485APOS 1 s120276_485apos.htm 485APOS

As Filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on September 11, 2019

File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698

 

 

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

 

UNDER

  THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 205 ☒ 

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

  THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
  Amendment No. 209 ☒ 

 

KRANESHARES TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

 

(212) 933-0393

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

 

Jonathan Krane

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

Copy to:

Stacy L. Fuller

K&L Gates LLP

1601 K Street NW

Washington, D.C. 20006-1600

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b) of Rule 485

 

On (date) pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of Rule 485

 

60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485

 

On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485

 

75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485

 

On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485

 

 

 

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

Subject to completion, dated September 11, 2019

 

KraneShares Trust

 

Prospectus

 

[…], 2019

 

KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF - (KDFI)

 

Fund shares are not individually redeemable. Fund shares will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”).

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), nor has the SEC passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund (if you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund) or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank (if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary). Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

 

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. If you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund, you may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications electronically from the Fund by contacting the Fund at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary.

 

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund, you can inform the Fund that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all of the KraneShares Funds you hold directly with series of the Trust or through your financial intermediary, as applicable.

 

 

 

 

KraneShares Trust

Table of Contents

 

Fund Summary  
KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF 3
Additional Information About the Fund 10
Management 9
Investment Adviser 9
Investment Sub-Adviser 9
Portfolio Managers 9
Shareholder Information 22
Calculating NAV 22
Buying and Selling Fund Shares 24
Share Trading Prices 25
Active Investors and Market Timing 26
Investments by Registered Investment Companies 26
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 27
Distribution Plan 27
Dividends and Distributions 27
Additional Tax Information 27
Index Provider Information and Disclaimers 30
Additional Disclaimers 31
Financial Highlights 31
Additional Information 32

 

2

 

 

KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF

 

Investment Objective 

The KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide investment results that, before fees and expenses, track the price and yield performance of a specific fixed income securities index. The Fund’s current index is the FTSE US High-Yield/Treasury Rotation Index. (the “Underlying Index”).

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund 

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. The table and Example below do not include the brokerage commissions or bid-ask spread that you may pay when purchasing or selling shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment) None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses
(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
Management Fees 0.45%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees* 0.00%
Other Expenses [  ]%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses [  ]%

 

*Pursuant to a Distribution Plan, the Fund may bear a Rule 12b-1 fee not to exceed 0.25% per year of the Fund’s average daily net assets. However, no such fee is currently paid by the Fund, and the Board of Trustees has not currently approved the commencement of any payments under the Distribution Plan. 

 

Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, whether you do or do not sell your shares, your costs would be: 

 

1 Year 3 Years
$[…] $[…]

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund had not commenced investment operations prior to its fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, it does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

Principal Investment Strategies

Under normal circumstances, the Fund will invest at least 80% of its total assets in components of the Underlying Index, to-be-announced transactions representing such components and investment companies that seek to track the performance of a subset of the Underlying Index or of an index highly correlated to a portion of the Underlying Index. As of each quarterly reconstitution, the Underlying Index consists of the components included in one of the three following sub-indexes based on the prior three-month returns of the sub-indexes: FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 1-5 Years; FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 7-10 Years; and FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index. The FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 1-5 Years includes fixed-rate U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of 1 to 5 years. The FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 7-10 Years includes fixed-rate U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of 7 to 10 years. The FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index includes high-yield debt with remaining maturities of at least one year.

 

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The securities eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index include U.S. Treasuries, traditional bonds that make principal and interest payments in cash, zero-coupon bonds (debt securities that do not pay interest, rather they are issued and trade at a discount and offer full face value at maturity), pay-in-kind (PIK) securities (debt securities that pay interest in additional bonds rather than in cash during an initial period), step-up bonds (debt securities that pay an initial interest rate but also have a feature where set rate increases happen at periodic intervals), and Rule 144A bonds (debt securities that are privately issued) issued by corporations domiciled in the United States or Canada.

 

The issues that are eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index, as of each reconstitution, include those that: (1) have a rating from BB+ by S&P Global (“S&P”) or Ba1 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) to B- for the FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index; and (2) have a minimum issue size of $5 billion for the FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Indexes and $500 million for the FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index. Underlying Index components are weighted according to the market capitalization, except that the securities of any particular issuer, excluding U.S. Treasuries, will be capped at 2% as of each rebalance of the Underlying Index.

 

The Fund may invest up to 20% of its assets in instruments that are not included in the Underlying Index, but that the Fund’s subadviser, SkyRock Investment Management, LLC (“SkyRock”) believes will help the Fund track its Underlying Index. These instruments include debt securities not included in the Underlying Index, derivatives (including swaps, forwards, futures, structured notes and options), equity securities and cash and cash equivalents. In addition, the Fund may invest in shares of investment companies, such as exchange traded funds (“ETFs”), unit investment trusts and closed-end investment companies, including to gain exposure to component securities of the Fund’s Underlying Index or when such investments present a more cost efficient alternative to investing directly in the securities. The Fund may also invest in U.S. money market funds or other U.S. cash equivalents. The other investment companies in which the Fund may invest may be advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane, SkyRock and/or their affiliates. The Fund will not purchase shares of an investment company if it would cause the Fund to (i) own more than 3% of such investment company’s voting shares; (ii) invest more than 5% of its total assets in such investment company or such deposit account; or (iii) invest more than 10% of its total assets in investment companies and such deposit accounts. In addition, the Fund will not purchase a security issued by a closed-end fund if after such purchase the Fund and any other investment companies with the same investment adviser would own more than 10% of the voting shares of the closed-end investment company.

 

Although the Fund reserves the right to replicate (or hold all components of) the Underlying Index, the Fund expects to use representative sampling to track the Underlying Index. “Representative sampling” is a strategy that involves investing in a representative sample of securities that collectively have an investment profile similar to the Underlying Index.

 

As of [   ], 2019, the Underlying Index included [   ] issues. As of [   ], 2019, the credit ratings for the rated components in the Underlying Index ranged from [   ] to [   ], as determined by S&P or Moody’s. The Underlying Index is reconstituted quarterly and rebalanced monthly.

  

The Fund is non-diversified. To the extent the Underlying Index is concentrated in a particular industry, the Fund is expected to be concentrated in that industry. As of [   ], 2019, issuers in the [   ] sectors ([   ]%) represented a significant portion of the Underlying Index.

 

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The Fund may engage in securities lending.

 

Principal Risks

As with all ETFs, a shareholder of the Fund is subject to the risk that his or her investment could lose money. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective and an investment in the Fund is not by itself a complete or balanced investment program. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves the risk of total loss. In addition to these risks, the Fund is subject to a number of additional principal risks that may affect the value of its shares, including:

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Fixed income securities are subject to credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not make timely interest payments or repay the principal of the debt issued (i.e., default on its obligations). A downgrade or default on securities held by the Fund could adversely affect the Fund’s performance. Generally, the longer the maturity and the lower the credit quality of a security, the more sensitive it is to credit risk. Interest rate risk refers to fluctuations in the value of a debt resulting from changes in the level of interest rates. When interest rates go up, the prices of most debt instruments generally go down; and when interest rates go down, the prices of most debt instruments generally go up. Debt instruments with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes, typically making them more volatile. Interest rates have recently increased and may continue increasing, thereby heightening the risks associated with rising interest rates.

 

Pay-In-Kind and Step-Up Coupon Securities Risk. A pay-in-kind security pays no interest in cash to its holder during its life. Similarly, a step-up coupon security is a debt security that may not pay interest for a specified period of time and then, after the initial period, may pay interest at a series of different rates. Accordingly, pay-in-kind and step-up coupon securities will be subject to greater fluctuations in market value in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make current, periodic distribution of interest in cash.

 

Perpetual Bonds Risk. Perpetual bonds offer a fixed return with no maturity date. Because they never mature, perpetual bonds can be more volatile than other types of bonds that have a maturity date and may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates. If market interest rates rise significantly, the interest rate paid by a perpetual bond may be much lower than the prevailing interest rate. Perpetual bonds are also subject to credit risk with respect to the issuer. In addition, because perpetual bonds may be callable after a set period of time, there is the risk that the issuer may recall the bond, which may require the Fund to reinvest the proceeds in lower yielding securities.

 

Prepayment and Extension Risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers tend to refinance their loans and the loans that back mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities suffer a higher rate of prepayment. This could cause a decrease in the Fund’s income and share price. Conversely, when interest rates rise, borrowers tend to repay their loans less quickly, which will generally increase the Fund’s sensitivity to interest rates and its potential for price declines.

 

Subordinated Obligations Risk. Payments under some bonds may be structurally subordinated to other existing and future liabilities and obligations of the issuer. Claims of creditors of subordinated debt will have less priority as to the assets of the issuer and its creditors who seek to enforce the terms of the bond. Certain bonds may not contain any restrictions on the ability to incur additional unsecured indebtedness.

 

High Yield Securities Risk. Securities that are rated below investment grade (or “junk bonds”) are subject to greater risk of loss of income and principal than highly rated securities because their issuers may be more likely to default. Junk bonds are inherently speculative. The prices of high yield securities are likely to be more volatile than those of highly rated securities, and the secondary market for them is generally less liquid than that for highly rated securities. 

 

5

 

 

Privately-Issued Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in privately-issued securities, including those that are normally purchased pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). Privately-issued securities are securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act and as a result are subject to legal restrictions on resale. Privately-issued securities are not traded on established markets and may be less liquid, difficult to value and subject to wide fluctuations in value. Delay or difficulty in selling such securities may result in a loss to the Fund. In addition, transaction costs may be higher for privately-issued securities than for more liquid securities. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering privately-issued securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting the registration.

 

Momentum Risk. Momentum investing entails investing in securities that exhibit persistence in certain performance indicators. These securities may be more volatile than a broad cross-section of securities and momentum may indicate that the performance indicator being measured is peaking. The Fund may experience losses if the price of securities exhibiting momentum stops, turns or otherwise behaves differently than predicted.

 

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may invest a greater portion of its assets in fewer issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

 

Concentration Risk. The Fund’s assets are expected to be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent that the Underlying Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries. The securities of companies in an industry or group of industries could react similarly to market developments. Thus, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that affect one industry or group of industries or sector. While the Fund’s sector and industry exposure is expected to vary over time based on the composition of the Underlying Index, the Fund is currently subject to the principal risks described below. 

 

[Financials Sector Risk. The performance of companies in the financials sector may be adversely impacted by many factors, including, among others, government regulations, economic conditions, credit rating downgrades, changes in interest rates, and decreased liquidity in credit markets. This sector has experienced significant losses in the recent past, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements and of recent or future regulation on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted.]

 

ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to NAV and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

Premium/Discount Risk. There may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (at a premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (at a discount). As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop loss orders to sell Fund shares may be executed at prices well below NAV.

 

6

 

 

Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. Secondary market trading is subject to bid-ask spreads and trading in Fund shares may be halted by the Exchange because of market conditions or other reasons. If a trading halt occurs, a shareholder may temporarily be unable to purchase or sell shares of the Fund. In addition, although the Fund’s shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed.

 

Small Fund Risk. The Fund is small and does not yet have a significant number of shares outstanding. Small funds are at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a stop to trading.

 

ETF Risk - New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have a shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow large in size once it commences trading, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a trading halt.

 

New Adviser Risk. SkyRock is a newly-formed investment adviser and, therefore, does not have prior experience in providing advisory services.

 

Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable time and price. If a transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. If a number of securities held by the Fund stop trading, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

Passive Investment Risk. There is no guarantee that the Underlying Index will create the desired exposure and the Fund is not actively managed. It does not seek to “beat” the Underlying Index or take temporary defensive positions when markets decline. Therefore, the Fund may purchase or hold securities with current or projected underperformance.

 

Management Risk. The Fund may not fully replicate the Underlying Index and may hold less than the total number of securities in the Underlying Index. Therefore, the Fund is subject to the risk that SkyRock’s security selection process may not produce the intended results.

 

Tracking Error Risk. The Fund’s return may not match or achieve a high degree of correlation with the return of the Underlying Index. This may be due to, among other factors, the Fund holding cash under certain circumstances in lieu of Underlying Index securities. To the extent that the Fund employs a representative sampling strategy, the Fund’s ability to track the Underlying Index may be adversely affected.

 

Market Risk. The values of the Fund’s holdings could decline generally or could underperform other investments. In addition, there is a risk that policy changes by the U.S. Government, Federal Reserve, and/or other government actors, such as raising interest rates, could cause volatility in global financial markets and negative sentiment, which could result in losses. Market developments may also cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions.

 

7

 

 

High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may incur high turnover rates, which may increase the Fund’s brokerage commission costs and negatively impact the Fund’s performance. Such portfolio turnover also may generate net short-term capital gains.

 

Valuation Risk. Independent market quotations for certain investments held by the Fund may not be readily available, and such investments may be fair valued or valued by a pricing service at an evaluated price. These valuations involve subjectivity and different market participants may assign different prices to the same investment. As a result, there is a risk that the Fund may not be able to sell an investment at the price assigned to the investment by the Fund. In addition, the securities in which the Fund invests may trade on days that the Fund does not price its shares; as a result, the value of Fund shares may change on days when investors cannot purchase or sell their Fund holdings.

 

Derivatives Risk. The use of derivatives (including swaps, futures, forwards, structured notes and options) involve risks, such as possible default by a counterparty, potential losses if markets do not move as expected, and the potential for greater losses than if these techniques had not been used. Investments in derivatives may expose the Fund to leverage, which may cause the Fund to be more volatile than if it had not been leveraged. By investing in derivatives, the Fund could lose more than the amount it invests; some derivatives can have the potential for unlimited loss. Derivatives may also be subject to valuation risk, which is the risk that valuation sources for the derivative will not be readily available in the market which is especially possible in times of market distress, during which market participants may be reluctant to purchase complex instruments or provide price quotes for them. In addition, derivatives can be difficult or impossible to sell at the time of and at the price desired by the seller.

 

Tax Risk. In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment available to regulated investment companies, the Fund must satisfy certain income, asset diversification and distribution requirements each year. The Fund’s investments in issuers whose control persons are not certain creates a risk that tax authorities may retrospectively deem the Fund to have failed the asset diversification requirements. If the Fund were to fail the favorable tax treatment requirements, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, which would adversely affect its performance.

 

Investments in Investment Companies Risk. The Fund may invest in other investment companies, including those advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane, SkyRock, and/or their affiliates. The Fund will indirectly be exposed to the risks of investments by such funds and will incur its pro rata share of the underlying fund’s expenses. Additionally, investments in ETFs are subject to ETF Risk. Krane and SkyRock are subject to conflicts of interest in allocating Fund assets to investment companies that are advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane, SkyRock and/or their affiliates. To the extent that the Fund invests in investment companies or other pooled investment vehicles that are not registered pursuant to the 1940 Act, it will not enjoy the protections of the U.S. law.

 

Securities Lending Risk. To the extent the Fund lends its securities, it may be subject to the following risks: (1) the securities in which the collateral is invested may not perform sufficiently to cover the return collateral payments owed to borrowers; (2) delays may occur in the recovery of securities from borrowers, which could interfere with the Fund’s ability to vote proxies or to settle transactions; and (3) although borrowers of the Fund’s securities typically provide collateral in the form of cash that is reinvested in securities, there is the risk of possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially.

 

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Equity Securities Risk. The values of equity securities are subject to factors such as market fluctuations, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in stock prices. Equity securities may be more volatile than other asset classes and are generally subordinate in rank to debt and other securities of the same issuer.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Performance Information

Once the Fund has completed a full calendar year of operations, a bar chart and table will be included in this Prospectus that will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing the variability of the Fund’s return based on net assets and comparing the variability of the Fund’s return to a broad measure of market performance. Once available, the Fund’s current performance information will be available at www.kraneshares.com. Past performance does not necessarily indicate how the Fund will perform in the future.

 

Management

 

Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC serves as the investment adviser to the Fund.

 

SkyRock Investment Management, LLC serves as the sub-adviser to the Fund. 

 

Portfolio Manager

Braxton Wall, Managing Member, Principal, Portfolio Manager and Chief Compliance Officer of SkyRock has served as portfolio manager for the Fund since its inception in 2019.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

Shares may be purchased and redeemed from the Fund only in “Creation Units” of 50,000 shares, or multiples thereof. As a practical matter, only institutions and large investors, such as market makers or other large broker-dealers, purchase or redeem Creation Units. Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange. Individual shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities through a broker-dealer on the Exchange. These transactions do not involve the Fund. The price of an individual Fund share is based on market prices, which may be different from its NAV. As a result, the Fund’s shares may trade at a price greater than the NAV (at a premium) or less than the NAV (at a discount). Most investors will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer.

 

Tax Information

Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged retirement account, which may be taxable upon withdrawal.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase Fund shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your sales person to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your sales person or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

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Additional Information About the Funds

Each of the policies described in this Prospectus, including the Fund’s investment objective and 80% policy, with the exception of its concentration policy, which is described in further detail in the SAI, is a non-fundamental policy that may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust without shareholder approval, but the Fund will provide 60 days’ prior written notice to shareholders (if it has any) of any change in its 80% policy. Certain fundamental policies of the Fund are set forth in the SAI.

 

The Fund seeks to have a tracking error relative to the performance of their respective Underlying Indexes of less than five percent on an annualized basis.

 

Underlying Index

As of each quarterly reconstitution, the Underlying Index consists of the components included in one of the three following sub-indexes based on the prior three-month returns of the sub-indexes: FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 1-5 Years; FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 7-10 Years; and FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index. The FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 1-5 Years includes fixed-rate U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of 1 to 5 years. The FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Index, 7-10 Years includes fixed-rate U.S. Treasury bonds with remaining maturities of 7 to 10 years. The FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index includes high-yield debt with remaining maturities of at least one year.

 

The securities eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index include U.S. Treasuries, traditional bonds that make principal and interest payments in cash, zero-coupon bonds (debt securities that do not pay interest, rather they are issued and trade at a discount and offer full face value at maturity), pay-in-kind (PIK) securities (debt securities that pay interest in additional bonds rather than in cash during an initial period), step-up bonds (debt securities that pay an initial interest rate but also have a feature where set rate increases happen at periodic intervals), and Rule 144A bonds (debt securities that are privately issued) issued by corporations domiciled in the United States or Canada. Federal Reserve purchases, inflation-indexed Treasury securities and STRIPS are excluded from the Underlying Index.

 

The issues that are eligible for inclusion in the Underlying Index, as of each reconstitution, include those that: (1) have a rating of at least Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) or BBB- by S&P Global (“S&P”) for the FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Indexes, or have a rating from BB+ by S&P or Ba1 by Moody’s down to B- for the FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index; and (2) have a minimum issue size of $5 billion for the FTSE US Broad Investment Grade Treasury Indexes and $500 million for the FTSE Custom US High-Yield Market Index. Underlying Index components are weighted according to the market capitalization, except that the securities of any particular issuer, excluding U.S. Treasuries, will be capped at 2% as of each reconstitution of the Underlying Index.

 

The Underlying Index is provided by FTSE Russell (“Index Provider”). “FTSE Russell” is a trading name of FTSE International Limited and Frank Russell Company and their respective subsidiary undertakings. The Index Provider is not affiliated with the Fund or Krane. The Index Provider determines the components and the relative weightings of the component securities in the Underlying Index. Additional information about the Underlying Index is available on the Index Provider’s website, www.ftse.com.

 

Principal Risks

The following section provides additional information regarding certain of the risks of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves a risk of a total loss. There is no guarantee that the Fund will meet its investment objective.

 

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Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets are expected to be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent that the Underlying Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries. Market conditions, interest rates, and economic, regulatory, or financial developments could significantly affect a single industry or a group of related industries, and the securities of companies in that industry or group of industries could react similarly to these or other developments.

 

Derivatives Risk. Derivatives are financial instruments, such as swaps, futures, forwards, structured notes and options, whose values are based on the value of one or more reference assets, such as a security, asset, currency, interest rate or index. Derivatives involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. For example, derivatives involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the reference asset(s). Derivative transactions can create investment leverage, which implicates risks greater than those associated with investing directly in a reference asset, because a small investment in a derivative can result in a large impact on the Fund and may cause the Fund to be more volatile.

 

Many derivative transactions are entered into “over-the-counter” (not on an exchange or contract market); as a result, the value of such a derivative transaction will depend on the ability and the willingness of the Fund’s counterparty to perform its obligations under the transaction. If a counterparty were to default on its obligations, the Fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor (e.g., the Fund may not receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive). A liquid secondary market may not always exist for the Fund’s derivative positions at any time. If a derivative transaction is centrally cleared, it will be subject to the rules of the clearing exchange and subject to risks associated with the exchange.

 

Derivatives can be illiquid and imperfectly correlate with the reference asset(s), resulting in unexpected returns that could materially adversely affect the Fund. Some derivatives can have the potential for unlimited loss. Many derivatives are subject to segregation requirements, pursuant to which the Fund must segregate the market or notional value of the derivatives and which could impede the portfolio management of the Fund. It is possible that developments in the derivatives market, including ongoing or potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to enter into new derivatives agreements, terminate existing derivative agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments.

 

Counterparty Risk. Because many derivatives are an obligation of the counterparty rather than a direct investment in the reference asset, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to, or greater than, the full value of the derivative if the counterparty fails to perform its obligations under the derivative agreement as a result of bankruptcy or otherwise. Any loss would result in a reduction in the NAV of the Fund and will likely impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. The counterparty risk associated with the Fund’s investments may be greater than other funds because there are only a limited number of counterparties that are willing and able to enter into certain derivatives. If there are only a few potential counterparties, the Fund, subject to applicable law, may enter into swap transactions with as few as one counterparty at any time.

 

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Forward Currency Contracts Risk. A forward foreign currency contract involves a negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date (with or without delivery required), which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. Forward foreign currency contracts are not traded on exchanges; rather, a bank or dealer will act as agent or as principal in order to make or take future delivery, exposing the Fund to counterparty risk.

 

Futures Risk. In addition to the above, risks associated with the use of futures contracts include the following: (i) an imperfect correlation between movements in prices of futures contracts and movements in the value of the reference asset(s) it is designed to simulate; and (ii) the possibility of an illiquid secondary market for a futures contract and the resulting inability to close a position prior to its maturity date. When the Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it is subject to daily variation margin calls that could be substantial. If the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it might need to sell securities at a time when such sales are disadvantageous.

 

Leveraging Risk. The Fund’s investment in derivative instruments provide leveraged exposure. The Fund’s investment in these instruments generally requires a small investment relative to the amount of investment exposure assumed. As a result, such investments may give rise to losses that exceed the amount invested in those instruments. The use of derivatives may expose the Fund to potentially dramatic losses (or gains) in the value of a derivative or other financial instrument and, thus, in the value the Fund’s portfolio. The cost of investing in such instruments generally increases as interest rates increase, which will lower the Fund’s return.

 

Options Risk. An option is a contract that gives the purchaser (holder) of the option, in return for a premium, the right to buy from (call) or sell to (put) the seller (writer) of the option the security or currency underlying the option at a specified exercise price at any time during the term of the option (normally not exceeding nine months). The writer of an option has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security or currency upon payment of the exercise price or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security or currency. Options are derivatives, which, as described above, can be illiquid, can imperfectly correlate with the reference asset(s), and are subject to segregation requirements.

 

Options on Futures Contracts Risk. An option on a futures contract provides the holder with the right to enter into a “long” position in the underlying futures contract, in the case of a call option, or a “short” position in the underlying futures contract in the case of a put option, at a fixed exercise price to a stated expiration date. Upon exercise of the option by the holder, the contract market clearing house establishes a corresponding short position for the writer of the option, in the case of a call option, or a corresponding long position, in the case of a put option. Options are derivatives, which, as described above, can be illiquid, can imperfectly correlate with the reference asset(s), and are subject to segregation requirements.

 

Swaps Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in swaps, it will be subject to the risk that the number of counterparties able to enter into swaps to provide exposure to a desired reference asset may be limited. Swaps are of limited duration and there is no guarantee that swaps entered into with a counterparty will continue indefinitely. Accordingly, the duration of a swap depends on, among other things, the ability of the Fund to renew the expiration period of the relevant swap at agreed upon terms.

 

Equity Securities Risk. Equity securities are subject to volatile changes in value that may be attributable to market perception of a particular issuer or to general stock market fluctuations that affect all issuers. Investments in equity securities are subject to volatile changes in market value and their values may be more volatile than investments in other asset classes. In the event of liquidation, equity securities are generally subordinate in rank to debt and other securities of the same issuer.

 

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ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to NAV and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

Premium/Discount Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of Fund shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the secondary market. It cannot be predicted whether Fund shares will trade below (at a discount), at or above (at a premium) their NAV. As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop-loss orders to sell the Fund shares may be executed at market prices that are significantly below NAV. Price differences may be due, in part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for shares may be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the securities of the Underlying Index trading individually. The market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV of the shares during periods of market volatility or if the Fund’s holdings are or become more illiquid. Disruptions to creations and redemptions may result in trading prices that differ significantly from the Fund’s NAV. In addition, market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV if the number of Fund shares outstanding is smaller or if there is less active trading in Fund shares. Investors purchasing and selling Fund shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. In addition, secondary market investors will incur the cost of the difference between the price that an investor is willing to pay for shares (the bid price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell shares (the ask price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid-ask spread.” The bid-ask spread varies over time for shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund’s shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if the Fund’s shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Increased market volatility may cause increased bid-ask spreads.

 

Although Fund shares are listed for trading on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed. Trading in Fund shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of any Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all.

 

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ETF Risk - New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have a shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow large in size once it commences trading, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a trading halt.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Investing in fixed income securities subjects the Fund to the following risks:

 

Call Risk. If interest rates fall, it is possible that issuers of callable securities with high interest coupons will “call” (or prepay) their bonds before their maturity date. If an issuer exercised such a call during a period of declining interest rates, the Fund may have to replace such called security with a lower yielding security. If that were to happen, the Fund’s net investment income could fall.

 

Credit Risk. The Fund could lose money if the issuer of a fixed income security is unable to meet its repayment obligations in a timely manner, or if negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments cause the price of the bond to decline.

 

Income Risk. The Fund’s income may decline due to falling interest rates. During a period of falling interest rates, income risk is generally higher for short term bond funds, moderate for intermediate term bond funds and low for long term bond funds. Therefore, investors should expect a Fund’s income to fluctuate accordingly.

 

Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that the securities in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in value because of increases in market interest rates. Fixed income securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to changes in interest rates, usually making them more volatile than debt securities with shorter durations. Duration is a measure of a fixed income security’s sensitivity to changes in interest rates. For every 1% change in interest rates, a bond’s price generally changes approximately 1% in the opposite direction for every year of duration. For example, if a portfolio of fixed income securities has an average weighted duration of three years, its value can be expected to fall about 3% if interest rates rise by 1%. Conversely, the portfolio’s value can be expected to rise approximately 3% if interest rates fall by 1%. Unlike maturity, which considers only the date on which the final repayment of principal will be made, duration takes account of interim payments made during the life of the security. Duration is typically not equal to maturity. Interest rates have recently been historically low but have recently increased and may continue to increase, potentially quickly and significantly, thereby heightening the Fund’s exposure to the risks associated with rising rates.

