485APOS 1 s115761_485apos.htm 485APOS

AS FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ON FEBRUARY 11, 2019
File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698

U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

 Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM N-1A

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

  THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
  Pre-Effective Amendment No.
  Post-Effective Amendment No. 173

and/or

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

 UNDER

  THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
  Amendment No. 177

 

KRANESHARES TRUST

 (Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

(Address of Principal Executive Offices, Zip Code)

 

(212) 933-0393

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)

 

Jonathan Krane

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

 

Copy to:

Stacy L. Fuller

K&L Gates LLP

1601 K Street NW

Washington, D.C. 20006-1600

 

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

 

☐ Immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b) of Rule 485 

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (b) of Rule 485 

☐ 60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485 

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of Rule 485 

☒  75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485 

☐ On (date) pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485 

 

 

 

 

 

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

 

Subject to completion, dated February 11, 2019

 

KraneShares Trust

 

Prospectus

 

[…], 2019

 

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF - (IVOL)

 

Fund shares are not individually redeemable. Fund shares will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”).

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this Prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission, paper copies of the Fund’s shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the reports from the Fund, if you hold your Shares directly with the Fund, or from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank, if you hold your Shares through a financial intermediary. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.

 

If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. If you hold your Shares directly with the Fund, you may elect to receive shareholder reports and other communications electronically from the Fund by contacting the Fund at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary.

 

You may elect to receive all future reports in paper free of charge. If you hold your Shares directly with the Fund, you can inform the Fund that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of your shareholder reports at 855-857-2638 or, if you hold your Shares through a financial intermediary, contacting your financial intermediary. Your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all of the KraneShares Funds you hold directly with series of the Trust or through your financial intermediary, as applicable.

 

 

 

 

KraneShares Trust 

Table of Contents

 

Fund Summary  
Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF 3
Additional Information About the Fund 13
Additional Investment Objective, Principal Investment Strategies and Principal Risks Information 13
Management 23
Investment Adviser 23
Investment Sub-Adviser 24
Portfolio Manager 25
Shareholder Information 26
Calculating NAV 26
Buying and Selling Fund Shares 28
Share Trading Prices 29
Active Investors and Market Timing 30
Investments by Registered Investment Companies 30
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 31
Distribution Plan 31
Dividends and Distributions 32
Additional Tax Information 32
Disclaimers 35
Financial Highlights 36
Additional Information 37

 

2 

 

 

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF

 

Investment Objective

 

The Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF (the “Fund”) seeks to hedge the risk of rising long-term interest rates, an increase in inflation and inflation expectations, and an increase in interest rate volatility, while providing inflation-protected income.

 

Fees and Expenses of the Fund  

The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy and hold shares of the Fund. The table below does not include the brokerage commissions that you may pay when purchasing or selling shares of the Fund.

 

Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment) None

Annual Fund Operating Expenses

(expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)

 
Management Fees 0.99%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees* 0.00%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses** 0.04%
Other Expenses** 0.01%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses 1.04%
Fee Waiver*** 0.05%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses After Fee Waiver 0.99%

*Pursuant to a Distribution Plan, the Fund may bear a Rule 12b-1 fee not to exceed 0.25% per year of the Fund’s average daily net assets. However, no such fee is currently paid by the Fund, and the Board of Trustees has not currently approved the commencement of any payments under the Distribution Plan. 

**Based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year. 

***Krane has contractually agreed to waive its management fee by 0.05% of the Fund’s average daily net assets (“Fee Waiver”). The Fee Waiver will continue until August 1, 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board.

 

Example  

This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same, except that it reflects the Fee Waiver for the period described above. This Example does not reflect any brokerage commissions that you may pay on purchases and sales of your shares. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions, whether you do or do not sell your shares, your costs would be:

 

1 Year 3 Years
$101 $324

  

3 

 

 

Portfolio Turnover

 

The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in the Annual Fund Operating Expenses or in the Example, affect the Fund’s performance. Because the Fund had not commenced investment operations prior to its fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, it does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

Principal Investment Strategies

 

The Fund is actively managed and seeks to achieve its investment objective primarily by investing in a mix of U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”) and long options tied to the shape of the interest rate yield curve (described below). A “long option” refers to the purchase of an option that appreciates in value as the reference asset also appreciates in value, as opposed to a “short option” that appreciates in value as the reference asset depreciates in value. The Fund’s strategy is designed to hedge against inflation risk and generate positive returns from the Fund’s options during periods when interest rate volatility increases and/or the interest rate yield curve steepens (i.e., the spread between interest rates on long-term debt instruments and shorter-term debt instruments widens).

 

The Fund invests in TIPS directly or through other exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) that invest in TIPS. TIPS are U.S. Treasury securities whose principal amount increases with inflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”), to protect investors from inflation risk. The Fund may purchase TIPS of any maturity.

 

The Fund also invests in long options tied to the shape of the swap curve. Such options are expected to (i) appreciate in value as the swap curve steepens or interest rate volatility increases and (ii) decrease in value or become worthless as the swap curve flattens or inverts or interest rate volatility declines. The “swap curve” reflects the difference between swap rates (i.e., the fixed interest rate exchanged for a floating interest rate in an interest rate swap) applicable to debt instruments with different maturities. The swap curve is similar to a traditional bond yield curve, but instead of reflecting the fixed interest rates on debt instruments of specified maturities, the swap curve reflects the fixed interest rates used in interest rate swap agreements related to such instruments. The swap curve “steepens” when the spread between swap rates on longer-term debt instruments and shorter-term debt instruments widens, “flattens” when such spread narrows, and “inverts” when swap rates on longer-term debt instruments become lower than those for shorter-term debt instruments (i.e., the spread is negative).

 

When the Fund purchases an option, the Fund pays a cost (premium) to purchase the option. The Fund’s investments in options will be in the over-the counter (“OTC”) market. OTC derivative instruments generally have more flexible terms negotiated between the buyer and the seller, and the counterparties may be required to post “variation margin” as frequently as daily to reflect any gains or losses in such options contracts. If such variation margin is not required to be posted, such instruments would generally be subject to greater credit risk and counterparty risk. OTC instruments also may be subject to greater liquidity risk.

 

4 

 

 

Options contracts, by their terms, have stated expirations; therefore, to maintain consistent exposure to options, the Fund must periodically migrate out of options nearing expiration and into options with later expirations — a process referred to as “rolling.” The Fund’s investment sub-adviser, Quadratic Capital Management LLC (“Quadratic” or the “Sub-Adviser”), expects that the Fund will typically purchase options with a time-to-expiration of between six months and two years, though the Fund may purchase options with shorter or longer expirations.

 

The Sub-Adviser generally expects to invest less than 25% of the Fund’s assets in option premiums and to actively manage the Fund’s options investments to reduce the weight of such options in the Fund’s portfolio if the value of such options increases above the desired amount. Similarly, the Sub-Adviser generally expects to sell portfolio investments and reinvest proceeds in options if the value of such options declines below the desired amount.

 

Investments in derivative instruments, such as options, have the economic effect of creating financial leverage in the Fund’s portfolio because such investments may give rise to gains or losses that are disproportionate to the amount the Fund has invested in those instruments. Because the Fund only invests in long options as part of its principal investment strategy, such disproportionate returns, if any, are generally expected to exist if the value of such options appreciates. However, following such appreciation, even small changes in the shape of the swap curve or interest rate volatility may result in a significant decline in the value of such options with a maximum loss equal to the market value of such options. Because the Fund only invests in long options as part of its principal investment strategy, the maximum loss for the Fund’s options position is the amount of premiums paid for such options. The Fund is likely to be significantly more volatile than a fund holding only long positions in the same U.S. government bonds as the Fund because the hedging component of the Fund could result in significant gains for the Fund or in a complete loss of the premiums paid for the Fund’s options.

 

The Fund is non-diversified and therefore may invest a larger percentage of its assets in the securities of a single issuer or small number of issuers than diversified funds.

 

Principal Risks  

As with all exchange traded funds (“ETFs”), a shareholder of the Fund is subject to the risk that his or her investment could lose money. The Fund may not achieve its investment objective and an investment in the Fund is not by itself a complete or balanced investment program. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves the risk of total loss. In addition to these risks, the Fund is subject to a number of additional principal risks that may affect the value of its shares, including:

 

Derivatives Risk. The use of derivatives may involve leverage, which includes risks that are different from, and greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in a reference asset, because a small investment in a derivative can result in a large impact on the Fund and may cause the Fund to be more volatile. In addition, derivatives can be illiquid and imperfectly correlate with the reference asset, resulting in unexpected returns that could materially adversely affect the Fund. Certain derivatives (such as swaps and options) are bi-lateral agreements that expose the Fund to counterparty risk, which is the risk of loss in the event that the counterparty to an agreement fails to perform under it. In that case, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to, or greater than, the full value of the derivative if the counterparty fails to perform its obligations. Counterparty risks are compounded by the fact that there are only a limited number of ways available to invest in certain reference assets and, therefore, there may be few counterparties to swaps or options based on those reference assets. Many derivatives are subject to segregation requirements that require the Fund to segregate the market or notional value of the derivatives, which could impede the portfolio management of the Fund.

 

5 

 

 

The derivative instruments and techniques that the Fund may principally use include:

 

Options. If the Fund buys an option, it buys a legal contract giving it the right to buy or sell a specific amount of the underlying instrument or swap on the underlying instrument at an agreed-upon price typically in exchange for a premium paid by the Fund. A decision as to whether, when and how to use options involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived option transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. The prices of options can be highly volatile and the use of options can lower total returns.

 

OTC options generally have more flexible terms negotiated between the buyer and the seller, and the counterparties may be required to post “variation margin” as frequently as daily to reflect any gains or losses in such options contracts. If such variation margin is not required to be posted, such instruments would generally be subject to greater credit risk and counterparty risk, which is the risk of loss in the event that the counterparty to an agreement fails to perform under it. OTC instruments also may be subject to greater liquidity risk.

 

ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

Premium/Discount Risk. There may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (at a premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (at a discount). As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop loss orders to sell Fund shares may be executed at prices well below NAV.

 

Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. Secondary market trading is subject to bid-ask spreads and trading in Fund shares may be halted by the Exchange because of market conditions or other reasons. If a trading halt occurs, a shareholder may temporarily be unable to purchase or sell shares of the Fund. In addition, although the Fund’s shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed.

 

6 

 

 

Fixed Income Securities Risk. Investing in fixed income securities subjects the Fund to the following risks:

 

Credit Risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due. Changes in an issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness may also affect the value of an investment in that issuer.

 

Event Risk. Event risk is the risk that corporate issuers may undergo restructurings, such as mergers, leveraged buyouts, takeovers, or similar events financed by increased debt. As a result of the added debt, the credit quality and market value of a company’s bonds and/or other debt securities may decline significantly.

 

Interest Rate Risk. Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.

 

Maturity Risk. The value of the Fund’s fixed income investments is also dependent on their maturity. Generally, the longer the maturity of a fixed income security, the greater its sensitivity to changes in interest rates.

 

Hedging Risk. The Fund seeks to mitigate the risk associated with the potential impact of a steepening swap curve (“curve risk”) on the performance of U.S. government bonds by investing in options designed to appreciate in value when the swap curve steepens. The Fund’s use of such instruments is intended to mitigate the curve risk and is not intended to mitigate credit risk, non-curve interest rate risk, or other factors influencing the price of U.S. government bonds, which factors may have a greater impact on the bonds’ returns than the swap curve or inflation. There is no guarantee that the Fund’s investments will eliminate or mitigate the curve or inflation risk of the long positions in U.S. government bonds. In addition, when the swap curve flattens or inverts, the Fund’s investments in options may lose value or end up worthless, and consequently, under such circumstances, the Fund will generally underperform a portfolio comprised solely of U.S. government bonds and without the options owned by the Fund. In a flattening or inverted curve environment, the Fund’s hedging strategy could result in disproportionately larger losses in the Fund’s options as compared to gains or losses in the U.S. government bond positions attributable to interest rate changes. The Fund seeks to hedge the impact of the swap curve and, as a result, if interest rates rise in parallel with the swap curve, the Fund will not be hedged. There is no guarantee that the Fund will have positive returns, even in environments of sharply rising inflation rates in which the Fund’s options might be expected to mitigate the effects of such rises. The Fund will incur expenses when entering into positions in rate-linked options. Moreover, to the extent that curve risk has been priced into the U.S. government bonds owned by the Fund, the Fund will underperform other investments even during periods of curve steepening.

 

7 

 

 

High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may incur high turnover rates, which may increase the Fund’s brokerage commission costs and negatively impact the Fund’s performance. Such portfolio turnover also may generate net short-term capital gains.

 

Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s exposure to derivatives tied to interest rates subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. Investing in derivatives tied to interest rates, including through options tied to the shape of the swap curve, is speculative and can be extremely volatile. The value of such investments may fluctuate rapidly based on a variety of factors, including overall market movements; economic events and policies; changes in interest rates or inflation rates; changes in monetary and exchange control programs; war; acts of terrorism; natural disasters; and technological developments. These factors may affect the value of the Fund in varying ways, and different factors may cause the value and the volatility of the Fund to move in inconsistent directions at inconsistent rates.

 

An increase in interest rates may cause the value of securities held directly or indirectly by the Fund to decline to the extent that the increase is not linked to a steepening of the swap curve or the Fund’s hedging strategy is not effectively implemented. Even if the Fund is hedged against losses due to interest rate increases linked to swap curve steepening, outright interest rate increases may lead to heightened volatility in the fixed-income markets and may positively affect the value of the Fund’s options while negatively impacting the Fund’s investments in TIPS. The current low interest rate environment increases the risks associated with rising interest rates. The Fund’s options seek to mitigate the risk of curve steepening due to inflation or any other reason. As a result, when interest rates increase or the curve flattens or inverts, the Fund will underperform funds with long-only investments in the same U.S. government bonds as the Fund. There is no guarantee that the Fund will have positive performance even in environments of sharply rising inflation. There is no guarantee that the Fund will be able to successfully mitigate inflation risk or that bond values and interest rates will match changes in inflation rates.

 

Investment in Investment Companies Risk. When the Fund invests in other investment companies (or funds), it will indirectly be exposed to the risks of such funds’ investments. Moreover, the Fund will incur its pro rata share of such funds’ expenses. To the extent that the Fund invests in investment companies or other pooled investment vehicles that are not registered under to the 1940 Act, it will not enjoy the protections of the 1940 Act. Additionally, investments in ETFs are subject to ETF Risk.

 

Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable time and price. If a transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may not be possible to initiate a transaction or liquidate a position, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. If a number of securities held by the Fund stop trading, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

8 

 

 

Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Sub-Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund. The Sub-Adviser’s evaluations and assumptions regarding investments, interest rates, inflation, and other factors may not successfully achieve the Fund’s investment objective given actual market conditions. Additionally, the Sub-Adviser has not previously managed a registered investment company, which could create additional risks for investments in the Fund.

 

Market Risk. The values of the Fund’s holdings could decline generally or could underperform other investments. In addition, there is a risk that policy changes by the U.S. Government, Federal Reserve, and/or other government actors, such as continuing to raise interest rates, could cause increased volatility in global financial markets and higher levels of Fund redemptions, which could have a negative impact on the Fund. Further, the Fund is susceptible to the risk that certain investments may be difficult or impossible to sell at a favorable time or price. Market developments may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and subject to erratic price movements. Such market developments may also cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions, especially if market events cause an increased incidence of shareholder redemptions.

 

New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow large in size once it commences trading, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a stop to trading.

 

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may invest a greater portion of its assets in fewer issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

 

Rate-Linked Derivatives Investment Risk. Rate-linked derivatives may lose money if short-term or long-term interest rates rise sharply or otherwise change in a manner not anticipated by the Sub-Adviser. The Fund is expected to benefit from the options it holds if the swap curve steepens during the time period in which the Fund holds the options. However, if the swap curve flattens or inverts, the Fund will lose money on the options, up to the amount invested in option premiums, and underperform an otherwise identical bond fund that had not used such options.

 

There can be no assurance that the Fund’s interest-rate linked options will accurately deliver positive returns if inflation experienced in the United States or the rate of expected future inflation reflected in the prices and yields of bonds held by the Fund rises. The Fund could lose money on the options held by the Fund, and the present value of the Fund’s portfolio investments could decrease if inflation increases. These interest rate-linked options may also cause the Fund’s net asset value and returns to be more volatile and expose the Fund to increased counterparty risk. Fluctuations in the steepness of the swap curve or the price of the options owned by the Fund could materially adversely affect an investment in the Fund.

 

9 

 

 

The Fund’s investments in options are not intended to mitigate duration and credit risk or other factors influencing the price of U.S. government bonds, which may have a greater impact on the bonds’ returns than curve risk. Moreover, to the extent that curve risk has been priced into the government bonds owned directly or indirectly by the Fund, the Fund could underperform other investments even during inflationary periods.

 

Rate-Linked Derivatives Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable U.S. federal income tax treatment accorded to a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), the Fund must, among other requirements, derive at least 90% of its gross income each taxable year from certain qualifying sources of income and the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities (see the “Taxes” section in the SAI for additional information). The Fund’s investments in certain rate-linked derivative instruments (such as rate-linked options) may generate income that is not qualifying income and such investments may not be treated as investments in “securities” for purposes of the asset diversification requirement. If the Fund were to fail to meet the qualifying income test or asset diversification test and fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. The failure by the Fund to qualify as a RIC would have significant negative tax consequences to Fund shareholders and would significantly and adversely affect a shareholder’s return on its investment in the Fund. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may be able to cure a failure to meet the qualifying income test or asset diversification test if such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, but to do so the Fund may incur significant fund-level taxes, which would effectively reduce (and could eliminate) the Fund’s returns.

 

TIPS Risk. U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”) are debt instruments issued by the by the United States Department of the Treasury. The principal of TIPS increases with inflation and decreases with deflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”). When TIPS mature, investors are paid the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater. Interest payments on TIPS are unpredictable and will fluctuate as the principal and corresponding interest payments are adjusted for inflation. Inflation-indexed bonds generally pay a lower nominal interest rate than a comparable non-inflation-indexed bond. There can be no assurance that the CPI will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Any increases in the principal amount of TIPS will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though the Fund or applicable underlying ETF will not receive the principal until maturity. As a result, the Fund may make income distributions to shareholders that exceed the cash it receives. In addition, TIPS are subject to credit risk, interest rate risk, and maturity risk.

 

U.S. Government Obligations Risk. Obligations of U.S. Government agencies and authorities receive varying levels of support and may not be backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government, which could affect the Fund’s ability to recover should they default. No assurance can be given that the U.S. Government will provide financial support to its agencies and authorities if it is not obligated by law to do so. Additionally, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government or other countries may decline or be negative for short or long periods of time.

 

10 

 

 

Valuation Risk. Independent market quotations for certain securities held by the Fund may not be readily available, and such securities may be fair valued. Fair valuation is subjective and different market participants may assign different prices to the same security. As a result, there is a risk that the Fund may not be able to sell a security at the price assigned to the security by the Fund.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Performance Information

 

Once the Fund has completed a full calendar year of operations, a bar chart and table will be included in this Prospectus that will provide some indication of the risks of investing in the Fund by showing the variability of the Fund’s return based on net assets and comparing the variability of the Fund’s return to a broad measure of market performance. Once available, the Fund’s current performance information will be available at www.kraneshares.com. Past performance does not necessarily indicate how the Fund will perform in the future.

 

Management

 

Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund.

 

Quadratic Capital Management LLC (“Quadratic” or “Sub-Adviser”) serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund.

 

Portfolio Manager 

Nancy Davis, Managing Partner and Chief Investment Officer of Quadratic, has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the Fund’s inception in March 2019.

 

Purchase and Sale of Fund Shares  

Shares may be purchased and redeemed from the Fund only in “Creation Units” of 25,000 shares, or multiples thereof. As a practical matter, only institutions and large investors, such as market makers or other large broker-dealers, purchase or redeem Creation Units. Most investors will buy and sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange. Individual shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities through a broker-dealer on the Exchange. These transactions do not involve the Fund. The price of an individual Fund share is based on market prices, which may be different from its NAV. As a result, the Fund’s shares may trade at a price greater than the NAV (at a premium) or less than the NAV (at a discount). Most investors will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer.

 

11 

 

 

Tax Information  

Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged retirement account, which may be taxable upon withdrawal.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 

If you purchase Fund shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Fund and its related companies may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other intermediary and your sales person to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your sales person or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

12 

 

 

Additional Information About the Fund  

Each of the policies described in this Prospectus, including the Fund’s investment objective, is a non-fundamental policy that may be changed by the Board of Trustees of the Trust without shareholder approval. Certain fundamental policies of the Fund are set forth in the SAI.

 

Principal Investment Strategy 

The Fund primarily invests in TIPS. TIPS are marketable securities whose principal is adjusted based on changes in the CPI. With inflation (an increase in the CPI), the principal increases, and with deflation (a decrease in the CPI), the principal decreases. The relationship between TIPS and the CPI affects both the principal amount paid when a TIPS instrument matures and the amount of interest that a TIPS instrument pays semi-annually. When a TIPS instrument matures, the principal paid is the greater of the CPI-adjusted principal or the original principal. TIPS pay interest at a fixed rate. However, because the fixed rate is applied to the CPI-adjusted principal, interest payments can vary in amount from one period to the next. If inflation occurs, the interest payment increases. In the event of deflation, the interest payment decreases.

 

The Fund also invests in long options tied to the shape of the swap curve, which reflects the difference between swap rates applicable to debt instruments with different maturities. Interest rate swaps are derivative instruments used by two parties to “swap” interest rate exposures typically from a fixed-rate to a floating-rate or vice versa. For example, a party receiving interest based on a floating interest rate may seek to “swap” such interest payments for payments based on a fixed interest rate (known as the “swap rate”). A graph showing the swap rates for a given instrument with varying maturities would depict the swap curve for such an instrument. The Fund’s options are designed to increase in value when the swap curve steepens and decrease in value (or become worthless) when the swap curve flattens or inverts.

 

The Sub-Adviser utilizes a proprietary investment process to assemble an investment portfolio for the Fund that is designed to generate positive returns from the Fund’s options during periods when the swap curve steepens and/or interest rate volatility increases, while also seeking to protect against the effects of inflation. The Fund’s options investments are not intended to mitigate other factors influencing the price of government bonds, such as credit and interest rate risk, which may have a greater impact on the bonds’ returns together with rising or falling interest rates. Relative to a long-only investment in the same government bonds, the Fund’s investment strategy is designed to outperform in a rising steepness of the swap curve environment and underperform in a flattening or inverted environment. Performance of the Fund could be particularly poor in risk positive, market rallying environments when it is common for government bonds to decline in value and for interest rates to rise and the swap curve to flatten. In addition, the performance of the Fund depends on many factors beyond rising or falling swap curve levels, such as the perceived level of credit risk in the government bond positions and changes in interest rates that are not correlated with inflation and curve levels. These factors may be as or more important to the performance of the Fund than the impact of swap curve changes and inflation. As such, there is no guarantee that the Fund will have positive performance even in environments of sharply rising inflation rates in which the hedging positions would be expected to mitigate the effect of such rises. The Fund is likely to be significantly more volatile than a long-only position in the same government bonds.

 

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The Sub-Adviser periodically rebalances the Fund’s portfolio to maintain the desired exposure. Occasionally, market conditions and/or large Fund cash flows may require more frequent adjustment of the exposures. During the rebalancing process, the Sub-Adviser may identify securities and other instruments in the portfolio that no longer meet the principal investment strategies of the Fund and may sell such securities or other instruments to better align the portfolio with the Fund’s principal investment strategies.

 

Temporary Defensive Positions. From time to time, the Fund may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its principal investment strategies in attempting to respond to poor market liquidity, adverse markets, economic, political, or other conditions. In such instances, the Fund may hold up to 100% of its assets in cash; short-term U.S. government securities and government agency securities; investment grade money market instruments; money market mutual funds; investment grade fixed-income securities; repurchase agreements; commercial paper; cash equivalents; and ETFs that principally invest in the foregoing instruments. However, the Sub-Adviser will not seek to actively time market movements. As a result of engaging in these temporary measures, the Fund may not achieve its investment objective.

 

Principal Investment Risks

 

The following section provides additional information regarding certain of the principal risks of investing in the Fund. An investment in the Fund is not a deposit with a bank and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. An investment in the Fund involves a risk of a total loss. There is no guarantee that the Fund will meet its investment objective.

 

Counterparty Risk. Because many derivatives are an obligation of the counterparty rather than a direct investment in the reference asset, the Fund may suffer losses potentially equal to, or greater than, the full value of the derivative if the counterparty fails to perform its obligations under the derivative agreement as a result of bankruptcy or otherwise. Any loss would result in a reduction in the NAV of the Fund and will likely impair the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objective. If there are only a few potential counterparties, the Fund, subject to applicable law, may enter into swap or options transactions with as few as one counterparty at any time.

 

Derivatives Risk. Derivatives are financial instruments whose values are based on the value of one or more reference assets, such as a security, asset, currency, interest rate or index. Derivatives involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in securities and other more traditional investments. For example, derivatives involve the risk of mispricing or improper valuation and the risk that changes in the value of a derivative may not correlate perfectly with the reference asset(s). Derivative transactions can create investment leverage, may be highly volatile and the Fund could lose more than the amount it invests. Many derivative transactions are entered into “over-the-counter” (not on an exchange or contract market); as a result, the value of such a derivative transaction will depend on the ability and the willingness of the Fund’s counterparty to perform its obligations under the transaction. If a counterparty were to default on its obligations, the Fund’s contractual remedies against such counterparty may be subject to bankruptcy and insolvency laws, which could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor (e.g., the Fund may not receive the net amount of payments that it is contractually entitled to receive). A liquid secondary market may not always exist for the Fund’s derivative positions at any time. If a derivative transaction is centrally cleared, it will be subject to the rules of the clearing exchange and subject to risks associated with the exchange. Derivatives can be illiquid and imperfectly correlate with the reference asset(s). Many derivatives are subject to segregation requirements, pursuant to which the Fund must segregate the market or notional value of the derivatives and which could impede the portfolio management of the Fund. It is possible that developments in the derivatives market, including ongoing or potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to enter into new derivatives agreements, terminate existing derivative agreements or to realize amounts to be received under such instruments.

 

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Interest Rate Risk. The Fund’s exposure to derivatives tied to interest rates subjects the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities, such as stocks and bonds. Investing in derivatives tied to interest rates, including through interest rate-linked derivative instruments, such as rate-linked swaps and options, is speculative and can be extremely volatile. The value of such investments may fluctuate rapidly based on a variety of factors, including overall market movements; economic events and policies; changes in interest rates or inflation rates; changes in monetary and exchange control programs; war; acts of terrorism; natural disasters; and technological developments. These factors may affect the value of the Fund in varying ways, and different factors may cause the value and the volatility of the Fund to move in inconsistent directions at inconsistent rates.

 

As interest rates rise, the value of a fixed-income security held directly or indirectly by the Fund, such as TIPS, is likely to decrease. Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes, usually making their prices more volatile than those of securities with shorter durations. To the extent the Fund invests a substantial portion of its assets directly or indirectly in fixed-income securities with longer-term maturities, rising interest rates may cause the value of the Fund’s investments to decline significantly, which may adversely affect the value of the Fund. To the extent such rises are linked to the steepening of the swap curve, the options used by the Fund are designed to offset such decreases in value. However, even if the hedging strategy of the Fund performs as intended, an increase in interest rates may lead to heightened volatility in the fixed-income markets and adversely affect the liquidity of certain fixed-income investments. In addition, decreases in fixed-income dealer market making capacity may also potentially lead to heightened volatility and reduced liquidity in the fixed-income markets. The Fund seeks to mitigate the risk of rising interest rates, to the extent that increases are tied to curve steepening, by using options; such positions should increase in value in steepening curve environments and should decrease in value in flattening or inverted curve environments, thereby mitigating potential gains and losses in the government bond positions of the Fund arising from changing in the level of the interest rate curve. The Fund does not attempt to mitigate credit risk, interest rate risk generally, or other factors, which may have a greater influence on government bonds’ returns than curve risk. Because the Fund’s hedge is rolled on a periodic basis, the risk can develop intra-period. Furthermore, while the Fund is designed to hedge the curve level risk exposure of the long government bond positions, it is possible that a degree of exposure may remain even at the time of rebalance.

 

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Leveraging Risk. The Fund’s investment in derivative instruments provide leveraged exposure. The Fund’s investment in these instruments generally requires a small investment relative to the amount of investment exposure assumed. As a result, such investments may give rise to losses that exceed the amount invested in those instruments. The use of derivatives may expose the Fund to potentially dramatic losses (or gains) in the value of a derivative or other financial instrument and, thus, in the value the Fund’s portfolio.

 

Options Risk. If the Fund buys an option, it buys a legal contract giving it the right to buy or sell a specific amount of the underlying instrument or swap on the underlying instrument at an agreed-upon price typically in exchange for a premium paid by the Fund. A decision as to whether, when and how to use options involves the exercise of skill and judgment and even a well-conceived option transaction may be unsuccessful because of market behavior or unexpected events. The prices of options can be highly volatile and the use of options can lower total returns.

 

OTC options generally have more flexible terms negotiated between the buyer and the seller, and the counterparties may be required to post “variation margin” daily to reflect any gains or losses in such options contracts. If such variation margin is not required to be posted, such instruments would generally be subject to greater credit risk and counterparty risk. OTC instruments also may be subject to greater liquidity risk.

 

ETF Risk. As an ETF, the Fund is subject to the following risks:

 

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they cannot or are otherwise unwilling to engage in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant steps in, shares of the Fund may trade like closed-end fund shares at a significant discount to net asset value and may face delisting from the Exchange.

 

Premium/Discount Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of Fund shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the secondary market. It cannot be predicted whether Fund shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop-loss orders to sell the ETF shares may be executed at market prices that are significantly below NAV. The market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV of the shares during periods of market volatility or if the Fund’s holdings are or become more illiquid. Disruptions to creations and redemptions may result in trading prices that differ significantly from the Fund’s NAV. In addition, market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV if the number of Fund shares outstanding is smaller or if there is less active trading in Fund shares. Investors purchasing and selling Fund shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.

 

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Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. In addition, secondary market investors will incur the cost of the difference between the price that an investor is willing to pay for shares (the bid price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell shares (the ask price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread varies over time for shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund’s shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if the Fund’s shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads.

 

Although Fund shares are listed for trading on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed. Trading in Fund shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of any Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all.

 

ETF Risk - Cash Transactions Risk. Like other ETFs, the Fund sells and redeems its shares only in large blocks called Creation Units and only to Authorized Participants. Unlike most other ETFs, however, the Fund expects to effect its creations and redemptions at least partially or fully for cash, rather than in-kind securities.

 

Other ETFs generally are able to make in-kind redemptions and avoid realizing gains in connection with redemption requests. Effecting redemptions for cash may cause the Fund to sell portfolio securities in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. Such dispositions may occur at an inopportune time, resulting in potential losses to the Fund or difficulties in meeting shareholder redemptions, and involve transaction costs. If the Fund recognizes gain on these sales, this generally will cause the Fund to recognize gain it might not otherwise have recognized if it were to distribute portfolio securities in-kind or to recognize such gain sooner than would otherwise have been required. The Fund generally intends to distribute these gains to shareholders to avoid being taxed on this gain at the Fund level and otherwise comply with the special tax rules that apply to it. This strategy may cause shareholders to be subject to tax on gains they would not otherwise be subject to, or at an earlier date than, if they had made an investment in another ETF.

 

In addition, cash transactions may have to be carried out over several days if the securities market in which the Fund is trading is less liquid and may involve considerable transaction expenses and taxes. These brokerage fees and taxes, which will be higher than if the Fund sold and redeemed its shares principally in-kind, may be passed on to purchasers and redeemers of Creation Units in the form of creation and redemption transaction fees. However, the Fund has capped the total fees that may be charged in connection with the redemption of Creation Units at 2% of the value of the Creation Units redeemed. To the extent transaction and other costs associated with a redemption exceed that cap, those transaction costs will be borne by the Fund’s remaining shareholders. These factors may result in wider spreads between the bid and the offered prices of the Fund’s shares than for other ETFs.

 

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Fixed Income Securities Risk. The value of the Fund’s investments in fixed income securities will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of fixed income securities owned indirectly by the Fund. On the other hand, if rates fall, the value of the fixed income securities generally increases. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. Below are several specific risks associated with investments in fixed income securities.

 

Credit Risk. Credit risk refers to the possibility that the issuer of a security will not be able to make payments of interest and principal when due. Changes in an issuer’s credit rating or the market’s perception of an issuer’s creditworthiness may also affect the value of an investment in that issuer. The degree of credit risk depends on both the financial condition of the issuer and the terms of the obligation.

 

Event Risk. Event risk is the risk that corporate issuers may undergo restructurings, such as mergers, leveraged buyouts, takeovers, or similar events financed by increased debt. As a result of the added debt, the credit quality and market value of a company’s bonds and/or other debt securities may decline significantly.

 

Interest Rate Risk. Generally, the value of fixed income securities will change inversely with changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, the market value of fixed income securities tends to decrease. Conversely, as interest rates fall, the market value of fixed income securities tends to increase. This risk will be greater for long-term securities than for short-term securities. An ETF in which the Fund invests may take steps to attempt to reduce the exposure of its portfolio to interest rate changes; however, there can be no guarantee that the Fund will take such actions or that the Fund will be successful in reducing the impact of interest rate changes on the portfolio. Changes in government intervention may have adverse effects on investments, volatility, and illiquidity in debt markets.

