485APOS 1 s118371_485a.htm 485APOS

 

AS FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON JUNE 11, 2019
File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

 

UNDER

  THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 194

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

  THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
  Amendment No. 198

 

KRANESHARES TRUST

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor 

New York, New York 10020

(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

 

(212) 933-0393

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

 

Jonathan Krane 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020 

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

Copy to: 

Stacy L. Fuller

K&L Gates LLP

1601 K Street NW

Washington, D.C. 20006-1600

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

☐ Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b) of Rule 485

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (b) of Rule 485

☐ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485

☒ 75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485 

 

 

 

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

Subject to completion, dated June 11, 2019

 

KraneShares Trust

 

Prospectus

 

[…], 2019

 

KFA Global Carbon ETF - (KRBN)

 

Fund shares are not individually redeemable. Fund shares will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”).

 

These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) or the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), nor have the SEC or CFTC passed upon the adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund (if you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund) or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank (if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary). Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

 

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. If you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund, you may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications electronically from the Fund by contacting the Fund at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary.

 

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you hold your Fund shares directly with the Fund, you can inform the Fund that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Fund shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all of the KraneShares Funds you hold directly with series of the Trust or through your financial intermediary, as applicable.

 

 

 

 

KraneShares Trust

Table of Contents

 

Fund Summary  
KFA Global Carbon ETF 3
Additional Information About the Fund 14
Additional Principal Investment Strategies, Index and Principal Risks Information 14
Management 30
Investment Adviser 30
Investment Sub-Adviser 32
Portfolio Managers 33
Shareholder Information 33
Calculating NAV 33
Buying and Selling Fund Shares 36
Share Trading Prices 37
Active Investors and Market Timing 37
Investments by Registered Investment Companies 38
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 39
Distribution Plan 39
Dividends and Distributions 39
Additional Tax Information 40
Index Provider Information and Disclaimers 43
Additional Disclaimers 43
Financial Highlights 44
Additional Information 45

 

2

 

 

KFA Global Carbon ETF

 

Investment Objective

The KFA Global Carbon ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to provide a total return that, before fees and expenses, exceeds that of the IHS Markit Global Carbon Index (the ‘‘Index’’) over a complete market cycle.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. The table below does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay when purchasing or selling shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment) None

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fees 0.78%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees* 0.00%
Other Expenses** […]%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses […]%
[Fee Waiver ***] […]%
[Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver] […]%

*Pursuant to a Distribution Plan, the Fund may bear a Rule 12b-1 fee not to exceed 0.25% per year of the Fund’s average daily net assets. However, no such fee is currently paid by the Fund, and the Board of Trustees has not currently approved the commencement of any payments under the Distribution Plan.

**Based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year.

[***The Fund’s investment adviser, Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”), has contractually agreed to reduce its management fee by […]% of the Fund’s average daily net assets (“Fee Waiver”). The Fee Waiver will continue until […], 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board.]

 

Example

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same[, except that it reflects the Fee Waiver for the period described above.] This Example does not reflect any brokerage commissions that you may pay on purchases and sales of your shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, whether you do or do not sell your shares, your costs would be: 

 

1 Year 3 Years
$[…] $[…]

 

3

 

 

Portfolio Turnover

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund had not commenced investment operations prior to its fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, it does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

Principal Investment Strategies

The Fund attempts to maintain exposure to commodity futures contracts that are the same as or similar to those included in the Index and to exceed the performance of the Index through the active management of a portfolio of debt instruments.

 

The Index utilizes a rules-based methodology and is designed to track a portfolio of liquid, accessible carbon credit futures contracts with “physical delivery.” The Index includes only carbon credit futures maturing within the next two years that have a minimum average monthly trade volume over the previous six months of at least $10 million. The Index allocates eligible carbon credit futures by their respective average monthly trading volume during the three months preceding the Index rebalance. Allocations will be subject to a 10% minimum weight per component and a 65% maximum weight per component in any one of three following geographical regions: (1) Europe, the Middle East and Africa, (2) the Americas, and (3) the Asia-Pacific. No single contract will represent less than 5% or more than 60% of the Index.

 

In a typical “cap and trade” regime, a limit (or “cap”) is set by a regulator, such as a government entity or supranational organization, on the total amount of specific greenhouse gases (“GHG”), such as CO2, that can be emitted by regulated entities, such as manufacturers or energy producers. The regulator then may issue or sell individual “emission allowances” to regulated entities. The regulated entities may buy or sell the emission allowances on the open market. Commodity futures contracts linked to the value of emission allowances are known as carbon credit futures.

 

As of May 30, 2019, eligible components include emission allowances issued under the European Union Allowance, California Carbon Allowance and Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative “cap and trade” regimes. As the global carbon credit market grows, additional liquid contracts are expected to enter the Index. Cap-and-trade carbon credit markets under review as potential future additions include tradable carbon credits in South Korea, New Zealand and China.

 

The Fund utilizes a subsidiary (the “Subsidiary”) for purposes of investing in instruments such as futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swap contracts. The Subsidiary is a corporation operating under Cayman Islands law that is wholly-owned and controlled by the Fund and advised by the Adviser and Sub-Adviser. The Fund may invest up to 25% of its assets in the Subsidiary. The Subsidiary has the same investment objective as the Fund and will follow the same general investment policies and restrictions. Except as noted, for purposes of this Prospectus, references to the Fund’s investment strategies and risks include those of its Subsidiary, and references to the Fund include the Subsidiary.

 

Although the Fund seeks to maintain exposure to commodity futures contracts that are the same as or similar to those included in the Index, the Fund and the Subsidiary will be actively managed and will not be required to replicate the performance of a specific index or to invest in the specific instruments included in the Index. For example, the Fund may hold commodity futures contracts with the same maturity and weightings as the Index, but may select a different month of maturity or weighting in seeking to achieve better performance than the Index.

 

4

 

 

The commodity-linked instruments in which the Fund may invest to seek exposure to the Index include futures contracts, options on futures contracts, swap contracts, other investment companies and exchange-traded notes. The debt instruments in which the Fund may invest include government securities and highly-rated corporate or other non-government fixed-income securities with maturities of up to 12 months. The Fund may invest in such instruments indirectly through short-term bond funds and exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”). The Fund may also invest in cash and cash equivalents, including money market funds. Krane actively manages all such investments to seek to outperform the debt instrument component of the Index.

 

The Commodities Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) has adopted certain requirements that subject registered investment companies and their advisers to regulation by the CFTC if a registered investment company invests more than a prescribed level of its net assets in CFTC-regulated futures, options and swaps, or if a registered investment company markets itself as providing investment exposure to such instruments. Due to the Fund’s potential use of CFTC-regulated futures and swaps above the prescribed levels, it is considered a “commodity pool” under the Commodity Exchange Act.

 

[The Fund is non-diversified.]

 

Principal Risks

As with all exchange traded funds (“ETFs”), a shareholder of the Fund is subject to the risk that his or her investment could lose money. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective and an investment in the Fund is not by itself a complete or balanced investment program. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves the risk of total loss. In addition to these risks, the Fund is subject to a number of additional principal risks that may affect the value of its shares, including:

 

Cap and Trade Risk. There is no assurance that cap and trade regimes will continue to exist. Cap and trade may not prove to be an effective method of reduction in GHG emissions. As a result or due to other factors, cap and trade regimes may be terminated or may not be renewed upon their expiration. New technologies may arise that may diminish or eliminate the need for cap and trade markets. Ultimately, the cost of emissions credits is determined by the cost of actually reducing emissions levels. If the price of credits becomes too high, it will be more economical for companies to develop or invest in green technologies, thereby suppressing the demand for credits and adversely affecting the price of the Fund.

 

Cap and trade regimes set emission limits (i.e., the right to emit a certain quantity of GHG emissions), which can be allocated or auctioned to the parties regulated under the regime up to the total emissions cap. This allocation may be larger or smaller than is needed for a stable price of credits and can lead to large price volatility, which could affect the value of the Fund. Depending upon the industries covered under each cap and trade mechanism represented in the Index, unpredictable demand for their products and services can affect the value of GHG emissions credits. For example, very mild winters or very cool summers can decrease demand for electric utilities and therefore require fewer carbon credits to offset reduced production and GHG emissions.

 

5

 

 

Clearing Broker Risk. Investment in exchange-traded futures contracts may expose the Fund to the risks of a clearing broker (or a futures commission merchant (“FCM”)). Under current regulations, a clearing broker or FCM maintains customers’ assets in a bulk segregated account. There is a risk that Fund assets deposited with the clearing broker to serve as margin may be used to satisfy the broker’s own obligations or the losses of the broker’s other clients. In the event of default, the Fund could experience lengthy delays in recovering some or all of its assets and may not see any recovery at all.

 

Commodity-Linked Derivatives Risk. The value of a commodity-linked derivative investment typically is based upon the price movements of a physical commodity and may be affected by changes in overall market movements, volatility of the Index, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. Investments in commodity-linked derivatives may be subject to greater volatility than non-derivative based investments. Commodity-linked derivatives also may be subject to credit and interest rate risks that in general affect the values of debt securities.

 

Commodity Pool Registration Risk. Under amended regulations promulgated by the CFTC, the Fund and the Subsidiary are considered commodity pools, and therefore each is subject to regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act and CFTC rules. Krane will register as a commodity pool operator and will manage the Fund and the Subsidiary in accordance with CFTC rules, as well as the rules that apply to registered investment companies. Commodity pools are subject to additional laws, regulations and enforcement policies, all of which may potentially increase compliance costs and may affect the operations and financial performance of the Fund and the Subsidiary. Additionally, positions in futures and other contracts may have to be liquidated at disadvantageous times or prices to prevent the Fund from exceeding any applicable position limits established by the CFTC. Such actions may subject the Fund to substantial losses.

 

Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets are expected to be concentrated in an industry or group of industries to the extent that the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries or sector. Market conditions, interest rates, and economic, regulatory, or financial developments could significantly affect a single industry or a group of related industries, and the securities of companies in that industry or group of industries could react similarly to these or other developments.

 

[Energy Commodity Risk. Investments in, and/or exposure to, the energy sector, which includes energy commodities such as oil, gasoline, and carbon credits, may be highly volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably due to a number of factors, including the legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions, increased competition affecting the energy sector, financial, accounting and tax matters and other events that the Fund cannot control. In addition, the value of energy commodities may fluctuate widely due to changes in supply and demand.]

 

6

 

 

[Energy Sector Risk. The energy sector is typically cyclical and highly dependent upon commodities and energy prices. Issuers in this sector are usually subject to substantial government regulation and contractual fixed pricing, which may increase the cost of business and limit these issuers’ earnings, and a significant portion of their revenues depends on a relatively small number of customers, including governmental entities and utilities.]

 

[Utilities Sector Risk. The utilities sector is subject to significant government regulation and oversight. Companies in the utilities sector may be adversely affected due to increases in commodity and operating costs, rising costs of financing capital construction and the cost of complying with government regulations, among other factors.]

 

Currency Risk. The Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of the U.S. dollar. The Fund may therefore lose value if the local currency of a foreign investment depreciates against the U.S. dollar, even if the local currency value of the Fund’s holdings goes up. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably, which may adversely affect the Fund. The Fund may also be subject to delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to foreign currencies and vice versa. This may adversely affect the Fund’s performance

 

Derivatives Risk. The use of derivatives (including swaps, futures, forwards, structured notes and options) may involve leverage, which includes risks that are different from, and greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in a reference asset, because a small investment in a derivative can result in a large impact on the Fund. In addition, derivatives can be illiquid and imperfectly correlated with the reference asset, resulting in unexpected returns that could materially adversely affect the Fund. Certain derivatives (such as swaps) are bi-lateral agreements that expose the Fund to counterparty risk, which is the risk of loss in the event that the counterparty to an agreement fails to perform under it. In that case, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to, or greater than, the full value of the derivative if the counterparty fails to perform its obligations. Counterparty risks are compounded by the fact that there are only a limited number of ways available to invest in certain reference assets and, therefore, there may be few counterparties to swaps based on those reference assets. Many derivatives are subject to segregation requirements, pursuant to which the Fund must segregate the market or notional value of the derivatives and which could impede the portfolio management of the Fund.

 

ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

Cash Transactions Risk. Like other ETFs, the Fund sells and redeems its shares only in large blocks called Creation Units and only to “Authorized Participants.” Unlike many other ETFs, however, the Fund expects to effect its creations and redemptions at least partially or fully for cash, rather than in-kind securities. Thus, an investment in the Fund may be less tax-efficient than an investment in other ETFs as the Fund may recognize a capital gain that it could have avoided by making redemptions in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher capital gains distributions than ETFs that redeem in-kind. Further, paying redemption proceeds in cash rather than through in-kind delivery of portfolio securities may require the Fund to dispose of or sell portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds at an inopportune time.

 

7

 

 

International Closed Market Trading Risk. Because certain of the Fund’s investments trade in markets that are closed when the Fund and Exchange are open, there are likely to be deviations between current pricing of an underlying security and stale pricing, resulting in the Fund trading at a discount or premium to NAV greater than those incurred by other ETFs.

 

New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow large in size once it commences trading, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a stop to trading.

 

Premium/Discount Risk. There may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (at a premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (at a discount). As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop loss orders to sell Fund shares may be executed at prices well below NAV.

 

Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. Secondary market trading is subject to bid-ask spreads and trading in Fund shares may be halted by the Exchange because of market conditions or other reasons. If a trading halt occurs, a shareholder may temporarily be unable to purchase or sell shares of the Fund. In addition, although the Fund’s shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Fixed income securities are subject to credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not make timely interest payments or repay the principal of the debt issued (i.e., it defaults on its obligations). Interest rate risk refers to fluctuations in the value of a debt resulting from changes in the level of interest rates. When interest rates go up, the prices of most debt instruments generally go down; and when interest rates go down, the prices of most debt instruments generally go up. Debt instruments with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes, typically making them more volatile. Interest rates have recently increased and may continue to increase, potentially rapidly and/or dramatically, thereby heightening the risks associated with rising interest rates.

 

8

 

 

Foreign Investments Risk. Investments in non-U.S. instruments may involve risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations and political or economic instability. Foreign markets also may have clearance and settlement procedures that make it difficult for the Fund to buy and sell securities. These factors could result in a loss to the Fund by causing the Fund to be unable to dispose of an investment or to miss an attractive investment opportunity, or by causing the Fund’s assets to be uninvested for some period of time.

 

Futures Strategy Risk. The use of futures contracts is subject to special risk considerations. The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts include: (a) an imperfect correlation between the change in market value of the reference asset and the price of the futures contract; (b) possible lack of a liquid secondary market for a futures contract and the resulting inability to close a futures contract when desired; (c) losses caused by unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited; (d) the Adviser’s inability to predict correctly the direction of market prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors; and (e) if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities or financial instruments from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements, which may lead to the Fund selling securities or financial instruments at a loss.

 

As a futures contract the Fund owns approaches its settlement date, the Fund may sell that futures contract and reinvest the proceeds in a similar contract with a more distant settlement date. This process is referred to as “rolling” a futures contract. The successful use of such a strategy depends upon the Adviser’s skill and experience. Although the Fund will attempt to roll from an expiring futures contract to another contract that the Adviser believes will generate the greatest yield for the Fund, the Fund nevertheless may incur a cost to “roll” the contract. In a commodity futures market where current month expiring contracts trade at a lower price than next month’s contract, a situation referred to as “contango,” then, absent the impact of the overall movement in commodity prices, the Fund may experience an adverse impact because it would be selling less expensive contracts and buying more expense contracts. In the event of a prolonged period of contango, and absent the impact of rising or falling commodity prices, there could be a significant negative impact on the Fund when it “rolls” its futures contract positions.

 

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund’s investments will be focused in a particular country, countries, or region and therefore the Fund may be susceptible to adverse market, political, regulatory, and geographic events affecting that country, countries or region. Such geographic focus also may subject the Fund to a higher degree of volatility than a more geographically diversified fund.

 

European Union Risk. Recently, new concerns have emerged in regard to the economic and political stability of the European Union. These concerns have led to downward pressure on the earnings of certain European issuers and on European financial markets. Secessionist movements in various member countries to leave the European Union may have an adverse effect on the economies of those member countries and on the European Union as a whole. The economies of the European Union are dependent to a significant extent on those of certain key trading partners, including China, the United States, and other European countries. A reduction in spending on products and services exported from the European Union, or volatility in the financial markets of member countries, may have an adverse impact on the broader European Union economy and could adversely affect the Fund.

 

9

 

 

Investment in Investment Companies Risk. The Fund may invest in other investment companies, including those advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane. The Fund will indirectly be exposed to the risks of investments by such funds. Moreover, the Fund will incur its pro rata share of the underlying fund’s expenses. Krane is subject to conflicts of interest in allocating Fund assets to investment companies that are advised, sponsored or otherwise serviced by Krane and/or its affiliates.

 

Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable time and price. If a transaction is particularly large, or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. If a number of investments held by the Fund stop trading, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund. The Adviser’s evaluations and assumptions regarding investments, interest rates, inflation, and other factors may not successfully achieve the Fund’s investment objective given actual market conditions.

 

Market Risk. The values of the Fund’s holdings could decline generally or could underperform other investments. In addition, there is a risk that policy changes by the U.S. Government, Federal Reserve, and/or other government actors, could cause increased volatility in global financial markets and higher levels of Fund redemptions, which could have a negative impact on the Fund. Further, the Fund is susceptible to the risk that certain investments may be difficult or impossible to sell at a favorable time or price. Market developments may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and subject to erratic price movements. Such market developments may also cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions, especially if market events cause an increased incidence of shareholder redemptions.

 

[Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may concentrate its investments to a greater extent than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.]

 

Regulatory Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a change in U.S. law and related regulations will impact the way the Fund operates, increase the particular costs of the Fund’s operations and/or change the competitive landscape. Additional legislative or regulatory changes could occur that may materially and adversely affect the Fund.

 

10

 

 

Regulatory risk related to changes in regulation and enforcement of cap and trade regimes could also adversely affect market behavior. If fines or other penalties for non-compliance are not enforced, incentives to purchase GHG credits will deteriorate, which could result in a decline in the price of emissions credits and a drop in the value of the Fund. In addition, as cap and trade markets develop, new regulation with respect to these markets may arise, which could have a negative effect on the value and liquidity of the cap and trade markets and the Fund.

 

Subsidiary Investment Risk. By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with the Subsidiary’s investments. Since the Subsidiary is organized under the law of the Cayman Islands and is not registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), the Fund will not receive all of the protections offered to shareholders of registered investment companies. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands could result in the inability of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as intended, which may negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders.

 

Tax Risk. In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies, the Fund must satisfy certain income, asset diversification and distribution requirements each year. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income, which would adversely affect the Fund’s performance.

 

Based on the principles underlying private letter rulings previously issued to other taxpayers, the Fund intends to treat its income from the Subsidiary as qualifying income without any such ruling from the IRS. The tax treatment of the Fund’s investment in the Subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, court decisions, Treasury Regulations and/or guidance issued by the IRS that could affect whether income derived from such investments is “qualifying income” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code, or otherwise affect the character, timing and/or amount of the Fund’s taxable income or any gains or distributions made by the Fund.

 

U.S. Government Obligations Risk. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities receive varying levels of support and may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which could affect the Fund’s ability to recover should they default. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.

 

[Valuation Risk. Independent market quotations for certain investments held by the Fund may not be readily available, and such investments may be fair valued or valued by a pricing service at an evaluated price. These valuations involve subjectivity and different market participants may assign different prices to the same investment. As a result, there is a risk that the Fund may not be able to sell an investment at the price assigned to the investment by the Fund.]

 

11

 

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Performance Information

Once the Fund has completed a full calendar year of operations, a bar chart and table will be included in this Prospectus that will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing the variability of the Fund’s return based on net assets and comparing the variability of the Fund’s return to a broad measure of market performance. Once available, the Fund’s current performance information will be available at www.kraneshares.com. Past performance does not necessarily indicate how the Fund will perform in the future.

 

Management

 

Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund. Climate Finance Partners LLC (“Sub-Adviser”) serves as the non-discretionary investment sub-adviser to the Fund.

 

Portfolio Managers

Mark Schlarbaum, Head of Capital Markets at the Adviser, has served as the lead portfolio manager of the Fund since the Fund’s inception. Jonathan Shelon, Chief Operating Officer of the Adviser, supports Mr. Schlarbaum and Krane’s investment team for the Fund and has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since the Fund’s inception.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares

Shares may be purchased and redeemed from the Fund only in “Creation Units” of 50,000 shares, or multiples thereof. As a practical matter, only institutions and large investors, such as market makers or other large broker-dealers, purchase or redeem Creation Units. Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange. Individual shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities through a broker-dealer on the Exchange. These transactions do not involve the Fund. The price of an individual Fund share is based on market prices, which may be different from its NAV. As a result, the Fund’s shares may trade at a price greater than the NAV (at a premium) or less than the NAV (at a discount). Most investors will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer.

 

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Tax Information

Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged retirement account, which may be taxable upon withdrawal.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase Fund shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your sales person to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your sales person or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

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Additional Information About the Fund

Each of the policies described in this Prospectus, including the Fund’s investment objective is a non-fundamental policy that may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust without shareholder approval. Certain fundamental policies of the Fund are set forth in the SAI.

 

Additional Principal Investment Strategies and Index Information

The Fund attempts to maintain exposure to commodity futures contracts that are the same as or similar to those included in the Index and to exceed the performance of the Index through the active management of a portfolio of debt instruments.

 

The Index utilizes a rules-based methodology and is designed to track a portfolio of liquid, accessible carbon credit futures contracts with “physical delivery.” In a typical “cap and trade” regime, a limit (or “cap”) is set by a regulator, such as a government entity or supranational organization, on the total amount of specific greenhouse gases (“GHG”), such as CO2, that can be emitted by regulated entities, such as manufacturers or energy producers. The regulator then may issue or sell individual “emission allowances” to regulated entities. These emission allowances are issued by the regulator to regulated entities, which may then buy or sell (“trade”) the emission allowances on the open market. The regulator may gradually reduce the market cap on emission allowances, thereby increasing the value of such allowances and forcing regulated entities to reduce their GHG emissions. A cap on emission allowances available to the market supports the value of those allowances and is intended to incentivize regulated entities to reduce their GHG emissions, because they are permitted to sell unneeded emission allowances for profit. Commodity futures contracts linked to the value of emission allowances are known as carbon credit futures.

 

The Index includes only carbon credit futures maturing in the next two years that have a minimum average monthly trade volume over the previous six months of at least $10 million. The Index allocates eligible carbon credit futures by their respective average monthly trading volume during the three months preceding the Index rebalance. Allocations will be subject to a 10% minimum weight component and a 65% maximum weight component per any one of three geographical regions: (1) Europe, the Middle East and Africa, (2) the Americas, and (3) the Asia-Pacific. No single contract will represent less than 5% or more than 60% of the Index. As of May 30, 2019, eligible components include emission allowances issued under the European Union Allowance, California Carbon Allowance and Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative “cap and trade” regimes. As the global carbon credit market grows additional liquid contracts are expected to enter the index. Cap-and-trade carbon credit markets under review as potential future additions include tradable carbon credits in South Korea, New Zealand and China.

 

The total return of the Index is calculated as the sum of: (1) the change in spot prices for the carbon credit futures included in the index (the “price return”), (2) the cost of investing expiring contracts into new contracts (the “roll yield”), and (3) the income earned from investing cash collateral (the “collateral yield”). The roll yield of the Index is zero for every day except the day after rebalancing, and the collateral yield is calculated by multiplying the U.S. Daily Overnight Rate and the closing value of the Index (excluding interest cash) for a given day.

 

The Fund utilizes a subsidiary (the “Subsidiary”) for purposes of investing in instruments such as futures contracts, options on futures contracts and swap contracts. The Subsidiary is a corporation operating under Cayman Islands law that is wholly-owned and controlled by the Fund and advised by the Adviser and Sub-Adviser. The Fund may invest up to 25% of its assets in the Subsidiary, the Subsidiary has the same investment objective as the Fund and will follow the same general investment policies and restrictions. Except as noted, for purposes of this Prospectus, references to the Fund’s investment strategies and risks include those of its Subsidiary, and references to the Fund include the Subsidiary.

 

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Although the Fund seeks to maintain exposure to commodity futures contracts that are the same as or similar to those included in the Index, the Fund and the Subsidiary will be actively managed and will not be required to replicate the performance of a specific index or to invest in the specific instruments included in the Index. For example, the Fund may hold commodity futures contracts with the same maturity and weightings as the Index, but may select a different month of maturity or weighting in seeking to achieve better performance than the Index.

 

The commodity-linked instruments in which the Fund may invest to seek exposure to the Index include futures contracts, options on futures contracts, swap contracts, other investment companies and exchange-traded notes. The debt instruments in which the Fund may invest include government securities and highly-rated corporate or other non-government fixed-income securities with maturities of up to 12 months. The Fund may invest in such instruments indirectly through short-term bond funds and ETFs. The Fund may also invest in cash and cash equivalents, including money market funds. Krane actively manages all such investments to seek to outperform the debt instrument component of the Index.

 

The Commodities Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) has adopted certain requirements that subject registered investment companies and their advisers to regulation by the CFTC if a registered investment company invests more than a prescribed level of its net assets in CFTC-regulated futures, options and swaps, or if a registered investment company markets itself as providing investment exposure to such instruments. Due to the Fund’s potential use of CFTC-regulated futures and swaps above the prescribed levels, it is considered a “commodity pool” under the Commodity Exchange Act.

 

The Index is calculated on each SIFMA recommended U.S. trading day and the last calendar day of November. The Index is rebalanced annually on the last business day of November. To convert the value of foreign carbon credit futures to U.S. dollars, the Index utilizes foreign exchange spot rates from WM and Reuters, using foreign exchange rates as of 4:00 p.m. London time for any day the Index is calculated. The Index was launched on […], 2019, with a base date of July 31, 2014, and a base value of 100. As of […], 2019, the Index included […] futures contracts with a market capitalization range of $[…] million to $[…] million and an average market capitalization of $[…] million. The largest regional representations in the Index were […] ([…]%) and […] ([…]%).

 

The Index is provided by Markit Indices GmbH, a wholly-owned subsidiary of IHS Markit Ltd. (the “Index Provider”). The Index Provider is not affiliated with the Fund or Krane. The Index Provider determines the components and the relative weightings of the components in the Index. The Index Provider may consult with the IHS Markit Global Carbon Index Advisory Committee to review potential changes to the Index rules and methodology. Any decision as to the eligibility or ineligibility of a carbon credit futures contract will be published and the Index rules will be updated accordingly. Additional information about the Index is available on the Index Provider’s website, www.markit.com.

