018, nor did it materially impact the aggregate amount and timing of our revenue recognition subsequent to adoption. We have provided enhanced revenue recognition disclosures as required by the new standard (Refer to Note 6, Revenue Recognition in the notes to condensed consolidated financial statements, which appear under Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q).
 

24


Results of Operations
 
The following table presents our results of operations for the three months ended September 30 (in thousands):
 
Three months ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
% Change
Revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Device and related
$
2,533

 
$
1,587

 
$
946

 
60
 %
Engineering services
17

 
10

 
7

 
70
 %
Total revenue
2,550

 
1,597

 
953

 
60
 %
Cost of revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Device and related
1,445

 
1,045

 
400

 
38
 %
Engineering services
22

 
8

 
14

 
175
 %
Total cost of revenue
1,467

 
1,053

 
414

 
39
 %
Gross profit
1,083

 
544

 
539

 
99
 %
Operating expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Sales and marketing
3,106

 
3,226

 
(120
)
 
(4
)%
Research and development
1,282

 
1,986

 
(704
)
 
(35
)%
General and administrative
2,785

 
2,414

 
371

 
15
 %
Change in fair value, contingent liabilities
4

 
(16
)
 
20

 
(125
)%
Total operating expenses
7,177

 
7,610

 
(433
)
 
(6
)%
Loss from operations
(6,094
)
 
(7,066
)
 
972

 
(14
)%
Other income (expense), net:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest expense
(145
)
 
(165
)
 
20

 
(12
)%
Gain (loss) on warrant liability
(681
)
 
1,814

 
(2,495
)
 
(138
)%
Loss on repurchase of warrants

 
(1,067
)
 
1,067

 
(100
)%
Other income (expense), net
(63
)
 
149

 
(212
)
 
(142
)%
Total other income (expense), net
(889
)
 
731

 
(1,620
)
 
(222
)%
Net loss
$
(6,983
)
 
$
(6,335
)
 
$
(648
)
 
10
 %
 
Revenue
 
Device and related revenue increased $0.9 million, or 60%, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017. This increase was made up of a $0.4 million increase in medical device revenue and $0.5 million increase in industrial device revenue, primarily due to a higher volume of industrial device sales and medical device rentals.
 
Gross Profit
 
Gross profit increased $0.5 million, or 99%, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, primarily due to higher average selling price of medical devices.
 
Operating Expenses
 
Sales and marketing expenses decreased $0.1 million, or 4%, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, primarily due to a decrease in advertising and trade show activities.
 
Research and development expenses decreased $0.7 million, or 35%, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, primarily due to lower employment costs from lower headcount in the EksoWorks business unit.
 
General and administrative expenses increased $0.4 million, or 15%, for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, was primarily due to $0.3 million severance expense and $0.4 million additional stock-based compensation expense from the modification of equity awards related to the departure of the Chief Financial Officer. These increases were partially offset by the decrease in expense associated with business development related activities in China, which was paid upfront in the third quarter of 2017 and fully expensed at the end of the second quarter of 2018.
 

25


Change in fair value, contingent liabilities for the three months ended September 30, 2018, included changes of fair value of the contingent liabilities related to Equipois sales earnouts and a success fee related to the outstanding debt with lender.
 
Other Income (Expense), Net
 
Loss on warrant liability of $0.7 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 was associated with the revaluation of warrants issued in 2015, compared to a $1.8 million gain from the revaluation of warrants issued in 2015 and April 2017 for the three months ended September 30, 2017. The gains and losses on the revaluation of warrants were primarily driven by changes in our stock price.
 
Other income, net decreased $0.2 million or 142% for the three months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, due to unrealized gains and losses on foreign currency revaluations of monetary assets and liabilities.
 