 

Maturity Risk. The value of the Fund’s fixed income investments is also dependent on their maturity. Generally, the longer the maturity of a fixed income security, the greater its sensitivity to changes in interest rates.

 

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Hedging Risk. When a derivative is used as a hedge against a position that the Fund holds, any loss generated by the derivative generally could be offset by gains on the hedged investment, and vice versa. While hedging can reduce or eliminate losses, it can also reduce or eliminate gains. Hedges are sometimes subject to mismatch between the derivative and the underlying security, and there can be no assurance that the Fund’s hedging transactions, which entail additional transaction costs, will be effective. The Fund seeks to mitigate curve risk on the performance of U.S. government bonds by investing in options designed to appreciate in value when the swap curve steepens. The Fund’s use of such instruments is intended to mitigate the curve risk and is not intended to mitigate credit risk, non-curve interest rate risk, or other factors influencing the price of U.S. government bonds, which factors may have a greater impact on the bonds’ returns than the swap curve or inflation. There is no guarantee that the Fund’s investments will eliminate or mitigate the curve or inflation risk of the long positions in U.S. government bonds. In addition, when the swap curve flattens or inverts, the Fund’s investments in options may lose value or end up worthless, and consequently, under such circumstances, the Fund will generally underperform a portfolio comprised solely of U.S. government bonds and without the options owned by the Fund. In a flattening or inverted curve environment, the Fund’s hedging strategy could result in disproportionately larger losses in the Fund’s options as compared to gains or losses in the U.S. government bond positions attributable to interest rate changes. The Fund seeks to mitigate the impact of the swap curve and, as a result, if interest rates rise in parallel with the swap curve, the Fund will not be hedged. There is no guarantee that the Fund will have positive returns, even in environments of sharply rising inflation rates in which the Fund’s options might be expected to mitigate the effects of such rises. The Fund will incur expenses when entering into positions in inflation hedging instruments. Moreover, to the extent that curve risk has been priced into the U.S. government bonds owned by the Fund, the Fund will underperform other investments even during periods of curve steepening.

 

High Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may incur high portfolio turnover rates. This may increase the Fund’s brokerage commission costs. The performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by the increased brokerage commission costs incurred by the Fund. Rapid portfolio turnover also exposes shareholders to a higher current realization of short-term capital gains, distributions of which would generally be taxed to you as ordinary income and thus cause you to pay higher taxes.

 

Investment in Investment Companies Risk. When the Fund purchases shares of investment companies (such as ETFs, unit investment trusts, closed-end investment companies and foreign investment companies), in addition to directly bearing the expenses associated with its own operations, it will bear a pro rata portion of such funds’ expenses. An investor in the Fund may receive taxable gains as a result of an underlying fund’s portfolio transactions in addition to the taxable gains attributable to the Fund’s transactions in shares of the underlying fund. Further, in part because of these additional expenses, the performance of an investment company may differ from the performance the Fund would achieve if it invested directly in the underlying investments of the investment company. In addition, while the risks of owning shares of an investment company generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying investments of the investment company, the Fund may be subject to additional or different risks than if the Fund had invested directly in the underlying investments. Investments in ETFs are subject to ETF Risk. For example, shares of an ETF are traded at market prices, which may vary from the NAV of its underlying investments. Also, the lack of liquidity in an ETF can contribute to the increased volatility of its value in comparison to the value of the underlying portfolio securities. To the extent that the Fund invests in investment companies or other pooled investment vehicles that are not registered under to the 1940 Act, it will not enjoy the protections of the 1940 Act.

 

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Liquidity Risk. The Fund’s investments are subject to liquidity risk, which exists when an investment is or becomes difficult to purchase or sell at a reasonable price. If a transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is or becomes illiquid, it may reduce the returns of the Fund because it may be unable to sell the illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price, which may cause the Fund to suffer significant losses and difficulties in meeting redemptions. This is especially true given the limited number of market participants in certain markets in which the Fund may invest. Market developments may cause the Fund’s investments to become less liquid and subject to erratic price movements, and may also cause the Fund to encounter difficulties in timely honoring redemptions, especially if market events cause an increased incidence of shareholder redemptions. If a number of securities held by the Fund halt trading or become illiquid, such as due to an exchange’s limit up, limit down rules, it may have a cascading effect and cause the Fund to halt trading. Volatility in market prices will increase the risk of the Fund being subject to a trading halt.

 

Management Risk. The Fund is actively-managed and may not meet its investment objective based on the Sub-Adviser’s success or failure to implement investment strategies for the Fund. The Sub-Adviser’s evaluations and assumptions regarding investments, interest rates, inflation, and other factors may not successfully achieve the Fund’s investment objective given actual market conditions. Additionally, the Sub-Adviser has not previously managed a registered investment company, which could create additional risks for investments in the Fund.

 

Market Risk. The values of securities held by the Fund could decline generally or could underperform other investments. Market fluctuations could be caused by such factors as economic and political developments, changes in interest rates and perceived trends in securities prices. Recent developments in relations between the United States and its trading partners have heightened concerns of increased tariffs and restrictions on trade between the two countries. An increase in tariffs or trade restrictions, or even the threat of such developments, could lead to a significant reduction in international trade, which could have a negative impact on the world’s export industry and a commensurately negative impact on financial markets. Different types of securities tend to go through cycles of outperformance and under-performance in comparison to the general securities markets. In addition, securities may decline in value due to factors affecting a specific issuer, market or securities markets generally. An investment in the Fund may lose money.

 

Turbulence in the financial markets and reduced liquidity in equity, credit and fixed-income markets may negatively affect issuers worldwide, which could have an adverse effect on the Fund. Following the financial crisis that began in 2007, the Federal Reserve attempted to stabilize the U.S. economy and support the U.S. economic recovery by keeping the federal funds rate at or near zero percent. Interest rates have recently increased and there is a risk that interest rates will continue to rise, potentially quickly and significantly, which may make investments in emerging markets less attractive. These policy changes may expose markets to heightened volatility and may reduce liquidity for certain Fund investments, causing the value of the Fund’s investments and share price to decline. To the extent that the Fund experiences high redemptions because of these governmental policy changes, the Fund may experience increased portfolio turnover, which will increase the costs that the Fund incurs and will lower the Fund’s performance.

 

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New Fund Risk. The Fund is new and does not yet have a significant number of shares outstanding. If the Fund does not grow in size, it will be at greater risk than larger funds of wider bid-ask spreads for its shares, trading at a greater premium or discount to NAV, liquidation and/or a trading halt.

 

Non-Diversified Fund Risk. Because the Fund is non-diversified and may invest a greater portion of its assets in fewer issuers than a diversified fund, changes in the market value of a single portfolio holding could cause greater fluctuations in the Fund’s share price than would occur in a diversified fund. This may increase the Fund’s volatility and cause the performance of a single portfolio holding or a relatively small number of portfolio holdings to have a greater impact on the Fund’s performance.

 

Rate-Linked Derivatives Investment Risk. Rate-linked derivatives may lose money if short-term or long-term interest rates rise sharply or otherwise change in a manner not anticipated by the Sub-Adviser. The returns of curve-linked instruments that may be used by the Fund to hedge inflation and curve risk reflect a specified set of swap terms. There can be no assurance that such terms will accurately measure either the rate of inflation experienced in the United States or the steepness of the curve reflected in the prices and yields of bonds held by the Fund. As a result, the Fund’s hedging strategy may not perform as expected. The options used by the Fund may be riskier than other types of investments because they may be more sensitive to changes in economic or market conditions. Options create leverage because they are options, which may cause the Fund’s net asset value and returns to be more volatile than they would be if the Fund was not using options. OTC options also expose the Fund to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the counterparty will not fulfill its contractual obligations. The Fund’s hedging strategy is not customized to particular bonds or investment instruments. As a result, there may be a mismatch between the option and the bonds held by the Fund that are being hedged. If this were the case, the Fund could lose money on both the options and the bonds, and the present value of the Fund’s portfolio investments could decrease.

 

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Rate-Linked Derivatives Tax Risk. To qualify for the favorable U.S. federal income tax treatment accorded to a RIC under the Code, the Fund must, amongst other requirements, derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from certain qualifying sources of income and the Fund’s assets must be diversified so that at least 50% of the value of the Fund’s total assets is represented by cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities (See the “Taxes” section in the SAI for additional information). The Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has issued two private letter rulings to other unrelated funds, upon which the Fund cannot rely, which indicate that income from a fund’s investment in certain rate-linked derivatives, such as interest rate swaps, constitutes qualifying income. However, in September 2016 the IRS announced that it will no longer issue private letter rulings on questions relating to satisfaction of the qualifying income test for qualification as a RIC that require a determination of whether a financial instrument or position is a security under section 2(a)(36) of the 1940 Act. A financial instrument or position that constitutes a security under section 2(a)(36) of the 1940 Act generates qualifying income for purposes of qualifying as a RIC. Accordingly, the Fund may invest in certain rate-linked derivatives directly only to the extent that (i) such rate-linked derivatives constitute securities under section 2(a)(36) of the 1940 Act or (ii) income from such rate-linked derivatives constitutes “other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to [the Fund’s] business of investing in…stock, securities, or currencies” (defined in Section 851 of the Code). If the Fund were to fail to meet the qualifying income test or asset diversification test and fail to qualify as a RIC, it would be taxed in the same manner as an ordinary corporation, and distributions to its shareholders would not be deductible by the Fund in computing its taxable income. The failure by the Fund to qualify as a RIC would have significant negative tax consequences to Fund shareholders and would significantly and adversely affect a shareholder’s return on its investment in the Fund. Under certain circumstances, the Fund may be able to cure a failure to meet the qualifying income test or asset diversification test if such failure was due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, but to do so the Fund may incur significant fund-level taxes, which would effectively reduce (and could eliminate) the Fund’s returns. In this event, the Fund’s board of trustees may authorize a change in investment strategy or Fund liquidation and in lieu of potential disqualification, the Fund is permitted to pay the tax to cure certain failures to satisfy the income requirement or asset diversification requirement. The Fund also may incur transaction and other costs to comply with any new or additional guidance from the IRS.

 

TIPS Risk. U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”) are debt instruments issued by the by the United States Department of the Treasury. The principal of TIPS increases with inflation and decreases with deflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index (“CPI”). When TIPS mature, investors are paid the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater. Inflation-indexed bonds, such as TIPS, generally pay a lower nominal interest rate than a comparable non-inflation-indexed bond. Interest payments on TIPS are unpredictable and will fluctuate as the principal and corresponding interest payments are adjusted for inflation. There can be no assurance that the CPI will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Any increases in the principal amount of TIPS will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though the Fund or applicable underlying ETF, will not receive the principal until maturity. As a result, the Fund may make income distributions to shareholders that exceed the cash it receives. In addition, TIPS are subject to credit risk, interest rate risk, and maturity risk.

 

U.S. Government Obligations Risk. The Fund may invest in securities issued by the U.S. government. The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On February 9, 2018, following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, which suspends the statutory debt limit through March 1, 2019. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.

 

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Valuation Risk. Financial information about the Fund’s portfolio holdings may not always be reliable, which may make it difficult to obtain a current price for the securities held by the Fund. Independent market quotations for such securities may not be readily available and securities may be fair valued. The value established for a security through fair valuation may be different from what would be produced if the security had been valued using market quotations. Fund securities that are valued using techniques other than market quotations, including “fair valued” securities, may be subject to greater fluctuations in their value from one day to the next. Fair values are inherently subjective and different funds may assign different fair values to the same security.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents Risk. The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which the Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If the Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Management 

Investment Adviser 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or “Adviser”) is a registered investment adviser located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 and serves as investment adviser of the Fund. Krane has served as the investment adviser of the Fund since its inception.

 

Under the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. In this regard, among other things, Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing the Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. In addition, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all operating expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect the Fund.

 

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Under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund.

 

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF* 0.99%

* Krane has contractually agreed to waive its management fee by 0.05% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. This contractual fee waiver will continue until August 1, 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board.

 

The Investment Advisory Agreement has been approved by the Board of Trustees and shareholders of the Fund (in this regard, Krane as the sole initial shareholder of the Fund will approve various matters and agreements, including the Investment Advisory Agreement for the Fund prior to its public offering).

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, Krane did not receive any advisory fees from the Fund during the prior fiscal year. A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the Fund’s investment advisory agreement with Krane will be available in the Fund’s first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders.

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2018 Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 55.7% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

Sub-Adviser

 

The Adviser has retained Quadratic Capital Management LLC (“Quadratic” or “Sub-Adviser”) to serve as sub-adviser to the Fund. Quadratic is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund. Quadratic, a registered investment adviser, is controlled by its Managing Partner and CIO, Nancy Davis. Quadratic’s principal office is located at 39 Lewis Street, 4th Floor, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830. Quadratic was formed in 2013 and provides discretionary investment management services to separately managed accounts, in addition to the Fund, and, has previously provided such services to limited partnerships, offshore investment companies, and other collective investment vehicles that were offered to investors on a private placement basis. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio instruments for the Fund, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board.

 

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A discussion regarding the basis for the Board’s approval of the investment sub-advisory agreement with Quadratic will be available in the Fund’s first Annual or Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders.

 

From time to time, a manager, analyst, or other employee of Quadratic or its affiliates may express views regarding a particular asset class, company, security, industry, or market sector. The views expressed by any such person are the views of only that individual as of the time expressed and do not necessarily represent the views of Quadratic or any other person within the Quadratic organization. Any such views are subject to change at any time based upon market or other conditions and Quadratic disclaims any responsibility to update such views. These views may not be relied on as investment advice and, because investment decisions for the Fund are based on numerous factors, may not be relied on as an indication of trading intent on behalf of the Fund.

 

Portfolio Manager

 

Nancy Davis is the Managing Partner and CIO of Quadratic, which she founded in 2013. Ms. Davis began her career at Goldman Sachs, where she spent nearly ten years, the last seven at the proprietary trading group where she became Head of Credit, Derivatives and OTC Trading. Prior to starting Quadratic, she served as a portfolio manager at Highbridge where she managed $500 million of capital in a derivatives-only portfolio. She later served in a senior executive role at AllianceBernstein. Ms. Davis writes and speaks frequently about financial topics and world markets. She has been published in Financial News, Absolute Return, and Institutional Investor and has contributed papers to two books. Ms. Davis holds a B.A. magna cum laude in Economics from George Washington University, where she was a recipient of the Presidential Academic Scholarship.

 

Additional information about the Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Manager and the Portfolio Manager’s ownership of Fund shares is available in the SAI.

 

Other Service Providers

 

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (“Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. The Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund, and makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co. (“Distributor”), an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as the Fund’s distributor. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor, and the Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the shares of the Fund.

 

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Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Fund. BBH maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services.

 

Shareholder Information

 

Calculating NAV

 

The Fund calculates its NAV by:

 

Taking the current market value of its total assets

Subtracting any liabilities and withholdings (if any)

Dividing that amount by the total number of shares owned by the shareholders

 

The Fund normally calculates NAV as of the regularly scheduled close of normal trading on each day that the NYSE is scheduled to be open for business (a ‘‘Business Day’’) (normally, 4:00 p.m., Eastern time). Any assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar are converted into U.S. dollars at the current market rates on the date of valuation as quoted by one or more sources.

 

In calculating the values of the Fund’s portfolio securities, securities listed on a securities exchange, market or automated quotation system for which quotations are readily available (except for securities traded on NASDAQ), including securities traded over the counter, are valued at the last reported sale price on the primary exchange or market (foreign or domestic) on which they are traded (or at the time as of which the Fund’s NAV is calculated if a security’s exchange is normally open at that time). If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price. For securities traded on NASDAQ, the NASDAQ Official Closing Price will be used. If available, debt securities are priced based upon valuations provided by independent, third-party pricing agents. Such values generally reflect the last reported sales price if the security is actively traded. The third-party pricing agents may also value debt securities at an evaluated bid price by employing methodologies that utilize actual market transactions, broker-supplied valuations, or other methodologies designed to identify the market value for such securities. Debt obligations with remaining maturities of sixty days or less may be valued at their amortized cost, which approximates market value. The prices for foreign securities are reported in local currency and converted to U.S. dollars using currency exchange rates. The value of a swap contract is equal to the obligation (or rights) under the swap contract, which will generally be equal to the net amounts to be paid or received under the contract based upon the relative values of the positions held by each party to the contract as determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Exchange-traded options are valued at the last reported sales price on the exchange on which they are listed. If there is no such reported sale on the valuation date, long positions are valued at the most recent bid price, and short positions are valued at the most recent ask price. OTC options are valued based upon prices determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Futures are valued at the settlement price established by the board of trade on which they are traded. Foreign currency forward contracts are valued at the current day’s interpolated foreign exchange rate, as calculated using the current day’s spot rate and the 30-, 60-, 90- and 180-day forward rates provided by an Independent Pricing Agent. The exchange rates used for valuation are captured as of the close of the London Stock Exchange each day normally at 4:00 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Prices for most securities held by the Fund are provided daily by independent pricing agents. If a security price cannot be obtained from an independent, third-party pricing agent, the Fund seeks to obtain bid and ask prices from two broker-dealers who make a market in the portfolio instrument and determines the average of the two.

 

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Investments in open-end investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last reported sale price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price.

 

Investments for which market prices are not ‘‘readily available,’’ or are not deemed to reflect current market values, or are debt securities where no evaluated price is available from the Trust’s third-party pricing agents pursuant to established methodologies, are fair valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Some of the more common reasons that may necessitate that a security be valued using ‘‘fair value’’ pricing may include, but are not limited to: the security’s trading has been halted or suspended; the security’s primary trading market is temporarily closed; or the security has not been traded for an extended period of time. The Fund may fair value certain of the foreign securities held by the Fund each day the Fund calculates its NAV.

 

In addition, the Fund may fair value its securities if an event that may materially affect the value of the Fund’s securities that trade outside of the United States (a ‘‘Significant Event’’) has occurred between the time of the security’s last close and the time that the Fund calculates its NAV. A Significant Event may relate to a single issuer or to an entire market sector, country or region. Events that may be Significant Events may include: government actions, natural disasters, armed conflict, acts of terrorism and significant market fluctuations. If Krane becomes aware of a Significant Event that has occurred with respect to a portfolio instrument or group of portfolio instruments after the closing of the exchange or market on which the portfolio instrument or portfolio instruments principally trade, but before the time at which the Fund calculates its NAV, it will notify the Administrator and may request that an ad hoc meeting of the Fair Valuation Committee be called.

 

With respect to trade-halted securities, the Trust typically will fair value a trade-halted security by adjusting the security’s last market close price by the security’s sector performance, as measured by a predetermined index, unless Krane recommends and the Trust’s Fair Valuation Committee determines to make additional adjustments. Certain foreign securities exchanges have mechanisms in place that confine one day’s price movement in an individual security to a pre-determined price range based on that day’s opening price (‘‘Collared Securities’’). Fair value determinations for Collared Securities will generally be capped by Krane based on any applicable pre-determined ‘‘limit down’’ or ‘‘limit up’’ prices established by the relevant foreign securities exchange. As an example, China A-Shares can only be plus or minus ten percent in one day of trading in the relevant mainland China equity market. As a result, the fair value price determination on a given day will generally be capped at plus or minus ten percent.

 

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Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could actually be realized upon the sale of the security or that another fund that uses market quotations or its own fair value procedures to price the same securities.

 

Trading in securities on many foreign exchanges is normally completed before the close of business on each Business Day. In addition, securities trading in a particular country or countries may not take place on each Business Day or may take place on days that are not Business Days. Changes in valuations on certain securities may occur at times or on days on which the Fund’s NAV is not calculated and on which Fund shares do not trade and sales and redemptions of shares do not occur. As a result, the value of the Fund’s portfolio securities and the net asset value of its shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your shares.

 

Buying and Selling Fund Shares 

Shares of the Fund may be purchased or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof. Only a broker-dealer (“Authorized Participant”) that enters into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Fund’s distributor, SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the “Distributor”), may engage in creation and redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, and are subject to transaction fees, which are described in the SAI. The transaction fee will not exceed 2.00% of the value of the Creation Units purchased or redeemed, which is used to compensate the Fund for any difference for the expenses incurred by it in connection with the purchase or redemption order. Orders for such transactions may be rejected or delayed if they are not submitted in good order and subject to the other conditions set forth in this prospectus and the SAI.

 

Purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will take place in-kind and/or for cash at the discretion of the Fund. The determination of whether purchases and redemptions of Creation Units will be for cash or in-kind depends primarily on the regulatory requirements and settlement mechanisms relevant to the Fund’s portfolio holdings and the Fund is not limited to engaging in in-kind transactions to any particular market circumstances. As further described in the SAI, Creation Units typically are issued on a two Business Days (“T+2”) basis after a purchase order has been received in good order and the transfer of good title to the Fund of any in-kind securities and/or cash required to purchase a Creation Unit have been completed (subject to certain exceptions). Similarly, and also as further described in the SAI, deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund generally will be made on a T+2 basis after a redemption order has been received in good order and the requisite number of Fund shares have been delivered (subject to certain exceptions). The Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2 in order to, among other matters, accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates (i.e., the last day the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security) and in certain other circumstances. The Fund has received exemptive relief to delay such settlement for up to 14 days from the date an order has been submitted in good order and the requisite cash and/or assets delivered to the relevant Fund to accommodate foreign holidays, as further described in the SAI, and otherwise may delay redemptions up to 7 days or longer as permitted by applicable law, regulations and interpretations such as where unusual market conditions affect the NYSE or an emergency exists which makes it impracticable for the Fund to dispose of or value securities it owns or the Fund has received an SEC order.

 

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The Fund intends to comply with the U.S. federal securities laws in accepting securities for deposit and satisfying redemptions with redemption securities by, among other means, assuring that any securities accepted for deposit and any securities used to satisfy redemption requests will be sold in transactions that would be exempt from registration under the Securities Act. Further, an Authorized Participant that is not a “qualified institutional buyer,” as such term is defined under Rule 144A of the Securities Act, will not be able to receive restricted securities eligible for resale under Rule 144A.

 

Once created, shares are listed on the Exchange and trade in the secondary market. When you buy or sell the Fund’s shares in the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. Most investors will buy and sell shares through a broker and, thus, will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares.

 

The secondary markets are closed on weekends and also are generally closed on the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day (observed), Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans’ Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.

 

For more information on how to buy and sell shares of the Fund, call 1.855.857.2638 or visit www.kraneshares.com.

 

Share Trading Prices 

The trading prices of the Fund’s shares listed on its Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV and can be affected by market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors. The Exchange or a market data vendor will disseminate the approximate value of the portfolio underlying a share of the Fund every fifteen seconds. This approximate value should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the NAV of the Fund because the approximate value may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed once a day. The Fund is not involved in, or responsible for, the calculation or dissemination of such values and makes no warranty as to their accuracy.

 

Premium/Discount Information 

Information showing the number of days the market price of the Fund’s shares was greater than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a premium) and the number of days it was less than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a discount) for various time periods will be available by visiting the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com. The premium and discount information contained on the website will represent past performance and cannot be used to predict future results.

 

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Portfolio Holdings Information  

A description of the Fund’s policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of Fund portfolio securities is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”). The holdings of the Fund can be found on the Fund’s website at www.kraneshares.com.

 

Active Investors and Market Timing 

The Trust’s Board of Trustees has determined not to adopt policies and procedures designed to prevent or monitor for frequent purchases and redemptions of the Fund’s shares because the Fund sells and redeems its shares at NAV only in Creation Units pursuant to the terms of an Authorized Participant Agreement between the Authorized Participant and the Distributor, and such direct trading between the Fund and Authorized Participants is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. Further, the vast majority of trading in Fund shares occurs on the secondary market, which does not involve the Fund directly and therefore does not cause the Fund to experience many of the harmful effects of market timing, such as dilution and disruption of portfolio management. In addition, the Fund imposes a transaction fee on Creation Unit transactions, which is designed to offset transfer and other transaction costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the issuance and redemption of Creation Units and may employ fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing The Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase order at any time and reserves the right to impose restrictions on disruptive, excessive, or short-term trading.

 

Investments by Registered Investment Companies 

Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including shares of the Fund. Provided, generally, that the Fund’s investments comply with Section 12(d)(1)(A), registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) subject to certain terms and conditions, including that such investment companies enter into an agreement with the Fund.

 

Continuous Offering 

The method by which Creation Units of Fund shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.

 

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Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.

 

Dealers effecting transactions in the Fund’s shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.

 

Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries 

If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), Krane, any Fund sub-adviser or an affiliate may pay the intermediary for marketing activities or other services related to the sale or promotion of the Fund. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.

 

Distribution Plan 

The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan (the “Plan”) that allows the Fund to pay distribution fees to the Distributor and other firms that provide distribution services (“Service Providers”). Under the Plan, if a Service Provider provides distribution services, the Fund would pay distribution fees to the Distributor at an annual rate not to exceed 0.25% of average daily net assets, pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. The Distributor would, in turn, pay the Service Provider out of its fees. The Board of Trustees currently has determined not to implement any 12b-1 fees pursuant to the Plan. 12b-1 fees may only be imposed after approval by the Board of Trustees. Because any distribution fees would be paid out of the Fund’s assets on an on-going basis, if payments are made in the future, the distribution fees would increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than paying other types of sales charges.

 

Householding Policy 

To reduce expenses, we mail only one copy of the prospectus or summary prospectus, each annual and semi-annual report, and any proxy statements to each address shared by two or more accounts with the same last name or that the Trust reasonably believes are members of the same family. If you wish to receive individual copies of these documents, please call the Trust at 1.855.857.2638 between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time on days the Fund is open for business or contact your financial institution. We will begin sending you individual copies thirty days after receiving your request. Investors who hold their shares through an intermediary are subject to the intermediary’s policies. Contact your financial intermediary for any questions you may have.

 

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Dividends and Distributions 

The Fund pays out dividends to shareholders at least annually. The Fund distributes its net capital gains, if any, to shareholders annually. The Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Fund reserves the right to declare special distributions, including if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable to preserve the status of the Fund as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Code, to avoid imposition of income or excise taxes on undistributed income.

 

Additional Tax Information

 

The following is a summary of some important tax issues that affect the Fund and its shareholders. The summary is based on current tax laws, which may be changed by legislative, judicial or administrative action. You should not consider this summary to be a detailed explanation of the tax treatment of the Fund, or the tax consequences of an investment in the Fund. More information about taxes is located in the SAI. You are urged to consult your tax adviser regarding specific questions as to federal, state and local income taxes.

 

Tax Status of the Fund 

The Fund is treated as a separate entity for federal tax purposes, and intends to qualify for the special tax treatment afforded to regulated investment companies. As long as the Fund qualifies for treatment as a regulated investment company, it pays no federal income tax on the earnings it distributes to shareholders.

 

Tax Status of Distributions 

The Fund will, at least annually, distribute substantially all of its net investment taxable income and net capital gains income.

 

The income dividends you receive from the Fund (which include the Fund’s short-term capital gains) will be taxed as either ordinary income or qualified dividend income. For non-corporate shareholders, dividends that are reported as qualified dividend income are generally taxable at reduced maximum tax rates to the extent that the Fund receives qualified dividend income and subject to certain limitations and holding period requirements.

 

Distributions of the Fund’s short-term capital gains are generally taxable as ordinary income. Any distributions of net capital gain (the excess of the Fund’s net long-term capital gains over its net short-term capital losses) are taxable as long-term capital gains regardless of how long you have owned your shares. Long-term capital gains are taxable at reduced maximum tax rates.

 

If the Fund makes distributions to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of the shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares.

 

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The Fund may invest in complex securities. These investments may be subject to numerous special and complex rules. These rules could affect whether gains and losses recognized by the Fund are treated as ordinary income or capital gain, accelerate the recognition of income to the Fund and/or defer the Fund’s ability to recognize losses. In turn, these rules may affect the amount, timing or character of distributions you receive from the Fund.

 

Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or in additional shares. Corporate shareholders may be entitled to a dividends-received deduction for the portion of dividends they receive that is attributable to dividends received by the Fund from U.S. corporations, subject to certain limitations.

 

Distributions paid in January but declared by the Fund in October, November or December of the previous year may be taxable to you in the previous year. Your broker will inform you of the amount of your ordinary income dividends, qualified dividend income, and capital gains distributions shortly after the close of each calendar year.

 

If you lend your Fund shares pursuant to securities lending arrangements, you may lose the ability to treat the Fund’s dividends (paid while the shares are held by the borrower) as qualified dividend income. Consult your financial intermediary or tax adviser.

 

Some foreign governments levy withholding taxes against dividend and interest income. Although in some countries a portion of these withholding taxes is recoverable, the non-recovered portion will reduce the income received from the securities in the Fund. If more than 50% of the total assets of the Fund at the close of a year consist of non-U.S. stocks or securities, then the Fund may elect, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, to treat certain non-U.S. income taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by the Fund as paid by its shareholders. The Fund will provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return if it makes this election.

 

If you hold your shares in a tax-qualified retirement account, you generally will not be subject to federal taxation on income received with respect to the shares (including Fund dividends and distributions, and any gain on the sale of shares), until you begin receiving payments from your retirement account. You should consult your tax adviser regarding the tax rules that apply to your retirement account.

 

Tax Status of Share Transactions 

Any capital gain or loss upon a sale of the Fund’s shares is generally treated as a long-term gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term gain or loss if held for one year or less. Any capital loss on the sale of the Fund’s shares held for six months or less is treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent that any capital gain distributions were paid with respect to such shares.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax 

U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly) are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” including interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (including capital gains realized on the sale or exchange of shares of the Fund). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.

 

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Back-Up Withholding 

The Fund will be required in certain cases to withhold at applicable withholding rates (currently 24%) and remit to the U.S. Treasury the amount withheld on amounts payable to any shareholder who (1) has provided the Fund either an incorrect tax identification number or no number at all, (2) is subject to back-up withholding by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for failure to properly report payments of interest or dividends, (3) has failed to certify to the Fund that such shareholder is not subject to back-up withholding, or (4) has not certified that such shareholder is a U.S. person (including a U.S. resident alien).

 

Non-U.S. Investors 

If you are not a citizen or permanent resident of the United States or if you are a non-U.S. entity, the Fund’s ordinary income dividends (which include distributions of net short-term capital gains) will generally be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax, unless a lower treaty rate applies, provided that withholding tax will generally not apply to any gain or income realized by a non-U.S. shareholder in respect of any distributions of long-term capital gains or upon the sale or other disposition of shares of the Fund. You also may potentially be subject to U.S. federal estate taxes.

 

A 30% withholding tax will generally be imposed on (1) dividends paid by the Fund and (2) redemption proceeds and certain capital gain dividends paid by the Fund after December 31, 2018, to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the IRS, or the tax authorities in their home jurisdictions, information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. A non-U.S. shareholder may be exempt from the withholding described in this paragraph under an intergovernmental agreement between the United States and a foreign government, provided that the shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of such agreement.

 

State Tax Considerations 

In addition to federal taxes, distributions by the Fund and ownership of the Fund’s shares may be subject to state and local taxes. You should consult your tax adviser regarding how state and local tax laws affect your investment in the Fund’s shares.

 

Taxes on Creations and Redemptions of Creation Units 

A person who purchases a Creation Unit by exchanging securities in-kind generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the purchaser’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units and receives securities in-kind from the Fund will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the redeemer’s basis in the Creation Units, and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any net cash received. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an in-kind exchange of securities for Creation Units or an exchange of Creation Units for securities cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons effecting in-kind creations or redemptions should consult their own tax adviser with respect to these matters.

 

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The Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Fund also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determinations.

 

Disclaimers

 

Krane and Trust Disclaimer 

Krane and the Fund make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of shares of the Fund or any members of the public or as to the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Fund particularly. Krane expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose or use with respect to any Fund. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall Krane have any liability for any special, punitive, direct, indirect or consequential damages (including lost profits), even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

NYSE Arca, Inc. Disclaimer 

Shares of the Fund are not sponsored, endorsed or promoted by NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”). NYSE Arca makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the shares of the Fund or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Fund to track the total return performance of the Underlying Index or the ability of the Underlying Indexes to track stock market performance. NYSE Arca is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Fund to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares are redeemable. NYSE Arca has no obligation or liability to owners of the shares of the Fund in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the shares of the Fund.

 

NYSE Arca makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Trust on behalf of the Fund as licensee, licensee’s customers and counterparties, owners of the shares of the Fund, or any other person or entity from the use of the subject index or any data included therein in connection with the rights licensed as described herein or for any other use. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall NYSE Arca have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

 

35 

 

 

Financial Highlights

 

No financial highlights are available for the Fund because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the prior fiscal year.

 

36 

 

 

Additional Information

 

Additional and more detailed information about the Fund is included in the SAI dated […], 2019. The SAI has been filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into this Prospectus and, therefore, legally forms a part of this Prospectus. The SEC maintains the EDGAR database on its website (“http://www.sec.gov”) that contains the SAI, material incorporated by reference, and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. You may also review and copy documents at the SEC Public Reference room in Washington, D.C. (for information on the operation of the Public Reference Room, call 202.551.8090). You may request documents from the SEC by mail, upon payment of a duplication fee, by writing to: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-1520 or by emailing the SEC at the following address: publicinfo@sec.gov.

 

You may obtain a copy of the SAI or the Annual or Semi-Annual Reports or make inquiries, without charge by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020. Additional information about the Fund’s investments will be available in the Annual and Semi-Annual Reports. Also, in the Fund’s Annual Report, you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during its last fiscal year.

 

No one has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations not contained in this Prospectus or in the Fund’s SAI in connection with the offering of Fund shares. Do not rely on any such information or representations as having been authorized by the Fund, Krane or the sub-adviser, as applicable. This Prospectus does not constitute an offering by the Fund in any jurisdiction where such an offering is not lawful.