 

Issuer Risk. There may be economic or political changes that impact the ability of issuers to repay principal and to make interest payments on securities. Changes to the financial condition or credit rating of issuers may also adversely affect the value of the Fund’s securities.

 

Pay-In-Kind and Step-Up Coupon Securities Risk. A pay-in-kind security pays no interest in cash to its holder during its life. Similarly, a step-up coupon security is a debt security that may not pay interest for a specified period of time and then, after the initial period, may pay interest at a series of different rates. Accordingly, pay-in kind and step-up coupon securities will be subject to greater fluctuations in market value in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make current, periodic distribution of interest in cash.

 

Perpetual Bonds Risk. Perpetual bonds offer a fixed return with no maturity date. Because they never mature, perpetual bonds can be more volatile than other types of bonds that have a maturity date and may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates. If market interest rates rise significantly, the interest rate paid by a perpetual bond may be much lower than the prevailing interest rate. Perpetual bonds are also subject to credit risk with respect to the issuer. In addition, because perpetual bonds may be callable after a set period of time, there is the risk that the issuer may recall the bond, which may require the Fund to reinvest the proceeds in lower yielding securities.

 

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Prepayment and Extension Risk. When interest rates decline, borrowers tend to refinance their loans and the loans that back these securities suffer a higher rate of prepayment. This could cause a decrease in the Fund’s income and share price. Extension risk is the flip side of prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, borrowers tend to repay their loans less quickly which will generally increase both the Fund’s sensitivity to rising interest rates and its potential for price declines. The impact of prepayments and extensions on the price of mortgage-backed and other asset-backed securities may be difficult to predict and may increase their price volatility.

 

Reinvestment Risk. The Fund’s performance may be adversely impacted when interest rates fall because the Fund must invest in lower-yielding bonds as bonds in its portfolio mature.

 

Subordinated Obligations Risk. Payments under some debt may be structurally subordinated to other existing and future liabilities and obligations of an issuer of debt. Claims of creditors of subordinated debt will have less priority as to the assets of the issuer and its creditors who seek to enforce the terms of the debt. Certain debt may not contain any restrictions on the ability of the issuers to incur additional unsecured indebtedness.

 

High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may incur high turnover rates. This may increase the Fund’s brokerage commission costs. The performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by the increased brokerage commission costs incurred by the Fund. Rapid portfolio turnover also exposes shareholders to a higher current realization of net short-term capital gains, distributions of which would generally be taxed to you as ordinary income and thus cause you to pay higher taxes.

 

High Yield Securities Risk. Securities that are rated below investment grade (or “junk bonds”) are subject to greater risk of loss of income and principal (e.g., default). The prices of high yield securities are generally more sensitive to adverse economic changes and individual issuer developments than highly rated securities. Also, the secondary market for such securities may be less liquid than the markets for higher quality securities. As a result, during periods of economic uncertainty, their prices may be more volatile, which may cause the net asset value of the Fund to fluctuate.

 

Investments in Investment Companies Risk. The Fund may purchase shares of investment companies, such as ETFs, unit investment trusts and closed-end investment companies, including those that are advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane and/or its affiliates, to gain exposure to particular component securities of the Underlying Index or when such investments present a more cost efficient alternative to investing directly in securities. When the Fund invests in an investment company, in addition to directly bearing the expenses associated with its own operations, it will bear a pro rata portion of the underlying fund’s expenses. An investor in the Fund may receive taxable gains as a result of an underlying fund’s portfolio transactions in addition to the taxable gains attributable to the Fund’s transactions in shares of the underlying fund. Further, in part because of these additional expenses, the performance of an investment company may differ from the performance the Fund would achieve if it invested directly in the underlying investments of the investment company. In addition, while the risks of owning shares of an investment company generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying investments of the investment company, the Fund may be subject to additional or different risks than if the Fund had invested directly in the underlying investments. For example, shares of an ETF are traded at market prices, which may vary from the NAV of its underlying investments. Also, the lack of liquidity in an ETF can contribute to the increased volatility of its value in comparison to the value of the underlying portfolio securities. To the extent that the Fund invests in investment companies or other pooled investment vehicles that are not registered pursuant to the 1940 Act, it will not enjoy the protections of the 1940 Act. In addition, to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies, including ETFs, sponsored, advised or otherwise serviced by Krane, its sub-adviser, as applicable, or their affiliates, they may be subject to conflicts of interest in allocating Fund assets, particularly if they are paid an advisory fee both by the Fund and the fund in which the Fund invests.

 

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Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable time and price. If a transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may reduce the potential returns of the Fund because it may be unable to sell the illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. This is especially true given the limited number of market participants in certain markets in which the Fund may invest. Certain countries in which the Fund may invest may be subject to extended settlement delays, during which the Fund will unlikely be able to convert such holdings to cash and may make it additionally difficult for the Fund to meet redemptions in a timely fashion.

 

Market developments may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and subject to erratic price movements, and may also cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions, especially if market events cause an increased incidence of shareholder redemptions. If a number of securities held by the Fund stop trading or become illiquid, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

In October 2016, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) adopted Rule 22e-4 (the “Liquidity Rule”), which requires open-end funds to establish a liquidity risk management program (“Liquidity Program”) and enhance disclosures regarding fund liquidity. As required by the Liquidity Rule, which went into full effect for the Fund in June 2019, the Fund’s Board appointed a liquidity risk program administrator to assess, manage and periodically review the liquidity risk of the Fund. The liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio investments is determined based on relevant market, trading and investment-specific considerations under the Liquidity Program. To the extent that an investment is deemed to be an illiquid investment or a less liquid investment, the Fund can expect to be exposed to greater liquidity risk.

 

Management Risk. To the extent the Fund may not fully replicate the Underlying Index and may hold less than the total number of securities in the Underlying Index, the Fund is subject to management risk. This is the risk that Krane or its sub-adviser’s, as applicable, security selection process, which is subject to a number of constraints, may not produce the intended results. Alternatively, to the extent Krane or its sub-adviser, as applicable, determines to manage the Fund by replicating the Underlying Index, it is likely to experience higher portfolio turnover and brokerage costs, which erode performance.

 

Market Risk. The values of the Fund’s holdings could decline generally or could underperform other investments. Market fluctuations could be caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. Recent developments in relations between the United States and its trading partners have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the U.S. and other countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on the world’s export industry and a commensurately negative impact on financial markets. Different types of securities tend to go through cycles of outperformance and under-performance in comparison to the general securities markets. In addition, securities may decline in value due to factors affecting a specific issuer, market or securities markets generally. Therefore, the Fund is susceptible to the risk that certain holdings may be difficult or impossible to sell at a favorable time or price.

 

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Turbulence in the financial markets and reduced liquidity in equity, credit and fixed-income markets may negatively affect issuers worldwide, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund. Following the financial crisis that began in 2007, the Federal Reserve attempted to stabilize the U.S. economy and support the U.S. economic recovery by keeping the federal funds rate at or near zero percent. Interest rates have in recent years increased and there is a risk that interest rates will continue to rise, potentially quickly and significantly, which may make investments in emerging markets less attractive. These policy changes may expose markets to heightened volatility and may reduce liquidity for certain Fund investments, causing the value of the Fund’s investments and share price to decline. To the extent that the Fund experiences high redemptions because of these governmental policy changes, the Fund may experience increased portfolio turnover, which will increase the costs that the Fund incurs and will lower the Fund’s performance.

 

Momentum Risk. Momentum investing entails investing in securities that exhibit persistence in certain performance indicators. These securities may be more volatile than a broad cross-section of securities and momentum may indicate that the performance indicator being measured is peaking. The Fund may experience losses if the price of securities exhibiting momentum stops, turns or otherwise behaves differently than predicted.

 

New Adviser Risk. SkyRock is a newly-formed investment adviser and, therefore, does not have prior experience in providing advisory services.

 

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may invest a greater portion of its assets in fewer issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

 

Passive Investment Risk. The Fund is not actively managed, does not seek to “beat” the Underlying Index, and does not take temporary positions when markets decline. Therefore, the Fund may not sell a security due to current or projected underperformance of a security, industry or sector. If a specific security is removed from the Underlying Index, the Fund may be forced to sell such security at an inopportune time or for a price other than the security’s current market value. It is expected that the value of Fund shares will decline, more or less, in correspondence with any decline in value of the Underlying Index. The Underlying Index may not contain the appropriate mix of securities for any particular economic cycle, and the timing of movements from one type of security to another in seeking to track the Underlying Index could have a negative effect on the Fund. However, the Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies impose limits on the Fund’s ability to invest in securities not included in the Underlying Index. There is no guarantee that the Underlying Index will create the desired exposure.

 

Unlike an actively managed fund, the Fund does not use techniques or defensive strategies designed to lessen the effects of market volatility or to reduce the impact of periods of market decline. This means that, based on market and economic conditions, the Fund’s performance could be lower than other types of registered investment companies that may actively shift their portfolio assets to take advantage of market opportunities or to lessen the impact of a market decline. To the extent the Fund employs a representative sampling approach, it will hold a smaller number of securities than are in the Underlying Index. As a result, an adverse development to an issuer of securities that the Fund holds could result in a greater decline in NAV than would be the case if the Fund held more of the securities in the Underlying Index.

 

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Privately-Issued Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in privately-issued securities, including those that are normally purchased pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S promulgated under the Securities Act. Privately-issued securities are securities that have not been registered under the Securities Act and as a result are subject to legal restriction on resale. They typically may be resold only to “qualified institutional buyers,” in a privately negotiated transaction, to a limited number of purchasers or in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met for an exemption from registration. Because they are not traded on established markets and there may be relatively few potential purchasers for such securities, especially under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, the Fund may find it more difficult to sell such securities when it may be advisable to do so or it may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than if such securities were more widely held and traded. At times, privately-issued securities may be less liquid, subject to wide fluctuations in value, and may be more difficult to determine the fair value of such securities for purposes of computing the Fund’s NAV, due to the absence of an active trading market. There can be no assurance that a privately-issued security that is deemed to be liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid for as long as it is held by the Fund, and its value may decline as a result or cause the Fund difficulty in meeting shareholder redemptions. The Fund may have to bear the expense of registering privately-issued securities for resale and the risk of substantial delays in effecting the registration.

 

Securities Lending Risk. The Fund may lend its portfolio securities to brokers, dealers and financial institutions to seek income. There is a risk that a borrower may default on its obligations to return loaned securities. There is a risk that the assets of the Fund’s securities lending agent may be insufficient to satisfy any contractual indemnification requirements to that Fund. Borrowers of the Fund’s securities typically provide collateral in the form of cash that is reinvested. The Fund will be responsible for the risks associated with the investment of cash collateral, including any collateral invested in a money market fund. The Fund may lose money on its investment of cash collateral or may fail to earn sufficient income on its investment to meet obligations to the borrower. In addition, delays may occur in the recovery of securities from borrowers, which could interfere with the Fund’s ability to vote proxies or to settle transactions and there is the risk of possible loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially. Krane and its sub-adviser, if applicable, are subject to potential conflicts of interest because the compensation paid to them increases in connection with any net income received by the Fund from a securities lending program.

 

Tax Risk. In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies, the Fund must satisfy certain income, distribution and asset diversification requirements. With respect to the latter, the Fund generally may not acquire a security if, as a result of the acquisition, more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets would be invested in (a) issuers in which the Fund has, in each case, invested more than 5% of the Fund’s assets and (b) issuers more than 10% of whose outstanding voting securities are owned by the Fund. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income, which would adversely affect its performance.

 

In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies and avoid Fund-level taxes, the Fund must also satisfy certain distribution requirements. Capital controls and currency controls may affect the Fund’s ability to meet the applicable distribution requirements. If the Fund fails to satisfy the distribution requirement necessary to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company for any taxable year, the Fund would be treated as a corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, thereby subjecting any income earned by the Fund to tax at the corporate level. If the Fund fails to satisfy a separate distribution requirement, it will be subject to Fund-level excise tax. These Fund-level taxes will apply in addition to taxes payable at the shareholder level on distributions.

 

To the extent the Fund does not distribute to shareholders all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain in a given year, it will be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on the retained income and gains, thereby reducing the Fund’s return. The Fund may elect to treat its net capital gain as having been distributed to shareholders. In that case, shareholders of record on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year will be required to include their attributable share of the retained gain in income for the year as a long-term capital gain despite not actually receiving the dividend, and will be entitled to a tax credit or refund for the tax deemed paid on their behalf by the Fund as well as an increase in the basis of their shares to reflect the difference between their attributable share of the gain and the related credit or refund.

 

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Investments in swaps and other derivatives may be subject to special U.S. federal income tax rules that could adversely affect the character, timing and amount of income earned by a Fund (e.g., by causing amounts that would be capital gain to be taxed as ordinary income or to be taken into income earlier than would otherwise be necessary). Also, the Fund may be required to periodically adjust its positions in its swaps and derivatives to comply with certain regulatory requirements which may further cause these investments to be less efficient than a direct investment in the securities themselves. For example, swaps in which the Fund may invest may need to be reset on a regular basis in order to maintain compliance with the 1940 Act, which may increase the likelihood that the Fund will generate short-term capital gains. In addition, because the application of these special rules may be uncertain, it is possible that the manner in which they are applied by a Fund may be determined to be incorrect. In that event, the Fund may be found to have failed to maintain its qualification as a RIC or to be subject to additional U.S. tax liability. Moreover, the Fund may make investments, both directly and through swaps or other derivative positions, in companies classified as passive foreign investment companies for U.S. federal income tax purposes (“PFICs”). Investments in PFICs are subject to special tax rules which may result in adverse tax consequences to the Fund and its shareholders.

 

Tracking Error Risk. Tracking error refers to the risk that the Fund’s performance may not match or correlate to that of its Underlying Index, either on a daily or aggregate basis. Tracking error may cause the Fund’s performance to be less than expected. There are a number of factors that may contribute to the Fund’s tracking error, such as Fund expenses, imperfect correlation between the Fund’s investments and those of the Underlying Index, the use of representative sampling strategy, if applicable, asset valuation differences, tax considerations, the unavailability of securities in the Underlying Index from time to time, holding cash and cash equivalents, and other liquidity constraints. In addition, securities included in the Underlying Index may be suspended from trading. Mathematical compounding may prevent the Fund from correlating with the monthly, quarterly, annual or other period performance of its Underlying Index. In addition, the Fund may not invest in certain securities and other instruments included in the Underlying Index, or invest in them in the exact proportions they represent of the Underlying Index. Moreover, the Fund may be delayed in purchasing or selling securities and other instruments included in the Underlying Index. Any issues the Fund encounters with regard to currency convertibility (including the cost of borrowing funds, if any) and repatriation may also increase the Fund’s tracking error.

 

Valuation Risk. Financial information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings may not always be reliable, which may make it difficult to obtain a current price for the investments held by the Fund. Independent market quotations for such investments may not be readily available and securities may be fair valued or valued by a pricing service at an evaluated price. These valuations are subjective and different funds may assign different fair values to the same investment. Such valuations also may be different from what would be produced if the security had been valued using market quotations. As a result, there is a risk that the Fund may not be able to sell an investment at the price assigned to the investment by the Fund. Additionally, Fund securities that are valued using techniques other than market quotations, including “fair valued” securities, may be subject to greater fluctuations in their value from one day to the next. Because securities in which the Fund invests may trade on days when the Fund does not price its shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell the Fund’s shares.

 

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Non-Principal Risks

 

Operational and Cybersecurity Risk. The Fund, Krane, SkyRock and their service providers and your ability to transact with the Fund may be negatively impacted due to operational matters arising from, among other problems, human errors, systems and technology disruptions or failures, or cybersecurity incidents. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause the Fund or its service providers, as well as the securities trading venues and their service provides, to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. It is not possible for Krane or the other Fund service providers to identify all of the cybersecurity or other operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls to completely eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects.

 

Management

Investment Adviser

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”) is a registered investment adviser located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 and serves as investment adviser of the Fund. Krane has served as the investment adviser of each Fund since its inception.

 

Under the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. In this regard, among other things, Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing the Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. In addition, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect a Fund.

 

Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below (in addition to the securities lending compensation Krane receives under the Agreement discussed below), which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund.

 

KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF 0.45%

 

The Investment Advisory Agreement has been approved by the Board of Trustees and shareholders of the Fund (in this regard, Krane as the sole initial shareholder of the Fund approved various matters and agreements, including the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund prior to its public offering).

 

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In addition to the above-described services, to the extent the Fund engages in securities lending, Krane will: (i) determine which securities are available for loan and notify the securities lending agent for the Fund (the “Agent”), (ii) monitor the Agent’s activities to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with Krane’s instructions and in accordance with applicable procedures and guidelines adopted by the Board, (iii) make recommendations to the Board regarding the Fund’s participation in securities lending; (iv) prepare appropriate periodic reports for, and seek appropriate periodic approvals from, the Board with respect to securities lending activities, (v) respond to Agent inquiries concerning Agent’s activities, and (vi) such other related duties as Krane deems necessary or appropriate.

 

Under the agreement, while the fees and expenses related to the Fund’s securities lending-related activities reduce the revenues and income of the Fund from such activities, they are not fees and expenses for which Krane is responsible. Further, as compensation for the services provided by Krane in connection with any securities lending-related activities, the Fund pays Krane 10% of the monthly investment income received from the investment of cash collateral and loan fees received from borrowers in respect of securities loans (net of any amounts paid to the custodian and/or securities lending agent or rebated to borrowers).

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Krane did not receive any advisory fees or fees from securities lending activities from those Funds during the prior fiscal year. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of each the Fund’s investment advisory agreement with Krane will be available in the Fund’s first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders. Krane, as the sole shareholder of each Fund, has approved or will approve the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund and various other matters and agreements for the Fund.

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2019 Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 46.2% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

Krane has received “manager of managers” exemptive relief from the SEC that permits Krane, subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, to appoint a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser, as defined in the exemptive relief, or to change the terms of a sub-advisory agreement with a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser without first obtaining shareholder approval. The exemptive order further permits Krane to add or to change a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser or to change the fees paid to such parties from time to time without the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approval of the change and to disclose sub-advisers’ fees only in the aggregate in its registration statement. Any increase in the aggregate advisory fee paid by the Fund remains subject to shareholder approval. Krane continues to have ultimate responsibility (subject to oversight by the Board of Trustees) to oversee the sub-advisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. The Fund will notify shareholders of any change of the Fund sub-adviser.

 

Sub-Adviser

SkyRock Investment Management, LLC (“SkyRock”), located at 507 Marlowe Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27609, serves as the sub-adviser of the Fund. SkyRock is responsible for the day-to-day investment management of the Fund, subject to the supervision of Krane and the Board of Trustees.

 

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s sub-advisory agreement with SkyRock will be available in the Fund’s first Semi-Annual or Annual Report to Shareholders.

 

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SkyRock was established in 2019 and, as of the date of this SAI, provides advisory services to only the Fund.

 

Portfolio Manager

Braxton Wall, Managing Member, Principal, Portfolio Manager and Chief Compliance Officer of SkyRock, has served as the portfolio manager of the Fund since its commencement of operations. Mr. Wall has 11 years of experience in fixed income trading and is an owner and registered representative of Falcon Square, a broker-dealer specializing in fixed-income trading. At Falcon Square he covers institutional fixed income accounts specializing in high yield and investment grade corporate bonds, municipal bonds, agencies, and CMBS. Prior to Falcon Square, Mr. Wall worked at Carolina Capital Markets (2008-2013) in institutional fixed income sales & trading and supervised the Office of Supervisory Jurisdiction (OSJ) for the firm’s Raleigh branch. Mr. Wall received a B.A. of Economics from the University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill in 2008. He holds Series 7, 24, 53, and 63 licenses.

 

Additional information about the Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Manager and the Portfolio Manager’s ownership of Fund shares is available in the SAI.

 

Other Service Providers

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (“Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. The Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund, and makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co. (“Distributor”), an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as the Fund’s distributor. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor, and the Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the shares of the Fund.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Fund. BBH maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services.

 

Shareholder Information

Calculating NAV

The Fund calculates its NAV by:

 

Taking the current market value of its total assets

 

Subtracting any liabilities and withholdings (if any)

 

Dividing that amount by the total number of shares owned by the shareholders

 

The Fund normally calculates NAV as of the regularly scheduled close of normal trading on each day that the NYSE is scheduled to be open for business (a “Business Day’’) (normally, 4:00 p.m., Eastern time). Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.

 

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In calculating the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities, securities listed on a securities exchange, market or automated quotation system for which quotations are readily available (except for securities traded on NASDAQ), including securities traded over the counter, are valued at the last reported sale price on the primary exchange or market on which they are traded (or at the time as of which the Fund’s NAV is calculated if a security’s exchange is normally open at that time). If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price. For securities traded on NASDAQ, the NASDAQ Official Closing Price will be used. If available, debt securities are priced based upon valuations provided by independent, third-party pricing agents. Such values generally reflect the last reported sales price if the security is actively traded. The third-party pricing agents may also value debt securities at an evaluated bid price by employing methodologies that utilize actual market transactions, broker-supplied valuations, or other methodologies designed to identify the market value for such securities. Debt obligations with remaining maturities of sixty days or less may be valued at their amortized cost, which approximates market value. The prices for foreign securities are reported in local currency and converted to U.S. dollars using currency exchange rates. The value of a swap contract is equal to the obligation (or rights) under the swap contract, which will generally be equal to the net amounts to be paid or received under the contract based upon the relative values of the positions held by each party to the contract as determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Exchange-traded options are valued at the last reported sales price on the exchange on which they are listed. If there is no such reported sale on the valuation date, long positions are valued at the most recent bid price, and short positions are valued at the most recent ask price. OTC options are valued based upon prices determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Futures are valued at the settlement price established by the board of trade on which they are traded. Foreign currency forward contracts are valued at the current day’s interpolated foreign exchange rate, as calculated using the current day’s spot rate and the 30-, 60-, 90- and 180-day forward rates provided by an Independent Pricing Agent. The exchange rates used for valuation are captured as of the close of the London Stock Exchange each day normally at 4:00 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Prices for most securities held by the Fund are provided daily by independent pricing agents. If a security price cannot be obtained from an independent, third-party pricing agent, the Fund seeks to obtain bid and ask prices from two broker-dealers who make a market in the portfolio instrument and determines the average of the two.

 

Investments in open-end investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last reported sale price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price.

 

Securities for which market prices are not “readily available,’’ or are not deemed to reflect current market values, or are instruments where no evaluated price is available from the Trust’s third-party pricing agents pursuant to established methodologies, are fair valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Some of the more common reasons that may necessitate that a security be valued using “fair value’’ pricing may include, but are not limited to: the security’s trading has been halted or suspended; the security’s primary trading market is temporarily closed; or the security has not been traded for an extended period of time.

 

In addition, the Fund may fair value its securities if an event that may materially affect the value of the Fund’s securities that trade outside of the United States (a “Significant Event’’) has occurred between the time of the security’s last close and the time that the Fund calculates its NAV. A Significant Event may relate to a single issuer or to an entire market sector, country or region. Events that may be Significant Events may include: government actions, natural disasters, armed conflict, acts of terrorism and significant market fluctuations. If Krane becomes aware of a Significant Event that has occurred with respect to a portfolio instrument or group of portfolio instruments after the closing of the exchange or market on which the portfolio instrument or portfolio instruments principally trade, but before the time at which the Fund calculates its NAV, it will notify the Administrator and may request that an ad hoc meeting of the Fair Valuation Committee be called.

 

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With respect to trade-halted securities, the Trust typically will fair value a trade-halted security by adjusting the security’s last market close price by the security’s sector performance, as measured by a predetermined index, unless Krane recommends and the Trust’s Fair Valuation Committee determines to make additional adjustments. Certain foreign securities exchanges have mechanisms in place that confine one day’s price movement in an individual security to a pre-determined price range based on that day’s opening price (“Collared Securities’’). Fair value determinations for Collared Securities will generally be capped by Krane based on any applicable pre-determined “limit down’’ or “limit up’’ prices established by the relevant foreign securities exchange.

 

Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could actually be realized upon the sale of the security or that another fund that uses market quotations or its own fair value procedures to price the same securities. In addition, fair value pricing could result in a difference between the prices used to calculate the Fund’s NAV and the prices used by the Underlying Index. This may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to track the Underlying Index.

 

Trading in securities on many foreign exchanges is normally completed before the close of business on each Business Day. In addition, securities trading in a particular country or countries may not take place on each Business Day or may take place on days that are not Business Days. Changes in valuations on certain securities may occur at times or on days on which the Fund’s NAV is not calculated and on which Fund shares do not trade and sales and redemptions of shares do not occur. As a result, the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and the net asset value of its shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your shares.

 

Buying and Selling Fund Shares

Shares of the Fund may be purchased or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof. Only a broker-dealer (“Authorized Participant”) that enters into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Fund’s distributor, SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the “Distributor”), may engage in creation and redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Purchases and redemptions directly with a Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, and are subject to transaction fees, which are described in the SAI. The transaction fee will not exceed 2.00% of the value of the Creation Units purchased or redeemed, which is used to compensate the Fund for any difference for the expenses incurred by it in connection with the purchase or redemption order. Orders for such transactions may be rejected or delayed if they are not submitted in good order and subject to the other conditions set forth in this prospectus and the SAI.

 

Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will take place in-kind and/or for cash at the discretion of each Fund. The determination of whether purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will be for cash or in-kind depends primarily on the regulatory requirements and settlement mechanisms relevant to the Fund’s portfolio holdings and theFund is not limited to engaging in in-kind transactions to any particular market circumstances. As further described in the SAI, Creation Units typically are issued on a two Business Days (“T+2”) basis after a purchase order has been received in good order and the transfer of good title to the Fund of any in-kind securities and/or cash required to purchase a Creation Unit have been completed (subject to certain exceptions). Similarly, and also as further described in the SAI, deliveries of redemption proceeds by a Fund generally will be made on a T+2 basis after a redemption order has been received in good order and the requisite number of Fund shares have been delivered (subject to certain exceptions). The Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to, among other matters, accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (i.e., the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security) and in certain other circumstances. The Fund has received exemptive relief to delay such settlement for up to 14 days from the date an order has been submitted in good order and the requisite cash and/or assets delivered to the Fund to accommodate foreign holidays, as further described in the SAI, and otherwise may delay redemptions up to 7 days or longer as permitted by applicable law, regulations and interpretations such as where unusual market conditions affect the NYSE or an emergency exists which makes it impracticable for the Fund to dispose of or value securities it owns or the Fund has received an SEC order.

 

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The Fund intends to comply with the U.S. federal securities laws in accepting securities for deposit and satisfying redemptions with redemption securities by, among other means, assuring that any securities accepted for deposit and any securities used to satisfy redemption requests will be sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

 

Once created, shares are listed on the Exchange and trade in the secondary market. When you buy or sell the Fund’s shares in the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. Most investors will buy and sell shares through a broker and, thus, will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares.

 

The secondary markets are closed on weekends and also are generally closed on the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day (observed), Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans’ Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.

 

For more information on how to buy and sell shares of the Fund, call 1.855.857.2638 or visit www.kraneshares.com.

