20-F 1 silef_20-f.htm 20-F silef_20-f
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
 
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 20-F
 REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934. OR
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 
OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from to 
OR 
 SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission file number: 000-55985
 
SILVER ELEPHANT MINING CORP.
(Formerly “Prophecy Development Corp.”)
 
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
British Columbia, Canada
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
Suite 1610 - 409 Granville Street Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6C 1T2
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
Michael Doolin 
Suite 1610 - 409 Granville Street Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6C 1T2
 
Telephone: 604-569-3661, Facsimile: 604-569-3617 Email: info@silverelef.com
(Name, Telephone, E-Mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
 
Copy of communications to:
 
James Guttman Dorsey & Whitney LLP Brookfield Place 161 Bay Street, Suite 4310 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5J 2S1 
Telephone: (416) 367-7370 Facsimile: (416) 367-7371
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act: None 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act.
 
Common Shares without par value
(Title of Class) Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 121,299,508 Common Shares as at December 31, 2019
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
 
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Sec.232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer  Non-accelerated filer 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 

 
 
 
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
 
U.S. GAAP  International Financial Reporting Standards as issued By the International Accounting Standards Board
 
 
 
Other
 
If “Other” has been checked in response to previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18
 
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
PART I
 
9
 
 
 
ITEM 1.
IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
9
 
 
 
ITEM 2
OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
9
 
 
 
ITEM 3.
KEY INFORMATION
9
 
 
 
 
A.                 Selected Financial Data
9
 
B.                 Capitalization and Indebtedness
9
 
C.                 Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
9
 
D.                 Risk Factors
9
 
 
 
ITEM 4.
INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
19
 
 
 
 
A.                 History and Development of the Company
19
 
B.                 Business Overview
26
 
C.                 Organizational Structure
30
 
D.                 Property, Plants and Equipment
30
 
 
 
 
ITEM 4A.                 UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
67
 
 
 
ITEM 5.
OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
67
 
 
 
 
A.                 Operating Results
67
 
B.                 Liquidity and Capital Resources
70
 
C.                 Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.
74
 
D.                 Trend Information
74
 
E.                 Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
74
 
F.                 Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations
75
 
G.                 Safe Harbor
75
 
 
 
ITEM 6.
DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES
75
 
 
 
 
A.                 Directors and Senior Management
75
 
B.                 Compensation
82
 
C.                 Board Practices
84
 
D.                 Employees
86
 
E.                 Share Ownership
87
 
 
 
ITEM 7.
MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
88
 
 
 
 
A.                 Major Shareholders
88
 
B.                 Related Party Transactions
89
 
C.                 Interests of Experts and Counsel
89
 
 
 
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL INFORMATION
90
 
 
 
 
A.                 Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information
90
 
B.                 Significant Changes
91
 
 
 
ITEM 9.
THE OFFER AND LISTING
91
 
 
 
 
A.                 Offer and Listing Details
91
 
B.                 Plan of Distribution
91
 
C.                 Markets
91
 
D.                 Selling Shareholders
92
 
E.                 Dilution
92
 
F.                 Expenses of the Issuer
92
 
 
 
i
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 10.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
92
 
 
 
 
A.                 Share Capital
92
 
B.                 Memorandum and Articles of Association
92
 
C.                 Material Contracts
95
 
D.                 Exchange Controls
95
 
E.                 Taxation
95
 
F.                 Dividends and Paying Agents
102
 
G.                 Statement by Experts
102
 
H.                 Documents on Display
102
 
I.                 Subsidiary Information
102
 
 
 
ITEM 11.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
103
 
 
 
ITEM 12.
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES
104
 
 
 
 
A. - C.
104
 
D.                  American Depository Receipts
104
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 13.
DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES
105
 
 
 
ITEM 14.
MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS
105
 
 
 
ITEM 15.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
105
 
 
 
 
A.                 Disclosure Controls and Procedures
105
 
B.                 Management's Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
105
 
C.                 Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm
105
 
D.                 Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
106
 
 
 
ITEM 16.
[RESERVED]
106
 
 
 
 
ITEM 16A.                    AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT
106
 
ITEM 16B.                    CODE OF ETHICS
106
 
ITEM 16C.                    PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES
106
 
ITEM 16D.                    EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES
107
 
ITEM 16E.                    PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS
107
 
ITEM 16F.                    CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT
107
 
ITEM 16G.                    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
107
 
ITEM 16H.                    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
107
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 17.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
108
 
 
 
ITEM 18.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
108
 
 
 
ITEM 19.
EXHIBITS
 108
 
 
 
ii
 
 
 
 
 
INTRODUCTORY NOTES
 
 
GENERAL INFORMATION
 
In this annual report on Form 20-F (the “Annual Report”), the terms “we”, “our”, “us”, the “Company” refer, unless the context requires otherwise, to Silver Elephant Mining Corp. and its subsidiaries.
 
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
 
We prepare our audited consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or “IFRS”, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or the “IASB”. The financial information and related discussion and analysis contained in this annual report on Form 20-F are presented in United States dollars, except as otherwise specified. Unless otherwise specified, the financial information analysis in this annual report on Form 20-F is based on our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, included elsewhere in this document. Percentages and some amounts in this annual report on Form 20-F have been rounded for ease of presentation. Any discrepancies between totals and the sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.
 
CURRENCY
 
Unless otherwise indicated, all references to “dollars” or “$” are to Canadian dollars and all references to “US dollars,” “USD” or “USD$” are to United States of America dollars.
 
SHARE CONSOLIDATION AND FORWARD SPLIT
 
Share Consolidation
 
On June 7, 2016, we completed a consolidation of our issued and outstanding common shares on the basis of one post consolidation common share, option and warrant, for 100 pre- consolidation common shares, options and warrants, as applicable (we refer to this as the “Share Consolidation”).
 
Forward Split
 
On August 8, 2018, we completed a split of our issued and outstanding common shares on the basis of ten post-split common shares, options and warrants for 1 pre-split common share, option and warrant, as applicable (the “Forward Split”).
 
All share and per share information in this Annual Report have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the Forward Split and the cumulative effect of the Share Consolidation and Forward Split, as applicable, for all periods presented, unless otherwise indicated.
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Certain statements contained in this Annual Report constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of United States securities laws and “forward-looking information” within the meaning of Canadian securities laws and are intended to be covered by the safe harbors provided by such regulations (we refer to such forward-looking statements and forward-looking information collectively as “forward-looking statements”). Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are frequently, but not always, identified by words such as “expects”, “anticipates”, “intends”, “believes”, “estimates”, “potentially” or similar expressions, or statements that events, conditions or results “will”, “may”, “would”, “could”, “should” occur or are “to be” achieved, and statements related to matters which are not historical facts. Information concerning management’s expectations regarding our future growth, results of operations, performance, business prospects and opportunities may also be deemed to be forward-looking statements, as such information constitutes predictions based on certain factors, estimates and assumptions subject to significant business, economic, competitive and other uncertainties and contingencies, and involve known and unknown risks which may cause the actual results, performance, or achievements to be different from future results, performance, or achievements contained in our forward- looking statements.
 
Such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding:
 
● 
our future financial and operating performance;
 
● 
the timing and amount of estimated future operating and exploration expenditures;
 
● 
the permitting, feasibility, and plans for the development of the Gibellini Project (which we define later in this Annual Report);
 
● 
the development of the Pulacayo Paca silver-lead- zinc property located in Quijarro province, Bolivia (the “Pulacayo Project) ;
 
● 
the development of the Titan Project, located at Flett and Angus Townships, 120 kilometres northeast of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (the “Titan Project”) ;
 
● 
the development of the Chandgana 600MW Coal-Fired Mine Mouth Power Plant project planned in Khentii province, Mongolia (the “Chandgana Project”) (which we define later in this Annual Report), including the finalizing of any power purchase agreement;
 
● 
the costs and timing of the development of new deposits;
 
● 
the costs and timing of future exploration;
 
 
 
 
● 
requirements for additional capital;
 
● 
the likelihood of securing project financing;
 
● 
estimated future coal production at the Ulaan Ovoo coal property (the “Ulaan Ovoo Property”) and the Chandgana Project;
 
● 
the impacts of changes in the legal and regulatory environment in which we operate;
 
● 
the timing and possible outcome of any pending litigation and regulatory matters;
 
● 
future transactions; and
 
● 
other information concerning possible or assumed future results of our operations.
 
The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are based upon our current business and operating plans, and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Many factors could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements that may be expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements, including, among others:
 
● 
global outbreaks, including the coronavirus;
 
● 
changes in general economic and business conditions;
 
● 
changes in currency exchange rates and interest rates;
 
● 
fluctuations in mineral prices;
 
● 
operational risks associated with mining and mineral processing, including risks related to accidents, equipment breakdowns, labor disputes or other unanticipated difficulties with or interruptions in operations which may or may not be insured;
 
● 
domestic and foreign laws or regulations, particularly relating to the environment, mining and processing;
 
● 
changes in tax laws;
 
● 
domestic and international economic and political conditions;
 
● 
the need for additional financing, and our ability to obtain or maintain necessary financing;
 
● 
changes in business strategy; and
 
● 
various other factors, both referenced and not referenced in this Annual Report.
 
This foregoing list is not exhaustive of the factors that may affect any of our forward-looking statements. Some of the important risks and uncertainties that could affect forward- looking statements are described further under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described herein. For the reasons set forth above and elsewhere in this Annual Report, we caution you not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements in this Annual Report.
 
The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report speak only as to the date of this Annual Report and are based on our beliefs, opinions and expectations at the time they are made. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or review any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
 
 
 
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE TO U.S. INVESTORS CONCERNING RESERVE AND RESOURCE ESTIMATES
 
The terms “mineral reserve”, “proven mineral reserve” and “probable mineral reserve” are Canadian mining terms as defined in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43- 101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects (“NI 43-101”) and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum (the “CIM”) - CIM Definition Standards on Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves, adopted by the CIM Council, as amended. These definitions differ from the definitions in the United States Securities and Exchange Commission Industry Guide 7 (“SEC Industry Guide 7”) under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).
 
Under SEC Industry Guide 7 standards, mineralization may not be classified as a “reserve” unless the determination has been made that the mineralization could be economically and legally produced or extracted at the time the reserve determination is made. Pursuant to SEC Industry Guide 7, a mineral reserve may not be designated as such unless: (i) competent professional engineers conduct a detailed engineering and economic study, and the “bankable” or “final” feasibility study demonstrates that a mineral deposit can be mined profitably at a commercial rate; (ii) a historic three-year average commodity price is used in any reserve or cash flow analysis used to designate reserves; and (iii) the company has demonstrated that the mineral property will receive its governmental permits, and the primary environmental document has been filed with the appropriate governmental authorities.
 
The terms “mineral resource”, “measured mineral resource”, “indicated mineral resource” and “inferred mineral resource” are defined in and required to be disclosed by NI 43-101; however, these terms are not defined terms under SEC Industry Guide 7 and have historically not been permitted to be used in reports and annual reports filed with the SEC. Investors are cautioned not to assume that any part or all of mineral deposits in these categories will ever be converted into reserves. An “Inferred mineral resource” has a lower level of confidence than an “indicated mineral resource” and must not be converted to a mineral “reserve”. The quantity and grade of reported “Inferred Resources” in this estimation are uncertain in nature and there has been insufficient exploration to define these “Inferred Resources” as an “Indicated or Measured” Mineral Resource and it is uncertain if further exploration will result in upgrading them to an “Indicated or Measured” Mineral Resource category. Under Canadian rules, estimates of inferred mineral resources may not form the basis of feasibility or pre-feasibility studies, except in rare cases.
 
Disclosure of “contained ounces” in a resource is permitted disclosure under Canadian regulations; however, under SEC Industry Guide 7 the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) historically only permitted issuers to report mineralization that does not constitute “reserves” by SEC Industry Guide 7 standards as in place tonnage and grade without reference to unit measures.
 
The term “mineralized material” as used in this Annual Report, although permissible under SEC Industry Guide 7, does not indicate “reserves” by SEC Industry Guide 7 standards. We cannot be certain that any part of the mineralized material will ever be confirmed or converted into SEC Industry Guide 7 compliant “reserves”. Investors are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of the mineralized material will ever be confirmed or converted into reserves or that mineralized material can be economically or legally extracted.
 
Accordingly, information contained in this Annual Report may contain descriptions of our mineral deposits that may not be comparable to similar information made public by U.S. companies pursuant to SEC Industry Guide 7.
 
The SEC has adopted amendments to its disclosure rules to modernize the mineral property disclosure requirements for issuers whose securities are registered with the SEC. These amendments became effective February 25, 2019 (the “SEC Modernization Rules”) and, following a two-year transition period, the SEC Modernization Rules will replace the historical property disclosure requirements for mining registrants that are included in SEC Industry Guide 7. Following the transition period, as a foreign private issuer that files its annual report on Form 20-F with the SEC, the Company is not required to provide disclosure on its mineral properties under the SEC Modernization Rules and will continue to provide disclosure under NI 43-101 and the CIM. If the Company ceases to be a foreign private issuer or loses its eligibility to file its annual report on Form 20-F, then the Company will be subject to the SEC Modernization Rules which differ from the requirements of NI 43-101 and the CIM.
 
METRIC CONVERSION TABLE
 
 
To Convert Imperial Measurement Units
To Metric Measurement Units
Multiply by
Acres
Hectares
0.4047
Feet
Meters
0.3048
Miles
Kilometers
1.6093
Tons (short)
Tonnes
0.9072
Gallons
Liters
3.785
Ounces (troy)
Grams
31.103
Ounces (troy) per ton (short)
Grams per tonne
34.286
 
 
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
 
This Annual Report contains information of a technical or scientific nature respecting the Company's mineral properties (the "Technical Information"). Technical Information is primarily derived from the documents referenced herein. All Technical Information which appears in this Annual Report has been reviewed and approved by Danniel Oosterman, Vice President Exploration of Silver Elephant who is a “Qualified Person” as defined by the guidelines in NI 43-101. Silver Elephant operates quality assurance and quality control of sampling and analytical procedures.
 
 
 
 
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
 
Ag
silver
Au
gold
Fe
iron
ft
feet
g/t
Grams per tonne
lb.
pound (2,000 lbs. to 1 ton, 2,204.6 lbs. to 1 tonne)
 
Indicated Coal Resource
 
That part of a Coal Resource for which quantity or quality, densities, shape, and physical characteristics can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical and economic parameters to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that are spaced closely enough for geological and quality continuity to be reasonably assumed.
 
Indicated Mineral Resources
 
That part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed.
 
Inferred Coal
Resource
 
That part of a Coal Resource for which quantity and quality can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified, geological and quality continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling, gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings, and drill holes.
 
Inferred Mineral Resource
 
Inferred Mineral Resource is the part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological or grade continuity.
 
m
 
meters
 
Measured Mineral Resource
 
That part of a Mineral Resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence. It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and grade continuity.
 
Ni 43-101
 
Canadian National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects.
 
oz.
 
troy ounce (12 oz. to 1 pound)
 
Preliminary Economic Assessment
 
A preliminary assessment study (the “PEA”) which includes an economic analysis of the potential viability of a material resource prior to the completion of a prefeasibility study. Based on the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) study types a PEA (also known as a conceptual or scoping study used to support a NI 43-101 Technical Report is within +/-35% degree of accuracy.
 
Preliminary
Feasibility Study
(PFS)
 
A comprehensive study of the viability of a project that has advanced to a stage where the mining method and pit configuration has been established and an effective method of coal processing has been determined, and includes a financial analysis based on reasonable assumptions of technical, engineering, legal, operating, economic, social, and environmental factors, and the evaluation of other relevant factors which are sufficient for a Qualified Person (QP), acting reasonably, to determine if all or part of a Resource can be classified as a Reserve (CIM Standards). Based on the SME study types a PFS used to support a NI 43-101 Technical Report is within +/-25% degree of accuracy.
 
 
 
Qualified Person
Or QP
 
An individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years of experience in mineral exploration, mine development or operation, or mineral project assessment, or any combination of these; has experience relevant to the subject matter of the mineral project and the technical report; and is a member or licensee in good standing of a professional association recognized under Nl 43-101 (CIM Standards).
 
Ti
 
Titanium
 
V
 
Vanadium
 
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
 
A. 
Selected Financial Data
 
The following selected financial and other data summarize our historical financial information. We derived the selected balance sheet information as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the selected statement of operations information for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, from our audited financial statements as of those dates. The consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, which differ in certain respects from the principles we would have followed had our consolidated financial statements been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
 
The information in the following tables should be read in conjunction with the information appearing under the heading “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our audited annual financial statements under the heading “Item 18. Financial Statements”.
 
Statement of Operations
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
Revenue
 $ 
 $ 
 $ 
 $ 
Net income (loss)
  17,513,854 
  (18,184,468)
  (18,592,981)
  (2,007,305)
Comprehensive income (loss)
  17,513,854 
  (18,196,628)
  (18,580,821)
  (2,007,305)
Basic net (loss) income per share
  0.17 
  (0.23)
  (0.33)
  (0.05)
Diluted net (loss) income per share
  0.17 
  (0.23)
  (0.33)
  (0.05)
 
Balance Sheet Data
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
 
2016
 
Total Asset
 $27,448,088 
 $9,264,205 
 $18,368,843 
 $27,828,109 
Share Capital
 $181,129,012 
 $173,819,546 
 $165,862,805 
 $156,529,025 
Number of Shares (as adjusted to reflect changes in capital)
  121,299,508 
  95,316,127 
  74,721,790 
  48,076,530 
Total liabilities
 $2,740,000 
 $10,023,943 
 $9,681,322 
 $11,032,616 
Total shareholders’ equity
 $24,708,088 
 $(759,738)
 $8,687,521 
 $16,795,493 
 
B. 
Capitalization and Indebtedness
 
Not applicable.
 
C. 
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
 
Not applicable.
 
D. 
Risk Factors
 
This section describes some of the risks and uncertainties faced by us. An investment in the Company involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below and the risks described elsewhere in this Annual Report when making an investment decision related to the Company. We believe the risk factors summarized below are most relevant to our business. These are factors that, individually or in the aggregate, could cause our actual results to differ significantly from anticipated or historical results. The occurrence of any of the risks could harm our business and cause you to lose all or part of your investment. However, you should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors. The risks and uncertainties described and discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations would suffer. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. See the discussion under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report for more detail.
 
Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
 
 
9
 
 
We have a history of net losses and do not anticipate having positive cash flow in the foreseeable future.
 
We have not received any material revenue or net profit to date. Exploration and development of mineral properties requires large amounts of capital and usually results in accounting losses for many years before profitability is achieved, if ever. We have incurred losses and negative operating cash flow during our most recently completed financial year and for the current financial year to date. We believe that commercial mining activity is warranted on our Gibellini and Pulacayo Projects. Even if we undertake future development activity on any of our properties, there is no certainty that we will produce revenue, operate profitably or provide a return on investment in the future. The exploration of our properties depends on our ability to obtain additional required financing. There is no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining the required financing, which could cause us to postpone our exploration plans or result in the loss or substantial dilution of our interest in our properties.
 
We will need a significant amount of capital to carry out our proposed business plan. Unless we are able to raise sufficient funds, we may be forced to discontinue our operations.
 
We are in the exploration stage and will likely operate at a loss until our business becomes established. We will require additional financing in order to fund future operations. Our ability to secure any required financing in order to commence and sustain our operations will depend in part upon prevailing capital market conditions as well as our business success. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts to secure any additional financing on terms satisfactory to our management. If additional financing is raised by issuing common shares, control may change, and shareholders may suffer additional dilution. If adequate funds are not available or they are unavailable on acceptable terms, we may be required to scale back our business plan or cease operating.
 
Our mineral exploration efforts are highly speculative in nature and may be unsuccessful.
 
The exploration for and development of minerals involve significant risks, which even a combination of careful evaluation, experience and knowledge may not eliminate. Few properties which are explored are ultimately developed into producing mines. There can be no guarantee that the estimates of quantities and qualities of minerals disclosed will be economically recoverable. With all mining operations there is uncertainty and, therefore, risk associated with operating parameters and costs resulting from the scaling up of extraction methods tested in pilot conditions. Mineral exploration is speculative in nature and there can be no assurance that any minerals discovered will result in an increase in our resource base.
 
Our operations are subject to all of the hazards and risks normally encountered in the exploration, development and production of minerals. These include unusual and unexpected geological formations, rock falls, seismic activity, flooding and other conditions involved in the extraction of material, any of which could result in damage to, or destruction of, mines and other producing facilities, damage to life or property, environmental damage and possible legal liability. Although precautions to minimize risk will be taken, operations are subject to hazards that may result in environmental pollution and consequent liability that could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial performance.
 
Substantial expenditures are required to establish ore reserves through drilling, to develop metallurgical processes to extract the metal from the ore and, in the case of new properties, to develop the mining and processing facilities and infrastructure at any site chosen for mining. Although substantial benefits may be derived from the discovery of a major mineralized deposit, no assurance can be given that minerals will be discovered in sufficient quantities to justify commercial operations or that funds required for development can be obtained on a timely basis. The economics of developing vanadium, silver, coal and other mineral properties is affected by many factors including the cost of operations, variations in the grade of ore mined, fluctuations in metal markets, costs of processing equipment and such other factors such as government regulations, including regulations relating to royalties, allowable production, importing and exporting of minerals and environmental protection. The remoteness and restrictions on access of properties in which we have an interest will have an adverse effect on profitability as a result of higher infrastructure costs. There are also physical risks to the exploration personnel working in the terrain in which our properties are located, often in poor climate conditions.
 
Our long-term commercial success depends on our ability to find, acquire, develop and commercially produce vanadium, silver, coal and other minerals. No assurance can be given that we will be able to locate satisfactory properties for acquisition or participation. Moreover, if such acquisitions or participations are identified, we may determine that current markets, terms of acquisition and participation or pricing conditions make such acquisitions or participations uneconomic.
 
We have no history of profitably commercially producing vanadium, silver, coal or other metals from our mineral exploration properties and there can be no assurance that we will successfully establish mining operations or profitably produce vanadium, silver, coal or other base or precious metals.
 
None of our properties are currently under development. The future development of any property found to be economically feasible will require the construction and operation of mines, processing plants and related infrastructure. As a result, we are subject to all of the risks associated with establishing new mining operations and business enterprises, including:
 
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the timing and cost of the construction of mining and processing facilities;
 
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the availability and costs of skilled labor and mining equipment;
 
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the availability and cost of appropriate smelting and/or refining arrangements;
 
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the need to obtain necessary environmental and other governmental approvals and permits and the timing of those approvals and permits; and
 
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the availability of funds to finance construction and development activities.
 
 
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The costs, timing and complexities of mine construction and development are increased by the remote location of our mining properties. It is common in new mining operations to experience unexpected problems and delays during development, construction and mine start-up. In addition, delays in the commencement of mineral production often occur. Accordingly, there are no assurances that our activities will successfully establish mining operations, result in profitable operations or that vanadium, silver, coal or other metals will be produced at any of our properties.
 
All of the properties in which we hold an interest are considered to be in the exploration stage only and do not contain a known body of commercial minerals. The figures for our resources are estimates based on interpretation and assumptions and may yield less mineral production under actual operating conditions than is currently estimated.
 
All of the properties in which we hold an interest are considered to be in the exploration stage only and do not contain a known body of commercial minerals. The figures for our resources are estimates based on interpretation and assumptions and may yield less mineral production under actual operating conditions than is currently estimated. Unless otherwise indicated, mineralization figures presented in this Annual Report and in our other filings with securities regulatory authorities, news releases and other public statements that may be made from time to time are based upon estimates made by our personnel and independent geologists. These estimates may be imprecise because they are based upon geological and engineering interpretation and statistical inferences drawn from drilling and sample analysis, stated operating conditions, and mineral processing tests, which may prove to be unreliable. There can be no assurance that:
 
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these estimates will be accurate;
 
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resource or other mineralization figures will be accurate; or
 
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the resource or mineralization could be mined or processed profitably.
 
Because we have not commenced production at any of our properties, other than Ulaan Ovoo, and have not defined or delineated any proven or probable reserves on any of our properties, the mineralization estimates for our properties may require adjustments including possible downward revisions based upon further exploration or development work, actual production experience, or current costs and sales prices. In addition, the quality of coal or grade of ore ultimately mined, if any, may differ from that indicated by drilling and beneficiation testing results. There can be no assurance that the type and amount of minerals recovered in laboratory analyses and small-scale beneficiation tests will be duplicated in large-scale tests under on-site conditions or in production scale.
 
The resource estimates contained in this Annual Report have been estimated based on assumed future prices, cut-off grades and operating costs that may prove to be inaccurate. Extended declines in market prices for vanadium, silver, coal or other metals may render portions of our mineralization uneconomic and result in reduced reported mineralization. Any material reductions in estimates of mineralization, or of our ability to extract this mineralization, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.
 
Actual capital costs, operating costs, production and economic returns may differ significantly from those we have anticipated and there are no assurances that any future development activities will result in profitable mining operations.
 
Actual capital costs, operating costs, production and economic returns may differ significantly from those we have anticipated, and we cannot assure you that any future development activities will result in profitable mining operations. The capital costs required to take our projects into production may be significantly higher than anticipated. None of our mineral properties has a sufficient operating history upon which we can base estimates of future operating costs. Any potential decisions about the possible development of these and other mineral properties would ultimately be based upon feasibility studies which may or may not be undertaken. Feasibility studies derive estimates of cash operating costs based upon, among other things:
 
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anticipated tonnage, grades and metallurgical characteristics of the ore or quality of the vanadium, silver, coal or other minerals to be mined and/or processed;
 
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anticipated recovery rates of metals from the ore;
 
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cash operating costs of comparable facilities and equipment; and
 
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anticipated climatic conditions.
 