 

The Trust enters into contractual arrangements with various parties, including among others, the Fund’s investment adviser, sub-adviser(s) (if applicable), distributor, custodian, and transfer agent who provide services to the Fund. Shareholders are not parties to any such contractual arrangements or intended beneficiaries of those contractual arrangements, and those contractual arrangements are not intended to create in any shareholder any right to enforce them against the service providers or to seek any remedy under them against the service providers, either directly or on behalf of the Trust.

 

This prospectus provides information concerning the Fund that you should consider in determining whether to purchase Fund shares. Neither this prospectus nor the SAI is intended, or should be read, to be or give rise to an agreement or contract between the Trust, the Trustees, or the Fund and any investor, or to give rise to any rights in any shareholder or other person other than any rights under federal or state law that may not be waived.

 

The Trust’s Investment Company Act file number is 811-22698.

 

37 

 

 

KraneShares Trust

 

STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

[…], 2019

 

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF - (IVOL)

 

Shares of the Fund will be traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc.

 

This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) relates to the above listed fund (the “Fund”), a series of the KraneShares Trust (the “Trust”). This SAI is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the current prospectus for the Fund, dated […], 2019, as it may be revised from time to time (the “Prospectus”). Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted. The audited financial statements with respect to the Fund for the most recent fiscal year will be incorporated in this SAI by reference to the Trust’s first Annual Report to Shareholders. A copy of the Prospectus, this SAI, and/or the most recent annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders may be obtained, without charge, by calling 1.855.857.2638, visiting www.kraneshares.com, or writing to the Trust at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

 

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND 3
INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS 3
INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS 24
CONTINUOUS OFFERING 25
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST 25
INVESTMENT ADVISER 31
SUB-ADVISER 33
PORTFOLIO MANAGER 33
CODES OF ETHICS 35
PROXY VOTING POLICY 35
ADMINISTRATOR 35
CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT 35
DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS 36
CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES 37
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING 37
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM 38
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS 39
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS 41
TAXES 48
DETERMINATION OF NAV 54
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS 56
OTHER INFORMATION 56
COUNSEL 58
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 58
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 58
APPENDIX A – PROXY VOTING POLICY A-1
APPENDIX B – DESCRIPTION OF RATINGS B-1

 

 2

 

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUND

 

The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on February 3, 2012 and is permitted to offer multiple, separate series (i.e., funds). As of the date of this SAI, the Trust offers [21] separate funds, including the Fund and other funds not offered in this SAI. The Trust is an open-end management investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and the Fund is a non-diversified series of the Trust. The offering of the Trust’s shares is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). All payments received by the Trust for shares of any fund belong to that fund. Each fund will have its own assets and liabilities. Shares of the Fund will only be issued against full payment, as further described in the Prospectus and this Statement of Additional Information.

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane” or the “Adviser”) serves as the investment adviser to the Fund and is responsible for continuously reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program. Quadratic Capital Management LLC serves as the investment sub-adviser to the Fund and is responsible for making investment decisions for the Fund’s assets and trading portfolio securities. SEI Investments Distribution Co. serves as the distributor (the “Distributor”) of the shares of the Fund.

 

Shares of the Fund will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE”). The Exchange is a national securities exchange and shares of the Fund will trade throughout the day on the Exchange and other secondary markets at market prices that may be below, at or above their net asset value (“NAV”) per share. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the Fund’s shares will be based on negotiated commission rates and subject to bid/ask spreads.

 

INVESTMENT POLICIES, TECHNIQUES AND RISK FACTORS

 

General

The Fund’s principal investment strategies and risks are discussed in its Prospectus. The investment techniques discussed below and in the prospectus may, consistent with the Fund’s investment objectives and investment limitations, be used by the Fund. The Fund is free to reduce or eliminate its activity with respect to any of the investment techniques discussed below without changing its fundamental investment policies and without prior notice to shareholders. There is no assurance that the Fund’s strategies or any other strategies and methods of investment available to the Fund will result in the achievement of the Fund’s objective.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Fund may hold cash or cash equivalents. Generally, such positions offer less potential for gain than other investments. Holding cash or cash equivalents, even strategically, may lead to missed investment opportunities. This is particularly true when the market for other investments in which a Fund may invest is rapidly rising. If a Fund holds cash uninvested it will be subject to the credit risk of the depositing institution holding the cash.

 

Debt Securities

The Fund may invest in debt securities. A debt security is a security consisting of a certificate or other evidence of a debt (secured or unsecured) on which the issuer promises to pay the holder thereof a fixed, variable, or floating rate of interest for a specified length of time, and to repay the debt on the specified maturity date. Some debt securities, such as zero coupon bonds, do not make regular interest payments but are issued at a discount to their principal or maturity value. Debt securities include a variety of fixed income obligations, including, but not limited to, corporate bonds, government securities, municipal securities, convertible securities, mortgage-backed securities, and asset-backed securities. Debt securities include investment-grade securities, non-investment-grade securities, and unrated securities. Debt securities are subject to a variety of risks, such as interest rate risk, income risk, call/prepayment risk, inflation risk, and credit risk.

 

 3

 

 

The market value of the debt securities in which a Fund invests will change in response to interest rate changes and other factors. During periods of falling interest rates, the values of outstanding debt securities generally rise. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the values of such securities generally decline. Moreover, while securities with longer maturities tend to produce higher yields, the prices of longer maturity securities are also subject to greater market fluctuations as a result of changes in interest rates. Changes in the value of these securities will not necessarily affect cash income derived from these securities but will affect a Fund’s NAV. Additional information regarding debt securities is described below.

 

Credit risk. Debt securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s (or other party’s) failure or inability to meet its obligations under the security. Multiple parties may have obligations under a debt security. An issuer or borrower may fail to pay principal and interest when due. A guarantor, insurer or credit support provider may fail to provide the agreed upon protection. A counterparty to a transaction may fail to perform its side of the bargain. An intermediary or agent interposed between the investor and other parties may fail to perform the terms of its service. Also, performance under a debt security may be linked to the obligations of other persons who may fail to meet their obligations. The credit risk associated with a debt security could increase to the extent that the Fund’s ability to benefit fully from its investment in the security depends on the performance by multiple parties of their respective contractual or other obligations. The market value of a debt security is also affected by the market’s perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer.

 

The Fund may incur substantial losses on debt securities that are inaccurately perceived to present a different amount of credit risk than they actually do by the market, the Adviser or the rating agencies. Credit risk is generally greater where less information is publicly available, where fewer covenants safeguard the investors’ interests, where collateral may be impaired or inadequate, where little legal redress or regulatory protection is available, or where a party’s ability to meet obligations is speculative. Additionally, any inaccuracy in the information used by the Fund to evaluate credit risk may affect the value of securities held by the Fund.

 

Obligations under debt securities held by the Fund may never be satisfied or, if satisfied, only satisfied in part.

 

Credit ratings risk. The Sub-Adviser performs its own independent investment analysis of securities being considered for the Fund’s portfolio, which includes consideration of, among other things, the issuer’s financial resources, its sensitivity to economic conditions and trends, its operating history, the quality of the issuer’s management and regulatory matters. The Sub-Adviser also considers the ratings assigned by various investment services and independent rating agencies, such as Moody’s and S&P, that publish ratings based upon their assessment of the relative creditworthiness of the rated debt securities. Generally, a lower rating indicates higher credit risk. Higher yields are ordinarily available from debt securities in the lower rating categories.

 

Using credit ratings to evaluate debt securities can involve certain risks. For example, ratings assigned by the rating agencies are based upon an analysis completed at the time of the rating of the obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal. Rating agencies typically rely to a large extent on historical data which may not accurately represent present or future circumstances. Ratings do not purport to reflect the risk of fluctuations in market value of the debt security and are not absolute standards of quality and only express the rating agency’s current opinion of an obligor’s overall financial capacity to pay its financial obligations. A credit rating is not a statement of fact or a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a debt obligation. Also, credit quality can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and credit ratings may not reflect the issuer’s current financial condition or events since the security was last rated. Rating agencies may have a financial interest in generating business, including from the arranger or issuer of the security that normally pays for that rating, and providing a low rating might affect the rating agency’s prospects for future business. While rating agencies have policies and procedures to address this potential conflict of interest, there is a risk that these policies will fail to prevent a conflict of interest from impacting the rating.

 

 4

 

 

Duration. Duration is a measure of the expected change in value of a debt security for a given change in interest rates. For example, if interest rates changed by one percent, the value of a security having an effective duration of two years generally would vary by two percent. Duration takes the length of the time intervals between the present time and time that the interest and principal payments are scheduled, or in the case of a callable bond, expected to be received, and weighs them by the present values of the cash to be received at each future point in time.

 

Income risk. The Fund is subject to income risk, which is the risk that the Fund’s income will decline during periods of falling interest rates or when the Fund experiences defaults on debt securities it holds. The Fund’s income declines when interest rates fall because, as the Fund’s higher-yielding debt securities mature or are prepaid, The Fund must re-invest the proceeds in debt securities that have lower, prevailing interest rates. The amount and rate of distributions that the Fund’s shareholders receive are affected by the income that the Fund receives from its portfolio holdings. If the income is reduced, distributions by the Fund to shareholders may be less.

 

Fluctuations in income paid to the Fund are generally greater for variable rate debt securities. The Fund will be deemed to receive taxable income on certain securities which pay no cash payments until maturity, such as zero-coupon securities. The Fund may be required to sell portfolio securities that it would otherwise continue to hold in order to obtain sufficient cash to make the distribution to shareholders required for U.S. tax purposes.

 

Inflation risk. The market price of debt securities generally falls as inflation increases because the purchasing power of the future income and repaid principal is expected to be worth less when received by the Fund. Debt securities that pay a fixed rather than variable interest rate are especially vulnerable to inflation risk because variable-rate debt securities may be able to participate, over the long term, in rising interest rates which have historically corresponded with long-term inflationary trends.

 

Interest rate risk. The market value of debt securities generally varies in response to changes in prevailing interest rates. Interest rate changes can be sudden and unpredictable. In addition, short-term and long-term rates are not necessarily correlated to each other as short-term rates tend to be influenced by government monetary policy while long-term rates are market driven and may be influenced by macroeconomic events (such as economic expansion or contraction), inflation expectations, as well as supply and demand. During periods of declining interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally increases. Conversely, during periods of rising interest rates, the market value of debt securities generally declines. This occurs because new debt securities are likely to be issued with higher interest rates as interest rates increase, making the old or outstanding debt securities less attractive. In general, the market prices of long-term debt securities or securities that make little (or no) interest payments are more sensitive to interest rate fluctuations than shorter-term debt securities. The longer the Fund’s average weighted portfolio duration, the greater the potential impact a change in interest rates will have on its share price. Also, certain segments of the fixed income markets, such as high quality bonds, tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes than other segments, such as lower-quality bonds.

 

Variable and Floating Rate Securities. Variable and floating rate instruments involve certain obligations that may carry variable or floating rates of interest, and may involve a conditional or unconditional demand feature. Such instruments bear interest at rates which are not fixed, but which vary with changes in specified market rates or indices. The interest rates on these securities may be reset daily, weekly, quarterly, or some other reset period, and may have a set floor or ceiling on interest rate changes. There is a risk that the current interest rate on such obligations may not accurately reflect existing market interest rates. A demand instrument with a demand notice exceeding seven days may be considered illiquid if there is no secondary market for such security.

 

Corporate Debt Securities. The Fund may invest in corporate debt securities. Corporate debt securities are typically fixed-income securities issued by businesses to finance their operations, but may also include bank loans to companies. Notes, bonds, debentures and commercial paper are the most common types of corporate debt securities. The primary differences between the different types of corporate debt securities are their maturities and secured or un-secured status. Commercial paper has the shortest term and is usually unsecured. The broad category of corporate debt securities includes debt issued by domestic or foreign companies of all kinds, including those with small-, mid- and large-capitalizations. Corporate debt may be rated investment-grade, below investment-grade or unrated and may carry variable or floating rates of interest.

 

 5

 

 

Because of the wide range of types, and maturities, of corporate debt securities, as well as the range of creditworthiness of its issuers, corporate debt securities have widely varying potentials for return and risk profiles. For example, commercial paper issued by a large established domestic corporation that is rated investment-grade may have a modest return on principal, but is intended to carry relatively limited risk. On the other hand, a long-term corporate note issued by a small foreign corporation from an emerging market country that has not been rated may have the potential for relatively large returns on principal, but carries a relatively high degree of risk.

 

Corporate debt securities carry both credit risk and interest rate risk. Credit risk is the risk that a Fund could lose money if the issuer of a corporate debt security does not pay interest or principal when it is due. The credit risk of a particular issuer’s debt security may vary based on its priority for repayment. For example, higher ranking (senior) debt securities have a higher priority than lower ranking (subordinated) securities. This means that the issuer might not make payments on subordinated securities while continuing to make payments on senior securities. In addition, in the event of bankruptcy, holders of higher-ranking senior securities may receive amounts otherwise payable to the holders of more junior securities. Interest rate risk is the risk that the value of certain corporate debt securities will tend to fall when interest rates rise. In general, corporate debt securities with longer terms tend to fall more in value when interest rates rise than corporate debt securities with shorter terms.

 

U.S. Government Securities. The Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, the government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.

 

Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Ginnie Mae pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by Fannie Mae, are not guaranteed by the U.S. government. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to such issuers since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.

 

Since 2008, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have been in conservatorship and have received significant capital support through U.S. Treasury preferred stock purchases, as well as U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage-backed securities. The Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) and the U.S. Treasury (through its agreement to purchase Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac preferred stock) have imposed strict limits on the size of their mortgage portfolios. The mortgage-backed security purchase programs ended in 2010. An FHFA stress test suggested that in a “severely adverse scenario” significant additional Treasury support might be required. No assurance can be given that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and mortgage-backed securities that they issue.

 

 6

 

 

In addition, the problems faced by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, resulting in their being placed into federal conservatorship and receiving significant U.S. government support, have sparked serious debate among federal policy makers regarding the continued role of the U.S. government in providing liquidity for mortgage loans. In December 2011, Congress enacted the Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of 2011 which, among other provisions, requires that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac increase their single-family guaranty fees by at least 10 basis points and remit this increase to Treasury with respect to all loans acquired by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac on or after April 1, 2012 and before January 1, 2022. Nevertheless, discussions among policymakers have continued as to whether Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac should be nationalized, privatized, restructured, or eliminated altogether. Fannie Mae reported in the third quarter of 2017 that there was “significant uncertainty regarding the future of our company, including how long the company will continue to exist in its current form, the extent of our role in the market, how long we will be in conservatorship, what form we will have and what ownership interest, if any, our current common and preferred stockholders will hold in us after the conservatorship is terminated, and whether we will continue to exist following conservatorship.” Freddie Mac faces similar uncertainty about its future role. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac also are the subject of several continuing legal actions and investigations related to certain accounting, disclosure, or corporate governance matters, which (along with any resulting financial restatements) may continue to have an adverse effect on the guaranteeing entities. Congress is currently considering several pieces of legislation that would reform U.S. government sponsored enterprises, proposing to address their structure, mission, portfolio limits, and guarantee fees, among other issues.

 

U.S. Treasury Obligations. U.S. Treasury obligations consist of bills, notes and bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury and separately traded interest and principal component parts of such obligations that are transferable through the federal book-entry system known as Separately Traded Registered Interest and Principal Securities (“STRIPS”) and Treasury Receipts (“TRs”).

 

Inflation-Indexed Bonds. Inflation-indexed bonds, such as U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”), are debt securities whose principal value is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation. Two structures are common. The U.S. Treasury and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond. When TIPS mature, investors are paid the adjusted principal or original principal, whichever is greater. Most other issuers pay out the Consumer Price Index accruals as part of a semiannual coupon. Inflation-indexed bonds generally pay a lower nominal interest rate than a comparable non-inflation-indexed bond.

 

Inflation-indexed securities issued by the U.S. Treasury have maturities of five, ten or thirty years, although it is possible that securities with other maturities will be issued in the future. The U.S. Treasury securities pay interest on a semi-annual basis, equal to a fixed percentage of the inflation-adjusted principal amount. For example, if the Fund purchased an inflation-indexed bond with a par value of $1,000 and a 3% real rate of return coupon (payable 1.5% semi-annually), and inflation over the first six months were 1%, the mid-year par value of the bond would be $1,010 and the first semi-annual interest payment would be $15.15 ($1,010 times 1.5%). If inflation during the second half of the year resulted in the whole years’ inflation equaling 3%, the end-of-year par value of the bond would be $1,030 and the second semiannual interest payment would be $15.45 ($1,030 times 1.5%).

 

If the periodic adjustment rate measuring inflation falls, the principal value of inflation-indexed bonds will be adjusted downward, and consequently the interest payable on these securities (calculated with respect to a smaller principal amount) will be reduced. Repayment of the original bond principal upon maturity (as adjusted for inflation) is guaranteed in the case of U.S. Treasury inflation-indexed bonds, even during a period of deflation. However, the current market value of the bonds is not guaranteed and will fluctuate. The Fund may also invest in other inflation related bonds which may or may not provide a similar guarantee. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal.

 

 7

 

 

The value of inflation-indexed bonds is expected to change in response to changes in real interest rates. Real interest rates in turn are tied to the relationship between nominal interest rates and the rate of inflation. Therefore, if inflation were to rise at a faster rate than nominal interest rates, real interest rates might decline, leading to an increase in value of inflation-indexed bonds. In contrast, if nominal interest rates increased at a faster rate than inflation, real interest rates might rise, leading to a decrease in value of inflation-indexed bonds.

 

While these securities are expected to be protected from long-term inflationary trends, short-term increases in inflation may lead to a decline in value. If interest rates rise due to reasons other than inflation (for example, due to changes in currency exchange rates), investors in these securities may not be protected to the extent that the increase is not reflected in the bond’s inflation measure.

 

The periodic adjustment of U.S. inflation-indexed bonds is tied to the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated monthly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a foreign government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any foreign inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. Moreover, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a foreign country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States.

 

Any increase in the principal amount of an inflation-indexed bond will be considered taxable ordinary income, even though investors do not receive their principal until maturity.

 

Receipts. Interests in separately traded interest and principal component parts of U.S. government obligations that are issued by banks or brokerage firms and are created by depositing U.S. government obligations into a special account at a custodian bank. The custodian holds the interest and principal payments for the benefit of the registered owners of the certificates or receipts. The custodian arranges for the issuance of the certificates or receipts evidencing ownership and maintains the register. TRs and STRIPS are interests in accounts sponsored by the U.S. Treasury. Receipts are sold as zero coupon securities.

 

U.S. Government Zero Coupon Securities. STRIPS and receipts are sold as zero coupon securities, that is, fixed income securities that have been stripped of their unmatured interest coupons. Zero coupon securities are typically sold at a (usually substantial) discount and redeemed at face value at their maturity date without interim cash payments of interest or principal. The amount of this discount is accreted over the life of the security, and the accretion constitutes the income earned on the security for both accounting and tax purposes. Because of these features, the market prices of zero coupon securities are generally more volatile than the market prices of securities that have similar maturity but that pay interest periodically. Zero coupon securities are likely to respond to a greater degree to interest rate changes than are non-zero coupon securities with similar maturity and credit qualities.

 

U.S. Government Agencies. Some obligations issued or guaranteed by agencies of the U.S. government are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury, others are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while still others are supported only by the credit of the instrumentality. Guarantees of principal by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government may be a guarantee of payment at the maturity of the obligation so that in the event of a default prior to maturity there might not be a market and thus no means of realizing on the obligation prior to maturity. Guarantees as to the timely payment of principal and interest do not extend to the value or yield of these securities nor to the value of a Fund’s shares.

 

 8

 

 

Equity Securities

The Fund may invest in equity securities. Equity securities represent ownership interests in a company or partnership and consist of common stocks, preferred stocks, warrants to acquire common stock, securities convertible into common stock, and investments in master limited partnerships. Investments in equity securities in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which a Fund invests will cause the NAV of a Fund to fluctuate. Global stock markets, including the U.S. stock market, tend to be cyclical, with periods when stock prices generally rise and periods when stock prices generally decline. The Fund may purchase equity securities traded on exchanges or the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market. The Fund may invest in the types of equity securities described in more detail below.

 

Common Stock. Common stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over the claims of those who own common stock.

 

Preferred Stock. Preferred stock represents an equity or ownership interest in an issuer that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has precedence over common stock in the payment of dividends. In the event an issuer is liquidated or declares bankruptcy, the claims of owners of bonds take precedence over the claims of those who own preferred and common stock.

 

Convertible Securities. Convertible securities are bonds, debentures, notes, preferred stocks or other securities that may be converted or exchanged (by the holder or by the issuer) into shares of the underlying common stock (or cash or securities of equivalent value) at a stated exchange ratio. A convertible security may also be called for redemption or conversion by the issuer after a particular date and under certain circumstances (including a specified price) established upon issue. If a convertible security held by a Fund is called for redemption or conversion, a Fund could be required to tender it for redemption, convert it into the underlying common stock, or sell it to a third party.

 

Convertible securities generally have less potential for gain or loss than common stocks. Convertible securities generally provide yields higher than the underlying common stocks, but generally lower than comparable non-convertible securities. Because of this higher yield, convertible securities generally sell at a price above their “conversion value,” which is the current market value of the stock to be received upon conversion. The difference between this conversion value and the price of convertible securities will vary over time depending on changes in the value of the underlying common stocks and interest rates. When the underlying common stocks decline in value, convertible securities tend not to decline to the same extent because of the interest or dividend payments and the repayment of principal at maturity for certain types of convertible securities. However, securities that are convertible other than at the option of the holder generally do not limit the potential for loss to the same extent as securities convertible at the option of the holder. When the underlying common stocks rise in value, the value of convertible securities may also be expected to increase. At the same time, however, the difference between the market value of convertible securities and their conversion value will narrow, which means that the value of convertible securities will generally not increase to the same extent as the value of the underlying common stocks. Because convertible securities may also be interest-rate sensitive, their value may increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. Convertible securities are also subject to credit risk, and are often lower-quality securities.

 

Small and Medium Capitalization Issuers. Investing in equity securities of small and medium capitalization companies often involves greater risk than is customarily associated with investments in larger capitalization companies. This increased risk may be due to the greater business risks of smaller size, limited markets and financial resources, narrow product lines and frequent lack of depth of management. The securities of smaller companies are often traded in the OTC market and even if listed on a national securities exchange may not be traded in volumes typical for that exchange. Consequently, the securities of smaller companies are less likely to be liquid, may have limited market stability, and may be subject to more abrupt or erratic market movements than securities of larger, more established growth companies or the market averages in general.

 

 9

 

 

Warrants. Warrants are instruments that entitle the holder to buy an equity security at a specific price for a specific period of time. Changes in the value of a warrant do not necessarily correspond to changes in the value of its underlying security. The price of a warrant may be more volatile than the price of its underlying security, and a warrant may offer greater potential for capital appreciation as well as capital loss. Warrants do not entitle a holder to dividends or voting rights with respect to the underlying security and do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuing company. A warrant ceases to have value if it is not exercised prior to its expiration date. These factors can make warrants more speculative than other types of investments.

 

Rights. A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. An investment in rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.

 

Derivatives

The Fund may use derivative instruments as part of their investment strategies. Generally, derivatives are financial contracts the value of which depends upon, or is derived from, the value of an underlying asset, reference rate or index, and may relate to bonds, interest rates, currencies, commodities, and related indexes. Examples of derivative instruments include forward currency contracts, currency and interest rate swaps, currency options, futures contracts, including index futures, options on futures contracts, structured notes, and swap contracts. A Fund’s use of derivative instruments will be collateralized by investments in short term, high-quality U.S. money market securities.

 

With respect to certain kinds of derivative transactions entered into by a Fund that involve obligations to make future payments to third parties, including, but not limited to, futures contracts, forward contracts, swap contracts, the purchase of securities on a when-issued or delayed delivery basis, or reverse repurchase agreements, under applicable federal securities laws, rules, and interpretations thereof, a Fund must “set aside” (referred to sometimes as “asset segregation”) liquid assets, or engage in other measures to “cover” open positions with respect to such transactions. For example, with respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are not contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund must cover its open positions by setting aside liquid assets equal to the contracts’ full, notional value, except that deliverable forward contracts for currencies that are liquid will be treated as the equivalent of “cash-settled” contracts. As such, a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation (i.e., a Fund’s daily net liability if any) rather than the full notional amount under such deliverable forward foreign currency exchange contracts. With respect to forward foreign currency exchange contracts and futures contracts that are contractually required to “cash-settle,” a Fund may set aside liquid assets in an amount equal to a Fund’s daily marked-to-market (net) obligation rather than the notional value. Because a Fund may enter into (or “open”) certain derivatives contracts with an initial investment that is less than the notional value of the contract, such contracts provide inherent economic leverage equal to the difference between the initial investment requirement (also known as initial margin requirement) and the notional value of the contract. A Fund reserves the right to modify its asset segregation policies in the future consistent with applicable law. A Fund’s use of derivatives may be limited by the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for qualification as a regulated investment company for U.S. federal tax purposes.

 

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To the extent a Fund transacts in commodity interests (e.g., futures contracts, swap agreements, non-deliverable forward contracts), it will do so only in accordance with Rule 4.5 of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). Krane, on behalf of the Fund, has filed or will file a notice of eligibility for exclusion from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator” in accordance with Rule 4.5 so that it is not subject to registration or regulation as a commodity pool operator under the Commodity Exchange Act (“CEA”).

 

Swap Contracts. Generally, swap agreements are contracts between the Fund and another party (the swap counterparty) involving the exchange of payments on specified terms over periods ranging from a few days to multiple years. A swap agreement may be negotiated bilaterally and traded OTC between the two parties (for an uncleared swap) or, in some instances, must be transacted through an Futures Commission Merchant (“FCM”) and cleared through a clearinghouse that serves as a central counterparty (for a cleared swap). In a basic swap transaction, the Fund agrees with the swap counterparty to exchange the returns (or differentials in rates of return) and/or cash flows earned or realized on a particular “notional amount” or value of predetermined underlying reference instruments. The notional amount is the set dollar or other value selected by the parties to use as the basis on which to calculate the obligations that the parties to a swap agreement have agreed to exchange. The parties typically do not actually exchange the notional amount. Instead they agree to exchange the returns that would be earned or realized if the notional amount were invested in given investments or at given interest rates. Examples of returns that may be exchanged in a swap agreement are those of a particular security, a particular fixed or variable interest rate, a particular non-U.S. currency, or a “basket” of securities representing a particular index. Swaps can also be based on credit and other events.

 

The Fund will generally enter into swap agreements on a net basis, which means that the two payment streams that are to be made by the Fund and its counterparty with respect to a particular swap agreement are netted out, with the Fund receiving or paying, as the case may be, only the net difference in the two payments. The Fund’s obligations (or rights) under a swap agreement that is entered into on a net basis will generally be the net amount to be paid or received under the agreement based on the relative values of the obligations of each party upon termination of the agreement or at set valuation dates. The Fund will accrue its obligations under a swap agreement daily (offset by any amounts the counterparty owes the Fund). If the swap agreement does not provide for that type of netting, the full amount of the Fund’s obligations will be accrued on a daily basis.

 

Comprehensive swaps regulation. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) and related regulatory developments imposed comprehensive regulatory requirements on swaps and swap market participants. The new regulatory framework includes: (1) registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants; (2) requiring central clearing and execution of standardized swaps; (3) imposing margin requirements on swap transactions; (4) regulating and monitoring swap transactions through position limits and large trader reporting requirements; and (5) imposing record keeping and centralized and public reporting requirements, on an anonymous basis, for most swaps. The CFTC is responsible for the regulation of most swaps. The SEC has jurisdiction over a small segment of the market referred to as “security-based swaps,” which includes swaps on single securities or credits, or narrow-based indices of securities or credits.

 

Uncleared swaps. In an uncleared swap, the swap counterparty is typically a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. The Fund customarily enters into uncleared swaps based on the standard terms and conditions of an International Swaps and Derivatives Association (“ISDA”) Master Agreement. ISDA is a voluntary industry association of participants in the over-the-counter derivatives markets that has developed standardized contracts used by such participants that have agreed to be bound by such standardized contracts. In the event that one party to a swap transaction defaults and the transaction is terminated prior to its scheduled termination date, one of the parties may be required to make an early termination payment to the other. An early termination payment may be payable by either the defaulting or non-defaulting party, depending upon which of them is “in-the-money” with respect to the swap at the time of its termination. Early termination payments may be calculated in various ways, but are intended to approximate the amount the “in-the-money” party would have to pay to replace the swap as of the date of its termination.

 

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During the term of an uncleared swap, the Fund is required to pledge to the swap counterparty, from time to time, an amount of cash and/or other assets equal to the total net amount (if any) that would be payable by the Fund to the counterparty if all outstanding swaps between the parties were terminated on the date in question, including any early termination payments (“variation margin”). Periodically, changes in the amount pledged are made to recognize changes in value of the contract resulting from, among other things, interest on the notional value of the contract, market value changes in the underlying investment, and/or dividends paid by the issuer of the underlying instrument. Likewise, the counterparty will be required to pledge cash or other assets to cover its obligations to the Fund. However, the amount pledged may not always be equal to or more than the amount due to the other party. Therefore, if a counterparty defaults in its obligations to the Fund, the amount pledged by the counterparty and available to the Fund may not be sufficient to cover all the amounts due to the Fund and the Fund may sustain a loss.

 

Currently, the Fund does not typically provide initial margin in connection with uncleared swaps. However, rules requiring initial margin for uncleared swaps have been adopted and are being phased in over time. When these rules take effect, if the Fund is deemed to have material swaps exposure under applicable swap regulations, the Fund will be required to post initial margin in addition to variation margin.

 

Cleared swaps. Certain standardized swaps are subject to mandatory central clearing and exchange-trading. The Dodd-Frank Act and implementing rules will ultimately require the clearing and exchange-trading of many swaps. Mandatory exchange-trading and clearing will occur on a phased-in basis based on the type of market participant, CFTC approval of contracts for central clearing and public trading facilities making such cleared swaps available to trade. To date, the CFTC has designated only certain of the most common types of credit default index swaps and interest rate swaps as subject to mandatory clearing and certain public trading facilities have made certain of those cleared swaps available to trade, but it is expected that additional categories of swaps will in the future be designated as subject to mandatory clearing and trade execution requirements. Central clearing is intended to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity, but central clearing does not eliminate these risks and may involve additional costs and risks not involved with uncleared swaps. See “Risks of cleared swaps” below.

 

In a cleared swap, the Fund’s ultimate counterparty is a central clearinghouse rather than a brokerage firm, bank or other financial institution. Cleared swaps are submitted for clearing through each party’s FCM, which must be a member of the clearinghouse that serves as the central counterparty. Transactions executed on a swap execution facility (“SEF”) may increase market transparency and liquidity but may require the Fund to incur increased expenses to access the same types of swaps that it has used in the past. When the Fund enters into a cleared swap, it must deliver to the central counterparty (via the FCM) an amount referred to as “initial margin.” Initial margin requirements are determined by the central counterparty, and are typically calculated as an amount equal to the volatility in market value of the cleared swap over a fixed period, but an FCM may require additional initial margin above the amount required by the central counterparty. During the term of the swap agreement, a “variation margin” amount may also be required to be paid by the Fund or may be received by the Fund in accordance with margin controls set for such accounts. If the value of the Fund’s cleared swap declines, the Fund will be required to make additional “variation margin” payments to the FCM to settle the change in value. Conversely, if the market value of the Fund’s position increases, the FCM will post additional “variation margin” to the Fund’s account. At the conclusion of the term of the swap agreement, if the Fund has a loss equal to or greater than the margin amount, the margin amount is paid to the FCM along with any loss in excess of the margin amount. If the Fund has a loss of less than the margin amount, the excess margin is returned to the Fund. If the Fund has a gain, the full margin amount and the amount of the gain is paid to the Fund.

 

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Interest rate swaps. An interest rate swap is an agreement between two parties to exchange interest rate payment obligations. Typically, one party’s obligation is based on an interest rate fixed to maturity while the other party’s obligation is based on an interest rate that changes in accordance with changes in a designated benchmark (for example, LIBOR, prime rate, commercial paper rate, or other benchmarks). Alternatively, both payment obligations may be based on an interest rate that changes in accordance with changes in a designated benchmark (also known as a “basis swap”). In a basis swap, the rates may be based on different benchmarks (for example, LIBOR versus commercial paper) or on different terms of the same benchmark (for example, one-month LIBOR versus three-month LIBOR). Each party’s payment obligation under an interest rate swap is determined by reference to a specified “notional” amount of money. Therefore, interest rate swaps generally do not involve the delivery of securities, other underlying instruments, or principal amounts; rather they entail the exchange of cash payments based on the application of the designated interest rates to the notional amount. Accordingly, barring swap counterparty or FCM default, the risk of loss in an interest rate swap is limited to the net amount of interest payments that the Fund is obligated to make or receive (as applicable), as well as any early termination payment payable by or to the Fund upon early termination of the swap.

 

By swapping fixed interest rate payments for floating payments, an interest rate swap can be used to increase or decrease the Fund’s exposure to various interest rates, including to hedge interest rate risk. Interest rate swaps are generally used to permit the party seeking a floating rate obligation the opportunity to acquire such obligation at a rate lower than is directly available in the credit markets, while permitting the party desiring a fixed-rate obligation the opportunity to acquire such a fixed-rate obligation, also frequently at a rate lower than is directly available in the credit markets. The success of such a transaction depends in large part on the availability of fixed-rate obligations at interest (or coupon) rates low enough to cover the costs involved. Similarly, a basis swap can be used to increase or decrease the Fund’s exposure to various interest rates, including to hedge against or speculate on the spread between the two indexes, or to manage duration. An interest rate swap transaction is affected by change in interest rates, which, in turn, may affect the prepayment rate of any underlying debt obligations upon which the interest rate swap is based.