 

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Temporary Defensive Positions. From time to time, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to poor market liquidity, adverse markets, economic, political, or other conditions. In such instances, the Fund may hold up to 100% of its assets in cash; short-term U.S. government securities and government agency securities; investment grade money market instruments; money market mutual funds; investment grade fixed-income securities; repurchase agreements; commercial paper; cash equivalents; and ETFs that principally invest in the foregoing instruments. However, the Adviser will not seek to actively time market movements. As a result of engaging in these temporary measures, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

 

Principal Investment Risks

The following section provides additional information regarding certain of the principal risks of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves a risk of a total loss. There is no guarantee that the Fund will meet its investment objective.

 

Cap and Trade Risk. Cap and trade regimes and related markets are new and based on scientific principles that are subject to debate. Cap and trade regimes have arisen primarily due to relative international consensus with respect to scientific evidence indicating a correlation between the rise in global temperatures and extreme weather events, on the one hand, and the rise in GHG emissions in the atmosphere, on the other hand. If this consensus were to break down, cap and trade regimes and the value of the Fund may be negatively affected. Additionally, if the science supporting the relationship or the acceptable level of GHG concentrations is discredited or proved to be incorrect or inaccurate, it may negatively affect cap and trade regimes and the value of the Fund.

 

There is no assurance that cap and trade regimes will continue to exist. Cap and trade may not prove to be an effective method of reduction in GHG emissions. As a result or due to other factors, cap and trade regimes may be terminated or may not be renewed upon their expiration. The European Union Emissions Trading System (“EU ETS”) is organized into a number of phases, each which a predetermined duration. Currently, the EU ETS is in Phase III. There can be no assurance that the EU ETS will enter into a new phase as scheduled.

 

New technologies may arise that may diminish or eliminate the need for cap and trade markets. Ultimately, the cost of emissions credits is determined by the cost of actually reducing emissions levels. If the price of credits becomes too high, it will be more economical for companies to develop or invest in green technologies, thereby suppressing the demand for credits and adversely affecting the price of the Fund.

 

Cap and trade regimes set emission limits (i.e., the right to emit a certain quantity of GHG emissions), which can be allocated or auctioned to the parties in the mechanism up to the total emissions cap. This allocation may be larger or smaller than is needed for a stable price of credits and can lead to large price volatility, which could affect the value of the Fund. Depending upon the industries covered under each cap and trade regimes represented in the Index, unpredictable demand for their products and services can affect the value of GHG emissions credits. For example, very mild winters or very cool summers can decrease demand for electric utilities and therefore require fewer carbon credits to offset reduced production and GHG emissions.

 

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The economic health of GHG emitting companies and their ability to pass on the cost of emissions credits to consumers can affect the price of the carbon credit futures. If the price of emissions can be passed on to the end customer with little impact upon consumer demand, it is likely that industries may continue emitting and purchase any shortfall in the market at the prevailing price. If, however, the producer is unable to pass on the cost, it may be incentivized to reduce production in order to decrease its need for offsetting emissions credits, which could adversely affect the price of carbon credit futures and the Fund.

 

Clearing Broker Risk. Investment in exchange-traded futures contracts may expose the Fund to the risks of a clearing broker (or a futures commission merchant (“FCM”)). Under current regulations, a clearing broker or FCM maintains customers’ assets in a bulk segregated account. There is a risk that Fund assets deposited with the clearing broker to serve as margin may be used to satisfy the broker’s own obligations or the losses of the broker’s other clients. In the event of default, the Fund could experience lengthy delays in recovering some or all of its assets and may not see any recovery at all.

 

Commodity-Linked Derivatives Risk. The value of a commodity-linked derivative investment is typically based upon the price movements of a physical commodity (such as heating oil, precious metals, livestock, or agricultural products), a commodity futures contract or commodity index, or some other readily measurable economic variable. Commodity-linked derivatives provide exposure, which may include long and/or short exposure, to the investment returns of physical commodities that trade in the commodities markets without investing directly in physical commodities. The value of commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, volatility of the underlying index, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. The value of commodity-linked derivatives will rise or fall in response to changes in the underlying commodity or related index. Investments in commodity-linked derivatives may be subject to greater volatility than non-derivative based investments. A highly liquid secondary market may not exist for certain commodity-linked derivatives, and there can be no assurance that one will develop.

 

Commodity Pool Registration Risk. Under amended regulations promulgated by the U.S. Commodities Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”), the Fund and the Subsidiary are considered commodity pools, and therefore each is subject to regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act and CFTC rules. The Adviser will register as a commodity pool operator and will manage the Fund and the Subsidiary in accordance with CFTC rules, as well as the rules that apply to registered investment companies. Commodity pools are subject to additional laws, regulations and enforcement policies, all of which may potentially increase compliance costs and may affect the operations and financial performance of the Fund and the Subsidiary. Additionally, positions in futures and other derivative contracts may have to be liquidated at disadvantageous times or prices to prevent the Fund from exceeding any applicable position limits established by the CFTC. Such actions may subject the Fund to substantial losses.

 

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Concentration Risk. Because the Fund’s assets are expected to be concentrated in an industry or group of industries, to the extent that the Index concentrates in a particular industry or group of industries, the Fund is subject to loss due to adverse occurrences that may affect that industry or group of industries. Market conditions, interest rates, and economic, regulatory, or financial developments could significantly affect a single industry or a group of related industries, and the securities of companies in that industry or group of industries could react similarly to these or other developments.

 

[Energy Commodity Risk. Investments in, and/or exposure to, the energy sector, which includes energy commodities such as oil, gasoline, and carbon credits, may be highly volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably due to a number of factors, including the legislative or regulatory changes, adverse market conditions, increased competition affecting the energy sector, financial, accounting and tax matters and other events that the Fund cannot control. In addition, the value of energy commodities may fluctuate widely due to changes in supply and demand. As a result, the price of an energy commodity could decline, which would adversely affect an investment in the Fund if it held that commodity.]

 

[Energy Sector Risk. The energy sector of an economy is typically cyclical and highly dependent on energy prices. The market value of companies in the energy sector are strongly affected by the levels and volatility of global energy prices, energy supply and demand, capital expenditures on exploration and production of energy sources, energy conservation efforts, exchange rates, interest rates, economic conditions, tax treatment, increased competition and technological advances, among other factors. Companies in this sector may be subject to substantial government regulation and interference, which may limit their earnings. A significant portion of revenues of these companies typically depends on a relatively small number of customers, including governmental entities and utilities. As a result, governmental budget constraints may have a material adverse effect on the stock prices of companies in this sector. Energy companies also face a significant risk of liability from accidents resulting in injury or loss of life or property, pollution or other environmental problems, equipment malfunctions or mishandling of materials and a risk of loss from terrorism, political strife and natural disasters. Any such event could have serious consequences for the general population of the area impacted and could have an adverse impact on the performance of the Fund.]

 

[Utilities Sector Risk. Companies in the utilities industry may have difficulty obtaining an adequate return on invested capital, raising capital, and financing large construction programs during periods of inflation or unsettled capital markets; face restrictions on operations and increased cost and delays attributable to environmental considerations and regulation; find that existing plants, equipment or products have been rendered obsolete by technological innovations; and be subject to increased costs because of the scarcity of certain fuels or the effects of man-made disasters. Deregulation is subjecting utility companies to greater competition and may adversely affect profitability. As deregulation allows utility companies to diversify outside of their original geographic regions and their traditional lines of business, utility companies may engage in riskier ventures. Government regulators monitor and control utility operations, revenues and costs, and therefore may limit utility profits. Regulatory authorities may also restrict utility companies’ access to new markets, thereby diminishing these companies’ long-term prospects. Energy conservation and changes in climate policy may have a significant adverse impact on the revenues and expenses of utility companies.]

 

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Currency Risk. The Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of the U.S. dollar. The Fund may lose value if a foreign currency to which the Fund is exposed depreciates against the U.S. dollar, even if the local currency value of the Fund’s holdings goes up. The Fund’s assets will be invested in the securities of foreign issuers and the income received by the Fund may be in foreign currencies. The Fund will compute and expects to distribute its income in U.S. dollars, and the computation of income will be made on the date that the income is earned by the Fund at the foreign exchange rate in effect on that date. Any gain or loss attributable to fluctuations in exchange rates between the time the Fund accrues income or gain and the time the Fund converts such income or gain from a foreign currency to the dollar is generally treated as ordinary income or loss. Therefore, if the value of a foreign currency increases relative to the U.S. dollar between the accrual of income and the time at which the Fund converts the foreign currency to U.S. dollars, the Fund will recognize ordinary income upon conversion. In such circumstances, if the Fund has insufficient cash in U.S. dollars to meet distribution requirements under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the Fund may be required to liquidate certain positions in order to make distributions. The liquidation of investments, if required, may also have an adverse impact on the Fund’s performance. Furthermore, the Fund may incur costs in connection with conversions between U.S. dollars and foreign currencies. Foreign exchange dealers realize a profit based on the difference between the prices at which they are buying and selling various currencies. Thus, a dealer normally will offer to sell a foreign currency to the Fund at one rate, while offering a lesser rate of exchange should the Fund desire immediately to resell that currency to the dealer.

 

The Fund will conduct its foreign currency exchange transactions either on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market, or through forward, futures or options contracts to purchase or sell foreign currencies. The use of currency transactions could result in the Fund’s incurring losses as a result of the imposition of exchange controls, exchange rate regulation, suspension of settlements or the inability to deliver or receive a specified currency. Delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to foreign currencies for the purpose of purchasing foreign securities could leave the Fund with uninvested cash, may adversely affect the Fund’s performance, since any delay could result in the Fund missing an investment opportunity and purchasing securities at a higher price than originally intended, and cause the Fund to incur cash drag. Delays in converting or transferring foreign currencies to U.S. dollars could also inhibit the Fund’s ability to meet shareholder redemptions or make distributions.

 

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Derivatives Risk. Derivatives are financial instruments, such as swaps, futures, forwards, structured notes and options, whose values are based on the value of one or more reference assets, such as a security, asset, currency, interest rate or index. Derivatives involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. For example, derivatives involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the reference asset(s). Many derivative transactions are entered into “over-the-counter” (not on an exchange or contract market); as a result, the value of such a derivative transaction will depend on the ability and the willingness of the Fund’s counterparty to perform its obligations under the transaction. If a counterparty were to default on its obligations, the Fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor (e.g., the Fund may not receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive). A liquid secondary market may not always exist for the Fund’s derivative positions at any time. If a derivative transaction is centrally cleared, it will be subject to the rules of the clearing exchange and subject to risks associated with the exchange. Derivatives can be illiquid and imperfectly correlate with the reference asset(s). Many derivatives are subject to segregation requirements, pursuant to which the Fund must segregate the market or notional value of the derivatives and which could impede the portfolio management of the Fund. It is possible that developments in the derivatives market, including ongoing or potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to enter into new derivatives agreements, terminate existing derivative agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments.

 

Counterparty Risk. Because many derivatives are an obligation of the counterparty rather than a direct investment in the reference asset, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to, or greater than, the full value of the derivative if the counterparty fails to perform its obligations under the derivative agreement as a result of bankruptcy or otherwise. Any loss would result in a reduction in the NAV of the Fund and will likely impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. If there are only a few potential counterparties, the Fund, subject to applicable law, may enter into swap transactions with as few as one counterparty at any time.

 

Forward Currency Contracts Risk. A forward foreign currency contract involves a negotiated obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date (with or without delivery required), which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. Forward foreign currency contracts are not traded on exchanges; rather, a bank or dealer will act as agent or as principal in order to make or take future delivery, exposing the Fund to counterparty risk.

 

Futures Risk. In addition to the above, risks associated with the use of futures contracts include the following: (i) an imperfect correlation between movements in prices of futures contracts and movements in the value of the reference asset(s) it is designed to simulate; and (ii) the possibility of an illiquid secondary market for a futures contract and the resulting inability to close a position prior to its maturity date. When the Fund purchases or sells a futures contract, it is subject to daily variation margin calls that could be substantial. If the Fund has insufficient cash to meet daily variation margin requirements, it might need to sell securities at a time when such sales are disadvantageous.

 

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Leveraging Risk. The Fund’s investment in derivative instruments provide leveraged exposure. The Fund’s investment in these instruments generally requires a small investment relative to the amount of investment exposure assumed. As a result, such investments may give rise to losses that exceed the amount invested in those instruments. The use of derivatives may expose the Fund to potentially dramatic losses (or gains) in the value of a derivative or other financial instrument and, thus, in the value the Fund’s portfolio. The cost of investing in such instruments generally increases as interest rates increase, which will lower the Fund’s return.

 

Options Risk. An option is a contract that gives the purchaser (holder) of the option, in return for a premium, the right to buy from (call) or sell to (put) the seller (writer) of the option the security or currency underlying the option at a specified exercise price at any time during the term of the option (normally not exceeding nine months). The writer of an option has the obligation upon exercise of the option to deliver the underlying security or currency upon payment of the exercise price or to pay the exercise price upon delivery of the underlying security or currency.

 

Options on Futures Contracts Risk. An option on a futures contract provides the holder with the right to enter into a “long” position in the underlying futures contract, in the case of a call option, or a “short” position in the underlying futures contract in the case of a put option, at a fixed exercise price to a stated expiration date. Upon exercise of the option by the holder, the contract market clearing house establishes a corresponding short position for the writer of the option, in the case of a call option, or a corresponding long position, in the case of a put option.

 

Swaps Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in swaps, it will be subject to the risk that the number of counterparties able to enter into swaps to provide exposure to a desired reference asset may be limited. Swaps are of limited duration and there is no guarantee that swaps entered into with a counterparty will continue indefinitely. Accordingly, the duration of a swap depends on, among other things, the ability of the Fund to renew the expiration period of the relevant swap at agreed upon terms.

 

ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to net asset value and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

International Closed Market Trading Risk. Because the Fund’s underlying securities trade on markets that may be closed when the Exchange is open, there are likely to be deviations between current pricing of an underlying security and stale pricing, resulting in the Fund trading at a discount or premium to net asset value that may be greater than those incurred by other ETFs.

 

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Premium/Discount Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of Fund shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the secondary market. It cannot be predicted whether Fund shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop-loss orders to sell the ETF shares may be executed at market prices that are significantly below NAV. Price differences may be due, in part, to the fact that supply and demand forces at work in the secondary trading market for shares may be closely related to, but not identical to, the same forces influencing the prices of the securities of the Index trading individually. The market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV of the shares during periods of market volatility or if the Fund’s holdings are or become more illiquid. Disruptions to creations and redemptions may result in trading prices that differ significantly from the Fund’s NAV. In addition, market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV if the number of Fund shares outstanding is smaller or if there is less active trading in Fund shares. Investors purchasing and selling Fund shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. In addition, secondary market investors will incur the cost of the difference between the price that an investor is willing to pay for shares (the bid price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell shares (the ask price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread varies over time for shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund’s shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if the Fund’s shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads.

 

Although Fund shares are listed for trading on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed. Trading in Fund shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of any Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all.

 

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ETF Risk – Cash Transactions Risk. Like other ETFs, the Fund sells and redeems its shares only in large blocks called Creation Units and only to Authorized Participants. Unlike most other ETFs, however, the Fund expects to effect its creations and redemptions at least partially or fully for cash, rather than in-kind securities.

 

Other ETFs generally are able to make in-kind redemptions and avoid realizing gains in connection with redemption requests. Effecting redemptions for cash may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. Such dispositions may occur at an inopportune time, resulting in potential losses to the Fund or difficulties in meeting shareholder redemptions, and involve transaction costs. If the Fund recognizes gain on these sales, this generally will cause the Fund to recognize gain it might not otherwise have recognized if it were to distribute portfolio securities in-kind or to recognize such gain sooner than would otherwise have been required. The Fund generally intends to distribute these gains to shareholders to avoid being taxed on this gain at the Fund level and otherwise comply with the special tax rules that apply to it. This strategy may cause shareholders to be subject to tax on gains they would not otherwise be subject to, or at an earlier date than, if they had made an investment in another ETF.

 

In addition, cash transactions may have to be carried out over several days if the securities market in which the Fund is trading is less liquid and may involve considerable transaction expenses and taxes. These brokerage fees and taxes, which will be higher than if the Fund sold and redeemed its shares principally in-kind, may be passed on to purchasers and redeemers of Creation Units in the form of creation and redemption transaction fees. However, the Fund has capped the total fees that may be charged in connection with the redemption of Creation Units at 2% of the value of the Creation Units redeemed. To the extent transaction and other costs associated with a redemption exceed that cap, those transaction costs will be borne by the Fund’s remaining shareholders. These factors may result in wider spreads between the bid and the offered prices of the Fund’s shares than for other ETFs.

 

ETF Risk – New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have a significant number of shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow in size, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a trading halt.

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Investing in fixed income securities subjects the Fund to the following risks:

 

Credit Risk. The Fund could lose money if the issuer of a fixed income security is unable to meet its repayment obligations in a timely manner, or if negative perceptions of the issuer’s ability to make such payments cause the price of the bond to decline.

 

Income Risk. The Fund’s income may decline due to falling interest rates. During a period of falling interest rates, income risk is generally higher for short term bond funds, moderate for intermediate term bond funds and low for long term bond funds. Therefore, investors should expect a Fund’s income to fluctuate accordingly.

 

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Interest Rate Risk. Interest rate risk is the risk that the securities in the Fund’s portfolio will decline in value because of increases in market interest rates. Fixed income securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to changes in interest rates, usually making them more volatile than debt securities with shorter durations. Duration is a measure of a fixed income security’s sensitivity to changes in interest rates. For every 1% change in interest rates, a bond’s price generally changes approximately 1% in the opposite direction for every year of duration. For example, if a portfolio of fixed income securities has an average weighted duration of three years, its value can be expected to fall about 3% if interest rates rise by 1%. Conversely, the portfolio’s value can be expected to rise approximately 3% if interest rates fall by 1%. Unlike maturity, which considers only the date on which the final repayment of principal will be made, duration takes account of interim payments made during the life of the security. Duration is typically not equal to maturity. Interest rates have recently been historically low but have recently increased and may continue to increase, potentially quickly and significantly, thereby heightening the Fund’s exposure to the risks associated with rising rates.

 

Issuer Risk. There may be economic or political changes that impact the ability of issuers to repay principal and to make interest payments on securities. Changes to the financial condition or credit rating of issuers may also adversely affect the value of the Fund’s securities.

 

Reinvestment Risk. The Fund’s performance may be adversely impacted when interest rates fall because the Fund must invest in lower-yielding bonds as bonds in its portfolio mature.

 

Foreign Investment Risk. Foreign investments may involve higher costs than U.S. investments, including higher transaction and custody costs as well as the imposition of additional taxes by foreign governments. Foreign investments may also involve risks associated with currency exchange rates, less complete financial information, less market liquidity, more market volatility and political and economic instability. Future political and economic developments, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign holdings, the possible establishment of exchange controls or freezes on the convertibility of currency, or the adoption of other governmental restrictions might adversely affect an investment in foreign securities. Additionally, foreign investments may be subject to less stringent regulation, and to different accounting, auditing, recordkeeping, financial reporting, and investor protection requirements. The value of foreign investments may change materially when the U.S. markets are not open for trading.

 

Income from non-U.S. investments, including gains on the sale of such investments, may be subject to foreign taxes. Even if the Fund qualifies to pass these taxes through to shareholders, the ability to claim a credit for such taxes may be limited, particularly in the case of taxes on capital gains.

 

Foreign markets may have clearance and settlement procedures that make it difficult for the Fund to buy and sell securities. This could result in a loss to the Fund by causing the Fund to be unable to dispose of an investment or to miss an attractive investment opportunity, or by causing the Fund’s assets to be uninvested for some period of time, or cause the Fund to face delays or difficulties in meeting shareholder redemptions.

 

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Futures Strategy Risk. Successful use of futures contracts draws upon the Adviser’s skill and experience with respect to such instruments and is subject to special risk considerations. The primary risks associated with the use of futures contracts include: (a) an imperfect correlation between the change in market value of the reference asset and the price of the futures contract; (b) possible lack of a liquid secondary market for a futures contract and the resulting inability to close a futures contract when desired; (c) losses caused by unanticipated market movements, which are potentially unlimited; (d) the Adviser’s inability to predict correctly the direction of market prices, interest rates, currency exchange rates and other economic factors; and (e) if the Fund has insufficient cash, it may have to sell securities from its portfolio to meet daily variation margin requirements, and the Fund may have to sell securities at a loss.

 

As a futures contract the Fund owns approaches its settlement date, the Fund may sell that futures contract and reinvest the proceeds in a similar contract with a more distant settlement date. This process is referred to as “rolling” a futures contract. The successful use of such a strategy depends upon the Adviser’s skill and experience. Although the Fund will attempt to roll from an expiring futures contract to another contract that the Adviser believes will generate the greatest yield for the Fund, the Fund nevertheless may incur a cost to “roll” the contract. In a commodity futures market where current month expiring contracts trade at a lower price than next month’s contract, a situation referred to as “contango,” absent the impact of the overall movement in commodity prices, the Fund may experience an adverse impact because it would be selling less expensive contracts and buying more expense contracts. In the event of a prolonged period of contango, and absent the impact of rising or falling commodity prices, there could be a significant negative impact on the Fund when it “rolls” its futures contract positions.

 

Geographic Focus Risk. The Fund’s investments are expected to be focused in a particular country, countries, or region to approximately the same degree as its Index and, therefore the Fund will be susceptible to adverse market, political, regulatory, and geographic events affecting those regions. The Fund is less diversified across countries or geographic regions and generally riskier than more geographically diversified funds.

 

European Union Risk. Recently, new concerns have emerged in regard to the economic and political stability of the European Union. These concerns have led to downward pressure on the earnings of certain European issuers and on European financial markets. Secessionist movements in various member countries to leave the European Union may have an adverse effect on the economies of those member countries and on the European Union as a whole. The economies of the European Union are dependent to a significant extent on those of certain key trading partners, including China, the United States, and other European countries. A reduction in spending on products and services exported from the European Union, or volatility in the financial markets of member countries, may have an adverse impact on the broader European Union economy and could adversely affect the Fund. Recent developments in relations between the United States and its trading partners have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between those countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on the European Union's export industry and a commensurately negative impact on the Fund. In addition, heavy regulation of labor, energy and product markets in the European Union may have an adverse impact on European Union markets. Such regulations may negatively impact economic growth or cause prolonged periods of recession, which could adversely affect the Fund.

 

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Investment in Investment Companies Risk. The Fund may purchase shares of investment companies, such as ETFs, unit investment trusts, closed-end investment companies and foreign investment companies to gain exposure to particular component securities of the Index or when such investments present a more cost efficient alternative to investing directly in securities. When the Fund invests in an investment company, in addition to directly bearing the expenses associated with its own operations, it will bear a pro rata portion of the underlying investment company’s expenses. An investor in the Fund may receive taxable gains as a result of an underlying fund’s portfolio transactions in addition to the taxable gains attributable to the Fund’s transactions in shares of the underlying fund. Further, in part because of these additional expenses, the performance of an investment company may differ from the performance the Fund would achieve if it invested directly in the underlying investments of the investment company. In addition, while the risks of owning shares of an investment company generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying investments of the investment company, the Fund may be subject to additional or different risks than if the Fund had invested directly in the underlying investments. For example, shares of an ETF are traded at market prices, which may vary from the NAV of its underlying investments. Also, the lack of liquidity in an ETF can contribute to the increased volatility of its value in comparison to the value of the underlying portfolio securities. In addition, to the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies, including ETFs, sponsored, advised or otherwise serviced by Krane, its sub-adviser, as applicable, or their affiliates, they may be subject to conflicts of interest in allocating Fund assets, particularly if they are paid an advisory fee both by the Fund and the fund in which the Fund invests.

 

Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable price. If a transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may reduce the returns of the Fund because it may be unable to sell the illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. This is especially true given the limited number of market participants in certain markets in which the Fund may invest. Market developments may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and subject to erratic price movements, and may also cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions, especially if market events cause an increased incidence of shareholder redemptions. If a number of investments held by the Fund halt trading or become illiquid, such as due to an exchange’s limit up, limit down rules, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund. The Adviser’s evaluations and assumptions regarding investments, interest rates, inflation, and other factors may not successfully achieve the Fund’s investment objective given actual market conditions.

 

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Market Risk. The values of investments held by the Fund could decline generally or could underperform other investments. Market fluctuations could be caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. Recent developments in relations between the United States and its trading partners have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on the world’s export industry and a commensurately negative impact on financial markets. Different types of investments tend to go through cycles of outperformance and under-performance in comparison to the broader market. In addition, investments may decline in value due to factors affecting a specific sector of the market. An investment in the Fund may lose money.

 

Turbulence in the financial markets and reduced liquidity in equity, credit and fixed-income markets may negatively affect issuers worldwide, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund. Following the financial crisis that began in 2007, the Federal Reserve attempted to stabilize the U.S. economy and support the U.S. economic recovery by keeping the federal funds rate at or near zero percent. Interest rates have recently increased and there is a risk that interest rates will continue to rise, potentially quickly and significantly. These policy changes may expose markets to heightened volatility and may reduce liquidity for certain Fund investments, causing the value of the Fund's investments and share price to decline. To the extent that the Fund experiences high redemptions, the Fund may experience increased portfolio turnover, which will increase the costs that the Fund incurs and will lower the Fund's performance.

 

[Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may concentrate its investments to a greater extent than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.]

 

Regulatory Risk. The Fund is subject to the risk that a change in U.S. law and related regulations will impact the way the Fund operates, increase the particular costs of the Fund’s operations and/or change the competitive landscape. Additional legislative or regulatory changes could occur that may materially and adversely affect the Fund. For example, the regulatory environment for derivative instruments in which the Fund may invest is evolving, and changes in the regulation or taxation of derivative instruments may materially and adversely affect the ability of the Fund to pursue its investment objective or strategies. Such legislative or regulatory changes could pose additional risks and result in material adverse consequences to the Fund.

 

Regulatory risk related to changes in regulation and enforcement of cap and trade regimes could adversely affect market behavior. If fines or other penalties for non-compliance are not enforced, incentives to purchase GHG credits will deteriorate, which can result in a fall in the price of emissions credits and a drop in the value of the Fund. Cap and trade markets relating to GHG emissions are relatively recent, the first such program arising in 2001. Accordingly, historical performance of these markets may not be indicative of future performance, and future performance of cap and trade markets may be hard to predict. In addition, as cap and trade markets develop, new regulation with respect to these markets may arise, which may have a negative effect on the value and liquidity of the cap and trade markets and the Fund.

 

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Subsidiary Investment Risk. Investment in the Subsidiary generally will not exceed 25% of the value of its total assets (ignoring any subsequent market appreciation in the Subsidiary’s value). This limitation is pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and is measured at each taxable year quarter-end. The Subsidiary, which is organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands, is wholly-owned and controlled by the Fund. The Fund will invest in the Subsidiary in order to gain exposure to the investment returns of the commodities markets within the limitations of the federal tax law requirements applicable to regulated investment companies. The Subsidiary will invest principally in commodity futures, options and swap contracts, as well as certain fixed-income investments intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivatives positions. Unlike the Fund, the Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity-linked derivatives, though the Subsidiary will comply with the same 1940 Act asset coverage requirements with respect to its investments in commodity-linked derivatives that apply to the Fund’s transactions in these instruments. To the extent applicable, the Subsidiary otherwise is subject to the same fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions as the Fund, and, in particular, to the same requirements relating to portfolio leverage, liquidity, and the timing and method of valuation of portfolio investments and Fund shares, described elsewhere in this Prospectus and in the SAI. By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with the Subsidiary’s commodity-linked derivatives investments.