 
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Cash operating costs, production and economic returns, and other estimates contained in studies or estimates prepared by or for us may differ significantly from those anticipated by our current studies and estimates, and there can be no assurance that our actual operating costs will not be higher than currently anticipated.
 
The outbreak of contagious diseases, including the spread of the coronavirus, could impact our business operations, results of operations and/or financial condition.
 
Our business operations could be significantly adversely affected by the effects of a widespread global outbreak of contagious disease, including the recent outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus (the “COVID-19”). We cannot accurately predict the impact COVID-19 will have on third parties, including our employees or contractors, ability to fulfil their obligations to the Company, including due to uncertainties relating to the ultimate geographic spread of the virus, its severity, the duration of the outbreak, and the restrictions imposed by governments of affected countries to combat COVID-19. In addition, a significant outbreak of contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries (including those countries in which our properties are located and other countries we rely on to conduct our business operations), resulting in an economic downturn that could negatively impact our operating results and financial condition. There can be no assurance that any policies or procedures that have been or that may be put in place by the Company will mitigate the risks associated with, or that they will not cause us to experience, less favourable health, safety and economic outcomes, including the ability to obtain financing for business operations as needed or on terms acceptable to the Company.
 
We are subject to substantial government regulation in the United States and Canada. Changes to regulation or more stringent implementation could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
Mining and exploration activities at our properties in North America are subject to various laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, such as the U.S. federal Clean Water Act and the Nevada Water Pollution Control Law. Although we intend to comply with all existing environmental and mining laws and regulations, no assurance can be given that we will be in compliance with all applicable regulations or that new rules and regulations will not be enacted or that existing rules and regulations will not be applied in a manner that could limit or curtail development of our properties.
 
All claims held by us in the United States are unpatented lode mining claims and all claims held by us in Ontario are patented claims. At present, there is no royalty payable to the United States on production from unpatented mining claims, but exploration and development on these claims is subject to regulation and requires permits from the U.S. Department of Interior and various state agencies. There is a tax imposed on profits from the extraction of mineral substances raised and sold by operators of Ontario mines. There have been legislative attempts to impose a royalty on production from unpatented mining claims in the United States in recent years. Amendments to current laws and regulations governing exploration, development and mining or more stringent implementation thereof could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause increases in exploration expenses or capital expenditures or require delays or abandonment in the development of our properties.
 
Our operations are also subject to laws and regulations governing the protection of endangered and other specified species. In May 2015, the U.S. Department of the Interior released a plan to protect the greater sage grouse, a species whose natural habitat is found across much of the western United States, including Nevada. The U.S. Department of the Interior’s plan is intended to guide conservation efforts on approximately 70 million acres of national public lands. No assurances can be made that restrictions relating to conservation will not have an adverse impact on our operations in impacted areas.
 
We are also required to expend significant resources to comply with numerous corporate governance and disclosure regulations and requirements adopted by Canadian federal and provincial governments, as well as the Toronto Stock Exchange (the “TSX”). These additional compliance costs and related diversion of the attention of management and key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
Reform of the General Mining Law could adversely impact our results of operations.
 
All of our unpatented mining claims are on U.S. federal lands. Legislation has been introduced regularly in the U.S. Congress over the last decade to change the General Mining Law of 1872, as amended (the “General Mining Law”), under which we hold these unpatented mining claims. It is possible that the General Mining Law may be amended or replaced by less favorable legislation in the future. Previously proposed legislation contained a production royalty obligation, new environmental standards and conditions, additional reclamation requirements and extensive new procedural steps which would likely result in delays in permitting. The ultimate content of future proposed legislation, if enacted, is uncertain. If a royalty on unpatented mining claims were imposed, the profitability of our U.S. operations could be materially adversely affected.
 
Any such reform of the General Mining Law could increase the costs of our U.S. mining activities or could materially impair our ability to develop or continue our U.S. operations, and as a result, could have an adverse effect on us and our results of operations.
 
We are required to obtain government approvals and permits in order to conduct operations.
 
Government approvals and permits are currently required in connection with all of our operations, and further approvals and permits may be required in the future. We must obtain and maintain a variety of licenses and permits, which include or cover, without limitation, air quality, water quality, water rights, dam safety, fire safety, emergency preparedness, hazardous materials, mercury control, waste rock management, solid waste disposal, storm water runoff, water pollution control, water treatment, rights of way and tailings operations. Such licenses and permits are subject to change in regulations and in various operating circumstances. The duration and success of our efforts to obtain permits are contingent upon many variables outside of our control. Obtaining governmental approvals and permits may increase costs and cause delays depending on the nature of the activity to be permitted and the applicable requirements implemented by the permitting authority.
 
 
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There can be no assurance that all necessary approvals and permits will be obtained or timely obtained. In addition, there can be no assurance that, if obtained, the costs of the approvals and permits will not exceed our estimates or that we will be able to maintain such approvals and permits. To the extent such approvals or permits are required and not obtained or maintained, our operations may be curtailed, or we may be prohibited from proceeding with planned exploration, development or operation of our mineral properties.
 
Certain of our current exploration properties are located in Bolivia and Mongolia, and their operations may be exposed to various levels of political, economic, and other risks and uncertainties.
 
Certain of our current exploration properties are located in Bolivia and Mongolia. In these countries, their operations may be exposed to various levels of political, economic, and other risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, political and bureaucratic corruption and uncertainty, terrorism, hostage taking, military repression, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, high rates of inflation, labor unrest, civil unrest, expropriation and nationalization, renegotiation or nullification of existing concessions, licenses, permits and contracts, illegal mining, changes in taxation policies, restrictions on foreign exchange and repatriation, changing political conditions, currency controls, and governmental regulations that favor or require the awarding of contracts to local contractors or require foreign contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction.
 
Future political and economic conditions may result in a government adopting different policies with respect to foreign development and ownership of mineral resources. Any changes in policy may result in changes in laws affecting ownership of assets, foreign investment, taxation, rates of exchange, resource sales, environmental protection, labour relations or practices, price controls, repatriation of income, and return of capital which may affect both our ability to undertake exploration and development activities in respect of future properties in the manner currently contemplated, as well as our ability to continue to explore, develop, and operate those properties to which we have rights relating to exploration, development, and operations.
 
Changes in regulations or shifts in political attitudes in Bolivia and Mongolia, as well as in neighbouring countries, are beyond our control and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
 
Any changes in regulations or shifts in political attitudes in Bolivia and Mongolia are beyond our control and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
 
The Bolivian government adopted a new constitution (which we refer to as the “NCPE”) in early 2009 which increased state control over key economic sectors, including mining. The NCPE provides that all minerals, among all natural resources, belong to the Bolivian people who are represented by the government. Such entity is the only one capable of managing all minerals throughout the production chain. Consequently, only the Bolivian central government possesses the authority to grant mining rights. Bolivian President Evo Morales signed a new law, the Law of Mining Rights, increasing the State’s expropriation powers over the mining sector. It was specifically drafted to target mines deemed by the state as unproductive, inactive or idle. The Bolivian government has assigned responsibility for determining whether a concession is idle to the Vice Ministry of Regulation, Auditing and Mining Policy. Mining areas occupied by cooperatives or local groups will not be regarded as idle. There have been recent actions by the government of Bolivia to ease concerns of foreign exploration and mining investors. As reported in the Mining Journal, at a UK-Bolivia trade and investment forum in London in June of 2016, Félix César Navarro, Minister of Mining and Metallurgy (“Minister Navarro”), talked of new safeguards for foreign investors looking to put cash into the country, stating, that new contracts governing exploration, mining and processing were currently going through Bolivia’s congress that would give foreign investors the legal security they need to invest in the country (report by Mining Journal June 10, 2016). Certain Company officials also met with Minister Navarro in March, October and November of 2016. During the meeting in March at the 2016 PDAC convention, Minister Navarro expressed his full support for the start-up and development of the Pulacayo mine. During the October meeting, Minister Navarro stated that the aim of the recent mining regulation is to support the investors and ensure the inclusion of cooperative labor in their projects. At the November meeting, Minister Navarro stated that both public and private mining sectors will try to attract foreign investment disclosing and sharing their experience with investors from several parts of the world. We consider our investment in the Pulacayo Project to be safe. However, we cannot provide any assurance that our operations at the Pulacayo Project will not be affected by changes in the political environment of Bolivia or the political attitudes of the Bolivian government. Further, there can be no assurance that neighboring countries’ political and economic policies in relation to Bolivia will also not have adverse economic effects on our business, including our ability to transport and sell our product and access construction labor, supplies and materials.
 
The Mongolian legal system shares several of the qualitative characteristics typically found in a developing country and many of its laws, particularly with respect to matters of environment and taxation, are still evolving. A transaction or business structure that would likely be regarded under a more established legal system as appropriate and relatively straightforward might be regarded in Mongolia as outside the scope of existing Mongolian law, regulation or legal precedent. As the legal framework in Mongolia is in many instances based on recent political reforms or newly enacted legislation which may not be consistent with long-standing conventions and customs, certain business arrangements or structures and certain tax planning mechanisms may carry significant risks. In particular, when business objectives and practicalities dictate the use of arrangements and structures that, while not necessarily contrary to settled Mongolian law, are sufficiently novel within a Mongolian legal context, it is possible that such arrangements may be invalidated.
 
 
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The legal system in Mongolia has inherent uncertainties that could limit the legal protections available to us. These uncertainties include, without limitation: (i) inconsistencies between laws; (ii) limited judicial and administrative guidance on interpreting Mongolian legislation; (iii) substantial gaps in the regulatory structure due to delay or absence of implementing regulations; (iv) the lack of established interpretations of new principles of Mongolian legislation, particularly those relating to business, corporate and securities laws; (v) a lack of judicial independence from political, social and commercial forces; and (vi) bankruptcy procedures that are not well developed and are subject to abuse. The Mongolian judicial system has relative little experience in enforcing the laws and regulations that currently exist, leading to a degree of uncertainty as to the outcome of any litigation, it may be difficult to obtain swift and equitable enforcement, or to obtain enforcement of a judgment by a court of another jurisdiction.
 
In addition, while legislation has been enacted to protect private property against expropriation and nationalization, due to the lack of experience in enforcing these provisions and political factors, these protections may not be enforced in the event of an attempted expropriation or nationalization. Whether legitimate or not, expropriation or nationalization of any of our assets, or portions thereof, potentially without adequate or any compensation, could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. Further, there can be no assurance that neighboring countries’ political and economic policies in relation to Mongolia will not have adverse economic effects on our business, including our ability to transport and sell our product and access construction labor, supplies and materials.
 
In Bolivia, recent and anticipated changes to mining laws and policies and mining taxes and expected changes in governmental regulation or governmental actions may adversely affect us.
 
In Bolivia, recent and anticipated changes to mining laws and policies and mining taxes and expected changes in governmental regulation or governmental actions may adversely affect us. On May 28, 2014, Law 535 of Mining and Metallurgy (which we refer to as the “May Mining Law”) was adopted and placed into effect. Pursuant to the May Mining Law, we must develop our mining activities to comply with the economic and social function, which means observing the sustainability of the mining activities, work creation, respecting the rights of our mining workers, and ensuring the payment of mining patents and the continuity of existing activities.
 
The Framework Law on Mother Earth and Integral Development for Living Well (together with the May Mining Law, the “New Mining Laws”), in effect since October 15, 2012, prioritizes the importance of nature to the Bolivian people and could have significant consequences to the country’s mining industry. This law established 11 new rights for “mother earth” including, the right to life and to exist; the right to continue vital cycle and processes free from human alteration; the right to pure water and clean air; the right to balance; the right not to be polluted; and the right to not have cellular structure modified or genetically altered. At present, it is unclear how the New Mining Laws will affect exploration companies with projects in the area or how the law will be enforced.
 
In the past, the Government of Bolivia has nationalized the assets of certain companies in various industries. Nationalization or other expropriation of our assets, without adequate compensation, could have a material adverse effect on our business and/or result in the total loss of our investment in Bolivia.
 
Our mineral rights may be terminated or not renewed by governmental authorities and we may be negatively impacted by changes to mining laws and regulations.
 
Our activities are subject to government approvals, various laws governing prospecting, development, land resumptions, production taxes, labor standards and occupational health, mine safety, toxic substances and other matters, including issues affecting local native populations. Although we believe that our activities are currently carried out in accordance with all applicable rules and regulations, no assurance can be given that new rules and regulations will not be enacted or that existing rules and regulations will not be applied in a manner which could limit or curtail production or development. Amendments to current laws and regulations governing operations and activities of exploration and mining, or more stringent implementation thereof, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operations and financial performance. Further, the mining licenses and permits issued in respect of our projects may be subject to conditions which, if not satisfied, may lead to the revocation of such licenses. In the event of revocation, the value of our investments in such projects may decline.
 
In the United States, the tenures are in the form of claims where exploration and development rights are retained so long as annual maintenance fees are paid and certain forms filed. The maintenance fees may be substantial with a large number of claims and the fees are adjusted periodically. Diligent periodic assessment of the resource and development value of claims by the claimant is required.
 
Title to our mineral properties may be disputed by third parties.
 
Title to mineral properties, as well as the location of boundaries on the grounds may be disputed. Moreover, additional amounts may be required to be paid to surface right owners in connection with any mining development. At all of such properties where there are current or planned exploration activities, we believe that we have either contractual, statutory, or common law rights to make such use of the surface as is reasonably necessary in connection with those activities. Although we believe we have taken reasonable measures to ensure proper title to our properties, there is no guarantee that title to our properties will not be challenged or impaired. Successful challenges to the title of our properties could impair the development of operations on those properties.
 
 
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Environmental regulations worldwide have become increasingly stringent over the last decade which will require us to dedicate more time and money to compliance and remediation activities.
 
All phases of the mining business present environmental risks and hazards and are subject to environmental regulation pursuant to a variety of international conventions, and federal, state and municipal laws and regulations. Environmental legislation provides for, among other things, restrictions and prohibitions on spills and releases or emissions of various substances produced in association with mining operations. The legislation also requires that wells and facility sites be operated, maintained, abandoned and reclaimed to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities. Compliance with such legislation can require significant expenditures and a breach may result in the imposition of fines and penalties, some of which may be material. Environmental legislation is evolving in a manner expected to result in stricter standards and enforcement, larger fines and liability and potentially increased capital expenditures and operating costs. Environmental assessments of proposed projects carry a heightened degree of responsibility for companies and their directors, officers and employees. The cost of compliance with changes in governmental regulations has a potential to reduce the profitability of operations.
 
Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and permitting requirements may result in enforcement actions under, including orders issued by regulatory or judicial authorities causing operations to cease or be curtailed, and may include corrective measures requiring capital expenditures, installation of additional equipment, or remedial actions. Entities engaged in mining operations may be required to compensate those suffering loss or damage by reason of the mining activities and may have civil or criminal fines or penalties imposed for violations of applicable laws or regulations and, in particular, environmental laws.
 
Amendments to current laws, regulations and permits governing operations and activities of mining companies, or more stringent implementation thereof, could have a material adverse impact on our business and cause increases in capital expenditures, production costs or reduction in levels of production at producing properties, or require abandonment or delays in the development of new mining properties.
 
Certain of our properties are located on land that is or may become subject to traditional territory, title claims and/or claims of cultural significance by certain Native American tribes or Aboriginal communities and stakeholders, and such claims and the attendant obligations of the provincial and federal governments to those tribal or Aboriginal communities and stakeholders may affect our current and future operations.
 
Native American and Aboriginal interests and rights as well as related consultation issues may impact our ability to pursue exploration and development at our U.S. and Canadian properties. There is no assurance that claims or other assertion of rights by tribal or Aboriginal communities and stakeholders or consultation issues will not arise on or with respect to our properties or activities. These could result in significant costs and delays or materially restrict our activities. Opposition by Native American tribes or Aboriginal communities and stakeholders to our presence, operations or development on land subject to their traditional territory or title claims or in areas of cultural significance could negatively impact us in terms of public perception, costly legal proceedings, potential blockades or other interference by third parties in our operations, or court-ordered relief impacting our operations. In addition, we may be required to, or may voluntarily, enter into certain agreements with such Native American tribes or Aboriginal communities and stakeholders in order to facilitate development of our properties, which could reduce the expected earnings or income from any future production.
 
The mining industry in general is intensely competitive. Furthermore, there is no assurance that, even if commercial quantities are discovered, a ready market will exist for sale of the same mineral ore.
 
The mining industry in general is intensely competitive and there is no assurance that, even if commercial quantities of ore are discovered, a ready market will exist for the sale of same. Marketability of natural resources which we may discover will be affected by numerous factors beyond our control, such as market fluctuations, the proximity and capacity of natural resource markets and processing equipment, government regulations including regulations relating to prices, royalties, land tenure, land use, importing and exporting of minerals and environmental protection. The exact effect of such factors cannot be predicted but they may result in us not receiving an adequate return on our investment.
 
The mining business is subject to inherent risks, some of which are not insurable.
 
Our business is subject to a number of risks and hazards, including adverse environmental conditions, industrial accidents, labor disputes, unusual or unexpected geological conditions, ground or slope failures, cave-ins, changes in the regulatory environment and natural phenomena such as inclement weather conditions, floods and earthquakes. Such occurrences could result in damage to mineral properties or production facilities, personal injury or death, environmental damage to our properties or the properties of others, delays in development or mining, monetary losses and possible legal liability.
 
Although we maintain insurance to protect against certain risks in amounts that we consider reasonable, our insurance will not cover all the potential risks associated with our operations. We may also be unable to maintain insurance to cover these risks at economically feasible premiums. Insurance coverage may not continue to be available or may not be adequate to cover any resulting liability. Moreover, insurance against risks such as environmental pollution or other hazards as a result of exploration and production is not generally available to us or to other companies in the mining industry on acceptable terms. We may also become subject to liability for pollution or other hazards which may not be insured against or which we may elect not to insure against because of premium costs or other reasons. Losses from these events may cause us to incur significant costs that could have a material adverse effect upon our financial performance, results of operations and business outlook.
 
 
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We depend on a number of key personnel, including our directors and executive officers, the loss of any one of whom could have an adverse effect on our operations.
 
We depend on a number of key personnel, including our directors and executive officers, the loss of any one of whom could have an adverse effect on our operations. We have employment and consulting contracts with several key personnel, and we do not have key man life insurance.
 
Our ability to manage growth effectively will require us to continue to implement and improve management systems and to recruit and train new employees. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in attracting and retaining skilled and experienced personnel.
 
Our business is highly dependent on the international market prices of the metals we plan to produce, which are both cyclical and volatile.
 
Our revenues, if any, are expected to be in large part derived from the mining and sale of vanadium, silver, coal and other minerals. The prices of those commodities have fluctuated widely, particularly in recent years, and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control including international economic and political trends, expectations of inflation, currency exchange fluctuations, interest rates, global or regional consumption patterns, speculative activities and increased production due to new mine developments and improved mining and production methods.
 
The price of vanadium, silver and coal may have a significant influence on the market price of our securities and the value of our mineral properties. Mineral prices fluctuate widely and are affected by numerous factors beyond our control. The level of interest rates, the rate of inflation, the world supply of mineral commodities and the stability of exchange rates can all cause significant fluctuations in prices. Such external economic factors are in turn influenced by changes in international investment patterns, monetary systems and political developments. The price of mineral commodities has fluctuated widely in recent years, and future price declines could cause commercial production to be impracticable, thereby having a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and result of operations.
 
We may be subject to misconduct by third-party contractors.
 
We will be heavily reliant upon our contractors during the development of large scale projects. Companies are often measured and evaluated by the behavior and performance of their representatives, including in large part their contractors. We work hard to build in controls and mechanisms to choose and retain employees and contractors with similar values to our own; however, these controls may not always be effective. Sound judgment, safe work practices, and ethical behavior is expected from our contractors both on and off-site. Any work disruptions, labor disputes, regulatory breach or irresponsible behavior of our contractors could reflect on us poorly and could lead to loss of social license, delays in production and schedule, unsafe work practices and accidents and reputational harm.
 
Our business requires substantial capital expenditures and is subject to financing risks.
 
We estimate that our current financial resources are insufficient to undertake presently planned exploration and development programs. Further exploration on and development and construction of our mineral properties may require additional capital. One source of future funds presently available to us is through the sale of equity capital. There is no assurance that this source will continue to be available as required or at all. If it is available, future equity financings may result in substantial dilution to shareholders. Another alternative for the financing of further exploration and/or development would be the offering of an interest in our mineral properties to be earned by another party or parties carrying out further exploration or development thereof. There can be no assurance that we will be able to conclude any such agreements on favorable terms or at all.
 
Any failure to obtain the required financing on acceptable terms could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity and may require us to cancel or postpone planned capital investments.
 
Currency fluctuation may affect our operations and financial stability.
 
We transact business in a number of currencies including Canadian, U.S., Bolivian and Mongolian currencies. Fluctuations in exchange rates may have a significant effect on our cash flows. Future changes in exchange rates could materially affect our results in either a positive or negative direction. We do not currently engage in foreign currency hedging activities.
 
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws and regulations in Canada and the United States, among other countries. Any violations of any such laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and results of operations and financial condition.
 
We are subject to anti-corruption legislation including the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (Canada) and other similar acts (which we refer to collectively as “Anti- Corruption Legislation”), which prohibit us or any of our officers, directors, employees or agents or any of our stockholders acting on our behalf from paying, offering to pay or authorizing the payment of anything of value to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party or political candidate in an attempt to obtain or retain business or to otherwise influence a person working in an office capacity. Anti-Corruption Legislation also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect their transactions and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. Our international activities create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by our employees, consultants or agents, even though they may not always be subject to our control. We have policies and procedures in place that strictly prohibit these practices by our employees and agents. However, our existing safeguards and any future improvements may prove to be less than effective, and our employees, consultants and agents may engage in conduct for which we may be held responsible. Any failure by us to adopt appropriate compliance procedures and to ensure that our employees and agents comply with Anti- Corruption Legislation and other applicable laws and regulations in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial penalties or restrictions on our ability to conduct our business, which may have a material adverse impact on us or our share price.
 
 
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Our results and financial condition are affected by global and local market conditions that we do not control and cannot predict.
 
Access to financing has been negatively impacted by many factors as a result of the global financial crisis. This may impact our ability to obtain debt or equity financing in the future on terms favorable to us and our ability to attain strategic partnerships or enter into joint venture arrangements which may further negatively impact the timeline for commencement of commercial production. Additionally, global economic conditions may cause decreases in asset values that are deemed to be other than temporary, which may result in impairment losses. If such volatility and market turmoil continue, our business and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
 
Our insurance will not cover all the potential risks associated with a mining company’s operations.
 
Our insurance will not cover all the potential risks associated with a mining company’s operations. We may also be unable to maintain insurance to cover these risks at economically feasible premiums. Insurance coverage may not continue to be available or may not be adequate to cover any resulting liability. Moreover, insurance against risks such as environmental pollution or other hazards as a result of exploration and production is not generally available to us or to other companies in the mining industry on acceptable terms. We may also become subject to liability for pollution or other hazards which may not be insured against or which we may elect not to insure against because of premium costs or other reasons. Losses from these events may cause the Company to incur significant costs that could have a material adverse effect upon its financial condition and results of operations.
 
We have never paid any dividends and we are unlikely to do so in the foreseeable future.
 
To date, we have never paid any dividends on our outstanding common shares and we are unlikely to do so in the foreseeable future. Any decision to pay dividends on our common shares will be made by our Corporate Governance and Compensation Committee on the basis of our earnings, financial requirements and other conditions.
 
We engage in extensive related party transactions, which may result in conflicts of interest involving our management.
 
We have engaged in the past, and continue to engage, in extensive related party transactions involving certain of our management. See the discussion under the heading “Item 7.B. Related Party Transactions” for further detail. Such related party transactions could cause us to become materially dependent on the related parties in the ongoing conduct of our business, and related parties may be motivated by personal interests to pursue courses of action that are not necessarily in the best interests of the Company and our stockholders. Related party transactions often present conflicts of interest, could result in disadvantages to the Company, and may impair investor confidence, all of which could materially and adversely affect us.
 
We rely on information technology systems and networks in our operations which are provided and maintained by third-party contractors.
 
We rely on information technology (“IT”) systems and networks in our operations which are provided and maintained by third-party contractors. The availability, capacity, reliability and security of these IT systems could be subject to network disruptions caused by a variety of malicious sources, including computer viruses, security breaches, cyber-attacks and theft, as well as network and/or hardware disruptions resulting from unexpected failures such as human error, software or hardware defects, natural disasters, fire, flood or power loss. Our operations also depend on the timely maintenance, upgrade and replacement of networks, equipment, IT systems and software, as well as pre-emptive expenses to mitigate the risks of failures.
 
The ability of the IT function to support our business in the event of any such failure and the ability to recover key systems from unexpected interruptions cannot be fully tested. There is a risk that if such an event were to occur, our response may not be adequate to immediately address all of the potential repercussions of the incident. In the event of a disaster affecting our head office, key systems may be unavailable for a number of days, leading to inability to perform some business processes in a timely manner. The failure of our IT systems or a component thereof could, depending on the nature, materially impact our financial condition, results of operations, reputation and share price.
 
Unauthorized access to our IT systems as a result of cyber-attacks could lead to exposure, corruption or loss of confidential information, and disruption to our communications, operations, business activities or our competitive position. Further, disruption of critical IT services, or breaches of information security, could expose us to financial losses and regulatory or legal action. Our risk and exposure to these matters cannot be fully mitigated because of, among other things, the evolving nature of these threats. As a result, cyber- security and the continued development and enhancement of controls, processes and practices designed to protect systems, computers, software, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access remain a priority.
 