 

Share Trading Prices and Intraday Indicative Value

The trading prices of the Fund’s shares listed on its Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV and can be affected by market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. The Exchange intends to disseminate an “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for the Fund every fifteen seconds during the trading hours of each Business Day. The IIV is calculated for each Fund by: (i) calculating the current value of the deposit instruments and any short positions; (ii) calculating the estimated amount of cash and/or money market instruments per creation unit held in the Fund’s portfolio; (iii) calculating the current in-the-money or out-of-the-money value of the financial instruments held by the Fund, if any, (iv) adding (i) through (iii) to arrive at a value and (v) dividing that value by the number of shares in a Fund creation unit. The IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day, and may include stale values. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and make no warranty as to their accuracy.

 

Premium/Discount Information

Information showing the number of days the market price of the Fund’s shares was greater than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a premium) and the number of days it was less than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a discount) for various time periods is available by visiting the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com. The premium and discount information contained on the website represents past performance and cannot be used to predict future results.

 

Portfolio Holdings Information

A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of Fund portfolio securities is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”). The holdings of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com.

 

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Active Investors and Market Timing

The Trust’s Board of Trustees has determined not to adopt policies and procedures designed to prevent or monitor for frequent purchases and redemptions of the Fund’s shares because the Fund sells and redeems its shares at NAV only in Creation Units pursuant to the terms of an Authorized Participant Agreement between the Authorized Participant and the Distributor, and such direct trading between the Fund and Authorized Participants is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. Further, the vast majority of trading in Fund shares occurs on the secondary market, which does not involve the Fund directly and therefore does not cause the Fund to experience many of the harmful effects of market timing, such as dilution and disruption of portfolio management. In addition, the Fund imposes a transaction fee on Creation Unit transactions, which is designed to offset transfer and other transaction costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the issuance and redemption of Creation Units and may employ fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing. Each Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase order at any time and reserves the right to impose restrictions on disruptive, excessive, or short-term trading.

 

Investments by Registered Investment Companies

Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including shares of the Fund. Provided, generally, that the Fund’s investments comply with Section 12(d)(1)(A), registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.

 

Continuous Offering

The method by which Creation Units of Fund shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

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Dealers effecting transactions in the Fund’s shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), Krane, the Fund sub-adviser or an affiliate may pay the intermediary for marketing activities or other services related to the sale or promotion of the Fund. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

Distribution Plan

The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan (the “Plan”) that allows the Fund to pay distribution fees to the Distributor and other firms that provide distribution services (“Service Providers”). Under the Plan, if a Service Provider provides distribution services, the Fund would pay distribution fees to the Distributor at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. The Distributor would, in turn, pay the Service Provider out of its fees. The Board of Trustees currently has determined not to implement any 12b-1 fees pursuant to the Plan. 12b-1 fees may only be imposed after approval by the Board of Trustees. Because any distribution fees would be paid out of the Fund’s assets on an on-going basis, if payments are made in the future, the distribution fees would increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

 

Householding Policy

To reduce expenses, we mail only one copy of the prospectus or summary prospectus, each annual and semi-annual report, and any proxy statements to each address shared by two or more accounts with the same last name or that the Trust reasonably believes are members of the same family. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Trust at 1.855.857.2638 between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. We will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request. Investors who hold their shares through an intermediary are subject to the intermediary’s policies. Contact your financial intermediary for any questions you may have.

 

Dividends and Distributions

[The Fund pays out dividends to shareholders at least annually.] The Fund distributes its net capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually. The Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Fund reserves the right to declare special distributions, including if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.

 

Additional Tax Information

The following is a summary of some important tax issues that affect the Fund and its shareholders. The summary is based on current tax laws, which may be changed by legislative, judicial or administrative action. You should not consider this summary to be a detailed explanation of the tax treatment of the Fund, or the tax consequences of an investment in the Fund. More information about taxes is located in the SAI. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding specific questions as to federal, state and local income taxes.

 

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Tax Status of the Fund

The Fund is treated as a separate entity for federal tax purposes, and intends to qualify for the special tax treatment afforded to regulated investment companies. As long as the Fund qualifies for treatment as a regulated investment company, it pays no federal income tax on the earnings it distributes to shareholders.

 

Tax Status of Distributions

The Fund will, at least annually, distribute substantially all of its net investment taxable income and net capital gains income.

 

The income dividends you receive from the Fund (which include the Fund’s short-term capital gains) will be taxed as either ordinary income or qualified dividend income. For non-corporate shareholders, dividends that are reported as qualified dividend income are generally taxable at reduced maximum tax rates to the extent that the Fund receives qualified dividend income and subject to certain limitations and holding period requirements.

 

Distributions of the Fund’s short-term capital gains are generally taxable as ordinary income. Any distributions of net capital gain (the excess of the Fund’s net long-term capital gains over its net short-term capital losses) are taxable as long-term capital gains regardless of how long you have owned your shares. Long-term capital gains are taxable at reduced maximum tax rates.

 

If the Fund makes distributions to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of the shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares.

 

The Fund may invest in complex securities. These investments may be subject to numerous special and complex rules. These rules could affect whether gains and losses recognized by the Fund are treated as ordinary income or capital gain, accelerate the recognition of income to the Fund and/or defer the Fund’s ability to recognize losses. In turn, these rules may affect the amount, timing or character of distributions you receive from the Fund.

 

Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or in additional shares. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive that is attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations. [The Fund does not expect to distribute dividends eligible for qualified dividend income treatment or the dividends received deduction.]

 

Distributions paid in January but declared by the Fund in October, November or December of the previous year may be taxable to you in the previous year. Your broker will inform you of the amount of your ordinary income dividends, qualified dividend income, and capital gains distributions shortly after the close of each calendar year.

 

If you lend your Fund shares pursuant to securities lending arrangements, you may lose the ability to treat the Fund’s dividends (paid while the shares are held by the borrower) as qualified dividend income. Consult your financial intermediary or tax adviser.

 

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Some foreign governments levy withholding taxes against dividend and interest income. Although in some countries a portion of these withholding taxes is recoverable, the non-recovered portion will reduce the income received from the securities in the Fund. If more than 50% of the total assets of the Fund at the close of a year consist of non-U.S. stocks or securities, then the Fund may elect, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to treat certain non-U.S. income taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by the Fund as paid by its shareholders.

 

If you hold your shares in a tax-qualified retirement account, you generally will not be subject to federal taxation on income received with respect to the shares (including Fund dividends and distributions, and any gain on the sale of shares), until you begin receiving payments from your retirement account. You should consult your tax adviser regarding the tax rules that apply to your retirement account.

 

Tax Status of Share Transactions

Any capital gain or loss upon a sale of the Fund’s shares is generally treated as a long-term gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term gain or loss if held for one year or less. Any capital loss on the sale of the Fund’s shares held for six months or less is treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent that any capital gain distributions were paid with respect to such shares.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax

U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly) are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” including interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (including capital gains realized on the sale or exchange of shares of theFund). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.

 

Back-Up Withholding

The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold at applicable withholding rates (currently 24%) and remit to the U.S. Treasury the amount withheld on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) has provided the Fund either an incorrect tax identification number or no number at all, (2) is subject to back-up withholding by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for failure to properly report payments of interest or dividends, (3) has failed to certify to the Fund that such shareholder is not subject to back-up withholding, or (4) has not certified that such shareholder is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien).

 

Non-U.S. Investors

If you are not a citizen or permanent resident of the United States or if you are a non-U.S. entity, the Fund’s ordinary income dividends (which include distributions of net short-term capital gains) will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate applies, provided that withholding tax will generally not apply to any gain or income realized by a non-U.S. shareholder in respect of any distributions of long-term capital gains or upon the sale or other disposition of shares of the Fund. You also may potentially be subject to U.S. federal estate taxes.

 

A 30% withholding tax will generally be imposed on dividends paid by the Fund to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the IRS, or the tax authorities in their home jurisdictions, information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. A non-U.S. shareholder may be exempt from the withholding described in this paragraph under an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and a foreign government, provided that the shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of such agreement. Recently issued proposed regulations (which are effective while pending) eliminate the application of the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) withholding tax to capital gain dividends and redemption proceeds that was scheduled to take effect in 2019.

 

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State Tax Considerations

In addition to federal taxes, distributions by the Fund and ownership of the Fund’s shares may be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult your tax adviser regarding how state and local tax laws affect your investment in the Fund’s shares.

 

Taxes on Creations and Redemptions of Creation Units

A person who purchases a Creation Unit by exchanging securities in-kind generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the purchaser’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units and receives securities in-kind from a Fund will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the redeemer’s basis in the Creation Units, and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any net cash received. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an in-kind exchange of securities for Creation Units or an exchange of Creation Units for securities cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons effecting in-kind creations or redemptions should consult their own tax adviser with respect to these matters.

 

The Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Fund also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determinations.

 

Index Provider Information and Disclaimers

FTSE Russell is a leading provider of global indexes. FTSE Russell is not affiliated with the Trust, Krane, the Trust’s administrator, custodian, transfer agent or Distributor, or any of their respective affiliates. Krane has entered into a license agreement with FTSE Russell to use the relevant Underlying Index and FTSE Russell marks, and sublicenses such rights to the Funds at no charge. Krane uses the marks for the purpose of promoting and marketing the Funds. 

 

The Fund is not in any way sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by FTSE Russell and FTSE Russell does not make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to (i) the results to be obtained from the use of the Underlying Index, (ii) the figure at which the Underlying Index is said to stand at any particular time on any particular day or otherwise, or (iii) the fitness or suitability of the Underlying Index for the particular purpose to which it is being put in connection with the Funds. FTSE Russell has not provided and does not provide any financial or investment advice or recommendation in relation to the Underlying Index to Krane or its affiliates or to its customers or clients, including the Funds. The Underlying Index is calculated by FTSE Russell or its agent. FTSE Russell is not liable (whether in negligence or otherwise) to any person for any error in the Underlying Index and is under no obligation to advise any person of any error therein. All rights in the Underlying Index vest in FTSE Russell.

 

The Index Provider makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by Krane or its affiliates, owners of shares of the Funds or any other person or entity from the use of the Underlying Index or any data included therein. The Index Provider makes no express or implied warranties and expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Underlying Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Index Provider have any liability for any special, punitive, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits) resulting from the use of the Underlying Index or any data included therein, even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

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More information about the Index Provider is located in the SAI.

 

Additional Disclaimers

Krane and Trust Disclaimer

Neither Krane nor the Trust guarantees the accuracy or the completeness of the Underlying Index or any data included therein and neither shall have any liability for any errors, omissions or interruptions therein. Krane and the Funds further make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of shares of the Fund or any members of the public as to results to be obtained by the Fund from the use of the Underlying Index, as to any data included therein, or as to the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funs particularly. Krane expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to the Underlying Index the Fund. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall Krane have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

NYSE Arca, Inc. Disclaimer

 

Shares of the Fund are not sponsored, endorsed or promoted by NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”). NYSE Arca makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the shares of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Fund to track the total return performance of the Underlying Index or the ability of the Underlying Indexes to track stock market performance. NYSE Arca is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Underlying Index, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Fund to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares are redeemable. NYSE Arca has no obligation or liability to owners of the shares of the Funs in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the shares of the Fund.

 

NYSE Arca does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Underlying Index or any data included therein. NYSE Arca makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Trust on behalf of the Fund as licensee, licensee’s customers and counterparties, owners of the shares of the Fund, or any other person or entity from the use of the subject index or any data included therein in connection with the rights licensed as described herein or for any other use. NYSE Arca makes no express or implied warranties and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Underlying Index or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall NYSE Arca have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

Financial Highlights

 

No financial highlights are available for the Fund because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the prior fiscal year.

 

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Additional Information

 

Additional and more detailed information about the Fund is included in the SAI dated August 1, 2019. The SAI has been filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus and, therefore, legally forms a part of this Prospectus. The SEC maintains the EDGAR database on its website (“http://www.sec.gov”) that contains the SAI, material incorporated by reference, and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. You may also review and copy documents at the SEC Public Reference room in Washington, D.C. (for information on the operation of the Public Reference Room, call 202.551.8090). You may request documents from the SEC by mail, upon payment of a duplication fee, by writing to: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by emailing the SEC at the following address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

You may obtain a copy of the SAI or the Annual or Semi-Annual Reports or make inquiries, without charge by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Annual and Semi-Annual Reports. Also, in the Fund’s Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

 

No one has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations not contained in this Prospectus or in the Fund’s SAI in connection with the offering of Fund shares. Do not rely on any such information or representations as having been authorized by the Fund, Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable. This Prospectus does not constitute an offering by the Fund in any jurisdiction where such an offering is not lawful.

 

The Trust enters into contractual arrangements with various parties, including among others, the Fund’s investment adviser, sub-adviser(s) (if applicable), distributor, custodian, and transfer agent who provide services to the Fund. Shareholders are not parties to any such contractual arrangements or intended beneficiaries of those contractual arrangements, and those contractual arrangements are not intended to create in any shareholder any right to enforce them against the service providers or to seek any remedy under them against the service providers, either directly or on behalf of the Trust.

 

This prospectus provides information concerning the Fund that you should consider in determining whether to purchase Fund shares. Neither this prospectus nor the SAI is intended, or should be read, to be or give rise to an agreement or contract between the Trust, the Trustees, or the Fund and any investor, or to give rise to any rights in any shareholder or other person other than any rights under federal or state law that may not be waived.

 

The Trust’s Investment Company Act file number is 811-22698.

 

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KraneShares Trust

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

[…], 2019

 

KFA DYNAMIC FIXED INCOME ETF - (KDFI)

 

Shares of the Fund will be traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc.

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) relates to the above listed fund (the “Fund”), a series of the KraneShares Trust (the “Trust”). This SAI is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the current prospectus for the Fund, dated […], 2019, as it may be revised from time to time (the “Prospectus”). Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. The audited financial statements with respect to the Fund for the most recent fiscal year will be incorporated in this SAI by reference to the Fund’s first Annual Report to Shareholders. A copy of the Prospectus, this SAI, and/or the most recent annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders may be obtained, without charge, by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing to the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

 

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND 1
   
INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS 1
   
INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS 32
   
CONTINUOUS OFFERING 33
   
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST 34
   
INVESTMENT Adviser 40
   
SUB-Adviser 42
   
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS 43
   
CODES OF ETHICS 44
   
PROXY VOTING POLICY 44
   
ADMINISTRATOR 44
   
CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT 44
   
DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS 45
   
control persons AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES 47
   
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING 47
   
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM 48
   
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS 49
   
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS 51
   
tAXES 82
   
DETERMINATION OF NAV 90
   
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS 92
   
OTHER INFORMATION 92
   
COUNSEL 94
   
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 94
   
Financial Statements 94
   
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICY A-1
   
APPENDIX b – DESCRIPTION OF RATINGS b-1

 

 

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND

 

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on February 3, 2012 and is permitted to offer multiple, separate series (i.e., funds). As of the date of this SAI, the Trust offers [23] separate funds, including the Fund and other funds not offered in this SAI. The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and the Fund is a non-diversified series of the Trust. The offering of the Trust’s shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). All payments received by the Trust for shares of any fund belong to that fund. Each fund will have its own assets and liabilities. Shares of the Fund will only be issued against full payment, as further described in the Prospectus and this Statement of Additional Information.

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or the “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and is responsible for continuously reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program. SkyRock Investment Management, LLC (“SkyRock”) serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund and is responsible for making investment decisions for the Fund’s assets and trading portfolio securities. SEI Investments Distribution Co. serves as the distributor (the “Distributor”) of the shares of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE”). The Exchange is a national securities exchange and shares of the Fund will trade throughout the day on the Exchange and other secondary markets at market prices that may be below, at or above their net asset value (“NAV”) per share. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the Fund’s shares will be based on negotiated commission rates and subject to bid/ask spreads.

 

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS

 

General

The Fund’s principal investment strategies and risks are discussed in its Prospectus. The investment techniques discussed below and in the prospectus may, consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and investment limitations, be used by the Fund. The Fund is free to reduce or eliminate its activity with respect to any of the investment techniques discussed below without changing its fundamental investment policies and without prior notice to shareholders. There is no assurance that the Fund’s strategies or any other strategies and methods of investment available to the Fund will result in the achievement of the Fund’s objective.

 

Representative Sampling and Index Replication

“Representative sampling” is a strategy that involves investing in a representative sample of securities that collectively have an investment profile similar to the Underlying Index. Such securities are expected to have, in the aggregate, characteristics similar to those of the Underlying Index. The Fund may or may not hold all of the securities in the Underlying Index when using a representative sampling indexing strategy. Holding all of the securities in approximately the same weights as they appear in the Underlying Index would be considered a replication strategy. In all cases, the Fund may sell securities that are represented in the Underlying Index in anticipation of their removal from the Underlying Index or purchase securities not represented in the Underlying Index in anticipation of their addition to the Underlying Index. There also may be instances in which the Fund is underweight or overweight a security in the Underlying Index and the Fund may choose to sell, or not buy, a component of its Underlying Index to the extent it would not be legally permissible for the Fund to hold such securities, in anticipation of liquidity needs, to prevent adverse tax consequences and/or events or as otherwise may be necessary to comply with applicable laws or regulations, the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions or the rules promulgated by the Fund’s listing exchange.

 

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Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which a Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If a Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Debt Securities

The Fund may invest in debt securities. A debt security is a security consisting of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuer promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time, and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk, and (in the case of foreign securities) country risk and currency risk.

 

The market value of the debt securities in which a Fund invests will change in response to interest rate changes and other factors. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of outstanding debt securities generally rise. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the values of such securities generally decline. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. Changes in the value of these securities will not necessarily affect cash income derived from these securities but will affect a Fund’s NAV. Additional information regarding debt securities is described below.

 

Credit Ratings. Credit risk is the risk that a borrower or issuer of a debt will be unable or unwilling to repay its obligations under the debt. Certain debt securities may be rated by a credit rating agency. Changes by such agencies in the rating of any debt security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal, or the perception thereof, may affect the value of these investments.

 

U.S. Credit Ratings. The rating criteria and methodology used by U.S. rating agencies may not be fully transparent and such ratings may not accurately reflect the risk of investing in such instruments.

 

Chinese Credit Ratings. The rating criteria and methodology used by Chinese rating agencies may be different from those adopted by most of the established international credit rating agencies. Therefore, such rating systems may not provide an equivalent standard for comparison with securities rated by international credit rating agencies. The rating criteria and methodology used by Chinese credit ratings agencies also may not be fully transparent and such ratings may not accurately reflect the risk of investing in such instruments.

 

Duration. Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a debt security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time.

 

Pay-In-Kind and Step-Up Coupon Securities. A pay-in-kind security pays no interest in cash to its holder during its life. Similarly, a step-up coupon security is a debt security that may not pay interest for a specified period of time and then, after the initial period, may pay interest at a series of different rates. Accordingly, pay-in kind and step-up coupon securities will be subject to greater fluctuations in market value in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make current, periodic distribution of interest in cash.

 

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Perpetual Bonds. Perpetual bonds offer a fixed return with no maturity date. Because they never mature, perpetual bonds can be more volatile than other types of bonds that have a maturity date and may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates. If market interest rates rise significantly, the interest rate paid by a perpetual bond may be much lower than the prevailing interest rate. Perpetual bonds are also subject to credit risk with respect to the issuer. In addition, because perpetual bonds may be callable after a set period of time, there is the risk that the issuer may recall the bond.

 

Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate instruments involve certain obligations that may carry variable or floating rates of interest, and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period, and may have a set floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates.

 

Corporate Debt Securities. The Fund may invest in corporate debt securities. The selection of such securities will generally not be dependent on independent credit analysis or fundamental analysis performed by Krane or a Fund sub-adviser, if applicable. The Fund may invest in all grades of corporate debt securities including below investment grade as discussed below. See Appendix B for a description of corporate bond ratings. The Fund may also invest in unrated securities.

 

Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations, but may also include bank loans to companies. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or un-secured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade, below investment-grade or unrated and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.

 

Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but is intended to carry relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.

 

Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that a Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security does not pay interest or principal when it is due. The credit risk of a particular issuer’s debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.

 

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High Yield Securities. High yield securities are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Investing in these securities involves special risks in addition to the risks associated with investments in higher-rated fixed income securities. While offering a greater potential opportunity for capital appreciation and higher yields, high yield securities typically entail greater credit risk and potential price volatility and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities. A Fund may have difficulty selling certain junk bonds because they may have a thin trading market. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse effect on the market price and a Fund’s ability to dispose of particular issues, including to honor redemptions, and may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain accurate market quotations in valuing these assets. High yield securities are regarded as inherently speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. They may also be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions and changes than higher-rated securities. Issuers of securities in default may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case a Fund may lose its entire investment.

 

Companies that issue high yield bonds are often highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. During an economic downturn or recession, highly leveraged issuers of high-yield securities may experience financial stress, and may not have sufficient revenues to meet their interest payment obligations. Economic downturns tend to disrupt the market for high yield bonds, lowering their values and increasing their price volatility. The risk of issuer default is higher with respect to high yield bonds because such issues may be subordinated to other creditors of the issuer and because they may be issued by less financially stable entities.

 

The credit rating of a high yield bond does not necessarily address its market value risk, and ratings may from time to time change to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. The lower the rating of a high yield bond, the more speculative its characteristics.

 

Unrated debt securities may face the same or more severe risks than high yield securities.

 

U.S. Dollar-Denominated Foreign Debt Securities. Foreign debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars may behave very differently from debt securities issued in local currencies, and there may be little to no correlation between the performance of the two. For example, changes to currency exchange rates may impact issuers of foreign debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars differently than issuers of debt securities issued in local currencies. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably, which may adversely affect the Fund. In addition, if the U.S. dollar increases in value against the local currency of a U.S. dollar-denominated debt issue, the issuer may be subject to a greater risk of default on their obligations (i.e., are unable to make scheduled interest or principal payments to investors).

 

Commercial Paper. The Fund may invest in commercial paper of U.S. or foreign issuers. U.S. commercial paper generally consists of unsecured short-term promissory notes with a fixed maturity of no more than 270 days issued by corporations, generally to finance short-term business needs. Chinese commercial paper that may be purchased by a Fund generally will have no more than one year of remaining maturity. A Fund may purchase commercial paper of any rating or that is unrated. Commercial paper issues in which a Fund may invest include securities issued by corporations without registration under the Securities Act in reliance on the exemption from such registration afforded by Section 3(a)(3) thereof, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption from registration, which is afforded by Section 4(2) of the Securities Act (“Section 4(2) paper”). Section 4(2) paper is restricted as to disposition under the federal securities laws in that any resale must similarly be made in an exempt transaction. Section 4(2) paper is normally resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in Section 4(2) paper, which may provide some liquidity.

 

Mortgage-Backed Securities. The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed securities, including collateralized mortgage obligations and mortgage pass-through securities. These securities represent interests in pools of mortgage loans. The payments of principal and interest on the underlying loans pass through to investors. Although the underlying mortgage loans are for specified periods of time, such as fifteen to thirty years, the borrowers can, and often do, repay them sooner. Thus, the security holders may receive prepayments of principal, in addition to the regular interest and principal.

 

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There are three types of interest rate-related risks associated with mortgage-backed securities. The first is interest rate risk. The values of mortgage-backed securities will generally fluctuate inversely with interest rates. The second is prepayment risk. This is the risk that borrowers will repay their mortgages earlier than anticipated. A borrower is more likely to prepay a mortgage that bears a relatively high rate of interest. Thus, in times of declining interest rates, some higher yielding mortgages might be repaid resulting in larger cash payments to the Fund, and the Fund will be forced to accept lower interest rates when that cash is used to purchase additional securities. The third is extension risk. When interest rates rise, prepayments often drop, which should extend the average maturity of the mortgage-backed security. This makes mortgage-backed securities more sensitive to interest rate changes.

 

Mortgage-backed securities may also be subject to credit risk. Payment of principal and interest on many mortgage pass-through securities (but not the market value of the securities themselves) may be guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies whose obligations are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government (in the case of securities guaranteed by the Government National Mortgage Association) or may be guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government whose obligations are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government (such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”)). Mortgage pass-through securities may also be issued by non-governmental issuers (such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers and other secondary market issuers). Some of these mortgage pass-through securities may be supported by various forms of insurance or guarantees but may otherwise be subject to a greater risk of loss.

 

Other Asset-Backed Securities. The Fund may invest in other forms of asset-backed securities in addition to asset-based commercial paper and mortgage-backed securities. These securities, issued by trusts and special purpose corporations, are backed by a pool of assets, such as credit card receivables, automobile loans, airplane leases, equipment leases, or other forms of receivables. These securities present certain risks in addition to those normally associated with debt securities. For instance, these securities may not have the benefit of any security interest in any collateral that could ensure payment of the receivable. For example, credit card receivables are generally unsecured. The obligors may also be entitled to the protection of a number of state and federal credit laws. Moreover, even if there are perfected security interests in the underlying collateral, there is the possibility that recoveries on repossessed collateral may not be sufficient to support payments on these securities.

 

To lessen the effect of failures by obligors on underlying assets to make payments, asset-backed securities may contain elements of credit support which fall into two categories: (i) liquidity protection and (ii) protection against losses resulting from ultimate default by an obligor on the underlying assets. Liquidity protection refers to the provision of advances, to ensure that the receipt of payments on the underlying pool occurs in a timely fashion. Protection against losses resulting from ultimate default ensures payment through insurance policies or letters of credit obtained by the issuer or sponsor from third parties. The degree of credit support provided for each issue is generally based on historical information respecting the level of credit risk associated with the underlying assets. Delinquency or loss in excess of that anticipated or failure of the credit support could adversely affect the return on an investment in such a security. Credit supports, if any, do not protect against fluctuation in the market values of asset-backed securities. Moreover, a credit support depends upon the financial ability of its issuer to honor the support.

 

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Sovereign and Quasi-Sovereign Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt obligations. Sovereign debt obligations are issued or guaranteed by a foreign government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities, political subdivisions or by a supra-national organization. Investments in sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt obligations involve special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign or quasi-sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and a Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default. Quasi-sovereign debt typically is not guaranteed by a sovereign entity. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt, and a Fund’s net asset value, may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain non-U.S. markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.

 

A sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, politics, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints. Sovereign and quasi-sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The failure of a sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign or quasi- sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor’s ability or willingness to service its debts.

 

Debt Securities Issued by the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development (“World Bank”). The Fund may invest in debt securities issued by the World Bank. Debt securities issued by the World Bank may include high quality global bonds backed by member governments, including the United States, Japan, Germany, France and the United Kingdom, as well as in bonds in “non-core” currencies, including emerging markets and European accession countries, structured notes, and discount notes represented by certificates, in bearer form only, or in un-certified form (Book Entry Discount Notes) with maturities of 360 days or less at a discount, and in the case of Discount Notes, in certified form only and on an interest bearing basis in the U.S. and Eurodollar markets.

 

U.S. Government Securities. The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, the government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.

 

Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Ginnie Mae pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by Fannie Mae, are not guaranteed by the U.S. government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to such issuers since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.

 

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Since 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been in conservatorship and have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases, as well as U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. The Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) and the U.S. Treasury (through its agreement to purchase Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac preferred stock) have imposed strict limits on the size of their mortgage portfolios. The mortgage-backed security purchase programs ended in 2010. An FHFA stress test suggested that in a “severely adverse scenario” significant additional Treasury support might be required. No assurance can be given that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities that they issue.