The following table presents our results of operations for the nine months ended September 30 (in thousands): 
 
Nine months ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
Change
 
% Change
Revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Device and related
$
8,008

 
$
4,862

 
$
3,146

 
65
 %
Engineering services
28

 
38

 
(10
)
 
(26
)%
Total revenue
8,036

 
4,900

 
3,136

 
64
 %
Cost of revenue:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Device and related
5,182

 
3,593

 
1,589

 
44
 %
Engineering services
35

 
15

 
20

 
133
 %
Total cost of revenue
5,217

 
3,608

 
1,609

 
45
 %
Gross profit
2,819

 
1,292

 
1,527

 
118
 %
Operating expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Sales and marketing
10,892

 
9,563

 
1,329

 
14
 %
Research and development
4,479

 
7,491

 
(3,012
)
 
(40
)%
General and administrative
9,350

 
7,430

 
1,920

 
26
 %
Restructuring

 
665

 
(665
)
 
(100
)%
Change in fair value, contingent liabilities
(11
)
 
(191
)
 
180

 
(94
)%
Total operating expenses
24,710

 
24,958

 
(248
)
 
(1
)%
Loss from operations
(21,891
)
 
(23,666
)
 
1,775

 
(8
)%
Other income (expense), net:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest expense
(469
)
 
(482
)
 
13

 
(3
)%
Gain (loss) on warrant liability
(162
)
 
4,851

 
(5,013
)
 
(103
)%
Loss on repurchase of warrants

 
(1,067
)
 
1,067

 
(100
)%
Other income (expense), net
(338
)
 
220

 
(558
)
 
(254
)%
Total other income (expense), net
(969
)
 
3,522

 
(4,491
)
 
(128
)%
Net loss
$
(22,860
)
 
$
(20,144
)
 
$
(2,716
)
 
13
 %
 
Revenue
 
Device and related revenue increased $3.1 million, or 65%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017. This increase was made up of a $2.5 million increase in medical device revenue and $0.6 million increase in industrial device revenue, primarily due to a higher volume of device sales and medical device rentals.
 
Gross Profit
 
Gross profit increased $1.5 million, or 118%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, primarily due to higher volume and average selling price of medical devices.
 

26


Operating Expenses
 
Sales and marketing expenses increased $1.3 million, or 14%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017. This was primarily due to $0.4 million of severance costs related to the departure of the President of our EksoWorks business unit, our Chief Marketing officer and other marketing employees, a $0.3 million increase in clinical research activity, a $0.3 million increase in accrued bonus expense, and a $0.2 million charge for remaining lease obligations related to a leased sales office in Germany that was abandoned in the second quarter of 2018.
 
Research and development expenses decreased $3.0 million, or 40%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, primarily due to lower employment costs as a result of the company-wide reduction in workforce in May 2017 and departure of certain EksoWorks employees in the first quarter of 2018.
 
General and administrative expenses increased $1.9 million, or 26%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017. This was primarily due to severance of $0.7 million and additional stock-based compensation expense of $0.7 million from the modification of equity awards related to the departure of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, a $0.4 million increase in accrued bonus expense and a $0.5 million increase in expense associated with business development related activities in China, which was paid upfront in the third quarter of 2017. The increases were partially offset by lower employment costs as a result of the company-wide reduction in workforce in May 2017.
 
Restructuring expense of $0.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 includes employee severance payments of $0.4 million, stock compensation expense of $0.2 million related to restricted stock units issued to terminated employees, and $0.1 million of other severance related benefits. There was no comparable amount in the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
 
Change in fair value, contingent liabilities for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, included changes of fair value of the contingent liabilities related to Equipois sales earnouts and a success fee related to the outstanding debt with our lender.
 
Other Income (Expense), Net
 
Loss on warrant liability of $0.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was associated with the revaluation of warrants issued in 2015, compared to a $4.9 million gain from the revaluation of warrants issued in 2015 and April 2017 for the nine months ended September 30, 2017. The gains and losses on the revaluation of warrants were primarily driven by changes in our stock price.
 
Other income, net decreased $0.6 million or 254% for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017, due to unrealized gains and losses on foreign currency revaluations of monetary assets and liabilities.
  