 
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We apply technical and process controls in line with industry-accepted standards to protect information, assets and systems. Although these measures are robust, they cannot possibly prevent all types of cyber-threat. There is no assurance that we will not suffer losses associated with cyber-security breaches in the future, and we may be required to expend significant additional resources to investigate, mitigate and remediate any potential vulnerabilities. As cyber-threats continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance protective measures or to investigate and remediate any security vulnerabilities.
 
As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to file less information with the SEC than a company that is not a foreign private issuer or that files as a domestic issuer.
 
As a “foreign private issuer,” we are exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that impose disclosure requirements as well as procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as a company that files as a domestic issuer whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, nor are we generally required to comply with the SEC’s Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material non-public information. For as long as we are a foreign private issuer we intend to file our annual financial statements on Form 20-F and furnish our quarterly financial statements on Form 6-K to the SEC for so long as we are subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13(g) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. However, the information we file or furnish will not be the same as the information that is required in annual and quarterly reports on Form 10-K or Form 10-Q for U.S. domestic issuers. Accordingly, there may be less information publicly available concerning us than there is for a company that files as a domestic issuer.
 
We may lose our foreign private issuer status, which would then require us to comply with the Exchange Act’s domestic reporting regime and cause us to incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses.
 
We are required to determine our status as a foreign private issuer on an annual basis at the end of our second fiscal quarter. We will lose our current status as a foreign private issuer if (1) a majority of our common shares are directly or indirectly held of record by residents of the United States; and (2) either (a) a majority of our executive officers or directors are
U.S. citizens or residents, or (b) more than 50 percent of our assets are located in the United States, or (c) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose this status, we would be required to comply with the Exchange Act reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers. We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC rules. Further, we would be required to comply with United States generally accepted accounting principles, as opposed to IFRS, in the preparation and issuance of our financial statements for historical and current periods. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws if we are required to comply with the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer may be higher than the cost we would incur as a foreign private issuer. As a result, we expect that a loss of foreign private issuer status would increase our legal and financial compliance costs.
 
As a Canadian incorporated and domiciled company, our financial statements are prepared using IFRS accounting principles which are different than the accounting principles under U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.
 
Our financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS. IFRS is an internationally recognized body of accounting principles that are used by many companies outside of the United States to prepare their financial statements. IFRS accounting principles are different from those of U.S. GAAP. Investors who are not familiar with IFRS may misunderstand certain information presented in our financial statements. Accordingly, we suggest that readers of our financial statements familiarize themselves with the provisions of IFRS accounting principles in order to better understand the differences between these two sets of principles.
 
Because we are a Canadian company and the majority of our directors and officers are resident in Canada or countries other than the United States, it may be difficult for investors in the United States to enforce civil liabilities against us based solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States.
 
We are governed by the corporate legislation of British Columbia, where we amalgamated, and our principal place of business is in Canada. Our auditors and a majority of our directors and officers are residents of Canada or countries other than the United States. All or a substantial portion of our assets and those of such persons are located outside the United States. Consequently, it may be difficult for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or our directors, officers and auditors who are not residents of the United States or to realize in the United States upon judgments of U.S. courts predicated upon civil liabilities under the Securities Act (as defined below). Investors should not assume that Canadian or other foreign courts: (1) would enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained in actions against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or the securities or “blue sky” laws of any state within the United States or (2) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against us or such persons predicated upon the U.S. federal securities laws or any such state securities or blue-sky laws.
 
 
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We are an emerging growth company and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our securities less attractive to investors and, as a result, adversely affect the price of our securities and result in a less active trading market for our securities.
 
We are an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. For example, we have elected to rely on an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act relating to internal control over financial reporting, and we will not provide such an attestation from our auditors.
 
We may avail ourselves of these disclosure exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because of our reliance on some or all of these exemptions. If investors find our securities less attractive, it may adversely impact the price of our securities and there may be a less active trading market for our securities.
 
We will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of:
 
● 
the last day of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1,070,000,000 or more;
 
● 
the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our first sale of common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”);
 
● 
the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1,000,000,000 in non-convertible debt; or
 
● 
the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer”, as defined in Rule 12b–2 of the Exchange Act, which would occur if the market value of our common shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700,000,000 as of the last day of our most recently-completed second fiscal quarter.
 
The Company’s Passive Foreign Investment Company status has possible adverse tax consequences for U.S. investors.
 
Because the Company is an exploration stage company and its only material revenues consist of passive investment income on its cash investments, U.S. shareholders of common shares should be aware that the Company believes it was classified as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”) during the tax year ended December 31, 2019, and based on current business plans and financial expectations, the Company anticipates that it may be a PFIC for the current tax year and may be a PFIC in future tax years. If the Company is a PFIC for any year during a U.S. shareholder’s holding period of the common shares, then such U.S. shareholder generally will be required to treat any gain realized upon a disposition of common shares, or any “excess distribution” received on its common shares, as ordinary income, and to pay an interest charge on a portion of such gain or distribution, unless the shareholder makes a timely and effective "qualified electing fund" election (“QEF Election”) or a "mark-to-market" election with respect to the common shares.
 
A U.S. shareholder who makes a QEF Election generally must report on a current basis its share of the Company's net capital gain and ordinary earnings for any year in which the Company is a PFIC, whether or not the Company distributes any amounts to its shareholders. However, U.S. shareholders should be aware that there can be no assurance that the Company will satisfy the record keeping requirements that apply to a qualified electing fund, or that the Company will supply U.S. shareholders with information that such U.S. shareholders require to report under the QEF Election rules, in the event that the Company is a PFIC and a U.S. shareholder wishes to make a QEF Election. Thus, U.S. shareholders may not be able to make a QEF Election with respect to their common shares. A U.S. shareholder who makes a mark-to-market election generally must include as ordinary income each year the excess of the fair market value of the common shares over the taxpayer’s adjusted tax basis therein. This paragraph is qualified in its entirety by the discussion below under the heading “Certain United States Federal Income Tax Consequences.” Each U.S. shareholder should consult its own tax advisors regarding the PFIC rules and the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of common shares.
 
ITEM 4.  INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
 
A.           
History and Development of the Company
 
Silver Elephant Mining Corp. (formerly Prophecy Development Corp.) is an exploration stage company specializing in mine permitting, construction, and operations in the United States, Canada, Bolivia and Mongolia. The Company, in its current form, is primarily the product of an April 16, 2010 business combination between Red Hill Energy Inc. and Prophecy Resource Corp. We are currently governed under the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) (“BCBCA”). Our head and registered offices are located at Suite 1610 – 409 Granville Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6C 1T2, Telephone: 604-569-3661.
 
Red Hill Energy Inc. was incorporated on November 6, 1978 under the Corporations Act (British Columbia) under the name “Banbury Gold Mines Ltd.” Banbury changed its name to “Enerwaste Minerals Corp.” on July 3, 1992 and to “Universal Gun-Loc Industries Ltd.” on December 17, 1993. On April 24, 2002, Universal Gun-Loc changed its name to “UGL Enterprises Ltd.” and then to “Red Hill Energy Inc.” on May 29, 2006.
 
 
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On April 16, 2010, Red Hill Energy Inc. changed its name to “Prophecy Resource Corp.” in conjunction with the merger of Red Hill Energy Inc. and Prophecy Resource Corp.
 
On June 13, 2011, the Prophecy Resource Corp. changed its name to “Prophecy Coal Corp.” in connection with its amalgamation with Northern Platinum Ltd. and Prophecy Holdings Inc. and an asset spin-off to capitalize the Company’s then-controlled affiliate, Wellgreen Platinum Ltd.
 
On January 2, 2015, we completed, by way of a share purchase agreement, the acquisition of 100% of Apogee Silver Ltd.’s (“Apogee”) interest in and to ASC Holdings Limited and ASC Bolivia LDC (which together, indirectly held through ASC Bolivia LDC Sucursal Bolivia, Apogee’s joint venture interest in the Pulacayo Project and Apogee Minerals Bolivia S.A. by paying to Apogee $250,000 in cash and issuing to Apogee 60 million common shares of the Company.
 
On January 5, 2015, Prophecy Coal Corp. changed its name to “Prophecy Development Corp.” in connection with an acquisition of assets located in Bolivia and to better reflect its various interests in its mining and energy projects at the time in the United States, Canada, Bolivia and Mongolia.
 
On March 12, 2015, we entered into a credit facility (which, as amended, we refer to as the “Credit Facility”) with Linx Partners Ltd. (which we refer to as “Linx”), a private company wholly-owned and controlled by John Lee, our Interim Chief Executive Officer and Executive Chairman, and a member of our board of directors (which we refer to as the “Board”), in order to meet interim working capital requirements to fund our business operations and financial commitments. The Credit Facility was amended on May 5, 2015 and February 24, 2016. The Credit Facility was revolving and had a maximum principal amount available for advance of $2.5 million. The Credit Facility had a two-year term with an option to extend for any number of subsequent one-year terms subject to approval by the TSX and had a simple interest rate of 18% per annum. We closed out and terminated the Credit Facility on November 28, 2017.
 
On May 5, 2015, the Company, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Red Hill, entered into a purchase agreement with Khishig Arvin Industrial LLC, an arm’s-length party in Mongolia, to sell substantially all of our mining and transportation equipment at our Ulaan Ovoo Property for total proceeds of approximately $2.34 million. The sale, together with the sale of additional equipment to other arm’s-length parties, was completed in June 2015 and we received approximately $2.9 million in cash. In consideration for our receiving consent to the sales of the equipment from Linx, which held a general security interest over all of our property (including property indirectly held through our subsidiaries such as Red Hill), we issued the equivalent of 1,200,000 common share purchase warrants of the Company to Mr. Lee, the beneficial owner of Linx, exercisable at the equivalent of $0.50 per share for a period of five years expiring on May 22, 2020.
 
On September 1, 2015, we announced a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of up to the equivalent of 4,000,000 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.50 per unit. Each unit consisted of one common share of the Company and one common share purchase warrant entitling the holder thereof to acquire an additional common share of the Company at a price of the equivalent of $0.70 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance. On September 30, 2015, we closed on a first cash tranche of the aforementioned private placement for gross cash proceeds of $556,000 through the issuance of the equivalent of 1,112,000 units (the “Sept. 1, 2015 Private Placement”) . The remainder of this private placement was cancelled on November 4, 2015.
 
On November 12, 2015, we announced a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of up to the equivalent of 2,500,000 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.40 per unit (the “Nov. 12, 2015 Private Placement”). Each unit consisted of one common share of the Company and one common share purchase warrant entitling the holder thereof to acquire an additional common share of the Company at a price of the equivalent of $0.70 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance. On November 13, 2015 we closed on a first tranche of the aforementioned private placement for gross cash proceeds of $250,000 through the issuance of the equivalent of 625,000 units. On December 18, 2015, we announced the closure of the aforementioned private placement with no further subscriptions.
 
On January 25, 2016, we completed a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of the equivalent of 800,000 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.25 per unit (the “Jan. 25, 2016 Private Placement”) , with each unit consisting of one common share and one warrant to purchase one common share at a price of the equivalent of $0.40 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance.
 
On January 29, 2016, we voluntarily delisted our common shares from the OTCQX.
 
On March 30, 2016, we entered into a debt settlement agreement with Linx and Mr. Lee, the beneficial owner of Linx, pursuant to which, we agreed to issue the equivalent of 7,500,000 units to Mr. Lee, in satisfaction of $1,500,000 of indebtedness owed by us to Linx under the Credit Facility (the “Mar. 30, 2016 Linx Settlement”) . Each unit consists of one common share and one warrant to purchase one common share at a price of the equivalent of $0.40 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance. We issued the aforementioned equivalent of 7,500,000 units on June 6, 2016.
 
 
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On June 7, 2016, we completed the Consolidation.
 
On August 29, 2016, we completed a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of the equivalent of 2,027,350 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.38 per unit for gross proceeds of $770,393 (the “Aug. 29, 2016 Private Placement”). Each unit consisted of one common share and one-half of one common share purchase warrant, with each full purchase warrant entitling the holder thereof to purchase one common share at a price equivalent of $0.44 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance.
 
On September 22, 2016, we sold our 60% interest in the Okeover, copper-molybdenum project located in British Columbia, Canada to Lorraine Copper Corp. (which we refer to as “Lorraine”). Under the terms of the agreement, Lorraine issued 2,200,000 common shares of Lorraine (valued at $0.08 per share) to us and assumed our $19,079 payment obligation to Eastfield Resources Ltd. under such parties’ existing joint venture agreement. We are additionally entitled to receive 30% of any payments or proceeds resulting from third party agreements related to the project entered into within five years of the date of the sale, up to a maximum amount of $1,000,000.
 
THREE YEAR HISTORY
 
Year Ended December 31, 2017
 
On January 13, 2017, we closed a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of the equivalent of 499,990 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.30 per unit, with each unit consisting of one common share and one warrant to purchase one common share at a price of the equivalent of $0.40 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance.
 
On January 13, 2017, we entered into another debt settlement agreement with Linx and Mr. Lee, the beneficial owner of Linx, to settle most of the outstanding balance we owed to Linx under the Credit Facility. We agreed to issue the equivalent of 3,000,000 common shares of the Company to Mr. Lee, in satisfaction of $900,000 of indebtedness owed by us to Linx under the Credit Facility. Linx agreed to accrue and postpone the repayment of any principal, interest and fees due under the Credit Facility until the earlier of October 1, 2017, or such time as the Company is in a reasonable financial position to repay all or a portion of the amounts owing.
 
On February 10, 2017, we acquired the remaining 20% title interest held by Ransburg International Gold Corp. in the patented claims that comprise the Titan Project, and issued the equivalent of 200,000 common shares of the Company in consideration therefor.
 
On April 12, 2017, we closed a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of the equivalent of 1,032,500 units at a price of the equivalent of $0.40 per unit, with each unit consisting of one common share and one warrant to purchase one common share at a price of the equivalent of $0.50 per common share for a period of five years from the date of issuance.
 
On June 22, 2017, we acquired through lease, the Gibellini Project, by paying USD$35,000 in cash to Janelle Dietrich, (whom we refer to as the “Gibellini Lessor”) with the intent to carry-out mining operations there. Under the mineral lease agreement, we agreed to lease the Gibellini mining claims by paying to the Gibellini Lessor, annual advance royalty payments which will be tied, based on an agreed formula (not to exceed USD$120,000 per year), to the average vanadium pentoxide price of the preceding year. Upon commencement of production, we intend to maintain our acquisition through lease of the Gibellini mining claims by paying to the Gibellini Lessor, a 2.5% net smelter return (which we refer to as “NSR”) until a total of USD$3 million is paid. Thereafter, the NSR will be reduced to 2% over the remaining life of the mine. All advance royalty payments made, will be deducted as credits against future production royalty payments. The lease is for a term of 10 years, which can be extended for an additional 10 years at our option. On April 23, 2018, we amended the mineral lease agreement to provide us with an option at any time during the term of the mineral lease agreement, to require the Gibellini Lessor to transfer her title over all of the leased Gibellini mining claims (excluding four claims which will be retained by the Gibellini Lessor and which contain minimal resources) to us in exchange for USD$1,000,000, to be paid as an advance royalty payment (we refer to this as the “Transfer Payment”). We received a credit of USD$99,027 towards the Transfer Payment upon signing of the amendment, with the remaining USD$900,973 portion of the Transfer Payment due and payable by us to the Gibellini Lessor upon completion of the transfer of the aforementioned claims from the Gibellini Lessor to us. The advance royalty obligation and production royalty will not be affected, reduced or relieved by the transfer of title.
 
On July 10, 2017, we acquired through lease, the Louie Hill group of claims in Nevada, USA, by paying USD$10,000 in cash to Richard A. McKay, Nancy M. Minoletti and Pamela
 
S. Scutt (whom we refer to collectively as the “Louie Hill Lessors”) with the intent to carry out mining operations there. Under the mineral lease agreement, we will lease the Louie Hill group of claims by paying, to the Louie Hill Lessors, annual advance royalty payments which will be tied, based on an agreed formula (not to exceed USD$28,000 per year), to the average vanadium pentoxide price for the preceding year. Upon commencement of production, we intend to maintain our acquisition through lease of the Louie Hill group of claims by paying to the Louie Hill Lessors, a 2.5% NSR of which, 1.5% of the NSR may be purchased by us at any time for USD$1 million, leaving the total NSR to be reduced to 1% over the remaining life of the mine. All advance royalty payments made, will be deducted as credits against future production royalty payments. The lease is for a term of 10 years, which can be extended for an additional 10 years at our option.
 
 
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On September 20 and October 16, 2017, we closed on the first and second tranches, respectively, of a non-brokered private placement, pursuant to which we issued a total of the equivalents of 7,845,460 units and 11,397,110 special warrants each, at a price of the equivalent of $0.35 per unit or special warrant. Each unit consisted of one common share and one-half of one share purchase warrant. Each whole warrant entitles the holder thereof to acquire one common share at a price equivalent of $0.40 and is exercisable for a period of three years from the date of issuance. Each Special Warrant was to be exercisable for one unit at no additional cost to the holder provided TSX and shareholder approval for the issuance was obtained within a specified time. On December 18, 2017, all the special warrants were converted into units, with each such unit comprised of one common share and one-half of one share purchase warrant. Each such whole warrant entitled the holder thereof to acquire one common share at a price equivalent of $0.40 for a period of three years from the date of issuance.
 
On December 5, 2017, we announced we had significantly expanded the land position at our Gibellini Project by staking 198 new claims immediately adjacent to the Gibellini Project covering 4091 acres sufficient to enable future vanadium mining, processing and extraction.
 
Our common shares are listed for trading on the TSX under the symbol “PCY”, the OTCQX under the symbol “PRPCF” and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the symbol “1P2N”.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
On February 15, 2018, we acquired an additional 105 unpatented lode mining claims located adjacent to our existing Gibellini Project, through the acquisition of 1104002 B.C. Ltd. and its Nevada subsidiary, by paying a total of $335,661 in cash, settling $14,338 in debt and issuing the equivalent of 500,000 share purchase warrants to arm’s-length, private parties.
 
On February 27, 2018, we re-listed our common shares on the OTCQX, which began trading again under the symbol “PRPCF”.
 
On April 23, 2018, we announced an amendment to the Gibellini mineral lease agreement dated June 22, 2017, whereby we were granted the option to cause the Gibellini Lessor to transfer title to substantially all of the Gibellini mining claims to us in exchange for US$1,000,000, to be paid as an advance royalty payment.
 
On August 14, 2018, we closed the Company’s non-brokered private placement for gross proceeds of $1,137,197 through the issuance of 4,061,417 units of the Company. Each unit is comprised of one common share of the Company and one common share purchase warrant. Each warrant entitles the holder to purchase one additional common share of the Company at an exercise price of $0.40 for a period of three years from the closing of the first tranche of the placement.
 
On August 8, 2018, we completed the Forward Split.
 
On August 20, 2018, the Company secured water supply for the Gibellini Project’s construction and operation. The Company signed a 10-year water lease agreement (the “Agreement”) with the owner of a private ranch, located approximately 14.5 km from the Gibellini Project. The Agreement can be extended for any number of additional 7-year terms, not to exceed (with the primary term) a total of 99 years. Per the terms of the Agreement, the lessor has granted to the Company the rights to 805 acre-feet (approximately 262.4 million gallons) of water per year for the Gibellini Project, at a minimum flow rate of 500 gallons per minute from its year-round springs surface water stream.
 
On October 2, 2018, the Company signed a Memorandum of Agreement for voluntary cost recovery with the Bureau of Land Management Battle Mountain District office (who we refer to as “BLM”) to expedite Gibellini Project permitting efforts. The Company and the BLM agreed in principal to a fixed cost structure that will have the Company reimburse the BLM for the cost of all anticipated work for the BLM to complete its review of the Company’s submission of mine plan of operations and any updates to existing baseline studies.
 
On November 22, 2018, we closed a bought deal financing previously announced on November 1, 2018, which raised gross proceeds of $5,520,000. The Company entered into an agreement with BMO Nesbitt Burns Inc. (“BMO”), under which BMO agreed to buy on a bought deal basis 12,000,000 Shares, at a price of $0.46 per Share. The Shares were offered by way of a short form prospectus in each of the provinces and territories of Canada, except Québec. The Company incurred $560,576 in common share issuance costs
 
On December 18, 2018, the Company announced that it selected M3 Engineering & Technology Corporation to provide engineering, procurement, construction and management services for its Gibellini Project in response to its Request for Proposal issued on August 15, 2018.
 
 
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Year Ended December 31, 2019
 
On February 14, 2019, the Company announced that it had retained Amec Foster Wheeler E&C Services Inc. (Wood) to undertake updating of the mineral resource and mining section for the Company’s upcoming feasibility study (“FS”) to be completed to the standards of NI 43-101 of its Gibellini Project.
 
On March 18, 2019 the Company announced that the Ulaan Ovoo Property had started up. The Company also reported that it had executed a lease agreement with an arms-length private Mongolian company (the “Lessee”) whereby the Lessee performs mining operations at the Company’s Ulaan Ovoo Property, and will pay the Company $2 (the “Production Royalty”) for every tonne of coal shipped from the Ulaan Ovoo site premises. The Lessee is responsible for all capital and operating expenses, government taxes and royalties related to Ulaan Ovoo operation.
 
On March 26, 2019 the Company announced its vanadium assay results from its fall 2018 exploration reconnaissance program on the Gibellini Project. There were 155 assays taken from three prospective exploration areas which all were within 5 km to the existing Gibellini vanadium NI 43-101 compliant resource pit.
 
On May 1, 2019 the Company announced that it had received guidance regarding expected permitting timelines following the Company meeting with regulators in late April 2019. The Company estimated Q1 2020 as the target date for publication of the Notice of Intent (“NOI”) to prepare an Environment Impact Statement (“EIS”) in the Federal Register. Upon publication of the NOI the review process is mandated to be completed within a 12-month period under the US Department of the Interior’s Secretarial Order No. 3355. Based on this guidance, an EIS Record of Decision (“ROD”) would be expected no later than Q1 2021. Upon receipt of a positive ROD and issuance of Nevada State permits, the Company plans to start mine construction in 2021 and begin vanadium production by Q4 2022.
 
On May 27, 2019 the Company announced that its Annual General Meeting (“AGM”) had been scheduled for September 12, 2019. Due to some recent changes in the Company’s Management, the AGM was delayed from being held within six months of its year end. TSX approval had been obtained to delay the Company’s AGM to September 12, 2019.
 
On June 19, 2019, the Company announced the appointment of a third party NEPA contractor and SWCA Environmental Consultants to work under the direction of the BLM per the provisions of a Memorandum of Understanding between SWCA Environmental Consultants, BLM and the Company, to prepare the EIS for the and assist the BLM in the maintenance of the administrative record. The EIS was prepared pursuant to Secretarial Order 3355 in the Federal Register to BLM.
 
On July 8, 2019 the Company announced that it had submitted its updated Plan of Operations (the “POO”) through the Company’s U.S. subsidiary for the Gibellini Project to the BLM and the Reclamation Permit Application to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Mining Regulation and Reclamation (the “BMRR”). The POO was submitted on schedule and prepared under budget. The POO submission is the last major step before the publication of the NOI which will initiate the EIS process under the Secretary of Interior Order No. 3355 (Streamlining National Environmental Policy Reviews and Implementation of Executive Order 13807; see Company’s news release dated March 28, 2018 filed on SEDAR). The streamlined EIS process from NOI to the ROD is one year.
 
The Company further announced that a positive resolution was issued from the Mongolia city tax tribunal regarding the Company’s VAT dispute with the Mongolia tax office. The resolution, which is binding and final, affirmed the Company’s outstanding VAT credit of 1.169 billion MNT (USD$439,470 based on today’s exchange rate of 2,660 MNT to 1 USD$) which resulted from past mining equipment purchases. The VAT credit can be used to offset the Company’s taxes and royalty payments; or be refunded in cash by Mongolia’s Ministry of Finance within 12 to 24 months processing time. In addition, the Company also reported that it had successfully converted its Chandgana Khavtgai coal exploration license to a mining license in central Mongolia.
 
On July 19, 2019, the Company announced its objectives for the second half of 2019 for its Gibellini Project. The Company plans to submit the key Nevada state permit applications required for project construction by the end of the third quarter of 2019 (Completed). It is anticipated that all approvals will be received by first quarter of 2021.
 
On July 29, 2019, the Company the Company granted in aggregate 1,685,000 incentive stock options to its directors, officer and employees of the Company. The options are exercisable at a price of $0.20 per common share for a term of five years expiring on November 1, 2024 and vest at 12.5% per quarter for the first two years following the date of grant.
 
On August 19, 2019 the Company announced the formation of two wholly owned Canadian BC subsidiaries: Silver Elephant Mining Corp. and Asia Mining Inc. in order to facilitate potential future spinoffs of the Company’s wholly owned Bolivian silver operation and Mongolian coal operation.
 
 
23
 
 
On August 26, 2019 the Company announced that it was undertaking a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of 13 million common shares at a price of $0.20 per share to raise aggregate gross proceeds of $2,600,000 (the “Aug. 26, 2019 Private Placement”). The Company’s management and directors subscribed to 2 million common shares in the Aug. 26, 2019 Private Placement. These common shares were subject, under applicable Canadian securities laws, to a minimum hold period of four months plus one day from the date of issue.
 
On September 6, 2019, the Company closed the Aug. 26, 2019 Private Placement. The Placement raised gross cash proceeds of $2,600,000 through the issuance of 13,000,000 common shares of the Company at a price of $0.20 per share. The Company paid $10,000 in cash and issued 525,000 shares as finder’s fees. Proceeds of the Aug. 26, 2019 Private Placement are to be used to develop the Company’s mineral projects and for general working capital purposes.
 
