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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________________________ 
(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from_____ to _____            
Commission File Number: 001-38902
____________________________________________ 
UBER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________ 
Delaware
45-2647441
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1455 Market Street, 4th Floor
San Francisco, California 94103
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(415612-8582
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 ____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
 
UBER
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 28, 2019, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $59.7 billion based upon the closing price reported for such date on the New York Stock Exchange.
The number of shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding as of February 19, 2020 was 1,723,775,076.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.



UBER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Pages
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
Item 16.
 
 

1


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “hope,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
our ability to successfully compete in highly competitive markets;
our ability to effectively manage our growth and maintain and improve our corporate culture;
our expectations regarding financial performance, including but not limited to revenue, Adjusted Net Revenue, potential profitability and the timing thereof, ability to generate positive Adjusted EBITDA, expenses, and other results of operations;
our expectations regarding future operating performance, including but not limited to our expectations regarding future Monthly Active Platform Consumers ("MAPCs"), Trips, Gross Bookings, and Take Rate;
our expectations regarding our competitors’ use of incentives and promotions, our competitors’ ability to raise capital, and the effects of such incentives and promotions on our growth and results of operations;
our anticipated investments in new products and offerings, and the effect of these investments on our results of operations;
our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
our ability to close and integrate acquisitions into our operations;
anticipated technology trends and developments and our ability to address those trends and developments with our products and offerings;
the size of our addressable markets, market share, category positions, and market trends, including our ability to grow our business in the six countries we have identified as near-term priorities;
the safety, affordability, and convenience of our platform and our offerings;
our ability to identify, recruit, and retain skilled personnel, including key members of senior management;
our expected growth in the number of platform users, and our ability to promote our brand and attract and retain platform users;
our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property rights;
our ability to introduce new products and offerings and enhance existing products and offerings;
our ability to successfully enter into new geographies, expand our presence in countries in which we are limited by regulatory restrictions, and manage our international expansion;
our ability to successfully renew licenses to operate our business in certain jurisdictions;
the availability of capital to grow our business;
our ability to meet the requirements of our existing debt;
our ability to prevent disturbance to our information technology systems;
our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us;
our ability to comply with existing, modified, or new laws and regulations applying to our business; and
our ability to implement, maintain, and improve our internal control over financial reporting.
Actual events or results may differ from those expressed in forward-looking statements. As such, you should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, operating results, prospects, strategy, and financial needs. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Moreover, we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

2


In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. While we believe that such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K speak only as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to reflect new information, actual results, revised expectations, or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

3


PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
We are a technology platform that uses a massive network, leading technology, operational excellence and product expertise to power movement from point A to point B. We develop and operate proprietary technology applications supporting a variety of offerings on our platform (“platform(s)” or “Platform(s)”). We connect consumers (“Rider(s)”) with independent providers of ride services (“Rides Driver(s)”) for ridesharing services, and connect consumers (“Eater(s)”) with restaurants (“Restaurant(s)”) and food delivery service providers (“Delivery People”) for meal preparation and delivery services. Riders and Eaters are collectively referred to as “end-user(s)” or “consumer(s).” Rides Drivers and Delivery People are collectively referred to as “Driver(s)”. We also connect consumers with public transportation networks, e-bikes, e-scooters and other personal mobility options. We use this same network, technology, operational excellence and product expertise to connect shippers with carriers in the freight industry. We are also developing technologies that will provide autonomous driving vehicle solutions to consumers, networks of vertical take-off and landing vehicles and new solutions to solve everyday problems.
Our technology is available in 69 countries around the world, principally in the United States (“U.S.”) and Canada, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia (excluding China and Southeast Asia).
Our Segments
We have five operating and reportable segments: Rides, Eats, Freight, Other Bets, and Advanced Technologies Group (“ATG”) and Other Technology Programs. Rides, Eats, Freight and Other Bets platform offerings each address large, fragmented markets. ATG and Other Technology Programs is focused on the development and commercialization of autonomous vehicle and ridesharing technologies, as well as Uber Elevate.
Rides
Rides refers to products that connect consumers with Rides Drivers who provide rides in a variety of vehicles, such as cars, auto rickshaws, motorbikes, minibuses, or taxis. Rides also includes activity related to our Uber for Business (“U4B”), Financial Partnerships, and Vehicle Solutions offerings.
We believe that our ridesharing category position is a key indicator of our progress towards our massive market opportunity. We calculate our ridesharing category position based on the best available data within a given region. For example, in most cases we divide our Rides Gross Bookings by our estimates of total ridesharing Gross Bookings generated by us and other companies with similar ridesharing products. We estimate our total ridesharing Gross Bookings in a given region by utilizing internal source data, including historical trip, bookings, product mix, and fare information, and external source data provided by publicly available information and marketing analytics firms. Based on these estimates, we believe we have a leading ridesharing category position in every major region of the world where we operate. We also participate in certain regions through our minority-owned affiliates. At the time of entering into such transactions, we believed based on our internal estimates using the information then available to us that each of Didi, Grab, and Yandex.Taxi, on a pro forma basis, had the leading ridesharing category position in its respective market.
Eats
Our Eats offering allows consumers to search for and discover local restaurants, order a meal, and either pick-up at the restaurant or have the meal delivered. We launched our Eats app over four years ago. We believe that Eats not only leverages, but also increases, the supply of Drivers on our network. For example, Eats enables Rides Drivers to increase their utilization and earnings by accessing additional demand for trips during non-peak Rides times. Eats also expands the pool of Drivers by enabling people who are not Rides Drivers or who do not have access to Rides-qualified vehicles to deliver meals on our platform. In addition to benefiting Drivers and consumers, Eats provides Restaurants with an instant mobile presence and efficient delivery capability, which we believe generates incremental demand and improves margins for Restaurants by enabling them to serve more consumers without increasing their existing front-of-house expenses. In October 2019, we announced a majority investment in Cornershop, a leading provider of online grocery delivery in Mexico and Chile. The transaction is expected to close in the second quarter of 2020, subject to regulatory approval.
Freight
We believe that Freight is revolutionizing the logistics industry. Freight leverages our proprietary technology, brand awareness, and experience revolutionizing industries to connect carriers with shippers on our platform, and gives carriers upfront, transparent pricing and the ability to book a shipment. The freight industry today is highly fragmented and deeply inefficient. It can take several hours, sometimes days, for shippers to find a truck and driver for shipments, with most of the process conducted over the phone or by fax. Procurement is highly fragmented, with traditional players relying on local or regional offices to book shipments. It is equally difficult for carriers to find and book the shipments that work for their businesses, spending hours on the phone negotiating pricing and terms. These inefficiencies adversely impact both shippers and carriers, and contribute to the number of non-revenue or “dead-head” miles, which are miles driven by carriers between shipments. Freight greatly reduces friction in the logistics industry by providing an on-demand

4


platform to automate and accelerate logistics transactions end-to-end. Freight connects carriers with shippers available on our platform, and gives carriers upfront, transparent pricing and the ability to book a shipment with the touch of a button.
We serve shippers ranging from small- and medium-sized businesses to global enterprises by enabling them to create and tender shipments with a few clicks, secure capacity on demand with upfront pricing, and track those shipments in real-time from pickup to delivery. We believe that all of these factors represent significant efficiency improvements over traditional freight brokerage providers.
In March 2019, we announced the expansion of our Freight offering into Europe. Although Europe’s freight market is one of the largest and most sophisticated in the world, we believe that European shippers and carriers experience many of the same pain points in their current operations as U.S. shippers and carriers.
Other Bets
The Other Bets segment consists of multiple investment stage offerings. The largest investment within the segment is our New Mobility offering that refers to products that provide consumers with access to rides through a variety of modes, including dockless e-bikes and e-scooters (“New Mobility”). New Mobility also includes Transit, UberWorks and our Platform Incubator group, which is responsible for innovating new services and use cases on our platform to drive long-term growth and cross-platform customer engagement.
We are investing in new modes of transportation that enable us to address a wider range of consumer use cases and represent a significant opportunity to bring additional trips onto our platform. We believe that dockless e-bikes and e-scooters address many of these use cases and will replace a portion of these vehicle trips over time, particularly in urban environments that suffer from substantial traffic during peak commuting hours.
ATG and Other Technology Programs
The ATG and Other Technology Programs segment is primarily responsible for the development and commercialization of autonomous vehicle and ridesharing technologies, as well as Uber Elevate.
ATG focuses on developing autonomous vehicle technologies, which we believe have the long-term potential to provide safer and more efficient rides and deliveries to consumers, as well as lower prices. Along the way to a potential future autonomous vehicle world, we believe that there will be a long period of hybrid autonomy, in which autonomous vehicles will be deployed gradually against specific use cases while Drivers continue to serve most consumer demand. As we solve specific autonomous use cases, we will deploy autonomous vehicles against them. Such situations may include trips along a standard, well-mapped route in a predictable environment in good weather. In other situations, such as those that involve substantial traffic, complex routes, or unusual weather conditions, we will continue to rely on Drivers. Accordingly, we believe that we will be uniquely suited for this dynamic phase during the expected long hybrid period of co-existence of Drivers and autonomous vehicles. Drivers are therefore a critical and differentiating advantage for us and will continue to be an advantage in the long term. We plan to continue to partner with original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), other suppliers, such as Toyota and DENSO, and other technology companies to determine how to most effectively leverage our network during the transition to autonomous vehicle technologies.
Platform Synergies
Our Platform
The foundation of our platform is our massive network, leading technology, operational excellence, and product expertise. Together, these elements power movement from point A to point B.
Massive Network
 
Our massive, efficient, and intelligent network consists of tens of millions of Drivers, consumers, Restaurants, shippers, carriers, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, as well as underlying data, technology, and shared infrastructure. Our network becomes smarter with every trip. In approximately 10,000 cities around the world (as of January 1, 2020), our network powers movement at the touch of a button for millions, and we hope eventually billions, of people.
 
 
 
Leading Technology
 
We have built proprietary marketplace, routing, and payments technologies. Marketplace technologies are the core of our deep technology advantage and include demand prediction, matching and dispatching, and pricing technologies. Our technologies make it extremely efficient to launch new businesses and operationalize existing ones.
 