 

In addition, the problems faced by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, resulting in their being placed into federal conservatorship and receiving significant U.S. government support, have sparked serious debate among federal policy makers regarding the continued role of the U.S. government in providing liquidity for mortgage loans. In December 2011, Congress enacted the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 which, among other provisions, requires that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac increase their single-family guaranty fees by at least 10 basis points and remit this increase to Treasury with respect to all loans acquired by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac on or after April 1, 2012 and before January 1, 2022. Nevertheless, discussions among policymakers have continued as to whether Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be nationalized, privatized, restructured, or eliminated altogether. Fannie Mae has reported that there is “significant uncertainty regarding the future of our company, including how long the company will continue to exist in its current form, the extent of our role in the market, how long we will be in conservatorship, what form we will have and what ownership interest, if any, our current common and preferred stockholders will hold in us after the conservatorship is terminated, and whether we will continue to exist following conservatorship.” Freddie Mac faces similar uncertainty about its future role. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing legal actions and investigations related to certain accounting, disclosure, or corporate governance matters, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may continue to have an adverse effect on the guaranteeing entities. Congress is currently considering several pieces of legislation that would reform U.S. government sponsored enterprises, proposing to address their structure, mission, portfolio limits, and guarantee fees, among other issues.

 

U.S. Treasury Obligations. U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as Separately Traded Registered Interest and Principal Securities (“STRIPS”) and Treasury Receipts (“TRs”).

 

Receipts. Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

 

U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are typically sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

 

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U.S. Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the U.S. government are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury, others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that in the event of a default prior to maturity there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of these securities nor to the value of a Fund’s shares.

 

Foreign Securities

The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in non-U.S. securities and instruments, or in instruments that provide exposure to such securities and instruments. These instruments may include debt or equity securities. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about non-U.S. issuers. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks (including restrictions on the transfers of securities). With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries.

 

Non-U.S. markets may not be as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the U.S. While the volume of shares traded on non-U.S. markets generally have been growing, such markets usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets. Therefore, a Fund’s investments in non-U.S. securities may be less liquid and subject to more rapid and erratic price movements than comparable securities trading in the U.S. For example, non-U.S. equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable U.S. securities and such levels may not be sustainable. There may be less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers, banks and listed companies abroad than in the U.S. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in U.S. markets. Such differences may include delays beyond periods customary in the U.S. and practices, such as delivery of securities prior to receipt of payment, that increase the likelihood of a failed settlement, which can result in losses to a Fund. Foreign exchanges may be open on days when a Fund does not price its shares, thus, the value of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell a Fund’s shares. Conversely, Fund shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in a Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments. In addition, a Fund may change its creation or redemption procedures without notice in connection with restrictions on the transfer of securities. For more information on creation and redemption procedures, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” herein.

 

Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than for securities traded in the U.S. This may cause a Fund to incur higher portfolio transaction costs than domestic funds. Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing a security, even one denominated in U.S. dollars. Dividend and interest payments may be repatriated based on the exchange rate at the time of disbursement, but restrictions on capital flows may be imposed.

 

Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to government intervention and the imposition of “capital controls.” Countries use these controls to restrict volatile movements of capital entering (inflows) and exiting (outflows) their country to respond to certain economic conditions. Capital controls include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Levies may be placed on profits repatriated by foreign entities (such as a Fund). Capital controls may impact the ability of a Fund to create and redeem Creation Units, adversely affect the trading market for shares of a Fund, and cause shares of a Fund to trade at prices materially different from NAV. There can be no assurance that a country in which a Fund invests will not impose a form of capital control to the possible detriment of a Fund and its shareholders. A Fund may also be subject to delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to foreign currencies for the purpose of purchasing foreign securities. This may hinder a Fund’s performance, since any delay could result in a Fund missing an investment opportunity and purchasing securities at a higher price than originally intended, or incurring cash drag.

 

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Investing in foreign companies may involve risks not typically associated with investing in companies domiciled in the United States. The value of securities denominated in foreign currencies, and of dividends from such securities, can change significantly when foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the U.S. dollar. Foreign securities markets generally have less trading volume and less liquidity than U.S. markets, and prices in some foreign markets can be very volatile. Many foreign countries lack uniform accounting and disclosure standards comparable to those that apply to U.S. companies, and it may be more difficult to obtain reliable information regarding a foreign issuer’s financial condition and operations. In addition, the costs of foreign investing, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions, and custodial fees, generally are higher than for U.S. investments. Investing in companies located abroad also carries political and economic risks distinct from those associated with investing in the United States. Foreign investment may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U.S. investors, including the possibility of seizure, expropriation or nationalization of assets, including foreign deposits, confiscatory taxation, restrictions on U.S. investment, or on the ability to repatriate assets or to convert currency into U.S. dollars. There may be a greater possibility of default by foreign governments or foreign-government sponsored enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments.

 

Geographic Focus. Funds that are less diversified across countries or geographic regions are generally riskier than more geographically diversified funds. To the extent a Fund focuses on a specific region, it will be more exposed to that region’s economic cycles, currency exchange rates, stock market valuations and political risks, among others, compared with a more geographically diversified fund. The economies and financial markets of certain regions, such as Asia, can be interdependent and may be adversely affected by the same events. Set forth below for certain markets in which a Fund may invest are brief descriptions of some of the conditions and risks in each such market.

 

Investments in Emerging Markets Securities. A Fund may invest substantially all of its assets in markets that are considered to be “emerging.” Investing in securities listed and traded in emerging markets may be subject to additional risks associated with emerging market economies. Such risks may include: (i) greater market volatility, (ii) greater risk of asset seizures and capital controls, (iii) lower trading volume and liquidity, (iv) greater social, political and economic uncertainty, (v) governmental controls on foreign investments and limitations on repatriation of invested capital, (vi) lower disclosure, corporate governance, auditing and financial reporting standards, (vii) fewer protections of property rights, (viii) restrictions on the transfer of securities or currency, and (ix) settlement and trading practices that differ from U.S. markets. Emerging markets are generally less liquid and less efficient than developed securities markets.

 

Investments in Frontier Market Securities. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and less developed capital markets or legal, regulatory and political systems than traditional emerging market countries. As a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.

 

Investments in Asia. Investments in securities of issuers in Asian countries involve risks not typically associated with investments in securities of issuers in other regions. Such heightened risks include, among others, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, political instability, including authoritarian and/or military involvement in governmental decision-making, armed conflict and social instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socio-economic unrest. Certain Asian economies have experienced rapid rates of economic growth and industrialization in recent years, and there is no assurance that these rates of economic growth and industrialization will be maintained.

 

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Certain Asian countries have democracies with relatively short histories, which may increase the risk of political instability. These countries have faced political and military unrest, and further unrest could present a risk to their local economies and securities markets. Indonesia and the Philippines have each experienced violence and terrorism, which has negatively impacted their economies. North Korea and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical tensions between the two countries present the risk of war; in the recent past, these tensions have escalated. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and securities market. Increased political and social unrest in these geographic areas could adversely affect the performance of investments in this region.

 

Certain governments in this region administer prices on several basic goods, including fuel and electricity, within their respective countries. Certain governments may exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector in their respective countries and may own or control many companies. Future government actions could have a significant effect on the economic conditions in this region, which in turn could have a negative impact on private sector companies. There is also the possibility of diplomatic developments adversely affecting investments in the region.

 

Corruption and the perceived lack of a rule of law in dealings with international companies in certain Asian countries may discourage foreign investment and could negatively impact the long-term growth of certain economies in this region. In addition, certain countries in the region are experiencing high unemployment and corruption, and have fragile banking sectors. Their securities markets are not as developed as those of other countries and, therefore, are subject to additional risks such as trading halts.

 

Some economies in this region are dependent on a range of commodities, including oil, natural gas and coal. Accordingly, they are strongly affected by international commodity prices and particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. The market for securities in this region may also be directly influenced by the flow of international capital, and by the economic and market conditions of neighboring countries. Adverse economic conditions or developments in neighboring countries may increase investors’ perception of the risk of investing in the region as a whole, which may adversely impact the market value of the securities issued by companies in the region.

 

Investments in Brazil. Brazil has experienced economic instability resulting from, among other things, periods of very high inflation, persistent structural public sector deficits and significant devaluations of its currency, leading also to a high degree of price volatility in both the Brazilian equity and foreign currency markets. Brazilian companies may also be adversely affected by high interest and unemployment rates, fluctuations in commodity prices, significant public health concerns, and associated declines in tourism.

 

Investments in China. The Chinese economy is generally considered an emerging market and can be significantly affected by economic and political conditions and policy in China and surrounding Asian countries. The economy of China, which has been in a state of transition from a planned economy to a more market oriented economy, differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, its state of development, its growth rate, control of foreign exchange, and allocation of resources.

 

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Although the majority of productive assets in China are still owned by the Chinese government at various levels, the Chinese government has implemented economic reform measures emphasizing utilization of market forces in the development of the economy of China and a high level of management autonomy. The economy of China has experienced significant growth in the past 20 years, but growth has been uneven both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Economic growth has often been accompanied by periods of high inflation in China. The Chinese government has implemented various measures from time to time to control inflation and restrain the rate of economic growth.

 

The Chinese government has carried out economic reforms to achieve decentralization and utilization of market forces to develop the economy of China. These reforms have resulted in significant economic growth and social progress. There can, however, be no assurance that the Chinese government will continue to pursue such economic policies or, if it does, that those policies will continue to be successful. Any such adjustment and modification of those economic policies may have an adverse impact on the securities market in China, the portfolio securities of a Fund or a Fund itself. Further, the Chinese government may from time to time adopt corrective measures to control the growth of the Chinese economy which may also have an adverse impact on the capital growth and performance of a Fund. Political changes, social instability and adverse diplomatic developments in China could result in the imposition of additional government restrictions including expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxes or nationalization of some or all of the property held by the underlying issuers of a Fund’s portfolio securities. As the Chinese economy develops, its growth may slow significantly and sometimes unexpectedly. The laws, regulations, including the investment regulations allowing foreigners to invest in Chinese securities, government policies and political and economic climate in China may change with little or no advance notice. Any such change could adversely affect market conditions and the performance of the Chinese economy and, thus, the value of securities in a Fund’s portfolio.

 

The Chinese government continues to be an active participant in many economic sectors through ownership positions and regulation. The allocation of resources in China is subject to a high level of government control. The Chinese government strictly regulates the payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and sets monetary policy. Through its policies, the government may provide preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. The policies set by the government could have a substantial effect on the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments. The Chinese government strictly regulates the payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and sets monetary policy, and may introduce new laws and regulations that have an adverse effect on a Fund.

 

In addition, the Chinese economy is export-driven and highly reliant on trade. Recent developments in relations between the United States and China have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on China’s export industry and a commensurately negative impact on the Fund. A downturn in the economies of China’s primary trading partners could also slow or eliminate the growth of the Chinese economy and adversely impact a Fund’s investments.

 

The performance of the Chinese economy may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, currency depreciation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Adverse changes to the economic conditions of its primary trading partners, such as the United States, Japan and South Korea, would adversely impact the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments. Moreover, the slowdown in other significant economies of the world, such as the United States, the European Union (“EU”) and certain Asian countries, may adversely affect economic growth in China. An economic downturn in China would likely adversely a Fund’s investments.

 

The regulatory and legal framework for capital markets in China may not be as well developed as those of developed countries. Chinese laws and regulations affecting securities markets are relatively new and evolving, and enforcement of these regulations involve significant uncertainties. No assurance can be given that changes in such laws and regulations, their interpretation or their enforcement will not have a material adverse effect on their business operations or on a Fund.

 

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Although China has begun the process of privatizing certain sectors of its economy, privatized entities may lose money and/or be re-nationalized. Accordingly, an investment in a Fund involves a risk of total loss. In the Chinese securities markets, a small number of issuers may represent a large portion of the entire market. The Chinese securities markets are characterized by relatively frequent trading halts and low trading volume, resulting in substantially less liquidity and greater price volatility. These risks may be more pronounced for the A Share market than for Chinese equity securities markets generally because the A Share market is subject to greater government restrictions and control, including the risk of nationalization or expropriation of private assets which could result in a total loss of an investment in a Fund.

 

Repatriations of gains and income on PRC securities may require the approval of China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) and principal invested pursuant to the PRC securities quota may be subject to repatriation restrictions, depending on the license used and the period from remittance of funds into China.

 

Currently, there are two stock exchanges in mainland China, the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are supervised by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) and are highly automated with trading and settlement executed electronically. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are substantially smaller, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets in the United States.

 

The Shanghai Stock Exchange commenced trading on December 19, 1990, the Shenzhen Stock Exchange commenced trading on July 3, 1991 and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange commenced trading on April 2, 1986. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges divide listed shares into two classes: A-Shares and B-Shares. Companies whose shares are traded on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges that are incorporated in mainland China may issue both A-Shares and B-Shares. In China, the A-Shares and B-Shares of an issuer trade on one exchange. A-Shares and B-Shares may both be listed on either the Shanghai or Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Both classes represent an ownership interest comparable to a share of common stock. A-Shares are traded on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in Chinese currency. B-Shares are traded on the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges in Hong Kong dollars and U.S. dollars, respectively.

 

Foreign investors had historically been unable to participate in the PRC securities market. However, in late 2002, Investment Regulations promulgated by the CSRC came into effect, which were replaced by the updated Investment Regulations (i.e., “Measures for the Administration of the Securities Investments of Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors in the PRC”), which came into effect on September 1, 2006, that provided a legal framework for certain Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) to invest in PRC securities and certain other securities historically not eligible for investment by non-Chinese investors, through quotas granted by SAFE to those QFIIs which have been approved by the CSRC. The RMB QFII (“RQFII”) program was instituted in December 2011 and is substantially similar to the QFII program, but provides for greater flexibility in repatriating assets.

 

In November 2014, the PRC government launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, which allows investors with brokerage accounts in Hong Kong to invest in certain A-Shares without a RQFII or QFII license. A similar stock connect program, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, launched in November 2016, and the Shanghai-London Stock Connect Program and the China-Japan Stock Connect both launched in June 2019 (together, the “Stock Connect Programs”).

 

In February 2016, the People’s Bank of China established a program that permits foreign investors to invest directly in securities traded on the Chinese Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”), even without a RQFII or QFII license (“CIBM Program”). If a Fund participates in the CIBM Program, a PRC onshore settlement agent will be appointed for a Fund, which is required by the CIBM Program.

 

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Bond Connect, a mutual market access scheme, commenced trading on July 3, 2017 and represents an exception to Chinese laws that generally restrict foreign investment in RMB Bonds. In August 2018, Bond Connect enhanced its settlement system to fully implement real-time delivery-versus-payment settlement of trades, which has resulted in increased adoption of Bond Connect by investors. However, if a Fund participates in Bond Connect, there is a risk that Chinese regulators may alter all or part of the structure and terms of, as well as the Fund’s access to, Bond Connect in the future or eliminate it altogether, which may limit or prevent the Fund from investing directly in or selling its RMB Bonds.

 

There is no guarantee that any quota received by Krane or a subadviser of a Fund to invest in PRC securities will not be modified or revoked in the future. Additionally, given that the PRC securities markets are considered volatile and unstable, the creation and redemption of Creation Units may also be disrupted. A participating dealer may not redeem or create Creation Units of a Fund for securities if it believes PRC securities are not available.

 

PRC Custodian and Dealer/Settlement Agent.

 

A Fund is responsible for selecting the PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent to execute certain transactions for a Fund in the PRC markets. Krane or a sub-adviser can currently only use a limited number of PRC Dealers/Settlement Agents and may use more than one PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent for accessing some securities. Should, for any reason, a Fund’s ability to use a given PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent be affected, this could disrupt the operations of a Fund and affect the ability of a Fund to track the underlying index or cause a premium or a discount to the trading price of a Fund’s shares. A Fund may also incur losses due to the acts or omissions of either the relevant PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent or the PRC Custodian in the execution or settlement of any transaction or in the transfer of any funds or securities. Subject to the applicable laws and regulations in the PRC, Krane or a sub-adviser will make arrangements to ensure that the PRC Dealers/Settlement Agents and PRC Custodian have appropriate procedures to properly seek to safe-keep a Fund’s assets.

 

According to the applicable Chinese regulations and market practice, the securities and cash accounts for a Fund held in the PRC pursuant to a RQFII or QFII license are to be maintained in the joint names of Krane or a sub-adviser as the QFII or RQFII holder and the Fund. Krane or a sub-adviser may not use the account for any other purpose than for maintaining a Fund’s assets. However, given that the securities trading account will or would be maintained in the joint names of Krane or a sub-adviser and the Fund, the Fund’s assets may not be as well protected as they would be if it were possible for them to be registered and held solely in the name of the Fund. In particular, there is a risk that creditors of Krane or a sub-adviser may assert that the securities are owned by Krane or the sub-adviser and not the Fund, and that a court would uphold such an assertion, in which case creditors of Krane or the sub-adviser could seize assets of the Fund. Because Krane or a sub-adviser’s PRC securities quota would be in the name of Krane or the sub-adviser and the Fund, there is also a risk that regulatory actions taken against Krane or the sub-adviser by PRC government authorities may affect the Fund.

 

Investors should note that cash deposited in the cash account of a Fund with the PRC Custodian will not be segregated but will be a debt owing from the PRC Custodian to a Fund as a depositor. Such cash will be co-mingled with cash belonging to other clients of the PRC Custodian. In the event of bankruptcy or liquidation of the PRC Custodian, a Fund will not have any proprietary rights to the cash deposited in such cash account, and a Fund will become an unsecured creditor, ranking pari passu with all other unsecured creditors, of the PRC Custodian. A Fund may face difficulty and/or encounter delays in recovering such debt, or may not be able to recover it in full or at all, in which case a Fund will suffer losses.

 

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In the event of any default of either the relevant PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent or the PRC Custodian (directly or through its delegate) in the execution or settlement of any transaction or in the transfer of any funds or securities in the PRC, a Fund may encounter delays in recovering its assets which may in turn adversely impact the NAV of that Fund.

 

Currency, Capital Controls and Currency Conversion Risk. Economic conditions and political events may lead to foreign government intervention and the imposition of additional or renewed capital controls in China, which may impact the ability of a Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, and limit a Fund’s ability to pay redemptions, and cause a Fund to decline in value. Although the RMB is not presently freely convertible, there is no assurance that repatriation restrictions will not be (re-)imposed in the future. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, a Fund may lose value if the RMB depreciates against the U.S. dollar, even if the local currency value of a Fund’s holdings goes up. A Fund may also be subject to delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to RMB for the purpose of purchasing A Shares. This may hinder its performance, including because any delay could result in the Fund missing an investment opportunity and purchasing securities at a higher price than originally intended, or incurring cash drag.

 

Disclosure of Interests and Short Swing Profit Rule. The Fund may be subject to shareholder disclosure of interest regulations promulgated by the CSRC. These regulations currently require a Fund to make certain public disclosures when a Fund and parties acting in concert with a Fund acquire 5% or more of the issued securities of a listed company. If the reporting requirement is triggered, a Fund will be required to report information which includes, but is not limited to: (a) information about a Fund and the type and extent of its holdings in the company; (b) a statement of a Fund’s purposes for the investment and whether a Fund intends to increase its holdings over the following 12-month period; (c) a statement of a Fund’s historical investments in the company over the previous six months; (d) the time of, and other information relating to, the transaction that triggered a Fund’s holding in the listed company reaching the 5% reporting threshold; and (e) other information that may be required by the CSRC or the stock exchange. Additional information may be required if a Fund and its concerted parties constitute the largest shareholder or actual controlling shareholder of the listed company. The report must be made to the CSRC, the stock exchange, the invested company, and the CSRC local representative office where the listed company is located. A Fund would also be required to make a public announcement through a media outlet designated by the CSRC. The public announcement must contain the same content as the official report.

 

The relevant PRC regulations presumptively treat all affiliated investors and investors under common control as parties acting in concert. As such, under a conservative interpretation of these regulations, a Fund may be deemed as a “concert party” of other funds managed by Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates and therefore may be subject to the risk that a Fund’s holdings may be required to be reported in the aggregate with the holdings of such other funds should the aggregate holdings trigger the reporting threshold under the PRC law.

 

If the 5% shareholding threshold is triggered by a Fund and parties acting in concert with the Fund, the Fund would be required to file its report within three days of the date the threshold is reached. During the time limit for filing the report, a trading freeze applies and the Fund would not be permitted to make subsequent trades in the invested company’s securities. Any such trading freeze may impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and undermine the Fund’s performance, if a Fund would otherwise make trades during that period but is prevented from doing so by the regulation.

 

Once a Fund and parties acting in concert reach the 5% trading threshold as to any listed company, any subsequent incremental increase or decrease of 5% or more will trigger a further reporting requirement and an additional three-day trading freeze, and also an additional freeze on trading within two days of a Fund’s report and announcement of the incremental change. These trading freezes may undermine a Fund’s performance as described above. Also, Shanghai Stock Exchange requirements currently require a Fund and parties acting in concert, once they have reach the 5% threshold, to disclose whenever their shareholding drops below this threshold (even as a result of trading which is less than the 5% incremental change that would trigger a reporting requirement under the relevant CSRC regulation). CSRC regulations also contain additional disclosure (and tender offer) requirements that apply when an investor and parties acting in concert reach thresholds of 20% and greater than 30% shareholding in a company.

 

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Subject to the interpretation of PRC courts and PRC regulators, the operation of the PRC short swing profit rule may prevent a Fund from reducing its holdings in a PRC company within six months of the last purchase of shares of the company if the Fund’s holding in that company exceeds the threshold prescribed by the relevant exchange on which the PRC company’s shares are listed. If a Fund’s holdings are aggregated with other investors deemed as acting as concert parties of a Fund, a Fund will be subject to these restrictions even though it may not have caused or benefited by the activity. If a Fund violates the rule, it may be required by the listed company to return any profits realized from such trading to the listed company. In addition, the rule limits the ability of a Fund to repurchase securities of the listed company within six months of such sale. Moreover, under PRC civil procedures, a Fund’s assets may be frozen to the extent of the claims made by the company in question. These risks may greatly impair the performance of a Fund.

 

Investments in Eastern Europe. Many countries in Eastern Europe are in their infancy and are developing rapidly, but such countries may lack the social, political and economic stability of more developed countries. Emerging market countries in Europe will be significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary controls of the European Monetary Union. Changes in regulations on trade, decreasing imports or exports, changes in the exchange rate of the euro and recessions among European countries may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of other European countries including those of Eastern Europe. The markets in Eastern Europe remain relatively undeveloped and can be particularly sensitive to political and economic developments, including those relating to Russia. Additionally, the small size and inexperience of the securities markets in Eastern European countries and the limited volume of trading in securities in those markets may make the Fund’s investments in such countries illiquid or more volatile than investments in more developed countries.

 

Investments in Germany. Investment in German issuers subjects the Fund to legal, regulatory, political, currency, security, and economic risks specific to Germany. Recently, new concerns have emerged in relation to the economic health of the European Union. These concerns have led to downward pressure on the earnings of certain European issuers, including German financial services companies. Secessionist movements, such as the Catalan movement in Spain, may have an adverse effect on the German economy. The German economy is dependent to a significant extent on the economies of certain key trading partners, including the Netherlands, China, United States, United Kingdom, France, Italy and other European countries. Reduction in spending on German products and services, or changes in any of its key trading partners’ economies may have an adverse impact on the German economy. Recent developments in relations between the United States and its trading partners have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on Germany’s export industry and a commensurately negative impact on the Fund. In addition, heavy regulation of labor, energy and product markets in Germany may have an adverse impact on German issuers. Such regulations may negatively impact economic growth or cause prolonged periods of recession.

 

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Investments in Hong Kong. The Fund may invest in securities listed and traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In addition to the risks of investing in non-U.S. securities, investing in securities listed and traded in Hong Kong involves special considerations not typically associated with investing in countries with more democratic governments or more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (i) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (ii) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of war); (iii) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (iv) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (v) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (vi) higher rates of inflation; (vii) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (viii) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (ix) the risk that the Chinese government may decide not to continue to support the economic reform programs implemented since 1978 and could return to the prior, completely centrally planned, economy; (x) the fact that Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller, less seasoned and newly organized; (xi) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers, particularly in China; (xii) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (xiii) the less extensive, and still developing, regulation of the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (xiv) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (xv) the fact that the willingness and ability of the Chinese government to support the Chinese and Hong Kong economies and markets is uncertain; (xvi) the risk that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; (xvii) the rapidity and erratic nature of growth, particularly in China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations; (xviii) the risk that, because of the degree of interconnectivity between the economies and financial markets of China and Hong Kong, any sizable reduction in the demand for goods from China, or an economic downturn in China, could negatively affect the economy and financial market of Hong Kong as well; and (xix) the risk that certain companies in a Fund’s underlying index may have dealings with countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government or identified as state sponsors of terrorism.

 

Investments in Hong Kong are also subject to certain political risks. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China by the Communist Party in 1949, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations incurred by China’s predecessor governments, which obligations remain in default, and expropriated assets without compensation. There can be no assurance that the Chinese government will not take similar action in the future. An investment in a Fund involves risk of a total loss. China has committed by treaty to preserve Hong Kong’s autonomy and its economic, political and social freedoms for 50 years from the July 1, 1997 transfer of sovereignty from Great Britain to China. However, if China would exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, or is followed by political or economic disruptions, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

 

Investments in India. Foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India is usually restricted or controlled to some degree. Under normal circumstances, income, gains and initial capital with respect to such investments are freely repatriable, subject to payment of applicable Indian taxes. There can be no assurance that these investment control regimes will not change in a way that makes it more difficult or impossible for a Fund to implement its investment objective or repatriate its income, gains and initial capital from India.

 

The Indian government exercises significant influence over many aspects of the economy. Government actions, bureaucratic obstacles and inconsistent economic reform could have a significant effect on the economy and a Fund’s investments in India. There can be no assurance that the Indian government in the future, whether for purposes of managing its balance of payments or for other reasons, will not impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad or otherwise modify the exchange control regime applicable to foreign institutional investors in such a way that may adversely affect the ability of a Fund to repatriate its income and capital.

 

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Founders and their families control many Indian companies. Corporate governance standards of family-controlled companies may be weaker and less transparent, which increases the potential for loss and unequal treatment of investors. The securities market in India is substantially smaller, less liquid and significantly more volatile than the securities market in the U.S. Exchanges have also experienced problems such as temporary exchange closures, broker defaults, settlement delays and broker strikes that, if they occur again in the future, could affect the market prices and liquidity of the Indian securities in which a Fund invests. In addition, the governing bodies of the various Indian stock exchanges have from time to time imposed restrictions on trading in certain securities, limits on price movements and margin requirements. The relatively small market capitalizations of, and trading values on, the principal stock exchanges may cause a Fund’s investments in securities listed on these exchanges to be comparatively less liquid and subject to greater price volatility than comparable U.S. investments.

 

Religious, cultural and border disputes persist in India. The Indian government has confronted separatist movements in several Indian states. The longstanding dispute with Pakistan over the bordering Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir remains unresolved. If the Indian government is unable to control the violence and disruption associated with these tensions (including both domestic and external sources of terrorism), the results could destabilize the economy and, consequently, adversely affect a Fund’s investments. Both India and Pakistan have tested nuclear weapons, and the threat of deploying such weapons could hinder development of the Indian economy, and escalating tensions could impact the broader region, including China.