On September 24, 2019 the Company announced the successful completion of its internal reorganization. The Company further announced, subject to approval by the TSX, that it would issue 175,000 common shares, with a four-month hold period under applicable Canadian securities laws, to Mr. Bryan Slusarchuk in exchange for consulting services to the Company.
 
On September 30, 2019, the Company announced a 5,000-meter diamond drilling at its Pulacayo Project had started with first set of assay results expected in early November, 2019.
 
On October 3, 2019, the Pulacayo Mining Production Contract (“MPC”) was executed between the Company and the Corporación Minera de Bolivia (“COMIBOL”), a branch of the Bolivian Ministry of Mining and Metallurgy. Notification of the final government resolution approving the MPC was received on September 27, 2019. The MPC granted the Company the 100% exclusive right to develop and mine at the Pulacayo and Paca concessions for up to 30 years, which is comparable to a mining license in Canada or the United States. The Company’s Bolivian subsidiaries had spent $25 million on Pulacayo and Paca as of October 3, 2019 with over 80,000 meters of drilling, with a completed historic independent FS study, and an approved detailed environment impact assessment (“DEIA”).
 
On October 7, 2019, the Company announced that it was undertaking a non-brokered private placement involving the issuance of 10 million common shares at a price of $0.40 per share (the “Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement”) to raise aggregate gross proceeds of $4,000,000.
 
On October 9, 2019, the Company issued 104,951 common shares at a value of $43,060 to its directors to settle outstanding director fees.
 
On October 21, 2019, the Company announced that it has closed the Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement. The Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement raised gross cash proceeds of $3,900,000 for Company through the issuance of 9,750,000 common shares of the Company at a price of $0.40 per share. Mr. Eric Sprott, through 2176423 Ontario Ltd., a corporation that is beneficially owned by him, acquired 5,000,000 shares under the Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement for a total consideration of $2,000,000. Following the completion of the private placement, Mr. Sprott’s holdings represented 9% of the issued and outstanding common shares of the Company at the time the Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement. Mr. Sprott beneficially owned 5,9000,000 common shares in the Company prior to this investment. The Company’s management and directors purchased 0.4 million common shares for proceeds of $160,000. The Company issued 654,500 common shares as finder’s fees to Mackie Research Capital Corp. All shares issued in the Oct. 7, 2019 Private Placement were subject to a four month and one day hold period under applicable Canadian securities laws. Proceeds are to be used for the Company’s mineral project development and for general working capital purposes.
 
On October 28, 2019, the Company announced the diamond drilling results from the Company’s 100% controlled Paca silver project in the Potosi department of Bolivia
 
On November 1, 2019, the Company granted in aggregate 1,680,000 incentive stock options to its directors, officer and employees of the Company. The options are exercisable at a price of $0.44 per common share for a term of five years expiring on November 1, 2024 and vest at 12.5% per quarter for the first two years following the date of grant.
 
On November 7, 2019, the Company announced that it had submitted, through its wholly owned US subsidiary Nevada Vanadium, LLC (“Nevada Vanadium”), the applications and Engineering Design Reports for the primary mining permits that govern project construction, operations and closure for its Gibellini Project located in Eureka County, Nevada, U.S., to BLM and the Gibellini Project EIS contractor SWCA Environmental Consultants. The permit applications were submitted on October 31, 2019 for the Water Pollution Control Permit and the Class II Air Quality Permit. These Nevada state permits have been developed to provide construction level engineering that supports the mine plan previously submitted to the BLM in the POO. Comments received from both the BLM and SWCA were used as guidance in the engineering design to ensure the State and Federal Permits are aligned and reflect the most current guidance provided by both the Company and Nevada Vanadium LLC.(“NDEP”) and BLM.
 
On December 4, 2019, the Company announced that it had received on November 18, 2019, the 18-page Resolution No. 195/2018 issued by the Supreme Court of Bolivia (the “2019 Resolution”), signed by all of its nine judges. It declared that the contentious tax claim of US$6,556,787 (US$816,769.54 income tax on alleged 2003 profits and US$5,740,017.81 in interests and penalties) brought by Bolivia’s General Revenue Authority against the Company’s Bolivian subsidiary was not proven. The 2019 Resolution is final and binding. Hence neither the Company nor the Company's Bolivian subsidiaries owe any outstanding back taxes to the Bolivian General Revenue Authority.
 
 
24
 
 
On December 18, 2019, the Company announced that the phase two drilling had commenced at the Pulacayo Project. It is a 5,000-meter program that will consist mainly of wide step-out drilling up to 1.5km west (Western Block) of the current 43-101 Pulacayo resource. That current Pulacayo resource covers 1.4 km in strike and represents only a small portion of the Tajo vein system (the “TVS”) which is over 3 km in strike and open to least 1,000 meters at depth, according to historical records of underground mining.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company experienced various changes in Directors, Officers and Management of the Company as follows:
 
● 
Gerald Panneton ceased to be the President, Chief Executive Officer and a Director on February 15, 2019;
● 
John Lee ceased to act as Head of International Affairs on February 15, 2019;
● 
Tony Wong ceased to act as Corporate Secretary on February 22, 2019;
● 
Louis Dionne ceased to be a Director on February 28, 2019;
● 
Rocio Echegaray was appointed Corporate Secretary on March 8, 2019;
● 
Michael Doolin was appointed Chief Operating Officer and Interim Chief Executive Officer on April 1, 2019;
● 
John Lee ceased to act as Interim President and Chief Executive Officer on April 1, 2019;
● 
Bekzod Kasimov ceased to act as Vice-President Business Development on July 1, 2019;
● 
Marc Leduc was appointed as a Director on July 22, 2019;
● 
Joaquin Merino-Marquez was appointed as Vice-President, South American Operation on November 1, 2019;
● 
Ronald Clayton was appointed as a Director on November 4, 2019;
● 
Michael Drozd ceased to act as Vice-President, Operations on November 7, 2019;
● 
Rocio Echegaray ceased to act as Corporate Secretary on November 15, 2019; and
● 
Brigitte McArthur was appointed Corporate Secretary on November 15, 2019;
 
Subsequent Events to December 31, 2019
 
On January 8, 2020, the Company announced the following:
 
● 
a special meeting (the “Special Meeting”) of the shareholders to be held on March 16, 2020 to seek shareholder approval the following:
 
● 
changing the name of Prophecy Development Corp. to Silver Elephant Mining Corp. (the "Name Change");
● 
to consolidate the Company’s issued and outstanding common shares at a ratio between one (1) new common share for every five (5) to ten (10) issued and outstanding common shares (the “2020 Consolidation”).
● 
● 
proposed new symbol of “ELEF” for the trading of the Company’s common shares on the TSX; and
● 
ratification of 1,275,000 stock options previously granted to certain directors, officers, employees and consultants of the Company on July 29, 2019 pursuant to the terms of the Company’s 20% fixed share-based compensation plan, as amended (the “Share-Based Compensation Plan”).
 
● 
the engagement of Ken Cotiamco to provide investor relations and shareholder communications services effective January 6, 2020. The Company further announced that Ken Cotiamco entered into a consulting agreement whereby Ken Cotiamco would receive from the Company remuneration of $4,000 per month for a term of three months, which could be extended and also pursuant to the consulting agreement the Company granted 100,000 incentive stock options at a price of $0.41 per common share for a term of five years expiring on January 6, 2025;
● 
pursuant to the Company’s Share-Based Compensation Plan, the issuance of an aggregate of 1,601,000 common shares (subject to a minimum hold period of four months plus one date from the date of issuance, under applicable Canadian securities laws) as 2019 bonus payments to certain directors, officers, employees and consultants of the Company;
● 
that further to the Company’s news release dated December 18, 2019, the Company had completed the first of 3 holes of the planned 17 drill holes at the Pulacayo Project; and
 
the Company had mobilized a second drilling rig to the Pulacayo Project and expects to complete the proposed 5,000 meter drill program in February 2020 with full assay results by March 2020On January 21, 2020, the Company provided its first step-out diamond drilling results from its 100%-controlled Pulacayo Project.
 
 
25
 

On March 6, 2020, the Company provided its 2,598-meter, 16-hole Pulacayo step out drill program from its 100%-controlled Pulacayo Project.
 
On March 9, 2020, the Company commenced its district exploration program at its Pulacayo Project.
  
On March 16, 2020, the company held its Special Meeting of Shareholders. The Company received shareholder approval of the following:
 
➢ 
changing its name of Prophecy Development Corp. to Silver Elephant Mining Corp.;
➢ 
the 2020 Consolidation; and
➢ 
ratification of 1,275,000 stock options previously granted to certain directors, officers, employees and consultants of the Company on July 29, 2019 pursuant to the terms of the Company’s Share-Based Compensation Plan.
 
On March 16, 2020, the Company amended its articles of incorporation (the “Articles”) and changed its name to “Silver Elephant Mining Corp.”
 
On March 19, 2020, the Company changed its’ symbol on the TSX from PCY to “ELEF”.
 
On March 23, 2020, the Company changed its’ symbol on the OTCQX from PRPCF to “SILEF”.
 
In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared coronavirus COVID-19 a global pandemic. This contagious disease outbreak, which has continued to spread, and any related adverse public health developments, has adversely affected workforces, economies, and financial markets globally, potentially leading to an economic downturn. It is not possible for the Company to predict the duration or magnitude of the adverse results of the outbreak and its effects on the Company’s business or results of operations at this time.
 
The Company has not made any capital divestitures during the past three fiscal years.
 
The Company made no capital divestitures during the past three fiscal years.
 
Currently, we do not have operating revenues, and we do not anticipate generating operating revenues during the fiscal year 2020. Our primary source of funds since inception has been through the issuance of equity securities. At December 31, 2019, the Company had cash flow of $3 million (2018 - $5.3 million; 2017 - $4.1 million) representing a decrease of $2.3 million from $5.3 million held at December 31, 2018. The Company’s working capital at December 31, 2019 was a surplus of $ 0.95 million (2018 - $3.8 million; 2017 - $2.6 million). We will continue to seek capital through the issuance of equity, strategic alliances or joint ventures, and debt, of which the Company currently has none.
 
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at: http://www.sec.gov. The Company’s Internet address is https://www.silverelef.com.
 
B. 
Business Overview
 
We are an exploration stage company focusing on mining and energy projects in the United States, Canada, Bolivia and Mongolia. We are involved in two vanadium projects in North America including the Gibellini Project which is comprised of the Gibellini and Louie Hill vanadium deposits and associated claims located in the State of Nevada, in the United States and the Titan vanadium-titanium-iron project comprised of the Titan vanadium-titanium-iron deposit and related claims located in the Province of Ontario, Canada. We also own a 100% interest in the Pulacayo Project, a silver-lead-zinc property located in Bolivia. We also own a 100% interest in three coal properties in Mongolia: the Ulaan Ovoo Property, the Khavtgai Uul coal property located in Khentii province, Mongolia (“Khavtgai Uul Property”) and the Chandgana Tal Property, in addition to the land use right and construction license for the Chandgana Project. We do not currently consider our properties in Canada, Bolivia or Mongolia to be material properties.
 
Our principal business is the acquisition, exploration and development of mineral and energy projects. Our business strategy focus is to make our Gibellini Project the first operating primary vanadium mine in North America, offering the best quality vanadium pentoxide product that exceeds customer requirements in a variety of high-tech applications such as batteries and aerospace. We are also considering development of our Titan Project and the acquisition of other vanadium resources to augment Gibellini and position us as a major producer of vanadium.
 
The vanadium resources are part of a portfolio of projects we are building that, through their diversity of locations, commodities and products, reduces our exposure to adverse regulation and political climates and changes in specific commodity prices. A diverse portfolio of projects from which a variety of minerals are mined and sold provides multiple opportunities to maintain revenue and is one facet of our efforts to attain our ultimate objective of stable positive cash flow.
 
All of the properties in which we hold an interest are considered to be in the exploration stage only and do not contain a known body of commercial minerals. As of the date of this Annual Report, we have not commenced production at any of our properties, other than Ulaan Ovoo Property.
 
Principal Products, Markets and Marketing
 
At the moment, we are not in production and we do not produce any products or minerals. Based on the projects that we are developing, our possible future products may include, but will not be limited to, raw thermal coal, zinc-silver concentrate, lead-silver concentrate and vanadium pentoxide product.
 
We are working to bring Gibellini into production as soon as possible in order to address the supply-demand gap for vanadium projected to 2020. The projected demand is largely driven by environmental-related actions by the Chinese government which is intensified by increasing demand for vanadium redox flow storage batteries. The supply-demand gap will affect all uses of vanadium including steel manufacture, high tech applications and large capacity vanadium redox flow batteries.
 
Our marketing efforts have mostly been in assessing the reasons and sources of demand, but we have also conducted concept-level negotiations for supplying Gibellini vanadium to traders and battery manufacturers. As the Gibellini Project develops and more reliable information concerning timing, volume and quality become available, we will increase our marketing efforts. We will be primarily competing with other mining projects that produce raw thermal coal, zinc-silver concentrate, lead-silver concentrate and vanadium pentoxide. Our possible principle markets for vanadium pentoxide product may be Europe and/or China. Below are the 3-year historical industry pricing charts, USD$ per lb., for the vanadium pentoxide flake, minimum 98% vanadium pentoxide content, delivered in China and Europe.
 
 
27
 
 
 
 
 
International mineral commodity pricing is generally established in US dollars and the competitive positioning between producers can be significantly affected by fluctuations in exchange rates. The competitiveness of mineral producers is significantly determined by the grade or quality of the deposit, production costs and transportation costs relative to other producers. Such costs are largely influenced by the location and nature of mineral deposits, mining and processing costs, transportation and port costs, currency exchange rates, operating and management skills, and differing taxation systems between countries.
 
 
28
 
 
Seasonality
 
The mining business is subject to mineral commodities price cycles. If the global economy stalls and commodity prices decline, as a consequence, a continuing period of lower prices could significantly affect the economic potential of our properties and result in us determining to cease work on or drop our interest in, some or all of our properties.
 
 
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
 
All of the raw materials we require to carry on our business are available through normal supply or business contracting channels.
 
Economic Dependence
 
Our business is not substantially dependent on any one contract such as a property option agreement or a contract to sell the major part of our output.
 
Government Regulations
 
Our exploration and future development activities are subject to various national, state, provincial and local laws and regulations in the Unites States, Bolivia, Canada and Mongolia, which govern prospecting, development, mining, production, exports, taxes, labor standards, occupational health, waste disposal, protection of the environment, mine safety, hazardous substances and other matters.
 
Mining and exploration activities at our properties in North America are subject to various laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, such as the General Mining Law, U.S. federal Clean Water Act and the Nevada Water Pollution Control Law, both of which we discuss under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. Although, we intend to comply with all existing environmental and mining laws and regulations, no assurance can be given that we will be in compliance with all applicable regulations or that new rules and regulations will not be enacted or that existing rules and regulations will not be applied in a manner that could limit or curtail development of our properties. Amendments to current laws and regulations governing exploration and development or more stringent implementation thereof could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause increases in exploration expenses or require delays or abandonment in the development of mining properties. In addition, we are required to expend significant resources to comply with numerous corporate governance and disclosure regulations and requirements adopted by U.S. federal and Canadian federal and provincial governments. These additional compliance costs and related diversion of the attention of management and key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
Except as described in this Annual Report, we believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with applicable mining, health, safety and environmental statutes and regulations.
 
For a more detailed discussion of the various government laws and regulations in the United States applicable to our operations and the potential negative effects of such laws and regulations, see the section “Item 3.D. Risk Factors.”
 
 
29
 
 
 
C. 
Organizational Structure
 
The chart below illustrates the inter-corporate relationships among us and our subsidiaries, the percentage of voting securities of such subsidiaries owned by us, and each subsidiary’s jurisdiction of incorporation as of the date of this Annual Report.
 
 
Notes:
 
(1) 
On March 16, 2020, Prophecy Development Corp. changed its name to Silver Elephant Mining Corp.
(2) 
On June 14, 2019, Vanadium Gibellini Company LLC. changed its name to Nevada Vanadium LLC.
(3) 
On December 17, 2019, the Company completed an internal reorganization by transferring ASC Holdings Limited (Cayman) from the Company to its Silver Elephant Mining Corp. subsidiary.
(4) 
On January 6, 2020, the Company’s Silver Elephant Mining Corp. subsidiary changed its name to Illumina Silver Mining Corp.
 
We hold mining and energy properties and projects through the following subsidiaries:
 
 
Subsidiary
Mining Properties and Projects
Nevada Vanadium LLC.
(formerly “Vanadium Gibellini Company LLC.”)
● Has claimed 209 lode mining claims that comprise a portion of the Gibellini Project in Nevada, including three of the 17 claims that comprise the expanded Louie Hill group of claims.
VC Exploration (US) Inc.
● 100% interest in 105 unpatented lode mining claims that comprise a portion of the Gibellini Project in Nevada, USA.
912601 B.C. Ltd.
● 100% interest in the Titan vanadium-titanium-iron property located in the Province of Ontario, Canada.
Red Hill Mongolia LLC
● 100% interest in the Ulaan Ovoo Property located in Selenge province, Mongolia.
Chandgana Coal LLC
● 100% interest in the Chandgana Tal coal property (the “Chandgana Tal Property”) and Khavtgai Uul Property located in Khentii province, Mongolia. We refer to the Chandgana Tal Property and the Khavtgai Uul Property collectively as the “Chandgana Project.”
Prophecy Power Generation LLC
● Holds the land use right and construction license for the Chandgana Project planned in Khentii province, Mongolia.
ASC Bolivia LDC Sucursal Bolivia
● Holds the mining joint venture interest in the Pulacayo Project.
 
Additionally, we hold, through lease, the 40 unpatented lode mining claims that make up the Gibellini group of claims.
 
D. 
Property, Plants and Equipment
 
General
 
Currently, we consider only the Gibellini Project to be material. We do not currently consider the Titan Project or any of our Bolivian or Mongolian properties to be material.
 
Portions of the following excerpts are based on the assumptions, qualifications and procedures set forth in the respective technical reports which, while not fully described herein, have been filed on SEDAR (available at www.sedar.ca) and EDGAR (www.sec.gov).
 
Please refer to the discussion under the heading “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report for important information concerning certain mining terms and descriptions of our mineral deposits used or contained in this section.
 
 
30
 
 
GIBELLINI PROJECT
 
The scientific and technical information in this section of the Annual Report relating to the Gibellini Project has been extracted or summarized from the technical report titled “Gibellini Vanadium Project, Eureka County, Nevada, NI 43-101 Technical Report on Preliminary Economic Assessment” with an effective date of May 29, 2018 (the “Gibellini Technical Report”). The Gibellini Technical Report was prepared by Kirk Hanson, P.E., Edward J.C. Orbock III, RM SME, Edwin Peralta, P.E., and Lynton Gormely, P.Eng., all of Amec Foster Wheeler E&C Services Inc. (“AMEC”).
 
The Gibellini Project discussion below includes the Gibellini and Louie Hill vanadium deposits, claims leased by us and claims held by our subsidiaries Nevada Vanadium, LLC. (formerly “Vanadium Gibellini Company LLC”) and VC Exploration (US), Inc. located in the state of Nevada, USA.
 
Project Location
 
The Gibellini project includes the Gibellini group of claims leased by the Company, the VC Exploration (US) Inc. group of claims and the Nevada Vanadiumgroup of claims (the “Gibellini Project”)]. Figure 1 below shows the location of the claims. On June 22, 2017, the Company acquired (through lease) the Gibellini group of claims which is located in Eureka County, Nevada, Unites States of America about 25 miles south of the town of Eureka. The Gibellini group of claims is comprised of 40 unpatented lode claims totaling approximately 771 acres. Under the mineral lease agreement, we leased the mining claims by committing to pay to the Gibellini Lessors, annual advance royalty payments which will be tied, based on an agreed formula (not to exceed USD$120,000 per year), to the average vanadium pentoxide price of the prior year. Upon commencement of production, we will maintain our acquisition through lease of the Gibellini mining claims by paying to the Gibellini Lessors, a 2.5% NSR until a total of USD$3 million is paid. Thereafter, the NSR will be reduced to 2% over the remaining life of the mine (and referred to thereafter, as “production royalty payments”). All advance royalty payments made, will be deducted as credits against future production royalty payments.
 
The lease is for a term of 10 years, which can be extended for an additional 10 years at our option. On April 23, 2018, we amended the mineral lease agreement to provide us with an option at any time during the term of the mineral lease agreement, to require the Gibellini Lessor to transfer her title over all of the leased Gibellini mining claims (excluding four claims which will be retained by the Gibellini Lessor and which contain minimal resource) to us in exchange for USD$1,000,000, to be paid as an advance royalty payment (the “Transfer Payment”). We were credited with USD$99,027 towards the Transfer Payment upon signing of the amendment, and the remaining USD$900,973 portion of the Transfer Payment will be due and payable by us to the Gibellini Lessor upon completion of the transfer of the aforementioned claims from the Gibellini Lessor to us. The advance royalty obligation and production royalty payments will not be affected, reduced or relieved by the transfer of title. The Gibellini group of claims were previously leased to American Vanadium US Inc., which lease expired on February 29, 2016.
 
 
FIGURE 1
 
 
31
 
 
On July 13, 2017, we acquired (through lease) 10 unpatented lode claims totaling approximately 207 gross acres that formerly comprised the Louie Hill group of claims located approximately 500 meters south of the Gibellini group of claims. These claims were subsequently abandoned by the holders, and on March 11, 2018 and March 12, 2018, the Company’s wholly owned US subsidiaries, Nevada Vanadium and VC Exploration (US) Inc., staked the area within and under 17 new claims totaling approximately 340 gross acres which now collectively comprise the expanded Louie Hill group of claims. We believe opportunities exist to further expand the project beyond its current definition.
 
On December 5, 2017, we expanded the land position at the Gibellini Project, by staking a total of 198 new claims immediately adjacent to the Gibellini Project covering 4091 acres that are sufficient to enable future vanadium mining, processing and extraction.
 
On October 22, 2018, the Company entered into a royalty agreement (the “Royalty Agreement”) with the Former Louie Hill Lessors to replace on substantially similar terms, the former Louie Hill Mineral Lease Agreement dated July 10, 2017, wherein the Company will pay an advance royalty and a net smelter royalty on vanadium pentoxide produced from the area of the 10 unpatented lode claims originally acquired through lease from the Former Louie Hill Lessors that is now contained within 17 lode claims since staked by the Company’s subsidiaries. The annual advance royalty payments will be tied, based on an agreed formula (the total amount not to exceed USD$28,000 per year), to the average vanadium pentoxide price for the prior year.
 
Upon commencement of production, the Company will pay to the Former Louie Hill Lessors, a 2.5% NSR of which, 1.5% of the NSR may be purchased at any time by the Company for USD$1 million, leaving the total NSR to be reduced to 1% over the remaining life of the mine (and referred to thereafter, as “Production Royalty Payments”). All advance royalty payments made, will be deducted as credits against future Production Royalty Payments. The Royalty Agreement shall be for an indefinite period and shall be valid and in full force and effect for as long as the Company, its subsidiaries, or any of their permitted successors or assigns holds a valid and enforceable mining concession over the area.
 
The expanded Louie Hill group of claims is located in the same formation and lithologic units as the Gibellini group of claims. The general geology in this area is considered to be similar to the Gibellini group of claims.
 
The VC Exploration group of claims include 105 lode claims that were acquired indirectly by the Company through the indirect acquisition of VC Exploration (US), Inc. in early 2018. The Gibellini group of claims consist of 209 lode claims staked by Nevada Vanadium in late 2017 and early 2018.
 
The Gibellini Project consists of a total of 354 unpatented lode mining claims that include: the Gibellini group of 40 claims, the VC Exploration group of 105 claims, and the Company group of 209 claims. The Gibellini group of claims is referred to by the Company as a “project”. All the claims are located in Eureka County, Nevada, approximately 25 miles south of the town of Eureka and are easily accessed from US Highway 50 to a paved road that becomes a graded, gravel road.
 
The Gibellini Project is without known reserves and is exploratory in nature.
 
History
 
Work completed on the Gibellini Project prior to our involvement was undertaken by a number of companies, including the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG, 1946), Terteling & Sons (1964–1965), Atlas and TransWorld Resources (1969), Noranda (1972–1975), and Inter-Globe (1989). Rocky Mountain Resources (RMP), later renamed to American Vanadium, conducted work from 2006–2011.
 
The Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology completed four core holes in 1946. Work in the period 1964–1989 comprised rotary drilling, trenching, mapping, metallurgical testing, and mineral resource estimation. From 2006 to 2011, work programs included review of existing data, geological mapping, an XRF survey, reverse circulation (RC) and core drilling, additional metallurgical test work, and Mineral Resource estimation. A preliminary assessment was completed in 2008 and a FS was commissioned in late 2010. Both studies were based on the Gibellini deposit and did not include the Louie Hill deposit. We do not consider these studies to be current and are considered historic under the guidelines of NI 43-101.
 
Resources
 
On May 29, 2018, we received the Gibellini Technical Report providing an updated the resource on the Gibellini Project.
 