 

The Subsidiary is not registered with the SEC as an investment company under the1940 Act, and is not subject to the investor protections of the 1940 Act. As an investor in the Subsidiary, the Fund does not have the same protections offered to shareholders of registered investment companies.

 

The Fund and the Subsidiary may not be able to operate as described in this Prospectus in the event of changes to the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands. If the laws of the Cayman Islands required the Subsidiary to pay taxes to a governmental authority, the Fund would be likely to suffer decreased returns.

 

Tax Risk. In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies, the Fund must satisfy certain income, distribution and asset diversification requirements each year. With respect to the latter, the Fund generally may not acquire a security if, as a result of the acquisition, more than 50% of the value of the Fund’s assets would be invested in (a) issuers in which the Fund has, in each case, invested more than 5% of the Fund’s assets and (b) issuers more than 10% of whose outstanding voting securities are owned by the Fund. If the Fund were to fail to qualify as a regulated investment company, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income, which would adversely affect its performance.

 

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In order to qualify for the favorable tax treatment generally available to regulated investment companies and avoid Fund-level taxes, the Fund must also satisfy certain distribution requirements. Capital controls and currency controls may affect the Fund’s ability to meet the applicable distribution requirements. If the Fund fails to satisfy the distribution requirement necessary to qualify for treatment as a regulated investment company for any taxable year, the Fund would be treated as a corporation subject to U.S. federal income tax, thereby subjecting any income earned by the Fund to tax at the corporate level. If the Fund fails to satisfy a separate distribution requirement, it will be subject to a Fund-level excise tax. These Fund-level taxes will apply in addition to taxes payable at the shareholder level on distributions.

 

To the extent the Fund does not distribute to shareholders all of its investment company taxable income and net capital gain in a given year, it will be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on the retained income and gains, thereby reducing the Fund’s return. The Fund may elect to treat its net capital gain as having been distributed to shareholders. In that case, shareholders of record on the last day of the Fund’s taxable year will be required to include their attributable share of the retained gain in income for the year as a long-term capital gain despite not actually receiving the dividend, and will be entitled to a tax credit or refund for the tax deemed paid on their behalf by the Fund as well as an increase in the basis of their shares to reflect the difference between their attributable share of the gain and the related credit or refund.

 

Investments in swaps and other derivatives may be subject to special U.S. federal income tax rules that could adversely affect the character, timing and amount of income earned by the Fund (e.g., by causing amounts that would be capital gain to be taxed as ordinary income or to be taken into income earlier than would otherwise be necessary). Also, the Fund may be required to periodically adjust its positions in its swaps and derivatives to comply with certain regulatory requirements which may further cause these investments to be less efficient than a direct investment in the securities themselves. For example, swaps in which the Fund may invest may need to be reset on a regular basis in order to maintain compliance with the 1940 Act, which may increase the likelihood that the Fund will generate short-term capital gains. In addition, because the application of these special rules may be uncertain, it is possible that the manner in which they are applied by the Fund may be determined to be incorrect. In that event, the Fund may be found to have failed to maintain its qualification as a RIC or to be subject to additional U.S. tax liability. Moreover, the Fund may make investments, both directly and through swaps or other derivative positions, in companies classified as passive foreign investment companies for U.S. federal income tax purposes (“PFICs”). Investments in PFICs are subject to special tax rules which may result in adverse tax consequences to the Fund and its shareholders.

 

Based on the principles underlying private letter rulings previously issued to other taxpayers, the Fund intends to treat its income from the Subsidiary as qualifying income without any such ruling from the IRS. The tax treatment of the Fund’s investment in the Subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, court decisions, Treasury Regulations and/or guidance issued by the IRS that could affect whether income derived from such investments is “qualifying income” under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code, or otherwise affect the character, timing and/or amount of the Fund’s taxable income or any gains or distributions made by the Fund.

 

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U.S. Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government. The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On February 9, 2018, following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, which suspends the statutory debt limit through March 1, 2019. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.

 

[Valuation Risk. Financial information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings may not always be reliable, which may make it difficult to obtain a current price for the investments held by the Fund. Independent market quotations for such investments may not be readily available and securities may be fair valued or valued by a pricing service at an evaluated price. These valuations are subjective and different funds may assign different fair values to the same investment. Such valuations also may be different from what would be produced if the security had been valued using market quotations. As a result, there is a risk that the Fund may not be able to sell an investment at the price assigned to the investment by the Fund. Additionally, Fund securities that are valued using techniques other than market quotations, including “fair valued” securities, may be subject to greater fluctuations in their value from one day to the next.]

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. Cash and cash equivalents generally offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. Holding cash is subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Management

Investment Adviser

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”) is a registered investment adviser located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 and serves as investment adviser of the Fund. Krane has served as the investment adviser of the Fund since its inception.

 

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Under the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. In this regard, among other things, Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing the Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. [Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. In addition, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect the Fund.]

 

Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below (in addition to the securities lending compensation Krane receives under the Agreement discussed below), which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund.

 

KFA Global Carbon ETF[*] 0.78%

[*The Fund’s investment adviser, Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”), has contractually agreed to reduce its management fee by […]% of the Fund’s average daily net assets (“Fee Waiver”). The Fee Waiver will continue until […], 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board. In addition, the Fee Waiver Agreement will terminate if the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund is terminated.]

 

The Investment Advisory Agreement has been approved by the Board of Trustees and shareholders of the Fund (in this regard, Krane as the sole initial shareholder of the Fund will approve various matters and agreements, including the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund prior to its public offering).

 

In addition to the above-described services, to the extent the Fund engages in securities lending, Krane will: (i) determine which securities are available for loan and notify the securities lending agent for the Fund (the “Agent”), (ii) monitor the Agent’s activities to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with Krane’s instructions and in accordance with applicable procedures and guidelines adopted by the Board, (iii) make recommendations to the Board regarding the Fund’s participation in securities lending; (iv) prepare appropriate periodic reports for, and seek appropriate periodic approvals from, the Board with respect to securities lending activities; (v) respond to Agent inquiries concerning Agent’s activities; and (vi) such other related duties as Krane deems necessary or appropriate.

 

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Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Krane did not receive any advisory fees or fees from securities lending activities from the Fund during the prior fiscal year. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s investment advisory agreement with Krane will be available in the Fund’s first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders.

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2019 Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 46.2% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

Investment Sub-Adviser

Climate Finance Partners LLC (“CFP” or “Sub-Adviser”) serves as Sub-Adviser to the Fund. CFP’s offices are located at […]. CFP provides non-discretionary sub-advisory services to the Fund, which include research and portfolio modeling services related to the Fund’s investments and the monitoring of such investments. For the services it provides, Krane pays CFP a fee equal to […].

 

A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s investment sub-advisory agreement will be available in the Fund’s first report to Shareholders.

 

Krane has received “manager of managers” exemptive relief from the SEC that permits Krane, subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, to appoint a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser, as defined in the exemptive relief, or to change the terms of a sub-advisory agreement with a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser without first obtaining shareholder approval. The exemptive order further permits Krane to add or to change a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser or to change the fees paid to such parties from time to time without the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approval of the change and to disclose sub-advisers’ fees only in the aggregate in its registration statement. Any increase in the aggregate advisory fee paid by any Fund remains subject to shareholder approval. Krane continues to have ultimate responsibility (subject to oversight by the Board of Trustees) to oversee the sub-advisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. The Fund will notify shareholders of any change of the Fund sub-adviser.

 

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Portfolio Managers

Mark Schlarbaum, Head of Capital Markets at Krane, has served as the lead portfolio manager of the Fund since the Fund’s inception. He joined Krane in 2015 and has over 25 years of experience in the investment management industry. Previously, he was Vice President Senior Equity Trader at T. Rowe Price (1997-2003); Co-Founder of Schlarbaum Capital Management (2002-2006); Partner-Head Equity Trader/Portfolio Manager at Global Capital Management (2007-2009); Managing Director, lead portfolio manager for small cap SMA strategies and co-portfolio manager for all-cap SMA strategies at Palliser Bay Investment, LLC (2009-2014); and Partner at Trident Distribution Partners (2014-2015). Mr. Schlarbaum graduated with a bachelor’s degree in psychology and economics from Purdue University.

 

Jonathan Shelon, Chief Operating Officer at Krane, also serves as a portfolio manager of the Fund and supports Mr. Schlarbaum and Krane’s investment team with respect to the Fund. Mr. Shelon has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since the Fund’s inception. Mr. Shelon joined Krane in 2015 as a Managing Partner. Mr. Shelon has spent the majority of his career managing investment portfolios and diverse teams at leading asset management organizations. Most recently, he was the Chief Investment Officer of a 40-person global Specialized Strategies Team at J.P. Morgan with $40 billion AUM. Prior to joining J.P. Morgan, Mr. Shelon spent ten years as a portfolio manager at Fidelity Investments where he was responsible for the investment performance, process and evolution of their target-date strategies for retirement savings, college savings and income generation.

 

Additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Fund shares is available in the SAI.

 

Other Service Providers

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (“Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. The Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund, and makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co. (“Distributor”), an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as the Fund’s distributor. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor, and the Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the shares of the Fund.

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Fund. BBH maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services.

 

Shareholder Information

 

Calculating NAV

The Fund calculates its NAV by:

 

Taking the current market value of its total assets

Subtracting any liabilities and withholdings (if any)

 

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Dividing that amount by the total number of shares owned by the shareholders

 

The Fund normally calculates NAV as of the regularly scheduled close of normal trading on each day that the NYSE is scheduled to be open for business (a ‘‘Business Day’’) (normally, 4:00 p.m., Eastern time). Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.

 

In calculating the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities, securities listed on a securities exchange, market or automated quotation system for which quotations are readily available (except for securities traded on NASDAQ), including securities traded over the counter, are valued at the last reported sale price on the primary exchange or market (foreign or domestic) on which they are traded (or at the time as of which the Fund’s NAV is calculated if a security’s exchange is normally open at that time). If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price. For securities traded on NASDAQ, the NASDAQ Official Closing Price will be used. If available, debt securities are priced based upon valuations provided by independent, third-party pricing agents. Such values generally reflect the last reported sales price if the security is actively traded. The third-party pricing agents may also value debt securities at an evaluated bid price by employing methodologies that utilize actual market transactions, broker-supplied valuations, or other methodologies designed to identify the market value for such securities. Debt obligations with remaining maturities of sixty days or less may be valued at their amortized cost, which approximates market value. The prices for foreign securities are reported in local currency and converted to U.S. dollars using currency exchange rates. The value of a swap contract is equal to the obligation (or rights) under the swap contract, which will generally be equal to the net amounts to be paid or received under the contract based upon the relative values of the positions held by each party to the contract as determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Exchange-traded options are valued at the last reported sales price on the exchange on which they are listed. If there is no such reported sale on the valuation date, long positions are valued at the most recent bid price, and short positions are valued at the most recent ask price. Futures are valued at the settlement price established by the board of trade on which they are traded. Foreign currency forward contracts are valued at the current day’s interpolated foreign exchange rate, as calculated using the current day’s spot rate and the 30-, 60-, 90- and 180-day forward rates provided by an Independent Pricing Agent. The exchange rates used for valuation are captured as of the close of the London Stock Exchange each day normally at 4:00 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Prices for most securities held by the Fund are provided daily by independent pricing agents. If a security price cannot be obtained from an independent, third-party pricing agent, the Fund seeks to obtain bid and ask prices from two broker-dealers who make a market in the portfolio instrument and determines the average of the two.

 

Investments in open-end investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last reported sale price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price. With respect to the Fund’s assets that are invested in the Subsidiary, the value of such investment will be calculated based upon the Subsidiary’s NAV.

 

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Securities for which market prices are not ‘‘readily available,’’ or are not deemed to reflect current market values, or are debt securities where no evaluated price is available from the Trust’s third-party pricing agents pursuant to established methodologies, are fair valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Some of the more common reasons that may necessitate that a security be valued using ‘‘fair value’’ pricing may include, but are not limited to: the security’s trading has been halted or suspended; the security’s primary trading market is temporarily closed; or the security has not been traded for an extended period of time. The Fund may fair value certain of the foreign securities held by the Fund each day the Fund calculates its NAV.

 

In addition, the Fund may fair value its securities if an event that may materially affect the value of the Fund’s securities that trade outside of the United States (a ‘‘Significant Event’’) has occurred between the time of the security’s last close and the time that the Fund calculates its NAV. A Significant Event may relate to a single issuer or to an entire market sector, country or region. Events that may be Significant Events may include: government actions, natural disasters, armed conflict, acts of terrorism and significant market fluctuations. If Krane becomes aware of a Significant Event that has occurred with respect to a portfolio instrument or group of portfolio instruments after the closing of the exchange or market on which the portfolio instrument or portfolio instruments principally trade, but before the time at which the Fund calculates its NAV, it will notify the Administrator and may request that an ad hoc meeting of the Fair Valuation Committee be called.

 

With respect to trade-halted securities, the Trust typically will fair value a trade-halted security by adjusting the security’s last market close price by the security’s sector performance, as measured by a predetermined index, unless Krane recommends and the Trust’s Fair Valuation Committee determines to make additional adjustments. Certain foreign securities exchanges have mechanisms in place that confine one day’s price movement in an individual security to a pre-determined price range based on that day’s opening price (‘‘Collared Securities’’). Fair value determinations for Collared Securities will generally be capped by Krane based on any applicable pre-determined ‘‘limit down’’ or ‘‘limit up’’ prices established by the relevant foreign securities exchange. As an example, China A-Shares can only be plus or minus ten percent in one day of trading in the relevant mainland China equity market. As a result, the fair value price determination on a given day will generally be capped at plus or minus ten percent.

 

Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could actually be realized upon the sale of the security or that another fund that uses market quotations or its own fair value procedures to price the same securities. In addition, fair value pricing could result in a difference between the prices used to calculate the Fund’s NAV and the prices used by the Index. This may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to track the Index.

 

Trading in securities on many foreign exchanges is normally completed before the close of business on each Business Day. In addition, securities trading in a particular country or countries may not take place on each Business Day or may take place on days that are not Business Days. Changes in valuations on certain securities may occur at times or on days on which the Fund’s NAV is not calculated and on which Fund shares do not trade and sales and redemptions of shares do not occur. As a result, the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and the net asset value of its shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your shares.

 

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Buying and Selling Fund Shares

Shares of the Fund may be purchased or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof. Only a broker-dealer (“Authorized Participant”) that enters into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Fund’s distributor, SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the “Distributor”), may engage in creation and redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, and are subject to transaction fees, which are described in the SAI. The transaction fee will not exceed 2.00% of the value of the Creation Units purchased or redeemed, which is used to compensate the Fund for any difference for the expenses incurred by it in connection with the purchase or redemption order. Orders for such transactions may be rejected or delayed if they are not submitted in good order and subject to the other conditions set forth in this prospectus and the SAI.

 

Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will take place in-kind and/or for cash at the discretion of the Fund. The determination of whether purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will be for cash or in-kind depends primarily on the regulatory requirements and settlement mechanisms relevant to the Fund’s portfolio holdings and the Fund is not limited to engaging in in-kind transactions to any particular market circumstances. As further described in the SAI, Creation Units typically are issued on a two Business Days (“T+2”) basis after a purchase order has been received in good order and the transfer of good title to the Fund of any in-kind securities and/or cash required to purchase a Creation Unit have been completed (subject to certain exceptions). Similarly, and also as further described in the SAI, deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund generally will be made on a T+2 basis after a redemption order has been received in good order and the requisite number of Fund shares have been delivered (subject to certain exceptions). The Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to, among other matters, accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (i.e., the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security) and in certain other circumstances. The Fund has received exemptive relief to delay such settlement for up to 14 days from the date an order has been submitted in good order and the requisite cash and/or assets delivered to the relevant Fund to accommodate foreign holidays, as further described in the SAI, and otherwise may delay redemptions up to 7 days or longer as permitted by applicable law, regulations and interpretations such as where unusual market conditions affect the NYSE or an emergency exists which makes it impracticable for the Fund to dispose of or value securities it owns or the Fund has received an SEC order.

 

The Fund intends to comply with the U.S. federal securities laws in accepting securities for deposit and satisfying redemptions with redemption securities by, among other means, assuring that any securities accepted for deposit and any securities used to satisfy redemption requests will be sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

 

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Once created, shares are listed on the Exchange and trade in the secondary market. When you buy or sell the Fund’s shares in the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. Most investors will buy and sell shares through a broker and, thus, will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares.

 

The secondary markets are closed on weekends and also are generally closed on the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day (observed), Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans’ Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.

 

For more information on how to buy and sell shares of the Fund, call 1.855.857.2638 or visit www.kraneshares.com.

 

Share Trading Prices

The trading prices of the Fund’s shares listed on its Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV and can be affected by market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. The Exchange intends to disseminate the approximate value of the portfolio underlying a share of the Fund every fifteen seconds. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of such values and makes no warranty as to their accuracy.

 

Premium/Discount Information

Information showing the number of days the market price of the Fund’s shares was greater than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a premium) and the number of days it was less than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a discount) for various time periods will be available by visiting the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com. The premium and discount information contained on the website will represent past performance and cannot be used to predict future results.

 

Portfolio Holdings Information

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of Fund portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”). The holdings of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com.

 

Active Investors and Market Timing

The Trust’s Board of Trustees has determined not to adopt policies and procedures designed to prevent or monitor for frequent purchases and redemptions of the Fund’s shares because the Fund sells and redeems its shares at NAV only in Creation Units pursuant to the terms of an Authorized Participant Agreement between the Authorized Participant and the Distributor, and such direct trading between the Fund and Authorized Participants is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. Further, the vast majority of trading in Fund shares occurs on the secondary market, which does not involve the Fund directly and therefore does not cause the Fund to experience many of the harmful effects of market timing, such as dilution and disruption of portfolio management. In addition, the Fund imposes a transaction fee on Creation Unit transactions, which is designed to offset transfer and other transaction costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the issuance and redemption of Creation Units and may employ fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing The Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase order at any time and reserves the right to impose restrictions on disruptive, excessive, or short-term trading.

 

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Investments by Registered Investment Companies

Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including shares of the Fund. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions set forth in an SEC exemptive order issued to the Trust, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.

 

Continuous Offering

The method by which Creation Units of Fund shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

38

 

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the Fund’s shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), Krane, any Fund sub-adviser or an affiliate may pay the intermediary for marketing activities or other services related to the sale or promotion of the Fund. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

Distribution Plan

The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan (the “Plan”) that allows the Fund to pay distribution fees to the Distributor and other firms that provide distribution services (“Service Providers”). Under the Plan, if a Service Provider provides distribution services, the Fund would pay distribution fees to the Distributor at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. The Distributor would, in turn, pay the Service Provider out of its fees. The Board of Trustees currently has determined not to implement any 12b-1 fees pursuant to the Plan. 12b-1 fees may only be imposed after approval by the Board of Trustees. Because any distribution fees would be paid out of the Fund’s assets on an on-going basis, if payments are made in the future, the distribution fees would increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

 

Householding Policy

To reduce expenses, we mail only one copy of the prospectus or summary prospectus, each annual and semi-annual report, and any proxy statements to each address shared by two or more accounts with the same last name or that the Trust reasonably believes are members of the same family. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Trust at 1.855.857.2638 between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. We will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request. Investors who hold their shares through an intermediary are subject to the intermediary’s policies. Contact your financial intermediary for any questions you may have.

 

Dividends and Distributions

The Fund pays out dividends to shareholders at least annually. The Fund distributes its net capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually. The Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Fund reserves the right to declare special distributions, including if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.

 

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Additional Tax Information

 

The following is a summary of some important tax issues that affect the Fund and its shareholders. The summary is based on current tax laws, which may be changed by legislative, judicial or administrative action. You should not consider this summary to be a detailed explanation of the tax treatment of the Fund, or the tax consequences of an investment in the Fund. More information about taxes is located in the SAI. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding specific questions as to federal, state and local income taxes.

 

Tax Status of the Fund

The Fund is treated as a separate entity for federal tax purposes, and intends to qualify for the special tax treatment afforded to regulated investment companies. As long as the Fund qualifies for treatment as a regulated investment company, it pays no federal income tax on the earnings it distributes to shareholders.

 

Tax Status of Distributions

The Fund will, at least annually, distribute substantially all of its net investment taxable income and net capital gains income.

 

The income dividends you receive from the Fund (which include the Fund’s short-term capital gains) will be taxed as either ordinary income or qualified dividend income. For non-corporate shareholders, dividends that are reported as qualified dividend income are generally taxable at reduced maximum tax rates to the extent that the Fund receives qualified dividend income and subject to certain limitations and holding period requirements.

 

Distributions of the Fund’s short-term capital gains are generally taxable as ordinary income. Any distributions of net capital gain (the excess of the Fund’s net long-term capital gains over its net short-term capital losses) are taxable as long-term capital gains regardless of how long you have owned your shares. Long-term capital gains are taxable at reduced maximum tax rates.

 

If the Fund makes distributions to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of the shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares.

 

The Fund may invest in complex securities. These investments may be subject to numerous special and complex rules. These rules could affect whether gains and losses recognized by the Fund are treated as ordinary income or capital gain, accelerate the recognition of income to the Fund and/or defer the Fund’s ability to recognize losses. In turn, these rules may affect the amount, timing or character of distributions you receive from the Fund.

 

Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or in additional shares. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive that is attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations.

 

40

 

 

Distributions paid in January but declared by the Fund in October, November or December of the previous year may be taxable to you in the previous year. Your broker will inform you of the amount of your ordinary income dividends, qualified dividend income, and capital gains distributions shortly after the close of each calendar year.

 

If you lend your Fund shares pursuant to securities lending arrangements, you may lose the ability to treat the Fund’s dividends (paid while the shares are held by the borrower) as qualified dividend income. Consult your financial intermediary or tax adviser.

 

Some foreign governments levy withholding taxes against dividend and interest income. Although in some countries a portion of these withholding taxes is recoverable, the non-recovered portion will reduce the income received from the securities in the Fund. If more than 50% of the total assets of the Fund at the close of a year consist of non-U.S. stocks or securities, then the Fund may elect, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to treat certain non-U.S. income taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by the Fund as paid by its shareholders. The Fund will provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return if it makes this election.

 

If you hold your shares in a tax-qualified retirement account, you generally will not be subject to federal taxation on income received with respect to the shares (including Fund dividends and distributions, and any gain on the sale of shares), until you begin receiving payments from your retirement account. You should consult your tax adviser regarding the tax rules that apply to your retirement account.

 

Tax Status of Share Transactions

Any capital gain or loss upon a sale of the Fund’s shares is generally treated as a long-term gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term gain or loss if held for one year or less. Any capital loss on the sale of the Fund’s shares held for six months or less is treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent that any capital gain distributions were paid with respect to such shares.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax

U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly) are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” including interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (including capital gains realized on the sale or exchange of shares of the Fund). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.

 

Back-Up Withholding

The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold at applicable withholding rates (currently 24%) and remit to the U.S. Treasury the amount withheld on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) has provided the Fund either an incorrect tax identification number or no number at all, (2) is subject to back-up withholding by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for failure to properly report payments of interest or dividends, (3) has failed to certify to the Fund that such shareholder is not subject to back-up withholding, or (4) has not certified that such shareholder is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien).

 

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Non-U.S. Investors

If you are not a citizen or permanent resident of the United States or if you are a non-U.S. entity, the Fund’s ordinary income dividends (which include distributions of net short-term capital gains) will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate applies, provided that withholding tax will generally not apply to any gain or income realized by a non-U.S. shareholder in respect of any distributions of long-term capital gains or upon the sale or other disposition of shares of the Fund. You also may potentially be subject to U.S. federal estate taxes.

 

A 30% withholding tax will generally be imposed on (1) dividends paid by the Fund and (2) redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends paid by the Fund after December 31, 2018, to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the IRS, or the tax authorities in their home jurisdictions, information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. A non-U.S. shareholder may be exempt from the withholding described in this paragraph under an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and a foreign government, provided that the shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of such agreement.

 

State Tax Considerations

In addition to federal taxes, distributions by the Fund and ownership of the Fund’s shares may be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult your tax adviser regarding how state and local tax laws affect your investment in the Fund’s shares.

 

Taxes on Creations and Redemptions of Creation Units

A person who purchases a Creation Unit by exchanging securities in-kind generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the purchaser’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units and receives securities in-kind from the Fund will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the redeemer’s basis in the Creation Units, and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any net cash received. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an in-kind exchange of securities for Creation Units or an exchange of Creation Units for securities cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons effecting in-kind creations or redemptions should consult their own tax adviser with respect to these matters.

 

The Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Fund also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determinations.

 

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Index Provider Information and Disclaimers

[…]

 

More information about each Index Provider is located in the SAI.

 

Additional Disclaimers

Krane and Trust Disclaimer

Neither Krane nor the Trust guarantees the accuracy or the completeness of any Index or any data included therein and neither shall have any liability for any errors, omissions or interruptions therein. Krane and the Fund further make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of shares of the Fund or any members of the public as to results to be obtained by the Fund from the use of any Index, as to any data included therein, or as to the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly. Krane expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to any Index or Fund. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall Krane have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

NYSE Arca, Inc. Disclaimer

 

Shares of the Fund are not sponsored, endorsed or promoted by NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”). NYSE Arca makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the shares of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Fund to track the total return performance of the Index or the ability of the Indexes to track stock market performance. NYSE Arca is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Indexes, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Fund to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares are redeemable. NYSE Arca has no obligation or liability to owners of the shares of the Fund in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the shares of the Fund.

 

NYSE Arca does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Indexes or any data included therein. NYSE Arca makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Trust on behalf of the Fund as licensee, licensee’s customers and counterparties, owners of the shares of the Fund, or any other person or entity from the use of the subject index or any data included therein in connection with the rights licensed as described herein or for any other use. NYSE Arca makes no express or implied warranties and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Indexes or any data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall NYSE Arca have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

43

 

 

Financial Highlights

 

No financial highlights are available for the Fund because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the prior fiscal year.