 
 
Operational Excellence
 
Our regional on-the-ground operations teams use their extensive market-specific knowledge to rapidly launch and scale products in cities, support Drivers, consumers, Restaurants, shippers, and carriers, and build and enhance relationships with cities and regulators.
 
 
 
Product Expertise
 
Our products are built with the expertise that allows us to set the standard for powering movement on-demand, provide platform users with a contextual, intuitive interface, continually evolve features and functionality, and deliver safety and trust.
We intend to continue to invest in new platform offerings that we believe will further strengthen our platform and existing offerings.

5


We believe that all of these synergies serve the customer experience, enabling us to attract new platform users and to deepen engagement with existing platform users. Both of these dynamics grow our network scale and liquidity, which further increases the value of our platform to platform users. For example, Eats attracts new consumers to our network—for the three months ended December 31, 2019, over 45% of first-time Eats consumers were new to our platform. Additionally, for the three months ended December 31, 2019, consumers who used both Rides and Eats had 15.9 Trips per month on average, compared to 5.7 Trips per month on average for consumers who used a single offering in cities where both Rides and Eats were offered. We believe that these trends will continue as we further expand Eats from approximately 6,000 cities into additional cities where we already offer Rides. Our city counts are as of January 1, 2020.
With our platform, we are making it even easier for our consumers to unlock convenience. We are working on developing a “Super App,” which will combine our multiple offerings into a single app and is designed to remove friction for our consumers, positioning Uber to become the operating system for your everyday life. We have already taken steps in this regard as we already have integrated the Eats App, as well as bikes and scooters into our Rides application. With Uber Rewards, we are developing programs to take care of our best consumers for the long term, while helping them get the most out of our platform. Our subscription programs are designed to make utilizing our suite of products a seamless and rewarding experience for our consumers.
Competitive Environment
We compete on a global basis in highly fragmented markets. We face significant competition in each of the ridesharing, meal delivery, and freight industries globally from existing, well-established, and low-cost alternatives, and in the future we expect to face competition from new market entrants given the low barriers to entry that characterize these industries. As we and our competitors introduce new products and offerings, and as existing products evolve, we expect to become subject to additional competition. While we work to expand globally and introduce new products and offerings across a range of industries, many of our competitors remain focused on a limited number of products or on a narrow geographic scope, allowing them to develop specialized expertise and employ resources in a more targeted manner than we do. The competition we face in each of our offerings includes:
Rides. Our Rides offering competes with personal vehicle ownership and usage, which accounts for the majority of passenger miles in the markets that we serve, and traditional transportation services, including taxicab companies and taxi-hailing services, and livery services. In addition, public transportation can be a superior substitute to our Rides offering and in many cases, offers a faster and lower-cost travel option in many cities. We also compete with other ridesharing companies, including certain of our minority-owned affiliates, for drivers and riders, including Lyft, OLA, Didi, Taxify, and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture.
Eats. Our Eats offering competes with numerous companies in the meal delivery space in various regions for drivers, consumers, and restaurants, including GrubHub, DoorDash, Deliveroo, Postmates, Delivery Hero, Just Eat, Takeaway.com, and Amazon. Our Eats offering also competes with restaurants, meal kit delivery services, grocery delivery services, and traditional grocers.
Freight. Our Freight offering competes with global and North American freight brokers such as C.H. Robinson, Total Quality Logistics, XPO Logistics, Convoy, Echo Global Logistics, Coyote, Transfix, DHL, and NEXT Trucking.
Other Bets. Our Other Bets segment products compete for riders in the bike and scooter space, including Motivate (an affiliate of Lyft), Lime, Bird, and Skip.
ATG and Other Technology Programs. Our ATG and Other Technology Programs segment competes with OEMs and other technology companies in the development of autonomous vehicle technologies and the deployment of autonomous vehicles, including Waymo, Cruise Automation, Tesla, Apple, Zoox, Aptiv, Aurora, and Nuro.
Government Regulation
We operate in a particularly complex legal and regulatory environment. Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, and regulations, including those related to Internet activities, privacy, data protection, intellectual property, competition, consumer protection, payments, transportation services, transportation network companies, licensing regulations and taxation. These laws and regulations are constantly evolving and may be interpreted, applied, created, or amended, in a manner that could harm our business. Examples of certain laws and regulations we are subject to are described below.
Rides and Other Bets
Our platform, and in particular our Rides products, are subject to differing, and sometimes conflicting, laws, rules, and regulations in the numerous jurisdictions in which we operate. A large number of proposals are before various national, regional, and local legislative bodies and regulatory entities, both within the United States and in foreign jurisdictions, regarding issues related to our business model.
In the United States, many state and local laws, rules, and regulations impose legal restrictions and other requirements on operating our Rides products, including licensing, insurance, screening, and background check requirements. Outside of the United States, certain jurisdictions have adopted similar laws, rules, and regulations while other jurisdictions have not adopted any laws, rules, and regulations which govern our Rides business. Further, certain jurisdictions, including Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain, the six countries that we have identified as near-term priorities, have adopted laws, rules, and regulations banning certain ridesharing products

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or imposing extensive operational restrictions. This uncertainty and fragmented regulatory environment creates significant complexities for our business and operating model.
Substantially all states in the United States and numerous municipalities in the United States and around the world have adopted Transportation Network Company (“TNC”) regulations. These regulations generally focus on companies that operate websites or mobile apps that connect individual drivers with their own vehicles to passengers willing to pay to be driven to their destinations. These regulations often require TNCs to comply with rules regarding, among other things, background checks, vehicle inspections, accessible vehicles, driver and consumer safety, insurance, driver training, driver conduct, and other similar matters.
In addition, many jurisdictions have municipal bodies that adopted and will adopt regulations that govern our business. For example:
In London, Transport for London (“TfL”) denied our application for a new license on November 25, 2019. Rides Drivers who use Uber in London are licensed by TfL and as part of the licensing process undertake the same enhanced background checks as black cab drivers. We are continuing to operate in London, while we have appealed this decision and expect a hearing in Westminster Magistrates Court in mid-2020.
In January 2019, we suspended our Rides products in Barcelona after the regional government enacted regulations mandating minimum wait times before riders could be picked up by ridesharing drivers.
In addition, in August 2018, New York City approved regulations for the local for-hire market (which includes our Ridesharing products), including a cap on the number of new vehicle licenses issued to drivers who offer for-hire services. In December 2018, New York City also established a standard for time and distance designed to target minimum hourly earnings for drivers providing for-hire services in New York City and surrounding areas. These minimum rates took effect in February 2019, and the regulator will update them periodically. We continue to work through adjustments with respect to rider promotions, driver supply, and other aspects of our business in response to these regulations; however, these regulations had a negative impact on our financial performance in New York City throughout 2019 and may have a similar adverse impact in the future. In August 2019, New York City issued a regulation to limit how much time drivers providing ride-hailing services can spend cruising streets in busy areas of Manhattan without passengers. In December 2019, a New York state judge struck down this regulation, which was to come into effect in February 2020. New York City is appealing this ruling. Additionally, in November 2019, a ballot measure to impose a surcharge on ridesharing trips in San Francisco was approved by voters in San Francisco. This surcharge took effect on January 1, 2020.
In December 2017, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) ruled in the Elite referral case that the peer-to-peer Ridesharing service UberPOP was inherently linked to a transport service and, accordingly, must be classified as “a service in the field of transport” within the meaning of applicable European Union (“EU”) legislation rather than an information society service. This ruling requires us to comply with national laws, rules, and regulations, if any, governing transport services in respect of the specific UberPOP product. The majority of our Ridesharing products in the EU currently operate under licensing regimes where one or more of Drivers, vehicles, or we are required to register or hold licenses to provide services. As such, while Member States can decide how to interpret this CJEU ruling in their national laws, rules, and regulations in accordance with applicable EU law, we believe the ruling will have a limited impact on our business and operations.
In 2015, German authorities banned our peer-to-peer ridesharing product, UberPOP, after a court ruled that it violated local applicable laws, including transport laws, by intermediating riders with drivers operating without professional licenses.
In Italy, while we currently have limited ridesharing operations through our licensed ridesharing product, UberBLACK, in Rome and Milan and a taxi product in Turin, we continue to face limitations due to extensive operational requirements faced by licensed drivers.
In addition to the foregoing, many jurisdictions have adopted regulations that apply to how we classify the Drivers who use our platform. For example, in California, State Assembly Bill 5 (“AB5”), which went into effect in January 2020, codifies a test to determine whether a worker is an employee under California law. AB5 provides a mechanism for determining whether workers of a hiring entity are employees or independent contractors, but AB5 does not result in any immediate change in how workers are classified. If the State of California, cities or municipalities, or workers disagree with how a hiring entity classifies workers, AB5 sets forth the test for evaluating their classification. As we explore legal options, we have received and expect to continue to receive claims by or on behalf of Drivers that claim that the Drivers have been misclassified, and should be classified as employees. See the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A and “Note 15 - Commitments and Contingencies” to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
For example, we are currently appealing the loss of our license to operate in London. See the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for more information. This uncertainty and fragmented regulatory environment creates significant complexities for our business and operating model.
As we continue to expand our offerings, we may be subject to additional regulations separate from those that apply to our Rides products, such as regulations related to our dockless e-bike and e-scooter and other products in our Other Bets segment.