 

Inflation index swaps. An inflation index swap is a contract between two parties, whereby one party makes payments based on the cumulative percentage increase in an index that serves as a measure of inflation (typically, the Consumer Price Index) and the other party makes a regular payment based on a compounded fixed rate. Each party’s payment obligation under the swap is determined by reference to a specified “notional” amount of money. Typically, an inflation index swap has payment obligations netted and exchanged upon maturity. The value of an inflation index swap is expected to change in response to changes in the rate of inflation. If inflation increases at a faster rate than anticipated at the time the swap is entered into, the swap will increase in value. Similarly, if inflation increases at a rate slower than anticipated at the time the swap is entered into, the swap will decrease in value.

 

Commodity-linked total return swaps. A commodity-linked total return swap is an agreement between two parties under which the parties agree to exchange a fixed return or interest rate on the notional amount of the swap for the return of a particular commodities index, commodity contract or basket of commodity contracts as if such notional amount had been invested in such index, commodity contract or basket of commodity contracts. For example, one party agrees to pay the other party the return on a particular index multiplied by the notional amount of the swap. In return, the other party makes periodic payments, such as at a floating interest rate, calculated based on such notional amount. If the commodity swap is for one period, the Fund may pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap. However, if the term of the commodity swap is more than one period, with interim swap payments, the Fund may pay an adjustable or floating fee. With a “floating” rate, the fee may be pegged to a base rate, such as the LIBOR, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, the Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.

 

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Risks of swaps generally. The use of swap transactions is a highly specialized activity, which involves investment techniques and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. Whether the Fund will be successful in using swap agreements to achieve its investment goal depends on the ability of the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, to correctly predict which types of investments are likely to produce greater returns. If the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, in using swap agreements, is incorrect in its forecasts of market values, interest rates, inflation, currency exchange rates or other applicable factors, the investment performance of the Fund will be less than its performance would have been if it had not used the swap agreements.

 

The risk of loss to the Fund for swap transactions that are entered into on a net basis depends on which party is obligated to pay the net amount to the other party. If the counterparty is obligated to pay the net amount to the Fund, the risk of loss to the Fund is loss of the entire amount that the Fund is entitled to receive. If the Fund is obligated to pay the net amount, the Fund’s risk of loss is generally limited to that net amount. If the swap agreement involves the exchange of the entire principal value of a security, the entire principal value of that security is subject to the risk that the other party to the swap will default on its contractual delivery obligations. In addition, the Fund’s risk of loss also includes any margin at risk in the event of default by the counterparty (in an uncleared swap) or the central counterparty or FCM (in a cleared swap), plus any transaction costs.

 

Because bilateral swap agreements are structured as two-party contracts and may have terms of greater than seven days, these swaps may be considered to be illiquid and, therefore, subject to the Fund’s limitation on investments in illiquid securities. If a swap transaction is particularly large or if the relevant market is illiquid, the Fund may not be able to establish or liquidate a position at an advantageous time or price, which may result in significant losses. Participants in the swap markets are not required to make continuous markets in the swap contracts they trade. Participants could refuse to quote prices for swap contracts or quote prices with an unusually wide spread between the price at which they are prepared to buy and the price at which they are prepared to sell. Some swap agreements entail complex terms and may require a greater degree of subjectivity in their valuation. However, the swap markets have grown substantially in recent years, with a large number of financial institutions acting both as principals and agents, utilizing standardized swap documentation. As a result, the swap markets have become increasingly liquid. In addition, central clearing and the trading of cleared swaps on public facilities are intended to increase liquidity. The Adviser or sub-adviser, as applicable, under the supervision of the Board, is responsible for determining and monitoring the liquidity of the Fund’s swap transactions.

 

Rules adopted under the Dodd-Frank Act require centralized reporting of detailed information about many swaps, whether cleared or uncleared. This information is available to regulators and also, to a more limited extent and on an anonymous basis, to the public. Reporting of swap data is intended to result in greater market transparency. This may be beneficial to funds that use swaps in their trading strategies. However, public reporting imposes additional recordkeeping burdens on these funds, and the safeguards established to protect anonymity are not yet tested and may not provide protection of fund’s identities as intended.

 

Certain Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) positions may limit the Fund’s ability to use swap agreements in a desired tax strategy. For more information about taxes, see “Taxes” below. It is possible that developments in the swap markets and/or the laws relating to swap agreements, including potential government regulation, could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to benefit from using swap agreements, or could have adverse tax consequences. For more information about potentially changing regulation, see “Developing government regulation of derivatives” below.

 

Risks of uncleared swaps. Uncleared swaps are typically executed bilaterally with a swap dealer rather than traded on exchanges. As a result, swap participants may not be as protected as participants on organized exchanges. Performance of a swap agreement is the responsibility only of the swap counterparty and not of any exchange or clearinghouse. As a result, the Fund is subject to the risk that a counterparty will be unable or will refuse to perform under such agreement, including because of the counterparty’s bankruptcy or insolvency. The Fund risks the loss of the accrued but unpaid amounts under a swap agreement, which could be substantial, in the event of a default, insolvency or bankruptcy by a swap counterparty. In such an event, the Fund will have contractual remedies pursuant to the swap agreements, but bankruptcy and insolvency laws could affect the Fund’s rights as a creditor. If the counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of a swap agreement would likely decline, potentially resulting in losses. The Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, will only approve a swap agreement counterparty for the Fund if the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, deems the counterparty to be creditworthy. However, in unusual or extreme market conditions, a counterparty’s creditworthiness and ability to perform may deteriorate rapidly, and the availability of suitable replacement counterparties may become limited.

 

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Risks of cleared swaps. As noted above, under recent financial reforms, certain types of swaps are, and others eventually are expected to be, required to be cleared through a central counterparty, which may affect counterparty risk and other risks faced by the Fund.

 

Central clearing is designed to reduce counterparty credit risk and increase liquidity compared to uncleared swaps because central clearing interposes the central clearinghouse as the counterparty to each participant’s swap, but it does not eliminate those risks completely. There is also a risk of loss by the Fund of the initial and variation margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of the FCM with which the Fund has an open position, or the central counterparty in a swap contract. The assets of the Fund may not be fully protected in the event of the bankruptcy of the FCM or central counterparty because the Fund might be limited to recovering only a pro rata share of all available funds and margin segregated on behalf of an FCM’s customers. If the FCM does not provide accurate reporting, the Fund is also subject to the risk that the FCM could use the Fund’s assets, which are held in an omnibus account with assets belonging to the FCM’s other customers, to satisfy its own financial obligations or the payment obligations of another customer to the central counterparty. Credit risk of cleared swap participants is concentrated in a few clearinghouses, and the consequences of insolvency of a clearinghouse are not clear.

 

With cleared swaps, the Fund may not be able to obtain as favorable terms as it would be able to negotiate for a bilateral, uncleared swap. In addition, an FCM may unilaterally amend the terms of its agreement with the Fund, which may include the imposition of position limits or additional margin requirements with respect to the Fund’s investment in certain types of swaps. Central counterparties and FCMs can require termination of existing cleared swap transactions upon the occurrence of certain events, and can also require increases in margin above the margin that is required at the initiation of the swap agreement.

 

Finally, the Fund is subject to the risk that, after entering into a cleared swap with an executing broker, no FCM or central counterparty is willing or able to clear the transaction. In such an event, the Fund may be required to break the trade and make an early termination payment to the executing broker.

 

Combined transactions. The Fund may enter into multiple derivative instruments, and any combination of derivative instruments as part of a single or combined strategy (a “Combined Transaction”) when the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, believes it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A Combined Transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions.

 

Although Combined Transactions are normally entered into based on the Adviser’s, or sub-adviser’s, as applicable, judgment that the combined strategies will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal(s), it is possible that the combination will instead increase such risks or hinder achievement of the portfolio management objective.

 

Developing government regulation of derivatives. The regulation of cleared and uncleared swaps, as well as other derivatives, is a rapidly changing area of law and is subject to modification by government and judicial action. In addition, the SEC, CFTC and the exchanges are authorized to take extraordinary actions in the event of a market emergency, including, for example, the implementation or reduction of speculative position limits, the implementation of higher margin requirements, the establishment of daily price limits and the suspension of trading.

 

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It is not possible to predict fully the effects of current or future regulation. However, it is possible that developments in government regulation of various types of derivative instruments, such as speculative position limits on certain types of derivatives, or limits or restrictions on the counterparties with which the Fund engages in derivative transactions, may limit or prevent the Fund from using or limit the Fund’s use of these instruments effectively as a part of its investment strategy, and could adversely affect the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment goal(s). The Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, will continue to monitor developments in the area, particularly to the extent regulatory changes affect the Fund’s ability to enter into desired swap agreements. New requirements, even if not directly applicable to the Fund, may increase the cost of the Fund’s investments and cost of doing business.

 

Futures, Options and Options on Futures Contracts. The Fund may enter into futures contracts and options and options on futures contracts. When a Fund purchases a futures contract, it agrees to purchase a specified underlying instrument at a specified future date. When a Fund sells a futures contract, it agrees to sell the underlying instrument at a specified future date. The price at which the purchase and sale will take place is fixed when a Fund enters into the contract. Futures can be held until their delivery dates, or can be closed out before then if a liquid secondary market is available.

 

The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or uncovered call options in some strategies (e.g., selling uncovered stock index futures contracts) is potentially unlimited. The risk of a futures position may still be large as traditionally measured due to the low margin deposits required. In many cases, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss or gain to the investor relative to the size of a required margin deposit. A Fund, however, intends to utilize futures and options contracts in a manner designed to limit their risk exposure to levels comparable to direct investment in stocks.

 

Utilization of futures and options on futures by a Fund involves the risk of imperfect or even negative correlation to the underlying index if the index underlying the futures contract differs from the underlying index. There is also the risk of loss by a Fund of margin deposits in the event of bankruptcy of a broker with whom a Fund has an open position in the futures contract or option. The purchase of put or call options will be based upon predictions by a Fund as to anticipated trends, which predictions could prove to be incorrect.

 

Although the Fund intends to enter into futures contracts only if there is an active market for such contracts, there is no assurance that an active market will exist for the contracts at any particular time.

 

The potential for loss related to the purchase of an option on a futures contract is limited to the premium paid for the option plus transaction costs. Because the value of the option is fixed at the point of sale, there are no daily cash payments by the purchaser to reflect changes in the value of the underlying contract; however, the value of the option changes daily and that change would be reflected in the NAV of a Fund. The potential for loss related to writing options is unlimited.

 

The Fund may also transact in over-the-counter options (“OTC options”). Like exchange-traded options, OTC options give the holder the right to buy from the writer, in the case of OTC call options, or sell to the writer, in the case of OTC put options, an underlying reference instrument at a stated exercise price. OTC options, however, differ from exchange-traded options in certain material respects.

 

OTC options are arranged directly with dealers and not with a clearing corporation or exchange. Consequently, there is a risk of non-performance by the dealer, including because of the dealer’s bankruptcy or insolvency. While the Fund uses only counterparties, such as dealers, that meet its credit quality standards, in unusual or extreme market conditions, a counterparty’s creditworthiness and ability to perform may deteriorate rapidly, and the availability of suitable replacement counterparties may become limited. Because there is no exchange, pricing is typically done based on information from market makers or other dealers. OTC options are available for a greater variety of underlying reference instruments and in a wider range of expiration dates and exercise prices than exchange-traded options.

 

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There can be no assurance that a continuous liquid secondary market will exist for any particular OTC option at any specific time. The Fund may be able to realize the value of an OTC option it has purchased only by exercising it or entering into a closing sale transaction with the dealer that issued it. When the Fund writes an OTC option, it generally can close out that option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing purchase transaction with the dealer with which the Fund originally wrote the option. The Fund may suffer a loss if it is not able to exercise (in the case of a purchased option) or enter into a closing sale transaction on a timely basis.

 

The staff of the SEC has taken the position that purchased OTC options on securities are considered illiquid securities and that the assets segregated to cover the Fund’s obligation under an OTC option on securities it has written are considered illiquid. Pending a change in the staff’s position, the Fund will treat such OTC options on securities and “covering” assets as illiquid and subject to the Fund’s limitation on illiquid securities.

 

Closing out options (OTC options). If the holder of an option wants to close out its position, the holder may effect a “novation” by selling short (borrowing) an option of the same series as the option previously purchased from a different counterparty. The effect of the sale/borrowing is the cancellation of the option writer’s position once a novation among the counterparties has been completed to close out the position. There is no guarantee that either a closing purchase or a closing sale transaction may be made at a time desired by the Fund. Closing transactions allow the Fund to terminate its positions in written and purchased options. The Fund will realize a profit from a closing transaction if the price of the transaction is less than the premium received from writing the original option (in the case of written options) or is more than the premium paid by the Fund to buy the option (in the case of purchased options). For example, increases in the market price of a call option sold by the Fund will generally reflect increases in the market price of the underlying reference instrument. As a result, any loss resulting from a closing transaction on a written call option is likely to be offset in whole or in part by appreciation of the underlying instrument owned by the Fund.

 

Interest rate caps. An interest rate cap is a type of OTC option. The buyer of an interest rate cap pays a premium to the seller in exchange for payments at set intervals for which a floating interest rate exceeds an agreed upon interest rate. The floating interest rate may be tied to a reference rate (for example, the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”)), a long-term swap rate or other benchmark. The amount of each payment is determined by reference to a specified “notional” amount of money. Interest rate caps do not involve the delivery of securities, other underlying instruments, or principal amounts. Accordingly, barring counterparty risk, the risk of loss to the purchaser of an interest rate cap is limited to the amount of the premium paid.

 

An interest rate cap can be used to increase or decrease exposure to various interest rates, including to hedge interest rate risk. By purchasing an interest rate cap, the buyer of the cap can benefit from rising interest rates while limiting its downside risk to the amount of the premium paid. If the Fund buys an interest rate cap and the Adviser is correct in predicting the direction of interest rates, the interest rate cap will increase in value. But if the Adviser is incorrect in predicting the direction, the interest rate cap will expire worthless.

 

By writing (selling) an interest rate cap, the seller of the cap can benefit by receiving a premium in exchange for assuming an obligation to make payments at set intervals for which a floating interest rate exceeds an agreed upon interest rate. If interest rates rise above the agreed upon cap, the seller’s obligation to make payments may result in losses in excess of the premium received.

 

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Correctly predicting the value of an interest rate cap requires an understanding of the referenced interest rate and market implied volatility, and the Fund bears the risk that the Adviser will not correctly forecast future market events, such as interest rate movements. Interest rate caps also involve the risks associated with derivative instruments generally, as described herein, including the risks associated with OTC options.

 

Options on swap agreements. An option on a swap agreement generally is an OTC option (see the discussion above on OTC options) that gives the buyer of the option the right, but not the obligation, in return for payment of a premium to the seller, to enter into a previously negotiated swap agreement, or to extend, terminate or otherwise modify the terms of an existing swap agreement. The writer (seller) of an option on a swap agreement receives premium payments from the buyer and, in exchange, becomes obligated to enter into or modify an underlying swap agreement upon the exercise of the option by the buyer. When the Fund purchases an option on a swap agreement, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised, plus any related transaction costs.

 

There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option on a swap agreement, or at any particular time, and the Fund may have difficulty affecting closing transactions in particular options on swap agreements. Therefore, the Fund may have to exercise the options that it purchases in order to realize any profit and take delivery of the underlying swap agreement. The Fund could then incur transaction costs upon the sale or closing out of the underlying swap agreement. In the event that the option on a swap is exercised, the counterparty for such option would be the same counterparty with whom the Fund entered into the underlying swap.

 

However, if the Fund writes (sells) an option on a swap agreement, the Fund is bound by the terms of the underlying swap agreement upon exercise of the option by the buyer, which may result in losses to the Fund in excess of the premium it received. Options on swap agreements involve the risks associated with derivative instruments generally, as described above, as well as the additional risks associated with both options and swaps generally.

 

Options on swap agreements are considered to be swaps for purposes of CFTC regulation. Although they are traded OTC, the CFTC may in the future designate certain options on swaps as subject to mandatory clearing. For more information, see “Cleared swaps” and “Risks of cleared swaps.”

 

An option on an interest rate swap (also sometimes referred to as a “swaption”) is a contract that gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, in return for payment of a premium, to enter into a new interest rate swap. A pay fixed option on an interest rate swap gives the buyer the right to establish a position in an interest rate swap where the buyer will pay (and the writer will receive) the fixed-rate cash flows and receive (and the writer will pay) the floating-rate cash flows. In general, most options on interest rate swaps are “European” exercise, which means that they can only be exercised at the end of the option term. Depending on the movement of interest rates between the time of purchase and expiration, the value of the underlying interest rate swap and therefore also the value of the option on the interest rate swap will change.

 

An option on a credit default swap is a contract that gives the buyer the right (but not the obligation), in return for payment of a premium to the option seller, to enter into a new credit default swap on a reference entity at a predetermined spread on a future date. This spread is the price at which the contract is executed (the option strike price). Similar to a put option, in a payer option on a credit default swap, the option buyer pays a premium to the option seller for the right, but not the obligation, to buy credit protection on a reference entity (e.g., a particular portfolio security) at a predetermined spread on a future date. Similar to a call option, in a receiver option on a credit default swap the option buyer pays a premium for the right, but not the obligation to sell credit default swap protection on a reference entity or index. Depending on the movement of market spreads with respect to the particular referenced debt securities between the time of purchase and expiration of the option, the value of the underlying credit default swap and therefore the value of the option will change. Options on credit default swaps currently are traded OTC and the specific terms of each option on a credit default swap are negotiated directly with the counterparty.

 

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Risks of options. The Fund’s options investments involve certain risks, including general risks related to derivative instruments. There can be no assurance that a liquid secondary market will exist for any particular option, or at any particular time, and the Fund may have difficulty effecting closing transactions in particular options. Therefore, the Fund would have to exercise the options it purchased in order to realize any profit, thus taking or making delivery of the underlying reference instrument when not desired. The Fund could then incur transaction costs upon the sale of the underlying reference instruments. When trading options on non-U.S. exchanges or in the OTC market, many of the protections afforded to exchange participants will not be available. For example, there may be no daily price fluctuation limits, and adverse market movements could therefore continue to an unlimited extent over an indefinite period of time.

 

The effectiveness of an options strategy for hedging depends on the degree to which price movements in the underlying reference instruments correlate with price movements in the relevant portion of the Fund’s portfolio that is being hedged. In addition, the Fund bears the risk that the prices of its portfolio investments will not move in the same amount as the option it has purchased or sold for hedging purposes, or that there may be a negative correlation that would result in a loss on both the investments and the option. If the Adviser or sub-adviser is not successful in using options in managing the Fund’s investments, the Fund’s performance will be worse than if the sub-adviser did not employ such strategies.

 

Structured Notes and Securities. The Fund may invest in structured instruments, including, without limitation, participation notes, certificates and warrants and other types of notes on which the amount of principal repayment and interest payments are based on the movement of one or more specified factors, such as the movement of a particular stock or stock index. Structured instruments may be derived from or based on a single security or securities, an index, a commodity, debt issuance or a foreign currency (a “reference”), and their interest rate or principal may be determined by an unrelated indicator. Structured securities may be positively or negatively indexed, so that appreciation of the reference may produce an increase or a decrease in the value of the structured security at maturity, or in the interest rate of the structured security. Structured securities may entail a greater degree of risk than other types of securities because a Fund bears the risk of the reference in addition to the risk that the counterparty to the structured security will be unable or unwilling to fulfill its obligations under the structured security to a Fund when due. A Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received in connection with a structured security in the event of the default or bankruptcy of the counterparty to the structured security. Structured securities may also be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to accurately price than less complex securities or more traditional debt securities.

 

Exchange-Traded Notes. The Fund may invest in exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”). ETNs are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities whose returns are linked to the performance of a particular market benchmark or strategy, minus applicable fees. ETNs are traded on an exchange (e.g., the NYSE) during normal trading hours; however, investors can also hold the ETN until maturity. At maturity, the issuer pays to the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. ETNs do not make periodic coupon payments or provide principal protection. ETNs are subject to credit risk, including the credit risk of the issuer, and the value of the ETN may drop due to a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, despite the underlying market benchmark or strategy remaining unchanged. The value of an ETN may also be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying assets, changes in the applicable interest rates, changes in the issuer’s credit rating, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the referenced underlying asset. When the Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. A decision by the Fund to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.

 

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ETNs are also subject to tax risk. No assurance can be given that the IRS will accept, or a court will uphold, how the Fund characterizes and treats ETNs for tax purposes.

 

An ETN that is tied to a specific market benchmark or strategy may not be able to replicate and maintain exactly the composition and relative weighting of securities, commodities or other components in the applicable market benchmark or strategy. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form.

 

The market value of ETNs may differ from their market benchmark or strategy. This difference in price may be due to the fact that the supply and demand in the market for ETNs at any point in time is not always identical to the supply and demand in the market for the securities, commodities or other components underlying the market benchmark or strategy that the ETN seeks to track. As a result, there may be times when an ETN trades at a premium or discount to its market benchmark or strategy.

 

Investments in Other Investment Companies

The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies to the extent that such an investment would be consistent with the requirements of Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act, or any rule, regulation or order of the SEC or interpretation thereof. Generally, a Fund may invest in the securities of another investment company (the “acquired company”) provided that a Fund, immediately after such purchase or acquisition, does not own in the aggregate: (i) more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company; (ii) securities issued by the acquired company having an aggregate value in excess of 5% of the value of the total assets of a Fund; or (iii) securities issued by the acquired company and all other investment companies (other than Treasury stock of a Fund) having an aggregate value in excess of 10% of the value of the total assets of a Fund. In addition, Section 12(d)(1) prohibits another investment company from selling its shares to a Fund if, after the sale (i) a Fund owns more than 3% of the other investment company’s voting stock or (ii) a Fund and other investment companies, and companies controlled by them, own more than 10% of the voting stock of such other investment company.

 

Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, however, permits a fund, subject to certain conditions, to invest in acquired funds in the “same group of investment companies” (“affiliated funds”), government securities and short-term paper. In addition to the investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G), Rule 12d1-2 permits acquiring funds to make investments in addition to affiliated funds under certain circumstances including: (1) unaffiliated investment companies (subject to certain limits), (2) other types of securities (such as stocks, bonds and other securities) not issued by an investment company that are consistent with the fund of fund’s investment policies and (3) affiliated and unaffiliated money market funds. In addition to investments permitted by Section 12(d)(1)(G) and Rule 12d1-2, a Fund may invest in derivatives, subject to certain conditions, pursuant to SEC staff interpretations. The SEC has proposed various revisions to the fund of funds rules, which could dramatically change how funds of funds operate and limit their investments.

 

If a Fund invests in, and thus, is a shareholder of, another investment company, a Fund’s shareholders will indirectly bear a Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by such other investment company, including advisory fees, in addition to both the management fees payable directly by a Fund to a Fund’s own investment adviser and the other expenses that a Fund bears directly in connection with a Fund’s own operations.

 

Consistent with the restrictions discussed above, a Fund may invest in several different types of investment companies from time to time, including mutual funds, ETFs, closed-end funds, foreign investment companies and business development companies (“BDCs”). For example, a Fund may elect to invest in another investment company when such an investment presents a more efficient investment option than buying securities individually. A Fund also may invest in investment companies that are included as components of an index, such as BDCs, to seek to track the performance of that index. A BDC is a less common type of closed-end investment company that more closely resembles an operating company than a typical investment company. BDCs generally focus on investing in, and providing managerial assistance to, small, developing, financially troubled, private companies or other companies that may have value that can be realized over time and with management assistance. Similar to an operating company, a BDC’s total annual operating expense ratio typically reflects all of the operating expenses incurred by the BDC, and is generally greater than the total annual operating expense ratio of a mutual fund that does not bear the same types of operating expenses.

 

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The main risk of investing in other investment companies is that a Fund will be exposed to the risks of the investments held by the other investment companies. The market prices of ETFs will fluctuate in accordance with both changes in the market value of their underlying portfolio securities and due to supply and demand for the instruments on the exchanges on which they are traded (which may result in their trading at a discount or premium to their NAVs). Index-based investment companies may not replicate exactly the performance of their specific index because of transaction costs, and because of the temporary unavailability of certain component securities of the index, or strategy used to track the index.

 

Krane and a sub-adviser are subject to a conflict of interest in allocating a Fund’s assets to investment companies, if any, from which they or their affiliates receive compensation or other benefits.

 

Illiquid Securities

The Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid securities. The Fund’s net assets invested in illiquid securities (as defined in the 1940 Act and the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder), however, may exceed 15% due to market fluctuations, in which case the Fund will monitor its outlook and consider what steps it may take to reduce its holdings of illiquid securities. Such measures may not include the liquidation of an illiquid investment where the Fund would be disadvantaged by such disposition. The inability of the Fund to readily dispose of illiquid or not readily marketable investments or at a reasonable price could impair the Fund’s ability to raise cash for redemptions or other purposes. In addition, the sale of illiquid securities also may require more time and may result in higher dealer discounts and other selling expenses than does the sale of securities that are not illiquid. Illiquid securities also may be more difficult to value due to the unavailability of reliable market quotations for such securities, and investment in illiquid securities may have an adverse impact on the Fund’s NAV. The liquidity of securities purchased by the Fund which are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A will be monitored in accordance with policies and procedures adopted by the Board of Trustees.

 

Portfolio Turnover

In general, Krane or a sub-adviser manages the Fund without regard to restrictions on portfolio turnover. The Fund’ investment strategies, however, may produce high portfolio turnover rates. To the extent a Fund invests in derivative instruments with short-term maturities, such derivative instruments would be excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover. The value of portfolio securities received or delivered as a result of in-kind creations or redemptions of a Fund’s shares also is excluded from the calculation of the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate. As a result, a Fund’s reported portfolio turnover may be low despite relatively high portfolio activity which would, in turn, produce correspondingly greater expenses for a Fund, including brokerage commissions or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs on the sale of securities and reinvestments in other securities. Generally, the higher the rate of portfolio turnover of a fund, the higher these transaction costs borne by a fund and its long-term shareholders. Such sales may result in the realization of taxable capital gains (including short-term capital gains, which, when distributed, are generally taxed to shareholders at ordinary income tax rates) for certain taxable shareholders.

 

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“Portfolio Turnover Rate” is defined under the rules of the SEC as the lesser of the value of the securities purchased or of the securities sold, excluding all securities whose maturities at the time of acquisition were one-year or less, divided by the average monthly value of such securities owned during the year. Based on this definition, instruments with a remaining maturity of less than one-year are excluded from the calculation of the portfolio turnover rate. Instruments excluded from the calculation of portfolio turnover may include commercial paper, futures contracts and option contracts because they generally have a remaining maturity of less than one-year.

 

Borrowing

The Fund may borrow money to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Borrowing for investment purposes is a form of leverage. Leveraging investments, by purchasing securities with borrowed money, is a speculative technique that increases investment risk. Because substantially all of a Fund’s assets will fluctuate in value, whereas the interest obligations on borrowings may be fixed, the NAV of a Fund will increase more when a Fund’s portfolio assets increase in value and decrease more when a Fund’s portfolio assets decrease in value than would otherwise be the case. Moreover, interest costs on borrowings may fluctuate with changing market rates of interest and may partially offset or exceed the returns on the borrowed funds. A Fund also may be required to maintain minimum average balances in connection with a borrowing or to pay a commitment or other fee to maintain a line of credit, which would further increase the cost of borrowing. Under adverse conditions, a Fund might have to sell portfolio securities to meet interest or principal payments at a time when investment considerations would not favor such sales.

 

Although it has not entered into any sort of credit facility, a Fund may borrow money to facilitate management of a Fund’s portfolio by enabling a Fund to meet redemption requests when the liquidation of portfolio instruments would be inconvenient or disadvantageous, and for temporary or emergency purposes, such as trade settlements and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain the Fund’s status as a RIC. In this regard, a Fund may enter into a credit facility to borrow money for temporary or emergency purposes, including the funding of shareholder redemption requests, trade settlements, and as necessary to distribute to shareholders any income required to maintain a Fund’s status as a RIC. Such borrowing is not for investment purposes and will be repaid by a Fund promptly. As required by the 1940 Act, a Fund must maintain continuous asset coverage (total assets, including assets acquired with borrowed funds, less liabilities exclusive of borrowings) of 300% of all amounts borrowed. If, at any time, the value of a Fund’s assets should fail to meet this 300% coverage test, a Fund, within three days (not including Sundays and holidays), will reduce the amount of a Fund’s borrowings to the extent necessary to meet this 300% coverage requirement. Maintenance of this percentage limitation may result in the sale of portfolio securities at a time when investment considerations otherwise indicate that it would be disadvantageous to do so.

 

In addition to the foregoing, the Fund are authorized to borrow money for extraordinary or emergency purposes. Borrowings for extraordinary or emergency purposes are not subject to the foregoing 300% asset coverage requirement. While the Fund does not anticipate doing so, the Fund is authorized to pledge (i.e., transfer a security interest in) portfolio securities in an amount up to one-third of the value of the Fund’s total assets in connection with any borrowing.

 

Bank Deposits and Obligations

The Fund may invest in deposits and other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions. Deposits and obligations of banks and financial institutions include certificates of deposit, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances. Certificates of deposit and time deposits represent an institution’s obligation to repay funds deposited with it that earn a specified interest rate. Certificates of deposit are negotiable certificates, while time deposits are non-negotiable deposits. A banker’s acceptance is a time draft drawn on and accepted by a bank that becomes a primary and unconditional liability of the bank upon acceptance. Investments in obligations of non-U.S. banks and financial institutions may involve risks that are different from investments in obligations of U.S. banks. These risks include future unfavorable political and economic developments, seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, currency controls, interest limitations or other governmental restrictions that might affect the payment of principal or interest on the securities held in a Fund. All investments in deposits and other obligations are subject to credit risk, which is the risk that a Fund may lose its investments in these instruments if, for example, the issuing financial institution collapses and is unable to meet its obligations. This risk is more acute for investments in deposits and other obligations that are not insured by a government or private entity.

 

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Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into repurchase agreements. A repurchase agreement is a transaction in which a Fund purchases securities or other obligations from a bank or securities dealer (or its affiliate) and simultaneously commits to resell them to a counterparty at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest unrelated to the coupon rate or maturity of the purchased obligations. A Fund maintains custody of the underlying obligations prior to their repurchase, either through its regular custodian or through a special “triparty” custodian or sub-custodian that maintains separate accounts for both a Fund and its counterparty. Thus, the obligation of the counterparty to pay the repurchase price on the date agreed to or upon demand is, in effect, secured by such obligations.

 

Repurchase agreements carry certain risks not associated with direct investments in securities, including a possible decline in the market value of the underlying obligations. If their value becomes less than the repurchase price, plus any agreed-upon additional amount, the counterparty must provide additional collateral so that at all times the collateral is at least equal to the repurchase price plus any agreed-upon additional amount. The difference between the total amount to be received upon repurchase of the obligations and the price that was paid by a Fund upon acquisition is accrued as interest and included in its net investment income. Repurchase agreements involving obligations other than U.S. government securities (such as commercial paper and corporate bonds) may be subject to special risks and may not have the benefit of certain protections in the event of the counterparty’s insolvency. If the seller or guarantor becomes insolvent, a Fund may suffer delays, costs and possible losses in connection with the disposition of collateral.

 

Reverse Repurchase Agreements

The Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by a Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to a Fund’s limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust’s custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked to market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement.

 

Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by the Fund might be unable to deliver them when the Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce the Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.

 

Other Short-Term Instruments

In addition to repurchase agreements, the Fund may invest in short-term instruments, including money market instruments, on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. Money market instruments are generally short-term investments that may include but are not limited to: (i) shares of money market funds; (ii) obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities (including government-sponsored enterprises); (iii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), bankers’ acceptances, fixed time deposits and other obligations of U.S. and foreign banks (including foreign branches) and similar institutions; (iv) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A-1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable; (v) non-convertible corporate debt securities (e.g., bonds and debentures) with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of not more than 397 days and that satisfy the rating requirements set forth in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act; and (vi) short-term U.S. dollar-denominated obligations of foreign banks (including U.S. branches) that, in the opinion of the Adviser, or sub-adviser, as applicable, are of comparable quality to obligations of U.S. banks which may be purchased by the Fund. Any of these instruments may be purchased on a current or a forward-settled basis. Money market instruments also include shares of money market funds. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Bankers’ acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.

 

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Cyber-Security Risk

The Fund, and its service providers, may be prone to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber-attacks. Cyber-attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber-attacks affecting a Fund or its advisors, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact a Fund. For instance, cyber-attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential business information, impede trading, subject a Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses and/or cause reputational damage. A Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. While a Fund’s service providers have established business continuity plans, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, a Fund cannot control the cyber security plans and systems put in place by its service providers or any other third parties whose operations may affect a Fund or its shareholders. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issues or securities in which a Fund may invest, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers and may cause a Fund’s investment in such companies to lose value.

 

INVESTMENT LIMITATIONS

 

Unless otherwise noted, whenever a fundamental investment policy or limitation states that a maximum percentage of a Fund’s assets that may be invested in any security or other asset, or sets forth a policy regarding quality standards, such standard or percentage limitation will be determined immediately after and as a result of a Fund’s acquisition of such security or other asset. Accordingly, other than with respect to a Fund’s limitations on borrowings, any subsequent change in values, net assets, or other circumstances will not be considered when determining whether the investment complies with a Fund’s investment policies and limitations.