 

44

 

 

Additional Information

 

Additional and more detailed information about the Fund is included in the SAI dated […], 2019. The SAI has been filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus and, therefore, legally forms a part of this Prospectus. The SEC maintains the EDGAR database on its website (“http://www.sec.gov”) that contains the SAI, material incorporated by reference, and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. You may also review and copy documents at the SEC Public Reference room in Washington, D.C. (for information on the operation of the Public Reference Room, call 202.551.8090). You may request documents from the SEC by mail, upon payment of a duplication fee, by writing to: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by emailing the SEC at the following address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

You may obtain a copy of the SAI or the Annual or Semi-Annual Reports or make inquiries, without charge by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Annual and Semi-Annual Reports. Also, in the Fund’s Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

 

No one has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations not contained in this Prospectus or in the Fund’s SAI in connection with the offering of Fund shares. Do not rely on any such information or representations as having been authorized by the Fund, Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable. This Prospectus does not constitute an offering by the Fund in any jurisdiction where such an offering is not lawful.

 

The Trust enters into contractual arrangements with various parties, including among others, the Fund's investment adviser, sub-adviser(s) (if applicable), distributor, custodian, and transfer agent who provide services to the Fund. Shareholders are not parties to any such contractual arrangements or intended beneficiaries of those contractual arrangements, and those contractual arrangements are not intended to create in any shareholder any right to enforce them against the service providers or to seek any remedy under them against the service providers, either directly or on behalf of the Trust.

 

This prospectus provides information concerning the Fund that you should consider in determining whether to purchase Fund shares. Neither this prospectus nor the SAI is intended, or should be read, to be or give rise to an agreement or contract between the Trust, the Trustees, or the Fund and any investor, or to give rise to any rights in any shareholder or other person other than any rights under federal or state law that may not be waived.

 

The Trust’s Investment Company Act file number is 811-22698.

 

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KraneShares Trust

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 

[…], 2019

 

KFA GLOBAL CARBON ETF - (KRBN)

 

Shares of the Fund will be traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc.

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) relates to the above listed fund (the “Fund”), a series of the KraneShares Trust (the “Trust”). This SAI is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the current prospectus for the Fund, dated […], 2019, as it may be revised from time to time (the “Prospectus”). Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. The audited financial statements with respect to the Fund for the most recent fiscal year will be incorporated in this SAI by reference to the Fund’s first Annual Report to Shareholders. A copy of the Prospectus, this SAI, and/or the most recent annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders may be obtained, without charge, by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing to the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND   1
     
INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS   2
     
INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS   31
     
CONTINUOUS OFFERING   32
     
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST   33
     
INVESTMENT ADVISER   39
     
SUB-ADVISER   41
     
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS   41
     
CODES OF ETHICS   43
     
PROXY VOTING POLICY   43
     
ADMINISTRATOR   43
     
CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT   44
     
DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS   44
     
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES   46
     
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING   46
     
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM   46
     
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS   47
     
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS   50
     
TAXES   70
     
DETERMINATION OF NAV   78
     
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS   80
     
OTHER INFORMATION   80
     
COUNSEL   82
     
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM   82
     
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS   82
     
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICY   A-1
     
APPENDIX B – DESCRIPTION OF RATINGS   B-1

 

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND

 

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on February 3, 2012 and is permitted to offer multiple, separate series (i.e., funds). As of the date of this SAI, the Trust offers [20] separate funds, including the Fund and other funds not offered in this SAI. The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and the Fund is a non-diversified series of the Trust. The offering of the Trust’s shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). All payments received by the Trust for shares of any fund belong to that fund. Each fund will have its own assets and liabilities. Shares of the Fund will only be issued against full payment, as further described in the Prospectus and this Statement of Additional Information.

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or the “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and is responsible for continuously reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program. Climate Finance Partners LLC (“CFP” or “Sub-Adviser”) provides non-discretionary sub-advisory services to the Fund, which include research and portfolio modeling services related to the Fund’s investments and the monitoring of such investments. SEI Investments Distribution Co. serves as the distributor (the “Distributor”) of the shares of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE”). The Exchange is a national securities exchange and shares of the Fund will trade throughout the day on the Exchange and other secondary markets at market prices that may be below, at or above their net asset value (“NAV”) per share. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the Fund’s shares will be based on negotiated commission rates and subject to bid/ask spreads.

 

The Fund has invested in a wholly owned subsidiary organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands (the “Subsidiary”), the registered offices of which are located at […], Cayman Islands. The Fund is currently the sole shareholders of the Subsidiary, and does not expect shares of the Subsidiary to be offered or sold to other investors. The Fund’s investment in the Subsidiary may not exceed 25% of the value of its total assets (ignoring any subsequent market appreciation in the Subsidiary’s value), which limitation is imposed by the Code and is measured at the end of each quarter of its taxable year.

 

The Fund may invest in the Subsidiary in order to gain exposure to the investment returns of the commodities markets within the limitations of the federal tax law requirements applicable to RICs. The Subsidiary invests principally in commodity and financial futures, options and swap contracts, as well as certain fixed-income investments intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivatives positions. Unlike the Fund, the Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity-linked derivatives, though the Subsidiary will comply with the same 1940 Act asset coverage requirements with respect to its investments in commodity-linked derivatives that apply to the Fund’s transactions in those instruments. To the extent applicable, the Subsidiary otherwise is subject to the same fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions as the Fund and, in particular, to the same requirements relating to portfolio leverage, liquidity, and the timing and method of valuation of portfolio investments and Fund shares. (Accordingly, references in this SAI to the Fund may also include the Subsidiary.) By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund may be considered to be investing indirectly in the same investments as the Subsidiary and is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with those investments.

 

The Subsidiary is not registered with the SEC as an investment company under the 1940 Act and is not subject to the investor protections of the 1940Act. As an investor in the Subsidiary, the Fund will not have the same protections offered to shareholders of registered investment companies. However, because the Subsidiary is wholly owned and controlled by the Fund, which is managed by Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or the “Adviser”), it is unlikely that the Subsidiary will take action in any manner contrary to the interest of the Fund or their shareholders. Because the Subsidiary has the same investment objective and, to the extent applicable, will comply with the same investment policies as the Fund, Krane manages the Subsidiary’s portfolio in a manner similar to that of the Fund.

 

1 

 

The Subsidiary has a board of directors that oversees its activities. The Subsidiary has entered into a separate investment advisory agreement with Krane and pays Krane a fee for its services. The Subsidiary also has entered into agreements with the Fund’s service providers for the provision of administrative, accounting, transfer agency and custody services.

 

The Fund and the Subsidiary may not be able to operate as described in this SAI in the event of changes to the laws of the United States or the Cayman Islands. If the laws of the Cayman Islands required the Subsidiary to pay taxes to a governmental authority, the Fund would be likely to suffer decreased returns.

 

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS

 

General

The Fund’s principal investment strategies and risks are discussed in its Prospectus. The investment techniques discussed below and in the prospectus may, consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and investment limitations, be used by the Fund. The Fund is free to reduce or eliminate its activity with respect to any of the investment techniques discussed below without changing its fundamental investment policies and without prior notice to shareholders. There is no assurance that the Fund’s strategies or any other strategies and methods of investment available to the Fund will result in the achievement of the Fund’s objective.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which a Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If a Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Debt Securities

The Fund may invest in debt securities. A debt security is a security consisting of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuer promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time, and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, credit risk, and (in the case of foreign securities) country risk and currency risk.

 

The market value of the debt securities in which a Fund invests will change in response to interest rate changes and other factors. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of outstanding debt securities generally rise. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the values of such securities generally decline. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. Changes in the value of these securities will not necessarily affect cash income derived from these securities but will affect a Fund's NAV. Additional information regarding debt securities is described below.

 

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Credit Ratings. Credit risk is the risk that a borrower or issuer of a debt will be unable or unwilling to repay its obligations under the debt. Certain debt securities may be rated by a credit rating agency. Changes by such agencies in the rating of any debt security and in the ability of an issuer to make payments of interest and principal, or the perception thereof, may affect the value of these investments.

 

U.S. Credit Ratings. The rating criteria and methodology used by U.S. rating agencies may not be fully transparent and such ratings may not accurately reflect the risk of investing in such instruments.

 

Chinese Credit Ratings. The rating criteria and methodology used by Chinese rating agencies may be different from those adopted by most of the established international credit rating agencies. Therefore, such rating systems may not provide an equivalent standard for comparison with securities rated by international credit rating agencies. The rating criteria and methodology used by Chinese credit ratings agencies also may not be fully transparent and such ratings may not accurately reflect the risk of investing in such instruments.

 

Duration. Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a debt security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time.

 

Pay-In-Kind and Step-Up Coupon Securities. A pay-in-kind security pays no interest in cash to its holder during its life. Similarly, a step-up coupon security is a debt security that may not pay interest for a specified period of time and then, after the initial period, may pay interest at a series of different rates. Accordingly, pay-in kind and step-up coupon securities will be subject to greater fluctuations in market value in response to changing interest rates than debt obligations of comparable maturities that make current, periodic distribution of interest in cash.

 

Perpetual Bonds. Perpetual bonds offer a fixed return with no maturity date. Because they never mature, perpetual bonds can be more volatile than other types of bonds that have a maturity date and may be more sensitive to changes in interest rates. If market interest rates rise significantly, the interest rate paid by a perpetual bond may be much lower than the prevailing interest rate. Perpetual bonds are also subject to credit risk with respect to the issuer. In addition, because perpetual bonds may be callable after a set period of time, there is the risk that the issuer may recall the bond.

 

Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate instruments involve certain obligations that may carry variable or floating rates of interest, and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period, and may have a set floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.

 

Corporate Debt Securities. The Fund may invest in corporate debt securities. The selection of such securities will generally not be dependent on independent credit analysis or fundamental analysis performed by Krane or a Fund sub-adviser, if applicable. The Fund may invest in all grades of corporate debt securities including below investment grade as discussed below. See Appendix A for a description of corporate bond ratings. The Fund may also invest in unrated securities.

 

Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations, but may also include bank loans to companies. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or un-secured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade, below investment-grade or unrated and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.

 

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Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but is intended to carry relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.

 

Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that a Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security does not pay interest or principal when it is due. The credit risk of a particular issuer's debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.

 

High Yield Securities. High yield securities are commonly referred to as “junk bonds.” Investing in these securities involves special risks in addition to the risks associated with investments in higher-rated fixed income securities. While offering a greater potential opportunity for capital appreciation and higher yields, high yield securities typically entail greater credit risk and potential price volatility and may be less liquid than higher-rated securities. A Fund may have difficulty selling certain junk bonds because they may have a thin trading market. The lack of a liquid secondary market may have an adverse effect on the market price and a Fund’s ability to dispose of particular issues, including to honor redemptions, and may also make it more difficult for the Fund to obtain accurate market quotations in valuing these assets. High yield securities are regarded as inherently speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. They may also be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions and changes than higher-rated securities. Issuers of securities in default may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case a Fund may lose its entire investment.

 

Companies that issue high yield bonds are often highly leveraged and may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them. During an economic downturn or recession, highly leveraged issuers of high-yield securities may experience financial stress, and may not have sufficient revenues to meet their interest payment obligations. Economic downturns tend to disrupt the market for high yield bonds, lowering their values and increasing their price volatility. The risk of issuer default is higher with respect to high yield bonds because such issues may be subordinated to other creditors of the issuer and because they may be issued by less financially stable entities.

 

The credit rating of a high yield bond does not necessarily address its market value risk, and ratings may from time to time change to reflect developments regarding the issuer’s financial condition. The lower the rating of a high yield bond, the more speculative its characteristics.

 

Unrated debt securities may face the same or more severe risks than high yield securities.

 

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U.S. Dollar-Denominated Foreign Debt Securities. Foreign debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars may behave very differently from debt securities issued in local currencies, and there may be little to no correlation between the performance of the two. For example, changes to currency exchange rates may impact issuers of foreign debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars differently than issuers of debt securities issued in local currencies. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably, which may adversely affect the Fund. In addition, if the U.S. dollar increases in value against the local currency of a U.S. dollar-denominated debt issue, the issuer may be subject to a greater risk of default on their obligations (i.e., are unable to make scheduled interest or principal payments to investors).

 

Commercial Paper. The Fund may invest in commercial paper of U.S. or foreign issuers. U.S. commercial paper generally consists of unsecured short-term promissory notes with a fixed maturity of no more than 270 days issued by corporations, generally to finance short-term business needs. Chinese commercial paper that may be purchased by a Fund generally will have no more than one year of remaining maturity. A Fund may purchase commercial paper of any rating or that is unrated. Commercial paper issues in which a Fund may invest include securities issued by corporations without registration under the Securities Act in reliance on the exemption from such registration afforded by Section 3(a)(3) thereof, and commercial paper issued in reliance on the so-called “private placement” exemption from registration, which is afforded by Section 4(2) of the Securities Act (“Section 4(2) paper”). Section 4(2) paper is restricted as to disposition under the federal securities laws in that any resale must similarly be made in an exempt transaction. Section 4(2) paper is normally resold to other institutional investors through or with the assistance of investment dealers who make a market in Section 4(2) paper, which may provide some liquidity.

 

Sovereign and Quasi-Sovereign Debt Obligations. The Fund may invest in sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt obligations. Sovereign debt obligations are issued or guaranteed by a foreign government or one of its agencies, authorities, instrumentalities, political subdivisions or by a supra-national organization. Investments in sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt obligations involve special risks not present in corporate debt obligations. The issuer of the sovereign or quasi-sovereign debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal or interest when due, and a Fund may have limited recourse in the event of a default. Quasi-sovereign debt typically is not guaranteed by a sovereign entity. During periods of economic uncertainty, the market prices of sovereign and quasi-sovereign debt, and a Fund's net asset value, may be more volatile than prices of U.S. debt obligations. In the past, certain non-U.S. markets have encountered difficulties in servicing their debt obligations, withheld payments of principal and interest and declared moratoria on the payment of principal and interest on their sovereign debts.

 

A sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor's willingness or ability to repay principal and pay interest in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its foreign currency reserves, the availability of sufficient foreign exchange, the relative size of the debt service burden, politics, the sovereign debtor's policy toward principal international lenders and local political constraints. Sovereign and quasi-sovereign debtors may also be dependent on expected disbursements from foreign governments, multilateral agencies and other entities to reduce principal and interest arrearages on their debt. The failure of a sovereign or quasi-sovereign debtor to implement economic reforms, achieve specified levels of economic performance or repay principal or interest when due may result in the cancellation of third-party commitments to lend funds to the sovereign or quasi- sovereign debtor, which may further impair such debtor's ability or willingness to service its debts.

 

Debt Securities Issued by the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development (“World Bank”). The Fund may invest in debt securities issued by the World Bank. Debt securities issued by the World Bank may include high quality global bonds backed by member governments, including the United States, Japan, Germany, France and the United Kingdom, as well as in bonds in “non-core” currencies, including emerging markets and European accession countries, structured notes, and discount notes represented by certificates, in bearer form only, or in un-certified form (Book Entry Discount Notes) with maturities of 360 days or less at a discount, and in the case of Discount Notes, in certified form only and on an interest bearing basis in the U.S. and Eurodollar markets.

 

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U.S. Government Securities. The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, the government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.

 

Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Ginnie Mae pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by Fannie Mae, are not guaranteed by the U.S. government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to such issuers since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.

 

Since 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been in conservatorship and have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases, as well as U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. The Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) and the U.S. Treasury (through its agreement to purchase Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac preferred stock) have imposed strict limits on the size of their mortgage portfolios. The mortgage-backed security purchase programs ended in 2010. An FHFA stress test suggested that in a “severely adverse scenario” significant additional Treasury support might be required. No assurance can be given that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities that they issue.

 

In addition, the problems faced by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, resulting in their being placed into federal conservatorship and receiving significant U.S. government support, have sparked serious debate among federal policy makers regarding the continued role of the U.S. government in providing liquidity for mortgage loans. In December 2011, Congress enacted the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 which, among other provisions, requires that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac increase their single-family guaranty fees by at least 10 basis points and remit this increase to Treasury with respect to all loans acquired by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac on or after April 1, 2012 and before January 1, 2022. Nevertheless, discussions among policymakers have continued as to whether Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be nationalized, privatized, restructured, or eliminated altogether. Fannie Mae reported in the third quarter of 2017 that there was “significant uncertainty regarding the future of our company, including how long the company will continue to exist in its current form, the extent of our role in the market, how long we will be in conservatorship, what form we will have and what ownership interest, if any, our current common and preferred stockholders will hold in us after the conservatorship is terminated, and whether we will continue to exist following conservatorship.” Freddie Mac faces similar uncertainty about its future role. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing legal actions and investigations related to certain accounting, disclosure, or corporate governance matters, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may continue to have an adverse effect on the guaranteeing entities. Congress is currently considering several pieces of legislation that would reform U.S. government sponsored enterprises, proposing to address their structure, mission, portfolio limits, and guarantee fees, among other issues.

 

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U.S. Treasury Obligations. U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as Separately Traded Registered Interest and Principal Securities (“STRIPS”) and Treasury Receipts (“TRs”).

 

Receipts. Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

 

U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are typically sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

 

U.S. Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the U.S. government are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury, others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that in the event of a default prior to maturity there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of these securities nor to the value of a Fund’s shares.

 

Foreign Securities

The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in non-U.S. securities and instruments, or in instruments that provide exposure to such securities and instruments. These instruments may include debt or equity securities. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about non-U.S. issuers. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks (including restrictions on the transfers of securities). With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries.

 

Non-U.S. markets may not be as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the U.S. While the volume of shares traded on non-U.S. markets generally have been growing, such markets usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets. Therefore, a Fund’s investments in non-U.S. securities may be less liquid and subject to more rapid and erratic price movements than comparable securities trading in the U.S. For example, non-U.S. equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable U.S. securities and such levels may not be sustainable. There may be less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers, banks and listed companies abroad than in the U.S. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in U.S. markets. Such differences may include delays beyond periods customary in the U.S. and practices, such as delivery of securities prior to receipt of payment, that increase the likelihood of a failed settlement, which can result in losses to a Fund. Foreign exchanges may be open on days when a Fund does not price its shares, thus, the value of the securities in a Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell a Fund’s shares. Conversely, Fund shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in a Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments. In addition, a Fund may change its creation or redemption procedures without notice in connection with restrictions on the transfer of securities. For more information on creation and redemption procedures, see “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” herein.

 

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Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than for securities traded in the U.S. This may cause a Fund to incur higher portfolio transaction costs than domestic funds. Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing a security, even one denominated in U.S. dollars. Dividend and interest payments may be repatriated based on the exchange rate at the time of disbursement, but restrictions on capital flows may be imposed.

 

Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to government intervention and the imposition of “capital controls.” Countries use these controls to restrict volatile movements of capital entering (inflows) and exiting (outflows) their country to respond to certain economic conditions. Capital controls include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Levies may be placed on profits repatriated by foreign entities (such as a Fund). Capital controls may impact the ability of a Fund to create and redeem Creation Units, adversely affect the trading market for shares of a Fund, and cause shares of a Fund to trade at prices materially different from NAV. There can be no assurance that a country in which a Fund invests will not impose a form of capital control to the possible detriment of a Fund and its shareholders. A Fund may also be subject to delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to foreign currencies for the purpose of purchasing foreign securities. This may hinder a Fund’s performance, since any delay could result in a Fund missing an investment opportunity and purchasing securities at a higher price than originally intended, or incurring cash drag.

 

Investing in foreign companies may involve risks not typically associated with investing in companies domiciled in the United States. The value of securities denominated in foreign currencies, and of dividends from such securities, can change significantly when foreign currencies strengthen or weaken relative to the U.S. dollar. Foreign securities markets generally have less trading volume and less liquidity than U.S. markets, and prices in some foreign markets can be very volatile. Many foreign countries lack uniform accounting and disclosure standards comparable to those that apply to U.S. companies, and it may be more difficult to obtain reliable information regarding a foreign issuer’s financial condition and operations. In addition, the costs of foreign investing, including withholding taxes, brokerage commissions, and custodial fees, generally are higher than for U.S. investments. Investing in companies located abroad also carries political and economic risks distinct from those associated with investing in the United States. Foreign investment may be affected by actions of foreign governments adverse to the interests of U.S. investors, including the possibility of seizure, expropriation or nationalization of assets, including foreign deposits, confiscatory taxation, restrictions on U.S. investment, or on the ability to repatriate assets or to convert currency into U.S. dollars. There may be a greater possibility of default by foreign governments or foreign-government sponsored enterprises. Investments in foreign countries also involve a risk of local political, economic, or social instability, military action or unrest, or adverse diplomatic developments.

 

Geographic Focus. Funds that are less diversified across countries or geographic regions are generally riskier than more geographically diversified funds. To the extent a Fund focuses on a specific region, it will be more exposed to that region’s economic cycles, currency exchange rates, stock market valuations and political risks, among others, compared with a more geographically diversified fund. The economies and financial markets of certain regions, such as Asia, can be interdependent and may be adversely affected by the same events. Set forth below for certain markets in which a Fund may invest are brief descriptions of some of the conditions and risks in each such market.

 

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Investments in Emerging Markets Securities. A Fund may invest substantially all of its assets in markets that are considered to be “emerging.” Investing in securities listed and traded in emerging markets may be subject to additional risks associated with emerging market economies. Such risks may include: (i) greater market volatility, (ii) greater risk of asset seizures and capital controls, (iii) lower trading volume and liquidity, (iv) greater social, political and economic uncertainty, (v) governmental controls on foreign investments and limitations on repatriation of invested capital, (vi) lower disclosure, corporate governance, auditing and financial reporting standards, (vii) fewer protections of property rights, (viii) restrictions on the transfer of securities or currency, and (ix) settlement and trading practices that differ from U.S. markets. Emerging markets are generally less liquid and less efficient than developed securities markets.

 

Investments in Frontier Market Securities. Frontier market countries generally have smaller economies and less developed capital markets or legal, regulatory and political systems than traditional emerging market countries. As a result, the risks of investing in emerging market countries are magnified in frontier market countries.

 

Investments in Asia. Investments in securities of issuers in Asian countries involve risks not typically associated with investments in securities of issuers in other regions. Such heightened risks include, among others, expropriation and/or nationalization of assets, confiscatory taxation, political instability, including authoritarian and/or military involvement in governmental decision-making, armed conflict and social instability as a result of religious, ethnic and/or socio-economic unrest. Certain Asian economies have experienced rapid rates of economic growth and industrialization in recent years, and there is no assurance that these rates of economic growth and industrialization will be maintained.

 

Certain Asian countries have democracies with relatively short histories, which may increase the risk of political instability. These countries have faced political and military unrest, and further unrest could present a risk to their local economies and securities markets. Indonesia and the Philippines have each experienced violence and terrorism, which has negatively impacted their economies. North Korea and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical tensions between the two countries present the risk of war; in the recent past, these tensions have escalated. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries could have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and securities market. Increased political and social unrest in these geographic areas could adversely affect the performance of investments in this region.

 

Certain governments in this region administer prices on several basic goods, including fuel and electricity, within their respective countries. Certain governments may exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector in their respective countries and may own or control many companies. Future government actions could have a significant effect on the economic conditions in this region, which in turn could have a negative impact on private sector companies. There is also the possibility of diplomatic developments adversely affecting investments in the region.

 

Corruption and the perceived lack of a rule of law in dealings with international companies in certain Asian countries may discourage foreign investment and could negatively impact the long-term growth of certain economies in this region. In addition, certain countries in the region are experiencing high unemployment and corruption, and have fragile banking sectors. Their securities markets are not as developed as those of other countries and, therefore, are subject to additional risks such as trading halts.

 

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Some economies in this region are dependent on a range of commodities, including oil, natural gas and coal. Accordingly, they are strongly affected by international commodity prices and particularly vulnerable to any weakening in global demand for these products. The market for securities in this region may also be directly influenced by the flow of international capital, and by the economic and market conditions of neighboring countries. Adverse economic conditions or developments in neighboring countries may increase investors' perception of the risk of investing in the region as a whole, which may adversely impact the market value of the securities issued by companies in the region.

 

Investments in Brazil. Brazil has experienced economic instability resulting from, among other things, periods of very high inflation, persistent structural public sector deficits and significant devaluations of its currency, leading also to a high degree of price volatility in both the Brazilian equity and foreign currency markets. Brazilian companies may also be adversely affected by high interest and unemployment rates, fluctuations in commodity prices, significant public health concerns, and associated declines in tourism.

 

Investments in China. The Chinese economy is generally considered an emerging market and can be significantly affected by economic and political conditions and policy in China and surrounding Asian countries. The economy of China, which has been in a state of transition from a planned economy to a more market oriented economy, differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, its state of development, its growth rate, control of foreign exchange, and allocation of resources.

 

Although the majority of productive assets in China are still owned by the Chinese government at various levels, the Chinese government has implemented economic reform measures emphasizing utilization of market forces in the development of the economy of China and a high level of management autonomy. The economy of China has experienced significant growth in the past 20 years, but growth has been uneven both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Economic growth has often been accompanied by periods of high inflation in China. The Chinese government has implemented various measures from time to time to control inflation and restrain the rate of economic growth.

 

For more than 20 years, the Chinese government has carried out economic reforms to achieve decentralization and utilization of market forces to develop the economy of China. These reforms have resulted in significant economic growth and social progress. There can, however, be no assurance that the Chinese government will continue to pursue such economic policies or, if it does, that those policies will continue to be successful. Any such adjustment and modification of those economic policies may have an adverse impact on the securities market in China, the portfolio securities of a Fund or a Fund itself. Further, the Chinese government may from time to time adopt corrective measures to control the growth of the Chinese economy which may also have an adverse impact on the capital growth and performance of a Fund. Political changes, social instability and adverse diplomatic developments in China could result in the imposition of additional government restrictions including expropriation of assets, confiscatory taxes or nationalization of some or all of the property held by the underlying issuers of a Fund’s portfolio securities. As the Chinese economy develops, its growth may slow significantly and sometimes unexpectedly. The laws, regulations, including the investment regulations allowing foreigners to invest in Chinese securities, government policies and political and economic climate in China may change with little or no advance notice. Any such change could adversely affect market conditions and the performance of the Chinese economy and, thus, the value of securities in a Fund’s portfolio.

 

The Chinese government continues to be an active participant in many economic sectors through ownership positions and regulation. The allocation of resources in China is subject to a high level of government control. The Chinese government strictly regulates the payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and sets monetary policy. Through its policies, the government may provide preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. The policies set by the government could have a substantial effect on the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments. The Chinese government strictly regulates the payment of foreign currency denominated obligations and sets monetary policy, and may introduce new laws and regulations that have an adverse effect on a Fund.

 

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In addition, the Chinese economy is export-driven and highly reliant on trade. Recent developments in relations between the United States and China have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on China's export industry and a commensurately negative impact on the Fund. A downturn in the economies of China’s primary trading partners could also slow or eliminate the growth of the Chinese economy and adversely impact a Fund’s investments.

 

The performance of the Chinese economy may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, currency depreciation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Adverse changes to the economic conditions of its primary trading partners, such as the United States, Japan and South Korea, would adversely impact the Chinese economy and a Fund’s investments. Moreover, the slowdown in other significant economies of the world, such as the United States, the European Union (“EU”) and certain Asian countries, may adversely affect economic growth in China. An economic downturn in China would likely adversely a Fund’s investments.