 
32
 
 
Gibellini Deposit
 
The Gibellini Technical Report disclosed an estimated 7.94 million tons at a weighted average grade of 0.314% vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) in the Measured category and 15.02 million tons at a weighted average grade of 0.271% V2O5 in the Indicated category leading to a total combined Measured and Indicated Mineral Resource of 22.95 million tons at a weighted average grade of 0.286% V2O5. Total contained metal content of the Measured and Indicated Mineral Resources is 131.34 million pounds V2O5. The Inferred Mineral Resource estimate is 14.97 million tons at a weighted average grade of 0.175% V2O5. The total contained metal content of the Inferred Mineral Resource estimate is 52.30 million pounds V2O5. The table below contains a summary of the Gibellini deposit resource estimate:
 
 
Confidence Category
Domain
 
Cut-offV2O5 (%)
 
 
Tons(Mt)
 
 
GradeV2O5(%)
 
 
ContainedV2O5 (Mlb)
 
Measured
Oxide
  0.101 
  3.96 
  0.251 
 $19.87 

Transition
  0.086 
  3.98 
  0.377 
  29.98 
Indicated
Oxide
  0.101 
  7.83 
  0.222 
  34.76 
  
Transition
  0.086 
  7.19 
  0.325 
  46.73 
Total Measured and Indicated
 
    
  22.95 
  0.286 
  131.34 
 
Oxide
  0.101 
  0.16 
  0.170 
  0.55 
Inferred
Transition
  0.086 
  0.01 
  0.180 
  0.03 
  
Reduced
  0.116 
  14.80 
  0.175 
  51.72 
Total Inferred
 
    
  14.97 
  0.175 
  52.30 
 
Notes to accompany Mineral Resource table for Gibellini
 
1. 
The Qualified Person for the estimate is Mr. E.J.C. Orbock III, RM SME. The Mineral Resources have an effective date of May 29, 2018.
 
2. 
Mineral Resources that are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.
 
3. 
Mineral Resources are reported at various cut-off grades for oxide, transition, and reduced material.
4. 
Mineral Resources are reported within a conceptual pit shell that uses the following assumptions: Mineral Resource V2O5 price: $14.64/lb; mining cost: $2.21/ton mined; process cost: $13.62/ton; general and administrative (G&A) cost: $0.99/ton processed; metallurgical recovery assumptions of 60% for oxide material, 70% for transition material and 52% for reduced material; tonnage factors of 16.86 ft3/ton for oxide material, 16.35 ft3/ton for transition material and 14.18 ft3/ton for reduced material; royalty: 2.5% NSR; shipping and conversion costs: $0.37/lb. An overall 40º pit slope angle assumption was used.
 
5. 
Rounding as required by reporting guidelines may result in apparent summation differences between tons, grade and contained metal content. Tonnage and grade measurements are in US units. Grades are reported in percentages.
 
Louie Hill Deposit
 
The Louie Hill deposit lies approximately 1,600 ft south of the Gibellini deposit.
 
The Gibellini Technical Report provides an Inferred Mineral Resource of 7.52 million tons at a weighted average grade of 0.276% vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). The oxidation domains were not modeled. The total contained metal content of the estimate is 41.49 million pounds V2O5. The table below summarizes the Louie Hill deposit resource estimate:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ContainedV2O5
 
Confidence Category
 
 Cut-offV2O5 (%)
 
 
Tons(Mt)
 
 
GradeV2O5 (%)
 
 
(Mlb)
 
Inferred
  0.101 
  7.52 
  0.276 
  41.49 
 
 
33
 
 
Notes to accompany Mineral Resource table for Louie Hill
 
1. 
The Qualified Person for the estimate is Mr. E.J.C. Orbock III, RM SME. The Mineral Resources have an effective date of May 29, 2018. The resource model was prepared by Mr. Mark Hertel, RM SME.
 
2. 
Mineral Resources that are not Mineral Reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.
 
3. 
Oxidation state was not modeled.
 
4. 
Mineral Resources are reported within a conceptual pit shell that uses the following assumptions: Mineral Resource V2O5 price: $14.64/lb.; mining cost: $2.21/ton mined; process cost: $13.62/ton; general and administrative (G&A) cost: $0.99/ton processed; metallurgical recovery assumptions of 60% for mineralized material; tonnage factors of 16.86 ft3/ton for mineralized material, royalty: 2.5% NSR; shipping and conversion costs: $0.37/lb. For the purposes of the resource estimate, an overall 40º slope angle assumption was used.
5. 
Rounding as required by reporting guidelines may result in apparent summation differences between tons, grade and contained metal content. Tonnage and grade measurements are in US units. Grades are reported in percentages.
 
A total of 280 drill holes (about 51,265 ft) have been completed on the Gibellini Project since 1946, comprising 16 core holes (4,046 ft), 169 rotary drill holes (25,077 ft; note not all drill holes have footages recorded) and 95 reverse circulation holes (22,142 ft).
 
The vanadium-host shale unit ranges from 175 to over 300 ft thick and overlies gray mudstone. The shale has been oxidized to various hues of yellow and orange to a depth of 100 ft. Alteration (oxidation) of the rocks is classified as one of three oxide codes: oxidized, transitional, and reduced.
 
No significant work has been conducted on the Gibellini Project since 2011. Some minor prospecting was completed in October 2018, We have completed no trenching or drilling activities since the Gibellini Project acquisition.
 
The power supply for the Gibellini Project site is assumed to be at 24.9 kV and will supplied from a planned substation to be located near Fish Creek Ranch. This substation will tap and step-down the 69kV supply carried by the line to the Pan Mine to 24.9kV and place it on a line to the Gibellini Project. Negotiations with the power utility, Mt. Wheeler Power, would need to be undertaken to secure any future power supply contract and transmission line to the site.
 
Summary of Geological Setting and Mineralization Regional Geology
 
The Gibellini property occurs on the east flank of the southern part of the Fish Creek Range. The southern part of the Fish Creek Range, consists primarily of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Ordovician to Mississippian Age of the eastern carbonate, western siliceous, and overlap assemblages. Tertiary volcanic rocks crop out along the eastern edge of the range and Tertiary to Quaternary sedimentary rocks and alluvium bound the range to the west and east in the Antelope and Little Smoky valleys, respectively. North to northeast-trending faults dominate in the region, particularly along the eastern range front.
 
The Gibellini property lies within the Fish Creek Mining District. The limestone hosted Gibellini Manganese-Nickel mine and the Gibellini and Louie Hill black-shale hosted vanadium deposits are the most significant deposits in the district, and all occur within the Gibellini property boundary. The Bisoni-McKay black-shale hosted vanadium deposit occurs several miles south of the Gibellini property. A fluorite–beryl prospect and silver–lead–zinc vein mines with minor production are also reported to occur in the district.
 
Project Geology
 
The Gibellini deposit occurs within an allocthonous fault wedge of organic-rich siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert, which forms a northwest trending prominent ridge. These rocks are mapped as the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation of Devonian Age (Desborough et al., 1984). These rocks are described by Noranda as thin-bedded shales, very fissile and highly folded, distorted and fractured (Condon, 1975). In general, the beds strike north-northwest and dip from 15 to 50° to the west. Outcrops of the shale are scarce except for along road cuts and trenches. The black shale unit which hosts the vanadium resource is from 175 ft to over 300 ft thick and overlies gray mudstone. The shale has been oxidized to various hues of yellow and orange up to a depth of 100 ft.
 
The Woodruff Formation is interpreted to have been deposited as eugeosynclinal rocks (western assemblage) in western Nevada that have been thrust eastward over miogeosynclinal rocks (eastern assemblage) during the Antler Orogeny in late Devonian time.
 
 
34
 
 
The Gibellini facies is structurally underlain by the Bisoni facies of the Woodruff Formation. The Bisoni unit consists of dolomitic or argillaceous siltstone, siliceous mudstone, chert, and lesser limestone and sandstone (Desborough and others, 1984).
 
Structurally underlying the Woodruff Formation are the coarse clastic rocks of the Antelope Range Formation. These rocks are interpreted to have been deposited during the Antler Orogeny and are attributed to the overlap assemblage.
 
The Louie Hill deposit is located in the same formation and lithologic units as the Gibellini deposit. The general geology in this area is thought to be similar to the Gibellini deposit area.
 
The ridge on which the Gibellini Manganese-Nickel mine (Niganz mine) lies is underlain by yellowish-gray, fine-grained limestone. This limestone is well bedded with beds averaging 2 ft thick. A fossiliferous horizon containing abundant Bryozoa crops out on the ridge about 100 ft higher than the mine. The lithologic and faunal evidence suggest that this unit is part of the Upper Devonian Nevada Limestone. Beds strike at N18E to N32W and dip at 18 degrees to 22 degrees west. The manganese–nickel mineralization occurs within this unit. Alluvium up to 10 ft thick overlies part of the area and is composed mostly of limy detritus from the high ridge north of the mine. Minor faulting has taken place in the limestone near the
 
Deposit Descriptions
 
Gibellini Deposit
 
The Gibellini deposit occurs within organic-rich siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert of the Gibellini facies of the Devonian Age Woodruff Formation.
 
In general, the beds strike north-northwest and dip from 15º to 50º to the west. The black shale unit which hosts the vanadium Mineral Resource is from 175 ft to over 300 ft thick and overlies gray mudstone of the Bisoni facies. The shale has been oxidized to various hues of yellow and orange up to a depth of 100 ft.
 
Alteration (oxidation) of the rocks is classified as one of three oxide codes: oxidized, transitional, and reduced. Vanadium grade changes across these boundaries. The transitional zone reports the highest average grades and RMP geologists interpreted this zone to have been upgraded by supergene processes.
 
Louie Hill
 
The Louie Hill deposit lies approximately 500 m south of the Gibellini deposit, being separated from the latter by a prominent drainage. Mineralization at Louie Hill is hosted by organic-rich siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert of the Gibellini facies of the Devonian Woodruff Formation and probably represents a dissected piece of the same allochthonous fault wedge containing the Gibellini deposit.
 
Mineralized beds cropping out on Louie Hill are often contorted and shattered but in general strike in a north–south direction, and dip to the west 0 to 40º.
 
Rocks underlying the Louie Hill Deposit consist of mudstone, siltstone and fine-grained sandstone probably of Mississippian age (Webb and/or Chainman Formations). Oxidation of the mineralized rocks has produced light-colored material with local red and yellow bands of concentrated vanadium minerals.
 
Activities and Developments
 
2017
 
On July 10, 2017, the Company acquired (through lease) from the holders (the “Former Louie Hill Lessors”) 10 unpatented lode claims totaling approximately 207 gross acres that comprised the Louie Hill group of claims located approximately 500 meters south of the Gibellini group of claims. These claims were subsequently abandoned by the Former Louie Hill Lessors, and on March 11 and 12, 2018, the Company staked the area within and under 17 new claims totaling approximately 340 gross acres which now collectively comprise the expanded Louie Hill group of claims.
 
On November 20, 2017, the Company received an independent technical report titled “Gibellini Vanadium Project Nevada, USA NI 43-101 Technical Report” with an effective date of November 10, 2017 (the ”Gibellini Report”) prepared by Wood The Gibellini Report was filed with Canadian securities regulatory authorities on SEDAR (available at www.sedar.com).
 
In December 2017, we significantly expanded the land position at the Gibellini Project by staking 198 new claims immediately adjacent to the Gibellini Project covering 4091 acres that are sufficient to enable future vanadium mining, processing and extraction.
 
 
35
 
 
2018
 
On February 15, 2018, the Company indirectly acquired an additional 105 unpatented lode mining claims located adjacent to its existing Gibellini claims through the indirect acquisition of VC Exploration (US) Inc. by paying a total of $335,661 in cash and issuing the equivalent of 500,000 common share purchase warrants to arm’s-length, private parties.
 
On April 19, 2018, the Gibellini MLA was amended to grant the Company the option, at any time during the term of the agreement, to require the Gibellini Lessor to transfer their title over all of the leased mining claims (excluding four claims which will be retained by the Gibellini Lessor and which contain minimal resource) to the Company in exchange for USD$1,000,000, to be paid as an advance royalty payment.
 
On May 9, 2018, the Company submitted its Management’s POO to the BLM and the Reclamation Permit Application to the BMRR.
 
On May 29, 2018, the Company received an independent technical report providing an updated the resource on the Gibellini project. The report is titled “Gibellini Vanadium Project Eureka County, Nevada, NI 43-101 Technical Report on Preliminary Economic Assessment” (PEA) prepared by Mr. Kirk Hanson, P.E., Technical Director, Open Pit Mining; Mr. Edward J.C. Orbock III, RM SME, Principal Geologist and US Manager of Consulting; Mr. Edwin Peralta, P.E., Senior Mining Engineer; and Mr. Lynton Gormely, P.Eng., Consultant Metallurgist of Wood. The report has an effective date of May 29, 2018. The PEA replaces the technical report entitled “Gibellini Vanadium Project, Nevada, USA, NI 43-101 Technical Report”, effective November 10, 2017 and filed November 20, 2017.
 
Highlights of the PEA (after tax)
 
All dollar values are expressed in US dollars unless otherwise noted
 
Internal rate of return
50.8%
Net present value (“NPV”)
$338.3 million at 7% discount rate
Payback period
1.72 years
Average annual production
9.65 million lbs V2O5
Average V2O5 selling price
$12.73 per lb
Operating cash cost
$4.77 per lb V2O5
All-in sustaining costs*
$6.28 per lb V2O5
Breakeven price**
$7.76 per lb V2O5
Initial capital cost including 25% contingency
$116.76 million
Average grade
0.26% V2O5
Strip ratio
0.17 waste to leach material
Mining operating rate
3.4 million tons (leach material and waste) per year
Average V2O5 recovery through Direct Heap Leaching
62%
Life of mine
13.5 years
 
*includes selling costs, royalties, operating cash cost, reclamation, exploration and sustaining capital costs.
 
**includes selling costs, royalties, operating cash costs, taxes (local, state, and federal), working capital, and sustaining and capital costs.
 
The PEA is preliminary in nature and includes inferred mineral resources that are considered too speculative geologically to have the economic considerations applied to them that would enable them to be categorized as mineral reserves, and there is no certainty that the PEA will be realized. Mineral resources are not mineral reserves and do not have demonstrated economic viability.
 
The tables below show the sensitivity analysis to the vanadium pentoxide price, grade, and to the PEA capital cost and operating costs. This sensitivity analysis indicates strong project economics even in very challenging conditions, and that the project is well positioned to benefit from the current rising vanadium price environment. A 20% increase in the vanadium price relative to the base case translates to a USD$491.3 million after-tax NPV at a 7% discount rate.
 
 
36
 
 
V2O5 price USD$/lb
After-taxIRR
After-tax NPVUSD$M @ 7%
After-taxcashflowUSD$M
    16.55 
    69%
    568.0 
    996.0 
    15.28 
    63%
    491.3 
    864.4 
    14.00 
    57%
    415.2 
    733.2 
    12.73 
    51%
    338.3 
    600.4 
    11.46 
    44%
    261.0 
    467.2 
    10.18 
    36%
    183.1 
    333.2 
    8.91 
    26%
    103.9 
    196.9 
 
V2O5grade
After-taxIRR
After-tax NPVUSD$M @ 7%
After-taxcashflowUSD$M
    0.34%
    68%
    554.4 
    972.8 
    0.31%
    63%
    482.4 
    849.0 
    0.28%
    57%
    410.7 
    725.4 
    0.26%
    51%
    338.3 
    600.4 
    0.23%
    44%
    265.6 
    475.0 
    0.21%
    37%
    192.2 
    348.9 
    0.18%
    28%
    118.3 
    221.6 
 
CapexUSD$M
After-taxIRR
After-tax NPVUSD$M @ 7%
After-taxcashflowUSD$M
    151.8 
    40%
    307.2 
    564.3 
    140.1 
    43%
    317.6 
    576.3 
    128.4 
    47%
    328.0 
    588.4 
    116.8 
    51%
    338.3 
    600.4 
    105.1 
    55%
    348.6 
    612.5 
    93.4 
    61%
    358.9 
    624.6 
    81.7 
    67%
    369.3 
    636.8 
 
OpexUSD$M
After-taxIRR
After-tax NPVUSD$M @ 7%
After-taxcash flowUSD$M
    6.20 
    45%
    257.9 
    450.2 
    5.72 
    47%
    284.8 
    500.3 
    5.25 
    49%
    311.6 
    550.4 
    4.77 
    51%
    338.3 
    600.4 
    4.29 
    53%
    364.8 
    650.0 
    3.82 
    55%
    390.7 
    698.4 
    3.34 
    56%
    416.0 
    745.4 
 
 
37
 
 
On June 19, 2019, the Company announced the appointment of a third party NEPA contractor and SWCA Environmental Consultants to work under the direction of the BLM per the provisions of a Memorandum of Understanding between SWCA Environmental Consultants, BLM and the Company to prepare the EIS for the and assist the BLM in the maintenance of the administrative record.
 
On June 25, 2018, the Company released the Gibellini Vanadium Technical Report on Preliminary Economic Assessment, with an effective date of May 29, 2018 and signed June 25, 2018 authored by Independent Qualified Persons Kirk Hanson, P.E.; Edward J.C. Orbock III, RM SME; Edwin Peralta, P.E.; and Dr. Lynton Gormely, P. Eng. of Wood and is in accordance with NI 43-101. The PEA was filed with Canadian securities regulatory authorities on SEDAR (available at www.sedar.com).
 
On July 8, 2019, the Company announced it submitted an enhanced mining POO that is designed to meet the needs set out by Secretarial Order 3355.
 
August 15, 2018, the Company engaged NewFields, an environmental, engineering, and construction management consulting firm to advance EIS preparation for the Gibellini Project. NewFields completed the Gibellini heap leach pad and waste dump designs as part of an overall basic engineering design lead by Scotia International of Nevada, Inc. in 2014.
 
On August 20, 2018, the Company secured water supply for the Gibellini Project construction and operation. The Company signed a 10-year Agreement with the owner of a private ranch, located approximately 14.5 km from the Gibellini Project. The Agreement can be extended for any number of additional 7-year terms, not to exceed (with the primary term) a total of 99 years. Per the terms of the Agreement, the lessor granted to the Company the rights to 805 acre-feet (approximately 262.4 million gallons) of water per year for the Gibellini Project, at a minimum flow rate of 500 gallons per minute (“gpm”) from its year-round springs surface water stream. The water flow rate was measured at the ranch springs in 1965, in 1981, from December 2011 to September 2013, and most recently, in 2017. The water flow rate ranges from 1,000 to 3,900 gpm with an average flow rate of 2,690 gpm, which exceeds the project’s maximum water operational requirement of 420 gpm based on the process engineering design prepared by Scotia International of Nevada, Inc. as a part of engineering, procurement, construction and management work done in 2014. The Gibellini Project completed water-related baseline studies including the drilling of water-test wells, water source data collection, characterization, flow rate testing and modeling. Due to the fact that the Agreement provides a source of water from surface springs located on a private ranch and baseline studies related to it have been completed, the Company expects to significantly expedite the permitting process by eliminating the need to appropriate water rights from the Nevada Division of Water Resources (“DWR”).
 
On October 22, 2018, the Company entered into a royalty agreement (the “Royalty Agreement”) with the Former Louie Hill Lessors to replace on substantially similar terms, the former Louie Hill Mineral Lease Agreement dated July 10, 2017, wherein the Company will pay an advance royalty and a net smelter royalty on vanadium pentoxide produced from the area of the 10 unpatented lode claims originally acquired through lease from the Former Louie Hill Lessors that is now contained within 17 lode claims since staked by the Company’s subsidiaries. The annual advance royalty payments will be tied, based on an agreed formula (the total amount not to exceed USD$28,000 per year), to the average vanadium pentoxide price for the prior year.
 
Upon commencement of production, the Company will pay to the Former Louie Hill Lessors, a 2.5% NSR of which, 1.5% of the NSR may be purchased at any time by the Company for USD$1 million, leaving the total NSR to be reduced to 1% over the remaining life of the mine (and referred to thereafter, as “Production Royalty Payments”). All advance royalty payments made, will be deducted as credits against future Production Royalty Payments. The Royalty Agreement shall be for an indefinite period and shall be valid and in full force and effect for as long as the Company, its subsidiaries, or any of their permitted successors or assigns holds a valid and enforceable mining concession over the area.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we incurred total costs of $2,727,759 (2017 - $490,3556) for the Gibellini Project including $425,605 (2017 - $58,790) for claims acquisition cost, $387,149 (2017 - $74,876) for claims registration, royalties, and annual maintenance, $1,509,587 (2017 – 272,620) for geological services, and $831,023 (2017 - $ 84,070) for general and administrative expenses.
 
2019
 
On March 26, 2019, the Company announced vanadium assay results from the Company’s Fall 2018 exploration reconnaissance program on the Gibellini Project. The 155 assays were taken from three prospective exploration areas all within 5km to existing Gibellini vanadium NI43-101 compliant resource pit outline whereat 49.9 million lbs. measured and 81.5 million lbs. indicated vanadium resource have already been identified (see Company’s news release dated May 29, , 2018). Surface grab samples assay as high as 2% vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) and 75 samples (48% of total 155) have V2O5 grades greater than the Gibellini deposit’s cut-off grade of 0.101% V2O5 at $12.5/lb. V2O5; V2O5 currently trades at approximately $16/lb.

The high vanadium assay results along the 5-kilometer northeast-southwest trend which line-up the Northeast Prospect, through Gibellini Hill, Louie Hill, Middle Earth Prospect, and Big Sky Prospect providing an indication of potential and possibly significant future expansion of vanadium mineralization along this corridor.
 
Detailed maps are available at www.silverelef.com.
 
 
38
 
 
Big Sky Prospect (300m by 50m)
 
The Big Sky prospect occurs 3.1 km southwest of the Gibellini Hill measured and indicated resource and 1.8 km southwest of Louie Hill inferred resource. A total of 62 samples were taken, of which 40% (n=25) returned assays greater than Gibellini cut-off grade. Sixteen (16) samples returned assays >0.200 V2O5. The distribution of samples occur along a 300 meter exposure of the Woodruff Formation. Assays showing >0.200 V2O5 are shown in the table below.
  
V2O5% grab sample assay results at Big Sky prospect for samples with >0.200%
 
SAMPLE ID
Prospect
V2O5 %
301910
Big Sky
0.261
301913
Big Sky
0.223
301915
Big Sky
0.346
301916
Big Sky
0.400
301918
Big Sky
0.712
301920
Big Sky
0.264
301926
Big Sky
0.580
301927
Big Sky
2.008
301928
Big Sky
0.848
301944
Big Sky
0.264
301946
Big Sky
0.280
301947
Big Sky
0.218
301950
Big Sky
0.261
302050
Big Sky
0.214
302054
Big Sky
0.787
302055
Big Sky
1.982
 
Middle Earth Prospect (200m by 70m)
 
The Middle Earth prospect occurs 1.7 km southeast of the Gibellini Hill deposit and 300 meters south of the Louie Hill deposit. A total of 50 samples were collected of which 68% (n=34) returned assays >0.101% V2O5 or the Gibellini cut-off grade. Twenty-seven (27) samples returned assays >0.200 V2O5. The samples are distributed over 3 road cuts of exposed Woodruff Formation making up a 200 meter by 70-meter areal footprint. Assays showing >0.200 V2O5 are shown in the table below.
 
V2O5% grab sample assay results at Middle Earth prospect for samples with >0.200%
 
SAMPLE ID
Prospect
V2O5 %
301951
Middle Earth
0.350
301952
Middle Earth
0.482
301968
Middle Earth
0.628
301969
Middle Earth
0.605
301970
Middle Earth
0.634
301972
Middle Earth
0.252
301973
Middle Earth
0.687
301974
Middle Earth
0.470
301975
Middle Earth
0.612
301976
Middle Earth
0.637
301978
Middle Earth
0.559
301979
Middle Earth
0.557
301980
Middle Earth
0.259
301981
Middle Earth
0.405
 
 
39
 
 
SAMPLE ID
Prospect
V2O5 %
301983
Middle Earth
0.255
301984
Middle Earth
0.303
301985
Middle Earth
0.434
301987
Middle Earth
0.291
301988
Middle Earth
1.294
301989
Middle Earth
0.261
301991
Middle Earth
0.314
301992
Middle Earth
0.457
301993
Middle Earth
0.380
301995
Middle Earth
0.302
301998
Middle Earth
0.539
301999
Middle Earth
0.618
302000
Middle Earth
0.532
 
Northeast Trench Prospect (500m by 300m)
 
The Northeast Trench prospect occurs 1.2 km northeast of the Gibellini Hill deposit and 2.5 km northeast of the Louie Hill deposit. A total of 43 samples were collected of which 37% (n=16) returned assays >0.101% V2O5 or the Gibellini cut-off grade. Three (3) samples returned assays >0.200 V2O5. The samples are distributed through road cuts (“trenches”) and dry gulches of exposed Woodruff Formation making up a 500 meter by 350-meter areal footprint. The exposure at the Northeast Trench is greatly obscured by colluvium material however the extent where it is exposed might indicate a large volume of Woodruff Formation yet to be explored. Assays showing >0.200 V2O5 are shown in the table below.
 
V2O5% grab sample assay results at Northeast Trench prospect for samples with >0.200%
 
SAMPLE ID
Prospect
V2O5 %
302004
NE Trench
0.239
302005
NE Trench
0.380
302016
NE Trench
0.303
 
Water supply
 
On August 20, 2018, the Company secured water supply for the Gibellini Project construction and operation. The Company signed a 10-year agreement with the owner of a private ranch, located approximately 14.5 km from the Gibellini Project (the “Agreement”). The Agreement can be extended for any number of additional 7-year terms, not to exceed (with the primary term) a total of 99 years.
 