 

Fundamental Policies

The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Fund. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to the Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.

 

Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the Fund may not:

 

1.Concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in any industry or group of related industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), investment companies, repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities, and tax-exempt securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.

 

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2.Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act, the rules, regulations and interpretations thereunder, and any applicable exemptive relief.

 

3.Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.

 

4.Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.

 

5.Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.

 

6.Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.

 

CONTINUOUS OFFERING

 

The method by which Creation Units of shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by a Fund on an ongoing basis, at any point a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.

 

For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Fund’s Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares, and sells such shares directly to customers, or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a categorization as an underwriter.

 

Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, generally are required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act.

 

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST

 

Board Responsibilities

The Board of Trustees is responsible for overseeing the management and affairs of the Fund and the Trust. The Board considers and approves contracts, as described herein, under which certain companies provide essential management and administrative services to the Trust. Like most ETFs, the day-to-day business of the Trust, including the day-to-day management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as Krane, a sub-adviser where applicable, the Distributor and the Administrator (as defined below). The Board oversees the Trust’s service providers and overall risk management. Risk management seeks to identify and eliminate or mitigate the potential effects of risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Trust or a Fund. Under the overall supervision of the Board and the Audit Committee (discussed in more detail below), the service providers to the Fund employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify risks relevant to the operations of the Trust and a Fund to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., Krane is responsible for the oversight of a sub-adviser) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that activity.

 

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Consistent with its responsibility for oversight of the Trust and the Fund, the Board oversees the management of risks relating to the administration and operations of the Trust and the Fund. Krane, as part of its responsibilities for the day-to-day operations of the Fund, is responsible for day-to-day risk management for the Fund. The Board performs its risk management oversight directly and, as to certain matters, through its committees. The following provides an overview of the principal, but not all, aspects of the Board’s oversight of risk management for the Trust and the Fund.

 

In general, the Fund’s risks include, among others, investment risk, liquidity risk, valuation risk and operational risk. The Fund’s service providers, including Krane, are responsible for adopting policies, procedures and controls designed to address various risks within their purview. Further, Krane is responsible for overseeing and monitoring the investments and operations of each sub-adviser. The Board also oversees risk management for the Trust and the Fund through review of regular reports, presentations and other information from officers of the Trust and other persons. In addition to reports from Krane, the Board also receives reports regarding other service providers to the Trust on a periodic or regular basis.

 

The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent and quality of the Fund services provided to the Fund by Krane and any sub-adviser and receives information from them on a periodic basis. In connection with its consideration of whether to approve and/or renew the advisory agreements with Krane and any sub-adviser, the Board will request information allowing the Board to review such services. The Board also receives reports related to Krane’s and any sub-adviser’s adherence to the Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with the stated policies of a Fund. In addition, the Board regularly receives information about the Fund’s performance and investments.

 

The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer meets regularly with the Board to review and discuss compliance and other issues. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and any sub-adviser. The report generally seeks to address: the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and material compliance matters since the date of the last report.

 

The Board normally also receives reports from the Trust’s service providers regarding Fund operations, portfolio valuation and other matters. Annually, an independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Trust’s financial statements, focusing on certain areas of risk to the Trust and the Trust’s internal controls.

 

The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect a Fund can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, despite the periodic reports the Board receives and the Board’s discussions with the service providers to a Fund, it may not be made aware of all relevant information about certain risks. Most of the Trust’s investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through Krane and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Trust’s and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to substantial limitations.

 

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Members of the Board and Officers of the Trust

Set forth below are the names, years of birth, position with the Trust, term of office, the principal occupations for a minimum of the last five years, number of portfolios overseen by, and other directorships of each of the persons currently serving as members of the Board and as Executive Officers of the Trust. Also included below is the term of office for each of the Executive Officers of the Trust. The members of the Board serve as Trustees for the life of the Trust or until retirement, removal, or their office is terminated pursuant to the Trust’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust.

 

The Chairman of the Board, Jonathan Krane, is an interested person of the Trust as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. No single Independent Trustee serves as a lead Independent Trustee. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics the Trust and its operations. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Trustees who are not interested persons of the Trust (i.e., “Independent Trustees”) constitute at least fifty percent (50%) of the Board, the fact that the Audit Committee is composed of the Independent Trustees, and the number of funds (and classes of shares) overseen by the Board.

 

Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

Interested Trustee

Jonathan Krane*

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

Trustee and Chairman of the Board, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present. Chief Executive Officer of Krane Portfolio Advisors, LLC from 2018 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [21] None
Independent Trustees

Patrick P. Campo

(1970)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2017 From 2013 to present, Director of Long Short Equity, Titan Advisors; from 2009 to 2013, Director of Hedge Fund Research, Alternative Investment Management, LLC. [21] None

John Ferguson

(1966)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Operating Officer of Shrewsbury River Capital from 2017 to present. Chief Operating Officer of Kang Global Investors LP (hedge fund adviser) from 2014 to 2016. President of Alden Global Capital, LLC (hedge fund adviser) from 2012 to 2014 (formerly, Chief Operating Officer from 2011 to 2012). Senior Managing Director and Chief Operating Officer of K2 Advisors, L.L.C. from 2005 to 2011. [21] None

 

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Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

Matthew Stroyman 

(1968) 

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Trustee, No set term; served since 2012 Co-Founder, President and Chief Operating Officer of Arcturus (real estate asset and investment management services firm) from 2007 to present. [21] None
Officers

Jonathan Krane 

(1968)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020 

Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer, No set term; served since 2012 Chief Executive Officer of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present. Chief Executive Officer of Krane Portfolio Advisors, LLC from 2018 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Chief Executive Officer of Emma Entertainment from 2004 to 2009. [21] None

Jennifer Tarleton (formerly Krane)

(1966)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Vice President and Secretary, No set term; served since 2012 Vice President of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC from 2011 to present. Principal of Krane Capital LLC from 2009 to 2011. Sole Practitioner of Jennifer Krane, Esq. from 2001 to 2009. [21] None

Michael Quain

(1957)

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020

 

Chief Compliance Officer and Anti-Money Laundering Officer, No Set Term; served since 2015 Principal/President of Quain Compliance Consulting, LLC from 2014 to present. First Vice President of Aberdeen Asset Management Inc. from May 2013 to September 2013. First Vice President and Chief Compliance Officer of Artio Global Management, LLC from 2004 to 2013. [21] None

 

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Name, Address

and Year of Birth of Trustee/Officer

Position(s) Held with

the Trust, Term of Office and Length of Time Served

Principal Occupation(s)

During Past 5 Years

Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen

by Trustee/

Officer

Other Directorships Held by Trustee/Officer During Past 5 Years

James Hoffmayer

(1973)

SEI Investments Company

One Freedom Valley Drive

Oaks, PA 19456

 

Assistant Treasurer, No set term; served since 2017 Controller and Chief Financial Officer of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2016 to present. Senior Director, Funds Accounting and Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from September 2016 to present. Senior Director of Fund Administration of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2014 to present. Director of Financial Reporting of SEI Investments Global Funds Services from 2004 to 2014. [21] None

 

*Mr. Krane is an “interested” person of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act, by virtue of his ownership and controlling interest in Krane.

 

Board Standing Committees

The Board has established the following standing committees:

 

Audit Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Audit Committee (the “Audit Committee”) and Mr. Ferguson is the Chairman of the Audit Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee are the appointment, compensation and oversight of the Trust’s independent auditors, including the review of any significant disputes regarding financial reporting between Trust management and such independent auditors. Under the terms of the Audit Committee charter adopted by the Board, the Audit Committee is authorized to, among other things, (i) oversee the accounting and financial reporting processes of the Trust and its internal control over financial reporting; (ii) oversee the quality and integrity of a Fund’s financial statements and the independent audits thereof; (iii) oversee, or, as appropriate, assist Board oversight of, the Trust’s compliance with legal and regulatory requirements that relate to the Trust’s accounting and financial reporting, internal control over financial reporting and independent audits; (iv) approve, prior to appointment, the engagement of the Trust’s independent auditors and, in connection therewith, review and evaluate the qualifications, independence and performance of the Trust’s independent auditors; and (v) act as a liaison between the Trust’s independent auditors and the full Board. The Board of the Trust has adopted a written charter for the Audit Committee. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Audit Committee held six meetings.

 

The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust. The function of the QLCC is to receive, review and recommend resolution with respect to any report made or referred to the QLCC by an attorney of evidence of a material violation of applicable U.S. federal or state securities law, material breach of a fiduciary duty under U.S. federal or state law or a similar material violation by the Trust or by any officer, trustee, employee, or agent of the Trust. The QLCC meets as needed.

 

Nominating Committee. Messrs. Campo, Ferguson and Stroyman are members of the Trust’s Nominating Committee and Mr. Stroyman is the Chairman of the Nominating Committee. The principal responsibilities of the Nominating Committee are to (i) identify, select and nominate the appropriate number of candidates for election or appointment as members of the Board and (ii) recommend any appropriate changes to the Board for consideration. The Nominating Committee is solely responsible for the selection and nomination of the Trust’s Independent Trustees and does not consider nominations for the office of Trustee made by Trust stockholders. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Nominating Committee held four meetings.

 

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Individual Trustee Qualifications

The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of his ability to review and understand information about the Trust and the Fund provided by management, to identify and request other information he may deem relevant to the performance of the Trustees’ duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of a Fund, and to exercise his business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of a Fund’s shareholders. The Board has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Krane should serve as Trustee because of his knowledge of, and the executive positions he holds or has held in, the financial services industry. Specifically, Mr. Krane currently serves as Chief Executive Officer of the Adviser and Chief Executive Officer of Krane Portfolio Advisors, LLC. Mr. Krane contributes expertise and institutional knowledge relating to the structure of the “Krane” organization and the way that the “Krane” business operates. Mr. Krane also served as Chief Executive Officer of the China division of a multinational company, where he gained valuable experience in managing a business and critical knowledge of business and investment opportunities in China. In addition, he has served on the boards of different corporations and, in doing so, has first-hand knowledge of the fiduciary duties and responsibilities bestowed upon trustees and directors. Mr. Krane’s experience as serving as Chief Executive Officer for multiple businesses in the financial services industry, his familiarity with the “Krane” complex, and his experience in serving on the boards of various companies qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Patrick Campo should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the investment management industry over many years. In particular, Mr. Campo currently serves as the director of certain investment strategies managed by an investment adviser and contributes to the portfolio construction process for all products offered by that investment adviser. In addition, Mr. Campo previously served as partner and head of research for another investment adviser. The knowledge Mr. Campo has gained over these years working in the investment management industry and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Ferguson should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and legal industries over the years. In particular, Mr. Ferguson has extensive experience in managing global investment adviser firms, including the management, creation and success of hedge funds. Prior to that, Mr. Ferguson served as a corporate securities and tax attorney assisting and counseling clients with the organization and creation of both domestic and offshore funds. In addition, Mr. Ferguson has served as an officer for two registered investment companies and, in doing so, has gained experience and knowledge regarding the mutual fund industry. Mr. Ferguson’s experience in the financial services, fund and legal industries and his day-to-day work in managing investment advisory firms, qualify him to serve as a Trustee of the Trust.

 

The Board has concluded that Mr. Stroyman should serve as Trustee because of the experience he has gained working in the financial services and real estate industries. Working as an investment banker early in his career, Mr. Stroyman developed a strong base of knowledge regarding corporate finance, structuring, public and private securities, and company valuations. Through his work in the real estate industry and relationships with large investment management firms, Mr. Stroyman has gained an understanding of sophisticated financial products. He has advised institutional clients including pension funds, endowments and other qualified investors in asset management, risk assessment, and repositioning and disposition of underperforming assets. The knowledge Mr. Stroyman has gained over the years working in the financial services and real estate industries and his value and understanding of fiduciary duties and responsibilities qualify him to serve as Trustee of the Trust.

 

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As of March 31, 2018, none of the Independent Trustees or members of their immediate family, beneficially owned or owned of record securities representing interests in Krane, any sub-adviser or distributor of the Trust, or any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such persons. For this purpose, “immediate family member” includes an Independent Trustee’s spouse, children residing in the same household and dependents of the Independent Trustee.

 

Fund Shares Owned by Board Members

The Fund is new and, therefore, as of the date of this SAI, none of the Trustees beneficially owned shares of the Fund. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.

 

Board Compensation

Trustees who are “interested persons” of Krane are not compensated by the Trust for their service as a Trustee. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018: (a) Mr. Campo received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $10,000; (b) Mr. Ferguson received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $35,000; and (c) Mr. Stroyman received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $35,000. In addition, Cregg Watner, who resigned from his position as a Trustee of the Trust, received aggregate compensation from the Trust in the amount of $10,000 for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018. None of the Trustees accrued or received any retirement or pension benefits.

 

For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2019, it is expected that the Trustees will receive compensation from the Trust in the amount of $50,000.00 per year and the Chairmen of the Audit Committee and Nominating Committee will each receive an additional $15,000. The Fund bears a proportionate share of Trustee compensation and expenses based on its relative net assets.

 

INVESTMENT ADVISER

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane’ or “Adviser’) serves as investment adviser to the Fund pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement between the Trust and Krane (the “Advisory Agreement”). Krane is a Delaware limited liability company registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). Krane’s offices are located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020.

 

Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane is responsible for reviewing, supervising and administering the Fund’s investment program and the general management and administration of the Trust. Krane may engage a subadviser to assist it in managing a Fund’s investments, but will be responsible for overseeing any subadvisers. Krane arranges for transfer agency, custody, fund administration and accounting, and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Fund to operate. Krane manages the Fund’s business affairs, provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services, and permits its officers and employees to serve as officers or Trustees of the Trust. Under the Advisory Agreement, Krane bears all of its own costs associated with providing advisory services to the Fund. As part of the Advisory Agreement, Krane has contractually agreed to pay all expenses of the Fund, except (i) interest and taxes (including, but not limited to, income, excise, transaction, transfer and withholding taxes); (ii) expenses of the Fund incurred with respect to the acquisition and disposition of portfolio securities and the execution of portfolio transactions, including brokerage commissions and short sale dividend or interest expense; (iii) expenses incurred in connection with any distribution plan adopted by the Trust in compliance with Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, including distribution fees; (iv) Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses; (v) litigation expenses; (vi) the compensation payable to the Adviser under the investment advisory agreement; (vii) compensation and expenses of the Independent Trustees (including any Trustees’ counsel fees); and (viii) any expenses determined to be extraordinary expenses by the Board. Nevertheless, there exists a risk that a Trust service provider will seek recourse against the Trust if is not timely paid by Krane for the fees and expenses for which it is responsible, which could materially adversely affect a Fund.

 

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Under the Advisory Agreement, the Fund pays Krane the fee shown in the table below, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of the average daily net assets of the Fund (“Gross Advisory Fee”).

 

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF* 0.99%

* Krane has contractually agreed to waive its management fee by 0.05% of the Fund’s average daily net assets. This contractual fee waiver will continue until August 1, 2020, and may only be terminated prior thereto by the Board.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, Krane did not receive any advisory fees from the Fund during the prior three fiscal years.

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Fund will continue in effect for two years from its initial effective date, and thereafter is subject to annual approval by (i) the Board of Trustees of the Trust or (ii) the vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, provided that in either event such continuance also is approved by a vote of a majority of the Trustees of the Trust who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Fund, by a vote cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. If the shareholders of a Fund fail to approve the Advisory Agreement, Krane may continue to serve in the manner and to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act and rules and regulations thereunder.

 

The Advisory Agreement with respect to a Fund is terminable without any penalty, by vote of the Board of Trustees of the Trust or by vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund, or by Krane, in each case on not less than sixty (60) days’ prior written notice to the other party; provided that a shorter notice period shall be permitted for a Fund in the event its shares are no longer listed on a national securities exchange or in such other circumstances where a Fund waives such notice period. The Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically and immediately in the event of its “assignment” (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

China International Capital Corporation (USA) Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited owns a majority stake in Krane. As of March 31, 2018, Central Huijin Investment Limited, a mainland Chinese-domiciled entity, held approximately 55.7% of the shares of China International Capital Corporation Limited. Central Huijin Investment Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of China Investment Corporation, which is a mainland Chinese sovereign wealth fund. KFA One Holdings, LLC, located at 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, NY 10020, holds the remaining equity interests in Krane and Jonathan Krane, through his equity interests in KFA One Holdings, LLC, beneficially owns more than 10% of the equity interests in Krane.

 

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SUB-ADVISER 

The Trust, on behalf of the Fund, and the Adviser has retained Quadratic Capital Management LLC (“Quadratic” or “Sub-Adviser”), 39 Lewis Street, 4th Floor, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830, to serve as investment sub-adviser for the Fund. Quadratic was established in 2013 and is controlled by its Managing Partner and CIO, Nancy Davis. Quadratic provides discretionary investment management services to separately managed accounts, in addition to the Fund, and, has previously provided such services to limited partnerships, offshore investment companies, and other collective investment vehicles that were offered to investors on a private placement basis.

 

Krane has entered into a Sub-Advisory Agreement with Quadratic pursuant to which Krane will pay Quadratic seventy-six percent (76%) of the sum of: (i) the total Gross Advisory Fee due to Krane from the Fund under the terms of the Advisory Agreement minus (ii) any applicable fee waivers from time to time entered into between the Fund and Krane. Under the Sub-Advisory Agreement, the fee will be calculated daily and paid monthly.

 

The Quadratic Sub-Advisory Agreement will automatically terminate if assigned, and may be terminated without penalty at any time: (1) by Krane upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to Quadratic; (2) by a vote of a majority of the Trustees or by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund upon (60) days’ written notice to Quadratic; (3) by Quadratic upon sixty (60) days’ written notice to the Board and Krane; or immediately upon written notice by Krane or Quadratic if (A) the license, approval, authorization or consent held by Krane or Quadratic which is required for the performance of its obligations under the Sub-Advisory Agreement and which has been granted or given by any relevant regulatory authority, is terminated or suspended; (B) Krane or Quadratic commits a material breach of the Sub-Advisory Agreement that is uncured within thirty (30) days of notice; (C) any step is taken with a view to the winding up, bankruptcy or administration of Krane or Quadratic; (D) any adverse finding is made in respect of, or official sanction imposed on, Krane or Quadratic by any relevant regulatory authority which would be likely to affect its ability to perform its obligations under the Sub-Advisory Agreement; or (E) a relevant regulatory authority has held, or is likely to hold, Krane or Quadratic to be in breach of any regulatory or other duties in relation to the Sub-Advisory Agreement. After an initial period of two years, the Quadratic Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue in effect provided that annually such continuance is specifically approved by a vote of the Trustees, including the affirmative votes of a majority of the Trustees who are not parties to the Quadratic Sub-Advisory Agreement or “interested persons” (as defined in the 1940 Act) of any such party, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of considering such approval, or by the vote of shareholders.

 

Because the Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF had not commenced operations prior to the end of the prior fiscal year, Krane did not pay Quadratic any subadvisory fees during the prior three fiscal years.

 

PORTFOLIO MANAGER

 

Nancy Davis, Managing Partner and CIO of Quadratic, has been primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of the Fund’s portfolio since the Fund’s inception in March 2019. She is responsible for various functions related to portfolio management, including, but not limited to, developing and implementing the Fund’s investment process and investment strategy, researching and reviewing investment strategy, and overseeing members of her portfolio management team that have more limited responsibilities. The following information provides additional information the portfolio manager.

 

Portfolio Manager Fund Ownership. The Fund is required to show the dollar range of each portfolio manager’s “beneficial ownership” of shares of the Fund as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year. The Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF had not yet commenced operations as of […], 2019. Therefore, Ms. Davis did not beneficially own any shares of the Fund as of that date.

 

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Other Accounts. The portfolio managers are responsible for the day-to-day management of certain other accounts, as follows:

 

Quadratics’s Portfolio Manager
Name

Registered  

Investment Companies*

Other Pooled

Investment Vehicles*

Other Accounts*
Number of Accounts

Total Assets

($ millions)

Number of Accounts Total Assets ($ millions) Number of Accounts

Total Assets

($ millions)

 
Nancy Davis * 0 $0 0 $0 1 $170

 

* The information provided is as of December 31, 2018. None of the accounts paid advisory fees based on the performance of the accounts.

 

Portfolio Manager Compensation

 

The Fund’s portfolio manager receives from the Sub-Adviser a base salary, a discretionary bonus not tied to the performance of the Fund, and a portion of any distribution of company profits.

 

Description of Material Conflicts of Interest

 

The investment activities of Sub-Adviser and its affiliates in the management of, or their interest in, their own accounts and other accounts they manage, may present conflicts of interest that could disadvantage the Fund and its shareholders. The Sub-Adviser and its affiliates provide investment management services to other funds and discretionary managed accounts that may follow investment programs similar to that of the Fund. The Sub-Adviser and its affiliates may engage in the ordinary course of business in activities in which their interests or the interests of their clients may conflict with those of the Fund. An affiliate may have business relationships with, and purchase, distribute, or sell services or products from or to, distributors, consultants or others who recommend the Fund or who engage in transactions with or for the Fund, and may receive compensation for such services. The Fund may also make brokerage and other payments to affiliates in connection with the Fund’s portfolio investment transactions.

 

The Sub-Adviser or its affiliates may engage in proprietary trading and advise accounts and funds that have investment objectives similar to those of the Fund and/or that engage in and compete for transactions in the same types of securities, currencies, and other instruments as the Fund, including securities issued by other open-end and closed-end investment companies (which may include investment companies that are affiliated with the Fund and the Sub-Adviser, to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act). The trading activities of the Sub-Adviser and its affiliates are carried out without reference to positions held directly or indirectly by the Fund and may result in the Sub-Adviser and its affiliate having positions in certain securities that are senior or junior to, or having interests different from or adverse to, the securities that are owned by the Fund.

 

No Sub-Adviser affiliate is under any obligation to share any investment opportunity, idea, or strategy with the Fund. As a result, a Sub-Adviser affiliate may compete with the Fund for appropriate investment opportunities. The results of the Fund’s investment activities, therefore, may differ from those of a Sub-Adviser affiliate and of other accounts managed by a Sub-Adviser affiliate, and it is possible that the Fund could sustain losses during periods in which one or more Sub-Adviser affiliates and other accounts achieve profits on their trading for proprietary or other accounts. The opposite result is also possible.

 

In addition, the Fund may, from time to time, enter into transactions in which the Sub-Adviser’s or its affiliate’s other clients have an adverse interest. Furthermore, transactions undertaken by Sub-Adviser affiliate-advised clients may adversely impact the Fund. Transactions by one or more a Sub-Adviser affiliate-advised clients or by the Sub-Adviser may have the effect of diluting or otherwise disadvantaging the values, prices, or investment strategies of the Fund.

 

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The activities of the Sub-Adviser or its affiliates may give rise to other conflicts of interest that could disadvantage the Fund and its shareholders. The Sub-Adviser has adopted policies and procedures designed to address these potential conflicts of interest.

 

CODES OF ETHICS

 

The Trust, Krane and Quadratic have each adopted a Code of Ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act. The Codes of Ethics apply to the personal investing activities of trustees, directors, officers and certain employees (“access persons”). Rule 17j-1 and the Codes of Ethics are designed to prevent unlawful practices in connection with the purchase or sale of securities by access persons. Under the Codes of Ethics, access persons are permitted to engage in personal securities transactions (including investments in securities that may be purchased and held by a Fund), but are required to report their personal securities transactions for monitoring purposes. In addition, certain access persons are required to obtain approval before investing in private placements and are prohibited from investing in initial public offerings. Each Code of Ethics is on file with the SEC and is available to the public.

 

PROXY VOTING POLICY

 

The Trust has adopted the proxy voting policies of Krane, a summary of which is set forth in the appendix to this SAI. The Trust is required to disclose annually a Fund’s complete proxy voting record on Form N-PX covering the period from July 1 of one year through June 30 of the next and to file Form N-PX with the SEC no later than August 31 of each year. The Form N-PX is available, or will be available, at no charge upon request by calling 1.855.857.2638. A Fund’s Form N-PX is also available or will be available, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

ADMINISTRATOR

 

SEI Investments Global Funds Services (the “Administrator”) serves as administrator for the Fund. SEI Investments Management Corporation (“SIMC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments Company (“SEI Investments”), is the owner of all beneficial interest in the Administrator. The principal address of the Administrator is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. Under an Amended and Restated Administration Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, as amended (the “Administration Agreement”), the Administrator provides necessary administrative and accounting services for the maintenance and operations of the Trust and the Fund. In addition, the Administrator makes available the office space, equipment, personnel and facilities required to provide such services.

 

For its services under the Administration Agreement, the Administrator is entitled to a fee, based on assets under management, subject to a minimum fee. The Administrator may be reimbursed by the Fund for its out-of-pocket expenses. The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to the Administrator under the Administration Agreement.

 

CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT

 

Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (“BBH”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Trust. The principal address of BBH is 50 Post Office Square, Boston, Massachusetts 02110. Under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement with the Trust dated December 12, 2012, BBH, in its capacity as custodian, maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services. BBH is required, upon the order of the Trust, to deliver securities held by it, in its capacity as custodian, and to make payments for securities purchased by the Trust for a Fund.

 

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BBH further acts as a transfer agent for the Trust’s authorized and issued shares of beneficial interest, and as dividend disbursing agent of the Trust, under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement. The Advisory Agreement provides that Krane will pay certain operating expenses of the Trust, including the fees due to BBH under the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement.

 

DISTRIBUTOR AND DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS

 

SEI Investments Distribution Co., a wholly-owned subsidiary of SEI Investments, and an affiliate of the Administrator, serves as Distributor for the Trust. The principal address of the Distributor is One Freedom Valley Drive, Oaks, Pennsylvania 19456. The Distributor has entered into an Amended and Restated Distribution Agreement with the Trust dated July 9, 2014, (the “Distribution Agreement”) pursuant to which it distributes shares of the Fund. The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Fund through the Distributor only in Creation Units, as described in the Prospectus and below in the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the 1934 Act and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). The Distributor is not affiliated with Krane, the sub-adviser, or any national securities exchange.

 

The Distribution Agreement provides that it may be terminated at any time, without the payment of any penalty: (i) by a vote of a majority of the independent Trustees; (ii) by a vote of a majority of the outstanding voting securities (as defined in the 1940 Act) of a Fund; or (iii) on at least thirty (30) days’ prior written notice to the other party. The Distribution Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment (as defined in the 1940 Act).

 

The Distributor also may enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of shares. Such Soliciting Dealers also may be Authorized Participants (as defined below) or DTC Participants (as defined below).

 

Distribution Plan. The Fund has adopted a Distribution Plan applicable to the Fund’s shares. Under the Distribution Plan, the Distributor, or designated service providers, may receive up to 0.25% of a Fund’s assets attributable to shares as compensation for distribution services pursuant to Rule 12b-1 of the 1940 Act. Distribution services may include: (i) services in connection with distribution assistance, or (ii) payments to financial institutions and other financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, fund “supermarkets” and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries, as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Distributor may, at its discretion, retain a portion of such payments to compensate itself for distribution services and distribution related expenses such as the costs of preparation, printing, mailing or otherwise disseminating sales literature, advertising, and prospectuses (other than those furnished to current shareholders of a Fund), promotional and incentive programs, and such other marketing expenses that the Distributor may incur. The plan is a compensation plan, which means that the Distributor is compensated regardless of its expenses, as opposed to a reimbursement plan which reimburses only for expenses incurred.

 

No distribution fees are currently charged to the Fund and there are currently no plans to impose these fees. The Plan was adopted in order to permit the implementation of the Fund’s method of distribution. In the event that 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because a Fund pays these fees out of assets on an ongoing basis, over time these fees may cost you more than other types of sales charges and will increase the cost of your investment in a Fund.

 

The Plan will remain in effect for a period of one year and is renewable from year to year with respect to a Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote of a majority of the Trustees and (2) by a vote of the majority of those Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan (“Rule 12b-1 Trustees”), cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount of fees that may be paid by a Fund under the Plan unless such amendment is approved by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares and by a Fund’s Trustees in the manner described above. The Plan is terminable with respect to a Fund at any time by a vote of a majority of the Rule 12b-1 Trustees or by a 1940 Act majority vote of the outstanding shares.

 

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Intermediary Compensation. Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of a Fund’s assets (i.e., without additional cost to a Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”), to the extent permitted by applicable law, for certain activities related to a Fund, including marketing and education support and the sale of a Fund’s shares. These arrangements are sometimes referred to as “revenue sharing” arrangements. Revenue sharing arrangements are not financed by a Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of a Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of a Fund’s shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of shares of a Fund.

 

Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to a Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). Such compensation may also be paid to Intermediaries for inclusion of a Fund on a sales list, including a preferred or select sales list, in other sales programs. Krane periodically assesses the advisability of continuing to make these payments.

 

Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend a Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professionals if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.

 

Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by Krane, a sub-adviser and/or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create an incentive for the Intermediary to encourage customers to buy shares of a Fund.

 

CONTROL PERSONS AND PRINCIPAL HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

 

The Fund has not yet commenced operations as of […], 2019, and, therefore, there were no public shareholders of the Fund as of the date of this SAI. Krane will own the initial shares issued by the Fund and can thus approve any matter requiring shareholder approval.

 

EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING

 

A discussion of exchange listing and trading matters associated with an investment in the Fund is contained in the Prospectus. The discussion below supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, such sections of the Prospectus.

 

The shares of the Fund are listed and traded on the Exchange identified on the cover of this SAI at prices that may differ from a Fund’s NAV. There can be no assurance that the Exchange requirements necessary to maintain the listing of the shares of the Fund will continue to be met. The Exchange may, but is not required to, remove the shares of the Fund from listing if, among other matters: (i) following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of the Fund, there are fewer than fifty (50) Beneficial Owners (as that term is defined below) of the shares of the Fund for thirty (30) or more consecutive trading days; (ii) the value of the underlying index is no longer calculated or available; or (iii) such other event shall occur or condition exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the shares of the Fund from listing and trading upon termination of the Fund.

 

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Trading prices of Shares on the Exchange may differ from the Fund’s daily NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of Shares. To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, or other widely disseminated means, an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for Shares as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Fund is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs. The IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of the Fund’s NAV because the IIV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed only once a day, typically at the end of the business day. The calculation of the IIV is based on the basket of Deposit Securities, if any, and either a designated amount of U.S. cash or other instruments with a readily ascertainable market value, where such cash or other investments represent the Fund’s portfolio holdings that cannot be transacted in kind. The IIV may not represent the best possible valuation of the Fund’s portfolio because the basket of Deposit Securities does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current Fund portfolio at a particular point in time and does not include a reduction for the fees, operating expenses, or transaction costs incurred by the Fund. In addition, to the extent that the performance of the cash or other instruments varies from the performance of the portfolio holdings represented, the IIV is likely to vary from the Fund’s actual NAV.

 

As in the case of other stocks traded on the Exchange, broker’s commissions on purchases or sales of shares in market transactions will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.

 

The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of a Fund.

 

BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM

 

The information below supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Shareholder Information.”

 

The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) acts as securities depository for the Fund’s shares. Shares of the Fund are represented by securities registered in the name of the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., and deposited with, or on behalf of, the DTC.

 

The DTC, a limited-purpose trust company, was created to hold securities of its participants (“DTC Participants”) and to facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions among the DTC Participants in such securities through electronic book-entry changes in accounts of the DTC Participants, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities’ certificates. DTC Participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and certain other organizations, some of whom (and/or their representatives) own the DTC. More specifically, the DTC is owned by a number of its DTC Participants and by the Exchange, and FINRA. Access to the DTC system is also available to others such as banks, brokers, dealers and trust companies that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a DTC Participant, either directly or indirectly (the “Indirect Participants”).

 

Beneficial ownership of shares is limited to DTC Participants, Indirect Participants and persons holding interests through DTC Participants and Indirect Participants. Ownership of beneficial interests in shares (owners of such beneficial interests are referred to herein as “Beneficial Owners”) is shown on, and the transfer of ownership is effected only through, records maintained by the DTC (with respect to DTC Participants) and on the records of DTC Participants (with respect to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners that are not DTC Participants). Beneficial Owners will receive from or through the DTC Participant a written confirmation relating to their purchase of shares. The laws of some jurisdictions may require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such laws may impair the ability of certain investors to acquire beneficial interests in shares.

 

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Conveyance of all notices, statements and other communications to Beneficial Owners is effected as follows. Pursuant to the Depositary Agreement between the Trust and the DTC, the DTC is required to make available to the Trust upon request and for a fee to be charged to the Trust a listing of the shares of a Fund held by each DTC Participant. The Trust shall inquire of each such DTC Participant as to the number of Beneficial Owners holding shares, directly or indirectly, through such DTC Participant. The Trust shall provide each such DTC Participant with copies of such notice, statement or other communication, in such form, number and at such place as such DTC Participant may reasonably request, in order that such notice, statement or communication may be transmitted by such DTC Participant, directly or indirectly, to such Beneficial Owners. In addition, the Trust shall pay to each such DTC Participant a fair and reasonable amount as reimbursement for the expenses attendant to such transmittal, all subject to applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

 

Share distributions shall be made to the DTC or its nominee, Cede & Co., as the registered holder of all shares. The DTC or its nominee, upon receipt of any such distributions, shall credit immediately DTC Participants’ accounts with payments in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in shares of a Fund as shown on the records of the DTC or its nominee. Payments by DTC Participants to Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners of shares held through such DTC Participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in a “street name,” and will be the responsibility of such DTC Participants.

 

The Trust has no responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or notices to Beneficial Owners, or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in such shares, or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests, or for any other aspect of the relationship between the DTC and DTC Participants or the relationship between such DTC Participants and the Indirect Participants and Beneficial Owners owning through such DTC Participants.