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ATG and Other Technology Programs
There are no federal U.S. laws expressly regulating the safety of autonomous vehicles or systems; however, various federal agencies, including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, have established guidelines regarding the development of automated driving systems. The U.S. Congress has passed and may continue to consider legislation relating to the regulation of autonomous vehicle testing or general deployment. Certain U.S. states and localities have imposed legal restrictions or other requirements on the testing or general deployment of autonomous vehicles, and many other states are considering them. Autonomous vehicle laws, rules, and regulations are expected to continue to evolve in numerous jurisdictions in the United States and in foreign countries and may impose restrictions on our ability to develop, test and commercially deploy autonomous vehicles on our network.
Data Protection and Privacy
Our technology platform, and the user data it collects and processes to run our business, are an integral part of our business model and, as a result, our compliance with laws dealing with the collection and processing of personal data is core to our strategy to improve platform user experience and build trust. Regulators around the world have adopted or proposed requirements regarding the collection, use, transfer, security, storage, destruction, and other processing of personally identifiable information and other data relating to individuals, and these laws are increasing in number, enforcement, fines, and other penalties. Two examples of such regulations that have significant implications for our platform are the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”), a data privacy security law which went into effect in May 2018 and implemented more stringent requirements for processing personal data relating to individuals in the EU, and the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which went into effect in January 2020 and established new consumer rights and data privacy and security requirements for covered businesses.
Payments and Financial Services
Most jurisdictions in which we operate have laws that govern payment and financial services activities. For example, our subsidiary in the Netherlands, Uber Payments B.V., is registered and authorized as an electronic money institution in support of certain payment activities in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). Regulators in certain additional jurisdictions may determine that certain aspects of our business are subject to these laws and could require us to obtain licenses to continue to operate in such jurisdictions. In addition, laws related to money transmission and online payments are evolving, and changes in such laws could affect our ability to provide payment processing on our platform. We are continuing to evaluate our options for seeking further licenses and approvals in several other jurisdictions to optimize payment solutions and support future growth of our business.
Antitrust
Competition authorities closely scrutinize us under U.S. and foreign antitrust and competition laws. An increasing number of governments are enforcing competition laws and are doing so with increased scrutiny, including governments in large markets such as the EU, the United States, Brazil, and India, particularly surrounding issues of predatory pricing, price-fixing, and abuse of market power. In addition, governmental agencies and regulators may, among other things, prohibit future acquisitions, divestitures, or combinations we plan to make, impose significant fines or penalties, require divestiture of certain of our assets, or impose other restrictions that limit or require us to modify our operations, including limitations on our contractual relationships with platform users or restrictions on our pricing models.
Intellectual Property
We believe that our intellectual property is essential to our business and affords us a competitive advantage in the markets in which we operate. Our intellectual property includes the content of our website, mobile applications, registered domain names, software code, firmware, hardware and hardware designs, registered and unregistered trademarks, trademark applications, copyrights, trade secrets, inventions (whether or not patentable), patents, and patent applications.
To protect our intellectual property, we rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws, contractual provisions, end-user policies, and disclosure restrictions. Upon discovery of potential infringement of our intellectual property, we assess and when necessary, take action to protect our rights as appropriate. We also enter into confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and seek to control access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information in a commercially prudent manner.
Research and Development
Because the industries in which we compete are characterized by rapid technological advances, our ability to compete successfully depends heavily upon our ability to ensure a continual and timely flow of competitive new offerings and technologies, including: autonomous vehicle technologies, dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, as well as certain offerings and technologies related to Freight, and Uber Elevate. We continue to develop new technologies to enhance existing offerings and services, and to expand the range of our offerings through research and development (“R&D”) and acquisition of third-party businesses and technology.

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Seasonality
Rides
We typically generate higher revenue in our fourth quarter compared to other quarters due in part to fourth-quarter holiday and business demand, and typically generate lower revenue in our third quarter compared to other quarters due in part to less usage of our platform during peak vacation season in certain cities, such as Paris. We have typically experienced lower quarter-over-quarter growth in Rides in the first quarter.
Eats
We expect to experience seasonal increases in our revenue in the first and fourth quarters compared to the second and third quarters, although the historical growth of Eats has masked these seasonal fluctuations.
Employees
As of December 31, 2019, we and our subsidiaries had approximately 26,900 employees.
Additional Information
We were founded in 2009 and incorporated as Ubercab, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in July 2010. In February 2011, we changed our name to Uber Technologies, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 1455 Market Street, 4th Floor, San Francisco, California 94103, and our telephone number is (415) 612-8582.
Our website address is www.uber.com and our investor relations website is located at https://investor.uber.com. The information posted on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”) are also available free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
We webcast our earnings calls and certain events we participate in or host with members of the investment community on our investor relations website. Additionally, we provide notifications of news or announcements regarding our financial performance, including SEC filings, investor events, press and earnings releases, as part of our investor relations website. The contents of these websites are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this report or in any other report or document we file.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Certain factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the sections titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects and could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
Risks Related to Our Business
The personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries are highly competitive, with well-established and low-cost alternatives that have been available for decades, low barriers to entry, low switching costs, and well-capitalized competitors in nearly every major geographic region. If we are unable to compete effectively in these industries, our business and financial prospects would be adversely impacted.
Our platform provides offerings in the personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries. We compete on a global basis, and the markets in which we compete are highly fragmented. We face significant competition in each of the personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries globally from existing, well-established, and low-cost alternatives, and in the future we expect to face competition from new market entrants given the low barriers to entry that characterize these industries. In addition, within each of these markets, the cost to switch between products is low. Consumers have a propensity to shift to the lowest-cost or highest-quality provider; Drivers have a propensity to shift to the platform with the highest earnings potential; restaurants have a propensity to shift to the delivery platform that offers the lowest service fee for their meals and provides the highest volume of orders; and shippers and carriers have a propensity to shift to the platform with the best price and most convenient service for hauling shipments.
Further, while we work to expand globally and introduce new products and offerings across a range of industries, many of our competitors remain focused on a limited number of products or on a narrow geographic scope, allowing them to develop specialized expertise and employ resources in a more targeted manner than we do. As we and our competitors introduce new products and offerings, and as existing products evolve, we expect to become subject to additional competition. In addition, our competitors may adopt certain

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of our product features, or may adopt innovations that Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers value more highly than ours, which would render our products less attractive or reduce our ability to differentiate our products. Increased competition could result in, among other things, a reduction of the revenue we generate from the use of our platform, the number of platform users, the frequency of use of our platform, and our margins.
We face competition in each of our offerings, including:
Rides. Our Rides offering competes with personal vehicle ownership and usage, which accounts for the majority of passenger miles in the markets that we serve, and traditional transportation services, including taxicab companies and taxi-hailing services, and livery services. In addition, public transportation can be a superior substitute to our Rides offering and in many cases, offers a faster and lower-cost travel option in many cities. We also compete with other ridesharing companies, including certain of our minority-owned affiliates, for Drivers and riders, including Lyft, OLA, Didi, Taxify, and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture.
Eats: Our Eats offering competes with numerous companies in the meal delivery space in various regions for Drivers, consumers, and restaurants, including GrubHub, DoorDash, Deliveroo, Postmates, Delivery Hero, Just Eat, Takeaway.com, and Amazon. Our Eats offering also competes with restaurants, including those that offer their own delivery and/or take-away, meal kit delivery services, grocery delivery services, and traditional grocers.
Freight: Our Freight offering competes with global and North American freight brokers such as C.H. Robinson, Total Quality Logistics, XPO Logistics, Convoy, Echo Global Logistics, Coyote, Transfix, DHL, and NEXT Trucking, among others.
Other Bets. Our New Mobility offering, included in our Other Bets segment, competes for riders in the bike and scooter space, including Motivate (an affiliate of Lyft), Lime, Bird, and Skip.
ATG and Other Technology Programs. Our ATG and Other Technology Programs segment competes with OEMs and other technology companies in the development of autonomous vehicle technologies and the deployment of autonomous vehicles, including Waymo, Cruise Automation, Tesla, Apple, Zoox, Aptiv, Aurora, and Nuro.
Many of our competitors are well-capitalized and offer discounted services, Driver incentives, consumer discounts and promotions, innovative products and offerings, and alternative pricing models, which may be more attractive to consumers than those that we offer. Further, some of our current or potential competitors have, and may in the future continue to have, greater resources and access to larger Driver, consumer, restaurant, shipper, or carrier bases in a particular geographic market. In addition, our competitors in certain geographic markets enjoy substantial competitive advantages such as greater brand recognition, longer operating histories, larger marketing budgets, better localized knowledge, and more supportive regulatory regimes. As a result, such competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than us in such markets to new or changing opportunities, technologies, consumer preferences, regulations, or standards, which may render our products or offerings less attractive. In addition, future competitors may share in the effective benefit of any regulatory or governmental approvals and litigation victories we may achieve, without having to incur the costs we have incurred to obtain such benefits.
We are contractually restricted from competing with our minority-owned affiliates with respect to certain aspects of our business, including in China through August 2023, Russia/CIS through February 2025, Southeast Asia through the later of March 2023 or one year after we dispose of all interests in Grab, and India with respect to meal delivery through January 2023, while none of our minority-owned affiliates are restricted from competing with us anywhere in the world. Didi currently competes with us in certain countries in Latin America and in Australia, and in 2018 made significant investments to gain or maintain category position in certain markets in Latin America. In addition, our Yandex.Taxi joint venture currently competes with us in certain countries in Europe and Africa. As Didi and our other minority-owned affiliates continue to expand their businesses, they may in the future compete with us in additional geographic markets.
Additionally, although we have closed our acquisition of Careem as to most countries in January 2020, we may not ultimately consummate the transaction in countries where antitrust approval has not yet been granted. Further, we may be required in some or all of such countries where antitrust approval has not yet been obtained to divest all or part of our or Careem’s operations. Any such divestiture could bring additional competition to these markets.
For all of these reasons, we may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors. Our inability to compete effectively would have an adverse effect on, or otherwise harm, our business, financial condition, and operating results.
To remain competitive in certain markets, we have in the past lowered, are currently lowering, and may continue to lower, fares or service fees, and we have in the past offered, and may continue to offer, significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions, which has adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our financial performance.
To remain competitive in certain markets and generate network scale and liquidity, we have in the past lowered, and expect in the future to continue to lower, fares or service fees, and we have offered and expect to continue to offer significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions. At times, in certain geographic markets, we have offered, and expect to continue to offer, Driver incentives that cause the total amount of the fare that a Driver retains, combined with the Driver incentives a Driver receives from us, to increase, at times meeting or exceeding the amount of Gross Bookings we generate for a given Trip. In certain geographic markets and