 

The regulatory and legal framework for capital markets in China may not be as well developed as those of developed countries. Chinese laws and regulations affecting securities markets are relatively new and evolving, and enforcement of these regulations involve significant uncertainties. No assurance can be given that changes in such laws and regulations, their interpretation or their enforcement will not have a material adverse effect on their business operations or on a Fund.

 

Although China has begun the process of privatizing certain sectors of its economy, privatized entities may lose money and/or be re-nationalized. Accordingly, an investment in a Fund involves a risk of total loss. In the Chinese securities markets, a small number of issuers may represent a large portion of the entire market. The Chinese securities markets are characterized by relatively frequent trading halts and low trading volume, resulting in substantially less liquidity and greater price volatility. These risks may be more pronounced for the A Share market than for Chinese equity securities markets generally because the A Share market is subject to greater government restrictions and control, including the risk of nationalization or expropriation of private assets which could result in a total loss of an investment in a Fund.

 

Repatriations of gains and income on PRC securities may require the approval of China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) and principal invested pursuant to the PRC securities quota may be subject to repatriation restrictions, depending on the license used and the period from remittance of funds into China.

 

Currently, there are two stock exchanges in mainland China, the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are supervised by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (“CSRC”) and are highly automated with trading and settlement executed electronically. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges are substantially smaller, less liquid and more volatile than the major securities markets in the United States.

 

The Shanghai Stock Exchange commenced trading on December 19, 1990, the Shenzhen Stock Exchange commenced trading on July 3, 1991 and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange commenced trading on April 2, 1986. The Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges divide listed shares into two classes: A-Shares and B-Shares. Companies whose shares are traded on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges that are incorporated in mainland China may issue both A-Shares and B-Shares. In China, the A-Shares and B-Shares of an issuer trade on one exchange. A-Shares and B-Shares may both be listed on either the Shanghai or Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Both classes represent an ownership interest comparable to a share of common stock. A-Shares are traded on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in Chinese currency. B-Shares are traded on the Shenzhen and Shanghai Stock Exchanges in Hong Kong dollars and U.S. dollars, respectively.

 

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Foreign investors had historically been unable to participate in the PRC securities market. However, in late 2002, Investment Regulations promulgated by the CSRC came into effect, which were replaced by the updated Investment Regulations (i.e., "Measures for the Administration of the Securities Investments of Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors in the PRC"), which came into effect on September 1, 2006, that provided a legal framework for certain Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (“QFIIs”) to invest in PRC securities and certain other securities historically not eligible for investment by non-Chinese investors, through quotas granted by SAFE to those QFIIs which have been approved by the CSRC. The RMB QFII (“RQFII”) program was instituted in December 2011 and is substantially similar to the QFII program, but provides for greater flexibility in repatriating assets.

 

In November 2014, the PRC government launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, which allows investors with brokerage accounts in Hong Kong to invest in certain A-Shares without a RQFII or QFII license. A similar stock connect program, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect program, launched in November 2016.

 

In February 2016, the People’s Bank of China established a program that permits foreign investors to invest directly in securities traded on the Chinese Interbank Bond Market (“CIBM”), even without a RQFII or QFII license (“CIBM Program”). If a Fund participates in the CIBM Program, a PRC onshore settlement agent will be appointed for a Fund, which is required by the CIBM Program.

 

There is no guarantee that any quota received by Krane or a subadviser of a Fund to invest in PRC securities will not be modified or revoked in the future. Additionally, given that the PRC securities markets are considered volatile and unstable, the creation and redemption of Creation Units may also be disrupted. A participating dealer may not redeem or create Creation Units of a Fund for securities if it believes PRC securities are not available.

 

PRC Custodian and Dealer/Settlement Agent.

 

A Fund is responsible for selecting the PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent to execute certain transactions for a Fund in the PRC markets. Krane or a sub-adviser can currently only use a limited number of PRC Dealers/Settlement Agents and may use more than one PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent for accessing some securities. Should, for any reason, a Fund’s ability to use a given PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent be affected, this could disrupt the operations of a Fund and affect the ability of a Fund to track the underlying index or cause a premium or a discount to the trading price of a Fund’s shares. A Fund may also incur losses due to the acts or omissions of either the relevant PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent or the PRC Custodian in the execution or settlement of any transaction or in the transfer of any funds or securities. Subject to the applicable laws and regulations in the PRC, Krane or a sub-adviser will make arrangements to ensure that the PRC Dealers/Settlement Agents and PRC Custodian have appropriate procedures to properly seek to safe-keep a Fund’s assets.

 

According to the applicable Chinese regulations and market practice, the securities and cash accounts for a Fund held in the PRC pursuant to a RQFII or QFII license are to be maintained in the joint names of Krane or a sub-adviser as the QFII or RQFII holder and the Fund. Krane or a sub-adviser may not use the account for any other purpose than for maintaining a Fund’s assets. However, given that the securities trading account will or would be maintained in the joint names of Krane or a sub-adviser and the Fund, the Fund’s assets may not be as well protected as they would be if it were possible for them to be registered and held solely in the name of the Fund. In particular, there is a risk that creditors of Krane or a sub-adviser may assert that the securities are owned by Krane or the sub-adviser and not the Fund, and that a court would uphold such an assertion, in which case creditors of Krane or the sub-adviser could seize assets of the Fund. Because Krane or a sub-adviser’s PRC securities quota would be in the name of Krane or the sub-adviser and the Fund, there is also a risk that regulatory actions taken against Krane or the sub-adviser by PRC government authorities may affect the Fund.

 

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Investors should note that cash deposited in the cash account of a Fund with the PRC Custodian will not be segregated but will be a debt owing from the PRC Custodian to a Fund as a depositor. Such cash will be co-mingled with cash belonging to other clients of the PRC Custodian. In the event of bankruptcy or liquidation of the PRC Custodian, a Fund will not have any proprietary rights to the cash deposited in such cash account, and a Fund will become an unsecured creditor, ranking pari passu with all other unsecured creditors, of the PRC Custodian. A Fund may face difficulty and/or encounter delays in recovering such debt, or may not be able to recover it in full or at all, in which case a Fund will suffer losses.

 

In the event of any default of either the relevant PRC Dealer/Settlement Agent or the PRC Custodian (directly or through its delegate) in the execution or settlement of any transaction or in the transfer of any funds or securities in the PRC, a Fund may encounter delays in recovering its assets which may in turn adversely impact the NAV of that Fund.

 

Currency, Capital Controls and Currency Conversion Risk. Economic conditions and political events may lead to foreign government intervention and the imposition of additional or renewed capital controls in China, which may impact the ability of a Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, and limit a Fund’s ability to pay redemptions, and cause a Fund to decline in value. Although the RMB is not presently freely convertible, there is no assurance that repatriation restrictions will not be (re-)imposed in the future. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, a Fund may lose value if the RMB depreciates against the U.S. dollar, even if the local currency value of a Fund’s holdings goes up. A Fund may also be subject to delays in converting or transferring U.S. dollars to RMB for the purpose of purchasing A Shares. This may hinder its performance, including because any delay could result in the Fund missing an investment opportunity and purchasing securities at a higher price than originally intended, or incurring cash drag.

 

Disclosure of Interests and Short Swing Profit Rule. The Fund may be subject to shareholder disclosure of interest regulations promulgated by the CSRC. These regulations currently require a Fund to make certain public disclosures when a Fund and parties acting in concert with a Fund acquire 5% or more of the issued securities of a listed company. If the reporting requirement is triggered, a Fund will be required to report information which includes, but is not limited to: (a) information about a Fund and the type and extent of its holdings in the company; (b) a statement of a Fund’s purposes for the investment and whether a Fund intends to increase its holdings over the following 12-month period; (c) a statement of a Fund’s historical investments in the company over the previous six months; (d) the time of, and other information relating to, the transaction that triggered a Fund’s holding in the listed company reaching the 5% reporting threshold; and (e) other information that may be required by the CSRC or the stock exchange. Additional information may be required if a Fund and its concerted parties constitute the largest shareholder or actual controlling shareholder of the listed company. The report must be made to the CSRC, the stock exchange, the invested company, and the CSRC local representative office where the listed company is located. A Fund would also be required to make a public announcement through a media outlet designated by the CSRC. The public announcement must contain the same content as the official report.

 

The relevant PRC regulations presumptively treat all affiliated investors and investors under common control as parties acting in concert. As such, under a conservative interpretation of these regulations, a Fund may be deemed as a “concerted party” of other funds managed by Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates and therefore may be subject to the risk that a Fund’s holdings may be required to be reported in the aggregate with the holdings of such other funds should the aggregate holdings trigger the reporting threshold under the PRC law.

 

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If the 5% shareholding threshold is triggered by a Fund and parties acting in concert with the Fund, the Fund would be required to file its report within three days of the date the threshold is reached. During the time limit for filing the report, a trading freeze applies and the Fund would not be permitted to make subsequent trades in the invested company’s securities. Any such trading freeze may impair the ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective and undermine the Fund’s performance, if a Fund would otherwise make trades during that period but is prevented from doing so by the regulation.

 

Once a Fund and parties acting in concert reach the 5% trading threshold as to any listed company, any subsequent incremental increase or decrease of 5% or more will trigger a further reporting requirement and an additional three-day trading freeze, and also an additional freeze on trading within two days of a Fund’s report and announcement of the incremental change. These trading freezes may undermine a Fund’s performance as described above. Also, Shanghai Stock Exchange requirements currently require a Fund and parties acting in concert, once they have reach the 5% threshold, to disclose whenever their shareholding drops below this threshold (even as a result of trading which is less than the 5% incremental change that would trigger a reporting requirement under the relevant CSRC regulation). CSRC regulations also contain additional disclosure (and tender offer) requirements that apply when an investor and parties acting in concert reach thresholds of 20% and greater than 30% shareholding in a company.

 

Subject to the interpretation of PRC courts and PRC regulators, the operation of the PRC short swing profit rule may be applicable to the trading of a Fund with the result that where the holdings of a Fund and the concerted parties exceed 5% of the total issued shares of a listed company, the Fund may not reduce its holdings in the company within six months of the last purchase of shares of the company. If a Fund’s holdings are aggregated with other investors deemed as acting as concert parties of a Fund, a Fund will be subject to these restrictions even though it may not have caused or benefited by the activity. If a Fund violates the rule, it may be required by the listed company to return any profits realized from such trading to the listed company. In addition, the rule limits the ability of a Fund to repurchase securities of the listed company within six months of such sale. Moreover, under PRC civil procedures, a Fund’s assets may be frozen to the extent of the claims made by the company in question. These risks may greatly impair the performance of a Fund.

 

Investments in Eastern Europe. Emerging market countries in Europe will be significantly affected by the fiscal and monetary controls of the European Monetary Union. Changes in regulations on trade, decreasing imports or exports, changes in the exchange rate of the euro and recessions among European countries may have a significant adverse effect on the economies of other European countries including those of Eastern Europe. The markets in Eastern Europe remain relatively undeveloped and can be particularly sensitive to political and economic developments, including those relating to Russia.

 

Investments in Hong Kong. The Fund may invest in securities listed and traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. In addition to the risks of investing in non-U.S. securities, investing in securities listed and traded in Hong Kong involves special considerations not typically associated with investing in countries with more democratic governments or more established economies or securities markets. Such risks may include: (i) the risk of nationalization or expropriation of assets or confiscatory taxation; (ii) greater social, economic and political uncertainty (including the risk of war); (iii) dependency on exports and the corresponding importance of international trade; (iv) increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies; (v) currency exchange rate fluctuations and the lack of available currency hedging instruments; (vi) higher rates of inflation; (vii) controls on foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital and on a Fund’s ability to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars; (viii) greater governmental involvement in and control over the economy; (ix) the risk that the Chinese government may decide not to continue to support the economic reform programs implemented since 1978 and could return to the prior, completely centrally planned, economy; (x) the fact that Chinese companies, particularly those located in China, may be smaller, less seasoned and newly organized; (xi) the differences in, or lack of, auditing and financial reporting standards which may result in unavailability of material information about issuers, particularly in China; (xii) the fact that statistical information regarding the economy of China may be inaccurate or not comparable to statistical information regarding the U.S. or other economies; (xiii) the less extensive, and still developing, regulation of the securities markets, business entities and commercial transactions; (xiv) the fact that the settlement period of securities transactions in foreign markets may be longer; (xv) the fact that the willingness and ability of the Chinese government to support the Chinese and Hong Kong economies and markets is uncertain; (xvi) the risk that it may be more difficult, or impossible, to obtain and/or enforce a judgment than in other countries; (xvii) the rapidity and erratic nature of growth, particularly in China, resulting in inefficiencies and dislocations; (xviii) the risk that, because of the degree of interconnectivity between the economies and financial markets of China and Hong Kong, any sizable reduction in the demand for goods from China, or an economic downturn in China, could negatively affect the economy and financial market of Hong Kong as well; and (xix) the risk that certain companies in a Fund’s underlying index may have dealings with countries subject to sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. Government or identified as state sponsors of terrorism.

 

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Investments in Hong Kong are also subject to certain political risks. Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China by the Communist Party in 1949, the Chinese government renounced various debt obligations incurred by China’s predecessor governments, which obligations remain in default, and expropriated assets without compensation. There can be no assurance that the Chinese government will not take similar action in the future. An investment in a Fund involves risk of a total loss. China has committed by treaty to preserve Hong Kong’s autonomy and its economic, political and social freedoms for 50 years from the July 1, 1997 transfer of sovereignty from Great Britain to China. However, if China would exert its authority so as to alter the economic, political or legal structures or the existing social policy of Hong Kong, investor and business confidence in Hong Kong could be negatively affected, which in turn could negatively affect markets and business performance. These and other factors could have a negative impact on a Fund’s performance.

 

Investments in India. Foreign investment in the securities of issuers in India is usually restricted or controlled to some degree. Under normal circumstances, income, gains and initial capital with respect to such investments are freely repatriable, subject to payment of applicable Indian taxes. There can be no assurance that these investment control regimes will not change in a way that makes it more difficult or impossible for a Fund to implement its investment objective or repatriate its income, gains and initial capital from India.

 

The Indian government exercises significant influence over many aspects of the economy. Government actions, bureaucratic obstacles and inconsistent economic reform could have a significant effect on the economy and a Fund’s investments in India. There can be no assurance that the Indian government in the future, whether for purposes of managing its balance of payments or for other reasons, will not impose restrictions on foreign capital remittances abroad or otherwise modify the exchange control regime applicable to foreign institutional investors in such a way that may adversely affect the ability of a Fund to repatriate its income and capital.

 

Founders and their families control many Indian companies. Corporate governance standards of family-controlled companies may be weaker and less transparent, which increases the potential for loss and unequal treatment of investors. The securities market in India is substantially smaller, less liquid and significantly more volatile than the securities market in the U.S. Exchanges have also experienced problems such as temporary exchange closures, broker defaults, settlement delays and broker strikes that, if they occur again in the future, could affect the market prices and liquidity of the Indian securities in which a Fund invests. In addition, the governing bodies of the various Indian stock exchanges have from time to time imposed restrictions on trading in certain securities, limits on price movements and margin requirements. The relatively small market capitalizations of, and trading values on, the principal stock exchanges may cause a Fund’s investments in securities listed on these exchanges to be comparatively less liquid and subject to greater price volatility than comparable U.S. investments.

 

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Religious, cultural and border disputes persist in India. The Indian government has confronted separatist movements in several Indian states. The longstanding dispute with Pakistan over the bordering Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir remains unresolved. If the Indian government is unable to control the violence and disruption associated with these tensions (including both domestic and external sources of terrorism), the results could destabilize the economy and, consequently, adversely affect a Fund’s investments. Both India and Pakistan have tested nuclear weapons, and the threat of deploying such weapons could hinder development of the Indian economy, and escalating tensions could impact the broader region, including China.

 

Investments in Indonesia. Indonesia is subject to a considerable degree of economic, political and social instability. Indonesia has experienced currency devaluations, substantial rates of inflation, widespread corruption and economic recessions. Indonesia is considered an emerging market, and its securities laws are unsettled. Judicial enforcement of contracts with foreign entities is inconsistent and, as a result of pervasive corruption, subject to the risk that cases will not be judged impartially. Indonesia has a history of political and military unrest and has recently experienced acts of terrorism that have targeted foreigners. Such acts of terrorism have had a negative impact on tourism, an important sector of the Indonesian economy. Additionally, Indonesia has faced violent separatist movements on the islands of Sumatra and Timor, as well as outbreaks of violence amongst religious and ethnic groups. Although the Indonesian government has recently revised policies intended to coerce cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities, a history of discrimination, official persecution, and populist violence continues to heighten the risk of economic disruption in Indonesia due to ethnic tensions. In addition, the Indonesian economy is heavily dependent on trading relationships with certain key trading partners, including China, Japan, Singapore and the United States.

 

Investment in Japan. The Japanese yen has shown volatility over the past two decades and such volatility could affect returns in the future. The yen may also be affected by currency volatility elsewhere in Asia. Depreciation of the yen, and any other currencies in which the Fund’s securities are denominated, will decrease the value of the Fund’s holdings.

 

Japan’s growth prospects appear to be dependent on its export capabilities. Japan’s neighbors, in particular China, have become increasingly important export markets. Despite a strengthening in the economic relationship between Japan and China, the countries’ political relationship has at times been strained in recent years. Should political tension increase, it could adversely affect the economy and destabilize the region as a whole. Japan also remains heavily dependent on oil imports, and higher commodity prices could therefore have a negative impact on the economy. The natural disasters that have impacted Japan and the ongoing recovery efforts have had a negative effect on Japan’s economy. Japan has an aging population and, as a result, Japan’s workforce is shrinking. Japan’s economy may suffer if this trend continues.

 

Investments in Latin America. Latin America, including Brazil and Mexico, has long suffered from political, economic, and social instability. For investors, this has meant additional risk caused by periods of regional conflict, political corruption, totalitarianism, protectionist measures, nationalization, hyperinflation, debt crises and defaults, sudden and large currency devaluation, and intervention by the military in civilian and economic spheres. For example, the government of Brazil imposes a tax on foreign investment in Brazilian stocks and bonds, which may affect the value of a Fund’s investments in Brazilian issuers. While some Latin American governments have experienced privatization of state-owned companies and relaxation of trade restrictions, future free-market economic reforms are uncertain, and political unrest could result in significant disruption in securities markets in the region. The economies of certain Latin American countries have experienced high interest rates, economic volatility, inflation and high unemployment rates. Adverse economic events in one country may have a significant adverse effect on other Latin American countries.

 

Commodities (such as oil, gas and minerals) represent a significant percentage of the region’s exports and many economies in this region are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in commodity prices. Some markets are in areas that have historically been prone to natural disasters or are economically sensitive to environmental events, and a natural disaster could have a significant adverse impact on the economies in the geographic region.

 

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Many Latin American countries have high levels of debt, which may stifle economic growth, contribute to prolonged periods of recession and adversely impact a Fund’s investments. Most countries have been forced to restructure their loans or risk default on their debt obligations. Interest on debt is subject to market conditions and may reach levels that would impair economic activity and create a difficult and costly environment for borrowers. Governments may be forced to reschedule or freeze their debt repayment, which could negatively affect local markets.

 

Investments in Middle East. Many Middle Eastern countries are prone to political turbulence, which may have an adverse impact on a Fund. Many economies in the Middle East are highly reliant on income from the sale of oil or trade with countries involved in the sale of oil, and their economies are therefore vulnerable to changes in the market for oil and foreign currency values. As global demand for oil fluctuates, many Middle Eastern economies may be significantly impacted.

 

In addition, many Middle Eastern governments have exercised and continue to exercise substantial influence over many aspects of the private sector. In certain cases, a Middle Eastern country’s government may own or control many companies, including some of the largest companies in the country. Accordingly, governmental actions in the future could have a significant effect on economic conditions in Middle Eastern countries. This could affect private sector companies and a Fund, as well as the value of securities in a Fund's portfolio.

 

Certain Middle Eastern markets are in the earliest stages of development. As a result, there may be a high concentration of market capitalization and trading volume in a small number of issuers representing a limited number of industries, as well as a high concentration of investors and financial intermediaries. Brokers in Middle Eastern countries typically are fewer in number and less well capitalized than brokers in the United States.

 

The legal systems in certain Middle Eastern countries also may have an adverse impact on a Fund. For example, the potential liability of a shareholder in a U.S. corporation with respect to acts of the corporation generally is limited to the amount of the shareholder’s investment. However, the notion of limited liability is less clear in certain Middle Eastern countries. A Fund therefore may be liable in certain Middle Eastern countries for the acts of a corporation in which it invests for an amount greater than its actual investment in that corporation. Similarly, the rights of investors in Middle Eastern issuers may be more limited than those of shareholders of a U.S. corporation. It may be difficult or impossible to obtain or enforce a legal judgment in a Middle Eastern country. Some Middle Eastern countries prohibit or impose substantial restrictions on investments in their capital markets, particularly their equity markets, by foreign entities such as a Fund. For example, certain countries may require governmental approval prior to investment by foreign persons or limit the amount of investment by foreign persons in a particular issuer. Certain Middle Eastern countries may also limit the investment by foreign persons to only a specific class of securities of an issuer that may have less advantageous terms (including price) than securities of the issuer available for purchase by nationals.

 

The manner in which foreign investors may invest in companies in certain Middle Eastern countries, as well as limitations on those investments, may have an adverse impact on the operations of a Fund. For example, in certain of these countries, a Fund may be required to invest initially through a local broker or other entity and then have the shares that were purchased re-registered in the name of a Fund. Re-registration in some instances may not be possible on a timely basis. This may result in a delay during which a Fund may be denied certain of its rights as an investor, including rights as to dividends or to be made aware of certain corporate actions. There also may be instances where a Fund places a purchase order but is subsequently informed, at the time of re-registration, that the permissible allocation of the investment to foreign investors has been filled.

 

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Substantial limitations may exist in certain Middle Eastern countries with respect to a Fund’s ability to repatriate investment income or capital gains. A Fund could be adversely affected by delays in, or a refusal to grant, any required governmental approval for repatriation of capital, as well as by the application to a Fund of any restrictions on investment.

 

Certain Middle Eastern countries may be heavily dependent upon international trade and, consequently, have been and may continue to be negatively affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade. These countries also have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by economic conditions in the countries with which they trade. In addition, certain issuers located in Middle Eastern countries in which a Fund invests may operate in, or have dealings with, countries subject to sanctions and/or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government and the United Nations, and/or countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. As a result, an issuer may sustain damage to its reputation if it is identified as an issuer which operates in, or has dealings with, such countries. A Fund, as an investor in such issuers, will be indirectly subject to those risks.

 

Certain Middle Eastern countries have strained relations with other Middle Eastern countries due to territorial disputes, historical animosities or defense concerns, which may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries. Certain Middle Eastern countries experience significant unemployment, as well as widespread underemployment. Recently, many Middle Eastern countries have experienced political, economic and social unrest as protestors have called for widespread reform. These protests may adversely affect the economies of these Middle Eastern countries.

 

Investments in South Africa. South Africa’s two-tiered economy, with one rivaling developed countries and the other exhibiting many characteristics of developing countries, is characterized by uneven distribution of wealth and income and high rates of unemployment. This may cause civil and social unrest, which could adversely impact the South African economy. Ethnic and civil conflict could result in the abandonment of many of South Africa’s free market reforms. In addition, South Africa has experienced high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV remains a prominent health concern. Although economic reforms have been enacted to promote growth and foreign investments, there can be no assurance that these programs will achieve the desired results. South Africa’s inadequate currency reserves have left its currency vulnerable, at times, to devaluation. South Africa has privatized or has begun the process of privatization of certain entities and industries. In some instances, investors in certain newly privatized entities have suffered losses due to the inability of the newly privatized entities to adjust quickly to a competitive environment or to changing regulatory and legal standards. There is no assurance that such losses will not recur. Despite significant reform and privatization, the South African government continues to control a large share of South African economic activity. Heavy regulation of labor and product markets is pervasive and may stifle South African economic growth or cause prolonged periods of recession. The agriculture and mining sectors of South Africa’s economy account for a large portion of its exports, and thus the South African economy is susceptible to fluctuations in these commodity markets. Moreover, the South African economy is heavily dependent upon the economies of Europe, Asia (particularly Japan) and the United States. Reduction in spending by these economies on South African products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may cause an adverse impact on the South African economy. South Africa has historically experienced acts of terrorism and strained international relations related to border disputes, historical animosities, racial tensions and other defense concerns. These situations may cause uncertainty in the South African market and may adversely affect the South African economy.

 

Investments in South Korea. The South Korean economy is heavily dependent on trading exports and on the economies of other Asian countries, especially China or Southeast Asia, and the United States as key trading partners. Distributions in trade activity, reductions in spending by these economies on South Korean products and services or negative changes in any of these economies may have an adverse impact on the South Korean economy. Furthermore, South Korea’s economy may be impacted by currency fluctuations and increasing competition from Asia’s other low-cost emerging economies. Finally, South Korea’s economic growth potential has recently been on a decline due to, among other factors, a rapidly aging population and structural problems.

 

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Substantial tensions with North Korea may cause further uncertainty in the political and economic climate of South Korea. North and South Korea each have substantial military capabilities, and historical tensions between the two present the ongoing risk of war. Recent events involving the North Korean military have escalated tensions between North and South Korea. Any outbreak of hostilities between the two countries, or even the threat of an outbreak of hostilities, may have a severe adverse effect on the South Korean economy and any investments in South Korea.

 

Investments in Taiwan. The political reunification of China and Taiwan, over which China continues to claim sovereignty, remains problematic and is unlikely to be settled in the near future. China has staged frequent military provocations off the coast of Taiwan and made threats of full-scale military action. This continuing hostility between China and Taiwan may have an adverse impact on the values of a Fund’s investments in China or Taiwan, or make such investments impracticable or impossible. Any escalation of hostility between China and Taiwan would likely have a significant adverse impact on the value of a Fund’s investments in both countries and the region. In addition, certain Asian economies have experienced over-extension of credit, currency devaluations and restrictions, high unemployment, high inflation, decreased exports and economic recessions. Economic events in any one country may have a significant economic effect on the entire Asian region and any adverse events in the Asian markets may have a significant adverse effect on Taiwanese companies.

 

Taiwan’s growth has been export-driven to a significant degree. As a result, Taiwan is affected by changes in the economies of its main trading partners. If growth in the export sector declines, future growth will be increasingly reliant on domestic demand. Taiwan has limited natural resources, resulting in dependence on foreign sources for certain raw materials and vulnerability to global fluctuations of price and supply. This dependence is especially pronounced in the energy sector. Any fluctuations or shortages in the commodity markets could have a negative impact on Taiwan’s economy. A significant increase in energy prices could have an adverse impact on Taiwan’s economy.