 

Investments in Indonesia. Indonesia is subject to a considerable degree of economic, political and social instability. Indonesia has experienced currency devaluations, substantial rates of inflation, widespread corruption and economic recessions. Indonesia is considered an emerging market, and its securities laws are unsettled. Judicial enforcement of contracts with foreign entities is inconsistent and, as a result of pervasive corruption, subject to the risk that cases will not be judged impartially. Indonesia has a history of political and military unrest and has recently experienced acts of terrorism that have targeted foreigners. Such acts of terrorism have had a negative impact on tourism, an important sector of the Indonesian economy. Additionally, Indonesia has faced violent separatist movements on the islands of Sumatra and Timor, as well as outbreaks of violence amongst religious and ethnic groups. Although the Indonesian government has recently revised policies intended to coerce cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities, a history of discrimination, official persecution, and populist violence continues to heighten the risk of economic disruption in Indonesia due to ethnic tensions. In addition, the Indonesian economy is heavily dependent on trading relationships with certain key trading partners, including China, Japan, Singapore and the United States.

 

Investment in Japan. The Japanese yen has shown volatility over the past two decades and such volatility could affect returns in the future. The yen may also be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia. Depreciation of the yen, and any other currencies in which the Fund’s securities are denominated, will decrease the value of the Fund’s holdings.

 

Japan’s growth prospects appear to be dependent on its export capabilities. Japan’s neighbors, in particular China, have become increasingly important export markets. Despite a strengthening in the economic relationship between Japan and China, the countries’ political relationship has at times been strained in recent years. Should political tension increase, it could adversely affect the economy and destabilize the region as a whole. Japan also remains heavily dependent on oil imports, and higher commodity prices could therefore have a negative impact on the economy. The natural disasters that have impacted Japan and the ongoing recovery efforts have had a negative effect on Japan’s economy. Japan has an aging population and, as a result, Japan’s workforce is shrinking. Japan’s economy may suffer if this trend continues.

 

Investments in Latin America. Latin America, including Brazil and Mexico, has long suffered from political, economic, and social instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises and defaults, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. For example, the government of Brazil imposes a tax on foreign investment in Brazilian stocks and bonds, which may affect the value of a Fund’s investments in Brazilian issuers. While some Latin American governments have experienced privatization of state-owned companies and relaxation of trade restrictions, future free-market economic reforms are uncertain, and political unrest could result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. The economies of certain Latin American countries have experienced high interest rates, economic volatility, inflation and high unemployment rates. Adverse economic events in one country may have a significant adverse effect on other Latin American countries.

 

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Commodities (such as oil, gas and minerals) represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports and many economies in this region are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. Some markets are in areas that have historically been prone to natural disasters or are economically sensitive to environmental events, and a natural disaster could have a significant adverse impact on the economies in the geographic region.

 

Many Latin American countries have high levels of debt, which may stifle economic growth, contribute to prolonged periods of recession and adversely impact a Fund’s investments. Most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. Interest on debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect local markets.

 

Investments in Middle East. Many Middle Eastern countries are prone to political turbulence, which may have an adverse impact on a Fund. Many economies in the Middle East are highly reliant on income from the sale of oil or trade with countries involved in the sale of oil, and their economies are therefore vulnerable to changes in the market for oil and foreign currency values. As global demand for oil fluctuates, many Middle Eastern economies may be significantly impacted.

 

In addition, many Middle Eastern governments have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. In certain cases, a Middle Eastern country’s government may own or control many companies, including some of the largest companies in the country. Accordingly, governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Middle Eastern countries. This could affect private sector companies and a Fund, as well as the value of securities in a Fund’s portfolio.

 

Certain Middle Eastern markets are in the earliest stages of development. As a result, there may be a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Brokers in Middle Eastern countries typically are fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in the United States.

 

The legal systems in certain Middle Eastern countries also may have an adverse impact on a Fund. For example, the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation generally is limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment. However, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain Middle Eastern countries. A Fund therefore may be liable in certain Middle Eastern countries for the acts of a corporation in which it invests for an amount greater than its actual investment in that corporation. Similarly, the rights of investors in Middle Eastern issuers may be more limited than those of shareholders of a U.S. corporation. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain or enforce a legal judgment in a Middle Eastern country. Some Middle Eastern countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities such as a Fund. For example, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investment by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular issuer. Certain Middle Eastern countries may also limit the investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals.

 

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The manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain Middle Eastern countries, as well as limitations on those investments, may have an adverse impact on the operations of a Fund. For example, in certain of these countries, a Fund may be required to invest initially through a local broker or other entity and then have the shares that were purchased re-registered in the name of a Fund. Re-registration in some instances may not be possible on a timely basis. This may result in a delay during which a Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights as to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. There also may be instances where a Fund places a purchase order but is subsequently informed, at the time of re-registration, that the permissible allocation of the investment to foreign investors has been filled.

 

Substantial limitations may exist in certain Middle Eastern countries with respect to a Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income or capital gains. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to a Fund of any restrictions on investment.

 

Certain Middle Eastern countries may be heavily dependent upon international trade and, consequently, have been and may continue to be negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade. These countries also have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by economic conditions in the countries with which they trade. In addition, certain issuers located in Middle Eastern countries in which a Fund invests may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations, and/or countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer which operates in, or has dealings with, such countries. A Fund, as an investor in such issuers, will be indirectly subject to those risks.

 

Certain Middle Eastern countries have strained relations with other Middle Eastern countries due to territorial disputes, historical animosities or defense concerns, which may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries. Certain Middle Eastern countries experience significant unemployment, as well as widespread underemployment. Recently, many Middle Eastern countries have experienced political, economic and social unrest as protestors have called for widespread reform. These protests may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries.

 

Investments in South Africa. South Africa’s two-tiered economy, with one rivaling developed countries and the other exhibiting many characteristics of developing countries, is characterized by uneven distribution of wealth and income and high rates of unemployment. This may cause civil and social unrest, which could adversely impact the South African economy. Ethnic and civil conflict could result in the abandonment of many of South Africa’s free market reforms. In addition, South Africa has experienced high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV remains a prominent health concern. Although economic reforms have been enacted to promote growth and foreign investments, there can be no assurance that these programs will achieve the desired results. South Africa’s inadequate currency reserves have left its currency vulnerable, at times, to devaluation. South Africa has privatized or has begun the process of privatization of certain entities and industries. In some instances, investors in certain newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to the inability of the newly privatized entities to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or to changing regulatory and legal standards. There is no assurance that such losses will not recur. Despite significant reform and privatization, the South African government continues to control a large share of South African economic activity. Heavy regulation of labor and product markets is pervasive and may stifle South African economic growth or cause prolonged periods of recession. The agriculture and mining sectors of South Africa’s economy account for a large portion of its exports, and thus the South African economy is susceptible to fluctuations in these commodity markets. Moreover, the South African economy is heavily dependent upon the economies of Europe, Asia (particularly Japan) and the United States. Reduction in spending by these economies on South African products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may cause an adverse impact on the South African economy. South Africa has historically experienced acts of terrorism and strained international relations related to border disputes, historical animosities, racial tensions and other defense concerns. These situations may cause uncertainty in the South African market and may adversely affect the South African economy.

 

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Investments in South Korea. The South Korean economy is heavily dependent on trading exports and on the economies of other Asian countries, especially China or Southeast Asia, and the United States as key trading partners. Distributions in trade activity, reductions in spending by these economies on South Korean products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may have an adverse impact on the South Korean economy. Furthermore, South Korea’s economy may be impacted by currency fluctuations and increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies. Finally, South Korea’s economic growth potential has recently been on a decline due to, among other factors, a rapidly aging population and structural problems.

 

Substantial tensions with North Korea may cause further uncertainty in the political and economic climate of South Korea. North and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical tensions between the two present the ongoing risk of war. Recent events involving the North Korean military have escalated tensions between North and South Korea. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries, or even the threat of an outbreak of hostilities, may have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and any investments in South Korea.

 

Investments in Taiwan. The political reunification of China and Taiwan, over which China continues to claim sovereignty, remains tense and is unlikely to be settled in the near future. China has staged frequent military drills off the coast of Taiwan and relations between China and Taiwan have been hostile at times. This continuing hostility between China and Taiwan may have an adverse impact on the values of a Fund’s investments in China or Taiwan, or make such investments impracticable or impossible. Any escalation of hostility between China and Taiwan would likely have a significant adverse impact on the value of a Fund’s investments in both countries and the region. In addition, certain Asian economies have experienced over-extension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, high unemployment, high inflation, decreased exports and economic recessions. Economic events in any one country may have a significant economic effect on the entire Asian region and any adverse events in the Asian markets may have a significant adverse effect on Taiwanese companies.

 

Taiwan’s growth has been export-driven to a significant degree. As a result, Taiwan is affected by changes in the economies of its main trading partners. If growth in the export sector declines, future growth will be increasingly reliant on domestic demand. Taiwan has limited natural resources, resulting in dependence on foreign sources for certain raw materials and vulnerability to global fluctuations of price and supply. This dependence is especially pronounced in the energy sector. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on Taiwan’s economy. A significant increase in energy prices could have an adverse impact on Taiwan’s economy.

 

Investments in United Kingdom. In a referendum held on June 23, 2016, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union (“EU”), creating economic and political uncertainty in its wake. There is considerable uncertainty as to the position of the United Kingdom and the arrangements that will apply to its relationships with the EU and other countries following its anticipated withdrawal. This uncertainty may affect other countries in the EU, or elsewhere, including issuers located in emerging market countries, if they are considered to be impacted by these events.

 

The United Kingdom has one of the largest economies in Europe, and member countries of the EU are substantial trading partners of the United Kingdom. The City of London’s economy is dominated by financial services, some of which may have to move outside of the United Kingdom post-referendum (e.g., currency trading, international settlement). Under Brexit, banks may be forced to move staff and comply with two separate sets of rules or lose business to banks in Europe. Furthermore, the referendum creates the potential for decreased trade, the possibility of capital outflows, devaluation of the pound sterling, the cost of higher corporate bond spreads due to uncertainty, and the risk that all the above could damage business and consumer spending as well as foreign direct investment. As a result of the referendum, the British economy and its currency may be negatively impacted by changes to its economic and political relations with the EU.

 

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The impact of the referendum in the near- and long-term is still unknown and could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world.

 

Currency Transactions

The Fund may enter into spot currency transactions, foreign currency forward and foreign currency futures contracts. Foreign currency forward and foreign currency futures contracts are derivatives and are subject to derivatives risk.

 

Forward Foreign Currency Contracts. A forward foreign currency exchange contract (“forward contract”) involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are principally traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no margin deposit requirement.

 

A non-deliverable forward contract is a forward contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Non-deliverable forward contracts are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make a payment to the other party (the “Counterparty”) based on the change in market value or level of a specified currency. In return, the Counterparty agrees to make payment to the first party based on the return of a different specified currency. Non-deliverable forward contracts will usually be done on a net basis, with a Fund receiving or paying only the net amount of the two payments. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each non-deliverable forward contract is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Trust’s custodian bank. The risk of loss with respect to non-deliverable forward contracts generally is limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make or receive.

 

Foreign Currency Futures Contracts. A foreign currency futures contract is a contract involving an obligation to deliver or acquire the specified amount of a specific currency, at a specified price and at a specified future time. Futures contracts may be settled on a net cash payment basis rather than by the sale and delivery of the underlying currency.

 

Currency exchange transactions involve a significant degree of risk and the markets in which currency exchange transactions are effected are highly volatile, specialized and technical. Significant changes, including changes in liquidity and prices, can occur in such markets within very short periods of time, often within minutes. Currency exchange trading risks include, but are not limited to, exchange rate risk, maturity gap, interest rate risk, and potential interference by foreign governments through regulation of local exchange markets, foreign investment or particular transactions in foreign currency. If a Fund utilizes foreign currency transactions at an inappropriate time, such transactions may not serve their intended purpose of improving the correlation of a Fund’s return with the performance of the underlying index and may lower a Fund’s return. A Fund could experience losses if the value of any currency forwards and futures positions is poorly correlated with its other investments or if it could not close out its positions because of an illiquid market. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty will default on its obligations. In addition, a Fund will incur transaction costs, including trading commissions, in connection with certain foreign currency transactions.

 

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Foreign Exchange Spot Transactions. The Fund may settle trades of holdings denominated in foreign currencies on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing rate in the foreign currency exchange market. A foreign exchange spot transaction, also known as FX spot, is an agreement between two parties to buy one currency against selling another currency at an agreed price for settlement on the spot date. The exchange rate at which the transaction is done is called the spot exchange rate. Unlike forward foreign currency exchange contracts and foreign currency futures contracts, which involve trading a particular amount of a currency pair at a predetermined price at some point in the future, the underlying currencies in a spot FX are exchanged following the settlement date.

 

Equity Securities

The Fund may invest in equity securities. Equity securities represent ownership interests in a company or partnership and consist of common stocks, preferred stocks, warrants to acquire common stock, securities convertible into common stock, and investments in master limited partnerships. Investments in equity securities in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which a Fund invests will cause the NAV of a Fund to fluctuate. Global stock markets, including the U.S. stock market, tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when stock prices generally decline. The Fund may purchase equity securities traded on exchanges or the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. The Fund may invest in the types of equity securities described in more detail below.

 

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

 

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock.

 

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption or conversion, a Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.

 

Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at a price above their “conversion value,” which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest-rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk, and are often lower-quality securities.

 

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Small and Medium Capitalization Issuers. Investing in equity securities of small and medium capitalization companies often involves greater risk than is customarily associated with investments in larger capitalization companies. This increased risk may be due to the greater business risks of smaller size, limited markets and financial resources, narrow product lines and frequent lack of depth of management. The securities of smaller companies are often traded in the OTC market and even if listed on a national securities exchange may not be traded in volumes typical for that exchange. Consequently, the securities of smaller companies are less likely to be liquid, may have limited market stability, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than securities of larger, more established growth companies or the market averages in general.

 

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

 

Rights. A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. An investment in rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.

 

Depositary Receipts. The Fund may invest in issuers located outside the United States directly, or in financial instruments that are indirectly linked to the performance of foreign issuers. Examples of such financial instruments include ADRs, Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), International Depository Receipts (“IDRs”), “ordinary shares,” and “New York shares” issued and traded in the United States. ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated receipts typically issued by U.S. banks and trust companies that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. The underlying securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. The underlying securities are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer’s home country. The depositary bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs are similar to ADRs in that they are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer, however, GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and are generally designed for use in specific or multiple securities markets outside the United States. EDRs, for example, are designed for use in European securities markets while GDRs are designed for use throughout the world. Ordinary shares are shares of foreign issuers that are traded abroad and on a U.S. exchange. New York shares are shares that a foreign issuer has allocated for trading in the United States. ADRs, ordinary shares, and New York shares all may be purchased with and sold for U.S. dollars.

 

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Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored. Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (unsponsored or sponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder’s rights and obligations and the practices of market participants. A depository may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer; typically, however, the depository requests a letter of non-objection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depository usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of non-cash distributions, and the performance of other services. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

 

Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depository and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depository, and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depository), although most sponsored depositary receipts holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositories of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions, and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer’s request.

 

Depositary receipts may be unregistered and unlisted. A Fund’s investments may also include ADRs that are not purchased in the public markets and are restricted securities that can be offered and sold only to “qualified institutional buyers” under Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Depositary receipts may become illiquid. A Fund will determine the liquidity of such investments pursuant to guidelines established by the Fund’s Board of Trustees. If adverse market conditions were to develop during the period between a Fund’s decision to sell these types of ADRs and the point at which a Fund is permitted or able to sell such security, a Fund might obtain a price less favorable than the price that prevailed when it decided to sell.

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts. The Fund may invest in the securities of real estate investment trusts (“REITs”). Risks associated with investments in securities of REITs include decline in the value of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, variations in rental income, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants, and increases in interest rates. In addition, equity REITs may be affected by changes in the values of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, may not be diversified and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are also subject to heavy cash-flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free pass-through of income and net gains under the Code and to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act. If an issuer of debt securities collateralized by real estate defaults, it is conceivable that the REITs could end up holding the underlying real estate. Because REITs have ongoing fees and expenses, which may include management, operating and administration expenses, REIT shareholders, including a Fund, will indirectly bear a proportionate share of those expenses in addition to the expenses of a Fund. However, such expenses are not considered to be Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses and, therefore, are not reflected as such in a Fund’s fee table.

 

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Privately-Issued Securities

The Fund may invest in privately-issued securities, including those that are normally purchased pursuant to Rule 144A or Regulation S under the Securities Act. Privately-issued securities typically may be resold only to “qualified institutional buyers,” in a privately negotiated transaction, to a limited number of purchasers or in limited quantities after they have been held for a specified period of time and other conditions are met for an exemption from registration. Because there may be relatively few potential purchasers for such securities, especially under adverse market or economic conditions or in the event of adverse changes in the financial condition of the issuer, the Fund may find it more difficult to sell such securities when it may be advisable to do so or it may be able to sell such securities only at prices lower than if such securities were more widely held and traded. At times, it also may be more difficult to determine the fair value of such securities for purposes of computing the Fund’s NAV due to the absence of an active trading market. There can be no assurance that a privately-issued security that is deemed to be liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid for as long as it is held by the Fund, and its value may decline as a result.

 

Derivatives

The Fund may use derivative instruments as part of their investment strategies. Generally, derivatives are financial contracts the value of which depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index, and may relate to bonds, interest rates, currencies, commodities, and related indexes. Examples of derivative instruments include forward currency contracts, currency and interest rate swaps, currency options, futures contracts, including index futures, options on futures contracts, structured notes, and swap contracts. A Fund’s use of derivative instruments will be collateralized by investments in short term, high-quality U.S. money market securities.

 

With respect to certain kinds of derivative transactions entered into by a Fund that involve obligations to make future payments to third parties, including, but not limited to, futures contracts, forward contracts, swap contracts, the purchase of securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, or reverse repurchase agreements, under applicable federal securities laws, rules, and interpretations thereof, a Fund must “set aside” (referred to sometimes as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other measures to “cover” open positions with respect to such transactions. For example, with respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are not contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund must cover its open positions by setting aside liquid assets equal to the contracts’ full, notional value, except that deliverable forward contracts for currencies that are liquid will be treated as the equivalent of “cash-settled” contracts. As such, a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation (i.e., a Fund’s daily net liability if any) rather than the full notional amount under such deliverable forward foreign currency exchange contracts. With respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation rather than the notional value. Because a Fund may enter into (or “open”) certain derivatives contracts with an initial investment that is less than the notional value of the contract, such contracts provide inherent economic leverage equal to the difference between the initial investment requirement (also known as initial margin requirement) and the notional value of the contract. A Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future consistent with applicable law. A Fund’s use of derivatives may be limited by the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal tax purposes.

 

To the extent the Fund transacts in commodity interests (e.g., futures contracts, swap agreements, non-deliverable forward contracts), it will do so only in accordance with Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). Krane, on behalf of the Fund, has filed or will file a notice of eligibility for exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” in accordance with Rule 4.5 so that it is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”).

 

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Swap Contracts. The Fund may enter into swap contracts, including interest rate swaps and currency swaps. A typical interest rate swap involves the exchange of a floating interest rate payment for a fixed interest payment. A typical foreign currency swap involves the exchange of cash flows based on the notional differences among two or more currencies. Swap contracts may be used to hedge or achieve exposure to, for example, currencies, interest rates, and money market securities without actually purchasing such currencies or securities. A Fund may also use swap contracts to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of the underlying securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Swap contracts will tend to shift a Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another or from one payment stream to another. Depending on their structure, swap contracts may increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates (in the United States or abroad), foreign currencies, corporate borrowing rates, or other factors, and may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a Fund’s investments and its share price.

 

Futures, Options and Options on Futures Contracts. The Fund may enter into U.S. or foreign futures contracts, options and options on futures contracts. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, it agrees to purchase a specified underlying instrument at a specified future date. When a Fund sells a futures contract, it agrees to sell the underlying instrument at a specified future date. The price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when a Fund enters into the contract. Futures can be held until their delivery dates, or can be closed out before then if a liquid secondary market is available.

 

The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit.

 

Utilization of futures and options on futures by a Fund involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to the underlying index if the index underlying the futures contract differs from the underlying index. There is also the risk of loss by a Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom a Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option. The purchase of put or call options will be based upon predictions by a Fund as to anticipated trends, which predictions could prove to be incorrect.

 

The potential for loss related to the purchase of an option on a futures contract is limited to the premium paid for the option plus transaction costs. Because the value of the option is fixed at the point of sale, there are no daily cash payments by the purchaser to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option changes daily and that change would be reflected in the NAV of a Fund. The potential for loss related to writing options is unlimited.

 

Cover. Transactions using derivative instruments, other than purchased options, expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (1) an offsetting (“covered”) position in securities or other options or futures contracts or (2) cash and liquid assets with a value, marked-to-market daily, sufficient to cover its potential obligations to the extent not covered as provided in (1) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for these instruments and will, if the guidelines so require, set aside cash or liquid assets in an account with its custodian, in the prescribed amount as determined daily.

 

Assets used as cover or held in an account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding derivative instrument is open, unless they are replaced with other appropriate assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of the Fund’s assets to cover or accounts could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

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Structured Notes and Securities. The Fund may invest in structured instruments, including, without limitation, participation notes, certificates and warrants and other types of notes on which the amount of principal repayment and interest payments are based on the movement of one or more specified factors, such as the movement of a particular stock or stock index. Structured instruments may be derived from or based on a single security or securities, an index, a commodity, debt issuance or a foreign currency (a “reference”), and their interest rate or principal may be determined by an unrelated indicator. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the reference may produce an increase or a decrease in the value of the structured security at maturity, or in the interest rate of the structured security. Structured securities may entail a greater degree of risk than other types of securities because a Fund bears the risk of the reference in addition to the risk that the counterparty to the structured security will be unable or unwilling to fulfill its obligations under the structured security to a Fund when due. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received in connection with a structured security in the event of the default or bankruptcy of the counterparty to the structured security. Structured securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

 

Exchange-Traded Notes

The Fund may invest in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). ETNs are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market benchmark or strategy, minus applicable fees. ETNs are traded on an exchange (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”)) during normal trading hours; however, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments or provide principal protection. ETNs are subject to credit risk, including the credit risk of the issuer, and the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying asset. When the Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. A decision by the Fund to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.

 

ETNs are also subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the IRS will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund characterizes and treats ETNs for tax purposes.

 

An ETN that is tied to a specific market benchmark or strategy may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market benchmark or strategy. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form.

 

The market value of ETNs may differ from their market benchmark or strategy. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities, commodities or other components underlying the market benchmark or strategy that the ETN seeks to track. As a result, there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount to its market benchmark or strategy.

 

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Investments in Other Investment Companies

The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, or any rule, regulation or order of the SEC or interpretation thereof. Generally, a Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that a Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of a Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of a Fund. Section 12(d)(1)(B) prohibits another investment company from selling its shares to a Fund if, after the sale (i) a Fund owns more than 3% of the other investment company’s voting stock or (ii) a Fund and other investment companies, and companies controlled by them, own more than 10% of the voting stock of such other investment company. In addition, the Fund will not purchase a security issued by a closed-end fund if after such purchase the Fund and any other investment companies with the same investment adviser would own more than 10% of the voting shares of the closed-end investment company.

 

A Fund, however, may invest in the securities of an acquired company provided that immediately after such purchase or acquisition not more than 3% of the total outstanding stock of such issuer is owned by a Fund and all affiliated persons of a Fund. In addition, subject to certain conditions, a Fund may invest in acquired funds in the “same group of investment companies” (“affiliated funds”), government securities and short-term paper, as well as: (1) unaffiliated investment companies (subject to certain limits), (2) other types of securities (such as stocks, bonds and other securities) not issued by an investment company that are consistent with the fund of fund’s investment policies, (3) affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds, and (4) derivatives. Further, a Fund may rely on other investment companies’ exemptive relief, if any, to invest in such companies’ shares in excess of the Section 12(d)(1)(A) limits.

 

The SEC has proposed revisions to the rules permitting funds to invest in other investment companies, which could dramatically change how funds of funds operate and limit their investments. The SEC has also proposed rescinding most prior exemptive orders permitting Funds of Funds arrangements and certain Fund of Fund rules and SEC staff guidance. The proposed revisions and the related rescissions could alter the operation of Funds of Funds by limiting their investments in unaffiliated funds and direct investments, and potentially imposing restrictions on their ability to redeem the investment company shares they hold.

 

If a Fund invests in, and thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, a Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear a Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by a Fund to a Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with a Fund’s own operations.

 

Consistent with the restrictions discussed above, a Fund may invest in several different types of investment companies from time to time, including mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds, foreign investment companies and business development companies (“BDCs”). For example, a Fund may elect to invest in another investment company when such an investment presents a more efficient investment option than buying securities individually. A Fund also may invest in investment companies that are included as components of an index, such as BDCs, to seek to track the performance of that index. A BDC is a less common type of closed-end investment company that more closely resembles an operating company than a typical investment company. BDCs generally focus on investing in, and providing managerial assistance to, small, developing, financially troubled, private companies or other companies that may have value that can be realized over time and with management assistance. Similar to an operating company, a BDC’s total annual operating expense ratio typically reflects all of the operating expenses incurred by the BDC, and is generally greater than the total annual operating expense ratio of a mutual fund that does not bear the same types of operating expenses.

 

The main risk of investing in other investment companies is that a Fund will be exposed to the risks of the investments held by the other investment companies. The market prices of ETFs will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the market value of their underlying portfolio securities and due to supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded (which may result in their trading at a discount or premium to their NAVs). Index-based investment companies may not replicate exactly the performance of their specific index because of transaction costs, and because of the temporary unavailability of certain component securities of the index, or strategy used to track the index.

 

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Krane and a sub-adviser are subject to a conflict of interest in allocating a Fund’s assets to investment companies from which they or their affiliates receive compensation or other benefits.

 

Tracking Error

The Fund may experience tracking error. A number of factors may contribute to the Fund’s tracking error. For example, the following factors may affect the ability of the Fund to achieve correlation with the performance of the underlying index: (1) Fund expenses, including brokerage (which may be increased by high portfolio turnover); (2) fluctuations in currency exchange rates; (3) holding less than all of the securities in the underlying index and/or securities not included in the underlying index; (4) an imperfect correlation between the performance of instruments held by the Fund, such as swaps, futures contracts and options, and the performance of the underlying securities in the market; (5) bid-ask spreads (the effect of which may be increased by portfolio turnover); (6) the Fund holding instruments traded in a market that has become illiquid or disrupted; (7) Fund share prices being rounded to the nearest cent; (8) changes to the underlying index that are not disseminated in advance; (9) the need to conform the Fund’s portfolio holdings to comply with investment restrictions or policies or regulatory or tax law requirements; (10) the time difference between the close of the foreign market on which foreign securities are traded and the time the Fund prices its shares; or (11) early or unanticipated closings of the markets on which the holdings of the Fund trade, resulting in the inability of the Fund to execute intended portfolio transactions. To the extent the Fund engages in fair value pricing, the day-to-day correlation of the Fund’s performance may tend to vary from the closing performance of the underlying index.

 

Borrowing

The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Borrowing for investment purposes is a form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique that increases investment risk. Because substantially all of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV of a Fund will increase more when a Fund’s portfolio assets increase in value and decrease more when a Fund’s portfolio assets decrease in value than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit, which would further increase the cost of borrowing. Under adverse conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales.