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regions, we do not have a leading category position, which may result in us choosing to further increase the amount of Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions that we offer in those geographic markets and regions. We cannot assure you that offering such Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions will be successful. Driver incentives, consumer discounts, promotions, and reductions in fares and our service fee have negatively affected, and will continue to negatively affect, our financial performance. Additionally, we rely on pricing models to calculate consumer fares and Driver earnings, which have been modified over time and will likely in the future be modified, and pricing models at times vary based upon jurisdiction. We cannot assure you that our pricing models or strategies will be successful in attracting consumers and Drivers. For example, recent changes we have made in California to the information that Drivers see in the application, as well as pricing and offer structure changes, have adversely impacted usage of the application. If we are unable to successfully manage these and similar kinds of changes in the future, our business may be adversely impacted.
The markets in which we compete have attracted significant investments from a wide range of funding sources, and we anticipate that many of our competitors will continue to be highly capitalized. Moreover, certain of our stockholders, including SoftBank (our largest stockholder), Alphabet, and Didi, have made substantial investments in certain of our competitors and may increase such investments, make new investments in other competitors, or enter into strategic transactions with competitors in the future. These investments or strategic transactions, along with other competitive advantages discussed above, may allow our competitors to compete more effectively against us and continue to lower their prices, offer Driver incentives or consumer discounts and promotions, or otherwise attract Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to their platform and away from ours. Such competitive pressures may lead us to maintain or lower fares or service fees or maintain or increase our Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions. Ridesharing and other categories in which we compete are nascent, and we cannot guarantee that they will stabilize at a competitive equilibrium that will allow us to achieve profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since inception, including in the United States and other major markets. We expect our operating expenses to increase significantly in the foreseeable future, and we may not achieve profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since inception. We incurred operating losses of $4.1 billion, $3.0 billion and $8.6 billion in the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, and as of December 31, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $16.4 billion. We will need to generate and sustain increased revenue levels and decrease proportionate expenses in future periods to achieve profitability in many of our largest markets, including in the United States, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability. We anticipate that we will continue to incur losses in the near term as a result of expected substantial increases in our operating expenses, as we continue to invest in order to: increase the number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers using our platform through incentives, discounts, and promotions; expand within existing or into new markets; increase our research and development expenses; invest in ATG and Other Technology Programs; expand marketing channels and operations; hire additional employees; and add new products and offerings to our platform. These efforts may prove more expensive than we anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these expenses. Many of our efforts to generate revenue are new and unproven, and any failure to adequately increase revenue or contain the related costs could prevent us from attaining or increasing profitability. In addition, we sometimes introduce new products, such as UberPOOL, that we expect to add value to our overall platform and network but which we expect will generate lower Gross Bookings per Trip or a lower Take Rate. Further, we charge a lower service fee to certain of our largest chain restaurant partners on our Eats offering to grow the number of Eats consumers, which may at times result in a negative take rate with respect to those transactions after considering amounts collected from consumers and paid to Drivers. As we expand our offerings to additional cities, our offerings in these cities may be less profitable than the markets in which we currently operate. As such, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability in the near term, in accordance with our expectations, or at all. Additionally, we may not realize the operating efficiencies we expect to achieve as a result of our acquisition of Careem and may continue to incur significant operating losses in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan in the future. Even if we do experience operating efficiencies, our operating results may not improve, at least in the near term.
Our business would be adversely affected if Drivers were classified as employees.
The classification of Drivers is currently being challenged in courts, by legislators and by government agencies in the United States and abroad. We are involved in numerous legal proceedings globally, including putative class and collective class action lawsuits, demands for arbitration, charges and claims before administrative agencies, and investigations or audits by labor, social security, and tax authorities that claim that Drivers should be treated as our employees (or as workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist), rather than as independent contractors. We believe that Drivers are independent contractors because, among other things, they can choose whether, when, and where to provide services on our platform, are free to provide services on our competitors’ platforms, and provide a vehicle to perform services on our platform. Nevertheless, we may not be successful in defending the classification of Drivers in some or all jurisdictions. Furthermore, the costs associated with defending, settling, or resolving pending and future lawsuits (including demands for arbitration) relating to the classification of Drivers could be material to our business. For example, in March 2019, we reached a preliminary settlement in the O’Connor, et al., v. Uber Technologies, Inc. and Yucesoy v. Uber Technologies, Inc., et al., class actions, pursuant to which we agreed to pay $20 million to Drivers who contracted with us in California and Massachusetts but with whom we have not entered into arbitration agreements, and who sought damages against us based on misclassification, among other claims. The settlement was approved by the court in September 2019.
In addition, more than 100,000 Drivers in the United States who have entered into arbitration agreements with us have filed (or

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expressed an intention to file) arbitration demands against us that assert similar classification claims. We have resolved the classification claims of a majority of these Drivers under individual settlement agreements. We anticipate the aggregate amount of payments to Drivers under these individual settlement agreements, together with attorneys’ fees, will fall within an approximate range of $149 million to $170 million, of which approximately $149 million has been paid as of December 31, 2019. Furthermore, we are involved in numerous legal proceedings regarding the enforceability of arbitration agreements entered into with Drivers. If we are not successful in such proceedings, this could negatively impact the enforceability of arbitration agreements in other legal proceedings, which could have an adverse consequence on our business and financial condition.
Changes to foreign, state, and local laws governing the definition or classification of independent contractors, or judicial decisions regarding independent contractor classification, could require classification of Drivers as employees (or workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist) and/or representation of Drivers by labor unions. For example, the California Supreme Court’s 2018 decision in Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v. Superior Court, which established a new standard for determining employee or independent contractor status in the context of California wage orders, was expanded and codified in California via Assembly Bill 5, which was signed into law in September 2019 and became effective as of January 1, 2020. Government authorities may, and private plaintiffs have brought litigation asserting that Assembly Bill 5 requires Drivers in California to be classified as employees. For example, a lawsuit filed in California (Colopy v. Uber Technologies, Inc.) references Assembly Bill 5, and the plaintiff filed a motion for preliminary injunction requesting the court to reclassify him and others similarly situated as employees. The preliminary injunction was denied, but the plaintiff also seeks a permanent injunction. If we do not prevail in current litigation or similar actions that may be brought in the future, we may be required to treat Drivers in California as employees or make other changes to our business model in California. Furthermore, a plaintiff in another jurisdiction has filed, and other parties may file, similar motions for injunctive relief and if we do not prevail, we may be required to make changes to our business model in such jurisdictions. In addition, if we are required to classify Drivers as employees, this may impact our current financial statement presentation including revenue, incentives and promotions as further described in our significant and critical accounting policies in the section titled “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” included in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Note 1 in the section titled “Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We cannot predict whether Assembly Bill 5, or legislation in other jurisdictions, may lead to similar legislation being enacted elsewhere. Although we have filed a ballot initiative in California with other companies to address Assembly Bill 5, we may be unsuccessful in our efforts and the measure may not pass. Other examples of recent judicial decisions relating to Driver classification include the Aslam, Farrar, Hoy and Mithu v. Uber B.V., et al. ruling by the Employment Appeal Tribunal in the United Kingdom that found that Drivers are workers (rather than self-employed) and a decision by the French Supreme Court that a driver for a third-party meal delivery service was under a “subordinate relationship” of the service, indicating an employment relationship. In Razak v. Uber Technologies, Inc., the Third Circuit Court of Appeals is reviewing misclassification claims by UberBLACK Drivers in Philadelphia following a summary judgment order in our favor at the district court level, and we expect a decision in the near term. If, as a result of legislation or judicial decisions, we are required to classify Drivers as employees (or as workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist), we would incur significant additional expenses for compensating Drivers, potentially including expenses associated with the application of wage and hour laws (including minimum wage, overtime, and meal and rest period requirements), employee benefits, social security contributions, taxes (direct and indirect), and penalties. Further, any such reclassification would require us to fundamentally change our business model, and consequently have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
If we are unable to attract or maintain a critical mass of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, whether as a result of competition or other factors, our platform will become less appealing to platform users, and our financial results would be adversely impacted.
Our success in a given geographic market significantly depends on our ability to maintain or increase our network scale and liquidity in that geographic market by attracting Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to our platform. If Drivers choose not to offer their services through our platform, or elect to offer them through a competitor’s platform, we may lack a sufficient supply of Drivers to attract consumers and restaurants to our platform. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience Driver supply constraints in most geographic markets in which we operate. To the extent that we experience Driver supply constraints in a given market, we may need to increase or may not be able to reduce the Driver incentives that we offer without adversely affecting the liquidity network effect that we experience in that market. Similarly, if carriers choose not to offer their services through our platform or elect to use other freight brokers, we may lack a sufficient supply of carriers in specific geographic markets to attract shippers to our platform. Furthermore, if restaurants choose to partner with other meal delivery services in a specific geographic market, or if restaurants choose to engage exclusively with our competitors, other restaurant marketing websites, or other delivery services, we may lack a sufficient variety and supply of restaurant options, or lack access to the most popular restaurants, such that our Eats offering will become less appealing to consumers and restaurants. A significant amount of our Eats Gross Bookings come from a limited number of large restaurant groups, and this concentration increases the risk of fluctuations in our operating results and our sensitivity to any material adverse developments experienced by our significant restaurant partners. If platform users choose to use other ridesharing, meal delivery, or logistics services, we may lack sufficient opportunities for Drivers to earn a fare, carriers to book a shipment, or restaurants to provide a meal, which may reduce the perceived utility of our platform. An insufficient supply of platform users would decrease our network liquidity and adversely affect our revenue and financial results. Although we may benefit from having larger network scale and liquidity than some competitors, those network effects may not result in competitive advantages or may be overcome by smaller competitors. Maintaining a balance between supply and demand for rides in any given area at any given time and our ability to execute operationally may be more important