 

Investments in United Kingdom. In a referendum held on June 23, 2016, citizens of the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union (“EU”), creating economic and political uncertainty in its wake. There is considerable uncertainty as to the position of the United Kingdom and the arrangements that will apply to its relationships with the EU and other countries following its anticipated withdrawal. This uncertainty may affect other countries in the EU, or elsewhere, including issuers located in emerging market countries, if they are considered to be impacted by these events.

 

The United Kingdom has one of the largest economies in Europe, and member countries of the EU are substantial trading partners of the United Kingdom. The City of London’s economy is dominated by financial services, some of which may have to move outside of the United Kingdom post-referendum (e.g., currency trading, international settlement). Under Brexit, banks may be forced to move staff and comply with two separate sets of rules or lose business to banks in Europe. Furthermore, the referendum creates the potential for decreased trade, the possibility of capital outflows, devaluation of the pound sterling, the cost of higher corporate bond spreads due to uncertainty, and the risk that all the above could damage business and consumer spending as well as foreign direct investment. As a result of the referendum, the British economy and its currency may be negatively impacted by changes to its economic and political relations with the EU.

 

The impact of the referendum in the near- and long-term is still unknown and could have additional adverse effects on economies, financial markets and asset valuations around the world.

 

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Currency Transactions

The Fund may enter into spot currency transactions, foreign currency forward and foreign currency futures contracts. Foreign currency forward and foreign currency futures contracts are derivatives and are subject to derivatives risk.

 

Forward Foreign Currency Contracts. A forward foreign currency exchange contract (“forward contract”) involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are principally traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A forward contract generally has no margin deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades.

 

A non-deliverable forward contract is a forward contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Non-deliverable forward contracts are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make a payment to the other party (the “Counterparty”) based on the change in market value or level of a specified currency. In return, the Counterparty agrees to make payment to the first party based on the return of a different specified currency. Non-deliverable forward contracts will usually be done on a net basis, with a Fund receiving or paying only the net amount of the two payments. The net amount of the excess, if any, of a Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each non-deliverable forward contract is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Trust’s custodian bank. The risk of loss with respect to non-deliverable forward contracts generally is limited to the net amount of payments that a Fund is contractually obligated to make or receive.

 

Foreign Currency Futures Contracts. A foreign currency futures contract is a contract involving an obligation to deliver or acquire the specified amount of a specific currency, at a specified price and at a specified future time. Futures contracts may be settled on a net cash payment basis rather than by the sale and delivery of the underlying currency.

 

Currency exchange transactions involve a significant degree of risk and the markets in which currency exchange transactions are effected are highly volatile, specialized and technical. Significant changes, including changes in liquidity and prices, can occur in such markets within very short periods of time, often within minutes. Currency exchange trading risks include, but are not limited to, exchange rate risk, maturity gap, interest rate risk, and potential interference by foreign governments through regulation of local exchange markets, foreign investment or particular transactions in foreign currency. If a Fund utilizes foreign currency transactions at an inappropriate time, such transactions may not serve their intended purpose of improving the correlation of a Fund’s return with the performance of the underlying index and may lower a Fund’s return. A Fund could experience losses if the value of any currency forwards and futures positions is poorly correlated with its other investments or if it could not close out its positions because of an illiquid market. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty will default on its obligations. In addition, a Fund will incur transaction costs, including trading commissions, in connection with certain foreign currency transactions.

 

Foreign Exchange Spot Transactions. The Fund may settle trades of holdings denominated in foreign currencies on a spot (i.e., cash) basis at the prevailing rate in the foreign currency exchange market. A foreign exchange spot transaction, also known as FX spot, is an agreement between two parties to buy one currency against selling another currency at an agreed price for settlement on the spot date. The exchange rate at which the transaction is done is called the spot exchange rate. Unlike forward foreign currency exchange contracts and foreign currency futures contracts, which involve trading a particular amount of a currency pair at a predetermined price at some point in the future, the underlying currencies in a spot FX are exchanged following the settlement date.

 

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Equity Securities 

The Fund may invest in equity securities. Equity securities represent ownership interests in a company or partnership and consist of common stocks, preferred stocks, warrants to acquire common stock, securities convertible into common stock, and investments in master limited partnerships. Investments in equity securities in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which a Fund invests will cause the NAV of a Fund to fluctuate. Global stock markets, including the U.S. stock market, tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when stock prices generally decline. The Fund may purchase equity securities traded on exchanges or the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. The Fund may invest in the types of equity securities described in more detail below.

 

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

 

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock.

 

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption or conversion, a Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.

 

Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at a price above their “conversion value,” which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest-rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk, and are often lower-quality securities.

 

Small and Medium Capitalization Issuers. Investing in equity securities of small and medium capitalization companies often involves greater risk than is customarily associated with investments in larger capitalization companies. This increased risk may be due to the greater business risks of smaller size, limited markets and financial resources, narrow product lines and frequent lack of depth of management. The securities of smaller companies are often traded in the OTC market and even if listed on a national securities exchange may not be traded in volumes typical for that exchange. Consequently, the securities of smaller companies are less likely to be liquid, may have limited market stability, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than securities of larger, more established growth companies or the market averages in general.

 

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Warrants. Warrants are instruments that entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

 

Rights. A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. An investment in rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.

 

Depositary Receipts. The Fund may invest in issuers located outside the United States directly, or in financial instruments that are indirectly linked to the performance of foreign issuers. Examples of such financial instruments include ADRs, Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), International Depository Receipts (“IDRs”), “ordinary shares,” and “New York shares” issued and traded in the United States. ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated receipts typically issued by U.S. banks and trust companies that evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign issuer. The underlying securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. The underlying securities are held in trust by a custodian bank or similar financial institution in the issuer’s home country. The depositary bank may not have physical custody of the underlying securities at all times and may charge fees for various services, including forwarding dividends and interest and corporate actions. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs are similar to ADRs in that they are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer, however, GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and are generally designed for use in specific or multiple securities markets outside the United States. EDRs, for example, are designed for use in European securities markets while GDRs are designed for use throughout the world. Ordinary shares are shares of foreign issuers that are traded abroad and on a U.S. exchange. New York shares are shares that a foreign issuer has allocated for trading in the United States. ADRs, ordinary shares, and New York shares all may be purchased with and sold for U.S. dollars.

 

Depositary receipts may be sponsored or unsponsored. Although the two types of depositary receipt facilities (unsponsored or sponsored) are similar, there are differences regarding a holder’s rights and obligations and the practices of market participants. A depository may establish an unsponsored facility without participation by (or acquiescence of) the underlying issuer; typically, however, the depository requests a letter of non-objection from the underlying issuer prior to establishing the facility. Holders of unsponsored depositary receipts generally bear all the costs of the facility. The depository usually charges fees upon the deposit and withdrawal of the underlying securities, the conversion of dividends into U.S. dollars or other currency, the disposition of non-cash distributions, and the performance of other services. The depository of an unsponsored facility frequently is under no obligation to distribute shareholder communications received from the underlying issuer or to pass through voting rights to depositary receipt holders with respect to the underlying securities.

 

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Sponsored depositary receipt facilities are created in generally the same manner as unsponsored facilities, except that sponsored depositary receipts are established jointly by a depository and the underlying issuer through a deposit agreement. The deposit agreement sets out the rights and responsibilities of the underlying issuer, the depository, and the depositary receipt holders. With sponsored facilities, the underlying issuer typically bears some of the costs of the depositary receipts (such as dividend payment fees of the depository), although most sponsored depositary receipts holders may bear costs such as deposit and withdrawal fees. Depositories of most sponsored depositary receipts agree to distribute notices of shareholder meetings, voting instructions, and other shareholder communications and information to the depositary receipt holders at the underlying issuer’s request.

 

Depositary receipts may be unregistered and unlisted. A Fund’s investments may also include ADRs that are not purchased in the public markets and are restricted securities that can be offered and sold only to “qualified institutional buyers” under Rule 144A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. A Fund will determine the liquidity of such investments pursuant to guidelines established by the Fund’s Board of Trustees. If a particular investment in such ADRs is deemed illiquid, that investment will be included within a Fund’s limitation on investment in illiquid securities. Moreover, if adverse market conditions were to develop during the period between a Fund’s decision to sell these types of ADRs and the point at which a Fund is permitted or able to sell such security, a Fund might obtain a price less favorable than the price that prevailed when it decided to sell.

 

Derivatives

The Fund may use derivative instruments as part of their investment strategies. Generally, derivatives are financial contracts the value of which depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index, and may relate to bonds, interest rates, currencies, commodities, and related indexes. Examples of derivative instruments include forward currency contracts, currency and interest rate swaps, currency options, futures contracts, including index futures, options on futures contracts, structured notes, and swap contracts. A Fund’s use of derivative instruments will be collateralized by investments in short term, high-quality U.S. money market securities.

 

With respect to certain kinds of derivative transactions entered into by a Fund that involve obligations to make future payments to third parties, including, but not limited to, futures contracts, forward contracts, swap contracts, the purchase of securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, or reverse repurchase agreements, under applicable federal securities laws, rules, and interpretations thereof, a Fund must “set aside” (referred to sometimes as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other measures to “cover” open positions with respect to such transactions. For example, with respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are not contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund must cover its open positions by setting aside liquid assets equal to the contracts’ full, notional value, except that deliverable forward contracts for currencies that are liquid will be treated as the equivalent of “cash-settled” contracts. As such, a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation (i.e., a Fund’s daily net liability if any) rather than the full notional amount under such deliverable forward foreign currency exchange contracts. With respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation rather than the notional value. Because a Fund may enter into (or “open”) certain derivatives contracts with an initial investment that is less than the notional value of the contract, such contracts provide inherent economic leverage equal to the difference between the initial investment requirement (also known as initial margin requirement) and the notional value of the contract. A Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future consistent with applicable law. A Fund’s use of derivatives may be limited by the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal tax purposes.

 

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The Fund is registered as a commodity pool and Krane has filed for registration as a “commodity pool operator” under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”) and CFTC rules.

 

Swap Contracts. The Fund may enter into swap contracts, including interest rate swaps and currency swaps. A typical interest rate swap involves the exchange of a floating interest rate payment for a fixed interest payment. A typical foreign currency swap involves the exchange of cash flows based on the notional differences among two or more currencies. Swap contracts may be used to hedge or achieve exposure to, for example, currencies, interest rates, and money market securities without actually purchasing such currencies or securities. A Fund may also use swap contracts to invest in a market without owning or taking physical custody of the underlying securities in circumstances in which direct investment is restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise impracticable. Swap contracts will tend to shift a Fund’s investment exposure from one type of investment to another or from one payment stream to another. Depending on their structure, swap contracts may increase or decrease a Fund’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates (in the United States or abroad), foreign currencies, corporate borrowing rates, or other factors, and may increase or decrease the overall volatility of a Fund’s investments and its share price.

 

Futures, Options and Options on Futures Contracts. The Fund may enter into U.S. or foreign futures contracts and options and options on futures contracts. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, it agrees to purchase a specified underlying instrument at a specified future date. When a Fund sells a futures contract, it agrees to sell the underlying instrument at a specified future date. The price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when a Fund enters into the contract. Futures can be held until their delivery dates, or can be closed out before then if a liquid secondary market is available.

 

The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit. A Fund, however, intends to utilize futures and options contracts in a manner designed to limit their risk exposure to levels comparable to direct investment in stocks.

 

Utilization of futures and options on futures by a Fund involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to the underlying index if the index underlying the futures contract differs from the underlying index. There is also the risk of loss by a Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom a Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option. The purchase of put or call options will be based upon predictions by a Fund as to anticipated trends, which predictions could prove to be incorrect.

 

The potential for loss related to the purchase of an option on a futures contract is limited to the premium paid for the option plus transaction costs. Because the value of the option is fixed at the point of sale, there are no daily cash payments by the purchaser to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option changes daily and that change would be reflected in the NAV of a Fund. The potential for loss related to writing options is unlimited.

 

Although the Fund intend to enter into futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, there is no assurance that an active market will exist for the contracts at any particular time.

 

Cover. Transactions using derivative instruments, other than purchased options, expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (1) an offsetting (“covered”) position in securities or other options or futures contracts or (2) cash and liquid assets with a value, marked-to-market daily, sufficient to cover its potential obligations to the extent not covered as provided in (1) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for these instruments and will, if the guidelines so require, set aside cash or liquid assets in an account with its custodian, in the prescribed amount as determined daily.

 

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The Subsidiary will comply with SEC guidelines regarding cover for financial instruments to the same extent as the Fund.

 

Assets used as cover or held in an account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding derivative instrument is open, unless they are replaced with other appropriate assets. As a result, the commitment of a large portion of the Fund’s assets to cover or accounts could impede portfolio management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations.

 

Structured Notes and Securities. The Fund may invest in structured instruments, including, without limitation, participation notes, certificates and warrants and other types of notes on which the amount of principal repayment and interest payments are based on the movement of one or more specified factors, such as the movement of a particular stock or stock index. Structured instruments may be derived from or based on a single security or securities, an index, a commodity, debt issuance or a foreign currency (a “reference”), and their interest rate or principal may be determined by an unrelated indicator. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the reference may produce an increase or a decrease in the value of the structured security at maturity, or in the interest rate of the structured security. Structured securities may entail a greater degree of risk than other types of securities because a Fund bears the risk of the reference in addition to the risk that the counterparty to the structured security will be unable or unwilling to fulfill its obligations under the structured security to a Fund when due. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received in connection with a structured security in the event of the default or bankruptcy of the counterparty to the structured security. Structured securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

 

Exchange-Traded Notes

 

The Fund may invest in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). ETNs are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market benchmark or strategy, minus applicable fees. ETNs are traded on an exchange (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”)) during normal trading hours; however, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments or provide principal protection. ETNs are subject to credit risk, including the credit risk of the issuer, and the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying asset. When the Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. A decision by the Fund to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.

 

ETNs are also subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the IRS will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund characterizes and treats ETNs for tax purposes.

 

An ETN that is tied to a specific market benchmark or strategy may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market benchmark or strategy. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form.

 

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The market value of ETNs may differ from their market benchmark or strategy. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities, commodities or other components underlying the market benchmark or strategy that the ETN seeks to track. As a result, there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount to its market benchmark or strategy.

 

Investments in Other Investment Companies 

The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, or any rule, regulation or order of the SEC or interpretation thereof. Generally, a Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that a Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of a Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than Treasury stock of a Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of a Fund. In addition, Section 12(d)(1) prohibits another investment company from selling its shares to a Fund if, after the sale (i) a Fund owns more than 3% of the other investment company’s voting stock or (ii) a Fund and other investment companies, and companies controlled by them, own more than 10% of the voting stock of such other investment company.

 

Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, however, permits a fund, subject to certain conditions, to invest in acquired funds in the “same group of investment companies” (“affiliated funds”), government securities and short-term paper. In addition to the investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G), Rule 12d1-2 permits acquiring funds to make investments in addition to affiliated funds under certain circumstances including: (1) unaffiliated investment companies (subject to certain limits), (2) other types of securities (such as stocks, bonds and other securities) not issued by an investment company that are consistent with the fund of fund’s investment policies and (3) affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds. In addition to investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G) and Rule 12d1-2, a Fund may invest in derivatives, subject to certain conditions, pursuant to SEC staff interpretations.

 

If a Fund invests in, and thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, a Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear a Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by a Fund to a Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with a Fund’s own operations.

 

Consistent with the restrictions discussed above, a Fund may invest in several different types of investment companies from time to time, including mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds, foreign investment companies and business development companies (“BDCs”). For example, a Fund may elect to invest in another investment company when such an investment presents a more efficient investment option than buying securities individually. A Fund also may invest in investment companies that are included as components of an index, such as BDCs, to seek to track the performance of that index. A BDC is a less common type of closed-end investment company that more closely resembles an operating company than a typical investment company. BDCs generally focus on investing in, and providing managerial assistance to, small, developing, financially troubled, private companies or other companies that may have value that can be realized over time and with management assistance. Similar to an operating company, a BDC’s total annual operating expense ratio typically reflects all of the operating expenses incurred by the BDC, and is generally greater than the total annual operating expense ratio of a mutual fund that does not bear the same types of operating expenses.

 

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The main risk of investing in other investment companies is that a Fund will be exposed to the risks of the investments held by the other investment companies. The market prices of ETFs will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the market value of their underlying portfolio securities and due to supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded (which may result in their trading at a discount or premium to their NAVs). Index-based investment companies may not replicate exactly the performance of their specific index because of transaction costs, and because of the temporary unavailability of certain component securities of the index, or strategy used to track the index.

 

Krane and a sub-adviser are subject to a conflict of interest in allocating a Fund’s assets to investment companies from which they or their affiliates receive compensation or other benefits.

 

Cap and Trade

Cap and trade regimes and related markets are new and based on scientific principles that are subject to debate. Cap and trade regimes have arisen primarily due to relative international consensus with respect to scientific evidence indicating a correlative relationship between the rise in global temperatures and extreme weather events, on the one hand, and the rise in Greenhouse Gas (“GHG”) emissions in the atmosphere, on the other hand. If this consensus were to break down, cap and trade regimes and the value of the Fund may be negatively affected.

 

Scientists are still debating whether the rise in atmospheric GHGs is caused by human activity such as GHG emissions generated through the burning of fossil fuels, as well as the acceptable level of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. If the science supporting the relationship or the acceptable level of GHG concentrations is discredited or proved to be incorrect or inaccurate, it may negatively affect cap and trade regimes and the value of the Fund.

 

There is no assurance that cap and trade regimes will continue to exist. cap and trade may not prove to be an effective method of reduction in GHG emissions. As a result or due to other factors, cap and trade regimes may be terminated or may not be renewed upon their expiration. The EU ETS is organized into a number of phases, each which a predetermined duration. Currently, the EU ETS is in Phase III. There can be no assurance that the EU ETS will enter into a new phase as scheduled.

 

New technologies may arise that may diminish or eliminate the need for cap and trade markets. Ultimately, the cost of emissions credits is determined by the cost of actually reducing emissions levels. If the price of credits becomes too high, it will be more economical for companies to develop or invest in green technologies, thereby suppressing the demand for credits and adversely affecting the price of the Fund.

 

Cap and trade regimes set emission limits (i.e., the right to emit a certain quantity of GHG emissions), which can be allocated or auctioned to the parties in the mechanism up to the total emissions cap. This allocation may be larger or smaller than is needed for a stable price of credits and can lead to large price volatility, which could affect the value of the Fund. Depending upon the industries covered under each cap and trade mechanism represented in the Index, unpredictable demand for their products and services can affect the value of GHG emissions credits. For example, very mild winters or very cool summers can decrease demand for electric utilities and therefore require fewer carbon credits to offset reduced production and GHG emissions.

 

The ability of the GHG emitting companies to pass on the cost of emissions credits to consumers can affect the price of the carbon credit futures. If the price of emissions can be passed on to the end customer with little impact upon consumer demand, it is likely that industries may continue emitting and purchase any shortfall in the market at the prevailing price. If, however, the producer is unable to pass on the cost, it may be incentivized to reduce production in order to decrease its need for offsetting emissions credits, which could adversely affect the price of carbon credit futures and the Fund.

 

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Regulatory risk related to changes in regulation and enforcement of cap and trade regimes could also adversely affect market behavior. If fines or other penalties for non-compliance are not enforced, incentives to purchase GHG credits will deteriorate, which could result in a decline in the price of emissions credits and a drop in the value of the Fund. In addition, as cap and trade markets develop, new regulation with respect to these markets may arise, which could have a negative effect on the value and liquidity of the cap and trade markets and the Fund.

 

Investments in the Subsidiary

 

The Fund will invest in a wholly-owned subsidiary organized under the laws of the Cayman Islands, the Subsidiary, the registered offices of which is located at […], Cayman Islands. The Fund will be the sole shareholder of the Subsidiary, and does not expect shares of the Subsidiary to be offered or sold to other investors. The Fund’s investment in the Subsidiary may not exceed 25% of the value of its total assets (ignoring any subsequent market appreciation in the Subsidiary’s value), which limitation is imposed by the Code and is measured at the end of each quarter of its taxable year.

 

The Fund will invest in the Subsidiary in order to gain exposure to the investment returns of the commodities markets within the limitations of the federal tax law requirements applicable to RICs. The Subsidiary will invest principally in commodity and financial futures, options and swap contracts, as well as certain fixed-income investments intended to serve as margin or collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivatives positions. Unlike the Fund, the Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity-linked derivatives, though the Subsidiary will comply with the same 1940 Act asset coverage requirements with respect to its investments in commodity-linked derivatives that apply to the Fund’s transactions in those instruments. To the extent applicable, the Subsidiary otherwise is subject to the same fundamental and non-fundamental investment restrictions as the Fund and, in particular, to the same requirements relating to portfolio leverage, liquidity, and the timing and method of valuation of portfolio investments and Fund shares. (Accordingly, references in this SAI to the Fund may also include the Subsidiary.) By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund may be considered to be investing indirectly in the same investments as the subsidiary and is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with those investments.

 

The Subsidiary is not registered with the SEC as an investment company under the 1940 Act and is not subject to the investor protections of the 1940Act. As an investor in the Subsidiary, the Fund will not have the same protections offered to shareholders 17 of registered investment companies. However, because the Subsidiary is wholly owned and controlled by the Fund and the Fund is managed by Krane, it is unlikely that the Subsidiary will take action in any manner contrary to the interest of the Fund or its shareholders. Because the Subsidiary has the same investment objective and, to the extent applicable, will comply with the same investment policies as the Fund, Krane manages the Subsidiary’s portfolio in a manner similar to that of the Fund.

 

The Subsidiary has a board of directors that oversees its activities. The Subsidiary has entered into a separate investment advisory agreement with Krane and pays Krane a fee for its services. The Subsidiary also has entered into agreements with the Fund’s service providers for the provision of administrative, accounting, transfer agency and custody services.

 

The Fund and the Subsidiary may not be able to operate as described in this SAI in the event of changes to the laws of the United States or the Cayman Islands. If the laws of the Cayman Islands required the Subsidiary to pay taxes to a governmental authority, the Fund would be likely to suffer decreased returns.

 

Borrowing

The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Borrowing for investment purposes is a form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique that increases investment risk. Because substantially all of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV of a Fund will increase more when a Fund’s portfolio assets increase in value and decrease more when a Fund’s portfolio assets decrease in value than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit, which would further increase the cost of borrowing. Under adverse conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales.

 

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Although it has not entered into any sort of credit facility, a Fund may borrow money to facilitate management of a Fund’s portfolio by enabling a Fund to meet redemption requests when the liquidation of portfolio instruments would be inconvenient or disadvantageous, and for temporary or emergency purposes, such as trade settlements and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain the Fund’s status as a RIC. In this regard, a Fund may enter into a credit facility to borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes, including the funding of shareholder redemption requests, trade settlements, and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain a Fund’s status as a RIC. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by a Fund promptly. As required by the 1940 Act, a Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If, at any time, the value of a Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, a Fund, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays), will reduce the amount of a Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations otherwise indicate that it would be disadvantageous to do so.

 

In addition to the foregoing, the Fund are authorized to borrow money for extraordinary or emergency purposes. Borrowings for extraordinary or emergency purposes are not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. While the Fund does not anticipate doing so, the Fund is authorized to pledge (i.e., transfer a security interest in) portfolio securities in an amount up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets in connection with any borrowing.

 

Bank Deposits and Obligations

The Fund may invest in deposits and other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions. Deposits and obligations of banks and financial institutions include certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances. Certificates of deposit and time deposits represent an institution’s obligation to repay funds deposited with it that earn a specified interest rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates, while time deposits are non-negotiable deposits. A banker’s acceptance is a time draft drawn on and accepted by a bank that becomes a primary and unconditional liability of the bank upon acceptance. Investments in obligations of non-U.S. banks and financial institutions may involve risks that are different from investments in obligations of U.S. banks. These risks include future unfavorable political and economic developments, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held in a Fund. All investments in deposits and other obligations are subject to credit risk, which is the risk that a Fund may lose its investments in these instruments if, for example, the issuing financial institution collapses and is unable to meet its obligations. This risk is more acute for investments in deposits and other obligations that are not insured by a government or private entity. For a discussion of the risks of a Fund holding cash in mainland China, please see the “PRC Custodian and Dealer/Settlement Agent” section above.

 

Illiquid Securities

The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. A Fund’s net assets invested in illiquid securities (as defined in the 1940 Act and the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder), however, may exceed 15% due to market fluctuations, in which case a Fund will monitor its outlook and consider what steps it may take to reduce its holdings of illiquid securities. Such measures may not include the liquidation of an illiquid investment where a Fund would be disadvantaged by such disposition. The inability of a Fund to readily dispose of illiquid or not readily marketable investments or at a reasonable price could impair a Fund’s ability to raise cash for redemptions or other purposes. In addition, the sale of illiquid securities also may require more time and may result in higher dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of securities that are not illiquid. Illiquid securities also may be more difficult to value due to the unavailability of reliable market quotations for such securities, and investment in illiquid securities may have an adverse impact on a Fund’s NAV. The liquidity of securities purchased by a Fund which are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A will be monitored in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees.

 

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Portfolio Turnover

In general, Krane or a sub-adviser manages the Fund without regard to restrictions on portfolio turnover. The Fund’ investment strategies, however, may produce high portfolio turnover rates. To the extent a Fund invests in derivative instruments, the instruments generally will have short-term maturities and, thus, be excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover. The value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of a Fund’s shares also is excluded from the calculation of the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. As a result, a Fund’s reported portfolio turnover may be low despite relatively high portfolio activity which would, in turn, produce correspondingly greater expenses for a Fund, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestments in other securities. Generally, the higher the rate of portfolio turnover of a fund, the higher these transaction costs borne by a fund and its long-term shareholders. Such sales may result in the realization of taxable capital gains (including short-term capital gains, which, when distributed, are generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates) for certain taxable shareholders.

 

“Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the lesser of the value of the securities purchased or of the securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at the time of acquisition were one-year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with a remaining maturity of less than one-year are excluded from the calculation of the portfolio turnover rate. Instruments excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover may include commercial paper, futures contracts and option contracts because they generally have a remaining maturity of less than one-year.

 

Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements. A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which a Fund purchases securities or other obligations from a bank or securities dealer (or its affiliate) and simultaneously commits to resell them to a counterparty at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased obligations. A Fund maintains custody of the underlying obligations prior to their repurchase, either through its regular custodian or through a special “triparty” custodian or sub-custodian that maintains separate accounts for both a Fund and its counterparty. Thus, the obligation of the counterparty to pay the repurchase price on the date agreed to or upon demand is, in effect, secured by such obligations.

 

Repurchase agreements carry certain risks not associated with direct investments in securities, including a possible decline in the market value of the underlying obligations. If their value becomes less than the repurchase price, plus any agreed-upon additional amount, the counterparty must provide additional collateral so that at all times the collateral is at least equal to the repurchase price plus any agreed-upon additional amount. The difference between the total amount to be received upon repurchase of the obligations and the price that was paid by a Fund upon acquisition is accrued as interest and included in its net investment income. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. government securities (such as commercial paper and corporate bonds) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. If the seller or guarantor becomes insolvent, a Fund may suffer delays, costs and possible losses in connection with the disposition of collateral.