 

Although it has not entered into any sort of credit facility, a Fund may borrow money to facilitate management of a Fund’s portfolio by enabling a Fund to meet redemption requests when the liquidation of portfolio instruments would be inconvenient or disadvantageous, and for temporary or emergency purposes, such as trade settlements and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain the Fund’s status as a RIC. In this regard, a Fund may enter into a credit facility to borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes, including the funding of shareholder redemption requests, trade settlements, and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain a Fund’s status as a RIC. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by a Fund promptly. As required by the 1940 Act, a Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If, at any time, the value of a Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, a Fund, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays), will reduce the amount of a Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations otherwise indicate that it would be disadvantageous to do so.

 

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In addition to the foregoing, the Fund are authorized to borrow money for extraordinary or emergency purposes. Borrowings for extraordinary or emergency purposes are not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. While the Fund does not anticipate doing so, the Fund is authorized to pledge (i.e., transfer a security interest in) portfolio securities in an amount up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets in connection with any borrowing.

 

Bank Deposits and Obligations

The Fund may invest in deposits and other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions. Deposits and obligations of banks and financial institutions include certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances. Certificates of deposit and time deposits represent an institution’s obligation to repay funds deposited with it that earn a specified interest rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates, while time deposits are non-negotiable deposits. A banker’s acceptance is a time draft drawn on and accepted by a bank that becomes a primary and unconditional liability of the bank upon acceptance. Investments in obligations of non-U.S. banks and financial institutions may involve risks that are different from investments in obligations of U.S. banks. These risks include future unfavorable political and economic developments, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held in a Fund. All investments in deposits and other obligations are subject to credit risk, which is the risk that a Fund may lose its investments in these instruments if, for example, the issuing financial institution collapses and is unable to meet its obligations. This risk is more acute for investments in deposits and other obligations that are not insured by a government or private entity. For a discussion of the risks of a Fund holding cash in mainland China, please see the “PRC Custodian and Dealer/Settlement Agent” section above.

 

Illiquid Securities

The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments. An illiquid investment is any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. The liquidity of an investment will be determined based on relevant market, trading and investment specific considerations as set forth in the Funds’ liquidity risk management program (the “Liquidity Program”) as required by Rule 22e-4 under the 1940 Act (the “Liquidity Rule”). Illiquid investments may trade at a discount to comparable, more liquid investments and a Fund may not be able to dispose of illiquid investments in a timely fashion or at their expected prices. If illiquid investments exceed 15% of a Fund’s net assets (including, for example, because of changes in the market value of its investments or because of redemptions), the Liquidity Rule and the Liquidity Program will require that certain remedial actions be taken. A Fund may not acquire illiquid investments if, immediately after the acquisition, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be illiquid investments.

 

Portfolio Turnover

In general, Krane or a sub-adviser manages the Fund without regard to restrictions on portfolio turnover. The Fund’s investment strategies, however, may produce high portfolio turnover rates. To the extent a Fund invests in derivative or other short-term instruments, the instruments generally will have short-term maturities and, thus, be excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover. The value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of a Fund’s shares also is excluded from the calculation of the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. As a result, a Fund’s reported portfolio turnover may be low despite relatively high portfolio activity which would, in turn, produce correspondingly greater expenses for a Fund, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestments in other securities. Generally, the higher the rate of portfolio turnover of a fund, the higher these transaction costs borne by a fund and its long-term shareholders. Such sales may result in the realization of taxable capital gains (including short-term capital gains, which, when distributed, are generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates) for certain taxable shareholders.

 

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“Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the lesser of the value of the securities purchased or of the securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at the time of acquisition were one-year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with a remaining maturity of less than one-year are excluded from the calculation of the portfolio turnover rate. Instruments excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover may include commercial paper, futures contracts and option contracts because they generally have a remaining maturity of less than one-year.

 

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements. A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which a Fund purchases securities or other obligations from a bank or securities dealer (or its affiliate) and simultaneously commits to resell them to a counterparty at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased obligations. A Fund maintains custody of the underlying obligations prior to their repurchase, either through its regular custodian or through a special “triparty” custodian or sub-custodian that maintains separate accounts for both a Fund and its counterparty. Thus, the obligation of the counterparty to pay the repurchase price on the date agreed to or upon demand is, in effect, secured by such obligations.

 

Repurchase agreements carry certain risks not associated with direct investments in securities, including a possible decline in the market value of the underlying obligations. If their value becomes less than the repurchase price, plus any agreed-upon additional amount, the counterparty must provide additional collateral so that at all times the collateral is at least equal to the repurchase price plus any agreed-upon additional amount. The difference between the total amount to be received upon repurchase of the obligations and the price that was paid by a Fund upon acquisition is accrued as interest and included in its net investment income. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. government securities (such as commercial paper and corporate bonds) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. If the seller or guarantor becomes insolvent, a Fund may suffer delays, costs and possible losses in connection with the disposition of collateral.

 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by a Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to a Fund’s limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust’s custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked to market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement.

 

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by the Fund might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.

 

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Lending of Portfolio Securities

The Fund may lend securities from its portfolio to brokers, dealers and other financial institutions. In connection with such loans, the Fund remains the beneficial owner of the loaned securities and continues to be entitled to payments in amounts approximately equal to the interest, dividends or other distributions payable on the loaned securities. The Fund also has the right to terminate a loan at any time. The Fund does not have the right to vote on securities while they are on loan. Loans of portfolio securities will not exceed 33 1/3% of the value of the Fund’s total assets (including the value of all assets received as collateral for the loan). The Fund will receive collateral in an amount equal to at least 100% of the current market value of the loaned securities. If the collateral consists of cash, the Fund will reinvest the cash and pay the borrower a pre-negotiated fee or “rebate” from any return earned on the investment. Should the borrower of the securities fail financially, the Fund may experience delays or trouble in recovering the loaned securities or exercising its rights in the collateral. In a loan transaction, the Fund will also bear the risk of any decline in value of securities acquired with cash collateral. Krane and a sub-adviser are subject to potential conflicts of interest because the compensation paid to them increases in connection with any net income received by a Fund from a securities lending program.

 

Cyber-Security Risk

The Fund, and its service providers, may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its advisors, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact a Fund. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject a Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. A Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. While a Fund’s service providers have established business continuity plans, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, a Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect a Fund or its shareholders. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issues or securities in which a Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause a Fund’s investment in such companies to lose value.

 

INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS

 

Unless otherwise noted, whenever a fundamental investment policy or limitation states that a maximum percentage of a Fund’s assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding quality standards, such standard or percentage limitation will be determined immediately after and as a result of a Fund’s acquisition of such security or other asset. Accordingly, other than with respect to a Fund’s limitations on borrowings, any subsequent change in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with a Fund’s investment policies and limitations.

 

Fundamental Policies

The investment limitations below are fundamental policies of the Fund, and cannot be changed without the consent of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares. The term “majority of the outstanding shares” means the vote of (i) 67% or more of the Fund’s shares present at a meeting, if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding shares, whichever is less.

 

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The Fund may not:

 

1.Issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief.

 

2.Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief.

 

3.Act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act in the disposition of portfolio securities.

 

4.Purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, or any non-U.S. government, or their respective agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry (excluding investment companies) or group of industries, except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of the same industry to approximately the same extent that the Underlying Index concentrates in the securities of a particular industry or group of industries.

 

5.Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business).

 

6.Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options, futures contracts, forward contracts, swaps and other financial instruments or from investing in issuers engaged in the commodities business or securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).

 

7.Lend any security or make any other loan except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief. This limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities or to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments permissible under the Fund’s investment policies.

 

CONTINUOUS OFFERING

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by a Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Fund’s Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares, and sells such shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act.

 

33 

 

 

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

 

Board Responsibilities

The Board of Trustees is responsible for overseeing the management and affairs of the Fund and the Trust. The Board considers and approves contracts, as described herein, under which certain companies provide essential management and administrative services to the Trust. Like most ETFs, the day-to-day business of the Trust, including the day-to-day management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as Krane, a sub-adviser where applicable, the Distributor and the Administrator (as defined below). The Board oversees the Trust’s service providers and overall risk management. Risk management seeks to identify and eliminate or mitigate the potential effects of risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Trust or a Fund. Under the overall supervision of the Board and the Audit Committee (discussed in more detail below), the service providers to the Fund employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify risks relevant to the operations of the Trust and a Fund to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., Krane is responsible for the oversight of a sub-adviser) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that activity.

 

Consistent with its responsibility for oversight of the Trust and the Fund, the Board oversees the management of risks relating to the administration and operations of the Trust and the Fund. Krane, as part of its responsibilities for the day-to-day operations of the Fund, is responsible for day-to-day risk management for the Fund. The Board performs its risk management oversight directly and, as to certain matters, through its committees. The following provides an overview of the principal, but not all, aspects of the Board’s oversight of risk management for the Trust and the Fund.

 

In general, the Fund’s risks include, among others, investment risk, liquidity risk, valuation risk and operational risk. The Fund’s service providers, including Krane, are responsible for adopting policies, procedures and controls designed to address various risks within their purview. Further, Krane is responsible for overseeing and monitoring the investments and operations of each sub-adviser. The Board also oversees risk management for the Trust and the Fund through review of regular reports, presentations and other information from officers of the Trust and other persons. In addition to reports from Krane, the Board also receives reports regarding other service providers to the Trust on a periodic or regular basis.

 

The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent and quality of the Fund services provided to the Fund by Krane and any sub-adviser and receives information from them on a periodic basis. In connection with its consideration of whether to approve and/or renew the advisory agreements with Krane and any sub-adviser, the Board will request information allowing the Board to review such services. The Board also receives reports related to Krane’s and any sub-adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with the stated policies of a Fund. In addition, the Board regularly receives information about the Fund’s performance and investments.

 

The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer meets regularly with the Board to review and discuss compliance and other issues. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and any sub-adviser. The report generally seeks to address: the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and material compliance matters since the date of the last report.

 

34 

 

 

The Board normally also receives reports from the Trust’s service providers regarding Fund operations, portfolio valuation and other matters. Annually, an independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Trust’s financial statements, focusing on certain areas of risk to the Trust and the Trust’s internal controls.

 

The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect a Fund can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, despite the periodic reports the Board receives and the Board’s discussions with the service providers to a Fund, it may not be made aware of all relevant information about certain risks. Most of the Trust’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through Krane and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Trust’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to substantial limitations.

 

Members of the Board and Officers of the Trust

Set forth below are the names, years of birth, position with the Trust, term of office, the principal occupations for a minimum of the last five years, number of portfolios overseen by, and other directorships of each of the persons currently serving as members of the Board and as Executive Officers of the Trust. Also included below is the term of office for each of the Executive Officers of the Trust. The members of the Board serve as Trustees for the life of the Trust or until retirement, removal, or their office is terminated pursuant to the Trust’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust.

 

The Chairman of the Board, Jonathan Krane, is an interested person of the Trust as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. No single Independent Trustee serves as a lead Independent Trustee. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics the Trust and its operations. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust (i.e., “Independent Trustees”) constitute at least fifty percent (50%) of the Board, the fact that the Audit Committee is composed of the Independent Trustees, and the number of funds (and classes of shares) overseen by the Board.

 

Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years
Interested Trustee

Jonathan Krane*

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Trustee and Chairman of the Board, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Chief Executive Officer of CICC Wealth Management (USA) LLC from 2018 to present.  Principal of KFA One Holdings LLC from 2017 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [23] None

 

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Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees

Patrick P. Campo

(1970)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2017 From 2013 to present, Director of Long Short Equity, Titan Advisors; from 2009 to 2013, Director of Hedge Fund Research, Alternative Investment Management, LLC. [23] None

John Ferguson

(1966)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Operating Officer of Shrewsbury River Capital from 2017 to present. Chief Operating Officer of Kang Global Investors LP (hedge fund adviser) from 2014 to 2016. President of Alden Global Capital, LLC (hedge fund adviser) from 2012 to 2014 (formerly, Chief Operating Officer from 2011 to 2012). Senior Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer of K2 Advisors, L.L.C. from 2005 to 2011.   [23] None

Matthew Stroyman

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Co-Founder, President and Chief Operating Officer of Arcturus (real estate asset and investment management services firm) from 2007 to present. [23] None

 

36 

 

 

Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

 

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years
Officers

Jonathan Krane

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Chief Executive Officer of CICC Wealth Management (USA) LLC from 2018 to present.  Principal of KFA One Holdings LLC from 2017 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [23] None

Jennifer Tarleton (formerly Krane)

(1966)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Vice President and Secretary, No set term; served since 2012 Vice President of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011.  Sole Practitioner of Jennifer Krane, Esq. from 2001 to 2009. [23] None

Michael Quain

(1957)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

 

Chief Compliance Officer and Anti-Money Laundering Officer, No Set Term; served since 2015 Principal/President of Quain Compliance Consulting, LLC from 2014 to present. First Vice President of Aberdeen Asset Management Inc. from May 2013 to September 2013. First Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of Artio Global Management, LLC from 2004 to 2013. [23] None

James Hoffmayer

(1973)

SEI Investments Company

One Freedom Valley Drive

Oaks, PA 19456

Assistant Treasurer, No set term; served since 2017 Controller and Chief Financial Officer of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2016 to present.  Senior Director, Funds Accounting and Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from September 2016 to present.  Senior Director of Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2014 to present.  Director of Financial Reporting of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2004 to 2014. [23] None

Jonathan Shelon

(1974)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

Assistant Secretary, No set term; served since 2019 Chief Operating Officer, Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2015 to present.  Chief Operating Officer, CICC Wealth Management (USA) LLC from 2018 to present.  Chief Investment Officer of Specialized Strategies, J.P. Morgan from 2011 to 2015.   [23] None

 

*Mr. Krane is an “interested” person of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, by virtue of his ownership and controlling interest in Krane.

 

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Board Standing Committees

The Board has established the following standing committees:

 

Audit Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Audit Committee (the “Audit Committee”) and Mr. Ferguson is the Chairman of the Audit Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee are the appointment, compensation and oversight of the Trust’s independent auditors, including the review of any significant disputes regarding financial reporting between Trust management and such independent auditors. Under the terms of the Audit Committee charter adopted by the Board, the Audit Committee is authorized to, among other things, (i) oversee the accounting and financial reporting processes of the Trust and its internal control over financial reporting; (ii) oversee the quality and integrity of a Fund’s financial statements and the independent audits thereof; (iii) oversee, or, as appropriate, assist Board oversight of, the Trust’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements that relate to the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting, internal control over financial reporting and independent audits; (iv) approve, prior to appointment, the engagement of the Trust’s independent auditors and, in connection therewith, review and evaluate the qualifications, independence and performance of the Trust’s independent auditors; and (v) act as a liaison between the Trust’s independent auditors and the full Board. The Board of the Trust has adopted a written charter for the Audit Committee. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Audit Committee held five meetings.

 

The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust.  The function of the QLCC is to receive, review and recommend resolution with respect to any report made or referred to the QLCC by an attorney of evidence of a material violation of applicable U.S. federal or state securities law, material breach of a fiduciary duty under U.S. federal or state law or a similar material violation by the Trust or by any officer, trustee, employee, or agent of the Trust. The QLCC meets as needed.

 

Nominating Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Nominating Committee and Mr. Stroyman is the Chairman of the Nominating Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Nominating Committee are to (i) identify, select and nominate the appropriate number of candidates for election or appointment as members of the Board and (ii) recommend any appropriate changes to the Board for consideration. The Nominating Committee is solely responsible for the selection and nomination of the Trust’s Independent Trustees and does not consider nominations for the office of Trustee made by Trust stockholders. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Nominating Committee held two meetings.

 

38 

 

 

Individual Trustee Qualifications

The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of his ability to review and understand information about the Trust and the Fund provided by management, to identify and request other information he may deem relevant to the performance of the Trustees’ duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of a Fund, and to exercise his business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of a Fund’s shareholders. The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Krane should serve as Trustee because of his knowledge of, and the executive positions he holds or has held in, the financial services industry. Specifically, Mr. Krane currently serves as Chief Executive Officer of the Adviser and Chief Executive Officer of CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC. Mr. Krane contributes expertise and institutional knowledge relating to the structure of the “Krane” organization and the way that the “Krane” business operates. Mr. Krane also served as Chief Executive Officer of the China division of a multinational company, where he gained valuable experience in managing a business and critical knowledge of business and investment opportunities in China. In addition, he has served on the boards of different corporations and, in doing so, has first-hand knowledge of the fiduciary duties and responsibilities bestowed upon trustees and directors. Mr. Krane’s experience as serving as Chief Executive Officer for multiple businesses in the financial services industry, his familiarity with the “Krane” complex, and his experience in serving on the boards of various companies qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Patrick Campo should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the investment management industry over many years. In particular, Mr. Campo currently serves as the director of certain investment strategies managed by an investment adviser and contributes to the portfolio construction process for all products offered by that investment adviser. In addition, Mr. Campo previously served as partner and head of research for another investment adviser. The knowledge Mr. Campo has gained over these years working in the investment management industry and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Ferguson should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and legal industries over the years. In particular, Mr. Ferguson has extensive experience in managing global investment adviser firms, including the management, creation and success of hedge funds. Prior to that, Mr. Ferguson served as a corporate securities and tax attorney assisting and counseling clients with the organization and creation of both domestic and offshore funds. In addition, Mr. Ferguson has served as an officer for two registered investment companies and, in doing so, has gained experience and knowledge regarding the mutual fund industry. Mr. Ferguson’s experience in the financial services, fund and legal industries and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms, qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Stroyman should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and real estate industries. Working as an investment banker early in his career, Mr. Stroyman developed a strong base of knowledge regarding corporate finance, structuring, public and private securities, and company valuations. Through his work in the real estate industry and relationships with large investment management firms, Mr. Stroyman has gained an understanding of sophisticated financial products. He has advised institutional clients including pension funds, endowments and other qualified investors in asset management, risk assessment, and repositioning and disposition of underperforming assets. The knowledge Mr. Stroyman has gained over the years working in the financial services and real estate industries and his value and understanding of fiduciary duties and responsibilities qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

39 

 

 

As of March 31, 2019, none of the Independent Trustees or members of their immediate family, beneficially owned or owned of record securities representing interests in Krane, any sub-adviser or distributor of the Trust, or any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such persons. For this purpose, “immediate family member” includes an Independent Trustee’s spouse, children residing in the same household and dependents of the Independent Trustee.

 

Fund Shares Owned by Board Members

The Fund is new and, therefore, as of the date of this SAI, none of the Trustees beneficially owned shares of the Fund. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the Trustees beneficially owned the following amounts of shares of other series of the Trust:

 

 Trustee Funds Aggregate 
Dollar 
Range of 
Beneficial 
Ownership 
of Funds
Patrick Campo None None
John Ferguson None None
Jonathan Krane KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF $10,001-$50,000
KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF $10,001-$50,000
Matthew Stroyman KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF $1-$10,000
KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF $1-$10,000

 “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.

 

Board Compensation

Trustees who are “interested persons” of Krane are not compensated by the Trust for their service as a Trustee. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019: (a) Mr. Campo received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $50,000; (b) Mr. Ferguson received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $65,000; and (c) Mr. Stroyman received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $65,000. None of the Trustees accrued or received any retirement or pension benefits.

 

For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2020, it is expected that the Trustees will receive compensation from the Trust in the amount of $50,000.00 per year and the Chairmen of the Audit Committee and Nominating Committee will each receive an additional $15,000. The Fund bears a proportionate share of Trustee compensation and expenses based on its relative net assets.

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane’ or “Adviser’) serves as investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane (the “Advisory Agreement”). Krane is a Delaware limited liability company registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). Krane’s offices are located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

40 

 

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing a Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. As part of the Advisory Agreement, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect a Fund.

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund. In addition, under the Advisory Agreement, as compensation for the services provided by Krane in connection with any securities lending-related activities, the Fund pays Krane 10% of the monthly investment income received from the investment of cash collateral and loan fees received from borrowers in respect of securities loans (net of any amounts paid to the custodian and/or securities lending agent or rebated to borrowers).

 

KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF 0.45%

 

In addition to the above-described services, to the extent the Fund engages in securities lending, Krane will: (i) determine which securities are available for loan and notify the securities lending agent for the Fund (the “Agent”), (ii) monitor the Agent’s activities to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with Krane’s instructions and in accordance with applicable procedures and guidelines adopted by the Board, (iii) make recommendations to the Board regarding the Fund’s participation in securities lending; (iv) prepare appropriate periodic reports for, and seek appropriate periodic approvals from, the Board with respect to securities lending activities; (v) respond to Agent inquiries concerning Agent’s activities; and (vi) such other related duties as Krane deems necessary or appropriate. In addition, Krane may provide additional securities lending-related services as requested by the Trustees from time to time.

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, while the fees and expenses related to the Fund’s securities lending-related activities reduce the revenues and income of the Fund from such activities, they are not fees and expenses for which Krane is responsible.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Krane did not receive any advisory fees or fees from securities lending activities from those Funds during the prior three fiscal years.

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in effect for two years from its initial effective date, and thereafter is subject to annual approval by (i) the Board of Trustees of the Trust or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, provided that in either event such continuance also is approved by a vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund. If the shareholders of a Fund fail to approve the Advisory Agreement, Krane may continue to serve in the manner and to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and rules and regulations thereunder.

 

41 

 

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to a Fund is terminable without any penalty, by vote of the Board of Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund, or by Krane, in each case on not less than sixty (60) days’ prior written notice to the other party; provided that a shorter notice period shall be permitted for a Fund in the event its shares are no longer listed on a national securities exchange or in such other circumstances where a Fund waives such notice period. The Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically and immediately in the event of its “assignment” (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2019, Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 46.2% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

Krane has received “manager of managers” exemptive relief from the SEC that permits Krane, subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, to appoint a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser, as defined in the exemptive relief, or to change the terms of an sub-advisory agreement with a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser without first obtaining shareholder approval. The exemptive order further permits Krane to add or to change a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser or to change the fees paid to such parties from time to time without the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approval of the change and to disclose sub-advisers’ fees only in the aggregate in its registration statement. Any increase in the aggregate advisory fee paid by any Fund remains subject to shareholder approval. Krane continues to have ultimate responsibility (subject to oversight by the Board of Trustees) to oversee the sub-advisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. The Fund will notify shareholders of any change of a Fund sub-adviser.

 

SUB-ADVISER

 

SkyRock Investment Management, LLC (“SkyRock”) serves as the sub-adviser to the Fund. SkyRock is a North Carolina limited liability company and its offices are located at 507 Marlowe Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27609.

 

[SkyRock was established in 2019 and, as of the date of this SAI, provides advisory services to only the Fund. Krane has entered into a Sub-Advisory Agreement with SkyRock pursuant to which Krane has agreed to pay SkyRock thirty percent (30%) of the sum of: (i) the total gross advisory fee due to Krane from the Fund under the terms of the Advisory Agreement minus (ii) any applicable fee waivers from time to time entered into between the Fund and Krane. Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Krane did not pay any subadvisory fees to SkyRock during the prior three fiscal years.

 

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The SkyRock Sub-Advisory Agreement will automatically terminate if assigned, and may be terminated without penalty at any time by at any time: (1) by Krane upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to SkyRock; (2) by a vote of a majority of the Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund upon (60) days’ written notice to SkyRock; (3) by SkyRock upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Board and Krane; or immediately upon written notice by Krane or SkyRock if (A) the license, approval, authorization or consent held by Krane or SkyRock which is required for the performance of its obligations under the Sub-Advisory Agreement and which has been granted or given by any relevant regulatory authority, is terminated or suspended; (B) Krane or SkyRock commits a material breach of the Sub-Advisory Agreement that is uncured within thirty (30) days of notice; (C) any step is taken with a view to the winding up, bankruptcy or administration of Krane or SkyRock; (D) any adverse finding is made in respect of, or official sanction imposed on, Krane or SkyRock by any relevant regulatory authority which would be likely to affect its ability to perform its obligations under the Agreement; or (E) a relevant regulatory authority has held, or is likely to hold, Krane or SkyRock to be in breach of any regulatory or other duties in relation to the Sub-Advisory Agreement. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue in effect provided that annually such continuance is specifically approved by a vote of the Trustees, including the affirmative votes of a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Advisory Agreement or “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party or by the vote of shareholders.]

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGER

 

Braxton Wall, Managing Member, Principal, Portfolio Manager and Chief Compliance Officer of SkyRock, has served as the portfolio manager of the Fund since its commencement of operations. Mr. Wall has 11 years of experience in fixed income trading and is an owner and registered representative of Falcon Square, a broker-dealer specializing in fixed-income trading. At Falcon Square he covers institutional fixed income accounts specializing in high yield and investment grade corporate bonds, municipal bonds, agencies, and CMBS. Prior to Falcon Square, Mr. Wall worked at Carolina Capital Markets (2008-2013) in institutional fixed income sales & trading and supervised the Office of Supervisory Jurisdiction (OSJ) for the firm’s Raleigh branch. Mr. Wall received a B.A. of Economics from the University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill in 2008. He holds Series 7, 24, 53, and 63 licenses.

 

Portfolio Manager Fund Ownership. The Fund is required to show the dollar range of the portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of shares of the Fund as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. The Fund had not yet commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. Therefore, Mr. Wall did not beneficially own any shares of the Fund as of that date.

 

Other Accounts. As of the date of this SAI, the portfolio manager was not responsible for the day-to-day management of any other accounts.

 

Portfolio Manager Compensation

 

The portfolio manager is compensated through the net profits of SkyRock. There currently is no incentive for the portfolio manager to favor another account over the Fund as the Fund is the only advisory client of SkyRock as of the date of this SAI. In addition, the potential conflicts of interest arising with respect to the portfolio manager’s compensation are relatively limited because the Fund seeks to track the performance of the underlying index, which makes it unlikely, but not impossible, that the portfolio manager would take undue risks in investing the Fund’s assets to increase performance.

 

Description of Material Conflicts of Interest

 

Although SkyRock does not provide advisory services to any other clients as of the date of this SAI, it could do so in the future. The portfolio manager’s management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with his management of the Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have the same investment objective as the Fund. Therefore, a potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the similar investment objectives, whereby the portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include the portfolio manager’s knowledge of the size, timing and possible market impact of the Fund’s trades, whereby the portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts, including personal trading, and to the disadvantage of the Fund. However, SkyRock has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts it manages are fairly and equitably allocated. SkyRock monitors and limits personal trading in accordance with its Code of Ethics, as described below.]

 

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CODES OF ETHICS

 

The Trust, Krane and SkyRock have each adopted a Code of Ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. The Codes of Ethics apply to the personal investing activities of trustees, directors, officers and certain employees (“access persons”). Rule 17j-1 and the Codes of Ethics are designed to prevent unlawful practices in connection with the purchase or sale of securities by access persons. Under the Codes of Ethics, access persons are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions (including investments in securities that may be purchased and held by a Fund), but are required to report their personal securities transactions for monitoring purposes. Each Code of Ethics is on file with the SEC and is available to the public.