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resource
 
Since the Company’s inception, it has devoted substantially all its efforts toward the development of exoskeletons for the medical and industrial markets, toward the commercialization of medical exoskeletons to rehabilitation centers and toward raising capital. Accordingly, the Company is in the early commercialization stage. The Company has financed its operations primarily through the issuance and sale of equity securities for cash consideration and convertible and promissory notes, as well as from government research grant awards and strategic collaboration payments.
 
Cash and Working Capital
 
Cash on hand at September 30, 2018 was $13.0 million compared to $27.8 million at December 31, 2017. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company used $17.0 million of cash in operations compared to $25.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
As of September 30, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $167.0 million.  Largely as a result of significant research and development activities related to the development of the Company’s advanced technology and commercialization of this technology into its medical device business, the Company has incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. In the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company used $17.0 million of cash in its operations.
  
Cash on hand at September 30, 2018 was $13.0 million, compared to $27.8 million at December 31, 2017. As noted in Note 9 in the notes to our condensed consolidated financial statements under the caption Long-Term Debt, borrowings under our long-term

27


debt agreement have a requirement of minimum cash on hand roughly equivalent to three months of cash burn. As of September 30, 2018, the most recent determination of this restriction, $6.4 million of cash must remain as unrestricted, with such amounts to be re-computed at each month end period. After considering cash restrictions, effective unrestricted cash as of September 30, 2018 is estimated to be $6.6 million. Based on current forecasted amounts, our cash on hand will not be sufficient to satisfy our operations for the next twelve months from the date of issuance of these condensed consolidated financial statements, which raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
Based upon the Company’s current cash resources, the recent rate of using cash for operations and investment, and assuming modest increases in current revenue offset by incremental increases in expenses related to increased sales and marketing, the Company believes it has sufficient resources to meet its financial obligations into the first quarter of 2019. The Company will require significant additional financing. The Company’s actual capital requirements may vary significantly and will depend on many factors. The Company plans to continue its investments (i) in its clinical and sales initiatives to accelerate adoption of the Ekso robotic exoskeleton in the rehabilitation market, (ii) in its research, development and commercialization activities with respect to an Ekso robotic exoskeleton for rehabilitation, and/or (iii) in the development and commercialization of able-bodied exoskeletons for industrial use.

The Company is actively pursuing opportunities to obtain additional financing in the future through public or private equity and/or debt financings, corporate collaborations, or warrant solicitations. Sales of additional equity securities by the Company could result in the dilution of the interests of existing stockholders. There can be no assurance that financing will be available when required in sufficient amounts, on acceptable terms or at all. In the event that the necessary additional financing is not obtained, the Company may be required to further reduce its discretionary overhead costs substantially, including research and development, general and administrative, and sales and marketing expenses or otherwise curtail operations.
   
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 
The following table summarizes the sources and uses of cash (in thousands). The Company held no cash equivalents for any of the periods presented.
 
Nine months ended September 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Net cash used in operating activities
$
(17,011
)
 
$
(25,582
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(51
)
 
(353
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
2,377

 
42,459

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(133
)
 
69

Net increase (decrease) in cash
(14,818
)
 
16,593

Cash at the beginning of the period
27,813

 
16,846

Cash at the end of the period
$
12,995

 
$
33,439

 
Net Cash Used in Operating Activities
 
Net cash used in operations decreased $8.6 million, or 34%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017 primarily due to decreased employment costs as a result of the company-wide reduction in workforce in May 2017 and an increase in cash collections related to an increase in sales.
 
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities
 
Net cash used in investing activities decreased $0.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to the same period of 2017 primarily due to the absence of capitalizable implementation cost associated with our new enterprise resource planning system which was implemented in October 2017.
 
Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities
 
Net cash provided by financing activities of $2.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was from the sale of common stock under our "at the market offering" program with Cantor, Fitzgerald & Co. as agent offset by aggregate principal payments of $1.6 million related to our $7.0 million term loan.
 

28


Net cash provided by financing activities of $42.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 was proceeds from the sale of common stock related to the equity financing in April 2017.