Per the terms of the Agreement, the lessor granted to the Company the rights to 805 acre-feet (approximately 262.4 million gallons) of water per year for the Gibellini Project, at a minimum flow rate of 500 gpm from its year-round springs surface water stream. The water flow rate was measured at the ranch springs in 1965, in 1981, from December 2011 to September 2013, and most recently, in 2017. The water flow rate ranges from 1,000 to 3,900 gpm with an average flow rate of 2,690 gpm, which exceeds the Gibellini Project’s maximum water operational requirement of 420 gpm based on the process engineering design prepared by Scotia International of Nevada, Inc. as a part of engineering, procurement, construction and management work done in 2014.license. The Gibellini Project completed water-related baseline studies including the drilling of water-test wells, water source data collection, characterization, flow rate testing and modeling. Due to the fact that the Agreement provides a source of water from surface springs located on a private ranch and baseline studies related to it have been completed, the Company expects to significantly expedite the permitting process by eliminating the need to appropriate water rights from the DWR.
 
 
40
 
 
Offtake and project financing
 
The Company has received unsolicited expressions of interest from various potential investment sources and is currently engaged in discussions with potential cornerstone investors, vanadium product off-takers and banks on potential equity, debt and prepaid off-take financing possibilities. The Company expects to report material progress in due course.
 
On October 31, 2019, the Company submitted permit applications for the Water Pollution Control Permit and the Class II Air Quality Permit. These Nevada state permits have been developed to provide construction level engineering that supports the mine plan previously submitted to the BLM in the POO. Comments received from both the BLM and SWCA Environmental Consultants were used as guidance in the engineering design to ensure the State and Federal Permits are aligned and reflect the most current guidance provided by both the NDEP and BLM.
 
NDEP Water Pollution Control Permit
 
Mining in Nevada is regulated under the authority of the Nevada Revised Statutes (“NRS”) 445A.300-NRS 445A.730 and the Nevada Administrative Code (“NAC”) 445A.350-NAC 445A.447. Water Pollution Control Permits (“WPCP”) are issued to an operator prior to the construction of any mining, milling, or other beneficiation process activity. Facilities utilizing chemicals for processing ores are required to meet a zero-discharge performance standard such that waters of the state will not be degraded.
 
The engineering design for heap leaching, the processing facility, and the mine design (M3 Engineering and Newfields Companies, LLC) was integrated into to the site Closure Plan that was also submitted as part of the WPCP application. This design will facilitate concurrent closure of the heap as each heap cell is finished leaching. This will allow the Closure Plan to be initiated during operations. At the end of active mining, the site can be closed at minimal technical risk. This reduces the closure duration and liability and the commensurate reclamation bond.
 
Air Quality Class II Permit
 
The Nevada Bureau of Air Pollution Control issues air quality operating permits to stationary and temporary mobile sources that emit regulated pollutants to ensure that these emissions do not harm public health or cause significant deterioration in areas that presently have clean air. This is achieved by stipulating specific permit conditions designed to limit the amount of pollutants that sources may emit into the air as a regular part of their business processes.
 
Any process/activity that is an emission source requires an air quality permit. Nevada Revised Statute (NRS) 445B.155 defines an emission source as “any property, real or personal, which directly emits or may emit any air contaminant.”
 
The Class II Permit for Gibellini is for facilities that emit less than 100 tons per year for any one regulated pollutant. Since the vanadium processing will utilize a heap leach, the emissions will be under the threshold for more complex air permits. The engineering design incorporates stringent emission control technology to minimize emissions. The modeled emissions from the entire Gibellini Project are well below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
 
The Enhanced Baseline Reports (the “EBR’s”) were extensively used in the Project engineering design to ensure that potential environmental impacts identified in the EBR’s would be avoided or minimized by facility design. These engineering controls help ensure that avoidance of potential environmental impacts is “built into” the project from the start of the design process. Doing so will allow Environmental Protection Measures to be taken to minimize the risk of impacts that cannot be completely avoided in the design and ensure up-front project planning that is sensitive to all environmental resources.
 
Integration with BLM 12-month 3355 EIS Process
 
The Nevada state permit applications were brought forward in the permitting process to identify any issues resulting from NDEP review that could affect the project design in the POO early. By resolving the State permitting issues prior to the start of the EIS, it will help ensure that the 12-month schedule mandated by the BLM Secretarial Order 3355 (S.O. 3355) can be met and interruptions to the schedule can be avoided.
 
The Company continues with its Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management (the “EPCM”) work and expects Phase 1 of the EPCM, updating basic engineering design, to be completed by 2020; Phase 2, equipment procurement and detailed engineering design, to be completed in 2021; Phase 3, facilities construction, to start in 2021 and be completed in 2022 with the Gibellini Project wet commissioning expected to be in 2022.
 
 
41
 
 
During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company incurred total costs of $4,956,938 (2018 - $2,727,759) for the Gibellini Project including for $3,200,773 (2018 - $1,509,587) for geological and engineering services, $1,470,007 (2018 - $831,023) for personnel, legal, general and administrative expenses and $286,158 (2018 - $387,149) for royalties, fees and taxes.
 
Planning Activities
 
The Company intends to spend the available funds as set forth above based on annual budgets approved by the Board of Directors consistent with established internal control guidelines, and programs recommended in the Gibellini PEA. However, there may be circumstances where, for sound business reasons, a reallocation of the net proceeds may be necessary. The actual amount that the Company spends in connection with each of the intended uses of proceeds may vary significantly from the amounts specified above and will depend on a number of factors, including those referred to under “Risk Factors”.
 
The Company’s 2020 Gibellini objectives are:
 
 
Trigger EIS NOI by end of Quarter 1, 2020
 
Comprehensive review of NI43-101
 
Develop strategy for integrating project construction with detailed engineering to fast-track timeline to construction
 
Develop strategy with State of Nevada to potentially fill US Critical Mineral Inventory
 
Explore off-take options for vanadium products
 
Complete following Nevada State permits:
 
NDEP Water Pollution Control Permit
 
NDEP Reclamation Permit
 
NDEP Class II Air Permit
 
NDEP Air Permit to Construct
 
NDEP Potable Water and Sanitary Sewer Permits
 
NDEP Dam Safety Permit
 
NDWR Water Appropriations Permit
 
NDWR Point of Diversion of Water Rights
 
Nevada Dept. of Health Radiation Safety Permit
 
Eureka County Road Use and Maintenance Agreement
 
NDOW Industrial Artificial Pond Permit
 
PULACAYO PROJECT, BOLIVIA
 
The scientific and technical information in this section of the Registration Statement that specifically relates to the current Pulacayo Project mineral resource estimates for the Pulacayo and Paca deposits has been extracted or summarized from the technical report titled “Updated Mineral Resource Estimate Technical Report for the Pulacayo Project” dated November 14, 2017, with an effective date of October 20, 2017 (the “Pulacayo Report”). The Pulacayo Report was prepared by Peter Webster, P.Geo and Michael Cullen, M.Sc., P. Geo of Mercator Geological Services Limited. Additional information presented below that pertains to the Pulacayo Project but does not specifically appear in the Pulacayo Report has been provided by the Company. The Pulacayo Report has been filed under the Company’s SEDAR profile at www.SEDAR.com.
 
The Pulacayo Project discussion below includes the Pulacayo and Paca silver-lead-zinc deposits and related concessions located in Bolivia.
 
The Pulacayo Project consists of many licenses within which are located the Pulacayo and Paca mineral deposits, several areas of potential mineralization, and historic tailings piles.
 
On January 2, 2015, pursuant to the terms of the acquisition agreement entered into between the Company and Apogee Silver Ltd. the Company acquired the Pulacayo Project through the acquisition of the issued and outstanding shares of ASC Holdings Limited and ASC Bolivia LDC, which together, hold the issued and outstanding shares of ASC Bolivia LDC Sucursal Bolivia. ASC Bolivia LDC Sucursal Bolivia controls the mining rights to the concessions through a separate joint venture agreement with the Pulacayo Ltda. Mining Cooperative who hold the mining rights through a lease agreement with state owned Mining Corporation of Bolivia, COMIBOL.
 
The Pulacayo Project comprises seven concessions covering an area of approximately 3,550 hectares of contiguous mining concessions centered on the historical Pulacayo mine and town site. The Pulacayo Project is located 18 km east of the town of Uyuni in the Department of Potosi in southwestern Bolivia. It is located 460 km south-southeast of the national capital of La Paz and 150 km southwest of the city of Potosi, which is the administrative capital of the department. The Pulacayo Project is fully permitted with secured social licenses for mining.
  
 
42
 
 
Project Location
 
The Pulacayo Project is located 18 km northeast of the city of Uyuni (Canton of Pulacayo, Quijarro Province) in the Department of Potosí in south western Bolivia, 460 km south east of the capital city, La Paz, and 130 km south west of Potosí, the department capital. The approximate coordinates of the center of the project are 740 000 m East and 7 746 000 m North UTM Zone 19 south projection WGS84 datum, and at an elevation of 4,305 m ASL.
 
The Pulacayo Project has a semi-arid climate with low annual rainfall and a mean summer temperature of 12°C between October and March. During winter, minimum temperatures reach the -20 to -25 ºC range and summer maximums in the 18 to 20°C range occur between June and July. The yearly mean temperature is 5.5°C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
43
 
 
Accessibility, Climate, Local Resources, Infrastructure and Physiography
 
Project Access
 
Local Bolivian airlines fly regular domestic flights between major cities to Uyuni city. The principal highways are generally paved and heavy trucks and buses dominate road traffic outside of the major cities. For the most part, road freight service functions adequately even to small remote villages. The Pulacayo Project is accessed from La Paz by means of a paved road through Oruro. It can also be accessed by the gravel road between Oruro and Potosí and from Potosí to Uyuni by a good quality gravel road. The road from Potosí to Uyuni is paved. There is also a reasonably well-developed rail system with connections south to Argentina, east to Brazil and west to Chile and the port of Antofagasta. Rail service from Uyuni connects with Oruro, Atocha, Tupiza, and Villazon (on the border with Argentina). Uyuni is also connected by railway to Chile through Estación Abaroa.
  
Climate
 
Pulacayo has a semi-arid climate, with annual rainfall of approximately 100 mm. During winter, minimum temperatures reach the -20º to -25º C range and summer maximums in the 18 to 20°C range. The rainy period lasts from November to March corresponding with the southern hemisphere’s summer season. Potosí receives regular snowfalls, typically between February and April at the end of the rainy season. On the Altiplano and in higher altitude areas, sub-zero temperatures are frequent at night throughout the year.
 
Infrastructure and Local Resources
 
The cemetery substation currently used for Pulacayo town and located at the mine, will be enlarged and upgraded to include the equipment for the complex and satisfy current government requirements. Included in the substation will be a transformer, breakers, switches, lightening protection and grounding. The transformer will step down the 44 kV current from the grid to 380 V to be used by the complex. Breakers will protect the transformer from incoming line overloads. The switches will isolate the substation for repairs and maintenance. Grounding will be provided for the substation and lightning rods with proper grounding will protect the substation from lightning strikes.
  
The generator will provide back-up (reserve) power should the incoming power quality or amount become unreliable or power be lost. Potable water is supplied for the Pulacayo Mining Cooperative, the Pulacayo population, and the town of Uyuni by pipeline from the Yanapollera dam and reservoir facility located 28 km from Pulacayo. To ensure an adequate consistent supply of water for the mine and concentrator a water storage reservoir possibly supplemented by groundwater sources is being considered. Telephone services include an ENTEL-based long distance service and a GSM signal cellular telephone service. Internet access is available in most areas. Two antennae provide reception and transmission of signals from national television stations. Apogee Silver Ltd (“Apogee”) installed a satellite receiver to provide internet access for its operation, which is shared with the Cooperative Social del Riesgo Compartido (Shared Risk Cooperative).
 
Approximately 600 people currently live in Pulacayo on a permanent basis. The village has a state-operated school and medical services. A hospital and clinic function independently. Numerous dwellings and mining related buildings in Pulacayo are owned by COMIBOL, some of which have been donated to the Pulacayo Mining Cooperative. Under the Shared Risk Contract, COMIBOL makes some mining infrastructure available for use by Apogee. Many of the residents have mining experience through working for the Pulacayo Mining Cooperative.
 
Basic exploration services are available in Bolivia and include several small diamond core drilling contractors, sample preparation (ALS Group, located in Oruro), and assay laboratories (SGS Group located in La Paz, and several locally owned assay facilities). The Bolivian National School of Engineering operates a technical college in Oruro (Universidad Técnica de Oruro) that includes a mineral processing department and laboratory facilities that provide commercial services to the mining industry. In general, an adequate supply of junior to intermediate level geologists, metallurgists, mining engineers and chemists is currently considered to be present in Bolivia.
 
Physiography
 
The Pulacayo Project area is located in the Altiplano region, a high altitude plain broken by small mountains and hilly areas. It is immediately south west of the Cosuño Caldera where local topographic relief is gentle to moderate, with elevations ranging between 4,000 m and 4,500 m above sea level.
  
The Paca and Pulacayo domes are volcanic structures that exist as prominent topographic highs in this area.
 
 
44
 
 
Property
 
Ownership of the Pulacayo Project properties is through joint venture agreements. Apogee Minerals Ltd. (renamed “Apogee Silver Ltd.” in March 2011) controlled 100% of the Pulacayo Project through an agreement with Golden Minerals Company (“GMC”), the successor of Apex Silver Company before its acquisition by us. GMC’s former Bolivian subsidiary, ASC Bolivia LDC Sucursal Bolivia (“ASC”), holds the mining rights to the concessions through a joint venture with the Pulacayo Mining Cooperative, which in turn has a lease agreement with COMIBOL, the state mining corporation of Bolivia. On January 21, 2011, Apogee entered into a definitive agreement with GMC to acquire all of the issued share capital of ASC, which holds a 100% interest in the Pulacayo Project. Pursuant to the applicable agreement, Apogee acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of the subsidiary from GMC in consideration for common shares of Apogee upon closing of the transaction, and an additional block of common shares and a cash fee eighteen (18) months following closing of the transaction. In January 2015, Prophecy Coal Corp. (predecessor to the Company) completed purchase of Apogee Minerals Bolivia S.A., ASC Holdings Limited and ASC Bolivia LDC (which hold ASC, the holder of Apogee’s mining joint venture interest in the Pulacayo Project) (collectively, the “Apogee Subsidiaries”) and thus Apogee’s interest in the mining joint venture. The term of the joint venture agreement is 23 years starting July 30th, 2002. ASC Bolivia LDC is committed to pay to COMIBOL USD$1,000 during the exploration period. During the mining period ASC Bolivia LDC will pay to COMIBOL the equivalent of 2.5% of the Net Smelter Return (NSR) and 1.5% of the NSR to the Pulacayo Cooperative. On September 1, 2016 the Bolivian government issued Supreme Decree N° 2891 which was confirmed by Law N° 845 dated October 24, 2016. Both regulations revert to the domain of the State, areas over which joint venture agreements, lease or sub-lease agreements have been executed between mining cooperatives and private local or foreign companies, in order to convert such agreements into mining production contracts between the private parties party to such agreements and the government. This affects our Pulacayo Joint Venture Agreement. We submitted the required application on December 22, 2016. In October 2nd 2019 a new Mining Production Contract (replacing the Joint Venture Agreement) was executed between Apogee Minerals Bolivia S.A. (a Silver Elephant Mining Corp. subsidiary) and the state owned Bolivian Mining Corporation (COMIBOL). The term is 15 years and subject to renewal for another 15 years (total 30 years). COMIBOL is entitled to receive 7% of the Gross Sales Value. No monthly fee payable to COMIBOL has been agreed.
 
History of Production
 
Mining of silver deposits at Pulacayo began in the Spanish Colonial Period (c. 1545) but production details do not exist. The first recorded work was carried out in 1833 when Mariano Ramírez rediscovered the Pulacayo deposit. In 1857 Aniceto Arce founded the Huanchaca Mining Company of Bolivia and began development and production. Revenue from the mine funded the first railway line in Bolivia which in 1888 connected Pulacayo to the port of Antofagasta, Chile. Annual silver production reached 5.7 million ounces in 1891 with production predominantly from the rich Veta Tajo (Tajo vein system). In 1923, mining operations ceased due to flooding of the main working levels.
  
In 1927, Mauricio Hochschild bought the property and re-started mine development with focus on the Veta Cuatro vein. During this time, the 2.8 km long San Leon access tunnel was developed to facilitate ore haulage and the first recorded exploration work in the area was undertaken. Work continued through the intervening years, and in 1952, the Bolivian government nationalized the mines and administration of the Pulacayo deposit and management was assumed by the state mining enterprise COMIBOL. COMIBOL continued operations producing 678 million ounces of silver, 200,000 tons of zinc and 200 000 tons of lead until closure in 1959 due to exhaustion of reserves and rising costs. COMIBOL also imposed cutbacks on exploration at this time. In 1962, a local cooperative group named Cooperativa Minera Pulacayo (the “Pulacayo Mining Cooperative”) was founded and this group leased the Pulacayo mine from COMIBOL. The Pulacayo Mining Cooperative has operated small-scale mining in the district since that time and continues to do so. During the period from November 2011 to May 2013 Apogee performed trial mining, which is described in the “Mining” section below.
 
There is limited mining at the Paca deposit. But the dates of mining, production, and grade are not known.
 
 
 
 
45
 
 
Geology
 
General
 
In south western Bolivia, the Andes Mountains consist of three contiguous provinces, which are, from west to east, the Cordillera Occidental, the Altiplano, and the Cordillera Oriental. The basement beneath the area, which is as thick as 70 km, is believed to be similar to the rocks exposed immediately to the east, in the Cordillera Oriental, where a Phanerozoic-age fold and thrust belt consists largely of Paleozoic and Mesozoic-age marine shales and sandstones. Deposited mostly on Precambrian basement, the rocks of the Cordillera Oriental were deformed during at least three mountain-building cycles. The Altiplano is a series of high basins located between mountain ranges that formed apparently in response to folding and thrusting. Its formation involved the eastward underthrusting of the basement rocks of the Cordillera Occidental, concurrent with the westward overthrusting of the sedimentary rocks of the Cordillera Oriental. These thrusts resulted in continental foreland basins that received as much as 15,000 m of sediment and interlayered volcanic rocks during the Cenozoic. Igneous activity accompanying early Andean deformation was primarily focused further west, in Chile. During the main pulse of Andean deformation, a number of volcano-plutonic complexes were emplaced at several localities on the Altiplano, particularly along its eastern margin with the Cordillera Oriental and to the south. During glacial time, most of the Altiplano was covered by large glacial lakes of which the great salars of Uyuni and Coipasa are remnants. The Cordillera Occidental consists of late Miocene to Recent volcanic rocks, both lava flows and ash flow tuffs that have erupted in response to the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the continent of South America. This underthrusting continues, and many of the volcanoes that form the crest of the Andes and mark the international border with Chile are presently active.
 
Exploration
 
Modern era exploration in the project area included surface and underground mapping, drilling and sampling by ASC and topographic mapping, surface mapping, geophysical surveying and drilling by Apogee. ASC performed preliminary geologic mapping during 2003. They completed exploration drilling using diamond coring method between July 2002 and November 2002, February 2003, and September 2003. The drilling information is summarized the table below. These drilling programs outlined disseminated, veinlet and stock work style mineralization occurring between previously mined high-grade veins.
 
Summary of Modern Era Drilling
 
Party
Deposit
Period
Number of Drill Holes
Meters of Drilling
Drill Holes By Spud Location
ASC
Pulacayo
Jul–Nov 2002
14
3,905
11 surface
 
 
 
 
 
3 underground
 
Pulacayo
Feb 2003
2
554
0 surface
 
 
 
 
 
2 underground
 
Pulacayo
Sep–Oct 2003
8
1,302
6 surface
 
 
 
 
 
2 underground
 
Paca
2002—2005
36
4,344
36 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
Total
 
 
61
10,105
54 surface
 
 
 
 
 
7 underground
Apogee
Paca
Feb–Apr 2006
23
2,302
23 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
 
Pulacayo
Feb–Jun 2006
19
4,418
15 surface
 
 
 
 
 
4 underground
 
Paca
Jun–Nov 2006
46
10,444
46 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
 
Paca
Nov–Dec 2006
7
886
7 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
 
Paca
Nov 2007
14
3,745
14 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
 
Paca
Jan–May 2008
54
14,096
46 surface
 
 
 
 
 
8 underground
 
Pulacayo
Jun 2009
49
12,756
26 surface
 
 
 
 
 
23 underground
 
Pulacayo
Nov 2010–Dec 2011
45
29,936
45 surface
 
 
 
 
 
0 underground
 
Pulacayo
Aug 2011–Jun 2012
34
3,166
0 surface
 
 
 
 
 
34 underground
Total
 
 
291
81,749
222 surface
 
 
 
 
 
69 underground
Grand Total
 
 
352
91,854
276 surface
 
 
 
 
 
76 underground
 
 
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Apogee commissioned a topographic survey of the Pulacayo and Paca areas in 2006 to provide a topographic base map for use in establishing road access, geological mapping and surface sampling, and locating drill collars and geophysical lines. A surface mapping and sampling program was done during 2005 and initially utilized the ASC preliminary geological maps. The company completed detailed surface mapping that covered all the exploration licenses. The sampling consisted mostly of rock chip samples taken from outcrops and accessible underground mine workings for a total of 549 samples. During 2006 Apogee also commissioned a detailed, three-dimensional digital model of the historic underground mine workings. The model was subsequently modified by Apogee to conform to the current datum and adjusted to align with the +1% incline grade of the San Leon tunnel. An induced polarization (IP) geophysical survey was carried out by Apogee between November and December 2007. A total of 29 line km of IP surveying was completed on the Pulacayo Project including seven lines at Pulacayo oriented north-south perpendicular to the east-west strike of the TVS and five similarly oriented survey lines at Paca.
 
Following the acquisition of the Pulacayo Project, Apogee initiated a diamond core exploration drill program that consisted of 19 holes. During 2007-2008 Apogee focused on the Paca deposit and completed 68 drill holes in two programs with 14 completed during November 2007 and 54 holes completed during 2008. Subsequent drilling occurred during June 2009, between November 2010 and December 2011, and between August 2011 and June 2012. The drilling information is summarized in the table above. Overall core recovery reported by Apogee exceeds 90% in most cases though proximity to old mine workings reduces the recovery potential due to associated bedrock instability. Particular attention was paid to the planning and documentation of drill holes. Planning is based on the logging and interpretation of geological cross sections generated by Apogee staff geologists. Drill hole coordinates are established from digital maps and surface drill hole collars are located on the ground by field geologists using a hand-held GPS receiver. The completed drill hole is later surveyed by company surveyors. Drill hole azimuth and inclination are established using a compass and clinometer. Collar coordinates for underground drilling are established by company surveyors and hole azimuth and inclination are set by transit. Downhole deviation is determined for both surface and underground holes at approximately 50 m intervals using down hole survey tools.
 
Work during 2015 included mapping, sampling, assays and metallurgical tests under Phase 2 of the exploration plan, planning for Phase 2 (geophysics, drilling and assays), and preparation and submittal of the permit application for Phase 2. The exploration centered on assessing the historical tailings piles and potential mineralized areas suggested by historical exploration. On February 2, 2015, the Company announced the assay results received January 22, 2015 from ALS Minerals Ltda., for samples obtained during the reconnaissance sampling program of tailings piles materials. The tailings piles are the remaining materials from processing ore, extracted from the Pulacayo mining district between approximately 1850 and 1950. The ore was processed by a mill on site which has since been dismantled.
 
A total of 12 tailings piles were identified at the start of the mapping and sampling program and a total of 299 samples from the 12 tailings piles were obtained. Samples were obtained at random locations on the top surface of those piles from small holes excavated with an excavator and systematically at 2 meter spacings in the walls (slopes) of the piles from hand dug or excavated trenches, all at depths of 1.2 to 1.5 meters. The samples were then preserved, stored, secured, and transported following industry standard methods. The assay program was performed by ALS Minerals Ltda. of Lima, Perú and included standard Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) samples to enforce the validity of the results. The results indicate silver grades up to 1200 g/t, gold grades up to 7 g/t and indium grades up to 154.5 g/t. On September 10, 2015, the Company reported results from preliminary metallurgical test work conducted on samples collected from various tailing piles at the Pulacayo Project showing up to 64.39% silver recovery.
 
Surface mapping and sampling was completed during June to August 2015 on four potential mineralized areas (El Abra, Pero, Paca, and Pacamayo). The sampling included close spaced grab and chip samples obtained systematically where the trend of the mineralization is apparent or in historic mine adits and random spot sampling where the trend is not apparent. The samples were obtained through the aid of trenching to allow sampling of fresher material, where possible. The samples were then preserved, stored, secured, and transported following industry standard methods. The assay program was performed by ALS Minerals Ltda. and included standard QA/QC samples to enforce the validity of the results. On August 27, 2015 and September 9, 2015, the Company announced assay results of the first and second group of samples from the potential mineralized areas at the district exploration program. On September 18, 2015, the Company announced the assay results of the three Pacamayo samples where the silver grade was reported as more than 1,500 g/t. These samples have undergone reanalysis using the fire assay and gravimetric finish method which has a greater upper detection limit.
 
An exploration permit application was submitted during early 2015. The exploration permit would allow geophysical work to complete Phase 1 then after review of the Phase 1 information and previous exploration information and planning, completion of Phase 2.
 
Planning and budgeting for exploration to prove the planned stopes in the internally-developed mining plans was completed. This exploration plan included in-mine drilling and mining new drivages to explore new areas, mapping of existing exposures and new drivages, sampling of existing exposures, new drivages, and drill core for laboratory analysis and metallurgical testing.
 
Mineralization
 
Pulacayo is a low sulphidation epithermal polymetallic deposit hosted by sedimentary and igneous rocks of Silurian and Neocene age (Pressacco et al., 2010). The Silurian sediments underlie the volcanic rocks and include diamictites, sandstones and shales. The Neocene rocks are predominantly volcano-sedimentary in origin and include conglomerates, sandstones, rhyolitic tuffs, dacitic-rhyolitic domes, andesitic porphyries and andesitic flows. The Pulacayo Project is located on the western flank of a regional anticline that affects sedimentary and igneous rocks of Silurian, Tertiary and Quaternary ages on the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, near the Cordillera-Altiplano boundary. The major geologic features of the area are faults and an anticline that are considered to be important with respect to the location of mineralization.
 