 

The DTC may decide to discontinue providing its service with respect to shares at any time by giving reasonable notice to the Trust and discharging its responsibilities with respect thereto under applicable law. Under such circumstances, the Trust shall take action to find a replacement for the DTC to perform its functions at a comparable cost.

 

BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS

 

Krane or, as applicable, a Fund sub-adviser assumes general supervision over placing orders on behalf of a Fund for the purchase and sale of portfolio securities.

 

Although Krane or, as applicable, a Fund sub-adviser strives to obtain the best net price under prevailing circumstances surrounding each trade, the determinative factor is whether a transaction represents the best overall execution for a Fund and not whether the lowest possible transaction cost is obtained. Krane and any sub-adviser consider the full range and quality of a broker-dealer’s servicing in selecting the broker to meet best execution obligations, and may not pay the lowest transaction cost available. Krane or the sub-adviser review trading to ensure best execution, operational performance, and reasonable commission rates. Order flow may go through traditional broker-dealers, but may also be executed on an Electronic Communication Network, Alternative Trading System or other execution system.

 

Where multiple broker-dealers are available to execute portfolio transactions, in selecting the brokers or dealers for any transaction in portfolio securities, Krane or a sub-adviser’s policy is to make such selection based on factors deemed relevant, which may include the breadth of the market in the security; the price of the security; the reasonableness of the commission or mark-up or mark-down, if any; execution capability; settlement capability; back office efficiency; and the financial condition of the broker or dealer, both for the specific transaction and on a continuing basis. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions paid or spreads is evaluated by Krane or a sub-adviser generally based upon its knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions paid or spreads by other institutional investors for comparable services. Brokers or dealers may also be selected because of their ability to handle special or difficult executions, such as may be involved in large block trades, less liquid securities, broad distributions, or other circumstances. Krane or a sub-adviser may also consider the provision or value of research, products or services a broker or dealer may provide, if any, as a factor in the selection of a broker or dealer or the determination of the reasonableness of commissions paid in connection with portfolio transactions. The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of a Fund’s shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or a dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.

 

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When one or more broker-dealers is believed capable of providing the best combination of price and execution, a broker-dealer need not be selected based solely on the lowest commission rate available for a particular transaction. In such cases, Krane or a sub-adviser may pay a higher commission than otherwise obtainable from other brokers in return for brokerage research services provided to Krane or a sub-adviser consistent with Section 28(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Section 28(e) provides that Krane or a sub-adviser may cause a Fund to pay a broker-dealer a commission for effecting a transaction in excess of the amount of commission another broker or dealer would have charged as long as Krane or the sub-adviser makes a good faith determination that the amount of commission is reasonable in relation to the value of the brokerage and research services provided by the broker-dealer. To the extent Krane or a sub-adviser obtains brokerage and research services that it otherwise would acquire at its own expense, Krane or a sub-adviser may have incentive to place a greater volume of transactions or pay higher commissions than would otherwise be the case.

 

The types of products and services that Krane or the sub-adviser may obtain from broker-dealers through such arrangements will include research reports and other information on the economy, industries, sectors, groups of securities, individual companies, statistical information, political developments, technical market action, pricing and appraisal services, credit analysis, risk measurement analysis, performance and other analysis. Krane or a sub-adviser may use products and services provided by brokers in servicing all of its client accounts and not all such products and services may necessarily be used in connection with the account that paid commissions to the broker-dealer providing such products and services. Any advisory or other fees paid to Krane or a sub-adviser are not reduced as a result of the receipt of brokerage and research services.

 

In some cases, Krane or a sub-adviser may receive a product or service from a broker that has both a “research” and a “non-research” use. When this occurs, Krane or the sub-adviser will make a good faith allocation between the research and non-research uses of the product or service. The percentage of the service that is used for research purposes may be paid for with brokerage commissions, while Krane or the sub-adviser will use its own funds to pay for the percentage of the service that is used for non-research purposes. In making this good faith allocation, Krane or the sub-adviser faces a potential conflict of interest, but Krane or the sub-adviser believes that its allocation procedures are reasonably designed to appropriately allocate the anticipated use of such products and services to research and non-research uses.

 

The Trust has adopted policies and procedures that prohibit the consideration of sales of a Fund’s shares as a factor in the selection of a broker or a dealer to execute its portfolio transactions.

 

Brokerage Commissions

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions during the three prior fiscal years.

 

Directed Brokerage

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions pursuant to an agreement or understanding whereby the broker provides research or other brokerage services to Krane or the sub-adviser during the prior fiscal year.

 

Affiliated Brokers

 

Because the fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Fund did not pay any brokerage commissions to any affiliated brokers during the three prior fiscal years.

 

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Regular Broker-Dealers

 

The Fund is required to identify any securities of its “regular brokers and dealers” (as such term is defined in the 1940 Act) which the Fund may hold at the close of its most recent fiscal year. “Regular brokers or dealers” of a Fund are the ten brokers or dealers that, during the most recent fiscal year: (i) received the greatest dollar amounts of brokerage commissions from the Fund’s portfolio transactions; (ii) engaged as principal in the largest dollar amounts of portfolio transactions of the Fund; or (iii) sold the largest dollar amounts of the Fund’s shares.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Fund did not own any securities of their “regular broker-dealers” as of that time.

 

Portfolio Turnover

Portfolio turnover may vary from year to year, as well as within a year, and generally relates to changes in the underlying index. High turnover rates are likely to result in comparatively greater brokerage expenses or dealer mark-ups and other transaction costs. The overall reasonableness of brokerage commissions is evaluated by Krane or the sub-adviser based upon their knowledge of available information as to the general level of commissions and spreads paid or incurred by the other institutional investors for comparable services.

 

Because the Fund had not commenced operations prior to the end of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, the Fund does not have portfolio turnover information for the prior fiscal year to report.

 

CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS

 

Except as otherwise noted below, the following applies to any Fund covered by this SAI:

 

General

The Trust issues and redeems shares of the Fund only in Creation Units on a continuous basis through the Distributor, without a sales load but subject to the transaction fees described below, at the NAV next determined after receipt, on any Business Day (as defined below), of an order in proper form. A “Business Day”, as used herein, is any day on which the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open for business. As of the date of this SAI, the NYSE observes the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

 

Currently, the number of shares that constitutes a Creation Unit is 25,000 shares. The Board reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make changes in the number of shares constituting a Creation Unit, including in the event that the per share price in the secondary market rises (or declines) to an amount that falls outside the range deemed desirable by the Board.

 

Creation Units may be purchased and redeemed only by or through a DTC Participant that has entered into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor (an “Authorized Participant”). Such Authorized Participant will agree, pursuant to the terms of such Authorized Participant Agreement and on behalf of itself or any investor on whose behalf it will act, to certain conditions, including those set forth below, the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants. Investors who are not Authorized Participants must make appropriate arrangements with an Authorized Participant to purchase or redeem Creation Units. Investors should be aware that their particular broker may not be a DTC Participant or may not have executed an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Distributor and that Creation Unit orders may have to be placed by the investor’s broker through an Authorized Participant. As a result, orders placed through an Authorized Participant may result in additional charges to such investor. A list of current Authorized Participants may be obtained from the Distributor.

 

Investors who are not Authorized Participants may purchase and sell shares of the Fund on the secondary market.

 

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Because the portfolio securities of the Fund may trade on days that the Exchange is closed or are otherwise not Business Days for the Fund, shareholders may not be able to purchase or redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.

 

Purchases of Creation Units

 

The consideration for the purchase of Creation Units of the Fund consists of an in-kind deposit of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Deposit Cash”) (collectively, the “Deposit Securities”) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Deposit Securities. Together, the Deposit Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Deposit.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the required number of shares of each Deposit Security and Deposit Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Deposit. Such Fund Deposit is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, in order to effect purchases of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Deposit is made available. The means by which the Deposit Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered by the Authorized Participant to the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree. Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Deposit Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time. The composition of the Deposit Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the Fund’s Underlying Index.

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Deposit Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all purchases on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a purchase order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the purchase to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants purchasing shares on that day to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to deposit cash in lieu of some or all of the Deposit Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not available in sufficient quantity; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the investor on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Deposit Securities from the Fund Deposit for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty; (iv) to the extent the Fund determines, on a given Business Day, to use a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (v) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index.

 

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Cash purchases of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind purchases. The Authorized Participant will pay the cash equivalent of the Deposit Securities as Deposit Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Placement of Purchase Orders

 

To initiate an order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to purchase shares of the Fund generally between 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Authorized Participants may also submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to purchase shares of the Fund generally anytime on a Business Day, except from 4:00 p.m. to 4:15 Eastern Time, but orders submitted on a Business Day before 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time will normally be charged the maximum transaction fees and Authorized Participants are encouraged to submit orders generally between 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time. For a purchase order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the purchase order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a purchase order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the purchase order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit purchase orders. A purchase order is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the purchase order, such as, in the case of purchase orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to create shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may not be accepted or may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A Purchase order, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

Acceptance of Orders for, and Issuance of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the number of shares of each security in the Deposit Securities and the validity, form, eligibility and acceptance for deposit of any securities to be delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject or revoke acceptance of a creation order, including if (i) the order is not in proper form; (ii) the investor(s), upon obtaining the shares ordered, would own 80% or more of the currently outstanding shares of the Fund; (iii) the Deposit Securities delivered do not conform to the identity and number of shares specified; (iv) acceptance of the Deposit Securities would have certain adverse tax consequences to the Fund; (v) acceptance of the Fund Deposit would, in the opinion of counsel, be unlawful; (vi) acceptance of a Fund Deposit would, in the discretion of the Fund or Krane, have an adverse effect on the Fund or the rights of Beneficial Owners; or (vii) circumstances outside the control of the Fund, the Distributor and Krane make it impracticable to process purchase orders. The Distributor shall notify a prospective purchaser of a Creation Unit and/or the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such purchaser of the rejection or revocation of acceptance of such order. The Fund, the Custodian, the sub-custodian and the Distributor are under no duty, however, to give notification of any defects or irregularities in the delivery of Fund Deposits nor shall any of them incur any liability for failure to give such notification.

 

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Except as provided in the following paragraph, a Creation Unit will not be issued until the transfer of good title to the Fund of the Deposit Securities and the payment of the Cash Component, Deposit Cash and creation transaction fees have been completed. In this regard, the Custodian will require, prior to the issuance of a Creation Unit, that the sub-custodian confirm to the Custodian that the Deposit Securities have been delivered to the account of the Fund at the sub-custodian(s). If the Fund does not receive the foregoing by the time specified herein the Creation Unit may not be delivered or the purchase order may ultimately be rejected.

 

The Fund may issue Creation Units to an Authorized Participant, notwithstanding the fact that all Deposit Securities have not been received, in reliance on the undertaking of the Authorized Participant to deliver the missing Deposit Securities as soon as possible, which undertaking shall be secured by such Authorized Participant’s delivery and maintenance of collateral having a value of up to 115% of the value of the missing Deposit Securities. The only collateral that is acceptable is cash in U.S. dollars. Such cash collateral must be delivered no later than 2:00 p.m., Eastern Time on the contractual settlement date of the Creation Unit(s). The Fund may buy the missing Deposit Securities at any time, and the Authorized Participant will be liable for any shortfall between the cost to the Fund of purchasing such securities and the cash collateral. In addition, the cash collateral may be invested at the risk of the Authorized Participant, and any income on invested cash collateral will be paid to that Authorized Participant. Information concerning the Fund’s current procedures for collateralization of missing Deposit Securities is available from the Distributor.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Once the Fund has accepted a purchase order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the issuance of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Creation Units typically are settled on a “T+2 basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), subject to certain exceptions. However, the Fund reserves the right to settle Creation Unit transactions on a basis other than T+2, including in order to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules, closures and settlement cycles, and to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and ex-dividend dates.

 

Creation Transaction Fees

 

A standard creation transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the issuance of Creation Units. The standard creation transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant creates a Creation Unit, and is the same, regardless of the number of Creation Units purchased by the Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Deposit Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

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The standard creation transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND

STANDARD

TRANSACTION

FEE

MAXIMUM

VARIABLE

TRANSACTION

FEE*

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF $250 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) purchased.

 

The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

Redemptions of Creation Units

 

The consideration paid by the Fund for the redemption of Creation Units consists of an in-kind basket of a designated portfolio of securities (or cash for all or any portion of such securities (“Redemption Cash”)) (collectively, the “Fund Securities”) and the Cash Component, which is an amount equal to the difference between the aggregate NAV of a Creation Unit and the Fund Securities. Together, the Fund Securities and the Cash Component constitute the “Fund Redemption.”

 

The Custodian or the Administrator makes available through NSCC on each Business Day, prior to the opening of regular trading on the Exchange, the list of names and the number of shares of each Fund Security and Redemption Cash, as applicable, and the estimated amount of the Cash Component to be included in the current Fund Redemption. Such Fund Redemption is applicable, subject to any adjustments as described below, for redemptions of Creation Units of the Fund until such time as the next-announced Fund Redemption is made available. The delivery of Fund shares will be settled through the DTC system. The means by which the Fund Securities and Cash Component are to be delivered to the Authorized Participant by the Fund are set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants, except to the extent the Distributor and the Authorized Participant otherwise agree.

 

The identity and number of shares of the Fund Securities change pursuant to, among other matters, changes in the composition of the Fund’s portfolio and as rebalancing adjustments and corporate action events are reflected from time to time. The composition of the Fund Securities may also change in response to adjustments to the weighting or composition of the component securities constituting the Fund’s Underlying Index and may not be the same as the Deposit Securities.

 

The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of an amount of cash to replace any Redemption Security: (i) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund announces before the open of trading that all redemptions on that day will be made entirely in cash; (ii) if, upon receiving a redemption order from an Authorized Participant, the Fund determines to require the redemption to be made entirely in cash; (iii) if, on a given Business Day, the Fund requires all Authorized Participants redeeming shares on that day to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for transfer through either the NSCC or DTC systems; or (b) such instruments are not eligible for trading due to local trading restrictions, local restrictions on securities transfers or other similar circumstances; or (iv) if the Fund permits an Authorized Participant to receive cash in lieu of some or all of the Fund Securities solely because: (a) such instruments are not eligible for trading by an Authorized Participant or the redeemer on whose behalf the Authorized Participant is acting; or (b) a shareholder would be subject to unfavorable income tax treatment if the shareholder receives redemption proceeds in kind (together, “Custom Orders”).

 

The Trust also reserves the right to include or remove Fund Securities from the Fund Redemption for one or more of the following reasons: (i) in the case of bonds, for minor differences when it is impossible to break up bonds beyond certain minimum sizes needed for transfer and settlement; (ii) for minor differences when rounding is necessary to eliminate fractional shares or lots that are not tradeable round lots; (iii) TBA Transactions, short positions and other positions that cannot be transferred in-kind, including instruments that can be transferred in-kind only with the consent of the original counterparty; (iv) to the extent the Fund determines, on a given Business Day, to use a representative sampling of the Fund’s portfolio; or (v) for temporary periods, to effect changes in the Fund’s portfolio as a result of the rebalancing of its Underlying Index.

 

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Cash redemptions of Creation Units will be effected in essentially the same manner as in-kind redemptions. The Authorized Participant will receive the cash equivalent of the Fund Securities as Redemption Cash plus or minus the same Cash Component.

 

Placement of Redemption Orders

 

To initiate a redemption order for a Creation Unit, an Authorized Participant must submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to redeem shares of the Fund generally between 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Authorized Participants may also submit to the Distributor an irrevocable order in proper form to redeem shares of the Fund generally anytime on a Business Day, except from 4:00 p.m. to 4:15 Eastern Time, but orders submitted on a Business Day before 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time will normally be charged the maximum transaction fees and Authorized Participants are encouraged to submit orders generally between 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time. For a redemption order to be processed based on the NAV calculated on a particular Business Day, the order must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust prior to the time as of which the NAV is calculated (“Cutoff Time”). Investors who are not Authorized Participants and seek to place a redemption order for a Creation Unit through an Authorized Participant should allow sufficient time to permit proper submission of the redemption order to the Distributor by the Cutoff Time on such Business Day. Custom Orders must be received in proper form and accepted by the Trust at least two hours prior to Cutoff Time.

 

The Authorized Participant Agreement and the handbook governing the Authorized Participants set forth the different methods whereby Authorized Participants can submit redemption orders. A redemption request is considered to be in “proper form” if a request in a form satisfactory to the Fund is (1) received by the Distributor from an Authorized Participant on behalf of itself or another person within the time period set above, and (2) all the procedures and other requirements applicable to the method used by the Authorized Participant to submit the redemption order, such as, in the case of redemption orders submitted through the Distributor’s website, the completion of all required fields, and otherwise set forth in the Authorized Participant Agreement and handbook governing the Authorized Participants are properly followed.

 

Creation Unit orders must be transmitted by an Authorized Participant by telephone or other transmission method acceptable to the Distributor. Economic or market disruptions or changes, or telephone or other communication failure, may impede transmissions between the Distributor and an Authorized Participant. Orders to redeem shares of the Fund that are submitted on the Business Day immediately preceding a holiday or a day (other than a weekend) when the securities markets in a foreign market in which the Fund may invest are closed may be charged the maximum transaction fee. The Distributor, in its discretion, may permit the submission of orders and requests by or through an Authorized Participant via communication through the facilities of the Distributor’s proprietary website maintained for this purpose. A redemption request, if accepted by the Trust, will be processed based on the NAV as of the next Cutoff Time.

 

Acceptance of Orders for, and Redemption of, Creation Units

 

All questions as to whether an order has been submitted in proper form and the requisite number of Fund shares and transaction fees have been delivered shall be determined by the Fund and the Fund’s determination shall be final and binding.

 

The Fund reserves the absolute right to reject a redemption order if the order is not in proper form. In addition, the right of redemption may be suspended or the date of payment postponed with respect to the Fund (i) for any period during which the NYSE is closed (other than customary weekend and holiday closings), (ii) for any period during which trading on the NYSE is suspended or restricted, (iii) for any period during which an emergency exists as a result of which disposal of the shares of the Fund’s portfolio securities or determination of its NAV is not reasonably practicable; or (iv) in such other circumstance as is permitted by the SEC. The Fund or Distributor will notify the Authorized Participant of such rejection, but the Fund, Custodian, sub-custodian and Distributor shall not be liable for any failure to give such notification.

 

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The payment by the Fund of the Fund Securities, Redemption Cash, and Cash Component will not be issued until the transfer of the Creation Unit(s) and the applicable redemption transaction fees has been completed. If the Transfer Agent does not receive the investor’s shares through DTC’s facilities and the applicable redemption transaction fees by the required time, the redemption request may be rejected. Further, a redeeming Beneficial Owner or Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such Beneficial Owner must maintain appropriate security arrangements with a qualified broker-dealer, bank or other custody providers in each jurisdiction where Fund Securities are customarily traded and will be delivered. If neither the redeeming Beneficial Owner nor the Authorized Participant acting on behalf of such redeeming Beneficial Owner has appropriate arrangements to take delivery of Fund Securities in the applicable non-U.S. jurisdiction and it is not possible to make other such arrangements, or if it is not possible to effect deliveries of Fund Securities in such jurisdiction, the Trust may redeem shares in Redemption Cash, and the redeeming Beneficial Owner will be required to receive its redemption proceeds as Redemption Cash.

 

Redemptions of shares for Fund Securities will be subject to compliance with applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws and the Fund (whether or not it otherwise permits cash redemptions) reserves the right to redeem Creation Units for cash to the extent that the Fund cannot lawfully deliver specific Fund Securities upon redemptions or cannot do so without first registering a Fund Security under such laws.

 

Once the Fund has accepted a redemption order, upon the next determination of the NAV of the shares, the Fund may confirm the redemption of a Creation Unit, against receipt of payment, at such NAV. The Distributor will then transmit a confirmation of acceptance to the Authorized Participant that placed the order. Deliveries of redemption proceeds by the Fund typically are settled on a “T+2”basis” (i.e., two Business Days after trade date), but may be made up to seven days later, particularly in stressed market conditions, except as further set forth herein. The Fund reserves the right to settle redemption transactions on another basis to accommodate non-U.S. market holiday schedules (see below for further information), closures and settlement cycles, to account for different treatment among non-U.S. and U.S. markets of dividend record dates and dividend ex-dates (i.e., the last date the holder of a security can sell the security and still receive dividends payable on the security sold), and in certain other circumstances.

 

In certain cases, an Authorized Participant may create and redeem Creation Units on the same trade date. In these instances, the Fund reserves the right to settle these transactions on a net basis or require a representation from the Authorized Participant that the creation and redemption transactions are for separate Beneficial Owners.

 

Redemption Transaction Fees

 

A standard redemption transaction fee is imposed to offset transfer and other costs associated with the redemption of Creation Units. The standard redemption transaction fee is charged to the Authorized Participant on the day such Authorized Participant redeems a Creation Unit, and is the same regardless of the number of Creation Units redeemed by an Authorized Participant on the applicable Business Day.

 

The Authorized Participant may also be required to pay a variable transaction fee (up to the maximum amount shown in the table below) to cover certain brokerage, tax, foreign exchange, execution, market impact and other costs and expenses. Authorized Participants will also bear the costs of transferring the Fund Securities, including any stamp duty or other similar fees and expenses. Investors who use the services of a broker or other financial intermediary may be charged a fee for such services.

 

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The standard redemption transaction fee and maximum variable transaction fee for a Creation Unit are set forth below:

 

FUND

STANDARD

TRANSACTION

FEE

MAXIMUM

VARIABLE

TRANSACTION

FEE*

Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF $250 2.00%

* As a percentage of the Creation Unit(s) redeemed.

 

The Adviser may adjust the transactions fees from time to time based on actual experience.

 

Taxation on Creation and Redemptions of Creation Units

An Authorized Participant generally will recognize either gain or loss upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units. This gain or loss will generally equal the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the Authorized Participant’s aggregate basis in the Deposit Securities exchanged therefor and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. However, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service may apply the wash sales rules to determine that any loss realized upon the exchange of Deposit Securities for Creation Units is not currently deductible. Authorized Participants should consult their own tax advisers.

 

Current U.S. federal tax laws dictate that capital gain or loss realized from the redemption of Creation Units will generally create long-term capital gain or loss if the Authorized Participant holds the Creation Units for more than one year, or short-term capital gain or loss if the Creation Units were held for one year or less, if the Creation Units are held as capital assets.

 

TAXES

 

The following discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax consequences of investing in a Fund is based on the Code, U.S. Treasury regulations, and other applicable authority, all as in effect as of the date of the filing of this SAI. These authorities are subject to change by legislative or administrative action, possibly with retroactive effect. The following discussion is only a summary of some of the important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in a Fund. There may be other tax considerations applicable to particular shareholders. Shareholders should consult their own tax advisers regarding their particular situation and the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.

 

Qualification as a RIC 

The Fund has elected or intends to elect to be treated, and intends to qualify each year, as a regulated investment company (a “RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code. In order to qualify for the special tax treatment accorded RICs and their shareholders, a Fund must, among other things:

 

(a) derive at least 90% of its gross income each year from (i) dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or securities or foreign currencies, or other income (including but not limited to gains from options, futures or forward contracts) derived with respect to its business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies, and (ii) net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (as defined below);

 

(b) diversify its holdings so that, at the end of each quarter of its taxable year, (i) at least 50% of the market value of a Fund’s total assets consists of cash and cash items, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs and other securities, with investments in such other securities limited with respect to any one issuer to an amount not greater than 5% of the value of a Fund’s total assets and not greater than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of such issuer, and (ii) not more than 25% of the value of a Fund’s total assets is invested in (1) the securities (other than those of the U.S. government or other RICs) of any one issuer or two or more issuers that are controlled by a Fund and that are engaged in the same, similar or related trades or businesses or (2) the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships; and

 

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(c) distribute with respect to each taxable year at least the sum of 90% of its investment company taxable income (as that term is defined in the Code without regard to the deduction for dividends paid – generally taxable ordinary income and the excess, if any, of net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses) and 90% of its net tax-exempt interest income.

 

In general, for purposes of the 90% of gross income requirement described in (a) above, income derived from a partnership will be treated as qualifying income only to the extent such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership that would be qualifying income if realized directly by a Fund. However, 100% of the net income derived from an interest in a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (generally, a partnership (i) interests in which are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or the substantial equivalent thereof, (ii) that derives at least 90% of its income from the passive income sources specified in Code section 7704(d), and (iii) that derives less than 90% of its income from the qualifying income described in (a)(i) of the prior paragraph) will be treated as qualifying income. In addition, although in general the passive loss rules of the Code do not apply to RICs, such rules do apply to a RIC with respect to items attributable to an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership.

 

The U.S. Treasury Department has authority to issue regulations that would exclude foreign currency gains from the 90% test described in (a) above if such gains are not directly related to a fund’s business of investing in stock or securities. Accordingly, regulations may be issued in the future that could treat some or all of a Fund’s non-U.S. currency gains as non-qualifying income, thereby potentially jeopardizing a Fund’s status as a RIC for all years to which the regulations are applicable.

 

Taxation of a Fund

If a Fund qualifies as a RIC, a Fund will not be subject to federal income tax on income and gains that are distributed in a timely manner to its shareholders in the form of dividends.

 

If a Fund fails to satisfy the qualifying income test in any taxable year or the diversification requirements for any quarter, the Fund may be eligible for relief provisions if the failures are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect and if a penalty tax is paid with respect to each failure to satisfy the applicable requirements. If these relief provisions are not available to a Fund for any year in which it fails to qualify as a RIC, all of its taxable income will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates without any deduction for distributions to shareholders, and its distributions (including capital gains distributions) generally will be taxable as ordinary income dividends to its shareholders, subject to the dividends received deduction for corporate shareholders and lower tax rates on qualified dividend income for individual shareholders. In addition, the Fund could be required to recognize unrealized gains, pay substantial taxes and interest and make substantial distributions before requalifying as a RIC that is accorded special tax treatment.

 

The Fund intends to distribute at least annually to its shareholders substantially all of its taxable income and its net capital gains. Taxable income that is retained by a Fund will be subject to tax at regular corporate rates. If a Fund retains any net capital gain, that gain will be subject to tax at corporate rates, but the Fund may designate the retained amount as undistributed capital gains in a notice to its shareholders who (i) will be required to include in income for federal income tax purposes, as long-term capital gain, their shares of such undistributed amount, and (ii) will be entitled to credit their proportionate shares of the tax paid by the Fund on such undistributed amount against their federal income tax liabilities, if any, and to claim refunds on a properly filed U.S. tax return to the extent the credit exceeds such liabilities. For federal income tax purposes, the tax basis of shares owned by a shareholder of a Fund will be increased by an amount equal to the difference between the amount of undistributed capital gains included in the shareholder’s gross income and the tax deemed paid by the shareholder under clause (ii) of the preceding sentence.

 

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Deferral of Late Year Losses

A Fund may elect to treat part or all of any “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in determining the Fund’s taxable income, net capital gain, net short-term capital gain, and earnings and profits. The effect of this election is to treat any such “qualified late year loss” as if it had been incurred in the succeeding taxable year in characterizing the Fund’s distributions for any calendar year. A “qualified late year loss” generally includes net capital loss, net long-term capital loss, or net short-term capital loss incurred after October 31 of the current taxable year (commonly referred to as “post-October losses”) and certain other late-year losses.

 

Capital Loss Carryovers

If a Fund has a “net capital loss” (that is, capital losses in excess of capital gains), the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net short-term capital losses over its net long-term capital gains is treated as a short-term capital loss arising on the first day of the Fund’s next taxable year, and the excess (if any) of the Fund’s net long-term capital losses over its net short-term capital gains is treated as a long-term capital loss arising on the first day of a Fund’s next taxable year. Such capital loss carryover can be used to offset capital gains of the Fund in succeeding taxable years. The carryover of capital losses may be limited under the general loss limitation rules if a Fund experiences an ownership change as defined in the Code.

 

Excise Tax

If a Fund fails to distribute in a calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of 98% of its ordinary income for such year and 98.2% of its capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 of such year, plus any retained amount from the prior year, the Fund will be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the undistributed amount. For these purposes, a Fund will be treated as having distributed any amount on which it has been subject to corporate income tax for the taxable year ending within the calendar year. A dividend paid to shareholders in January of a year generally is deemed to have been paid by the Fund on December 31 of the preceding year if the dividend was declared and payable to shareholders of record on a date in October, November, or December of that preceding year. The Fund intends to declare and pay dividends and distributions in the amounts and at the times necessary to avoid the application of the 4% excise tax, although there can be no assurance that it will be able to do so.

 

Fund Distributions

Distributions are taxable whether shareholders receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional shares. Moreover, distributions are generally subject to federal income tax as described herein to the extent they do not exceed a Fund’s realized income and gains, even though such dividends and distributions may economically represent a return of a particular shareholder’s investment. Such distributions are likely to occur in respect of shares purchased at a time when a Fund’s NAV reflects gains that are either unrealized, or realized but not distributed. Such realized gains may be required to be distributed even when a Fund’s NAV also reflects unrealized losses.

 

Distributions by a Fund of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated those gains, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Fund shares. Distributions of net capital gains from the sale of investments that a Fund owned for more than one year and that are properly designated by the Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains. Distributions from capital gains are generally made after applying any available capital loss carryovers. Preferential long-term capital gain rates apply to individuals at a maximum rate of 20% for individuals with taxable income exceeding certain thresholds. Such preferential rates also apply to qualified dividend income if certain holding period requirements are met. Distributions of gains from the sale of investments that a Fund owned for one year or less will be taxable as ordinary income. Qualified dividend income is, in general, dividend income from taxable domestic corporations and certain foreign corporations (i.e., foreign corporations incorporated in a possession of the United States or in certain countries with a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States, which includes China (but not Hong Kong which is treated as a separate jurisdiction), or the stock of which is readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States). In order for some portion of the dividends received by a Fund’s shareholders to be qualified dividend income, the Fund must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the dividend paying stocks in its portfolio, and the shareholder must meet holding period and other requirements with respect to the Fund’s shares.

 

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Some portion of the dividends paid by a Fund investing in equity securities is expected to be eligible for qualified dividend income treatment. A Fund investing in fixed income securities would not expect to distribute qualified dividend income.

 

Given the Fund’s investment objective, it is not expected that Fund distributions will be eligible for the corporate dividends received deduction on Fund distributions attributable to dividends received.

 

For U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly), a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax will apply on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” including interest, dividends, and capital gains, which generally includes taxable distributions received from a Fund. This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.

 

If a Fund makes distributions to a shareholder in excess of the Fund’s current and accumulated earnings and profits in any taxable year, the excess distribution will be treated as a return of capital to the extent of the shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, and thereafter as capital gain. A return of capital is not taxable, but reduces a shareholder’s tax basis in its shares, thus reducing any loss or increasing any gain on a subsequent taxable disposition by the shareholder of its shares.

 

Investors considering buying shares just prior to a dividend or capital gain distribution should be aware that, although the price of shares purchased at that time may reflect the amount of the forthcoming distribution, such dividend or distribution may nevertheless be taxable to them. If a Fund is the holder of record of any security on the record date for any dividends payable with respect to such security, such dividends will be included in the Fund’s gross income not as of the date received but as of the later of (a) the date such security became ex-dividend with respect to such dividends (i.e., the date on which a buyer of the security would not be entitled to receive the declared, but unpaid, dividends); or (b) the date the Fund acquired such security. Accordingly, in order to satisfy its income distribution requirements, a Fund may be required to pay dividends based on anticipated earnings, and shareholders may receive dividends in an earlier year than would otherwise be the case.

 

Sale or Exchange of Shares

A sale or exchange of shares in a Fund may give rise to a gain or loss. In general, any gain or loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares have been held for more than 12 months. Otherwise, the gain or loss on the taxable disposition of shares will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term, rather than short-term, to the extent of any long-term capital gain distributions received (or deemed received) by the shareholder with respect to the shares. All or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares will be disallowed if shares of the same Fund are purchased within 30 days before or after the disposition. In such a case, the basis of the newly purchased shares will be adjusted to reflect the disallowed loss.

 

As noted above, for U.S. individuals with income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 if married and filing jointly), a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax will apply on “net investment income,” including interest, dividends, and capital gains, which generally includes taxable distributions received from a Fund and taxable gains on the disposition of shares of a Fund.

 

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Backup Withholding

A Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder holds Fund shares) generally is required to withhold and to remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has under-reported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding. The backup withholding tax rate is currently 24%.

 

Federal Tax Treatment of Certain Fund Investments

Transactions of a Fund in options, futures contracts, hedging transactions, forward contracts, swap contracts, straddles and foreign currencies may be subject to various special and complex tax rules, including mark-to-market, constructive sale, straddle, wash sale and short sale rules. These rules could affect whether gains and losses recognized by a Fund are treated as ordinary income or capital gain, accelerate the recognition of income to a Fund and/or defer a Fund’s ability to recognize losses. These rules may in turn affect the amount, timing or character of the income distributed to shareholders by a Fund.

 

A Fund is required, for federal income tax purposes, to mark to market and recognize as income for each taxable year its net unrealized gains and losses as of the end of such year on certain regulated futures contracts, foreign currency contracts and options that qualify as Section 1256 contracts in addition to the gains and losses actually realized with respect to such contracts during the year. Except as described below under “Certain Foreign Currency Tax Issues,” gain or loss from Section 1256 contracts that are required to be marked to market annually will generally be 60% long-term and 40% short-term capital gain or loss. Application of this rule may alter the timing and character of distributions to shareholders.