 

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Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by a Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to a Fund’s limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust’s custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked to market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement.

 

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by the Fund might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.

 

Cyber-Security Risk

The Fund, and its service providers, may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its advisors, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact a Fund. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject a Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. A Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. While a Fund’s service providers have established business continuity plans, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, a Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect a Fund or its shareholders. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issues or securities in which a Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause a Fund’s investment in such companies to lose value.

 

INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS

 

Unless otherwise noted, whenever a fundamental investment policy or limitation states that a maximum percentage of a Fund’s assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding quality standards, such standard or percentage limitation will be determined immediately after and as a result of a Fund’s acquisition of such security or other asset. Accordingly, other than with respect to a Fund’s limitations on borrowings, any subsequent change in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with a Fund’s investment policies and limitations.

 

Fundamental Policies

The investment limitations below are fundamental policies of the Fund, and cannot be changed without the consent of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding shares. The term “majority of the outstanding shares” means the vote of (i) 67% or more of the Fund’s shares present at a meeting, if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented by proxy, or (ii) more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding shares, whichever is less.

 

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The Fund may not:

 

1.Issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief.

 

2.Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief.

 

3.Act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act in the disposition of portfolio securities.

 

4.Purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, or any non-U.S. government, or their respective agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry (excluding investment companies) or group of industries, except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of the same industry to approximately the same extent that the Fund’s Index concentrates in the securities of a particular industry or group of industries.

 

5.Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business).

 

6.Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options, futures contracts, forward contracts, swaps and other financial instruments or from investing in issuers engaged in the commodities business or securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).

 

7.Lend any security or make any other loan except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief. This limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities or to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments permissible under the Fund’s investment policies.

 

CONTINUOUS OFFERING

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by a Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Fund’s Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares, and sells such shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act.

 

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MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

 

Board Responsibilities

The Board of Trustees is responsible for overseeing the management and affairs of the Fund and the Trust. The Board considers and approves contracts, as described herein, under which certain companies provide essential management and administrative services to the Trust. Like most ETFs, the day-to-day business of the Trust, including the day-to-day management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as Krane, a sub-adviser where applicable, the Distributor and the Administrator (as defined below). The Board oversees the Trust’s service providers and overall risk management. Risk management seeks to identify and eliminate or mitigate the potential effects of risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Trust or a Fund. Under the overall supervision of the Board and the Audit Committee (discussed in more detail below), the service providers to the Fund employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify risks relevant to the operations of the Trust and a Fund to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., Krane is responsible for the oversight of a sub-adviser) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that activity.

 

Consistent with its responsibility for oversight of the Trust and the Fund, the Board oversees the management of risks relating to the administration and operations of the Trust and the Fund. Krane, as part of its responsibilities for the day-to-day operations of the Fund, is responsible for day-to-day risk management for the Fund. The Board performs its risk management oversight directly and, as to certain matters, through its committees. The following provides an overview of the principal, but not all, aspects of the Board’s oversight of risk management for the Trust and the Fund.

 

In general, the Fund’s risks include, among others, investment risk, liquidity risk, valuation risk and operational risk. The Fund’s service providers, including Krane, are responsible for adopting policies, procedures and controls designed to address various risks within their purview. Further, Krane is responsible for overseeing and monitoring the investments and operations of each sub-adviser. The Board also oversees risk management for the Trust and the Fund through review of regular reports, presentations and other information from officers of the Trust and other persons. In addition to reports from Krane, the Board also receives reports regarding other service providers to the Trust on a periodic or regular basis.

 

The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent and quality of the Fund services provided to the Fund by Krane and any sub-adviser and receives information from them on a periodic basis. In connection with its consideration of whether to approve and/or renew the advisory agreements with Krane and any sub-adviser, the Board will request information allowing the Board to review such services. The Board also receives reports related to Krane’s and any sub-adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with the stated policies of a Fund. In addition, the Board regularly receives information about the Fund’s performance and investments.

 

The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer meets regularly with the Board to review and discuss compliance and other issues. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and any sub-adviser. The report generally seeks to address: the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and material compliance matters since the date of the last report.

 

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The Board normally also receives reports from the Trust’s service providers regarding Fund operations, portfolio valuation and other matters. Annually, an independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Trust’s financial statements, focusing on certain areas of risk to the Trust and the Trust’s internal controls.

 

The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect a Fund can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, despite the periodic reports the Board receives and the Board’s discussions with the service providers to a Fund, it may not be made aware of all relevant information about certain risks. Most of the Trust’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through Krane and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Trust’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to substantial limitations.

 

Members of the Board and Officers of the Trust  

Set forth below are the names, years of birth, position with the Trust, term of office, the principal occupations for a minimum of the last five years, number of portfolios overseen by, and other directorships of each of the persons currently serving as members of the Board and as Executive Officers of the Trust. Also included below is the term of office for each of the Executive Officers of the Trust. The members of the Board serve as Trustees for the life of the Trust or until retirement, removal, or their office is terminated pursuant to the Trust’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust.

 

The Chairman of the Board, Jonathan Krane, is an interested person of the Trust as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. No single Independent Trustee serves as a lead Independent Trustee. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics the Trust and its operations. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust (i.e., “Independent Trustees”) constitute at least fifty percent (50%) of the Board, the fact that the Audit Committee is composed of the Independent Trustees, and the number of funds (and classes of shares) overseen by the Board.

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee/Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

Interested Trustee

Jonathan Krane*

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 

Trustee and Chairman of the Board, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Chief Executive Officer of CICC Wealth Management (USA) LLC from 2018 to present.  Principal of KFA One Holdings LLC from 2017 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [20] None

 

34 

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee/Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

Independent Trustees

Patrick P. Campo

(1970)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2017 From 2013 to present, Director of Long Short Equity, Titan Advisors; from 2009 to 2013, Director of Hedge Fund Research, Alternative Investment Management, LLC. [20] None

John Ferguson

(1966)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Operating Officer of Shrewsbury River Capital from 2017 to present. Chief Operating Officer of Kang Global Investors LP (hedge fund adviser) from 2014 to 2016. President of Alden Global Capital, LLC (hedge fund adviser) from 2012 to 2014 (formerly, Chief Operating Officer from 2011 to 2012). Senior Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer of K2 Advisors, L.L.C. from 2005 to 2011.   [20] None

Matthew Stroyman

(1968) 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Co-Founder, President and Chief Operating Officer of Arcturus (real estate asset and investment management services firm) from 2007 to present. [20] None

 

35 

 

Name, Address and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served 

Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee/Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

Officers

Jonathan Krane

(1968) 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Chief Executive Officer of CICC Wealth Management (USA) LLC from 2018 to present.  Principal of KFA One Holdings LLC from 2017 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [20] None

Jennifer Tarleton (formerly Krane)

(1966) 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Vice President and Secretary, No set term; served since 2012 Vice President of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present.  Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011.  Sole Practitioner of Jennifer Krane, Esq. from 2001 to 2009. [20] None

Michael Quain

(1957)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 

Chief Compliance Officer and Anti-Money Laundering Officer, No Set Term; served since 2015 Principal/President of Quain Compliance Consulting, LLC from 2014 to present. First Vice President of Aberdeen Asset Management Inc. from May 2013 to September 2013. First Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of Artio Global Management, LLC from 2004 to 2013. [20] None

James Hoffmayer

(1973)

SEI Investments Company

One Freedom Valley Drive

Oaks, PA 19456 

Assistant Treasurer, No set term; served since 2017 Controller and Chief Financial Officer of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2016 to present.  Senior Director, Funds Accounting and Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from September 2016 to present.  Senior Director of Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2014 to present.  Director of Financial Reporting of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2004 to 2014. [20] None
         
*Mr. Krane is an “interested” person of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, by virtue of his ownership and controlling interest in Krane.

 

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Board Standing Committees

The Board has established the following standing committees:

 

Audit Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Audit Committee (the “Audit Committee”) and Mr. Ferguson is the Chairman of the Audit Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee are the appointment, compensation and oversight of the Trust’s independent auditors, including the review of any significant disputes regarding financial reporting between Trust management and such independent auditors. Under the terms of the Audit Committee charter adopted by the Board, the Audit Committee is authorized to, among other things, (i) oversee the accounting and financial reporting processes of the Trust and its internal control over financial reporting; (ii) oversee the quality and integrity of a Fund’s financial statements and the independent audits thereof; (iii) oversee, or, as appropriate, assist Board oversight of, the Trust’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements that relate to the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting, internal control over financial reporting and independent audits; (iv) approve, prior to appointment, the engagement of the Trust’s independent auditors and, in connection therewith, review and evaluate the qualifications, independence and performance of the Trust’s independent auditors; and (v) act as a liaison between the Trust’s independent auditors and the full Board. The Board of the Trust has adopted a written charter for the Audit Committee. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Audit Committee held five meetings.

 

The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust.  The function of the QLCC is to receive, review and recommend resolution with respect to any report made or referred to the QLCC by an attorney of evidence of a material violation of applicable U.S. federal or state securities law, material breach of a fiduciary duty under U.S. federal or state law or a similar material violation by the Trust or by any officer, trustee, employee, or agent of the Trust. The QLCC meets as needed.

 

Nominating Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Nominating Committee and Mr. Stroyman is the Chairman of the Nominating Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Nominating Committee are to (i) identify, select and nominate the appropriate number of candidates for election or appointment as members of the Board and (ii) recommend any appropriate changes to the Board for consideration. The Nominating Committee is solely responsible for the selection and nomination of the Trust’s Independent Trustees and does not consider nominations for the office of Trustee made by Trust stockholders. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Nominating Committee held two meetings.

 

Individual Trustee Qualifications

The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of his ability to review and understand information about the Trust and the Fund provided by management, to identify and request other information he may deem relevant to the performance of the Trustees’ duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of a Fund, and to exercise his business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of a Fund’s shareholders. The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Krane should serve as Trustee because of his knowledge of, and the executive positions he holds or has held in, the financial services industry. Specifically, Mr. Krane currently serves as Chief Executive Officer of the Adviser and Chief Executive Officer of Krane Portfolio Advisors, LLC. Mr. Krane contributes expertise and institutional knowledge relating to the structure of the “Krane” organization and the way that the “Krane” business operates. Mr. Krane also served as Chief Executive Officer of the China division of a multinational company, where he gained valuable experience in managing a business and critical knowledge of business and investment opportunities in China. In addition, he has served on the boards of different corporations and, in doing so, has first-hand knowledge of the fiduciary duties and responsibilities bestowed upon trustees and directors. Mr. Krane’s experience as serving as Chief Executive Officer for multiple businesses in the financial services industry, his familiarity with the “Krane” complex, and his experience in serving on the boards of various companies qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

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The Board has concluded that Patrick Campo should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the investment management industry over many years. In particular, Mr. Campo currently serves as the director of certain investment strategies managed by an investment adviser and contributes to the portfolio construction process for all products offered by that investment adviser. In addition, Mr. Campo previously served as partner and head of research for another investment adviser. The knowledge Mr. Campo has gained over these years working in the investment management industry and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Ferguson should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and legal industries over the years. In particular, Mr. Ferguson has extensive experience in managing global investment adviser firms, including the management, creation and success of hedge funds. Prior to that, Mr. Ferguson served as a corporate securities and tax attorney assisting and counseling clients with the organization and creation of both domestic and offshore funds. In addition, Mr. Ferguson has served as an officer for two registered investment companies and, in doing so, has gained experience and knowledge regarding the mutual fund industry. Mr. Ferguson’s experience in the financial services, fund and legal industries and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms, qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Stroyman should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and real estate industries. Working as an investment banker early in his career, Mr. Stroyman developed a strong base of knowledge regarding corporate finance, structuring, public and private securities, and company valuations. Through his work in the real estate industry and relationships with large investment management firms, Mr. Stroyman has gained an understanding of sophisticated financial products. He has advised institutional clients including pension funds, endowments and other qualified investors in asset management, risk assessment, and repositioning and disposition of underperforming assets. The knowledge Mr. Stroyman has gained over the years working in the financial services and real estate industries and his value and understanding of fiduciary duties and responsibilities qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

As of March 31, 2019, none of the Independent Trustees or members of their immediate family, beneficially owned or owned of record securities representing interests in Krane, any sub-adviser or distributor of the Trust, or any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such persons. For this purpose, “immediate family member” includes an Independent Trustee’s spouse, children residing in the same household and dependents of the Independent Trustee.

 

Fund Shares Owned by Board Members

The Fund is new and, therefore, as of the date of this SAI, none of the Trustees beneficially owned shares of the Fund. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the Trustees beneficially owned the following amounts of Fund shares of other series of the Trust:

 

 Trustee Funds Aggregate 
Dollar 
Range of 
Beneficial 
Ownership 
of Funds
Patrick Campo None None
John Ferguson None None
Jonathan Krane KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF $10,001-$50,000
KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF $10,001-$50,000
Matthew Stroyman KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF $1-$10,000
KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF $1-$10,000

 “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.

 

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Board Compensation

Trustee. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019: (a) Mr. Campo received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $50,000; (b) Mr. Ferguson received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $65,000; and (c) Mr. Stroyman received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $65,000. None of the Trustees accrued or received any retirement or pension benefits.

 

For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2020, it is expected that the Trustees will receive compensation from the Trust in the amount of $50,000.00 per year and the Chairmen of the Audit Committee and Nominating Committee will each receive an additional $15,000. The Fund bears a proportionate share of Trustee compensation and expenses based on its relative net assets.

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane’ or “Adviser’) serves as investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane (the “Advisory Agreement”). Krane is a Delaware limited liability company registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). Krane’s offices are located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing a Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. As part of the Advisory Agreement, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect a Fund.

 

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Under the Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund. In addition, under the Advisory Agreement, as compensation for the services provided by Krane in connection with any securities lending-related activities, the Fund pays Krane 10% of the monthly investment income received from the investment of cash collateral and loan fees received from borrowers in respect of securities loans (net of any amounts paid to the custodian and/or securities lending agent or rebated to borrowers).

 

KFA Global Carbon ETF[*] 0.78%

[*The Fund’s investment adviser has contractually agreed to reduce its management fee by […]% of the Fund’s average daily net assets (“Fee Waiver”). The Fee Waiver will continue until […], 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board. In addition, the Fee Waiver Agreement will terminate if the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund is terminated.]

 

In addition to the above-described services, to the extent a Fund engages in securities lending, Krane will: (i) determine which securities are available for loan and notify the securities lending agent for the Fund (the "Agent"), (ii) monitor the Agent’s activities to ensure that securities loans are effected in accordance with Krane’s instructions and in accordance with applicable procedures and guidelines adopted by the Board, (iii) make recommendations to the Board regarding the Fund’s participation in securities lending; (iv) prepare appropriate periodic reports for, and seek appropriate periodic approvals from, the Board with respect to securities lending activities; (v) respond to Agent inquiries concerning Agent’s activities; and (vi) such other related duties as Krane deems necessary or appropriate. In addition, Krane may provide additional securities lending-related services as requested by the Trustees from time to time.

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, while the fees and expenses related to a Fund’s securities lending-related activities reduce the revenues and income of the Fund from such activities, they are not fees and expenses for which Krane is responsible.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, Krane did not receive any advisory fees or fees from securities lending activities from those Funds during the prior three fiscal years.

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in effect for two years from its initial effective date, and thereafter is subject to annual approval by (i) the Board of Trustees of the Trust or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, provided that in either event such continuance also is approved by a vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, by a vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. If the shareholders of a Fund fail to approve the Advisory Agreement, Krane may continue to serve in the manner and to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and rules and regulations thereunder.

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to a Fund is terminable without any penalty, by vote of the Board of Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund, or by Krane, in each case on not less than sixty (60) days’ prior written notice to the other party; provided that a shorter notice period shall be permitted for a Fund in the event its shares are no longer listed on a national securities exchange or in such other circumstances where a Fund waives such notice period. The Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically and immediately in the event of its “assignment” (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2019, Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 46.2% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

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Krane has received “manager of managers” exemptive relief from the SEC that permits Krane, subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, to appoint a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser, as defined in the exemptive relief, or to change the terms of an sub-advisory agreement with a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser without first obtaining shareholder approval. The exemptive order further permits Krane to add or to change a “wholly-owned” or unaffiliated sub-adviser or to change the fees paid to such parties from time to time without the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approval of the change and to disclose sub-advisers’ fees only in the aggregate in its registration statement. Any increase in the aggregate advisory fee paid by any Fund remains subject to shareholder approval. Krane continues to have ultimate responsibility (subject to oversight by the Board of Trustees) to oversee the sub-advisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. The Fund will notify shareholders of any change of a Fund sub-adviser.

 

SUB-ADVISER

 

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Adviser has retained Climate Finance Partners LLC (“CFP” or “Sub-Adviser”), [address], to provide non-discretionary sub-advisory services to the Fund, which include research and portfolio modeling services related to the Fund’s investments and the monitoring of such investments. CFP was established in […] and is controlled by its […].

 

Krane has entered into a Sub-Advisory Agreement with CFP pursuant to which Krane will pay CFP […]. [Under the Sub-Advisory Agreement, the fee will be calculated daily and paid monthly.]

 

[The Sub-Advisory Agreement will automatically terminate if assigned, and may be terminated without penalty at any time: (1) by Krane upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to CFP; (2) by a vote of a majority of the Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund upon (60) days’ written notice to CFP; (3) by CFP upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Board and Krane; or immediately upon written notice by Krane or CFP if (A) the license, approval, authorization or consent held by Krane or CFP which is required for the performance of its obligations under the Sub-Advisory Agreement and which has been granted or given by any relevant regulatory authority, is terminated or suspended; (B) Krane or CFP commits a material breach of the Sub-Advisory Agreement that is uncured within thirty (30) days of notice; (C) any step is taken with a view to the winding up, bankruptcy or administration of Krane or CFP; (D) any adverse finding is made in respect of, or official sanction imposed on, Krane or CFP by any relevant regulatory authority which would be likely to affect its ability to perform its obligations under the Sub-Advisory Agreement; or (E) a relevant regulatory authority has held, or is likely to hold, Krane or CFP to be in breach of any regulatory or other duties in relation to the Sub-Advisory Agreement. After an initial period of two years, the Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue in effect provided that annually such continuance is specifically approved by a vote of the Trustees, including the affirmative votes of a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Sub-Advisory Agreement or “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of considering such approval, or by the vote of shareholders.]

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the prior fiscal year, Krane did not pay CFP any subadvisory fees during the prior three fiscal years.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGERS

 

Mark Schlarbaum, Head of Capital Markets at Krane, has served as the lead portfolio manager of the Fund since the Fund’s commencement of operations. Mr. Schlarbaum joined Krane in 2015 and has over 25 years of experience in the investment management industry. Previously, he was Vice President Senior Equity Trader at T. Rowe Price (1997-2003); Co-Founder of Schlarbaum Capital Management (2002-2006); Partner- Head Equity Trader/Portfolio Manager at Global Capital Management (2007-2009); Managing Director, lead portfolio manager for small cap SMA strategies and co-portfolio manager for all-cap SMA strategies at Palliser Bay Investment, LLC (2009-2014); and Partner at Trident Distribution Partners (2014-2015). Mr. Schlarbaum graduated with a bachelor’s degree in psychology and economics from Purdue University.

 

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Jonathan Shelon, Chief Operating Officer at Krane, also serves as a portfolio manager of the Fund. Mr. Shelon supports Krane’s investment team for the Fund and Mr. Schlarbaum, who will continue to serve as the Fund’s lead portfolio manager. Mr. Shelon has been a portfolio manager for the Fund since the Fund’s commencement of operations. Mr. Shelon joined Krane in 2015 as a Managing Partner. Mr. Shelon has spent the majority of his career managing investment portfolios and diverse teams at leading asset management organizations. Most recently, he was the Chief Investment Officer of a 40-person global Specialized Strategies Team at J.P. Morgan with $40 billion AUM. Prior to joining J.P. Morgan, Mr. Shelon spent ten years as a portfolio manager at Fidelity Investments where he was responsible for the investment performance, process and evolution of their target-date strategies for retirement savings, college savings and income generation.

 

Portfolio Manager Fund Ownership. The Fund is required to show the dollar range of each portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of shares of the Fund as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. The KFA Global Carbon ETF had not yet commenced operations as of the date of this SAI. Therefore, Messrs. Schlarbaum and Shelon did not beneficially own any shares of the Fund as of that date.

 

Other Accounts. The portfolio managers are responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

 

Krane’s Portfolio Managers
Name

Registered Investment Companies*

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles*

Other Accounts*
Number of Accounts

Total Assets
($ millions)

Number of Accounts Total Assets 
($ millions)
Number of Accounts

Total Assets

($ millions)

Mark Schlarbaum* […] $[…] […] $[…] […] $[…]
Jonathan Shelon* […] $[…] […] $[…] […] $[…]

* The information provided is as of […], 2019. None of the accounts paid advisory fees based on the performance of the accounts.

 

Portfolio Manager Compensation

 

The portfolio managers receive a fixed base salary and incentive awards based on the profitability of Krane and the satisfaction of the account objectives. The potential conflicts of interest arising with respect to each portfolio manager’s compensation are relatively limited because the Fund seeks to track the performance of the underlying index, which makes it unlikely, but not impossible, that the portfolio manager would take undue risks in investing the Fund’s assets to increase performance. Nevertheless, to the extent a portfolio manager would derive additional compensation from managing other accounts, the portfolio manager may be motivated to favor the other accounts.

 

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Description of Material Conflicts of Interest

 

A portfolio manager’s management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with his management of a Fund’s investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have the same investment objective as a Fund. Therefore, a potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the similar investment objectives, whereby the portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include the portfolio manager’s knowledge of the size, timing and possible market impact of a Fund’s trades, whereby the portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts, including personal trading, and to the disadvantage of a Fund. However, Krane has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts it manages are fairly and equitably allocated. Krane monitors and limits personal trading in accordance with its Code of Ethics, as described below.

 

CODES OF ETHICS

 

The Trust, Krane and each sub-adviser have each adopted a Code of Ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. The Codes of Ethics apply to the personal investing activities of trustees, directors, officers and certain employees (“access persons”). Rule 17j-1 and the Codes of Ethics are designed to prevent unlawful practices in connection with the purchase or sale of securities by access persons. Under the Codes of Ethics, access persons are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions (including investments in securities that may be purchased and held by a Fund), but are required to report their personal securities transactions for monitoring purposes. In addition, certain access persons are required to obtain approval before investing in private placements and are prohibited from investing in initial public offerings. Each Code of Ethics is on file with the SEC and is available to the public.

 

PROXY VOTING POLICY

 

The Trust has adopted the proxy voting policies of Krane, a summary of which is set forth in the appendix to this SAI. The Trust is required to disclose annually a Fund’s complete proxy voting record on Form N-PX covering the period from July 1 of one year through June 30 of the next and to file Form N-PX with the SEC no later than August 31 of each year. The Form N-PX is available, or will be available, at no charge upon request by calling 1.855.857.2638. A Fund’s Form N-PX is also available or will be available, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

ADMINISTRATOR

 

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (the “Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. SEI Investments Management Corporation (“SIMC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company (“SEI Investments”), is the owner of all beneficial interest in the Administrator. The principal address of the Administrator is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. Under an Amended and Restated Administration Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, as amended (the “Administration Agreement”), the Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund. In addition, the Administrator makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

For its services under the Administration Agreement, the Administrator is entitled to a fee, based on assets under management, subject to a minimum fee. The Administrator may be reimbursed by the Fund for its out-of-pocket expenses. [The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to the Administrator under the Administration Agreement.]

 

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CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Trust.  The principal address of BBH is 50 Post Office Square, Boston, Massachusetts 02110.  Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement with the Trust dated December 12, 2012, BBH, in its capacity as custodian, maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services. BBH is required, upon the order of the Trust, to deliver securities held by it, in its capacity as custodian, and to make payments for securities purchased by the Trust for a Fund. 

 

Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement, foreign securities held by the Fund are generally held by sub-custodians in BBH’s sub-custodian network.

 

BBH further acts as a transfer agent for the Trust’s authorized and issued shares of beneficial interest, and as dividend disbursing agent of the Trust, under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement. [The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to BBH under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement.]

 

DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co., a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments, and an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as Distributor for the Trust. The principal address of the Distributor is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. The Distributor has entered into an Amended and Restated Distribution Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, (the “Distribution Agreement”) pursuant to which it distributes shares of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Fund through the Distributor only in Creation Units, as described in the Prospectus and below in the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). The Distributor is not affiliated with Krane, the sub-adviser, or any national securities exchange.

 

The Distribution Agreement provides that it may be terminated at any time, without the payment of any penalty: (i) by a vote of a majority of the independent Trustees; (ii) by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund; or (iii) on at least thirty (30) days’ prior written notice to the other party. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

The Distributor also may enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of shares. Such Soliciting Dealers also may be Authorized Participants (as defined below) or DTC Participants (as defined below).

 

Distribution Plan. The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan applicable to the Fund’s shares. Under the Distribution Plan, the Distributor, or designated service providers, may receive up to 0.25% of a Fund’s assets attributable to shares as compensation for distribution services pursuant to Rule 12b-1 of the 1940 Act. Distribution services may include: (i) services in connection with distribution assistance, or (ii) payments to financial institutions and other financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, fund “supermarkets” and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries, as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Distributor may, at its discretion, retain a portion of such payments to compensate itself for distribution services and distribution related expenses such as the costs of preparation, printing, mailing or otherwise disseminating sales literature, advertising, and prospectuses (other than those furnished to current shareholders of a Fund), promotional and incentive programs, and such other marketing expenses that the Distributor may incur. The plan is a compensation plan, which means that the Distributor is compensated regardless of its expenses, as opposed to a reimbursement plan which reimburses only for expenses incurred.

 

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No distribution fees are currently charged to the Fund and there are currently no plans to impose these fees. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. In the event that 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because a Fund pays these fees out of assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees may cost you more than other types of sales charges and will increase the cost of your investment in a Fund.

 

The Plan will remain in effect for a period of one year and is renewable from year to year with respect to a Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees and (2) by a vote of the majority of those Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”), cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of fees that may be paid by a Fund under the Plan unless such amendment is approved by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares and by a Fund’s Trustees in the manner described above. The Plan is terminable with respect to a Fund at any time by a vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares.

 

Intermediary Compensation. Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of a Fund’s assets (i.e., without additional cost to a Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”), to the extent permitted by applicable law, for certain activities related to a Fund, including marketing and education support and the sale of a Fund’s shares. These arrangements are sometimes referred to as “revenue sharing” arrangements. Revenue sharing arrangements are not financed by a Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of a Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of a Fund’s shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of shares of a Fund.

 

Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to a Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). Such compensation may also be paid to Intermediaries for inclusion of a Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, in other sales programs. Krane periodically assesses the advisability of continuing to make these payments.