 
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The Uyuni-Khenayani Fault is a reverse fault located about 4 km west of Pulacayo, which is believed to have controlled localization of volcanic center complexes in the area and related mineralized areas including at Pulacayo. The Pulacayo, Paca Mayo and Paca volcanic dome complexes occur along a north-south corridor defined by two parallel, north-south trending regional faults that are approximately 2.7 km apart. The domes occur over a distance measuring approximately 10 km in length. Polymetallic vein and wall rock mineralization at Pulacayo is controlled by east-west trending secondary faults that cut the Tertiary age sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Pulacayo dome. The stock work vein system was emplaced on the southern side of the Pulacayo dome complex and is best exemplified by the TVS which holds the largest metal resource. The TVS bifurcates in andesitic rocks to form separate veins that collectively form a dense network or stock work of veinlets along strike. The bifurcating, polymetallic veins are commonly separated by altered andesitic composition rock that contains disseminated sulphide mineralization. The mineralized zones at Pulacayo, Paca Mayu and Paca all occur on the west flank of a north-south striking anticline primarily comprised of folded sedimentary rocks. Local topographic highs define domes and stocks composed of Lower Miocene age dacitic-andesitic composition igneous rocks that intrude the folded sedimentary rocks. A younger phase of volcanic activity is also superimposed on the anticline and is marked by volcanic rocks of andesitic and rhyolitic composition. Volcanic ash deposits associated with the Cosuño Caldera are the youngest volcanic deposits in the area.
 
Hydrothermal wallrock alteration is spatially associated with the main vein system trends and includes propylitic, sericitic, moderate-advanced argillic, and siliceous assemblages. Host rock composition exerts a strong local influence on both the nature of alteration assemblages present and their relative intensity of development. On this basis, spatial distribution of hydrothermal alteration assemblages is a useful indicator of proximity to mineralized structures. Moderate argillic alteration is observed throughout the area and transitions to intense argillic alteration in close proximity to veins and disseminated-stock work zones. Haloes of silicification up to several centimeters in width are developed around vein contacts in some cases. Silicification grades into advanced argillic alteration as distance into the wall rock increases and this gradually grades to argillic and propylitic zones with greater distance.
 
The Pulacayo deposit is considered an example of a sub-volcanic epithermal mineralization system showing well developed vertical metal zonation. The TVS is the main mineralized vein and stock work system at the Pulacayo Project. The east-west striking faults are interpreted to have acted as a conduit system for mineralizing fluids, with sulphide precipitation in open spaces to form veins and along fractures or by replacement to form zones of disseminated mineralization. Changes in temperature, pressure and the chemical state between the wall rock and fluid are thought to have influenced the style and intensity of mineralization. The high grade parts of the TVS were historically mined as single 1 m to 3 m wide veins but it transitions into zones of complex quartz-sulphide or sulphide vein arrays that occur over widths ranging from less than a meter up to 120 m. Mineralization of economic interest at Pulacayo is predominantly comprised of sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite in sulphide-rich veins that are accompanied by locally abundant quartz, barite and pyrite with disseminated sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite in the wallrock between the veins. To date, the TVS system has been continuously proven by mining and/or surface exposure along a strike length of 2,700 m and to a vertical depth of 1,000 m below surface, is open in both strike and dip components, and locally reaches approximately 120 m of mineralized width.
 
As to the Paca deposit, faulting is also considered to have provided conduits for mineralizing fluids. The faulting includes north-south trending reverse faults and east-west trending extensional faults that are located concentrically around Paca dome. The assemblage of propylitic, sericitic, moderate to advanced argillic, and siliceous wall rock alteration spatially associated with silver-zinc-lead mineralization as at the Pulacayo deposit is also found at the Paca deposit. But at Paca disseminated (mantos) style and breccia hosted styles of mineralization are most common though a locally mineralized conglomerate is also found. Generally, discrete veins of mineralization having significant width and length are not common. The sulphide mineral phases commonly associated with economic grades recognized at Paca include sphalerite, galena, silver sulphosalts, tennantite, smithsonite, barite, manganese oxide, gypsum, jarosite, specularite, cerussite, dolomite, aragonite and calcite. Information regarding sampling is contained in the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report.
 
Sampling
 
The core is initially examined by core technicians and all measurements are confirmed. Core is aligned and repositioned in the core box where possible and individual depth marks are recorded at 1 m intervals on the core box walls. Core technicians photograph all core, measure core recovery between core depth blocks, complete magnetic susceptibility readings and specific gravity measurements, and record the information on hard copy data record sheets. This information is initially entered into Excel digital spreadsheets and then incorporated into the project digital database. Drill site geologists then complete a written quick log of rock types along with a graphical strip log that illustrates the rock types. They subsequently complete a detailed written description of rock types, alteration styles and intensities, structural features, and mineralization features. The drill hole logs are drawn on paper cross sections when logging is completed and lithologies are graphically correlated from drill hole to drill hole. Mineralized intervals are marked for sampling by the logging geologist using colored grease pencils and the depths of the intervals and associated sample numbers are recorded on a hardcopy sample record sheet. All paper copy information for each hole, including quick logs, detailed logs, graphical logs, sample record sheets and assay certificates are secured together in a drill hole file folder to provide a complete archival record for each drill hole. Subsequent to logging and processing, down hole litho-coded intervals, sample intervals and drill hole collar and survey information are entered into digital spreadsheets and then incorporated into the project digital database. The sample intervals marked by the logging geologist are cut in half by the core technicians using a diamond saw. Friable core is cut in half with a knife. Each half core sample is assigned a unique sample tag and number and placed in a correspondingly numbered 6 mil plastic sample bag. A duplicate tag showing the same number is secured to the core box at the indicated sample interval. All sample intervals and corresponding numbers are recorded on a hardcopy sample data sheet and are subsequently entered into a digital spreadsheet for later incorporation in the project database. The secured 6 mil plastic sample bags are grouped in batches of 6 to 10 samples and secured in a larger plastic mesh bag in preparation for shipment to the laboratory.
 
 
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Drill site procedures pertinent to the ASC drilling were confirmed by Apogee staff familiar with the ASC program to be generally similar to those employed by Apogee with respect to core logging and sampling. All ASC drill core samples were processed at the Oruro, Bolivia laboratory of ALS Chemex (formerly Bondar-Clegg), with those from the first phase of drilling being analyzed at ALS Chemex facilities in Vancouver, BC, Canada. In both instances, standard core preparation methods were used prior to elemental analysis.
 
 
50
 
 
 
 
Security of Samples
 
Apogee staff was responsible for transport of core boxes by pick-up truck from drill sites to the company’s locked and secure core storage and logging facility located in the town of Pulacayo. The secured 6 mil plastic sample bags are grouped in batches of 6 to 10 samples and secured in a larger plastic mesh bag in preparation for shipment to the ALS Chemex preparation laboratory located in Oruro, Bolivia. All bagged samples remained in a locked storage facility until shipment to the laboratory. Samples are transported from the core storage area to the ALS Chemex facility by either Apogee personnel or a reputable commercial carrier. Sample shipment forms are used to list all samples in each shipment and laboratory personnel crosscheck samples received against this list and report any irregularities by fax or email to Apogee. Apogee has not encountered any substantial issues with respect to sample processing, delivery or security for the Pulacayo drilling programs. The transport and security of samples pertinent to the ASC drilling were confirmed by Apogee staff familiar with the ASC program to be generally similar to those employed by Apogee. The security of Paca exploration samples followed the same procedures.
 
 
51
 
 
Sample Preparation, Analysis and Quality Assurance/Quality Control
  
All drill core samples from the ASC 2002 and 2003 drilling programs were processed at the Oruro, Bolivia laboratory of ALS Chemex, with those from the first phase of drilling being analyzed at ALS Chemex facilities in Vancouver, BC, Canada. In both instances, standard core preparation methods were used prior to elemental analysis. During the 2006 to 2012 Apogee drilling programs Apogee staff carried out immersion method specific gravity determinations but did not carry out any form of direct sample preparation or analytical work on project samples. Analytical work was completed by ALS Minerals Ltda. at its analytical facility in Lima, Peru after completion of sample preparation procedures at the ALS facility located in Oruro, Bolivia. ALS was at the time and remains an internationally accredited laboratory with National Association of Testing Authorities certification and also complies with standards of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2000 and ISO 17025:1999. The laboratory utilizes industry standard analytical methodology and utilizes rigorous internal QA/QC procedures for self-testing. Samples from the ASC drilling programs carried out in 2002 and 2003 were also prepared and analyzed by ALS. However, after preparation at the facility in Oruro, Bolivia under the same protocols as for Apogee, analytical work was carried out at the company’s laboratory in Vancouver, BC, Canada. This facility was fully accredited at the time and analytical protocols were the same as those described above for Apogee.
 
Apogee developed an internal QA/QC program that includes blind insertion of reference standards, blanks and duplicates in each analytical shipment that was used for the 2006 to 2012 drilling programs. A blank is inserted at the beginning of each sample batch, standards are inserted at random intervals throughout each batch of 50 samples and duplicates are analyzed at the end of each batch. All data gathered for QA/QC purposes is captured, sorted and retained in the QA/QC database. The QA/QC samples include commercial reference standards, an in-house standard, and commercial prepared blank materials. Coarse field blanks were also prepared by Apogee. Analysis of duplicate samples of quarter core is accommodated through their blind inclusion in the sample stream and analysis of duplicate prepared pulp splits are also requested for each batch. Apogee’s protocol also includes a check sampling program based on analysis of sample splits at a second accredited laboratory. Bulk density measurements (specific gravity) were systematically collected by Apogee staff using standard water immersion methods and unsealed core samples. Characteristics of lithology and alteration were also recorded as part of the density program and all information was assembled in digital spreadsheets.
 
QA/QC procedures pertinent to the ASC 2002-2003 drilling programs were not documented. However, the first drilling program carried out by Apogee in 2006 was intended to confirm earlier ASC analytical data. Full QA/QC protocols instituted by Apogee were applied to this program and results of the Apogee re-drill program correlate well with those of ASC suggesting that acceptable standards were being met by ASC. Though preparation, analysis, and QA/QC procedures were not documented for the early ASC drilling on Paca, the results of the 2006 re-drill program and check sampling by Mercator during 2015 were comparable and suggests acceptable procedures were followed for the Paca deposit samples. Sampling from later drilling at Paca followed Apogee’s QA/QC procedures described above. Bulk density measurements were also obtained.
 
Data Verification
 
Core sample records, lithologic logs, laboratory reports and associated drill hole information for all drill programs completed by Apogee and ASC were digitally compiled by Apogee staff. Information pertaining to the exploration history in the property area was also compiled by Apogee and was reviewed to assess consistency and validity of Apogee results. The digital drill hole records compiled by Apogee were checked in detail against the parameters (collar data, down hole survey values, hole depths, lithocodes) of the original hard copy source documents to assess consistency and accuracy. This was followed by review and validation of approximately 10% of the compiled core sample dataset against original source documents. Review of logging and sample records showed consistently good agreement between original records and digital database values. The drilling and sampling database records were further assessed through digital error identification methods available through the Gemcom-Surpac Version 6.2.1(R) software for such errors as sample record duplications, end of hole errors, survey and collar file inconsistencies and some potential lithocode file errors. The digital review and import of the manually checked datasets through Surpac provided a validated Microsoft Access(R) database that is considered to be acceptable for resource estimation.
 
Apogee hosted two site visits by experts for review of procedures and verification of conditions and work programs. The first during August 2011 included review of drilling program components, core check sampling, verification of drill hole locations, and discussion with Apogee staff and consultants. The experts determined that, to the extent reviewed during the visit, evidence of work programs carried out to date on the property is consistent with descriptions reported by the company and that procedures employed by Apogee staff are consistent with current industry standards and of good quality. The second site visit occurred during April 2012 and included additional review of on-going drilling and resource estimation program work pertaining to oxide zone mineralization. The experts determined their drill hole coordinates compared well with Apogee’s coordinates and reasonable correlation exists between the original sample analyses and the check sample analyses.
 
The data verification performed for the Paca deposit was similar to that for the Pulacayo deposit described previously. Micon International Limited of Toronto, Canada, considered the field standard used by Apogee in its QA/QC program to be unacceptable and suggested use of a commercial standard or an in-house standard supported by industry best practices.
 
Mineral Processing and Metallurgical Testing
 
To date, four metallurgical test programs were completed by outside experts. These programs include: Resource Development Inc., Denver, USA in 2003, UTO (Universidad Técnica de Oruro), Oruro, La Paz, Bolivia in 2009, ED&ED Ingeniería y Servicios S.A.C. (which we refer to as “ED&ED”), Lima, Peru in 2011, and UTO and Maelgwyn Mineral Services Laboratory in South Africa during 2012. A fifth program was managed by Apogee where bulk samples from trial mining were sent to local concentrators.
 
 
52
 
 
During 2003, Resource Development Inc. tested 120 kg of core sample from two drill holes. Preliminary metallurgical test work was performed to evaluate the silver and sulfide base metals recovery potential including in-place densities, feed characterization, mineralogy, leaching, gravity concentration, and bench-scale open circuit and locked cycle tests (LCT’s). Silver minerals were found not to be amenable to leaching by NaCN or gravity concentration. Grinding test data determined the time required to achieve a P80 of 150 # (104 lm) was 20 minutes. Bench scale open circuit flotation tests (OCT’s) were performed using the flotation reagent suite developed for the San Cristobal Project. The overall silver recovery in the lead rougher concentrates was 97.1%. The lead cleaner concentrate recovered 2.8% of the weight, 84.6% of lead, 3.1% of zinc and 46.9% of silver. The lead concentrate assayed 60.8% Pb, 4.22% Zn and 8,440 g/t Ag. The zinc cleaner concentrate recovered 7.8% of weight, 1.3% of lead, 84.7% of zinc and 38.8% Ag. The concentrate assayed 0.324% Pb, 41.2% Zn and 2,463 g/t Ag. Large scale two cycle locked cycle flotation tests were performed using the process flowsheet similar to that developed for San Cristobal deposit. The lead concentrate assaying 62.2% Pb, 4.46% Zn and 10,891 g/t Ag, recovered 3.1% weight, 88.8% of lead, 3.9% of zinc and 63.4% of silver. The zinc concentrate assayed 61.5% Zn, 0.9% Pb and 3,303 g/t Ag, recovered 5% weight, 87.6% of zinc, 2.1% of lead and 31.3% of silver. The tailings were very difficult to settle due to high proportions of clay in the ore, which will impact the process flow sheet and overall plant design. The lead and zinc third cleaner concentrates were analyzed for impurities and found that penalties may be incurred on the concentrates for several impurities.
 
UTO conducted a metallurgical test program during 2009 on three samples comprising comminution (only Bond Ball Work Index), OCT’s, LCT’s, OCT tailings (non-float) size by size analyses, and OCT tailings (non-float) sedimentation tests. Clay mineralogy studies were not carried out to determine the presence of clays that may produce very fine slimes though during the test work, slimes were produced affecting the flotation performance, settling of tailings, and flotation pulp rheology. The samples were drill cores composited to represent a higher grade, a medium grade, and a lower grade. Comminution was evaluated using the Bond Ball Mill Work Index test and categorized the samples as medium to hard. Abrasion index, crushing work index, and rod work index tests were not performed. Specific gravity tests were performed. Flotation test work focused on lead and silver recovery using both batch open circuit and closed circuit flotation tests. Locked cycle tests of the high-grade sample indicated that conventional selective lead-silver and zinc-silver flotation techniques recovered 56% of the silver in the lead concentrate and 27% of the silver in the zinc concentrate with lead recovery of 79% and zinc recovery of 81%. Silver grades were 6,620 g/t in the lead concentrate and 2,010 g/t in the zinc concentrate. LCT test results of the medium grade sample indicated that it is possible to recover almost 34% of the silver in the lead concentrate and 50% of the silver in the zinc concentrate, with lead and zinc grades at 51% and 58%, lead and zinc recoveries at 74% and 83%, and silver grades at 6,220 g/t and 2,990 g/t. LCT test results of the low-grade sample indicated that it is possible to recover almost 30% of the silver in the lead concentrate and 21% of the silver in the zinc concentrate, with lead and zinc grades at 51% and 58%, lead and zinc recoveries at 74% and 83%, and silver grades at 6,220 g/t and 2,990 g/t, respectively. The results seem to be reasonable and in accordance with expectations from the mineralogy of the ore. These results constitute the design basis for the flow sheet. Full OCT’s of sulphide minerals flotation were conducted initially on each sample as a proof of concept of the overall circuit and to establish a workable set of flotation conditions and reagents. These tests demonstrated that sulphide flotation to saleable lead and zinc concentrates at acceptable (for batch tests) recoveries was possible.
 
During 2011, the laboratory facility of ED&ED, performed a series of flotation tests and contracted mineralogical analyses on a high grade and low-grade sample. The initial ED&ED flotation test work was not successful then after pre-conditioning the samples with activated carbon and subsequent differential flotation, was moderately successful. The minerals present included sphalerite, galena, pyrite and quartzite gangue with galena-sphalerite assemblages (intertwined specimens) present to some extent. Twelve (12) OCT’s were conducted on each of the samples to confirm the previous flotation results by UTO and to evaluate the effect of flotation response at finer grind sizes as seen in the flowcharts. The flotation tests, carried out on the high-grade samples indicated that it is possible to obtain commercial lead and zinc concentrates with grades of lead and zinc of 42.1% and 43%, respectively. The concentration of silver in the lead and zinc concentrates were reported as 7,010 g/t and 198.2 g/t, respectively. The straightforward conventional selective lead-silver and zinc-silver flotation techniques after carbon pre-treatment are able to recover 85.7% of silver in the lead concentrate (with a mass pull of 3.1%) and 2.93% of silver in the zinc concentrate (with a mass pull of 3.75%). The lead and zinc recoveries are estimated as 80% and 77.8%, respectively. The flotation tests, carried out on the low-grade samples indicated that it is possible to obtain commercial lead and zinc concentrates with grades of lead and zinc of 41% and 43.1%, respectively. The concentration of silver in the lead and zinc concentrates were reported as 6,734 g/t and 207 g/t, respectively. The straightforward conventional selective lead-silver and zinc-silver flotation techniques after carbon pre-treatment are able to recover 74% of silver in the lead concentrate (with a mass pull of 1.95%) and 3.27% of silver in the zinc concentrate (with a mass pull of 2.8%). The lead and zinc recoveries are estimated as 77.6% and 71.9%, respectively. In overall, better flotation (open circuit tests) performances are obtained at a grind size of P80 of 74 lm. Locked cycle tests at this grind size will be necessary to confirm these results. A set of paste thickening tests were run on dry samples of the flotation test (tailings) to investigate the performance of the FLSmidth Deep Cone Paste thickening technology. Screening flocculent tests were carried out. Anionic flocculent (Floenger PHP 50 Plus) was selected to improve sedimentation performance based on settling rates and observed visual supernatant clarity. Experience has shown that it is difficult to scale paste flow characteristics from small-scale tests to full-scale pipeline conditions, pilot-scale pumping tests are usually necessary. The lab flotation concentrates (open circuit tests) were assayed to determine the deleterious elements in the concentrate and for use in the NSR calculations and included mineralogical analyses. The results showed that the lead concentrate assayed 47.2% Pb and 6,273 g/t Ag with 1.3% Cu, 1.45% As and 1.23% Sb. The zinc concentrate assayed 53.8% Zn with negligible copper, arsenic or antimony. The lead, silver and zinc concentrate grades are in agreement with the LCT carried out before. Concentrations of deleterious elements appear below typical smelter penalty thresholds, with arsenic appearing as the principal penalty element.
 
 
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During 2012, UTO conducted further metallurgical test work including a single collective flotation test, a series of open circuit differential flotation tests (with a de-sliming step), a single locked cycle flotation test (with de-sliming step), and PORCO flow sheet testing. This test work was designed to explore the flotation response of the ore to conventional differential flotation and to establish the operating conditions, reagent scheme, and consumptions. The sample was prepared and provided by Apogee (ASL) and consisted of a bulk composite sample from drill cores with grain sizes up to 76.2 mm (3 inches). The first exploratory test indicated that silver recovery to bulk concentrate is about 72%, while the lead and zinc recoveries are approximately 66% and 78% respectively. The floating fraction accounted for about 13%, the slimes fraction 18%, and the rest is lost as final tailings. Lead and silver losses are up to 23% and 13%, respectively. The open batch flotation tests indicated that lead recovery is between 48% and 54%, while zinc recovery is in the range from 50.1% to 72%. Total silver recovery to both lead and zinc concentrates is between 30% and 68%. Lead concentrate grades range from 33.5% to 59%, zinc concentrate grades range from 49% and 55%. Similarly, silver grades in both concentrates range from 9,875 g/t to 15,333 g/t. A single LCT, a repetitive batch used to simulate a continuous circuit where all the intermediate material added to the appropriate location in the flowsheet, was conducted to produce a metallurgical projection of the sample tested and to assess if the flowsheet and reagent suite is stable. A good locked cycle test typically achieves steady state over the last three cycles. Steady state implies both stability and mass conservation. Stability implies constancy. It was not indicated whether the test reached stability or whether mass conservation was achieved. Assuming that steady state was reached, the results indicated that lead and zinc recoveries were 60.1% and 76.5%, respectively. Lead concentrate assayed 11,114 g/t Ag, 49.1% Pb and 4.81% Zn. Additionally, the metal values in the zinc concentrate were 2,220 g/t Ag, 2.29% Pb and 48.6% Zn. Concentrates account for about 2.9% w/w of the feed (0.81% lead and 2.1% zinc). Silver metal loss in the slimes is as high as in the tailings. Lead and silver losses in the final tails are 23.1% and 9.12% respectively. The PORCO flowsheet is basically a bulk flotation followed by lead and zinc flotation, this processing route should be carried out at high pH (12.2) intended to depress pyrite at the outset. However, the Pulacayo ore did not respond well mainly because of lead and silver selectivity issues and high consumption of acid (H2SO4) to drop the pH to a level suitable for lead flotation after the bulk stage.
 
Maelgwyn Mineral Services Africa carried out laboratory flotation optimization test work on ore samples from the Pulacayo Project during 2012. The objectives of the work were to: (i) test the flotation conditions supplied by Apogee on the core samples to determine the metal recoveries and grades achievable by differential flotation of the Pb and Zn minerals; (ii) to optimize the flotation conditions for effective differential of the Pb and Zn minerals and to achieve saleable grades of Pb and Zn concentrates; and (iii) to perform locked cycle testing of the optimized flotation conditions using selected variability core samples. Laboratory rod milling curves were produced for all the samples and found that the milling times required for the samples indicated a high degree of variability in hardness between the sample types. Flotation tests included 65 OCT’s (exploratory test work) and four locked cycle flotation tests. In summary, the locked cycle tests yielded Pb concentrates of 55-69% Pb at recoveries between 88% and 93% and Zn concentrates of 37% to 56% Zn at recoveries of 79% to 90% with a large variation in head grade from 1.5% Pb to 4.3% Pb. The silver recoveries ranged between 68% and 94% with a variation in head grade of between 136 g/t Ag and 375 g/t Ag.
 
The test mining between November 2011 and May 2013 produced 12,550 tons of ore that were used in a toll milling program to evaluate ore processing. The ore was hauled by truck to four concentrators – Tatasi, Fedecomin, La Estrella, and Zabaleta. The Zabaleta concentrator attained the best recoveries for which the results are presented in the table below.
 
Pulcacayo Deposit Zabaleta Toll Milling Results
 

 
Concentrate Grade
 
 
Recoveries
 
Material
 
Pb (%)
 
 
Zn (%)
 
 
Ag (g/t)
 
 
Pb (%)
 
 
Zn (%)
 
 
Ag (%)
 
Lead Concentrate
  47.95 
  12.85 
  6,295 
  64.62 
  16.26 
  72.13 
Zinc Concentrate
  8.47 
  39.45 
  941 
  9.97 
  43.57 
  8.41 
Tailings
  0.58 
  0.97 
  49 
  25.41 
  40.16 
  18.45 
 
Total Ag recovery: 81.55%
 
 
 
Only one series of metallurgical tests were performed on samples from the Paca deposit. The tests were completed on three samples composited from drill cores and included feed characterization, leaching, flotation and gravity tests, in-place bulk density determination, and mineralogy. Study of the three composite samples found the silver grade varied from 44.5 g/t Ag to 228.6 g/t Ag, lead minerals 0.56% Pb to 0.8% Pb), and zinc minerals 0.05% Zn to 0.41% Zn). The other sulfide minerals identified were sulphosalts and chalcocite. Coarse native silver was detected in one of the samples. The silver minerals were amenable to cyanide leaching for most of the composite samples (i.e. 28% to 82% Ag extraction) however, extraction of silver was size dependent and improved with fineness-of-size. The lime consumption in leach varied from 0.8 to 2.4 kg/t. The NaCN consumption was dependent on both ore type and particle size, increasing with fineness of a particular size and in general, averaged ± 1.5 kg/t. Due to the presence of coarse native silver, the silver leaching was not completed in 120 hours, hence, the data was extrapolated to 240 hours leach time to project anticipated silver recovery and indicated that over 90% of silver could potentially be recovered at fine particle size for two of the three composites. Assay of the final pregnant solution from selected tests found measurable quantities of gold, hence, it is reasonable to conclude that gold is present in those samples. Some of the copper minerals present in the samples are also readily soluble in cyanide. Differential lead/zinc flotation process recovered over 90% of silver in the combined lead and zinc concentrate for the composite assaying 228.6 g/t Ag. The flotation process shows promise of recovering silver. However, the flotation process did not recover acceptable silver values from the other composites. The gravity concentration process did not concentrate silver in the gravity concentrate, hence, it cannot be used alone as a process for recovering silver minerals. The average density was ± 2.2 gm/cc for the samples tested, but the in-place bulk densities were extremely variable for one composite (i.e., 1.79 and 2.58 gm/cc). In summary, the preliminary results were encouraging to warrant additional drilling and metallurgical testing.
 