 

Some debt obligations that are acquired by a Fund may be treated as having original issue discount (“OID”). Generally, a Fund will be required to include OID in taxable income over the term of the debt security, even though payment of the OID is not received until a later time, usually when the debt security matures. If a Fund holds such debt instruments, it may be required to pay out as distributions each year an amount that is greater than the total amount of cash interest the Fund actually received. Such distributions may be made from the cash assets of a Fund or by liquidation of portfolio securities, if necessary. A Fund may realize gains or losses from such liquidations. In the event a Fund realizes net gains from such transactions, its shareholders may receive larger distributions than they would have in the absence of such transactions.

 

Any market discount recognized on a bond is taxable as ordinary income. A market discount bond is a bond acquired in the secondary market at a price below redemption value or adjusted issue price if issued with original issue discount. Absent an election by a Fund to include the market discount in income as it accrues, gains on the Fund’s disposition of such an obligation will be treated as ordinary income rather than capital gain to the extent of the accrued market discount.

 

Tax-Exempt Shareholders

Under current law, income of a RIC that would be treated as unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) if earned directly by a tax-exempt entity generally will not be attributed as UBTI to a tax-exempt entity that is a shareholder in the RIC. Notwithstanding this “blocking” effect, a tax-exempt shareholder could realize UBTI by virtue of its investment in a Fund if shares in a Fund constitute debt-financed property in the hands of the tax-exempt shareholder within the meaning of Code Section 514(b).

 

Non-U.S. Shareholders

In general, dividends other than Capital Gain Dividends paid by a Fund to a shareholder that is not a “U.S. person” within the meaning of the Code (a “foreign person”) are subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) even if they are funded by income or gains (such as foreign-source dividend and interest income) that, if paid to a foreign person directly, would not be subject to withholding. If a Fund were to recognize short-term capital gains or U.S.-source portfolio interest, properly reported short-term capital gain dividends and interest-related dividends paid by a Fund would not be subject to such withholding tax.

 

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A beneficial holder of shares who is a non-U.S. person is not, in general, subject to U.S. federal income tax on gains (and is not allowed a U.S. income tax deduction for losses) realized on a sale of shares of a Fund or on Capital Gain Dividends or short-term capital gain dividends unless (i) such gain or dividend is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business carried on by such holder within the United States or (ii) in the case of an individual holder, the holder is present in the United States for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more during the year of the sale or the receipt of the Capital Gain Dividend or short-term capital gains dividends and certain other conditions are met.

 

In order for a non-U.S. investor to qualify for an exemption from backup withholding, the foreign investor must comply with special certification and filing requirements. Foreign investors in a Fund should consult their tax advisers in this regard. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld may be credited against the shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the appropriate information is furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

 

A beneficial holder of shares who is a non-U.S. person may be subject to the U.S. federal estate tax in addition to the federal income tax consequences referred to above. If a shareholder is eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty, any income or gain effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis only if it is also attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the shareholder in the United States.

 

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”), a 30% withholding tax will be imposed on (1) dividends paid by a Fund and (2) long-term capital gain dividends and redemption proceeds paid after December 31, 2018, to (i) foreign financial institutions including non-U.S. investment funds unless they agree to collect and disclose to the Internal Revenue Service information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. account holders and (ii) certain other foreign entities, unless they certify certain information regarding their direct and indirect U.S. owners. A non-U.S. shareholder resident or doing business in a country that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the U.S. to implement a similar reporting regime will be exempt from this withholding tax if the shareholder and the applicable foreign government comply with the terms of such agreement. A Shareholder subject to such withholding tax will not receive additional amounts from the Fund to compensate for such withholding.

 

Creation and Redemption of Creation Units

An Authorized Participant who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally will recognize a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the market value of the Creation Units at the time and the sum of the exchanger’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered plus the amount of cash paid for such Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanger’s basis in the Creation Units and the sum of the aggregate market value of any securities received plus the amount of any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Any capital gain or loss realized upon the creation of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the securities exchanged for such Creation Units have been held for more than one year.

 

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Any capital gain or loss realized upon the redemption of Creation Units will generally be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the shares comprising the Creation Units have been held for more than one year. Otherwise, such capital gains or losses will be treated as short-term capital gains or losses.

 

Persons purchasing or redeeming Creation Units should consult their own tax advisers with respect to the tax treatment of any creation or redemption transaction.

 

Section 351

The Trust on behalf of a Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding shares of a Fund and if, pursuant to Section 351 of the Code, a Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Trust also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determination.

 

Tax Shelter Reporting Regulations

Under U.S. Treasury regulations, if an individual shareholder recognizes a loss of $2 million or more in any single tax year or, for a corporate shareholder, $10 million or more in any single tax year, the shareholder must file with the Internal Revenue Service a disclosure statement on Form 8886. Direct shareholders of portfolio securities are in many cases excepted from this reporting requirement, but under current guidance, shareholders of a RIC are not excepted. Future guidance may extend the current exception from this reporting requirement to shareholders of most or all RICs. The fact that a loss is reportable under these regulations does not affect the legal determination of whether the taxpayer’s treatment of the loss is proper. Shareholders should consult their tax advisers to determine the applicability of these regulations in light of their individual circumstances.

 

General Considerations

The U.S. federal income tax discussion set forth above is for general information only. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisers regarding the specific federal income tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of shares of a Fund, as well as the effect of state, local and foreign tax law and any proposed tax law changes.

 

DETERMINATION OF NAV

 

This information supplements and should be read in conjunction with the section in the Prospectus entitled “Calculating NAV.”

 

The NAV per share of a Fund is computed by dividing the value of the net assets of a Fund (i.e., the value of its total assets less total liabilities and withholdings) by the total number of shares of a Fund outstanding, rounded to the nearest cent. Expenses and fees, including without limitation, the management, administration and distribution fees, are accrued daily and taken into account for purposes of determining NAV. The NAV per share for a Fund normally is calculated by the Administrator and determined as of the regularly scheduled close of the regular trading session on the NYSE (ordinarily 4:00 p.m., Eastern Time) on each day that the Exchange is open.

 

In calculating the values of a Fund’s portfolio securities, securities listed on a securities exchange, market or automated quotation system for which quotations are readily available (except for securities traded on NASDAQ), including securities traded over the counter, are valued at the last reported sale price on the primary exchange or market (foreign or domestic) on which they are traded (or at the time as of which a Fund’s NAV is calculated if a security’s exchange is normally open at that time). If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price. For securities traded on NASDAQ, the NASDAQ Official Closing Price will be used. If available, debt securities are priced based upon valuations provided by independent, third-party pricing agents. Such values generally reflect the last reported sales price if the security is actively traded. The third-party pricing agents may also value debt securities at an evaluated bid price by employing methodologies that utilize actual market transactions, broker-supplied valuations, or other methodologies designed to identify the market value for such securities. Debt obligations with remaining maturities of sixty days or less may be valued at their amortized cost, which approximates market value. The prices for foreign securities are reported in local currency and converted to U.S. dollars using currency exchange rates. The value of a swap contract is equal to the obligation (or rights) under the swap contract, which will generally be equal to the net amounts to be paid or received under the contract based upon the relative values of the positions held by each party to the contract as determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Exchange-traded options are valued at the last reported sales price on the exchange on which they are listed. If there is no such reported sale on the valuation date, long positions are valued at the most recent bid price, and short positions are valued at the most recent ask price. OTC options are valued based upon prices determined by the applicable independent, third party pricing agent. Futures are valued at the settlement price established by the board of trade on which they are traded. Foreign currency forward contracts are valued at the current day’s interpolated foreign exchange rate, as calculated using the current day’s spot rate and the 30-, 60-, 90- and 180-day forward rates provided by an independent pricing agent. The exchange rates used for valuation are captured as of the close of the London Stock Exchange each day normally at 4:00 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Prices for most securities held by a Fund are provided daily by independent pricing agents. If a security price cannot be obtained from an independent, third-party pricing agent, the Fund seeks to obtain bid and ask prices from two broker-dealers who make a market in the portfolio instrument and determines the average of the two.

 

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Investments in open-end investment companies that do not trade on an exchange are valued at the end of day NAV per share. Investments in open-end investment companies that trade on an exchange are valued at the last reported sale price or official closing price as of the close of the customary trading session on the exchange where the security is principally traded. If there is no such reported sale, such securities are valued at the most recently reported bid price.

 

Investments for which market prices are not “readily available,” or are not deemed to reflect current market values, or are debt securities where no evaluated price is available from the Trust’s third-party pricing agents pursuant to established methodologies, are fair valued in accordance with the Trust’s valuation policies and procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Some of the more common reasons that may necessitate that a security be valued using “fair value” pricing may include, but are not limited to: the security’s trading has been halted or suspended; the security’s primary trading market is temporarily closed; or the security has not been traded for an extended period of time. A Fund may fair value certain of the foreign securities held by a Fund each day a Fund calculates its NAV.

 

In addition, a Fund may fair value its securities if an event that may materially affect the value of a Fund’s securities that trade outside of the United States (a “Significant Event”) has occurred between the time of the security’s last close and the time that a Fund calculates its NAV. A Significant Event may relate to a single issuer or to an entire market sector, country or region. Events that may be Significant Events may include: government actions, natural disasters, armed conflict, acts of terrorism and significant market fluctuations.

 

If Krane becomes aware of a Significant Event that has occurred with respect to a portfolio instrument or group of portfolio instruments after the closing of the exchange or market on which the portfolio instrument or portfolio instruments principally trade, but before the time at which a Fund calculates its NAV, it will notify the Administrator and may request that an ad hoc meeting of the Fair Valuation Committee be called.

 

With respect to trade-halted securities, the Trust typically will fair value a trade-halted security by adjusting the security’s last market close price by the security’s sector performance, as measured by a predetermined index, unless Krane recommends and the Trust’s Fair Valuation Committee determines to make additional adjustments. Certain foreign securities exchanges have mechanisms in place that confine one day’s price movement in an individual security to a pre-determined price range based on that day’s opening price (“Collared Securities”). Fair value determinations for Collared Securities will generally be capped based on any applicable pre-determined “limit down” or “limit up” prices established by the relevant foreign securities exchange. As an example, China A-Shares can only be plus or minus ten percent in one day of trading in the relevant mainland China equity market. As a result, the fair value price determination on a given day will generally be capped plus or minus ten percent.

 

 55

 

 

Fair value pricing involves subjective judgments and it is possible that a fair value determination for a security is materially different than the value that could actually be realized upon the sale of the security or that another fund that uses market quotations or its own fair value procedures to price the same securities. In addition, fair value pricing could result in a difference between the prices used to calculate a Fund’s NAV and the prices used by the Underlying Index. This may adversely affect a Fund’s ability to track the Underlying Index.

 

Trading in securities on many foreign exchanges is normally completed before the close of business on each Business Day. In addition, securities trading in a particular country or countries may not take place on each Business Day or may take place on days that are not Business Days. Changes in valuations on certain securities may occur at times or on days on which a Fund’s NAV is not calculated and on which Fund shares do not trade and sales and redemptions of shares do not occur. As a result, the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities and the net asset value of its shares may change on days when you will not be able to purchase or sell your shares.

 

Fund shares are purchased or sold on a national securities exchange at market prices, which may be higher or lower than NAV. No secondary sales will be made to brokers or dealers at a concession by the Distributor or by a Fund. Purchases and sales of shares in the secondary market, which will not involve a Fund, will be subject to customary brokerage commissions and charges. Transactions in Fund shares will be priced at NAV only if you purchase or redeem shares directly from a Fund in Creation Units.

 

DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

 

The Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, at least annually. The Fund also distributes its net realized capital gains, if any, to investors annually. The Fund may make distributions on a more frequent basis. The Fund may occasionally be required to make supplemental distributions at some other time during the year. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole shares only if the broker through whom you purchased shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.

 

The Trust reserves the right to declare special distributions if, in its reasonable discretion, such action is necessary or advisable.

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

Portfolio Holdings 

The Board has approved portfolio holdings disclosure policies and procedures that govern the timing and circumstances of disclosure to shareholders and third parties of a Fund’s portfolio holdings and the use of material non-public information about a Fund’s holdings. These policies and procedures, as described below, are designed to ensure that disclosure of portfolio holdings is in the best interests of Fund shareholders, and address conflicts of interest between the interests of Fund shareholders and those of Krane, a sub-adviser, the Distributor, or any affiliated person of a Fund, Krane, a sub-adviser or the Distributor. The policies and procedures apply to all officers, employees, and agents of a Fund, including Krane and a sub-adviser.

 

The Fund discloses on its website at the start of each Business Day the identities and quantities of the securities and other assets held by a Fund that will form the basis of a Fund’s calculation of its NAV on that Business Day. The portfolio holdings so disclosed will be based on information as of the close of business on the prior Business Day. This information is generally used in connection with the creation and redemption process and is disseminated on a daily basis through the facilities of the Exchange, the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) and/or other fee-based subscription services to NSCC members and/or subscribers to those other fee-based subscription services, including Authorized Participants, and to entities that publish and/or analyze such information in connection with the process of purchasing or redeeming Creation Units or trading shares of a Fund in the secondary market.

 

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Daily access to non-public information concerning a Fund’s portfolio holdings also is permitted (i) to certain personnel of those service providers that are involved in portfolio management and providing administrative, operational, risk management, or other support to portfolio management, including affiliated broker-dealers and/or Authorized Participants, and (ii) to other personnel of Krane and other service providers, such as a sub-adviser, the administrator, the custodian and the fund accountant, who deal directly with, or assist in, functions related to investment management, administration, custody and fund accounting, as may be necessary to conduct business in the ordinary course in a manner consistent with agreements with a Fund and/or the terms of a Fund’s current registration statement.

 

From time to time, non-public information concerning Fund portfolio holdings also may be provided to other entities that provide services to a Fund, including, among others, rating or ranking organizations, in the ordinary course of business, no earlier than one business day following the date of the information. Portfolio holdings information made available in connection with the creation and redemption process may be provided to other entities that provide services to a Fund in the ordinary course of business after it has been disseminated to the NSCC.

 

A Fund’s chief compliance officer, or a compliance manager designated by the chief compliance officer, also may grant exceptions to permit additional disclosure of Fund portfolio holdings information at differing times and with different lag times (the period from the date of the information to the date the information is made available), if any, in instances where a Fund has legitimate business purposes for doing so, it is in the best interests of shareholders, and the recipients are subject to a duty of confidentiality, including a duty not to trade on the nonpublic information and are required to execute an agreement to that effect. The Board will be informed of any such disclosures at its next regularly scheduled meeting or as soon as is reasonably practicable thereafter. In no event will a Fund, Krane, a sub-adviser, or any other party receive any direct or indirect compensation in connection with the disclosure of information about a Fund’s portfolio holdings.

 

 57

 

 

The Board exercises continuing oversight of the disclosure of a Fund’s portfolio holdings by (1) overseeing the implementation and enforcement of the Trust’s the portfolio holdings policies and procedures by a Fund’s chief compliance officer and a Fund, (2) considering reports and recommendations by the chief compliance officer concerning any material compliance matters (as defined in Rule 38a-1 under the 1940 Act and Rule 206(4)-7 under the Advisers Act) that may arise in connection with any portfolio holdings policies and procedures, and (3) considering whether to approve or ratify any amendment to any of the portfolio holdings policies and procedures. The Board and a Fund reserve the right to amend the policies and procedures in their sole discretion at any time and from time to time without prior notice to shareholders. For purposes of the policies and procedures, the term “portfolio holdings” means the equity and debt securities (e.g., stocks and bonds) held by a Fund and does not mean the cash investments, derivatives, and other investment positions (collectively, other investment positions) held by a Fund, if any, which are not disclosed.

 

In addition to the permitted disclosures described above, a Fund must disclose its complete holdings quarterly within 60 days of the end of each fiscal quarter in the Annual Report and Semi-Annual Report to Fund shareholders and in the quarterly holdings report on Form N-Q. These reports are available, free of charge, on the EDGAR database on the SEC’s web site at www.sec.gov.

 

No person is authorized to disclose a Fund’s portfolio holdings or other investment positions except in accordance with the Trust’s policies and procedures.

 

Voting Rights

Each share of a Fund is entitled to one vote with respect to matters upon which a shareholder vote is required consistent with the requirements of the 1940 Act and the rules promulgated thereunder. Shareholders receive one vote for every full Fund share owned. At such time as the Trust offers multiple funds, each fund will vote separately on matters relating solely to that fund. All shares of a Fund are freely transferable.

 

As a Delaware statutory trust, the Trust is not required to hold annual shareholder meetings unless otherwise required by the 1940 Act. However, for the purpose of considering removal of a Trustee as provided in Section 16(c) of the 1940 Act, a special meeting may be called by shareholders owning at least 10% of the outstanding shares of the Trust. If a meeting is requested by shareholders, the Trust will provide appropriate assistance and information to the shareholders who requested the meeting. Shareholder inquiries can be made by contacting the Trust at the number and website address provided under “Shareholder Inquiries” below.

 

Shareholder Inquiries

Shareholders may visit the Trust’s web site at www.kraneshares.com or call 1.855.857.2638 or call to obtain information about account statements, procedures, and other related information.

 

COUNSEL

 

K&L Gates LLP, 1601 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, serves as counsel to the Trust.

 

INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

KPMG LLP, 1601 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, the Trust’s independent registered public accounting firm, provides audit and tax services and other assurance services with respect to filings with the SEC.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

Once available, the Fund’s financial statements will be incorporated by reference into this SAI.

 

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APPENDIX A - PROXY VOTING POLICY

 

Form N-1A requires an investment company to describe the policies and procedures that it uses to determine how to vote proxies relating to portfolio securities. In connection with this requirement, the Trust’s Board has delegated voting of the Fund’s proxies to Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Adviser” or “KFA”), subject to the Board’s oversight. The Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with the Fund and its shareholders’ best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Adviser has adopted the following as its proxy voting policies and procedures:

 

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

 

 

 

Background

 

An investment adviser has a duty of care and loyalty to its Clients and Investors with respect to monitoring corporate events and exercising proxy authority in the best interests of such Clients and Investors. KFA will adhere to Rule 206(4)-6 of the Advisers Act and all other applicable laws and regulations in regard to the voting of proxies.

 

Policies and Procedures

 

Proxy Voting

 

KFA votes proxies for the securities in the KraneShares Trust, on behalf of each series of the Trust (the “Funds”) for which it has been granted investment authority using the following guidelines to comply with Rule 206(4)-6 under the Advisers Act. Specifically, Rule 206(4)-6 requires that the Adviser:

 

Adopt and implement written policies and procedures reasonably designed to ensure that it votes client securities in the best interest of clients;

Disclose to clients how they may obtain information from KFA about how KFA voted proxies for their securities; and

Describe KFA’s proxy voting policies and procedures to clients and furnish them with a copy of such policies and procedures on request.

 

Objective

 

Where KFA is given responsibility for voting proxies, KFA must take reasonable steps under the circumstances to ensure that proxies are received and voted in the best interest of the Funds, which generally means voting proxies with a view to enhancing the value of the shares of stock held in a Fund’s portfolio.

 

KFA has retained Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. (“Broadridge”) to track the Fund’s proxy votes and the subsequent action the Fund took upon receipt of the vote, and where applicable, the issuer’s management and shareholder recommendations.

 

General Guidelines

 

KFA generally votes in accordance with Glass Lewis & Co.’s pre-determined proxy voting guidelines (“Guidelines”), unless KFA believes it is in the best interest of a Fund to vote differently.

 

A-1

 

 

Conflicts of Interests

 

KFA has adopted procedures that are designed to identify conflicts or potential conflicts that could arise between its own interests and those of the Funds. For example, conflicts of interest may arise when:

 

proxy votes regarding non-routine matters are solicited by an issuer that has an institutional separate account relationship with KFA;1

a proponent of a proxy proposal has a business relationship with KFA; or

KFA has business relationships with participants in proxy contests, corporate directors or director candidates.

 

KFA’s senior management, in coordination with its CCO, are primarily responsible for monitoring and resolving possible material conflicts of interest with respect to proxy voting. Any person with knowledge of a personal conflict of interest relating to a particular matter shall disclose that conflict to the CCO and may be required to recuse him or herself from the proxy voting process. If it is determined that a conflict of interest or potential conflict of interest is material, the CCO will work with appropriate personnel to agree upon a method to resolve such conflict before voting proxies affected by the conflict. It is KFA’s expectation that voting in accordance with the Guidelines should, in most cases, adequately address any possible conflicts of interest. All overrides to vote contrary to the Guidelines must be documented and approved by KFA’s CCO.

 

Special Issues with Voting Foreign Proxies

 

Although KFA has arrangements with the proxy vendor to vote foreign proxies, voting proxies with respect to shares of foreign stocks may involve significantly greater effort and corresponding cost due to the variety of regulatory schemes and corporate practices in foreign countries with respect to proxy voting. Logistical problems in voting foreign proxies include the following:

 

Each country has its own rules and practices regarding shareholder notification, voting restrictions, registration conditions and share blocking.

To vote shares in some countries, the shares may be “blocked” by the custodian or depository (or bearer shares deposited with a specified financial institution) for a specified number of days (usually five or fewer but sometimes longer) before or after the shareholder meeting. When blocked, shares typically may not be traded until the day after the blocking period. KFA may refrain from voting shares of foreign stocks subject to blocking restrictions where, in KFA’s judgment, the benefit from voting the shares is outweighed by the interest of maintaining client liquidity in the shares. This decision generally is made on a case-by-case basis based on relevant factors, including the length of the blocking period, the significance of the holding, and whether the stock is considered a long-term holding.

 

 

1        For this purpose, KFA generally will consider as “non-routine” any matter listed in New York Stock Exchange Rule 452.11, relating to when a member adviser may not vote a proxy without instructions from its customer (for example, contested matters are deemed non-routine). 

 

A-2

 

 

Often it is difficult to ascertain the date of a shareholder meeting because certain countries, such as France, do not require companies to publish announcements in any official stock exchange publication.

Timeframes between shareholder notification, distribution of proxy materials, book-closure and the actual meeting date may be too short to allow timely action.

Language barriers will generally mean that an English translation of proxy information must be obtained or commissioned before the relevant shareholder meeting.

Some companies and/or jurisdictions require that, in order to be eligible to vote, the shares of the beneficial holders be registered in the company’s share registry.

Lack of a “proxy voting service” by custodians in certain countries.

 

Proxy Voting Reporting

 

Information regarding how KFA, on behalf of the Funds, voted proxies is available on the SEC’s website at http://sec.gov.

 

KFA must provide the Funds’ Board with a report that describes any significant issues that arose during the year as they relate to voting proxies including any votes that were made inconsistent with KFA’s stated proxy voting policies and procedures. Additionally, on an at least annual basis, any changes to KFA’s proxy voting policies and procedure as they relate to the Funds, must be reported to the Board, which shall review and in its discretion, approve the use of such amended proxy voting policies and procedures.

 

Securities Lending

 

Voting rights on the loaned securities may pass to the borrower, provided that KFA must be able to vote proxies on the securities loaned, either by terminating the loan or by entering into an alternative arrangement with the borrower. KFA may instruct its securities lending agent to terminate loans and recall securities so that the securities may be voted by KFA if so determined by KFA consistent with its fiduciary duty to each Fund. Such notice shall be provided no less than the normal settlement period for the securities in question prior to the record date for the proxy vote or other corporate entitlement.

 

Class Actions

 

KFA does not commit to participate in all class actions that may arise with regard to Fund portfolio securities. Upon receipt of class action information, the COO or CCO will evaluate the costs versus the benefits of participation in the suit for each pertinent Fund. Unless the COO or CCO determines that it would be in the best interest of the Fund, KFA will not participate in the class action on behalf of the Fund. The COO or CCO will either return to the sender any documents inadvertently received by Adviser regarding class actions or forward the documents to the pertinent Fund(s). If a determination is made that the benefits of participating in a class action outweigh the cost of participation, the Adviser will distribute any compensation received pro rata to the investors in the Fund(s) based on the current percentage holdings in the Fund or as otherwise appropriately arranged and disclosed to investors.

 

Class Action Notices should be forwarded to the CCO upon receipt.

 

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2018

 

PROXY PAPER

 

GUIDELINES

 

AN OVERVIEW OF THE GLASS LEWIS APPROACH TO PROXY ADVICE

 

 

 

INVESTMENT MANAGER POLICY

 

AN ADDENDUM TO THE PROXY PAPER POLICY GUIDELINES

 

 

(GRAPHIC) 

 

(GLASS LEWIS LOGO)

 

A-4

 

 

The Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines are designed to maximize returns for investment managers by voting in a manner consistent with such managers’ active investment decision-making. The guidelines are designed to increase investor’s potential financial gain through the use of the shareholder vote while also allowing management and the board discretion to direct the operations, including governance and compensation, of the firm.

 

The guidelines will ensure that all issues brought to shareholders are analyzed in light of the fiduciary responsibilities unique to investment advisors and investment companies on behalf of individual investor clients including mutual fund shareholders. The guidelines will encourage the maximization of return for such clients through identifying and avoiding financial, audit and corporate governance risks.

 

MANAGEMENT PROPOSALS

 

ELECTION OF DIRECTORS

 

In analyzing directors and boards, Glass Lewis’ Investment Manager Guidelines generally support the election of incumbent directors except when a majority of the company’s directors are not independent or where directors fail to attend at least 75% of board and committee meetings. In a contested election, we will apply the standard Glass Lewis recommendation.

 

AUDITOR

 

The Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines will generally support auditor ratification except when the non-audit fees exceed the audit fees paid to the auditor.

 

COMPENSATION

 

Glass Lewis recognizes the importance in designing appropriate executive compensation plans that truly reward pay for performance. We evaluate equity compensation plans based upon their specific features and will vote against plans than would result in total overhang greater than 20% or that allow the repricing of options without shareholder approval.

 

The Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines will follow the general Glass Lewis recommendation when voting on management advisory votes on compensation (“say-on-pay”) and on executive compensation arrangements in connection with merger transactions (i.e., golden parachutes). Further, the Investment Manager Guidelines will follow the Glass Lewis recommendation when voting on the preferred frequency of advisory compensation votes.

 

AUTHORIZED SHARES

 

Having sufficient available authorized shares allows management to avail itself of rapidly developing opportunities as well as to effectively operate the business. However, we believe that for significant transactions management should seek shareholders approval to justify the use of additional shares. Therefore shareholders should not approve the creation of a large pool of unallocated shares without some rational of the purpose of such shares. Accordingly, where we find that the company has not provided an appropriate plan for use of the proposed shares, or where the number of shares far exceeds those needed to accomplish a detailed plan, we typically vote against the authorization of additional shares. We also vote against the creation of or increase in (i) blank check preferred shares and (ii) dual or multiple class capitalizations.

 

SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS

 

Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines will generally support proposals increasing or enhancing shareholder rights such as declassifying the board, allowing shareholders to call a special meeting, eliminating supermajority voting and adopting majority voting for the election of directors. Similarly, the Investment Manager Guidelines will generally vote against proposals to eliminate or reduce shareholder rights.

  

A-5

 

 

MERGERS/ACQUISITIONS

 

Glass Lewis undertakes a thorough examination of the economic implications of a proposed merger or acquisition to determine the transaction’s likelihood of maximizing shareholder return. We examine the process used to negotiate the transaction as well as the terms of the transaction in making our voting recommendation.

 

SHAREHOLDER PROPOSALS

 

We review and vote on shareholder proposals on a case-by-case basis. We recommend supporting shareholder proposals if the requested action would increase shareholder value, mitigate risk or enhance shareholder rights but generally recommend voting against those that would not ultimately impact performance.

 

GOVERNANCE

 

The Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines will support reasonable initiatives that seek to enhance shareholder rights, such as the introduction of majority voting to elect directors, elimination in/reduction of supermajority provisions, the declassification of the board and requiring the submission of shareholder rights’ plans to a shareholder vote. The guidelines generally support reasonable, well-targeted proposals to allow increased shareholder participation at shareholder meetings through the ability to call special meetings and ability for shareholders to nominate director candidates to a company’s board of directors. However, the Investment Manager Guidelines will vote against proposals to require separating the roles of CEO and chair.

 

COMPENSATION

 

The Glass Lewis Investment Manager Guidelines will generally oppose any shareholder proposals seeking to limit compensation in amount or design. However, the guidelines will vote for reasonable and properly- targeted shareholder initiatives such as to require shareholder approval to reprice options, to link pay with performance, to eliminate or require shareholder approval of golden coffins, to allow a shareholder vote on excessive golden parachutes (i.e., greater than 2.99 times annual compensation) and to clawback unearned bonuses. The Investment Manager Guidelines will vote against requiring companies to allow shareholders an advisory compensation vote.

 

ENVIRONMENT

 

Glass Lewis’ Investment Manager Guidelines vote against proposals seeking to cease a certain practice or take certain actions related to a company’s activities or operations. Further, the Glass Lewis’ Investment Manager Guidelines generally vote against proposals regarding enhanced environmental disclosure and reporting, including those seeking sustainability reporting and disclosure about company’s greenhouse gas emissions, as well as those advocating compliance with international environmental conventions and adherence to environmental principles like those promulgated by CERES.

 

SOCIAL

 

Glass Lewis’ Investment Manager Guidelines generally oppose proposals requesting companies adhere to labor or worker treatment codes of conduct, such as those espoused by the International Labor Organization, relating to labor standards, human rights conventions and corporate responsibility at large conventions and principles. The guidelines will also vote against proposals seeking disclosure concerning the rights of workers, impact on local stakeholders, workers’ rights and human rights in general. Furthermore, the Investment Manager Guidelines oppose increased reporting and review of a company’s political and charitable spending as well as its lobbying practices.

 

A-6

 

 

DISCLAIMER

 

This document is intended to provide an overview of Glass Lewis’ proxy voting policies and guidelines. It is not intended to be exhaustive and does not address all potential voting issues. Additionally, none of the information contained herein should be relied upon as investment advice. The content of this document has been developed based on Glass Lewis’ experience with proxy voting and corporate governance issues, engagement with clients and issuers and review of relevant studies and surveys, and has not been tailored to any specific person.

 

No representations or warranties express or implied, are made as to the accuracy or completeness of any information included herein. In addition, Glass Lewis shall not be liable for any losses or damages arising from or in connection with the information contained herein or the use, reliance on or inability to use any such information. Glass Lewis expects its subscribers possess sufficient experience and knowledge to make their own decisions entirely independent of any information contained in this document.

 

All information contained in this report is protected by law, including but not limited to, copyright law, and none of such information may be copied or otherwise reproduced, repackaged, further transmitted, transferred, disseminated, redistributed or resold, or stored for subsequent use for any such purpose, in whole or in part, in any form or manner or by any means whatsoever, by any person without Glass Lewis’ prior written consent.

 

© 2018 Glass, Lewis & Co., Glass Lewis Europe, Ltd., and CGI Glass Lewis Pty Ltd. (collectively, “Glass Lewis”). All Rights Reserved.

 

A-7

 

 

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A-8

 

 

APPENDIX B – DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES RATINGS

 

Corporate and Municipal Long-Term Bond Ratings

 

Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) Corporate and Municipal Long-Term Bond Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of S&P’s long-term corporate and municipal bond ratings have been published by Standard & Poor’s Financial Service LLC.

 

AAA - An obligation rated ‘AAA’ has the highest rating assigned by S&P. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is extremely strong.

 

AA - An obligation rated ‘AA’ differs from the highest-rated obligations only to a small degree. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is very strong.

 

A - An obligation rated ‘A’ is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher-rated categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is still strong.

 

BBB - An obligation rated ‘BBB’ exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

BB, B, CCC, CC, and C - Obligations rated ‘BB’, ‘B’, ‘CCC’, ‘CC’, and ‘C’ are regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. ‘BB’ indicates the least degree of speculation and ‘C’ the highest. While such obligations will likely have some quality and protective characteristics, these may be outweighed by large uncertainties or major exposures to adverse conditions.

 

BB - An obligation rated ‘BB’ is less vulnerable to nonpayment than other speculative issues. However, it faces major ongoing uncertainties or exposure to adverse business, financial, or economic conditions which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

B - An obligation rated ‘B’ is more vulnerable to nonpayment than obligations rated ‘BB’, but the obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. Adverse business, financial, or economic conditions will likely impair the obligor’s capacity or willingness to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

CCC - An obligation rated ‘CCC’ is currently vulnerable to nonpayment, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation. In the event of adverse business, financial, or economic conditions, the obligor is not likely to have the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

CC - An obligation rated ‘CC’ is currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment.

 

C - A ‘C’ rating is assigned to obligations that are currently highly vulnerable to nonpayment, obligations that have payment arrearages allowed by the terms of the documents, or obligations of an issuer that is the subject of a bankruptcy petition or similar action which have not experienced a payment default. Among others, the ‘C’ rating may be assigned to subordinated debt, preferred stock or other obligations on which cash payments have been suspended in accordance with the instrument’s terms or when preferred stock is the subject of a distressed exchange offer, whereby some or all of the issue is either repurchased for an amount of cash or replaced by other instruments having a total value that is less than par.

 

B-1

 

 

D - An obligation rated ‘D’ is in payment default. The ‘D’ rating category is used when payments on an obligation, including a regulatory capital instrument, are not made on the date due even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless Standard & Poor’s believes that such payments will be made during such grace period. The ‘D’ rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized. An obligation’s rating is lowered to ‘D’ upon completion of a distressed exchange offer, whereby some or all of the issue is either repurchased for an amount of cash or replaced by other instruments having a total value that is less than par.

 

Plus (+) or Minus (-) - The ratings from ‘AA’ to ‘CCC’ may be modified by the addition of a plus (+) or minus (-) sign to show relative standing within the major rating categories.

 

NR - This indicates that a rating has not been assigned or is no longer assigned.