 

PROXY VOTING POLICY

 

The Trust has adopted the proxy voting policies of Krane, a summary of which is set forth in the appendix to this SAI. The Trust is required to disclose annually a Fund’s complete proxy voting record on Form N-PX covering the period from July 1 of one year through June 30 of the next and to file Form N-PX with the SEC no later than August 31 of each year. The Form N-PX is available, or will be available, at no charge upon request by calling 1.855.857.2638. A Fund’s Form N-PX is also available or will be available, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

ADMINISTRATOR

 

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (the “Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. SEI Investments Management Corporation (“SIMC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company (“SEI Investments”), is the owner of all beneficial interest in the Administrator. The principal address of the Administrator is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. Under an Amended and Restated Administration Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, as amended (the “Administration Agreement”), the Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund. In addition, the Administrator makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

For its services under the Administration Agreement, the Administrator is entitled to a fee, based on assets under management, subject to a minimum fee. The Administrator may be reimbursed by the Fund for its out-of-pocket expenses. The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to the Administrator under the Administration Agreement.

 

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Trust.  The principal address of BBH is 50 Post Office Square, Boston, Massachusetts 02110.  Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement with the Trust dated December 12, 2012, BBH, in its capacity as custodian, maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services. BBH is required, upon the order of the Trust, to deliver securities held by it, in its capacity as custodian, and to make payments for securities purchased by the Trust for a Fund. 

 

Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, foreign securities held by the Fund are generally held by sub-custodians in BBH’s sub-custodian network.

 

BBH further acts as a transfer agent for the Trust’s authorized and issued shares of beneficial interest, and as dividend disbursing agent of the Trust, under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement. The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to BBH under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement.

 

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SECURITIES LENDING ARRANGEMENTS

 

BBH serves as the securities lending agent for the Trust. The principal address of BBH is 50 Post Office Square, Boston, Massachusetts 02110. As the securities lending agent, BBH, among other matters, negotiates the specific loan terms for the Fund to loan their securities and receive compensation therefor, arranges for deliveries of securities and collateral under the securities lending program, and effects the investment of cash collateral received in connection with loaned securities, all as specified in the Securities Lending Agency Agreement and within the parameters established under the Trust’s securities lending program. BBH is authorized to lend Fund securities only to such borrowers as have been approved by the Trust or Krane.

 

Because the Funds have not commenced operations, they have not begun lending securities.

 

DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co., a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments, and an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as Distributor for the Trust. The principal address of the Distributor is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. The Distributor has entered into an Amended and Restated Distribution Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, (the “Distribution Agreement”) pursuant to which it distributes shares of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Fund through the Distributor only in Creation Units, as described in the Prospectus and below in the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). The Distributor is not affiliated with Krane, the sub-adviser, or any national securities exchange.

 

The Distribution Agreement provides that it may be terminated at any time, without the payment of any penalty: (i) by a vote of a majority of the independent Trustees; (ii) by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund; or (iii) on at least thirty (30) days’ prior written notice to the other party. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

The Distributor also may enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of shares. Such Soliciting Dealers also may be Authorized Participants (as defined below) or DTC Participants (as defined below).

 

Distribution Plan. The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan applicable to the Fund’s shares. Under the Distribution Plan, the Distributor, or designated service providers, may receive up to 0.25% of a Fund’s assets attributable to shares as compensation for distribution services pursuant to Rule 12b-1 of the 1940 Act. Distribution services may include: (i) services in connection with distribution assistance, or (ii) payments to financial institutions and other financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, fund “supermarkets” and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries, as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Distributor may, at its discretion, retain a portion of such payments to compensate itself for distribution services and distribution related expenses such as the costs of preparation, printing, mailing or otherwise disseminating sales literature, advertising, and prospectuses (other than those furnished to current shareholders of a Fund), promotional and incentive programs, and such other marketing expenses that the Distributor may incur. The plan is a compensation plan, which means that the Distributor is compensated regardless of its expenses, as opposed to a reimbursement plan which reimburses only for expenses incurred.

 

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No distribution fees are currently charged to the Fund and there are currently no plans to impose these fees. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. In the event that 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because a Fund pays these fees out of assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees may cost you more than other types of sales charges and will increase the cost of your investment in a Fund.

 

The Plan will remain in effect for a period of one year and is renewable from year to year with respect to a Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees and (2) by a vote of the majority of those Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”). The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of fees that may be paid by a Fund under the Plan unless such amendment is approved by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares and by a Fund’s Trustees in the manner described above. The Plan is terminable with respect to a Fund at any time by a vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares.

 

Intermediary Compensation. Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of a Fund’s assets (i.e., without additional cost to a Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”), to the extent permitted by applicable law, for certain activities related to a Fund, including marketing and education support and the sale of a Fund’s shares. These arrangements are sometimes referred to as “revenue sharing” arrangements. Revenue sharing arrangements are not financed by a Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of a Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of a Fund’s shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of shares of a Fund.

 

Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to a Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). Such compensation may also be paid to Intermediaries for inclusion of a Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, in other sales programs. Krane periodically assesses the advisability of continuing to make these payments.

 

Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend a Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professionals if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.

 

Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create an incentive for the Intermediary to encourage customers to buy shares of a Fund.

 

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CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

The Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, and, therefore, there were no public shareholders of the Fund as of the date of this SAI. Krane will own the initial shares issued by the Fund and can thus approve any matter requiring shareholder approval.

 

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

 

A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the Prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of the Prospectus.

 

The shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange identified on the cover of this SAI at prices that may differ from a Fund’s NAV. There can be no assurance that the Exchange requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the shares of the Fund will continue to be met. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the shares of the Fund from listing if, among other matters: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than fifty (50) Beneficial Owners (as that term is defined below) of the shares of the Fund for thirty (30) or more consecutive trading days; (ii) the value of the underlying index is no longer calculated or available; or (iii) such other event shall occur or condition exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.

 

Trading prices of Shares on the Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of Shares. To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, or other widely disseminated means, an updated IIV for Shares as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Fund is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs. The IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the Fund’s NAV because the IIV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed only once a day, typically at the end of the business day. The calculation of the IIV is based on the basket of Deposit Securities, if any, and either a designated amount of U.S. cash or other instruments with a readily ascertainable market value, where such cash or other investments represent the Fund’s portfolio holdings that cannot be transacted in kind. The IIV may not represent the best possible valuation of a Fund’s portfolio because the basket of Deposit Securities does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current Fund portfolio at a particular point in time and does not include a reduction for the fees, operating expenses, or transaction costs incurred by the Fund. In addition, to the extent that the performance of the cash or other instruments varies from the performance of the portfolio holdings represented, the IIV is likely to vary from a Fund’s actual NAV.

 

As in the case of other stocks traded on the Exchange, broker’s commissions on purchases or sales of shares in market transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.

 

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of a Fund.

 

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BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

 

The information below supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information.”

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depository for the Fund’s shares. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC.

 

The DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (“DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities’ certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own the DTC. More specifically, the DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the Exchange, and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).

 

Beneficial ownership of shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in shares.

 

Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and the DTC, the DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the shares of a Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

 

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in shares of a Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

 

The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

 

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The DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.

 

BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS

 

[SkyRock has assumed general supervision over placing orders on behalf of the Fund for the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

 

Although SkyRock strives to obtain the best net price under prevailing circumstances surrounding each trade, the determinative factor is whether a transaction represents the best overall execution for the Fund and not whether the lowest possible transaction cost is obtained. SkyRock considers the full range and quality of a broker-dealer’s servicing in selecting the broker to meet best execution obligations, and may not pay the lowest transaction cost available. SkyRock reviews trading to ensure best execution, operational performance, and reasonable commission rates. Order flow may go through traditional broker-dealers, but may also be executed on an Electronic Communication Network, Alternative Trading System or other execution system.

 

Where multiple broker-dealers are available to execute portfolio transactions, in selecting the brokers or dealers for any transaction in portfolio securities, SkyRock’s policy is to make such selection based on factors deemed relevant, which may include the breadth of the market in the security; the price of the security; the reasonableness of the commission or mark-up or mark-down, if any; execution capability; settlement capability; back office efficiency; and the financial condition of the broker or dealer, both for the specific transaction and on a continuing basis. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid or spreads is evaluated by SkyRock generally based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid or spreads by other institutional investors for comparable services. Brokers or dealers may also be selected because of their ability to handle special or difficult executions, such as may be involved in large block trades, less liquid securities, broad distributions, or other circumstances. SkyRock may also consider the provision or value of research, products or services a broker or dealer may provide, if any, as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer or the determination of the reasonableness of commissions paid in connection with portfolio transactions.

 

When one or more broker-dealers is believed capable of providing the best combination of price and execution, a broker-dealer need not be selected based solely on the lowest commission rate available for a particular transaction. In such cases, SkyRock may pay a higher commission than otherwise obtainable from other brokers in return for brokerage research services provided to SkyRock consistent with Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Section 28(e) provides that SkyRock may cause the Fund to pay a broker-dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged as long as SkyRock makes a good faith determination that the amount of commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the broker-dealer. To the extent SkyRock obtains brokerage and research services that it otherwise would acquire at its own expense, SkyRock may have incentive to place a greater volume of transactions or pay higher commissions than would otherwise be the case.

 

The types of products and services that SkyRock may obtain from broker-dealers through such arrangements may include research reports and other information on the economy, industries, sectors, groups of securities, individual companies, statistical information, political developments, technical market action, pricing and appraisal services, credit analysis, risk measurement analysis, performance and other analysis. SkyRock may use products and services provided by brokers in servicing all of its client accounts and not all such products and services may necessarily be used in connection with the account that paid commissions to the broker-dealer providing such products and services. Any advisory or other fees paid to SkyRock are not reduced as a result of the receipt of brokerage and research services.

 

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In some cases, SkyRock may receive a product or service from a broker that has both a “research” and a “non-research” use. When this occurs, SkyRock will make a good faith allocation between the research and non-research uses of the product or service. The percentage of the service that is used for research purposes may be paid for with brokerage commissions, while SkyRock will use its own funds to pay for the percentage of the service that is used for non-research purposes. In making this good faith allocation, SkyRock faces a potential conflict of interest, but SkyRock believes that its allocation procedures are reasonably designed to appropriately allocate the anticipated use of such products and services to research and non-research uses.

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of a Fund’s shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or a dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.

 

Brokerage transactions may be conducted through “affiliated brokers or dealers,” as defined in rules under the 1940 Act. An affiliated broker-dealer will receive compensation from the Fund in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions conducted through them. This arrangement may present actual or perceived conflicts of interest, but the 1940 Act permits commissions to be paid by a fund to an “affiliated broker or dealer” if such commissions do not exceed the usual and customary broker’s commission. Accordingly, the Fund has adopted compliance policies and procedures to permits such trades so long as, among other matters, the commissions paid to an affiliated broker-dealer are, in the judgment of the SkyRock or the subadviser (if applicable), reasonable and fair as compared to the commissions charged by other brokers in connection with comparable transactions involving similar securities. In addition, SkyRock may conduct trades through Falcon Square, in which SkyRock’s portfolio manager for the Fund owns a non-controlling interest. This arrangement may present actual or perceived conflicts of interest, but Krane will monitor such trades to seek to reasonably ensure that they are reasonable and fair.

 

The aforementioned broker-dealers may engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds that have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or that engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies and other instruments as the Fund. Such activities could affect the prices and availability of the securities, currencies, and instruments in which the Fund invests, which could have an adverse impact on the Fund’s performance. Such transactions for an affiliated broker-dealers other client accounts will be executed independently of the Fund’s transactions and thus at prices or rates that may be more or less favorable than those obtained by the Fund. As a result, the affiliated broker-dealer may compete with the Fund for appropriate investment opportunities.]

 

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Brokerage Commissions

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions during the three prior fiscal years.

 

Directed Brokerage

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions pursuant to an agreement or understanding whereby the broker provides research or other brokerage services to SkyRock during the prior fiscal year.

 

Affiliated Brokers

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions to any affiliated brokers during the three prior fiscal years.

 

Regular Broker-Dealers

 

The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) which the Fund may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of a Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of the Fund’s shares.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not own any securities of their “regular broker-dealers” as of that time.

 

Portfolio Turnover

 

Portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year, and generally relates to changes in the underlying index. High turnover rates are likely to result in comparatively greater brokerage expenses or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by Krane or the sub-adviser based upon their knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions and spreads paid or incurred by the other institutional investors for comparable services.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

 

Except as otherwise noted below, the following applies to any Fund covered by this SAI:

 

General

The Trust issues and redeems shares of the Fund only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load but subject to the transaction fees described below, at the NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined below), of an order in proper form. A “Business Day”, as used herein, is any day on which the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

Currently, the number of shares that constitutes a Creation Unit is 50,000 shares. The Board reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make changes in the number of shares constituting a Creation Unit, including in the event that the per share price in the secondary market rises (or declines) to an amount that falls outside the range deemed desirable by the Board.

 

51 

 

 

Creation Units may be purchased and redeemed only by or through a DTC Participant that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor (an “Authorized Participant”). Such Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of such Authorized Participant Agreement and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including those set forth below, the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants. Investors who are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant to purchase or redeem Creation Units. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be a DTC Participant or may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor and that Creation Unit orders may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant. As a result, orders placed through an Authorized Participant may result in additional charges to such investor. A list of current Authorized Participants may be obtained from the Distributor.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants may purchase and sell shares of the Fund on the secondary market.

 

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to purchase or redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.

 

Purchases of Creation Units

 

The consideration for the purchase of Creation Units of the Fund consists of an in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Deposit Cash”) (collectively, the “Deposit Securities”)) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Deposit. Such Fund Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, in order to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Deposit is made available. The means by which the Deposit Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered by the Authorized Participant to the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree. Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time. The composition of the Deposit Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the Fund’s Underlying Index.

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Deposit Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all purchases on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a purchase order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the purchase to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants purchasing shares on that day to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not available in sufficient quantity; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

52 

 

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Deposit Securities from the Fund Deposit for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty; (iv) to the extent the Fund determines, on a given Business Day, to use a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (v) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index.

 

Cash purchases of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases. The Authorized Participant will pay the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities as Deposit Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable, on behalf of the Fund, will convert subscriptions that are made in whole or in part in cash into the relevant foreign currency prior to investment at the applicable exchange rate and subject to the applicable spread. Those purchasing Creation Units of the Fund bear the risk associated with changes in the currency exchange rate between the time they place their order and the time that the Fund converts any cash received into foreign investments.

 

Placement of Purchase Orders

 

To initiate an order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to purchase shares of the Fund on a Business Day generally before the time as of which that day’s NAV is calculated. For a purchase order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the purchase order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a purchase order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit purchase orders. A purchase order is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the purchase order, such as, in the case of purchase orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to create shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may not be accepted or may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A Purchase order, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

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Acceptance of Orders for, and Issuance of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a creation order, including if (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the identity and number of shares specified; (iv) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (v) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (vi) acceptance of a Fund Deposit would, in the discretion of the Fund or Krane, have an adverse effect on the Fund or the rights of Beneficial Owners; or (vii) circumstances outside the control of the Fund, the Distributor and Krane make it impracticable to process purchase orders. The Distributor shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such purchaser of the rejection or revocation of acceptance of such order. The Fund, the Custodian, the sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall any of them incur any liability for failure to give such notification.

 

Except as provided in the following paragraph, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component, Deposit Cash and creation transaction fees have been completed. In this regard, the Custodian will require, prior to the issuance of a Creation Unit, that the sub-custodian confirm to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities have been delivered to the account of the Fund at the sub-custodian(s). If the Fund does not receive the foregoing by the time specified herein the Creation Unit may not be delivered or the purchase order may ultimately be rejected.

 

The Fund may issue Creation Units to an Authorized Participant, notwithstanding the fact that all Deposit Securities have not been received, in reliance on the undertaking of the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral having a value of up to 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities. The only collateral that is acceptable is cash in U.S. dollars. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time on the contractual settlement date of the Creation Unit(s). The Fund may buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time, and the Authorized Participant will be liable for any shortfall between the cost to the Fund of purchasing such securities and the cash collateral. In addition, the cash collateral may be invested at the risk of the Authorized Participant, and any income on invested cash collateral will be paid to that Authorized Participant. Information concerning the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization of missing Deposit Securities is available from the Distributor.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Once the Fund has accepted a purchase order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Creation Units typically are settled on a “T+2 basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), subject to certain exceptions. However, the Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2, including in order to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, and to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates.

 

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Creation Transaction Fees

 

A standard creation transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The standard creation transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant creates a Creation Unit, and is the same, regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased by the Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

The standard creation transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND

STANDARD TRANSACTION FEE MAXIMUM VARIABLE TRANSACTION FEE*
KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF $[    ] 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) purchased.

 

The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

Redemptions of Creation Units

 

The consideration paid by the Fund for the redemption of Creation Units consists of an in-kind basket of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Redemption Cash”)) (collectively, the “Fund Securities”) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Fund Securities. Together, the Fund Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Redemption.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through NSCC on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the number of shares of each Fund Security and Redemption Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Redemption. Such Fund Redemption is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, for redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Redemption is made available. The delivery of Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system. The means by which the Fund Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered to the Authorized Participant by the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Fund Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time. The composition of the Fund Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the Fund’s Underlying Index and may not be the same as the Deposit Securities.

 

55 

 

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Redemption Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all redemptions on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a redemption order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the redemption to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants redeeming shares on that day to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the redeemer on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting; or (b) a shareholder would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the shareholder receives redemption proceeds in kind (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Fund Securities from the Fund Redemption for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty; (iv) to the extent the Fund determines, on a given Business Day, to use a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (v) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index.

 

Cash redemptions of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. The Authorized Participant will receive the cash equivalent of the Fund Securities as Redemption Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable, on behalf of the Fund, will sell investments denominated in foreign currencies and convert such proceeds into U.S. Dollars at the applicable exchange rate and subject to the applicable spread for redemptions that are made in whole or in part for cash. Those redeeming Creation Units of the Fund bear the risk associated with changes in the currency exchange rate between the time they place their order and the time that the Fund converts any investments into U.S. Dollars.

 

Placement of Redemption Orders

 

To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to redeem shares of the Fund on a Business Day generally before the time as of which that day’s NAV is calculated. For a redemption order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a redemption order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the redemption order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit redemption orders. A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the redemption order, such as, in the case of redemption orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

56 

 

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to redeem shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A redemption request, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

Acceptance of Orders for, and Redemption of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the requisite number of Fund shares and transaction fees have been delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form. In addition, the right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted, (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the shares of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC. The Fund or Distributor will notify the Authorized Participant of such rejection, but the Fund, Custodian, sub-custodian and Distributor shall not be liable for any failure to give such notification.

 

The payment by the Fund of the Fund Securities, Redemption Cash, and Cash Component will not be issued until the transfer of the Creation Unit(s) and the applicable redemption transaction fees has been completed. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor’s shares through DTC’s facilities and the applicable redemption transaction fees by the required time, the redemption request may be rejected. Further, a redeeming Beneficial Owner or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Beneficial Owner must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction where Fund Securities are customarily traded and will be delivered. If neither the redeeming Beneficial Owner nor the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such redeeming Beneficial Owner has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of Fund Securities in the applicable non-U.S. jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the Trust may redeem shares in Redemption Cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds as Redemption Cash.

 

Redemptions of shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund cannot lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or cannot do so without first registering a Fund Security under such laws.

 

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Once the Fund has accepted a redemption order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the redemption of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund typically are settled on a “T+2”basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), but may be made up to seven days later, particularly in stressed market conditions, except as further set forth herein. The Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions on another basis to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules (see below for further information), closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and dividend ex-dates (i.e., the last date the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security sold), and in certain other circumstances. The Regular Holidays section hereto identifies the expected instances, if any, where more than seven days would be needed to deliver redemption proceeds consisting of Fund Securities. Pursuant to an order of the SEC, the Trust will make delivery of redemption proceeds within the number of days stated in the Regular Holidays section to be the maximum number of days necessary to deliver redemption proceeds due to foreign holidays.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Redemption Transaction Fees

 

A standard redemption transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The standard redemption transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant redeems a Creation Unit, and is the same regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed by an Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Fund Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

The standard redemption transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND

STANDARD TRANSACTION FEE MAXIMUM VARIABLE TRANSACTION FEE*
KFA Dynamic Fixed Income ETF $[    ] 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) redeemed.

 

The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

Taxation on Creation and Redemptions of Creation Units

An Authorized Participant generally will recognize either gain or loss upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units. This gain or loss will generally equal the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the Authorized Participant’s aggregate basis in the Deposit Securities exchanged therefor and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. However, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service may apply the wash sales rules to determine that any loss realized upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units is not currently deductible. Authorized Participants should consult their own tax advisers.

 

Current U.S. federal tax laws dictate that capital gain or loss realized from the redemption of Creation Units will generally create long-term capital gain or loss if the Authorized Participant holds the Creation Units for more than one year, or short-term capital gain or loss if the Creation Units were held for one year or less, if the Creation Units are held as capital assets.

 

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Regular Holidays

For every occurrence of one or more intervening holidays in the applicable non-U.S. market that are not holidays observed in the U.S. equity market, the redemption settlement cycle will be extended by the number of such intervening holidays. In addition to holidays, other unforeseeable closings in a non-U.S. market due to emergencies may also prevent the Trust from delivering securities within normal settlement period. The securities delivery cycles currently practicable for transferring portfolio securities to redeeming investors, coupled with non-U.S. market holiday schedules, will require a delivery process longer than seven calendar days, in certain circumstances, but in no event longer than fourteen calendar days. The current scheduled holidays applicable to a Fund during such periods are listed below, as are instances where more than seven days will be needed to deliver redemption proceeds. Holidays may occur on different dates in subsequent years. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays” (e.g., days on which no or limited securities transactions occur, as a result of substantially shortened trading hours), the elimination of existing holidays, or changes in local securities delivery practices, could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.

 

In the calendar years 2019 and 2020, the dates of regular holidays affecting the relevant securities markets in which the Fund may invest are as follows (please note these holiday schedules are subject to potential changes in the relevant securities markets):

 

2019

 

ANGOLA

     
January 1 March 8 April 21 November 2
February 4 April 4 May 1 November 11
March 5 April 19 September 17 December 25
       
ARGENTINA      
January 1 April 18 June 20 October 20
March 4 April 19 July 8 November 18
March 5 May 1 July 9 December 8
March 24 May 25 August 19 December 25
April 2 June 17 October 14  
       
AUSTRALIA      
January 1 April 22 August 5 December 25
January 28 April 25 October 7 November 5
April 19 May 6    
       
AUSTRIA      
January 1 May 30 August 15 December 8
January 6 June 10 October 26 December 25
April 22 June 20 November 1 December 26
May 1      
       
AZERBAIJAN      
January 1 March 21 May 28 August 12
January 2 March 22 June 5 August 13
January 21 March 25 June 6 October 18
March 8 March 26 June 17 November 11
March 20 May 9 June 26 December 31

 

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BAHRAIN      
January 1 June 9 September 1 December 16
May 1 August 12 September 9 December 17
June 5 August 13 September 10  
June 6 August 14 November 10  
       
BARBADOS      
January 1 April 28 August 1 December 26
January 21 April 29 August 5  
April 19 May 1 November 30  
April 22 June 10 December 25  
       
BELARUS      
January 1 March 8 May 7 July 3
January 7 May 1 May 9 November 7
December 25      

 

BELGIUM

     
January 1 May 30 August 15 December 25
April 22 June 10 November 1  
May 1 July 21 November 11  
       
BELIZE      
January 1 April 22 September 23 December 26
March 11 May 1 October 14  
April 19 May 27 November 19  
April 20 September 10 December 25  
       
BERMUDA      
January 1 June 17 September 2 December 25
April 19 August 1 November 4 December 26
May 24 August 2 November 11  

 

BOTSWANA

     
January 1 May 1 July 15 October 1
April 19 May 30 July 16 December 25
April 22 July 1 September 20 December 26

 

BRAZIL

     
January 1 March 6 June 20 November 2
January 25 April 19 July 9 November 15
March 4 April 21 September 7 December 25
March 5 May 1 October 12  
       
BULGARIA      
January 1 April 27 May 24 December 24
March 3 April 28 September 6 December 25
March 4 May 1 September 22 December 26
April 26 May 6 September 23  

 

60 

 

 

CAMBODIA      
January 1 May 1 June 18 October 29
January 7 May 13 September 24 November 9
February 19 May 14 September 27 November 10
March 8 May 15 September 28 November 11
April 14 May 18 September 29 November 12
April 15 May 20 September 30 November 13
April 16 May 22 October 15 December 10
April 17 June 1 October 23  
       
CANADA      
January 1 April 19 July 1 November 11
February 11 April 22 August 5 December 25
February 18 May 20 September 2 December 26
February 19 June 21 October 14  
       
CAYMAN ISLANDS      
January 1 April 19 June 10 December 25
January 28 April 22 July 1 December 26
March 6 May 20 November 11  
       
CHILE      
January 1 May 21 September 18 November 1
April 19 July 1 September 19 December 8
April 20 July 16 October 14 December 25
May 1 August 15    
       
CHINA      
January 1 February 7 June 7 October 3
February 4 February 8 September 13 October 4
February 5 April 5 October 1 October 7
February 6 May 1 October 2  
       
COLOMBIA      
January 1 May 1 August 7 December 8
January 7 June 3 August 19 December 25
March 25 June 24 October 14  
April 18 July 1 November 4  
April 19 July 20 November 11  

 

CONGO      
January 1 January 17 June 29 December 25
January 4 May 1 June 30  
January 16 May 17 August 1  
       
COSTA RICA      
January 1 April 17 July 25 October 12
April 11 April 18 August 2 December 25
April 15 April 19 August 15  
April 16 May 1 September 15  

 

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CROATIA      
January 1 June 20 August 15 December 26
January 6 June 22 October 8  
April 22 June 25 November 1  
May 1 August 5 December 25  
       
CYPRUS      
January 1 April 1 May 1 October 28
January 6 April 26 June 17 December 25
March 11 April 28 August 15 December 26
March 25 April 30 October 1  
       
CZECH REPUBLIC      
January 1 May 8 September 28 December 24
April 19 July 5 October 28 December 25
April 22 July 6 November 17 December 26
May 1      
       
DENMARK      
January 1 April 22 June 5 December 25
April 18 May 17 June 10 December 26
April 19 May 30 December 24 December 31
       
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC      
January 1 February 27 May 26 September 24
January 7 April 19 June 20 November 6
January 21 April 21 July 28 December 25
January 25 May 1 August 16  
       
ECUADOR      
January 1 April 21 August 9 November 4
March 4 May 1 August 10 December 6
March 5 May 24 October 9 December 25
April 19 July 24 November 1  
       
EL SALVADOR      
January 1 April 21 August 4 December 24
April 18 May 1 August 5 December 25
April 19 May 10 August 6 December 31 
April 20 June 17 September 15  
       
EGYPT*      
January 7 May 1 July 23 September 1
January 25 June 5 August 12 October 6
April 25 June 6 August 13 November 10
April 28 June 7 August 14  

 

62 

 

 

FINLAND      
January 1 April 22 December 6 December 25
January 6 May 1 December 24 December 26
April 19 May 30    
       
FRANCE      
January 1 May 8 July 14 November 11
April 22 May 30 August 15 December 25
May 1 June 10 November 1 December 26

 

GABON      
January 1 May 30 August 15 December 25
April 17 June 4 August 16  
April 22 June 10 August 17  
May 1 August 11 November 1  
       
GEORGIA      
January 1 March 8 April 29 October 14
January 2 April 9 May 8 November 23
January 7 April 26 May 9  
January 19 April 27 May 26  
March 3 April 28 August 28  
       