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to service quality than the absolute size of the network. If our service quality diminishes or our competitors’ products achieve greater market adoption, our competitors may be able to grow at a quicker rate than we do and may diminish our network effect.
Our number of platform users may decline materially or fluctuate as a result of many factors, including, among other things, dissatisfaction with the operation of our platform, the price of fares, meals, and shipments (including a reduction in incentives), dissatisfaction with the quality of service provided by the Drivers and restaurants on our platform, quality of platform user support, dissatisfaction with the restaurant selection on Eats, negative publicity related to our brand, including as a result of safety incidents and corporate reporting related to safety, perceived political or geopolitical affiliations, a pandemic or an outbreak of disease or similar public health concern, such as the recent coronavirus outbreak, or fear of such an event, treatment of Drivers, perception of a toxic work culture, perception that our culture has not fundamentally changed, dissatisfaction with changes we make to our products and offerings, or dissatisfaction with our products and offerings in general. For example, in January 2017, a backlash against us in response to accusations that we intended to profit from a protest against an executive order banning certain refugees and immigrants from entering the United States spurred #DeleteUber, a social media campaign that encouraged platform users to delete our app and cease use of our platform. As a result of the #DeleteUber campaign, hundreds of thousands of consumers stopped using our platform within days of the campaign. In addition, if we are unable to provide high-quality support to platform users or respond to reported incidents, including safety incidents, in a timely and acceptable manner, our ability to attract and retain platform users could be adversely affected. If Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers do not establish or maintain active accounts with us, if a campaign similar to #DeleteUber occurs, if we fail to provide high-quality support, or if we cannot otherwise attract and retain a large number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, our revenue would decline, and our business would suffer.
The number of Drivers and restaurants on our platform could decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including Drivers ceasing to provide their services through our platform, passage or enforcement of local laws limiting our products and offerings, the low switching costs between competitor platforms or services, and dissatisfaction with our brand or reputation, pricing models (including potential reductions in incentives), ability to prevent safety incidents, or other aspects of our business. While we aim to provide an earnings opportunity comparable to that available in retail, wholesale, or restaurant services or other similar work, we continue to experience dissatisfaction with our platform from a significant number of Drivers. In particular, as we aim to reduce Driver incentives to improve our financial performance, we expect Driver dissatisfaction will generally increase.
Often, we are forced to make tradeoffs between the satisfaction of various platform users, as a change that one category of users views as positive will likely be viewed as negative to another category of users. We also take certain measures to protect against fraud, help increase safety, and prevent privacy and security breaches, including terminating access to our platform for users with low ratings or reported incidents, and imposing certain qualifications for Drivers and restaurants, which may damage our relationships with platform users or discourage or diminish their use of our platform. Further, we are investing in our autonomous vehicle strategy, which may add to Driver dissatisfaction over time, as it may reduce the need for Drivers. Driver dissatisfaction has in the past resulted in protests by Drivers in various regions, including India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Such protests have resulted, and any future protests may result, in interruptions to our business. Continued Driver dissatisfaction may also result in a decline in our number of platform users, which would reduce our network liquidity, and which in turn may cause a further decline in platform usage. Any decline in the number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers using our platform would reduce the value of our network and would harm our future operating results.
In addition, changes in Driver qualification and background-check requirements may increase our costs and reduce our ability to onboard additional Drivers to our platform. Our Driver qualification and background check process varies by jurisdiction, and there have been allegations, including from regulators, legislators, prosecutors, taxicab owners, and consumers, that our background check process is insufficient or inadequate. With respect to Drivers who are only eligible to make deliveries through Eats, our qualification and background check standards are generally less extensive than the standards for Drivers who are eligible to provide rides through our Ridesharing products. Legislators and regulators may pass laws or adopt regulations in the future requiring Drivers to undergo a materially different type of qualification, screening, or background check process, or that limit our ability to access information used in the background check process in an efficient manner, which could be costly and time-consuming. Required changes in the qualification, screening, and background check process (including, with respect to our acquisition of Careem, any changes to such processes of Careem) could also reduce the number of Drivers in those markets or extend the time required to recruit new Drivers to our platform, which would adversely impact our business and growth. Furthermore, we rely on a single background-check provider in certain jurisdictions, and we may not be able to arrange for adequate background checks from a different provider on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The failure of this provider to provide background checks on a timely basis would result in our inability to onboard new Drivers or retain existing Drivers undergoing periodic background checks that are required to continue using our platform.
Our workplace culture and forward-leaning approach created operational, compliance, and cultural challenges, and a failure to address these challenges would adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
Our workplace culture and forward-leaning approach created significant operational and cultural challenges that have in the past harmed, and may in the future continue to harm, our business results and financial condition. Our focus on aggressive growth and intense competition, and our prior failure to prioritize compliance, has led to increased regulatory scrutiny globally. Recent changes in our company’s cultural norms and composition of our leadership team, together with our ongoing commitment to address and resolve our

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historical cultural and compliance problems and promote transparency and collaboration, may not be successful, and regulators may continue to perceive us negatively, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
Our workplace culture also created a lack of transparency internally, which has resulted in siloed teams that lack coordination and knowledge sharing, causing misalignment and inefficiencies in operational and strategic objectives. Although we have embraced a culture of enhanced transparency under our new management, these efforts may not be successful. Furthermore, many of our regional operations are not centrally managed, such that key policies may not be adequately communicated or managed to achieve consistent business objectives across functions and regions. Although we have reorganized some of our teams to address such issues, such reorganizations may not be successful in aligning operational or strategic objectives across our company.
Maintaining and enhancing our brand and reputation is critical to our business prospects. We have previously received significant media coverage and negative publicity, particularly in 2017, regarding our brand and reputation, and failure to rehabilitate our brand and reputation will cause our business to suffer.
Maintaining and enhancing our brand and reputation is critical to our ability to attract new employees and platform users, to preserve and deepen the engagement of our existing employees and platform users, and to mitigate legislative or regulatory scrutiny, litigation, government investigations, and adverse platform user sentiment.
We have previously received a high degree of negative media coverage around the world, which has adversely affected our brand and reputation and fueled distrust of our company. In 2017, the #DeleteUber campaign prompted hundreds of thousands of consumers to stop using our platform within days. Subsequently, our reputation was further harmed when an employee published a blog post alleging, among other things, that we had a toxic culture and that certain sexual harassment and discriminatory practices occurred in our workplace. Shortly thereafter, we had a number of highly publicized events and allegations, including investigations related to a software tool allegedly designed to evade and deceive authorities, a high-profile lawsuit filed against us by Waymo, and our disclosure of a data security breach. These events and the public response to such events, as well as other negative publicity we have faced in recent years, have adversely affected our brand and reputation, which makes it difficult for us to attract and retain platform users, reduces confidence in and use of our products and offerings, invites legislative and regulatory scrutiny, and results in litigation and governmental investigations. Concurrently with and after these events, our competitors raised additional capital, increased their investments in certain markets, and improved their category positions and market shares, and may continue to do so.
In 2019, we released a safety report, which provides the public with data related to reports of sexual assaults and other critical safety incidents claimed to have occurred on our platform in the United States. The continuing public responses to this safety report or similar public reporting of safety incidents claimed to have occurred on our platform, which may include disclosure of reports provided to regulators and other government authorities, may continue to result in positive and negative media coverage and increased regulatory scrutiny and could adversely affect our reputation with platform users. Further unfavorable media coverage and negative publicity could adversely impact our financial results and future prospects. As our platform continues to scale and becomes increasingly interconnected, resulting in increased media coverage and public awareness of our brand, future damage to our brand and reputation could have an amplified effect on our various platform offerings. Additionally, with respect to our acquisition of Careem, the Careem brand and its apps will continue to operate in parallel with our brand and apps, and any damage or reputational harm to the Careem brand could adversely impact our brand and reputation.
Our brand and reputation might also be harmed by events outside of our control. For example, we faced negative press related to suicides of taxi drivers in New York City reportedly related to the impact of ridesharing on the taxi cab industry. In addition, we have licensed our brand to Didi in China, to our Yandex.Taxi joint venture in Russia/CIS, and to Zomato in India, and while we have certain contractual protections in place governing the use of our brand by these companies, we do not control these businesses, we are not able to anticipate their actions, and consumers may not be aware that these service providers are not controlled by us. Furthermore, if Drivers, restaurants, or carriers provide diminished quality of service, are involved in incidents regarding safety or privacy, engage in malfeasance, or otherwise violate the law, we may receive unfavorable press coverage and our reputation and business may be harmed. As a result, any of these third parties could take actions that result in harm to our brand, reputation, and consequently our business.
While we have taken significant steps to rehabilitate our brand and reputation, the successful rehabilitation of our brand will depend largely on maintaining a good reputation, minimizing the number of safety incidents, improving our culture and workplace practices, improving our compliance programs, maintaining a high quality of service and ethical behavior, and continuing our marketing and public relations efforts. Our brand promotion, reputation building, and media strategies have involved significant costs and may not be successful. We anticipate that other competitors and potential competitors will expand their offerings, which will make maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand increasingly more difficult and expensive. If we fail to successfully rehabilitate our brand in the current or future competitive environment or if events similar to those that occurred in 2017 occur in the future, our brand and reputation would be further damaged and our business may suffer.
Our workforce and operations have grown substantially since our inception and we expect that they will continue to do so. If we are unable to effectively manage that growth, our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.
Since our inception, we have experienced rapid growth in the United States and internationally. This expansion increases the complexity of our business and has placed, and will continue to place, significant strain on our management, personnel, operations,