 

Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend a Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professionals if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.

 

Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create an incentive for the Intermediary to encourage customers to buy shares of a Fund.

 

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CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

The Fund has not yet commenced operations as of the date of this SAI, and, therefore, there were no public shareholders of the Fund as of the date of this SAI. Krane will own the initial shares issued by the Fund and can thus approve any matter requiring shareholder approval.

 

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

 

A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the Prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of the Prospectus.

 

The shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange identified on the cover of this SAI at prices that may differ from a Fund’s NAV. There can be no assurance that the Exchange requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the shares of the Fund will continue to be met. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the shares of the Fund from listing if, among other matters: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than fifty (50) Beneficial Owners (as that term is defined below) of the shares of the Fund for thirty (30) or more consecutive trading days; (ii) the value of the underlying index is no longer calculated or available; or (iii) such other event shall occur or condition exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.

 

As in the case of other stocks traded on the Exchange, broker’s commissions on purchases or sales of shares in market transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.

 

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of a Fund.

 

BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

 

The information below supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information.”

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depository for the Fund’s shares. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC.

 

The DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (“DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities’ certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own the DTC. More specifically, the DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the Exchange, and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).

 

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Beneficial ownership of shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in shares.

 

Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and the DTC, the DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the shares of a Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

 

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in shares of a Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

 

The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

 

The DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.

 

BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS

 

Krane assumes general supervision over placing orders on behalf of a Fund for the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

 

Although Krane strives to obtain the best net price under prevailing circumstances surrounding each trade, the determinative factor is whether a transaction represents the best overall execution for a Fund and not whether the lowest possible transaction cost is obtained. Krane considers the full range and quality of a broker-dealer’s servicing in selecting the broker to meet best execution obligations, and may not pay the lowest transaction cost available. Krane reviews trading to ensure best execution, operational performance, and reasonable commission rates. Order flow may go through traditional broker-dealers, but may also be executed on an Electronic Communication Network, Alternative Trading System or other execution system.

 

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Where multiple broker-dealers are available to execute portfolio transactions, in selecting the brokers or dealers for any transaction in portfolio securities, Krane’s policy is to make such selection based on factors deemed relevant, which may include the breadth of the market in the security; the price of the security; the reasonableness of the commission or mark-up or mark-down, if any; execution capability; settlement capability; back office efficiency; and the financial condition of the broker or dealer, both for the specific transaction and on a continuing basis. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid or spreads is evaluated by Krane generally based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid or spreads by other institutional investors for comparable services. Brokers or dealers may also be selected because of their ability to handle special or difficult executions, such as may be involved in large block trades, less liquid securities, broad distributions, or other circumstances. Krane may also consider the provision or value of research, products or services a broker or dealer may provide, if any, as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer or the determination of the reasonableness of commissions paid in connection with portfolio transactions. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of a Fund’s shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or a dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.

 

When one or more broker-dealers is believed capable of providing the best combination of price and execution, a broker-dealer need not be selected based solely on the lowest commission rate available for a particular transaction. In such cases, Krane may pay a higher commission than otherwise obtainable from other brokers in return for brokerage research services provided to Krane consistent with Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Section 28(e) provides that Krane may cause a Fund to pay a broker-dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged as long as Krane makes a good faith determination that the amount of commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the broker-dealer. To the extent Krane obtains brokerage and research services that it otherwise would acquire at its own expense, Krane may have incentive to place a greater volume of transactions or pay higher commissions than would otherwise be the case.

 

The types of products and services that Krane may obtain from broker-dealers through such arrangements will include research reports and other information on the economy, industries, sectors, groups of securities, individual companies, statistical information, political developments, technical market action, pricing and appraisal services, credit analysis, risk measurement analysis, performance and other analysis. Krane may use products and services provided by brokers in servicing all of its client accounts and not all such products and services may necessarily be used in connection with the account that paid commissions to the broker-dealer providing such products and services. Any advisory or other fees paid to Krane are not reduced as a result of the receipt of brokerage and research services.

 

In some cases, Krane may receive a product or service from a broker that has both a “research” and a “non-research” use. When this occurs, Krane will make a good faith allocation between the research and non-research uses of the product or service. The percentage of the service that is used for research purposes may be paid for with brokerage commissions, while Krane will use its own funds to pay for the percentage of the service that is used for non-research purposes. In making this good faith allocation, Krane faces a potential conflict of interest, but Krane believes that its allocation procedures are reasonably designed to appropriately allocate the anticipated use of such products and services to research and non-research uses.

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of a Fund’s shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or a dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.

 

[Under the 1940 Act, “affiliated persons” of a Fund are prohibited from dealing with it as a principal in the purchase and sale of securities unless an exemptive order allowing such transactions is obtained from the SEC. However, the Fund may purchase securities from underwriting syndicates of which the subadviser (if applicable) or any of its affiliates, as defined in the 1940 Act, is a member under certain conditions, in accordance with Rule 10f-3 under the 1940 Act.

 

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The Fund contemplates that, consistent with the policy of seeking to obtain best execution, brokerage transactions may be conducted through “affiliated brokers or dealers,” as defined in rules under the 1940 Act. Under the 1940 Act, commissions paid by a fund to an “affiliated broker or dealer” in connection with a purchase or sale of securities offered on a securities exchange may not exceed the usual and customary broker’s commission. Accordingly, it is the Fund’s policy that the commissions to be paid to an affiliated broker-dealer must, in the judgment of the Adviser or the subadviser (if applicable), be (1) at least as favorable as those that would be charged by other brokers having comparable execution capability and (2) at least as favorable as commissions contemporaneously charged by such broker or dealer on comparable transactions for the broker’s or dealer’s unaffiliated customers. The Adviser and the subadviser (if applicable) do not necessarily deem it practicable or in the Fund’s best interests to solicit competitive bids for commissions on each transaction. However, consideration regularly is given to information concerning the prevailing level of commissions charged on comparable transactions by other brokers during comparable periods of time.

 

Neither the Fund nor the Adviser has an agreement or understanding with a broker-dealer, or other arrangements to direct the Fund’s brokerage transactions to a broker-dealer because of the research services such broker provides to the Fund or the Adviser. While the Adviser does not have arrangements with any broker-dealers to direct such brokerage transactions to them because of research services provided, the Adviser may receive research services from such broker-dealers. The dollar amount of transactions and related commissions for transactions paid to a broker from which the Adviser and sub-advisers also received research services for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 are summarized in the table below.]

 

Brokerage Commissions

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions during the three prior fiscal years.

 

Directed Brokerage

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions pursuant to an agreement or understanding whereby the broker provides research or other brokerage services to Krane during the prior fiscal year.

 

Affiliated Brokers

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions to any affiliated brokers during the three prior fiscal years.

 

Regular Broker-Dealers

 

The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) which the Fund may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of a Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of the Fund’s shares.

 

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Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund did not own any securities of their “regular broker-dealers” as of that time.

 

Portfolio Turnover 

Portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year, and generally relates to changes in the underlying index. High turnover rates are likely to result in comparatively greater brokerage expenses or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by Krane or the sub-adviser based upon their knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions and spreads paid or incurred by the other institutional investors for comparable services.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, the Fund does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

 

Except as otherwise noted below, the following applies to any Fund covered by this SAI:

 

General

The Trust issues and redeems shares of the Fund only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load but subject to the transaction fees described below, at the NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined below), of an order in proper form. A “Business Day”, as used herein, is any day on which the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

Currently, the number of shares that constitutes a Creation Unit is 50,000 shares. The Board reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make changes in the number of shares constituting a Creation Unit, including in the event that the per share price in the secondary market rises (or declines) to an amount that falls outside the range deemed desirable by the Board.

 

Creation Units may be purchased and redeemed only by or through a DTC Participant that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor (an “Authorized Participant”). Such Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of such Authorized Participant Agreement and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including those set forth below, the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants. Investors who are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant to purchase or redeem Creation Units. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be a DTC Participant or may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor and that Creation Unit orders may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant. As a result, orders placed through an Authorized Participant may result in additional charges to such investor. A list of current Authorized Participants may be obtained from the Distributor.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants may purchase and sell shares of the Fund on the secondary market.

 

Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to purchase or redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.

 

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Purchases of Creation Units

 

The consideration for the purchase of Creation Units of the Fund consists of an in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Deposit Cash”) (collectively, the “Deposit Securities”)) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Deposit. Such Fund Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, in order to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Deposit is made available. The means by which the Deposit Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered by the Authorized Participant to the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree. Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time.

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Deposit Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all purchases on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a purchase order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the purchase to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants purchasing shares on that day to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not available in sufficient quantity; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Deposit Securities from the Fund Deposit for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; or (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty.

 

Cash purchases of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases. The Authorized Participant will pay the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities as Deposit Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable, on behalf of the Fund, will convert subscriptions that are made in whole or in part in cash into the relevant foreign currency prior to investment at the applicable exchange rate and subject to the applicable spread. Those purchasing Creation Units of the Fund bear the risk associated with changes in the currency exchange rate between the time they place their order and the time that the Fund converts any cash received into foreign investments.

 

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Placement of Purchase Orders

To initiate an order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to purchase shares of the Fund on a Business Day generally before the time as of which that day’s NAV is calculated. For a purchase order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the purchase order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a purchase order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit purchase orders. A purchase order is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the purchase order, such as, in the case of purchase orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to create shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may not be accepted or may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A Purchase order, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

Acceptance of Orders for, and Issuance of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a creation order, including if (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the identity and number of shares specified; (iv) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (v) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (vi) acceptance of a Fund Deposit would, in the discretion of the Fund or Krane, have an adverse effect on the Fund or the rights of Beneficial Owners; or (vii) circumstances outside the control of the Fund, the Distributor and Krane make it impracticable to process purchase orders. The Distributor shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such purchaser of the rejection or revocation of acceptance of such order. The Fund, the Custodian, the sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall any of them incur any liability for failure to give such notification.

 

Except as provided in the following paragraph, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component, Deposit Cash and creation transaction fees have been completed. In this regard, the Custodian will require, prior to the issuance of a Creation Unit, that the sub-custodian confirm to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities have been delivered to the account of the Fund at the sub-custodian(s). If the Fund does not receive the foregoing by the time specified herein the Creation Unit may not be delivered or the purchase order may ultimately be rejected.

 

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The Fund may issue Creation Units to an Authorized Participant, notwithstanding the fact that all Deposit Securities have not been received, in reliance on the undertaking of the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral having a value of up to 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities. The only collateral that is acceptable is cash in U.S. dollars. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time on the contractual settlement date of the Creation Unit(s). The Fund may buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time, and the Authorized Participant will be liable for any shortfall between the cost to the Fund of purchasing such securities and the cash collateral. In addition, the cash collateral may be invested at the risk of the Authorized Participant, and any income on invested cash collateral will be paid to that Authorized Participant. Information concerning the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization of missing Deposit Securities is available from the Distributor.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Once the Fund has accepted a purchase order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Creation Units typically are settled on a “T+2 basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), subject to certain exceptions. However, the Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2, including in order to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, and to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates.

 

Creation Transaction Fees

 

A standard creation transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The standard creation transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant creates a Creation Unit, and is the same, regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased by the Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

The standard creation transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND STANDARD TRANSACTION FEE MAXIMUM VARIABLE TRANSACTION FEE*
KFA Global Carbon ETF $[…] 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) purchased.

 

The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

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Redemptions of Creation Units

 

The consideration paid by the Fund for the redemption of Creation Units consists of an in-kind basket of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Redemption Cash”)) (collectively, the “Fund Securities”) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Fund Securities. Together, the Fund Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Redemption.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through NSCC on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the number of shares of each Fund Security and Redemption Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Redemption. Such Fund Redemption is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, for redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Redemption is made available. The delivery of Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system. The means by which the Fund Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered to the Authorized Participant by the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Fund Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time. The composition of the Fund Securities may not be the same as the Deposit Securities.

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Redemption Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all redemptions on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a redemption order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the redemption to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants redeeming shares on that day to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the redeemer on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting; or (b) a shareholder would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the shareholder receives redemption proceeds in kind (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Fund Securities from the Fund Redemption for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; or (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty.

 

Cash redemptions of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. The Authorized Participant will receive the cash equivalent of the Fund Securities as Redemption Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable, on behalf of the Fund, will sell investments denominated in foreign currencies and convert such proceeds into U.S. Dollars at the applicable exchange rate and subject to the applicable spread for redemptions that are made in whole or in part for cash. Those redeeming Creation Units of the Fund bear the risk associated with changes in the currency exchange rate between the time they place their order and the time that the Fund converts any investments into U.S. Dollars.

 

54 

 

Placement of Redemption Orders

 

To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to redeem shares of the Fund on a Business Day generally before the time as of which that day’s NAV is calculated. For a redemption order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a redemption order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the redemption order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit redemption orders. A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the redemption order, such as, in the case of redemption orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to redeem shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A redemption request, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

Acceptance of Orders for, and Redemption of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the requisite number of Fund shares and transaction fees have been delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form. In addition, the right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted, (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the shares of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC. The Fund or Distributor will notify the Authorized Participant of such rejection, but the Fund, Custodian, sub-custodian and Distributor shall not be liable for any failure to give such notification.

 

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The payment by the Fund of the Fund Securities, Redemption Cash, and Cash Component will not be issued until the transfer of the Creation Unit(s) and the applicable redemption transaction fees has been completed. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor’s shares through DTC’s facilities and the applicable redemption transaction fees by the required time, the redemption request may be rejected. Further, a redeeming Beneficial Owner or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Beneficial Owner must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction where Fund Securities are customarily traded and will be delivered. If neither the redeeming Beneficial Owner nor the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such redeeming Beneficial Owner has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of Fund Securities in the applicable non-U.S. jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the Trust may redeem shares in Redemption Cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds as Redemption Cash.

 

Redemptions of shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund cannot lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or cannot do so without first registering a Fund Security under such laws.

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the redemption of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund typically are settled on a “T+2”basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), but may be made up to seven days later, particularly in stressed market conditions, except as further set forth herein. The Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions on another basis to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules (see below for further information), closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and dividend ex-dates (i.e., the last date the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security sold), and in certain other circumstances. The Regular Holidays section hereto identifies the instances, if any, where more than seven days would be needed to deliver redemption proceeds consisting of Fund Securities. Pursuant to an order of the SEC, the Trust will make delivery of redemption proceeds within the number of days stated in the Regular Holidays section to be the maximum number of days necessary to deliver redemption proceeds due to foreign holidays.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Redemption Transaction Fees

 

A standard redemption transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The standard redemption transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant redeems a Creation Unit, and is the same regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed by an Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Fund Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

The standard redemption transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND STANDARD TRANSACTION FEE MAXIMUM VARIABLE TRANSACTION FEE*
KFA Global Carbon ETF $[…] 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) redeemed.

 

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The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

Taxation on Creation and Redemptions of Creation Units

An Authorized Participant generally will recognize either gain or loss upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units. This gain or loss will generally equal the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the Authorized Participant’s aggregate basis in the Deposit Securities exchanged therefor and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. However, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service may apply the wash sales rules to determine that any loss realized upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units is not currently deductible. Authorized Participants should consult their own tax advisers.

 

Current U.S. federal tax laws dictate that capital gain or loss realized from the redemption of Creation Units will generally create long-term capital gain or loss if the Authorized Participant holds the Creation Units for more than one year, or short-term capital gain or loss if the Creation Units were held for one year or less, if the Creation Units are held as capital assets.

 

Regular Holidays

For every occurrence of one or more intervening holidays in the applicable non-U.S. market that are not holidays observed in the U.S. equity market, the redemption settlement cycle will be extended by the number of such intervening holidays. In addition to holidays, other unforeseeable closings in a non-U.S. market due to emergencies may also prevent the Trust from delivering securities within normal settlement period. The securities delivery cycles currently practicable for transferring portfolio securities to redeeming investors, coupled with non-U.S. market holiday schedules, will require a delivery process longer than seven calendar days, in certain circumstances, but in no event longer than fourteen calendar days. The holidays applicable to a Fund during such periods are listed below, as are instances where more than seven days will be needed to deliver redemption proceeds. Holidays may occur on different dates in subsequent years. The proclamation of new holidays, the treatment by market participants of certain days as “informal holidays” (e.g., days on which no or limited securities transactions occur, as a result of substantially shortened trading hours), the elimination of existing holidays, or changes in local securities delivery practices, could affect the information set forth herein at some time in the future.

 

57 

 

In the calendar year 2019, the dates of regular holidays affecting the relevant securities markets in which the Fund may invest are as follows (please note these holiday schedules are subject to potential changes in the relevant securities markets):

 

AUSTRALIA      
January 1 April 22 August 5 December 25
January 28 April 25 October 7  
April 19 May 6 November 5  
AUSTRIA      
January 1 May 30 August 15 December 8
January 6 June 10 October 26 December 25
April 22 June 20 November 1 December 26
May 1      
BELGIUM      
January 1 May 30 August 15 December 25
April 22 June 10 November 1  
May 1 July 21 November 11  
BRAZIL      
January 1 April 19 September 7 December 25
March 4 May 1 October 12  
March 5 June 20 November 2  
March 6 July 9 November 15  
CANADA      
January 1 April 22 August 5 December 25
February 11 May 20 September 2 December 26
February 18 June 21 October 14  
April 19 July 1 November 11  
CHILE      
January 1 June 29 September 19 December 25
April 19 July 16 October 12 December 26
May 1 August 15 October 31  
May 21 September 18 November 1  
CHINA      
January 1 February 7 June 7 October 2
February 4 February 8 September 13 October 3
February 5 April 5 September 30 October 4
February 6 May 1 October 1 October 7
COLOMBIA      
January 1 May 1 August 7 December 8
January 7 June 3 August 19 December 25
March 25 June 24 October 14  
April 18 July 1 November 4  
April 19 July 20 November 11  

 

58 

 

CZECH REPUBLIC      
January 1 May 1 September 28 December 24
April 19 May 8 October 28 December 25
April 22 July 5 November 17 December 26
DENMARK      
January 1 April 22 June 5 December 25
April 18 May 17 June 10 December 26
April 19 May 30 December 24 December 31
EGYPT      
January 7 May 1 August 12 September 1
January 25 June 5 August 13 October 6
April 25 June 6 August 14 November 10
April 29 July 23 August 15  
* The Egyptian market is closed every Friday.
FINLAND      
January 1 April 22 December 6 December 25
January 6 May 1 December 24 December 26
April 19 May 30    
FRANCE      
January 1 May 8 July 14 November 11
April 22 May 30 August 15 December 25
May 1 June 10 November 1 December 26
GERMANY      
January 1 May 1 June 10 December 25
April 19 May 30 October 3 December 26
April 22      
GREECE      
January 1 March 25 May 1 October 28
January 6 April 26 June 17 December 25
March 11 April 29 August 15 December 26

 

59 

 

HONG KONG      
January 1 April 5 May 13 October 1
February 5 April 19 June 7 October 7
February 6 April 22 July 1 December 25
February 7 May 1 September 14 December 26
HUNGARY      
January 1 April 22 August 19 November 1
March 15 May 1 August 20 December 25
April 19 June 10 October 23 December 26
INDIA      
January 26 May 1 October 2 December 25
April 19 August 15    
INDONESIA      
January 1 April 19 June 5 September 1
February 5 May 1 June 6 November 10
March 7 May 19 August 12 December 25
April 3 May 30 August 17  
IRELAND      
January 1 April 22 August 5 December 26
March 18 May 6 October 28 December 27
April 19 June 3 December 25  
ISRAEL      
March 21 June 9 October 1 October 14
April 26 August 11 October 8 October 21
May 9 September 30 October 9  
* The Israeli market is closed every Friday.
ITALY      
January 1 April 22 June 2 December 8
January 6 April 25 August 15 December 25
April 19 May 1 November 1 December 26

 

60 

 

JAPAN      
January 1 April 19 August 12 November 4
January 14 May 3 September 16 November 25
February 11 May 6 September 23 December 23
March 21 July 15 October 14  
KUWAIT      
January 1 April 3 June 6 August 13
February 25 June 5 August 12 August 14
February 26      
* The Kuwaiti market is closed every Friday.
LUXEMBOURG      
January 1 May 1 June 23 December 25
April 19 May 30 August 15 December 26
April 22 June 10 November 1  
MALAYSIA      
January 1 June 5 August 31 September 16
February 5 June 6 September 1 November 10
May 1 August 12 September 9 December 25
May 19      
MEXICO      
January 1 April 18 May 5 December 12
February 4 April 19 September 16 December 25
March 18 May 1 November 18  
MOROCCO      
January 1 June 6 August 13 August 21
January 11 July 29 August 14 November 6
May 1 August 12 August 20 November 18
June 5      
NETHERLANDS      
January 1 April 27 May 30 December 25
April 19 May 4 June 10 December 26
April 22 May 5    
NEW ZEALAND      
January 1 April 19 June 3 December 26
January 2 April 22 October 28  
February 6 April 25 December 25  

 

61 

 

NIGERIA      
January 1 May 1 June 12 December 26
March 8 May 27 August 12  
April 19 May 29 October 1  
April 22 June 5 December 25  
NORWAY      
January 1 April 22 May 30 December 25
April 18 May 1 June 10 December 26
April 19 May 17 December 24  
OMAN      
January 1 June 6 August 13 November 18
April 3 July 23 August 14 November 19
June 5 August 12 August 15  
* The Omani market is closed every Friday.
PAKISTAN      
February 5 June 6 August 13 September 10
May 1 June 7 August 14 December 25
June 5 August 12 September 9  
PERU      
January 1 May 1 July 29 November 1
April 18 June 29 August 30 December 8
April 19 July 28 October 8 December 25
PHILIPPINES      
January 1 May 1 August 21 December 25
April 9 June 5 August 26 December 31
April 18 June 12 November 1  
April 19 August 12 November 30  
POLAND      
January 1 May 1 November 1 December 26
January 6 May 3 November 11  
April 19 June 20 December 24  
April 22 August 15 December 25  

 

62 

 

PORTUGAL      
January 1 April 22 December 25 December 26
April 19 May 1    
QATAR      
February 12 June 6 August 13 August 15
June 4 August 12 August 14 December 18
June 5      
* The Qatari market is closed every Friday.
RUSSIA      
January 1 January 4 March 8 June 12
January 2 January 7 May 1 November 4
January 3 February 23 May 9  
SINGAPORE      
January 1 April 19 June 5 October 27
February 5 May 1 August 9 December 25
February 6 May 19 August 12  
SOUTH AFRICA      
January 1 April 22 August 9 December 25
March 21 May 1 September 25 December 26
April 19 June 17 December 16  
SOUTH KOREA      
January 1 May 7 August 15 September 26
February 15 May 22 September 23 October 3
March 1 June 6 September 24 October 9
May 1 June 13 September 25 December 25
SPAIN      
January 1 April 22 September 11 December 6
January 6 May 1 October 12 December 8
April 18 July 25 November 1 December 25
April 19 August 15    

 

63 

 

SWEDEN      
January 1 May 1 June 22 December 25
January 6 May 30 November 2 December 26
April 19 June 6 December 24 December 31
April 22 June 21    
SWITZERLAND      
January 1 April 22 June 10 December 25
April 19 May 30 August 1 December 26
TAIWAN      
January 1 February 7 February 28 June 7
February 4 February 8 April 4 September 13
February 5 February 19 April 5 October 10
February 6      
THAILAND      
January 1 April 16 July 17 October 23
February 19 April 17 July 29 December 5
April 8 May 1 August 12 December 10
April 15 May 19 October 14 December 31
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES      
January 1 June 5 August 12 December 2
April 3 June 6 August 14 December 3
* The United Arab Emirates markets are closed every Friday.
UNITED KINGDOM      
January 1 May 6 August 5 December 25
April 19 May 27 August 6 December 26
April 22      
VIETNAM      
January 1 February 6 April 15 May 1
February 4 February 7 April 30 September 2
February 5 February 8    

  

The longest redemption cycle for a Fund is a function of the longest redemption cycle among the countries whose stocks comprise a Fund.

 

64 

 

For the period from January 2019 to December 2019, the dates of regular holidays affecting the following securities markets present the worst case redemption cycles for the Fund, in which case settlement is expected to take more than seven days, as set forth below. This information is based on the information regarding regular holidays, which may be out of date. Changes in the regular holidays may lead to longer redemption cycles than are set forth below.

 

Country Trade Date Settlement Date

Number of

Days to

Settle

Australia 04/18/19 04/26/19 8
  12/19/19 12/27/19 8
  12/20/19 12/30/19 10
  12/23/19 01/02/20 10
  12/27/19 01/03/20 7
  12/30/19 01/06/20 7
Brazil 02/27/19 03/07/19 8
  02/28/19 03/08/19 8
  03/01/19 03/11/19 10
Cyprus 04/24/19 05/02/19 8
  04/25/19 05/03/19 8
Eswatini 04/12/19 04/23/19 11
  04/15/19 04/24/19 9
  04/16/19 04/26/19 10
  04/17/19 04/29/19 12
  04/18/19 04/30/19 12
  04/23/19 05/02/19 9
  04/24/19 05/03/19 9
  04/26/19 05/06/19 10
  04/29/19 05/07/19 8
  04/30/19 05/08/19 8
  05/23/19 05/31/19 8
  05/24/19 06/03/19 10
  05/27/19 06/04/19 8
  05/28/19 06/05/19 8
  05/29/19 06/06/19 8
  07/15/19 07/23/19 8
  07/16/19 07/24/19 8
  07/17/19 07/25/19 8
  07/18/19 07/26/19 8
  07/19/19 07/29/19 10
  08/26/19 09/03/19 8

 

65

 

 

  08/27/19 09/04/19 8
  08/28/19 09/05/19 8
  08/29/19 09/09/19 11
  08/30/19 09/10/19 11
  09/03/19 09/11/19 8
  09/04/19 09/12/19 8
  09/05/19 09/13/19 8
  12/18/19 12/27/19 9
  12/19/19 12/30/19 11
  12/20/19 12/31/19 11
  12/23/19 01/02/20 10
  12/24/19 01/03/20 10
Hong Kong 01/31/19 02/08/19 8
  02/01/19 02/11/19 10
Hungary 12/20/19 12/30/19 10
  12/23/19 12/31/19 8
Indonesia 05/29/19 06/10/19 12
  05/31/19 06/11/19 11
Israel 04/18/19 04/28/19 10
  10/10/19 10/22/19 12
Japan 12/26/19 01/06/20 11
  12/27/19 01/07/20 11
  12/30/19 01/08/20 9
Jordan 08/07/19 08/15/19 8
  08/08/19 08/18/19 10
Kuwait 08/06/19 08/14/19 8
  08/07/19 08/15/19 8
  08/08/19 08/18/19 10
Malawi 01/08/19 01/16/19 8
  01/09/19 01/17/19 8
  01/10/19 01/18/19 8
  01/11/19 01/21/19 10
  01/14/19 01/22/19 8
  02/25/19 03/05/19 8