 
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Mining
 
Mineralization is found from the surface to at least 1,000 m depth at the Pulacayo deposit thus both surface and underground mining methods are likely. It is envisioned that surface mining will recover the oxidized ore and some sulphide ore to an elevation below which a crown pillar will be left and below which underground mining methods would start. Mineralization at the Paca deposit is found from the surface to approximately 60 m depth for the mantos-style mineralization and from approximately 10 m to 240m depth for the stockwork and vein style mineralization. Thus, it is anticipated mining will be mostly by surface methods.
 
Trial mining was conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 at the Pulacayo deposit. The trial mining was done to obtain geotechnical information, better understand mining dilution, obtain a large sample for process testing, and train the workforce. The mining methods included jack leg drill and blast with tracked haulage for development and drill and blast with trackless haulage for production by the shrinkage and reusing stoping methods. The haulage way was advanced and three stopes were mined. The trial mining produced 12,550 tons of ore.
 
Mineral Resources and Reserves
 
On November 22, 2017, we received an independent technical report titled “Updated Mineral Resource Estimate and Technical Report for the Pulacayo Project” dated November 14, 2017, with an effective date of October 20, 2017 (the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report”), prepared by Peter Webster, P.Geo and Michael Cullen, M.Sc., P. Geo of Mercator Geological Services Limited.
 
The 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report describes resources estimated following the guidelines of the CIM Standards. Two mineral resource estimates were disclosed according to the requirements of NI 43-101. The first for the Pulacayo deposit and the second for the Paca deposit.
 
Pulacayo Deposit
 
Results of the mineral resource estimate prepared for the Pulacayo deposit are presented in the table below.
 
The 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report outlined 2.08 million tonnes at a weighted average grade of Ag 455 g/t, Pb 2.18%, Zn 3.19% (Ag Eq. 594 g/t) in the indicated category and 0.48 million tonnes at a weighted average grade of Ag 406 g/t, Pb 2.08%, Zn 3.93% (Ag Eq. 572 g/t) in the inferred category. The contained metal content estimated by the Company, of the indicated category resources is 30.4 million ounces of silver, 100.0 million pounds of lead, 146.3 million pounds of zinc. The contained metal content estimated by the Company, of the inferred category resource is 6.3 million ounces of silver, 22.0 million pounds of lead, and 41.6 million pounds of zinc.
 
Pulacayo Indicated and Inferred Mineral Resource Statement Details
 
Pulacayo Mineral Resource Statement – Effective October 20, 2017 
 
 
Ag Eq. Cut-Off (g/t)
 
 
Category
 
 
Tonnes*
 
 
Ag (g/t)
 
 
Pb (%)
 
 
Zn (%)
 
 
Ag Eq. (g/t)
 
  400 
Indicated
  2,080,000 
  455 
  2.18 
  3.19 
  594 
  400 
Inferred
  480,000 
  406 
  2.08 
  3.93 
  572 
 
Notes:
 
1) 
Mineral resources are estimated in conformance with the CIM Standards referenced in NI 43-101.
2) 
Raw silver assays were capped at 1,700 g/t, raw lead assays were capped at 15% and raw zinc assays were capped at 15%.
3) 
Silver equivalent Ag Eq. (g/t) = Ag (g/t)*89.2% + (Pb% *(USD$0.94/ lb. Pb /14.583 Troy oz./lb./USD$16.50 per Troy oz. Ag)*10,000*91.9%) + (Zn% *(USD$1.00/lb. Zn/14.583 Troy oz./lb./USD$16.50 per Troy oz. Ag)*10,000*82.9%).
4) 
Metal prices used in the silver equivalent calculation are USD$16.50/Troy oz. Ag, USD$0.94/lb Pb and USD$1.00/lb. Zn. Metal recoveries used in the silver equivalent equation reflect historic metallurgical results disclosed by Apogee (Porter et al., 2013).
5) 
Metal grades were interpolated within wire-framed, three-dimensional silver domain solids using Geovia-Surpac Ver. 6.6.1 software and inverse distance squared interpolation methods. Block size is 10m(X) by 10m(Z) by 2m(Y). Historic mine void space was removed from the model prior to reporting of resources.
6) 
Block density factors reflect three-dimensional modeling of drill core density determinations.
7) 
Mineral resources are considered to have reasonable expectation for economic development using underground mining methods based on the deposit history, resource amount and metal grades, current metal pricing and comparison to broadly comparable deposits elsewhere.
8) 
Rounding of figures may result in apparent differences between tonnes, grade and contained ounces.
9) 
Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.
10) 
Tonnes are rounded to nearest 10,000.
 
 
55
 
 
The contained metals estimated by the Company based on in the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report are presented in the table below.
 
Contained Metals Based on October 20, 2017 Pulacayo Deposit** Mineral Resource Estimate
 
Metal
Indicated Resource
Inferred Resource
Silver
30.4 million oz.
6.3 million oz.
Lead
100.0 million lbs.
22.0 million lbs.
Zinc
146.3 million lbs.
41.6 million lbs.
 
**Based on the resource estimate Ag Eq. cut-off value of 400 g/t and 100% recovery; figures are rounded to the nearest 100,000th increment.
 
Between 2006 and 2012, a total of 69,739 meters of diamond drilling (226 surface and 42 underground drill holes) was conducted at Pulacayo, results of which support the mineral resource estimate The Pulacayo site is currently permitted for production at a milling rate of 560 tonnes per day and no known legal, political, environmental, or other risks that would materially affect potential future development were identified by us at the effective date of the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report (October 20, 2017) or are known by us as of the date of this filing.
 
Approximately 85% of the resource tonnage identified at the 400 g/t Ag Eq. cut-off value occurs within 150 meters vertical distance from the main San Leon tunnel, which may facilitate future mineral extraction.
 
Historic Pulacayo production was predominantly from the TVS which extends over a strike length of more than 2.5 km and to a depth of at least 1,000 meters. Prior resource drilling only covered approximately 20% of the TVS strike length. With new drilling, the Company believes that there is potential to discover additional resources along the Tajo structure.
 
Paca Deposit
 
In June 2016, the Company commenced its sampling program at the Paca deposit. Samples were obtained at one meter intervals from near surface drifts within the Paca mine which appears to have limited historic development. The area of sampled drifts has an estimated dimension of 90 meters length (east to west) and 75 meters width (north to south) and occurs at an average depth of 100 meters. Mineralization mainly consists of silver sulphides (mostly tennantite), galena and sphalerite in the pores of the sedimentary rocks and in breccias.
 
On August 12, 2016, the Company announced the assay results for the first group of 40 samples collected from the Paca deposit exploration program at its Pulacayo Project (see table below). During the sampling program, 233 samples were collected. However, due to a backlog at the testing laboratory, the Company prioritized the 40 most prospective samples for assay. Thus, the assayed samples are not representative of the sample population. These results are taken from the first group of samples the Company delivered.
 
The samples were delivered to ALS Geochemistry Laboratory in Oruro, Bolivia (which we refer to as “ALS”) for assay and included QA/QC samples. Standard reference, duplicate and blank samples were used – all of which, produced acceptable results. ALS is an independent laboratory and was qualified and accredited by the Colombian Institute of Technical Standards and Certification (which we refer to as the “ICONTEC”) and the Standards Council of Canada for the methods used during the time the samples were prepared and assayed. Records were maintained to document the secure handling of the samples and to verify their identities were maintained.
 
Chip channel sample P225 returned a silver grade that is greater than the 1,500 g/t detection limit. It is planned to submit the sample for another assay for precious metals content using methods having a greater upper detection limit.
 
 
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Samples were obtained from shallow depth drifts within the Paca mine which appear to have limited historic development. The area of sampled drifts has an estimated dimension of 90 meters length (east to west) and 75 meters width (north to south) and occurs at an average depth of 100 meters. Mineralization mainly consists of silver sulphides (mostly tennantite), galena and sphalerite in the pores of the sedimentary rocks and in breccias.
 
The Company has undertaken studies (for production scenarios ranging from 200 to 500 tonnes per day) with the aim to bring Pulacayo into production at minimum capital expense given the current challenging metals market. A positive production decision would not be based on FS of mineral reserves demonstrating economic and technical viability so would carry increased uncertainty and the risk of failure as to the mining method and profitability.
 
On September 29, 2016, the Company announced its two-fold priority objective and plans for definition drilling at the Pulacayo Project. The objective includes: (i) Study the possibility of commissioning Pulacayo and/or Paca to production at current metal prices, part of which includes definition drilling; and (ii) Apply modern exploration techniques (District-wide Three-Dimensional Induced Polarization Program (which we refer to as “3D IP”)) to the Pulacayo district to test mineralization found during reconnaissance exploration. The definition drilling to support any decision to commission Pulacayo and/or Paca to production and detailed three-dimensional induced polarization surveys were described. A detailed presentation about the exploration and maps showing prior sample location and assay results and proposed IP line locations are available on the Company’s website. A positive production decision would not be based on a FS of mineral reserves demonstrating economic and technical viability so would carry increased uncertainty and the risk of failure as to the mining method and profitability.
 
Results of the mineral resource estimate for the Paca deposit are presented in the table below.
 
The 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report outlined 2.54 million tonnes at a weighted average grade of Ag 256 g/t, Pb 1.03%, Zn 1.10% (Ag Eq. 342 g/t) in the inferred category. The contained metal content estimated by the Company, of the inferred category resources is 20.9 million ounces of silver, 57.7 million pounds of lead, 61.6 million pounds of zinc (more resource details in the table below).
 
Paca Inferred Mineral Resource Statement Details
 
Paca Mineral Resource Statement – Effective October 20, 2017
 
Ag Eq. Cut-Off (g/t)
Category
Tonnes*
Ag (g/t)
Pb (%)
Zn (%)
Ag Eq. (g/t)
 
200
Inferred
2,540,000
256
1.03
1.10
342
 
 
Notes:
  
1) 
Mineral resources are estimated in conformance with the CIM Standards referenced in NI 43-101.
 
2) 
Raw silver assays were capped at 1,050 g/t, raw lead assays were capped at 5% and raw zinc assays were capped at 5%.
 
3) 
Silver equivalent Ag Eq. (g/t) = Ag (g/t) + (Pb% *(USD$0.94/ lb. Pb /14.583 Troy oz./lb./USD$16.50 per Troy oz. Ag)*10,000) + (Zn% *(USD$1.00/lb. Zn/14.583 Troy oz./lb./USD$16.50 per Troy oz. Ag)*10,000). 100 % metal recoveries are assumed based on lack of comprehensive metallurgical results.
 
4) 
Metal prices used in the silver equivalent calculation are USD$16.50/Troy oz. Ag, USD$0.94/lb Pb and USD$1.00/lb. Zn and reflect those used for the Pulacayo deposit mineral resource estimate reported above.
 
5) 
Metal grades were interpolated within wire-framed, three-dimensional solids using Geovia-Surpac Ver. 6.7 software and inverse distance squared interpolation methods. Block size is 5m (X) by 5m (Z) by 2.5m (Y). Historic mine void space was removed from the model prior to reporting resources.
 
6) 
A block density factor of 2.26g/cm³ was used and reflects the average of 799 density measurements.
 
7) 
Mineral resources are considered to have reasonable expectation for economic development using combined underground and open pit methods based on the deposit history, resource amount and metal grades, current metal pricing and comparison to broadly comparable deposits elsewhere.
 
8) 
Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability.
 
9) 
*Tonnes are rounded to nearest 10,000.
 
 
57
 
 
The contained metals estimated by the Company based on the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report are presented in the table below.
 
Contained Metals Based on October 20, 2017 Paca Deposit** Mineral Resource Estimate
 
Metal
Inferred Resource
Silver
20.9 million oz.
Lead
57.7 million lbs.
Zinc
61.6 million lbs.
 
**Based on the resource estimate Ag Eq. cut-off value of 200 g/t and 100% recovery; figures are rounded to the nearest 100,000th increment
 
The resource estimate is based on results of 97 diamond drill holes and 1 reverse circulation drill hole totaling 18,160 meters completed between 2002 and 2007. The geology of the Paca deposit includes a core zone of feeder-style mineralization associated predominantly with brecciated andesite, plus additional zones of shallowly dipping mantos-style mineralization that are hosted by the surrounding volcano-sedimentary sequence. The Paca deposit remains open at depth and along strike. The Paca mineralization starts from surface and the deposit may be amenable to open-pit mining and this will be evaluated further in the future.
 
Mineral resources that are not mineral reserves do not have demonstrated economic viability. The estimate of mineral resources may be materially affected by environmental permitting, legal, title, taxation, sociopolitical, marketing, or other relevant issues.
 
Environmental
The Company, through acquisition of ASC and later transfer of the environmental license, has a valid and in force environmental license issued by the Bolivian Ministry of Environment and Water that is valid to 2023 for the Pulacayo licenses. The license allows for construction of a mine and concentrator with capacities up to 560 tons per day. Granting of the environmental license includes approval of the Environmental Impact Evaluation Study and Environmental Base Line Audit. Bolivian environmental law absolves the Company of environmental liability created by its predecessors.
 
Project Risks and Mitigation
 
The major risks to developing the Pulacayo Project include the inability to obtain financing, decreases in metal prices, and adverse political and social changes. The inability to obtain financing will be mitigated through pursuit of equity investors and cash flow from sale of available material. The risk from decrease in metal prices will be mitigated by the timing of the project in that the start of the project is at the time of lowest metal prices in several years and concentrate sales will start when metal prices are projected to be much higher. Adverse political and social changes are also mitigated by the timing of the project. The national government has started to become much more supportive of mining and recently the local government and population have shown strong support for re-starting the mine.
 
Exploration
Exploration was conducted in mid to late 2016 at the Pulacayo and Paca deposits. Mapping and sampling at the Pulacayo deposit was performed at the AVS located approximately 200 meters west of the Rothschild shaft, at a level 50 meters above the San Leon adit level (level 0, 4128 m elevation). The principal vein measures 1.0 to 1.5 meters in width. The strike and vertical extent of the principal vein are unknown. The location of the AVS is approximately 600 meters west of the San Leon adit and passes outside the western boundary of the area where Apogee conducted 70,000 meters of drilling between 2005 and 2012, and therefore was not included in the Pulacayo deposit resource estimate disclosed in the 2017 Pulacayo Technical Report. Additional sampling was completed at underground mining area 1 (which we refer to as “UG1”) where initial mining may occur. UG1 is located at level 0 approximately 110 meters east of the San Leon adit and within 100 meters from the Central shaft. UG1 measures approximately 117 meters in strike, 93 meters in width and 38 meters in height. A total of 22 samples were obtained from the AVS and UG1 areas and sent for assay and the results received. These results are presented in the table below. The samples were obtained by continuous chip channel sampling across the width of the vein mineralization at locations one meter apart.
 
 
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UG1 and AVS Sample Assay Results
 

 
Ag
 
 
Zn
 
 
Pb
 


 
Width
 
 SampleID
  (g/t) 
 
(%)
 
 
(%)
 
 Area
 Sampling Method
 
(m)
 
1912
  1,400 
  18.4 
 
>20.0
 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1920
  915 
  22.7 
  1.0 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1908
  490 
  20.0 
  1.6 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1907
  688 
  14.7 
  3.3 
UG1
chip channel
  0.6m
1918
  405 
  21.6 
  0.4 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1906
  432 
  15.9 
  1.8 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1911
  583 
  8.4 
  7.0 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1919
  732 
  7.8 
  0.3 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1909
  682 
  6.1 
  0.8 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1910
  261 
  11.8 
  0.7 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1921
  161 
  8.4 
  1.6 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1917
  291 
  6.8 
  0.4 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1916
  101 
  9.9 
  0.3 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1915
  67 
  5.0 
  0.3 
UG1
chip channel
  1.3m
1922
  54 
  2.9 
  0.1 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1913
  62 
  1.6 
  0.5 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1914
  39 
  0.3 
  0.1 
UG1
chip channel
  1m
1905
  392 
  23.0 
  12.0 
AVS
chip channel
  1m
1904
  284 
  17.6 
  6.6 
AVS
chip channel
  1m
1901
  250 
  6.3 
  6.2 
AVS
chip channel
  1m
1903
  96 
  7.7 
  2.7 
AVS
chip channel
  1.5m
1902
  17 
  5.7 
  0.5 
AVS
chip channel
  1m
 
The samples including QA/QC samples, were delivered to ALS Bolivia Ltda. located in Oruro, Bolivia for preparation after which splits were sent the ALS laboratory located in Lima, Peru (we refer to both locations collectively as “ALS”). ALS is an independent laboratory and was qualified and retains current accreditation by the ICONTEC and the Standards Council of Canada for the methods used during the time the samples were prepared and assayed. Normal QA/QC procedures were followed when handling and processing the samples as described in the Company’s Sample Procedures, QA/QC for Sampling manual (QA/QC manual), National Instrument 43-101 Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects, and the Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers Exploration Best Practices Guidelines. These procedures included use of a chain of custody to document possession, delivery and security of the samples from the Company to the laboratory and secure storage until transported. The laboratory was assessed to ensure it has the technical qualifications for preparation and assay of the type of sample and range in mineral content, follows proper procedures to ensure correct sample identification and security, and maintains confidentiality of assay results. Quality control materials including a blank and certified reference materials were included with the sample group for assay. Duplicate assays were also performed. The quality control material assay results were found within acceptable limits of the known values and the duplicate assay results were within acceptable limits supporting acceptance of the assay results of the samples. Access to the analytical results was restricted to the chief executive officer, chief geologist, vice president of operations, and general mining manager. The information was verified by Christopher M. Kravits CPG, LPG, the Company’s “Qualified Person” and Chief Geologist, through discussion with relevant parties, review of documents and comparison to known values. There were no limitations on verification. Mr. Kravits has reviewed and approved the data and records supporting the above statements.
 
 
59
 
 
Geologic mapping and sampling at 233 locations was completed in the historic Paca mine drifts. The area is within the boundary of the Paca deposit resource estimate disclosed in the Paca Technical Report but was not included in the block model used to estimate resources. Because of a backlog at the assay laboratory the Company prioritized the most prospective 40 samples for assay. Thus, the assayed samples are not representative of the sample population. These results, shown in the table below, are taken from the first group of samples the Company delivered. Samples were obtained by continuous chip channel sampling across the width of the vein mineralization at locations one meter apart.

Summary of Paca Mine Drift Sample Assay Results
 
   
 
Ag (g/t)
 
 
 
 
 
Zn (%)
 
 
 
 
 
Pb (%)
 
 
 
 
 
Ag Eq (g/t)
 
 
 
 
 
 Number of Samples
 
 
Min
 
 
Max
 
 
Avg
 
 
Min
 
 
Max
 
 
Avg
 
 
Min
 
 
Max
 
 
Avg
 
 
Min
 
 
Max
 
 
Avg
 
    40 
    15.0 
    1500.0 
    331.2 
    0.1 
    2.5 
    6.0 
    0.5 
    6.7 
    1.9 
    45.7 
    1617.0 
    407.3 
 
Silver assays include one sample assayed at >1500 g/t and used as 1500 g/t in the summary table. Silver equivalent (AgEq.) calculations are based on the following closing prices as of August 9, 2016: USD$19.79/oz. for Ag, USD$1.03/lb. for Zn and USD$0.81/lb. for Pb (London Metals Exchange spot prices). Metal recoveries are assumed to be 100%.
 
Silver equivalent (Ag Eq.) calculations were based on the following closing prices as of August 9, 2016: USD$19.79/oz. for Ag, USD$1.03/lb. for Zn and USD$0.81/lb. for Pb (London Metals Exchange spot prices). Metal recoveries were assumed to be 100%.
 
The samples were delivered to ALS Geochemistry Laboratory in Oruro, Bolivia (which we sometimes refer to as “ALS Bolivia”) for assay and included QA/QC samples. Standard reference, duplicate and blank samples were used – all of which, produced acceptable results. ALS Bolivia is an independent laboratory and was qualified and accredited by the ICONTEC and the Standards Council of Canada for the methods used during the time the samples were prepared and assayed. Records were maintained to document the secure handling of the samples and to verify their identities were maintained.
 
Legacy Financial Obligations
As part of the transaction with Apogee, we agreed to assume, within certain limitations, all liabilities associated with the Apogee Subsidiaries and the Pulacayo Project. During 2014, Apogee received notice from the national tax authority in Bolivia alleging that its wholly owned subsidiary ASC owes approximately Bs42,000,000 (equaling in an amount originally assessed at approximately $7,600,000 in 2004) of taxes, interest and penalties relating to a historical tax liability. The Company continued to dispute the assessment and hired local legal counsel to pursue an appeal of the tax authority’s assessment on both substantive and procedural grounds. On May 26, 2015, the Company received a positive “resolution” issued by the Bolivian Constitutional Court that declared null and void the previous resolution of the Bolivian Supreme Court issued in 2011 and sent the matter back to the Supreme Court to consider and issue a new resolution.
 
On December 4, 2019, the Company received the 2019 Resolution issued by the Supreme Court of Bolivia which declares that the contentious tax claim of US$ 6,556,787 brought by Bolivia’s General Revenue Authority against the Company’s Bolivian subsidiary is not proven.
 
Concessions
 
Concession relinquishments were concluded in early 2016. The project is now comprised of two groups of contiguous mining concessions. The largest group is centered over the town of Pulacayo and includes the extent of the Pulacayo deposit, several potential mineralized areas and tailings piles. The smaller group is centered over the Paca deposit and includes potential mineralized areas and several tailings piles. Both groups of concessions include area for future surface facilities. The groups of concessions are located approximately 2 kilometers apart. The relinquishments reduced the total gross concession holdings to 3,560 ha. The figure below shows the resulting concession holdings of the Company.
 
 
60
 
 
 
 
Recent Activities & Updates
 
2017
 
Work during fiscal year 2017 included updating of mining scenarios and budgets, negotiations to resolve the legacy financial obligations, and deliberations to obtain permission to restart the mine. The Company has worked with government officials to obtain assurances that our investments in exploring and mining at the Pulacayo Project are safe. Such efforts included a meeting with the Bolivian government’s mining minister and other mine operators, a meeting with the minister at the Embassy of Canada and assistance in coordinating and preparing for his participation in the 2017 Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) convention.
 
 
61
 
 
2018
 
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company determined there were several indicators of potential impairment of the carrying value of the Pulacayo Paca property including change in the Company primary focus to Gibellini Project. While management believes that Pulacayo Project is a property of merit and warrants continued development, a write down in accordance with IFRS 6 Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources and IAS 36, Impairment of Assets of $13,708,200 of previously capitalized deferred exploration costs to $nil and an impairment charge of $335,181 on the Pulacayo mining equipment has been recognized. This non-cash accounting charge does not impact the Company’s financial liquidity, or any future operations and management believes the adjustment to the book value of this long-lived asset more accurately reflects the Company’s current market capitalization.
 
2019
 
In September 2019 the Company started 5,000-meter diamond drilling at Pulacayo which include Phase 1 and Phase 2 Drilling programs as follows.
 
Phase 1 Drilling
 
To be comprised of surface drilling to expand the NI43-101 compliant Paca resource (see Company’s news release dated November 22, 2017) in the northern and eastern directions where previous drill holes encountered high grade surface intercepts, including PND-062, which included 42 meters of 406 g/t Ag located on the edge of the resource envelope. The Company will also evaluate upgrading the Paca resource from an Inferred category to Measured and Indicated categories through infill drilling. Some of the high grade zone extensions being explored are shown below:
 
hole Nº
from - to (m)
 
int (m)
 
 
Ag (g/t)
 
 
Pb (%)
 
 
Zn %
 
PND008
  18.0 – 33.5 
  15.5 
  314 
  1.0 
  0.4 
PND029
  12.0 – 22.3 
  10.3 
  436 
  0.0 
  0.0 
PND062
  10.0 – 52.0 
  42.0 
  406 
  0.8 
  0.1 
ESM2
  0.0 – 38.0 
  38.0 
  411 
  1.4 
  1.2 
 
Phase 2 Drilling
 
Phase 2 Pulacayo surface drilling is scheduled to commence in November, 2019. The plan is to expand the Pulacayo resource base along strike from 1km to 3km and at depth from 300m to 600m. There will also be infill drilling to confirm the geological model and test continuity of shallow high grade indicated resource blocks that are near the San Leon tunnel and accessible through the existing adit. Some of the high grade zone extensions being explored are shown below:
 
hole Nº
from - to (m)
 
int (m)
 
 
Ag (g/t)
 
 
Pb (%)
 
 
Zn %
 
 
Distance from adit (m)
 
PUD005
  96.2 – 108.0 
  11.9 
  689 
  1.9 
  1.4 
  -67.5 
PUD007
  70.0 – 96.8 
  26.8 
  517 
  2.3 
  4.2 
  -44.5 
PUD057
  374.0 – 378.0 
  4.0 
  1,184 
  0.8 
  2.3 
  -137.5 
PUD069
  281.0 – 294.0 
  13.0 
  624 
  2.1 
  4.2 
  -46.0 
PUD109
  293.6 – 298.4 
  4.8 
  3,607 
  3.8 
  4.1 
  -30.4 
PUD118
  174.0 – 184.0 
  10.0