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systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. We may not be able to manage our growth effectively, which could damage our reputation and negatively affect our operating results.
As our operations have expanded, we have grown from 159 employees as of December 31, 2012 to approximately 26,900 global employees as of December 31, 2019, of whom approximately 16,200 were located outside the United States. We expect the total number of our employees located outside the United States to increase significantly as we expand globally, including as a result of our acquisition of Careem. Properly managing our growth will require us to continue to hire, train, and manage qualified employees and staff, including engineers, operations personnel, financial and accounting staff, and sales and marketing staff, and to improve and maintain our technology. If our new hires perform poorly, if we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, managing, and integrating these new employees and staff, or if we are not successful in retaining our existing employees and staff, our business may be harmed. Moreover, in order to optimize our organizational structure, we have recently implemented reductions in force and may in the future implement other reductions in force. Any reduction in force may yield unintended consequences and costs, such as attrition beyond the intended reduction in force, the distraction of employees, reduced employee morale and could adversely affect our reputation as an employer, which could make it more difficult for us to hire new employees in the future and the risk that we may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the reduction in force. Properly managing our growth will require us to establish consistent policies across regions and functions, and a failure to do so could likewise harm our business.
Our failure to upgrade our technology or network infrastructure effectively to support our growth could result in unanticipated system disruptions, slow response times, or poor experiences for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers. To manage the growth of our operations and personnel and improve the technology that supports our business operations, as well as our financial and management systems, disclosure controls and procedures, and internal controls over financial reporting, we will be required to commit substantial financial, operational, and technical resources. In particular, we will need to improve our transaction processing and reporting, operational, and financial systems, procedures, and controls. For example, due to our significant growth, especially with respect to our high-growth emerging offerings like Eats and Freight, we face challenges in timely and appropriately designing controls in response to evolving risks of material misstatement. These improvements will be particularly challenging if we acquire new businesses with different systems, such as Careem. Our current and planned personnel, systems, procedures, and controls may not be adequate to support our future operations. If we are unable to expand our operations and hire additional qualified personnel in an efficient manner, or if our operational technology is insufficient to reliably service Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers, platform user satisfaction will be adversely affected and may cause platform users to switch to our competitors’ platforms, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Our organizational structure is complex and will continue to grow as we add additional Drivers, consumers, restaurants, carriers, shippers, employees, products and offerings, and technologies, and as we continue to expand globally (including as a result of our acquisition of Careem). We will need to improve our operational, financial, and management controls as well as our reporting systems and procedures to support the growth of our organizational structure. We will require capital and management resources to grow and mature in these areas. If we are unable to effectively manage the growth of our business, the quality of our platform may suffer, and we may be unable to address competitive challenges, which would adversely affect our overall business, operations, and financial condition.
If platform users engage in, or are subject to, criminal, violent, inappropriate, or dangerous activity that results in major safety incidents, our ability to attract and retain Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers may be harmed, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition, and operating results.
We are not able to control or predict the actions of platform users and third parties, either during their use of our platform or otherwise, and we may be unable to protect or provide a safe environment for Drivers and consumers as a result of certain actions by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, carriers, and third parties. Such actions may result in injuries, property damage, or loss of life for consumers and third parties, or business interruption, brand and reputational damage, or significant liabilities for us. Although we administer certain qualification processes for users of our platform, including background checks on Drivers through third-party service providers, these qualification processes and background checks may not expose all potentially relevant information and are limited in certain jurisdictions according to national and local laws, and our third-party service providers may fail to conduct such background checks adequately or disclose information that could be relevant to a determination of eligibility. Further, the qualification and background check standards for Eats Delivery People are generally less extensive than those conducted for Rides Drivers. In addition, we do not independently test Drivers’ driving skills. Consequently, we expect to continue to receive complaints from riders and other consumers, as well as actual or threatened legal action against us related to Driver conduct. We have also faced civil litigation alleging, among other things, inadequate Driver qualification processes and background checks, and general misrepresentations regarding the safety of our platform.
If Drivers or carriers, or individuals impersonating Drivers or carriers, engage in criminal activity, misconduct, or inappropriate conduct or use our platform as a conduit for criminal activity, consumers and shippers may not consider our products and offerings safe, and we may receive negative press coverage as a result of our business relationship with such Driver or carrier, which would adversely impact our brand, reputation, and business. There have been numerous incidents and allegations worldwide of Drivers, or individuals impersonating Drivers, sexually assaulting, abusing, kidnapping and/or fatally injuring consumers, or otherwise engaging in criminal activity while using our platform or claiming to use our platform. Furthermore, if consumers engage in criminal activity or misconduct while using our platform, Drivers and restaurants may be unwilling to continue using our platform. In addition, certain regions where we operate have high rates of violent crime, which has impacted Drivers and consumers in those regions. For example, in Latin America,

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there have been numerous and increasing reports of Drivers and consumers being victimized by violent crime, such as armed robbery, violent assault, and rape, while taking or providing a trip on our platform. If other criminal, inappropriate, or other negative incidents occur due to the conduct of platform users or third parties, our ability to attract platform users may be harmed, and our business and financial results could be adversely affected.
Public reporting or disclosure of reported safety information, including information about safety incidents reportedly occurring on or related to our platform, whether generated by us or third parties such as media or regulators, may adversely impact our business and financial results.
Further, we may be subject to claims of significant liability based on traffic accidents, deaths, injuries, or other incidents that are caused by Drivers, consumers, or third parties while using our platform, or even when Drivers, consumers, or third parties are not actively using our platform. On a smaller scale, we may face litigation related to claims by Drivers for the actions of consumers or third parties. Our auto liability and general liability insurance policies may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed, and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability. These incidents may subject us to liability and negative publicity, which would increase our operating costs and adversely affect our business, operating results, and future prospects. Even if these claims do not result in liability, we will incur significant costs in investigating and defending against them. As we expand our products and offerings, such as Freight and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, this insurance risk will grow.
We are making substantial investments in new offerings and technologies, and expect to increase such investments in the future. These new ventures are inherently risky, and we may never realize any expected benefits from them.
We have made substantial investments to develop new offerings and technologies, including autonomous vehicle technologies, dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, Freight, and Uber Elevate, and we intend to continue investing significant resources in developing new technologies, tools, features, services, products and offerings. For example, we believe that autonomous vehicles will be an important part of our offerings over the long term, and in 2019, we incurred approximately $960 million of research and development expenses for our ATG and Other Technology Programs initiatives. We expect to increase our investments in these new initiatives in the near term. Additionally, we plan to invest significant resources to develop and expand new offerings and technologies in the markets in which Careem operates. We also expect to spend substantial amounts to purchase additional dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, which are susceptible to theft and destruction, as we seek to build our network and increase our scale, and to expand these products to additional markets. If we do not spend our development budget efficiently or effectively on commercially successful and innovative technologies, we may not realize the expected benefits of our strategy. Our new initiatives also have a high degree of risk, as each involves nascent industries and unproven business strategies and technologies with which we have limited or no prior development or operating experience. Because such offerings and technologies are new, they will likely involve claims and liabilities (including, but not limited to, personal injury claims), expenses, regulatory challenges, and other risks, some of which we do not currently anticipate. For example, we discontinued certain products, such as Xchange Leasing, our vehicle leasing business in the United States because we failed to operate it efficiently.
There can be no assurance that consumer demand for such initiatives will exist or be sustained at the levels that we anticipate, or that any of these initiatives will gain sufficient traction or market acceptance to generate sufficient revenue to offset any new expenses or liabilities associated with these new investments. It is also possible that products and offerings developed by others will render our products and offerings noncompetitive or obsolete. Further, our development efforts with respect to new products, offerings and technologies could distract management from current operations, and will divert capital and other resources from our more established products, offerings and technologies. Even if we are successful in developing new products, offerings or technologies, regulatory authorities may subject us to new rules or restrictions in response to our innovations that could increase our expenses or prevent us from successfully commercializing new products, offerings or technologies. If we do not realize the expected benefits of our investments, our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects may be harmed.
Our business is substantially dependent on operations outside the United States, including those in markets in which we have limited experience, and if we are unable to manage the risks presented by our business model internationally, our financial results and future prospects will be adversely impacted.
As of December 31, 2019, we operated in 69 countries, and markets outside the United States accounted for approximately 78% of all Trips. We have limited experience operating in many jurisdictions outside of the United States and have made, and expect to continue to make, significant investments to expand our international operations and compete with local competitors. For example, in January 2020, we completed our acquisition of Careem in jurisdictions where we have received regulatory approval and in March 2019, we announced the expansion of our Freight offering into Europe. Such investments may not be successful and may negatively affect our operating results.
Conducting our business internationally, particularly in countries in which we have limited experience, subjects us to risks that we do not face to the same degree in the United States. These risks include, among others:
operational and compliance challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences;
the resources required to localize our business, which requires the translation of our mobile app and website into foreign languages and the adaptation of our operations to local practices, laws, and regulations and any changes in such practices, laws, and regulations;

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laws and regulations more restrictive than those in the United States, including laws governing competition, pricing, payment methods, Internet activities, transportation services (such as taxis and vehicles for hire), transportation network companies (such as ridesharing), logistics services, payment processing and payment gateways, real estate tenancy laws, tax and social security laws, employment and labor laws, driver screening and background checks, licensing regulations, email messaging, privacy, location services, collection, use, processing, or sharing of personal information, ownership of intellectual property, and other activities important to our business;
competition with companies or other services (such as taxis or vehicles for hire) that understand local markets better than we do, that have pre-existing relationships with potential platform users in those markets, or that are favored by government or regulatory authorities in those markets;
differing levels of social acceptance of our brand, products, and offerings;
differing levels of technological compatibility with our platform;
exposure to business cultures in which improper business practices may be prevalent;
legal uncertainty regarding our liability for the actions of platform users and third parties, including uncertainty resulting from unique local laws or a lack of clear legal precedent;
difficulties in managing, growing, and staffing international operations, including in countries in which foreign employees may become part of labor unions, employee representative bodies, or collective bargaining agreements, and challenges relating to work stoppages or slowdowns;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
managing operations in markets in which cash transactions are favored over credit or debit cards;
regulations governing the control of local currencies that impact our ability to collect fares on behalf of Drivers and remit those funds to Drivers in the same currencies, as well as higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud;
adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax systems, and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens, and complexities associated with implementing and maintaining adequate internal controls;
difficulties in implementing and maintaining the financial systems and processes needed to enable compliance across multiple offerings and jurisdictions;
import and export restrictions and changes in trade regulation;
political, social, and economic instability abroad, terrorist attacks and security concerns in general, and societal crime conditions that can directly impact platform users;
public health concerns or emergencies, such as coronavirus and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate; and
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some markets.
These risks could adversely affect our international operations, which could in turn adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.
We have limited influence over our minority-owned affiliates, which subjects us to substantial risks, including potential loss of value.
Our international growth strategy has included the restructuring of our business and assets in certain jurisdictions by partnering with and investing in local ridesharing and meal delivery companies to participate in those markets rather than operate in those markets independently. As a result, a significant portion of our assets includes minority ownership positions in each of Didi, Grab, our Yandex.Taxi joint venture and Zomato. Each of Didi, Grab and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture operates ridesharing, meal delivery, and related logistics businesses in their respective primary markets in China, Southeast Asia, Russia/CIS, and Zomato operates a meal delivery business in India.
Our ownership in these entities involves significant risks that are outside our control. We are not represented on the management team or board of directors of Didi or Zomato, and therefore we do not participate in the day-to-day management of Didi or Zomato or the actions taken by the board of directors of Didi and Zomato. We are not represented on the management teams of Grab or our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, and therefore do not participate in the day-to-day management of Grab or our Yandex.Taxi joint venture. Although we are represented on each of the boards of directors of Grab and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, we do not have a controlling influence on those boards, other than with respect to certain approval rights over material corporate actions. As a result, the boards of directors or management teams of these companies may make decisions or take actions with which we disagree or that may be harmful to the value of our ownership in these companies. Additionally, these companies have expanded their offerings, and we expect them to continue to expand their offerings