GERMANY      
January 1 May 1 June 10 December 25
April 9 May 30 October 3 December 26
April 22      
       
GHANA      
January 1 May 1 August 12 December 26
March 6 May 25 September 21  
April 19 June 5 December 6  
April 22 July 1 December 25  
       
GREECE      
January 1 March 25 May 1 October 28
January 6 April 26 June 17 December 25
March 11 April 29 August 15 December 26
       
GUATEMALA      
January 1 April 20 September 15 December 25
April 18 May 1 October 20  
April 19 June 30 November 1  
       
GUERNSEY      
January 1 April 22 May 9 August 26
April 19 May 6 May 27 December 25
December 26      
       
HONDURAS      
January 1 April 19 September 15 October 11
April 14 April 20 October 3 December 25
April 18 May 1 October 5  

 

63 

 

 

HONG KONG      
January 1 April 5 May 13 October 1
February 4 April 19 June 7 October 7
February 5 April 20 July 1 December 25
February 6 April 22 September 14 December 26
February 7 May 1    
       
HUNGARY      
January 1 May 1 August 19 November 1
March 15 June 9 August 20 December 25
April 19 June 10 October 23 December 26
April 22      
       
INDIA      
January 26 March 21 May 1 October 2
February 19 April 19 August 15 December 25
March 4      
       
INDONESIA      
January 1 April 19 June 1 August 17
February 5 May 1 June 5 September 1
March 7 May 19 June 6 November 10
April 3 May 30 August 12 December 25
       
IRAQ      
January 1 May 1 August 12 October 3
January 6 June 4 August 13 November 9
March 5 June 5 August 14 December 10
March 21 July 14 August 31 December 25
April 9 August 11 September 9  

 

IRELAND      
January 1 April 22 August 5 December 26
March 18 May 6 October 28 December 27
April 19 June 3 December 25  
       
ISLE OF MAN      
January 1 May 6 July 5 December 26
April 19 May 27 August 26  
April 22 June 7 December 25  
       
ISRAEL*      
March 21 May 9 September 30 October 14
April 21 June 10 October 1 October 22
April 27 August 11 October 9  
       
ITALY      
January 1 April 22 June 2 December 8
January 6 April 25 August 15 December 25
April 19 May 1 November 1 December 26

 

64 

 

 

IVORY COAST      
January 1 June 2 August 11 November 10
April 22 June 4 August 12 November 15
May 1 June 10 August 15 December 25
May 30 August 7 November 1  
       
JAMAICA      
January 1 April 22 August 6 December 26
March 6 May 23 October 21  
April 19 August 1 December 25  
       
JAPAN      
January 1 March 21 July 15 October 14
January 2 April 19 August 12 November 4
January 3 May 3 September 16 November 25
January 14 May 4 September 23 December 23
February 11 May 6    
       
JERSEY      
January 1 April 22 May 9 August 26
April 19 May 6 May 27 December 25
December 26      
       
JORDAN      
January 1 June 5 August 12 September 1
April 28 June 6 August 13 November 10
May 1 June 7 August 14 December 25
May 25      
       
KAZAKHSTAN      
January 1 March 22 May 9 December 2
January 7 March 25 July 8 December 16
March 8 May 1 August 12 December 17
March 21 May 7 August 30  
       
KENYA      
January 1 May 1 October 10 December 25
March 30 June 1 October 20 December 26
April 2 June 15 December 12  
       
KUWAIT*      
January 1 April 3 June 6 August 13
February 25 June 5 August 12 August 14
February 26      
       
LATVIA      
January 1 May 1 June 24 December 26
April 19 May 6 November 18 December 31
April 22 June 23 December 25  

 

65 

 

 

LEBANON      
January 1 April 19 May 25 September 10
January 6 April 21 June 5 November 10
February 9 April 26 August 12 November 22
February 14 April 28 August 15 December 25
March 25 May 1 September 1  
       
LITHUANIA      
January 1 April 22 June 24 December 24
February 16 May 1 July 6 December 25
March 11 May 5 August 15 December 26
April 21 June 1 November 1  
       
LUXEMBOURG      
January 1 May 1 June 23 December 25
April 19 May 30 August 15 December 26
April 22 June 10 November 1  
       
MACAU      
January 1 April 19 September 14 December 8
February 5 April 20 October 1 December 20
February 6 May 1 October 2 December 22
February 7 May 12 October 7 December 24
April 5 June 7 November 2 December 25
       
MALAYSIA      
January 1 March 1 June 5 September 9
January 21 March 19 June 6 September 16
February 1 March 22 August 12 November 10
February 5 May 1 August 31 December 25
February 6 May 19 September 1  
       
MALTA      
January 1 April 19 August 15 December 13
February 10 May 1 September 8 December 25
March 19 June 7 September 21  
March 31 June 29 December 8  
       
MAURITIUS      
January 1 February 5 May 1 October 27
January 2 March 4 June 5 November 2
January 21 March 12 August 15 December 25
February 1 April 6 September 2  
       
MEXICO      
January 1 April 18 May 5 December 12
February 4 April 19 September 16 December 25
March 18 May 1 November 18  

 

66 

 

 

MONACO      
January 1 May 1 June 20 November 19
January 27 May 30 August 15 December 8
April 22 June 10 November 1 December 25
       
MONGOLIA      
January 1 March 8 July 13 November 27
February 5 June 1 July 14 December 29
February 6 July 11 July 15  
February 7 July 12 November 26  
       
MOROCCO      
January 1 July 29 August 20 November 6
January 11 August 12 August 21 November 10
May 1 August 14 September 1 November 18
       
NAMIBIA      
January 1 April 22 May 25 December 10
March 21 May 1 May 30 December 25
April 19 May 4 August 26 December 26

 

NETHERLANDS

     
January 1 April 27 May 30 December 25
April 19 May 4 June 10 December 26
April 22 May 5    
       
NEW ZEALAND      
January 1 April 19 June 3 December 25
January 2 April 22 October 28 December 26
February 6 April 25    
       
NIGERIA      
January 1 April 22 June 5 December 25
March 8 May 1 August 12 December 26
April 19 May 29 October 1  
       
NORWAY      
January 1 April 22 May 30 December 25
April 18 May 1 June 10 December 26
April 19 May 17 December 24  
       
OMAN*      
January 1 June 6 August 13 November 18
April 3 July 23 August 14 November 19
June 5 August 12 August 15  
       
PAKISTAN      
February 5 June 6 August 13 September 10
May 1 June 7 August 14 December 25
June 5 August 12 September 9  

 

67 

 

 

PANAMA      
January 1 March 6 November 4 December 8
January 9 April 19 November 5 December 25
March 4 May 1 November 10  
March 5 November 3 November 28  
       
PARAGUAY      
January 1 April 19 June 12 December 8
March 1 May 1 August 15 December 25
April 18 May 14 September 29  
       
PERU      
January 1 May 1 July 29 November 1
April 18 June 29 August 30 December 8
April 19 July 28 October 8 December 25
       
PHILIPPINES      
January 1 April 19 August 12 December 24
February 5 May 1 August 21 December 25
April 9 June 5 August 26 December 30
April 18 June 12 November 1 December 31
       
POLAND      
January 1 May 1 August 15 December 25
January 6 May 3 November 1 December 26
April 22 June 20 November 11  
       
PORTUGAL      
January 1 May 1 August 15 December 1
April 19 June 10 October 5 December 8
April 25 June 20 November 1 December 25
       
PUERTO RICO      
January 1 March 22 June 16 November 11
January 6 April 19 July 4 November 19
January 7 April 21 July 25 November 28
January 21 May 12 September 2 December 25
February 18 May 27 October 14  

 

QATAR*      
February 12 June 6 August 13 August 15
June 4 August 12 August 14 December 18
June 5      

 

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

     
January 1 May 1 June 13 September 26
February 4 May 5 August 15 October 3
February 5 May 7 September 23 October 9
February 6 May 22 September 24 December 25
March 1 June 6 September 25  

 

68 

 

 

ROMANIA

     
January 1 April 26 June 17 December 25
January 2 April 29 August 15 December 26
January 24 May 1    
       
RUSSIA      
January 1 January 4 March 8 June 12
January 2 January 7 May 1 November 4
January 3 February 23 May 9  
       
SAUDI ARABIA      
June 4 June 6 August 11 August 13
June 5 August 10 August 12 September 23
       
SENEGAL      
January 1 May 30 August 15 November 9
April 4 June 4 September 9 December 25
April 22 June 10 October 17  
May 1 August 11 November 1  
       
SERBIA      
January 1 January 14 April 27 May 2
January 2 February 15 April 28 May 9
January 7 February 16 April 29 November 11
January 8 April 26 May 1  
       
SINGAPORE      
January 1 April 19 June 5 October 27
February 5 May 1 August 9 December 25
February 6 May 19 August 12  
       
SLOVAKIA      
January 1 May 1 September 1 December 24
January 6 May 8 September 15 December 25
April 19 July 5 November 1 December 26
April 22 August 29 November 17  
       
SOUTH AFRICA      
January 1 April 22 June 17 December 16
March 21 April 27 August 9 December 25
April 19 May 1 September 24 December 26

 

SPAIN

     
January 1 April 22 September 11 December 6
January 6 May 1 October 12 December 8
April 18 July 25 November 1 December 25
April 19 August 15    
       
SRI LANKA      
January 15 April 13 June 5 October 13
January 20 April 14 June 16 October 27
February 4 April 19 July 16 November 10
February 19 May 1 August 12 November 12
March 4 May 18 August 15 December 11
March 20 May 19 September 13 December 25

 

69 

 

 

SWAZILAND

     
January 1 April 25 July 22 December 25
April 19 May 1 September 2 December 26
April 22 May 30 September 6 December 28
 
SWEDEN      
January 1 May 1 June 22 December 25
January 6 May 30 November 2 December 26
April 19 June 6 December 24 December 31
April 22 June 21    
       
SWITZERLAND      
January 1 April 22 June 10 December 25
January 2 May 30 August 1 December 26
April 19      
       
TAIWAN      
January 1 February 7 February 23 April 5
February 4 February 8 February 28 June 7
February 5 February 9 March 1 September 13
February 6 February 19 April 4 October 10
       
THAILAND      
January 1 April 15 July 17 October 23
February 19 April 16 July 29 December 5
April 8 April 17 August 12 December 10
April 13 May 1 October 14 December 31
April 14 May 19    
       
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO      
January 1 May 30 August 1 October 28
March 30 June 5 August 31 December 25
April 19 June 19 September 24 December 26
April 22 June 20 October 27  
       
TUNISIA      
January 1 May 1 July 25 September 1
January 14 June 5 August 12 October 15
March 20 June 6 August 13 November 10
April 9 June 7 August 14  
       
TURKEY      
January 1 May 19 August 13 August 30
April 23 June 5 August 14 October 29
May 1 August 12 August 15  

 

70 

 

 

UKRAINE      
January 1 April 29 June 17 August 26
January 7 May 1 June 28 October 14
March 8 May 9 August 24 December 25
April 28      
       
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES*      
January 1 August 11 August 14 November 30
April 3 August 12 September 1 December 2
June 5 August 13 November 10 December 3
June 6      
       
UNITED KINGDOM      
January 1 May 6 August 5 December 25
April 19 May 27 August 6 December 26
April 22      
       
UNITED STATES      
January 1 April 19 July 4 November 28
January 21 May 27 September 2 December 25
February 18      
       
URUGUAY      
January 1 April 16 May 18 November 2
January 6 April 17 June 19 December 25
March 4 April 18 July 18  
March 5 April 19 August 25  
April 15 May 1 October 12  

 

VENEZUELA

     
January 1 April 19 July 24 December 31
March 4 May 1 October 12  
March 5 June 24 December 24  
April 18 July 5 December 25  
       
VIETNAM      
January 1 February 6 April 15 May 1
February 4 February 7 April 30 September 2
February 5 February 8    
       
ZAMBIA      
January 1 April 20 July 1 October 24
March 8 April 22 July 2 December 25
March 12 May 1 August 5  
April 19 May 25 October 18  

 

* These markets are closed every Friday.

 

71 

 

 

2020

 

AUSTRALIA      
January 1 April 10 April 13 December 25
January 26 April 11 April 25 December 26
January 27 April 12 April 27 December 28

 

AUSTRIA

     
January 1 May 21 October 26 December 26
January 6 June 1 November 1  
April 13 June 11 November 8  
May 1 August 15 December 25  

 

BELGIUM

     
January 1 May 1 June 1 November 1
April 12 May 21 July 21 November 11
April 13 May 31 August 15 December 25
       
BERMUDA      
January 1 June 15 September 7 December 28
April 10 July 30 November 11  
May 29 July 31 December 25  

 

BOTSWANA

     
January 1 May 1 July 20 October 1
April 10 May 21 July 21 December 25
April 13 July 1 September 30 December 26
       
BRAZIL      
January 1 April 21 September 7 November 15
February 25 May 1 October 12 December 25
April 10 June 11 November 2  

 

CANADA

     
January 1 May 18 September 7 December 25
April 10 July 1 October 12  
April 13 August 3 November 11  
       
CAYMAN ISLANDS      
January 1 April 10 June 15 December 25
January 27 April 13 July 6 December 26
February 26 May 18 November 9 December 28
       
CHILE      
January 1 May 21 September 18 November 1
April 10 June 29 September 19 November 2
April 11 July 16 October 12 December 8
May 1 August 15 October 31 December 25

 

CHINA

     
January 1 January 29 May 1 October 5
January 24 January 30 June 25 October 6
January 25 January 31 October 1 October 7
January 26 April 4 October 2  
January 27 April 5 October 3  
January 28 April 6 October 4  

 

72 

 

 

COLUMBIA

     
January 1 May 1 July 20 November 16
January 6 May 25 August 7 December 8
March 19 June 15 August 17 December 25
April 9 June 22 October 12  
April 10 June 29 November 2  
       
CZECH REPUBLIC      
January 1 May 8 October 28 December 26
April 10 July 5 November 17  
April 13 July 6 December 24  
May 1 September 28 December 25  

 

DENMARK

     
January 1 April 12 May 21 December 24
April 9 April 13 May 31 December 25
April 10 May 8 June 1 December 26

 

EGYPT*

     
January 7 May 1 June 30 August 3
January 25 May 24 July 23 August 20
April 19 May 25 July 31 October 6
April 20 May 26 August 1 October 29
April 25 May 27 August 2  
       
FINLAND      
January 1 May 1 November 1 December 26
January 6 May 21 December 6  
April 10 June 19 December 24  
April 13 June 20 December 25  

 

FRANCE

     
January 1 May 21 November 1  
April 13 June 1 November 11  
May 1 July 14 December 25  
May 8 August 15    
       
GERMANY      
January 1 May 1 October 3  
April 10 May 21 December 25  
April 13 June 1 December 26  

 

GHANA

     
January 1 May 1 July 31 December 25
March 6 May 24 August 4 December 26
April 10 May 25 September 21  
April 13 July 1 December 4  

 

73 

 

 

GREECE

     
January 1 March 25 May 1 October 28
January 6 April 17 June 8 December 25
March 2 April 19 August 15 December 26
  April 20    
       
HONG KONG      
January 1 April 10 May 1 October 2
January 25 April 11 June 25 October 25
January 27 April 13 July 1 October 26
January 28 April 30 October 1 December 25
April 4     December 28

 

HUNGARY

     
January 1 April 13 August 20 December 25
March 15 May 1 August 21 December 26
April 10 May 31 October 23  
April 12 June 1 November 1  

 

INDIA

     
January 26 April 14 August 15 October 29
February 21 May 7 August 29 November 14
April 6 July 31 October 2 November 30
April 10 August 12 October 25 December 25
       
INDONESIA      
January 1 May 1 June 1 December 25
January 25 May 7 July 31  
March 22 May 21 August 17  
March 25 May 24 August 20  
April 10 May 26 October 29  
       
IRELAND      
January 1 May 4 October 26 December 28
March 17 June 1 December 25  
April 13 August 3 December 26  
       
ISLE OF MAN      
January 1 May 4 July 6 December 28
April 10 May 25 August 31  
April 13 June 12 December 25  
       
ISRAEL*      
March 10 April 16 July 30 September 28
March 11 April 29 August 19 October 3
April 4 May 8 August 20 October 10
April 9 May 29 September 19 October 11
April 15 May 31 September 20  

 

74 

 

 

ITALY

     
January 1 April 25 August 15 December 25
January 6 May 1 November 1 December 26
April 13 June 2 December 8  
       
IVORY COAST      
January 1 May 21 August 7 November 15
April 13 May 24 August 15 December 25
May 1 June 1 October 29  
May 20 July 31 November 1  

 

JAPAN

     
January 1 May 3 August 11 November 23
January 13 May 4 September 21 December 23
February 11 May 5 September 22  
March 20 May 6 October 12  
April 29 July 20 November 3  

 

KENYA

     
January 1 May 1 October 10 December 25
April 10 May 24 October 20 December 26
April 13 June 1 December 12  

 

MALAYSIA

     
January 25 May 7 July 31 September 16
January 26 May 24 August 20 October 29
January 27 May 25 August 31 December 25
May 1 May 26 September 9  
       
MALTA      
January 1 April 10 August 15 December 13
February 10 May 1 September 8 December 25
March 19 June 7 September 21  
March 31 June 29 December 8  

 

MAURITIUS

     
January 1 February 8 May 1 November 2
January 2 February 21 May 24 November 14
January 25 March 12 August 15 December 25
February 1 March 25 August 22  
 
MEXICO      
January 1 April 9 September 16 November 16
February 3 April 10 October 12 November 20
March 16 May 1 November 2 December 25

 

MOROCCO

     
January 1 July 30 August 20 November 18
January 11 July 31 August 21  
May 1 August 1 October 29  
May 24 August 14 November 6  

 

75 

 

 

NAMIBIA      
January 1 April 13 May 21 December 10
March 21 May 1 May 25 December 16
April 10 May 4 August 26 December 25

 

NETHERLANDS

     
January 1 April 27 May 31 December 26
April 12 May 5 June 1  
April 13 May 21 December 25  
       
NEW ZEALAND      
January 1 April 10 June 1 December 26
January 2 April 13 October 26  
February 6 April 27 December 25  

 

NIGERIA

     
January 1 May 1 June 12 December 25
April 10 May 24 July 31 December 28
April 13 May 25 October 1  
       
NORWAY      
January 1 April 13 May 21 December 26
April 9 May 1 June 1  
April 10 May 17 December 25  
       
PERU      
January 1 June 29 August 30 December 25
April 9 July 27 October 8  
April 10 July 28 November 1  
May 1 July 29 December 8  
       
PHILIPPINES      
January 1 May 1 August 31 December 25
January 25 May 24 November 1 December 30
April 9 June 12 November 30 December 31
April 10 July 31 December 8  
April 11 August 21 December 24  

 

POLAND

     
January 1 May 1 August 15 December 26
January 6 May 3 November 1  
April 12 May 31 November 11  
April 13 June 11 December 25  

 

PORTUGAL

     
January 1 May 1 October 5 December 25
April 10 June 10 November 1  
April 12 June 11 December 1  
April 25 August 15 December 8  

 

76 

 

 

QATAR*      
February 11 May 26 July 31 August 4
March 11 May 27 August 1 December 18
May 24 May 28 August 2  
May 25 July 30 August 3  
 
REPUBLIC OF KOREA      
January 1 January 27 May 1 October 1
January 24 March 1 May 5 October 3
January 25 April 15 June 6 October 9
January 26 April 30 August 15 December 25
    September 30  
       
RUSSIA      
January 1 January 7 May 1 May 12
January 2 February 23 May 4 November 4
January 3 February 24 May 9  
January 6 March 9 May 11  

 

SINGAPORE

     
January 1 May 1 August 9 October 28
February 5 May 19 August 11 December 25
February 6 May 20 August 12  
April 19 June 5 October 27  
       
SOUTH AFRICA      
January 1 April 27 August 10 December 28
March 21 May 1 September 24  
April 10 June 16 December 16  
April 13 August 9 December 25  

 

SPAIN

     
January 1 May 1 November 1 December 25
January 6 August 15 December 6  
April 19 October 12 December 8  

 

SWAZILAND

    December 26
January 1 April 20 August 31  
April 10 May 1 September 6  
April 13 May 21 September 7  
April 19 July 22 December 25  

 

SWEDEN

     
January 1 April 13 June 6 December 24
January 6 May 1 June 19 December 25
April 10 May 21 June 20 December 26
April 12 May 31 November 1 December 31
       
SWITZERLAND      
January 1 May 21 August 1 December 26
April 10 May 31 September 20  
April 13 June 1 December 25  

 

77 

 

 

TAIWAN      
January 1 January 28 April 5 October 1
January 24 January 29 April 6 October 9
January 25 February 28 May 1 October 10
January 26 April 3 June 25 December 31
January 27 April 4 June 26  

 

THAILAND

     
January 1 April 13 May 21 October 23
January 2 April 14 July 5 December 7
January 25 April 15 July 28 December 10
March 9 May 1 August 12 December 31
April 6 May 7 October 13  
       
TURKEY      
January 1 May 24 July 15 August 3
April 23 May 25 July 31 August 30
May 1 May 26 August 1 October 29
May 19 May 27 August 2  
       
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES*      
January 1 May 26 August 2 December 2
March 22 July 30 August 20 December 3
May 24 July 31 October 29  
May 25 August 1 November 30  
 
UNITED KINGDOM      
January 1 May 4 August 31 December 26
April 10 May 25 December 25 December 28
       
UNITED STATES      
January 1 April 10 September 7  
January 20 May 25 November 26  
February 17 July 3 December 25  

 

VIETNAM

     
January 1 January 26 January 29 May 1
January 24 January 27 April 2 September 2
January 25 January 28 April 30  
       
ZAMBIA      
January 1 April 11 July 6 October 24
March 9 April 13 July 7 December 25
March 12 May 1 August 3  
April 10 May 25 October 19  
 

* These markets are closed every Friday.

 

78 

 

 

The longest redemption cycle for the Fund is a function of the longest redemption cycle among the countries whose securities comprise the Fund. In the calendar years 2019 and 2020, the dates of regular holidays affecting the following securities markets present the worst-case (longest) redemption cycle* for the Fund:

 

SETTLEMENT PERIODS GREATER THAN
SEVEN DAYS FOR YEAR 2019
  Beginning of
Settlement
Period
  End of
Settlement
Period
  Number of
Days in
Settlement
Period
Australia   4/18/2019   4/26/2019   8
             
Brazil   2/27/2019   3/7/2019   8
    2/28/2019   3/8/2019   8
    3/1/2019   3/11/2019   10
             
China   1/30/2019   2/11/2019   12
    1/31/2019   2/12/2019   12
    2/1/2019   2/11/2019   10
    2/1/2019   2/13/2019   12
Czech Republic            
    1/30/2019   2/11/2019   12
    1/31/2019   2/12/2019   12
    2/1/2019   2/13/2019   12
    2/4/2019   2/13/2019   9
    2/5/2019   2/13/2019   8
    9/25/2019   10/8/2019   13
    9/26/2019   10/8/2019   12
    9/27/2019   10/9/2019   12
             
Egypt   8/7/2019   8/19/2019   12
    8/8/2019   8/20/2019   12
    8/9/2019   8/20/2019   11
             
Finland   12/23/2019   12/31/2019   8
             
Ghana   4/24/2019   5/2/2019   8
    4/25/2019   5/3/2019   8
             
Hong Kong   1/31/2019   2/8/2019   8
    2/1/2019   2/11/2019   10
             
Israel   10/7/2019   10/15/2019   8
             
Japan   12/26/2018   1/4/2019   9
    12/27/2018   1/7/2019   11
    12/28/2018   1/8/2019   11
             
Kuwait   8/8/2019   8/19/2019   11
    8/9/2019   8/19/2019   10
             
Malaysia   1/30/2019   2/7/2019   8
    1/31/2019   2/8/2019   8
             
Morocco   8/9/2019   8/19/2019   10
             
New Zealand   4/18/2019   4/26/2019   8
             
Russia   12/31/2018   1/8/2019   8
             
Taiwan   2/1/2019   2/11/2019   10
             
Turkey   5/31/2019   6/10/2019   10
             
Vietnam   1/31/2019   2/11/2019   11
    2/1/2019   2/12/2019   11

 

79 

 

 

2020

SETTLEMENT PERIODS GREATER THAN
SEVEN DAYS FOR YEAR 2020
  Beginning of
Settlement
Period
  End of
Settlement
Period
  Number of
Days in
Settlement
Period
Botswana   7/17/2020   7/27/2020   9
             
China   1/22/2020   2/3/2020   12
    1/23/2020   2/3/2020   12
    1/24/2020   2/5/2020   12
    1/27/2020   2/5/2020   9
    1/28/2020   2/5/2020   8
    9/28/20   10/8/20   10
    9/29/20   10/9/20   10
    9/30/20   10/12/20   12
             
Egypt   5/19/2020   6/2/2020   13
    5/20/2020   6/2/2020   12
    5/21/2020   6/2/2020   11
             
Hong Kong   1/22/2020   2/3/2020   12
    1/23/2020   2/4/2020   12
    1/24/2020   2/5/2020   12
    1/27/2020   2/5/2020   9
    1/28/2020   2/5/2020   8
             
Japan   1/10/2020   1/20/2020   9
    4/28/2020   5/7/2020   8
    4/29/2020   5/8/2020   8
    4/30/2020   5/11/2020   10
    5/1/2020   5/12/2020   11
             
Kenya   4/3/2020   4/14/2020   9
    4/6/2020   4/15/2020   8
    4/7/2020   4/16/2020   8
    4/8/2020   4/17/2020   8
    4/9/2020   4/20/2020   10
             
Mexico   1/31/2020   2/11/2020   10
             
Peru   7/24/2020   8/3/2020   9
 
Russia   1/2/2020   1/14/2020   12
    1/3/2020   1/14/2020   11
    1/6/2020   1/14/2020   8

  

80 

 

 

SETTLEMENT PERIODS GREATER THAN
SEVEN DAYS FOR YEAR 2020
  Beginning of
Settlement
Period
  End of
Settlement
Period
  Number of
Days in
Settlement
Period

Spain   1/2/2020   1/14/2020   13
    1/3/2020   1/15/2020   12
    1/3/2020   1/16/2020   12
    4/22/2020   5/4/2020   11
    4/23/2020   5/5/2020   11
    4/24/2020   5/6/2020   11
    4/27/2020   5/7/2020   9
    4/28/2020   5/8/2020   9
    4/29/2020   5/11/2020   11
    4/30/2020   5/12/2020   11
    10/1/2020   10/13/2020   11
    10/2/2020   10/14/2020   11
    10/5/2020   10/15/2020   9
    10/6/2020   10/16/2020   9
    10/7/2020   10/19/2020   11
    10/8/2020   10/20/2020   11
    10/9/2020   10/21/2020   11
    11/27/2020   12/9/2020   11
    11/30/2020   12/10/2020   9
    12/1/2020   12/11/2020   9
    12/2/2020   12/14/2020   9
    12/3/2020   12/15/2020   9
    12/4/2020   12/16/2020   9
    12/7/2020   12/17/2020   9
    12/16/2020   12/28/2020   11
    12/17/2020   12/29/2020   11
    12/18/2020   12/30/2020   11
    12/21/2020   12/31/2020   10
 <