 

Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”) Long-Term Corporate Bond Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Moody’s long-term corporate bond ratings have been published by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Moody’s Analytics Inc.

 

Aaa - Obligations rated Aaa are judged to be of the highest quality, with minimal credit risk.

 

Aa - Obligations rated Aa are judged to be of high quality and are subject to very low credit risk.

 

A - Obligations rated A are considered upper-medium grade and are subject to low credit risk.

 

Baa - Obligations rated Baa are subject to moderate credit risk. They are considered medium-grade and as such may possess certain speculative characteristics.

 

Ba - Obligations rated Ba are judged to have speculative elements and are subject to substantial credit risk.

 

B - Obligations rated B are considered speculative and are subject to high credit risk.

 

Caa - Obligations rated Caa are judged to be speculative of poor standing and are subject to very high credit risk.

 

Ca - Obligations rated Ca are highly speculative and are likely in, or very near, default, with some prospect of recovery of principal and interest.

 

C - Obligations rated C are the lowest rated class of bonds and are typically in default, with little prospect for recovery of principal or interest.

 

Modifiers: Moody’s appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating classification from Aa through Caa.

 

The modifier 1 indicates that the obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.

 

Additionally, a “(hyb)” indicator is appended to all ratings of hybrid securities issued by banks, insurers, finance companies, and securities firms. By their terms, hybrid securities allow for the omission of scheduled dividends, interest, or principal payments, which can potentially result in impairment if such an omission occurs. Hybrid securities may also be subject to contractually allowable write-downs of principal that could result in impairment. Together with the hybrid indicator, the long-term obligation rating assigned to a hybrid security is an expression of the relative credit risk associated with that security.

 

B-2

 

 

Moody’s U.S. Municipal Long-Term Bond Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Moody’s long-term municipal bond ratings have been published by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Moody’s Analytics Inc.

 

Aaa - Issuers or issues rated Aaa demonstrate the strongest creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

Aa - Issuers or issues rated Aa demonstrate very strong creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

A - Issuers or issues rated A present above-average creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

Baa - Issuers or issues rated Baa represent average creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax- exempt issuers or issues.

 

Ba - Issuers or issues rated Ba demonstrate below-average creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

B - Issuers or issues rated B demonstrate weak creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax- exempt issuers or issues.

 

Caa - Issuers or issues rated Caa demonstrate very weak creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

Ca - Issuers or issues rated Ca demonstrate extremely weak creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

C - Issuers or issues rated C demonstrate the weakest creditworthiness relative to other U.S. municipal or tax-exempt issuers or issues.

 

Modifiers: Moody’s appends numerical modifiers 1, 2, and 3 to each generic rating category from Aa through Caa. The modifier 1 indicates that the issuer or obligation ranks in the higher end of its generic rating category; the modifier 2 indicates a mid-range ranking; and the modifier 3 indicates a ranking in the lower end of that generic rating category.

 

Fitch Ratings Ltd. (“Fitch”) Corporate Bond Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Fitch’s long-term corporate bond ratings have been published by Fitch, Inc. and Fitch Ratings Ltd.

 

AAA - Highest credit quality. ‘AAA’ ratings denote the lowest expectation of credit risk. They are assigned only in cases of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.

 

B-3

 

 

AA - Very high credit quality. ‘AA’ ratings denote expectations of very low credit risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.

 

A - High credit quality. ‘A’ ratings denote expectations of low credit risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. This capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to adverse business or economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.

 

BBB - Good credit quality. ‘BBB’ ratings indicate that expectations of credit risk are currently low. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate but adverse business or economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity.

 

BB - Speculative. ‘BB’ ratings indicate an elevated vulnerability to credit risk, particularly in the event of adverse changes in business or economic conditions over time; however, business or financial alternatives may be available to allow financial commitments to be met.

 

B - Highly speculative. ‘B’ ratings indicate that material credit risk is present. For performing obligations, default risk is commensurate with the issuer being rated with an Issuer Default Rating (“IDR”) in the ranges ‘BB’ to ‘C’. For non-performing obligations, the obligation or issuer is in default, or has deferred payment, but the rated obligation is expected to have extremely high recovery rates consistent with a Recovery Rating of ‘RR1’ (outstanding recovery prospects given default).

 

CCC - Substantial credit risk. ‘CCC’ ratings indicate that substantial credit risk is present. For performing obligations, default risk is commensurate with an IDR in the ranges ‘B’ to ‘C’. For non-performing obligations, the obligation or issuer is in default, or has deferred payment, but the rated obligation is expected to have a superior recovery rate consistent with a Recovery Rating of ‘RR2’ (superior recovery prospects given default).

 

CC - Very high levels of credit risk. ‘CC’ ratings indicate very high levels of credit risk. For performing obligations, default risk is commensurate with an IDR in the ranges ‘B’ to ‘C’. For non-performing obligations, the obligation or issuer is in default, or has deferred payment, but the rated obligation is expected to have a good recovery rate consistent with a Recovery Rating of ‘RR3’ (good recovery prospects given default).

 

C - Exceptionally high levels of credit risk. ‘C’ indicates exceptionally high levels of credit risk. For performing obligations, default risk is commensurate with an IDR in the ranges ‘B’ to ‘C’. For non-performing obligations, the obligation or issuer is in default, or has deferred payment, and the rated obligation is expected to have an average, below-average or poor recovery rate consistent with a Recovery Rating of ‘RR4’ (average recovery prospects given default), ‘RR5’ (below average recovery prospects given default) or ‘RR6’ (poor recovery prospects given default).

 

Defaulted obligations typically are not assigned ‘D’ ratings, but are instead rated in the ‘B’ to ‘C’ rating categories, depending upon their recovery prospects and other relevant characteristics. This approach better aligns obligations that have comparable overall expected loss but varying vulnerability to default and loss.

 

Plus (+) or Minus (-) The modifiers “+” or “-” may be appended to a rating to denote relative status within major rating categories. Such suffixes are not added to the ‘AAA’ obligation rating category, or to corporate finance obligation ratings in the categories below ‘B’.

 

The terms “investment grade” and “speculative grade” have established themselves over time as shorthand to describe the categories ‘AAA’ to ‘BBB’ (investment grade) and ‘BB’ to ‘D’ (speculative grade). The terms “investment grade” and “speculative grade” are market conventions, and do not imply any recommendation or endorsement of a specific security for investment purposes. “Investment grade” categories indicate relatively low to moderate credit risk, while ratings in the “speculative” categories either signal a higher level of credit risk or that a default has already occurred.

 

B-4

 

 

Fitch’s Municipal Bond Long-Term Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Fitch’s long-term municipal bond ratings have been published by Fitch, Inc. and Fitch Ratings Ltd.

 

AAA - Highest credit quality. ‘AAA’ ratings denote the lowest expectation of default risk. They are assigned only in cases of exceptionally strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is highly unlikely to be adversely affected by foreseeable events.

 

AA - Very high credit quality. ‘AA’ ratings denote expectations of very low default risk. They indicate very strong capacity for payment of financial commitments. This capacity is not significantly vulnerable to foreseeable events.

 

A - High credit quality. ‘A’ ratings denote expectations of low default risk. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered strong. This capacity may, nevertheless, be more vulnerable to adverse business or economic conditions than is the case for higher ratings.

 

BBB - Good credit quality. ‘BBB’ ratings indicate that expectations of credit risk are currently low. The capacity for payment of financial commitments is considered adequate but adverse business or economic conditions are more likely to impair this capacity.

 

BB - Speculative. ‘BB’ ratings indicate an elevated vulnerability to default risk, particularly in the event of adverse changes in business or economic conditions over time; however, business or financial alternatives may be available to allow financial commitments to be met.

 

B - Highly speculative. ‘B’ ratings indicate that material default risk is present, but a limited margin of safety remains. Financial commitments are currently being met; however, capacity for continued payment is vulnerable to deterioration in the business and economic environment.

 

CCC - Substantial credit risk. ‘CCC’ ratings indicate that default is a real possibility.

 

CC - Very high levels of credit risk. ‘CC’ ratings indicate default of some kind appears probable.

 

C - Exceptionally high levels of credit risk. ‘C’ ratings indicate default appears imminent or inevitable.

 

D - Default. ‘D’ ratings indicate a default. Default generally is defined as one of the following:

 

• failure to make payment of principal and/or interest under the contractual terms of the rated obligation;

 

• the bankruptcy filings, administration, receivership, liquidation or other winding-up or cessation of the business of an issuer/obligor; or

 

• the coercive exchange of an obligation, where creditors were offered securities with diminished structural or economic terms compared with the existing obligation.

 

Structured Finance Defaults – “Imminent” default, categorized under ‘C’, typically refers to the occasion where a payment default has been intimated by the issuer, and is all but inevitable. This may, for example, be where an issuer has missed a scheduled payment, but (as is typical) has a grace period during which it may cure the payment default. Another alternative would be where an issuer has formally announced a coercive debt exchange, but the date of the exchange still lies several days or weeks in the immediate future.

 

B-5

 

 

Additionally, in structured finance transactions, where analysis indicates that an instrument is irrevocably impaired such that it is not expected to pay interest and/or principal in full in accordance with the terms of the obligation’s documentation during the life of the transaction, but where no payment default in accordance with the terms of the documentation is imminent, the obligation will typically be rated in the ‘C’ category.

 

Structured Finance Writedowns - Where an instrument has experienced an involuntary and, in the agency’s opinion, irreversible “writedown” of principal (i.e. other than through amortization, and resulting in a loss to the investor), a credit rating of ‘D’ will be assigned to the instrument. Where the agency believes the “writedown” may prove to be temporary (and the loss may be “written up” again in future if and when performance improves), then a credit rating of ‘C’ will typically be assigned. Should the “writedown” then later be reversed, the credit rating will be raised to an appropriate level for that instrument. Should the “writedown” later be deemed as irreversible, the credit rating will be lowered to ‘D’.

 

Notes: In the case of structured and project finance, while the ratings do not address the loss severity given default of the rated liability, loss severity assumptions on the underlying assets are nonetheless typically included as part of the analysis. Loss severity assumptions are used to derive pool cash flows available to service the rated liability. In the case of public finance, the ratings also do not address the loss given default of the rated liability, focusing instead on the vulnerability to default of the rated liability.

 

Plus (+) or Minus (-) - The modifiers “+” or “-”may be appended to a rating to denote relative status within major rating categories. Such suffixes are not added to the ‘AAA’ Long-Term Rating category, or to Long-Term Rating categories below ‘B’.

 

Municipal Short-Term Bond Ratings

 

S&P’s Municipal Short-Term Bond Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of S&P’s short-term municipal ratings have been published by Standard & Poor’s Financial Service LLC.

 

SP-1 - Strong capacity to pay principal and interest. An issue determined to possess a very strong capacity to pay debt service is given a plus (+) designation.

 

SP-2 - Satisfactory capacity to pay principal and interest, with some vulnerability to adverse financial and economic changes over the term of the notes.

 

SP-3 - Speculative capacity to pay principal and interest.

 

D - ‘D’ is assigned upon failure to pay the note when due, completion of a distressed exchange offer, or the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of similar action and where default on an obligation is a virtual certainty, for example due to automatic stay provisions.

 

Moody’s Short-Term Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Moody’s short-term municipal ratings have been published by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Moody’s Analytics Inc.

 

B-6

 

 

MIG 1 - This designation denotes superior credit quality. Excellent protection is afforded by established cash flows, highly reliable liquidity support, or demonstrated broad-based access to the market for refinancing.

 

MIG 2 - This designation denotes strong credit quality. Margins of protection are ample, although not as large as in the preceding group.

 

MIG 3 - This designation denotes acceptable credit quality. Liquidity and cash-flow protection may be narrow, and market access for refinancing is likely to be less well-established.

 

SG - This designation denotes speculative-grade credit quality. Debt instruments in this category may lack sufficient margins of protection.

 

Fitch’s Short-Term Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Fitch’s short-term ratings have been published by Fitch, Inc. and Fitch Ratings Ltd.

 

F1 - Highest short-term credit quality. Indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments; may have an added “+” to denote any exceptionally strong credit feature.

 

F2 - Good short-term credit quality. Good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.

 

F3 - Fair short-term credit quality. The intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments is adequate.

 

B - Speculative short-term credit quality. Minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus heightened vulnerability to near term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.

 

C - High short-term default risk. Default is a real possibility.

 

RD - Restricted default. Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Applicable to entity ratings only.

 

D - Default. Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a specific short-term obligation.

 

Commercial Paper Ratings

 

S&P’s Commercial Paper Ratings:

The following descriptions of S&P’s commercial paper ratings have been published by Standard & Poor’s Financial Service LLC.

 

A-1 - A short-term obligation rated ‘A-1’ is rated in the highest category by Standard & Poor’s. The obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is strong. Within this category, certain obligations are designated with a plus sign (+). This indicates that the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on these obligations is extremely strong.

 

A-2 - A short-term obligation rated ‘A-2’ is somewhat more susceptible to the adverse effects of changes in

 

circumstances and economic conditions than obligations in higher rating categories. However, the obligor’s capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation is satisfactory.

 

A-3 - A short-term obligation rated ‘A-3’ exhibits adequate protection parameters. However, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity of the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

B-7

 

 

B - A short-term obligation rated ‘B’ is regarded as having significant speculative characteristics. Ratings of ‘B-1’, ‘B-2’, and ‘B-3’ may be assigned to indicate finer distinctions within the ‘B’ category. The obligor currently has the capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation; however, it faces major ongoing uncertainties which could lead to the obligor’s inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

B-1 - A short-term obligation rated ‘B-1’ is regarded as having significant speculative characteristics, but the obligor has a relatively stronger capacity to meet its financial commitments over the short-term compared to other speculative-grade obligors.

 

B-2 - A short-term obligation rated ‘B-2’ is regarded as having significant speculative characteristics, and the obligor has an average speculative-grade capacity to meet its financial commitments over the short-term compared to other speculative-grade obligors.

 

B-3 - A short-term obligation rated ‘B-3’ is regarded as having significant speculative characteristics, and the obligor has a relatively weaker capacity to meet its financial commitments over the short-term compared to other speculative-grade obligors.

 

C - A short-term obligation rated ‘C’ is currently vulnerable to nonpayment and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions for the obligor to meet its financial commitment on the obligation.

 

D - A short-term obligation rated ‘D’ is in payment default. The ‘D’ rating category is used when payments on an obligation, including a regulatory capital instrument, are not made on the date due even if the applicable grace period has not expired, unless Standard & Poor’s believes that such payments will be made during such grace period. The ‘D’ rating also will be used upon the filing of a bankruptcy petition or the taking of a similar action if payments on an obligation are jeopardized.

 

Dual Ratings – S&P assigns “dual” ratings to all debt issues that have a put option or demand feature as part of their structure. The first rating addresses the likelihood of repayment of principal and interest as due, and the second rating addresses only the demand feature. The long-term rating symbols are used for bonds to denote the long-term maturity and the short-term rating symbols for the put option (for example, ‘AAA/A-1+’). With U.S. municipal short-term demand debt, note rating symbols are used with the short-term issue credit rating symbols (for example, ‘SP-1+/A-1+’).

 

Moody’s Commercial Paper Ratings:

 

The following descriptions of Moody’s commercial paper ratings have been published by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and Moody’s Analytics Inc.

 

P-1 - Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-1 have a superior ability to honor short-term debt obligations.

 

P-2 - Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-2 have a strong ability to honor short-term debt obligations.

 

P-3 - Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Prime-3 have an acceptable ability to honor short-term obligations.

 

NP - Issuers (or supporting institutions) rated Not Prime do not fall within any of the Prime rating categories.

 

B-8

 

 

Note: Canadian issuers rated P-1 or P-2 have their short-term ratings enhanced by the senior-most long-term rating of the issuer, its guarantor or support-provider.

 

Fitch’s Commercial Paper Ratings:

The following descriptions of Fitch’s commercial paper ratings have been published by Fitch, Inc. and Fitch Ratings Ltd.

 

F1 - Highest short-term credit quality. Indicates the strongest intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments; may have an added “+” to denote any exceptionally strong credit feature.

 

F2 - Good short-term credit quality. Good intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments.

 

F3 - Fair short-term credit quality. The intrinsic capacity for timely payment of financial commitments is adequate.

 

B - Speculative short-term credit quality. Minimal capacity for timely payment of financial commitments, plus heightened vulnerability to near term adverse changes in financial and economic conditions.

 

C - High short-term default risk. Default is a real possibility.

 

RD - Restricted default. Indicates an entity that has defaulted on one or more of its financial commitments, although it continues to meet other financial obligations. Applicable to entity ratings only.

 

D - Default. Indicates a broad-based default event for an entity, or the default of a specific short-term obligation.

 

The modifiers “+” or “-” may be appended to a rating to denote relative status within major rating categories. Such suffixes are not added to the ‘AAA’ Long-term rating category, to categories below ‘CCC’, or to Short-term ratings other than ‘F1’. (The +/- modifiers are only used to denote issues within the CCC category.) 

 

B-9

 

PART C: OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 28.Exhibits

 

(a)(1)Certificate of Trust, as filed with the state of Delaware on February 3, 2012, for KraneShares Trust (the “Registrant” or the “Trust”) is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (a)(1) to the Registrant’s initial Registration Statement on Form N-1A as filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) via EDGAR Accession No. 0001193125-12-173444 on April 20, 2012.

 

(a)(2)Registrant’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust, dated June 7, 2017, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (a)(2) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 145 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-033078 on June 19, 2017.

 

(b)Registrant’s Amended By-Laws, dated June 7, 2017, are incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (b) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 145 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-033078 on June 19, 2017.

 

(c)Not applicable.

 

(d)(1)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(3) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 149 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-038833 on July 28, 2017.

 

(d)(2)Schedule A to the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, to be filed by amendment.

 

(d)(3)Schedule B to the Investment Advisory Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, to be filed by amendment.

 

(d)(4)Investment Advisory Agreement between Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, on behalf of the KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF, and Bosera Asset Management (International) Co., Ltd., is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(5) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 149 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-038833 on July 28, 2017.

 

(d)(5)Investment Advisory Agreement between Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, on behalf of the KraneShares E Fund China Commercial Paper ETF, and E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(7) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 149 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-038833 on July 28, 2017.

 

 

 

 

(d)(6)Investment Subadvisory Agreement between Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, on behalf of the KraneShares CCBS China Corporate High Yield Bond USD Index ETF, and CCB Securities Ltd., is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(6) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 156 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-18-000019 on January 2, 2018.

 

(d)(7)Form of Sub-Advisory Agreement between Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, on behalf of KraneShares Bloomberg Barclays China Aggregate Bond Index ETF, and E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(7) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 162 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-18-007036 on July 30, 2018.

 

(d)(8)Investment Advisory Agreement between the Registrant and CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC, on behalf of the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.

 

(d)(9)Form of Sub-Advisory Agreement between CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC, on behalf of the CICC US Government Money Market Fund, and Federated Investment Management Company, to be filed by amendment.

 

(d)(10)Form of Sub-Advisory Agreement between Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, on behalf of the Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF, and Quadratic Capital Management LLC, filed herewith.

 

(e)(1)Amended and Restated Distribution Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Investments Distribution Co. is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (e)(1) of Post-Effective No. 63 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-14-046850 on August 4, 2014.

 

(e)(2)Schedule A to the Amended and Restated Distribution Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Investments Distribution Co., to be filed by amendment.

 

(e)(3)Form of Authorized Participant Agreement is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (e)(2) of Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-13-003143 on January 18, 2013.

 

[(e)(4)Distribution Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Investments Distribution Co. relating to the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.]

 

(f)Not applicable.

 

(g)(1)Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement between the Registrant and Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (g) of Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-13-003143 on January 18, 2013.

 

 

 

 

(g)(2)Form of Adherence and Amendment Agreement to the Custodian and Transfer Agent Agreement between the Registrant and Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., to be filed by amendment.

 

(h)(1)Amended and Restated Administration Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Global Fund Services is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (h)(1) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 63 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-14-046850 on August 4, 2014.

 

(h)(2)Schedule I to the Amended and Restated Administration Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Global Fund Services, to be filed by amendment.

 

(h)(3)Compliance Services Agreement between the Registrant and Quain Compliance Consulting, LLC, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (h)(5) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 99 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-15-044651 on July 28, 2015.

 

(h)(4)Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, relating to the KraneShares E Fund China Commercial Paper ETF and KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (h)(8) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 149 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-038833 on July 28, 2017.

 

(h)(5)Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, relating to the KraneShares MSCI All China Index ETF (formerly known as the KraneShares FTSE Emerging Markets Plus ETF), is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (d)(3) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 154 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-17-006133 on November 1, 2017.

 

(h)(6)Sublicense Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (h)(11) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 149 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-038833 on July 28, 2017.

 

(h)(7)Schedule I to the Form of Sublicense Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, to be filed by amendment.

 

(h)(8)Securities Lending Agency Agreement between the Registrant and Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., dated February 1, 2018, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (h)(8) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 162 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-18-007036 on July 30, 2018.

 

 

 

 

[(h)(9)Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC, relating to the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.]

 

[(h)(10)Administration Agreement between the Registrant and SEI Global Fund Services relating to the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.]

 

[(h)(11)Transfer Agent Agreement between the Registrant and DST Systems, Inc. relating to the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.]

 

[(h)(12)Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, relating to the KraneShares MSCI Emerging Markets ex China Index ETF, to be filed by amendment.]

 

(h)(13)Fee Waiver Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, relating to the KraneShares Asia Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Index ETF, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (H)(13) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 172 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-19-001534 on January 31, 2019.

 

[(h)(14)Expense Limitation Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, relating to the Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF, to be filed by amendment.]

 

(i)Opinion and consent of counsel, to be filed by amendment.

 

(j)Not applicable.

 

(k)Not applicable.

 

(l)Subscription Agreement between the Registrant and Krane Funds Advisors, LLC is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (l) of Pre-Effective Amendment No. 2 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-13-003143 on January 18, 2013.

 

(m)Distribution Plan, to be filed by amendment.

 

(n)Not applicable.

 

(o)Not applicable.

 

(p)(1)Code of Ethics of the Registrant, dated March 8, 2016, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (p)(1) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 119 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-16-115317 on July 29, 2016.

 

 

 

 

(p)(2)Code of Ethics of Krane Funds Advisors, LLC, dated December 21, 2016, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (p)(2) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 143 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-17-026123 on May 10, 2017.

 

(p)(3)Code of Ethics of Bosera Asset Management (International) Co., Ltd., sub-adviser to the KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (p)(5) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 43 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-14-022475 on April 14, 2014.

 

(p)(4)Code of Ethics of E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited, sub-adviser to the KraneShares Bloomberg Barclays China Aggregate Bond Index ETF and KraneShares E Fund China Commercial Paper ETF is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (p)(6) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 50 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-14-037621 on June 13, 2014.

 

(p)(5)Code of Ethics of CCB Securities Ltd., sub-adviser to the KraneShares CCBS China Corporate High Yield Bond USD Index ETF, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (p)(5) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 156 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-18-000019 on January 2, 2018.

 

(p)(6)Code of Ethics of CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC, adviser to the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.

 

(p)(7)Code of Ethics of Federated Investment Management Company, sub-adviser to the CICC US Government Money Market Fund, to be filed by amendment.

 

(p)(8)Code of Ethics of Quadratic Capital Management LLC, sub-adviser to the Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF, to be filed by amendment.

 

(q)(1)Powers of Attorney dated September 29, 2015 for Matthew Stroyman and John Ferguson is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (q) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 108 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001144204-16-080317on February 10, 2016.

 

(q)(2)Power of Attorney dated August 31, 2017 for Patrick Campo, is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit (q)(2) of Post-Effective Amendment No. 153 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form N-1A (File Nos. 333-180870 and 811-22698), as filed with the SEC via EDGAR Accession No. 0001615774-17-005305 on September 22, 2017.

 

Item 29.Persons Controlled by or under Common Control with the Fund

 

Not Applicable.

 

 

 

 

Item 30.Indemnification

 

A Trustee, when acting in such capacity, shall not be personally liable to any Person, other than the Trust, to the extent provided in Article VII of the Registrant’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust, for any act, omission, or obligation of the Trust, of such Trustee, or of any other Trustee. A Trustee shall be liable to the Trust solely for his or her own willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of the office of Trustee, and shall not be liable for errors of judgment or mistakes of fact or law. The Trustees shall not be responsible or liable in any event for any neglect or wrong-doing of any officer, agent, employee, Investment Adviser, or Principal Underwriter of the Trust, nor shall any Trustee be responsible for the act or omission of any other Trustee. The Trust shall indemnify each Person who is, or has been, a Trustee, officer, employee or agent of the Trust, any Person who is serving or has served at the Trust’s request as a Trustee, officer, trustee, employee or agent of another organization in which the Trust has any interest as a shareholder, creditor or otherwise to the fullest extent permitted by law against liability and against all expenses reasonably incurred or paid by him in connection with any claim, action, suit or proceeding in which he becomes involved as a party or otherwise by virtue of his being or having been such a Trustee, director, officer, employee or agent and against amounts paid or incurred by him in settlement thereof.

 

Subject to applicable federal law, expenses of preparation and presentation of a defense to any claim, action, suit or proceeding subject to a claim for indemnification under Section 2 of the Registrant’s Amended and Restated Declaration of Trust shall be advanced by the Trust prior to final disposition thereof upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the recipient to repay such amount if it is ultimately determined that he is not entitled to indemnification under Section 2.

 

All persons extending credit to, contracting with or having any claim against the Trust or the Trustees, officers, employees or agents of the Trust shall look only to the assets of the appropriate Series, or, if the Trustees have yet to establish Series, of the Trust for payment under such credit, contract or claim; and neither the Trustees nor the Shareholders, nor any of the Trust’s officers, employees or agents, whether past, present or future, shall be personally liable therefor.

 

Every note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking and every other act or thing whatsoever issued, executed or done by or on behalf of the Trust or Trustees or by any of them in connection with the Trust shall conclusively be deemed to have been executed or done only in or with respect to his or their capacity as Trustee or Trustees, and such Trustee or Trustees shall not be personally liable thereon. At the Trustees’ discretion, any note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking made or issued by the Trustees or by any officer or officers may give notice that the Certificate of Trust is on file in the Office of the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware and that a limitation on the liability of each Series exists and such note, bond, contract, instrument, certificate or undertaking may, if the Trustees so determine, recite that the same was executed or made on behalf of the Trust or by a Trustee or Trustees in such capacity and not individually or by an officer or officers in such capacity and not individually and that the obligations of such instrument are not binding upon any of them or the Shareholders individually but are binding only on the assets and property of the Trust or a Series thereof, and may contain such further recital as such Person or Persons may deem appropriate. The omission of any such notice or recital shall in no way operate to bind any Trustees, officers or Shareholders individually.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liability arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 

 

 

Item 31.Business and other Connections of the Investment Adviser

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC (“Krane”) serves as investment adviser for each series of the Trust, except the CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund. The principal address of Krane is 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020. Krane is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of Krane during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-77589).

 

Bosera Asset Management (International) Co., Ltd.

Bosera Asset Management (International) Co., Ltd. (“Bosera”) serves as investment sub-adviser for the Trust’s KraneShares Bosera MSCI China A Share ETF. The principal address of Bosera is Suite 4109, Jardine House, One Connaught Place, Central, Hong Kong. Bosera is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of Bosera during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-78507).

 

E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited

E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited (“E Fund”) serves as investment sub-adviser for the Trust’s KraneShares Bloomberg Barclays China Aggregate Bond Index ETF and KraneShares E Fund China Commercial Paper ETF. The principal address of E Fund is Suite 3501-02 35F, Two International Finance Center, 8 Finance Street, Central, Hong Kong. E Fund is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of E Fund during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-78973).

 

CCB Securities Ltd.

CCB Securities Ltd. (“CCBS”) serves as investment sub-adviser for the Trust’s KraneShares CCBS China Corporate High Yield Bond USD Index ETF. The principal address of CCBS is 18/F CCB Centre, 18 Wang Chiu Road, Kowloon Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. CCBS is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of CCBS during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-112053).

 

 

 

 

CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC

CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC (“CICC”) serves as investment adviser for the Trust’s CICC Global Wealth Preservation Fund and CICC US Government Money Market Fund. The principal address of CICC is 1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor, New York, New York 10020. CICC is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of CICC during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-112473).

 

Federated Investment Management Company

Federated Investment Management Company (“Federated”) serves as investment sub-adviser for the Trust’s CICC US Government Money Market Fund. The principal address of Federated is Federated Investors Tower, 1001 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15222-3779. Federated is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of Federated during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-34612).

 

Quadratic Capital Management LLC

Quadratic Capital Management LLC (“Quadratic”) serves as investment sub-adviser for the Trust’s Quadratic Interest Rate Volatility and Inflation Hedge ETF. The principal address of Quadratic is 39 Lewis Street, 4th Floor, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830. Quadratic is an investment adviser registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

 

Information as to any business, profession, vocation or employment of a substantial nature engaged in by the officers, directors and partners of Quadratic during the past two years is incorporated by reference to its Form ADV filed with the SEC (SEC File No. 801-106485).

 

Item 32.Principal Underwriters

 

(a)Registrant’s distributor, SEI Investments Distribution Co. (the “Distributor”), acts as distributor for:

 

SEI Daily Income Trust July 15, 1982
SEI Liquid Asset Trust November 29, 1982
SEI Tax Exempt Trust December 3, 1982
SEI Institutional Managed Trust January 22, 1987
SEI Institutional International Trust August 30, 1988
The Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund November 14, 1991
The Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund II January 28, 1993
Bishop Street Funds January 27, 1995
SEI Asset Allocation Trust April 1, 1996
SEI Institutional Investments Trust June 14, 1996
City National Rochdale Funds (f/k/a CNI Charter Funds) April 1, 1999
Causeway Capital Management Trust September 20, 2001
ProShares Trust November 14, 2005
Community Capital Trust (f/k/a Community Reinvestment Act Qualified Investment Fund) January 8, 2007
TD Asset Management USA Funds July 25, 2007
SEI Structured Credit Fund, LP July 31, 2007

 

 

 

 

Global X Funds October 24, 2008
ProShares Trust II November 17, 2008
Exchange Traded Concepts Trust (f/k/a FaithShares Trust) August 7, 2009
Schwab Strategic Trust October 12, 2009
RiverPark Funds Trust September 8, 2010
Adviser Managed Trust December 10, 2010
New Covenant Funds March 23, 2012
Cambria ETF Trust August 30, 2012
Highland Funds I (f/k/a Pyxis Funds I) September 25, 2012
LocalShares Investment Trust May 6, 2013
SEI Insurance Products Trust September 10, 2013
KP Funds September 19, 2013
The Advisors’ Inner Circle Fund III February 12, 2014
J.P. Morgan Exchange-Traded Fund Trust April 1, 2014
SEI Catholic Values Trust March 24, 2015
SEI Hedge Fund SPC June 26, 2015
SEI Energy Debt Fund June 30, 2015
Winton Diversified Opportunities Fund September 1, 2015

Gallery Trust January 8, 2016
RiverPark Floating Rate CMBS Fund (f/k/a RiverPark Commercial Real Estate Fund August 12, 2016
Schroders Series Trust February 10, 2017
Schroders Global Series Trust February 10, 2017
City National Rochdale Select Strategies Fund March 1, 2017
Metaurus Equity Component Trust October 2, 2017
Causeway ETMF Trust December 28, 2017
Impact Shares Trust March 1, 2018

 

The Distributor provides numerous financial services to investment managers, pension plan sponsors, and bank trust departments. These services include portfolio evaluation, performance measurement and consulting services (“Funds Evaluation”) and automated execution, clearing and settlement of securities transactions (“MarketLink”).

 

(b)       Furnish the Information required by the following table with respect to each director, officer or partner of each principal underwriter named in the answer to Item 20 of Part B. Unless otherwise noted, the business address of each director or officer is Oaks, PA 19456.

 

Name  

Position and Office

with Underwriter

 

Positions and Offices

with Registrant

William M. Doran   Director   --
Paul F. Klauder   Director   --
Wayne M. Withrow   Director   --
Kevin P. Barr   Director, President, & Chief Executive Officer   --
Maxine J. Chou   Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operations Officer, & Treasurer    
Karen E. LaTourette   Chief Compliance Officer, Anti-Money Laundering Officer & Assistant Secretary    
John C. Munch   General Counsel & Secretary   --
Mark J. Held   Senior Vice President   --
John P. Coary   Vice President & Assistant Secretary   --
Lori L. White   Vice President & Assistant Secretary   --
Judith A. Hirx   Vice President   --
Jason McGhin   Vice President   --
Gary Michael Reese   Vice President   --
Robert M. Silvestri   Vice President   --

 

 

 

 

 

Item 33. Location of Accounts and Records

 

Books or other documents required to be maintained by Section 31(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the rules promulgated thereunder, are maintained as follows:

 

Registrant:

 

c/o Krane Funds Advisors, LLC

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

 

Advisers:

 

Krane Funds Advisors, LLC

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

 

CICC Wealth Management (USA), LLC

1270 Avenue of the Americas, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10020

 

Sub-Advisers:

 

Bosera Asset Management (International) Co., Ltd.

Suite 4109

Jardine House

One Connaught Place

Central, Hong Kong

 

E Fund Management (Hong Kong) Co., Limited

3501-02 35F, Two International Finance Center

8 Finance Street

Central, Hong Kong

 

CCB Securities Ltd.

18/F CCB Centre

18 Wang Chiu Road

Kowloon Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong

 

Federated Investment Management Company

Federated Investors Tower

1001 Liberty Avenue

Pittsburgh, PA 15222

 

Quadratic Capital Management LLC

39 Lewis Street, 4th Floor

Greenwich, Connecticut 06830

 

 

 

 

Administrator:

SEI Investments Global Funds Services