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in the future, to compete with us in various markets throughout the world such as in certain countries in Latin America and in Australia where we compete with Didi and certain countries in Europe where we compete with our Yandex.Taxi joint venture. While this could enhance the value of our ownership interest in these companies, our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects would be adversely affected by such expansion into markets in which we operate.
Any material decline in the business of these entities would adversely affect the value of our assets and our financial results. Furthermore, the value of these assets is based in part on the market valuations of these entities, and weakened financial markets may adversely affect such valuations. These positions could expose us to risks, litigation, and unknown liabilities because, among other things, these companies have limited operating histories in an evolving industry and may have less predictable operating results; are privately owned and, as a result, limited public information is available and we may not learn all the material information regarding these businesses; are domiciled and operate in countries with particular economic, tax, political, legal, safety, regulatory and public health risks, including impact of the recent outbreak of coronavirus to their business; depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of individuals, and, as a result, the death, disability, resignation, or termination of one or more of these individuals could have an adverse effect on the relevant company’s operations; and will likely require substantial additional capital to support their operations and expansion and to maintain their competitive positions. Any of these risks could materially affect the value of our assets, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or the trading price of our common stock.
Further, we are contractually limited in our ability to sell or transfer these assets. Until February 2021, we are prohibited from transferring any shares in our Yandex.Taxi joint venture without the consent of Yandex, and for a period of time thereafter any transfer is subject to a right of first refusal in favor of Yandex. While we are not prohibited from transferring our shares in Didi or Grab, the transferability of such shares are subject to both a right of first refusal and a co-sale right in favor of certain shareholders of each of Didi and Grab. There is currently no public market for any of these securities, and there may be no market in the future if and when we decide to sell such assets. Furthermore, we may be required to sell these assets at a time at which we would not be able to realize what we believe to be the long-term value of these assets. For example, if we were deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), we may be required to sell some or all of such assets so that we would not be subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act. Additionally, we may have to pay significant taxes upon the sale or transfer of these assets. Accordingly, we may never realize the value of these assets relative to the contributions we made to these businesses.
We may experience significant fluctuations in our operating results. If we are unable to achieve or sustain profitability, our prospects would be adversely affected and investors may lose some or all of the value of their investment.
Our operating results may vary significantly and are not necessarily an indication of future performance. These fluctuations may be a result of a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control. In particular, we experience seasonal fluctuations in our financial results. For Ridesharing, we typically generate higher revenue in our fourth quarter compared to other quarters due in part to fourth quarter holiday and business demand, and typically generate lower revenue in our third quarter compared to other quarters due in part to less usage of our platform during peak vacation season in certain cities, such as Paris. We have typically experienced lower quarter-over-quarter growth in Rides in the first quarter. For Eats, we expect to experience seasonal increases in our revenue in the first and fourth quarters compared to the second and third quarters, although the historical growth of Eats has masked these seasonal fluctuations. Our growth has made, and may in the future make, seasonal fluctuations difficult to detect. We expect these seasonal trends to become more pronounced over time as our growth slows. Other seasonal trends may develop or these existing seasonal trends may become more extreme, which would contribute to fluctuations in our operating results. In addition to seasonality, our operating results may fluctuate as a result of factors including our ability to attract and retain new platform users, increased competition in the markets in which we operate, our ability to expand our operations in new and existing markets, our ability to maintain an adequate growth rate and effectively manage that growth, our ability to keep pace with technological changes in the industries in which we operate, changes in governmental or other regulations affecting our business, harm to our brand or reputation, and other risks described elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As such, we may not accurately forecast our operating results. We base our expense levels and investment plans on estimates. A significant portion of our expenses and investments are fixed, and we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our revenue is less than expected, resulting in losses that exceed our expectations. If we are unable to achieve sustained profits, our prospects would be adversely affected and investors may lose some or all of the value of their investment.
If our growth slows more significantly than we currently expect, we may not be able to achieve profitability, which would adversely affect our financial results and future prospects.
Our Gross Bookings, revenue, and Adjusted Net Revenue growth rates (in particular with respect to our Ridesharing products) have slowed in recent periods, and we expect that they will continue to slow in the future. We believe that our growth depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:
grow supply and demand on our platform;
increase existing platform users’ activity on our platform;
continue to introduce our platform to new markets;
provide high-quality support to Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers;

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expand our business and increase our market share and category position;
compete with the products and offerings of, and pricing and incentives offered by, our competitors;
develop new products, offerings, and technologies;
identify and acquire or invest in businesses, products, offerings, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform;
penetrate suburban and rural areas and increase the number of rides taken on our platform outside metropolitan areas;
reduce the costs of our Rides and New Mobility offerings to better compete with personal vehicle ownership and usage and other low-cost alternatives like public transportation, which in many cases can be faster or cheaper than any other form of transportation;
maintain existing local regulations in key markets where we operate;
enter or expand operations in some of the key countries in which we are currently limited by local regulations, such as Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain; and
increase positive perception of our brand.
We may not successfully accomplish any of these objectives. A softening of Driver, consumer, restaurant, shipper, or carrier demand, whether caused by changes in the preferences of such parties, failure to maintain our brand, changes in the U.S. or global economies, licensing fees in various jurisdictions, competition, or other factors, may result in decreased revenue or growth and our financial results and future prospects would be adversely impacted. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses, and if we cannot increase our revenue at a faster rate than the increase in our expenses, we will not achieve profitability.
We generate a significant percentage of our Gross Bookings from trips in large metropolitan areas and trips to and from airports. If our operations in large metropolitan areas or ability to provide trips to and from airports are negatively affected, our financial results and future prospects would be adversely impacted.
In 2019, we derived 23% of our Rides Gross Bookings from five metropolitan areas—Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States; and London in the United Kingdom. We experience greater competition in large metropolitan areas than we do in other markets in which we operate, which has led us to offer significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions in these large metropolitan areas. As a result of our geographic concentration, our business and financial results are susceptible to economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances in each of these large metropolitan areas. An economic downturn, increased competition, or regulatory obstacles in any of these key metropolitan areas would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results to a much greater degree than would the occurrence of such events in other areas. In addition, any changes to local laws or regulations within these key metropolitan areas that affect our ability to operate or increase our operating expenses in these markets would have an adverse effect on our business. Furthermore, if we are unable to renew existing licenses or do not receive new licenses in key metropolitan areas where we operate or such licenses are terminated, any inability to operate in such metropolitan area, as well as the publicity concerning any such termination or non-renewal, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. For example, Transport for London (“TfL”) denied our application for a new license on November 25, 2019. We are continuing operations in London, while we have appealed this decision and expect a hearing in Westminster Magistrates Court in mid-2020.If we are not granted a new license, any inability to operate in London could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
In addition, in August 2018, New York City approved regulations for the local for-hire market (which includes our Ridesharing products), including a cap on the number of new vehicle licenses issued to drivers who offer for-hire services. In December 2018, New York City also established a standard for time and distance designed to target minimum hourly earnings for drivers providing for-hire services in New York City and surrounding areas. These minimum rates took effect in February 2019, and the regulator will update them periodically. We continue to work through adjustments with respect to rider promotions, driver supply, and other aspects of our business in response to these regulations; however, these regulations had a negative impact on our financial performance in New York City throughout 2019 and may have a similar adverse impact in the future. In August 2019, New York City issued a regulation to limit how much time drivers providing ride-hailing services can spend cruising streets in busy areas of Manhattan without passengers. In December 2019, a New York state judge struck down this regulation, which was to come into effect in February 2020. New York City is appealing this ruling. Additionally, in November 2019, a ballot measure to impose a surcharge on ridesharing trips in San Francisco was approved by voters in San Francisco. This surcharge took effect on January 1, 2020. In addition, other jurisdictions such as Seattle have in the past considered or may consider regulations that would implement minimum wage requirements or permit drivers to negotiate for minimum wages while providing services on our platform. Further, we expect that we will continue to face challenges in penetrating lower-density suburban and rural areas, where our network is smaller and less liquid, the cost of personal vehicle ownership is lower, and personal vehicle ownership is more convenient. If we are not successful in penetrating suburban and rural areas, or if we are unable to operate in certain key metropolitan areas in the future, our ability to serve what we consider to be our total addressable market would be limited, and our business, financial condition, and operating results would suffer.

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In 2019, we generated 15% of our Rides Gross Bookings from trips that either started or were completed at an airport, and we expect this percentage to increase in the future. As a result of this concentration, our operating results are susceptible to existing regulations and regulatory changes that impact the ability of drivers using our platform to provide trips to and from airports. Certain airports currently regulate ridesharing within airport boundaries, including by mandating that ridesharing service providers obtain airport-specific licenses, and some airports, particularly those outside the United States, have banned ridesharing operations altogether. Despite such bans, some Drivers continue to provide Rides services, including trips to and from airports, despite lacking the requisite permits. Such actions may result in the imposition of fines or sanctions, including further bans on our ability to operate within airport boundaries, against us or Drivers. Additional bans on our airport operations, or any permitting requirements or instances of non-compliance by Drivers, would significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, if drop-offs or pick-ups of riders become inconvenient because of airport rules or regulations, or more expensive because of airport-imposed fees, the number of Drivers or consumers could decrease, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. While we have entered into agreements with most major U.S. airports as well as certain airports outside the United States to allow the use of our platform within airport boundaries, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew such agreements on favorable terms if at all, and we may not be successful in negotiating similar agreements with airports in all jurisdictions.
If we fail to develop and successfully commercialize autonomous vehicle technologies or fail to develop such technologies before our competitors, or if such technologies fail to perform as expected, are inferior to those of our competitors, or are perceived as less safe than those of our competitors or non-autonomous vehicles, our financial performance and prospects would be adversely impacted.
We have invested, and we expect to continue to invest, substantial amounts in autonomous vehicle technologies. As discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we believe that autonomous vehicle technologies may have the ability to meaningfully impact the industries in which we compete. While we believe that autonomous vehicles present substantial opportunities, the development of such technology is expensive and time-consuming and may not be successful. Several other companies, including Waymo, Cruise Automation, Tesla, Apple, Zoox, Aptiv, Aurora, and Nuro, are also developing autonomous vehicle technologies, either alone or through collaborations with car manufacturers, and we expect that they will use such technology to further compete with us in the personal mobility, meal delivery, or logistics industries. We expect certain competitors to commercialize autonomous vehicle technologies at scale before we do. Waymo has already introduced a commercialized ridehailing fleet of autonomous vehicles, and it is possible that other of our competitors could introduce autonomous vehicle offerings earlier than we will. In the event that our competitors bring autonomous vehicles to market before we do, or their technology is or is perceived to be superior to ours, they may be able to leverage such technology to compete more effectively with us, which would adversely impact our financial performance and our prospects. For example, use of autonomous vehicles could substantially reduce the cost of providing ridesharing, meal delivery, or logistics services, which could allow competitors to offer such services at a substantially lower price as compared to the price available to consumers on our platform. If a significant number of consumers choose to use our competitors’ offerings over ours, our financial performance and prospects would be adversely impacted.
Autonomous vehicle technologies involve significant risks and liabilities. We conduct real-world testing of our autonomous vehicles, which currently includes at least one trained driver in the driver’s seat monitoring operations while the vehicle is in autonomous mode. In March 2018, one such test vehicle struck and killed a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona. Following that incident, we voluntarily suspended public-road testing of our autonomous vehicles for several months in all markets where we were conducting real-world testing, which was a setback for our autonomous vehicle technology efforts. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated the collision, and, in its conclusion, recommended that we implement certain safety risk management measures for autonomous driving system testing. While we continue to implement and monitor a safety risk management system, we cannot assure you that such a system will prevent additional collisions involving our autonomous vehicles. We currently test vehicles in autonomous mode on public roads in Pennsylvania, and, in February 2020, were issued a permit to test autonomous vehicles on California public roads with a trained driver in the vehicle. Failures of our autonomous vehicle technologies or additional crashes involving autonomous vehicles using our technology could generate substantial liability for us, create negative publicity about us, or result in regulatory scrutiny, all of which would have an adverse effect on our reputation, brand, business, prospects, and operating results.
The development of our autonomous vehicle technologies is highly dependent on internally developed software, as well as on partnerships with third parties such as OEMs and other suppliers, including Toyota and DENSO pursuant to the ATG Collaboration Agreement, and Volvo. We develop and integrate self-driving software into our autonomous vehicle technologies and work with OEMs and other suppliers to develop autonomous vehicle technology hardware. We partner with OEMs that will seek to manufacture vehicles capable of incorporating our autonomous vehicle technologies. The timely development and performance of our autonomous vehicle programs is dependent on the materials, cooperation, and quality delivered by our partners and suppliers. Our dependence on these relationships exposes us to the risk that components manufactured by OEMs or other suppliers could contain defects that would cause our autonomous vehicle technologies to not operate as intended. Further, reliance on these relationships exposes us to risks beyond our control, such as third-party software or manufacturing defects, which would substantially impair our ability to deploy autonomous vehicles. If our autonomous vehicle technologies were to contain design or manufacturing defects that caused such technology to not perform as expected, or if we were unable to deploy autonomous vehicles as a result of manufacturing delays by OEMs, our financial performance and our prospects could be harmed.
Federal and state government regulations specifically designed to govern autonomous vehicle operation, testing and/or manufacture

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are developing. These regulations could include requirements that significantly delay or narrowly limit the commercialization of autonomous vehicles, limit the number of autonomous vehicles that we can manufacture or use on our platform, or impose significant liabilities on manufacturers or operators of autonomous vehicles or developers of autonomous vehicle technologies. If regulations of this nature are implemented, we may not be able to commercialize our autonomous vehicle technologies in the manner we expect, or at all. Further, if we are unable to comply with existing or new regulations or laws applicable to autonomous vehicles, we could become subject to substantial fines or penalties.
In 2019, we entered into an agreement with SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO pursuant to which these investors invested an aggregate of $1.0 billion ($400 million from Toyota, $333 million from SoftBank, and $267 million from DENSO) in a newly formed corporate parent entity for ATG. This investment will enable us to raise dedicated capital to fund our ATG business and aims to accelerate the development and commercialization of automated ridesharing services. In connection with the investment, we have entered into the ATG Collaboration Agreement with Toyota, DENSO, and ATG with respect to next-generation self-driving hardware and the development of self-driving vehicles leveraging technology from each of the parties. The transaction closed in July 2019; however, we cannot assure you that the transaction will have the effects that we anticipate.
Our business depends on retaining and attracting high-quality personnel, and continued attrition, future attrition, or unsuccessful succession planning could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain high-quality management, operations, engineering, and other personnel who are in high demand, are often subject to competing employment offers, and are attractive recruiting targets for our competitors. Challenges related to our culture and workplace practices and negative publicity we experience have in the past led to significant attrition and made it more difficult to attract high-quality employees. Future challenges related to our culture and workplace practices or additional negative publicity could lead to further attrition and difficulty attracting high-quality employees. In 2017, we experienced significant leadership changes, which disrupted our business and increased attrition among senior management and employees, and during the third quarter of 2018, annualized attrition among employees was near peak levels.
Future leadership transitions and management changes may cause uncertainty in, or a disruption to, our business, and may increase the likelihood of senior management or other employee turnover. The loss of qualified executives and employees, or an inability to attract, retain, and motivate high- quality executives and employees required for the planned expansion of our business, may harm our operating results and impair our ability to grow.
In addition, we depend on the continued services and performance of our key personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer Dara Khosrowshahi. We have entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Khosrowshahi, which is at-will and has no specific duration. Other key members of our management team joined our company after August 2017, and none had previously worked within our industry. Recently hired executives may view our business differently than members of our prior management team and, over time, may make changes to our personnel and their responsibilities as well as our strategic focus, operations, or business plans. We may not be able to properly manage any such shift in focus, and any changes to our business may ultimately prove unsuccessful.
In addition, our failure to put in place adequate succession plans for senior and key management roles or the failure of key employees to successfully transition into new roles could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. The unexpected or abrupt departure of one or more of our key personnel and the failure to effectively transfer knowledge and effect smooth key personnel transitions has had and may in the future have an adverse effect on our business resulting from the loss of such person’s skills, knowledge of our business, and years of industry experience. If we cannot effectively manage leadership transitions and management changes in the future, our reputation and future business prospects could be adversely affected.
To attract and retain key personnel, we use equity incentives, among other measures. These measures may not be sufficient to attract and retain the personnel we require to operate our business effectively. Additionally, key members of our management team and many of our employees hold RSUs that vested in connection with our IPO, or hold stock options that are or will become exercisable for common stock, which we expect will adversely impact our ability to retain employees. Further, the equity incentives we currently use to attract, retain, and motivate employees may not be as effective as in the past, particularly if the value of the underlying stock does not increase commensurate with expectations or consistent with our historical stock price growth. If we are unable to attract and retain high-quality management and operating personnel, our business, financial condition, and operating results could be adversely affected.
The impact of economic conditions, including the resulting effect on discretionary consumer spending, may harm our business and operating results.
Our performance is subject to economic conditions and their impact on levels of discretionary consumer spending. Some of the factors that have an impact on discretionary consumer spending include general economic conditions, unemployment, consumer debt, reductions in net worth, residential real estate and mortgage markets, taxation, energy prices, interest rates, consumer confidence, and other macroeconomic factors. Consumer preferences tend to shift to lower-cost alternatives during recessionary periods and other periods in which disposable income is adversely affected. In such circumstances, consumers may choose to use one of our lower price-point products, such as UberPOOL, over a higher Gross Bookings per Trip offering, may choose to forgo our offerings for lower-cost personal vehicle or public transportation alternatives, or may reduce total miles traveled as economic activity decreases. Such a shift in consumer behavior may reduce our network liquidity and may harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Likewise, small

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businesses that do not have substantial resources, including many of the restaurants in our network, tend to be more adversely affected by poor economic conditions than large businesses. Further, because spending for food purchases from restaurants is generally considered discretionary, any decline in consumer spending may have a disproportionate effect on our Eats offering. If spending at many of the restaurants in our network declines, or if a significant number of these restaurants go out of business, consumers may be less likely to use our products and offerings, which could harm our business and operating results. Alternatively, if economic conditions improve, it could lead to Drivers obtaining additional or alternative opportunities for work, which could negatively impact the number of Drivers on our platform, and thereby reduce our network liquidity.
Increases in fuel, food, labor, energy, and other costs could adversely affect our operating results.
Factors such as inflation, increased fuel prices, and increased vehicle purchase, rental, or maintenance costs may increase the costs incurred by Drivers and carriers when providing services on our platform. Similarly, factors such as inflation, increased food costs, increased labor and employee benefit costs, increased rental costs, and increased energy costs may increase restaurant operating costs, particularly in certain international markets, such as Egypt. Many of the factors affecting Driver, restaurant, and carrier costs are beyond the control of these parties. In many cases, these increased costs may cause Drivers and carriers to spend less time providing services on our platform or to seek alternative sources of income. Likewise, these increased costs may cause restaurants to pass costs on to consumers by increasing prices, which would likely cause order volume to decline, may cause restaurants to cease operations altogether, or may cause carriers to pass costs on to shippers, which may cause shipments on our platform to decline. A decreased supply of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers on our platform would decrease our network liquidity, which could harm our business and operating results.
We will require additional capital to support the growth of our business, and this capital might not be available on reasonable terms or at all.
To continue to effectively compete, we will require additional funds to support the growth of our business and allow us to invest in new products, offerings, and markets. In particular, our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products and autonomous vehicle development efforts are capital and operations intensive. While we closed the investment in ATG from the ATG Investors for an aggregate of $1.0 billion, we will likely require additional capital to expand these products or continue these development efforts. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders may suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue may have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of existing stockholders. Certain of our existing debt instruments contain, and any debt financing we secure in the future could contain, restrictive covenants relating to our ability to incur additional indebtedness and other financial and operational matters that make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital with which to pursue business opportunities. For example, our existing debt instruments contain significant restrictions on our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when required, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges and competition may be significantly limited.
If we experience security or data privacy breaches or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, disclosure of, alteration of or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or platform user data, we may face loss of revenue, harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities.
We collect, use, and process a variety of personal data, such as email addresses, mobile phone numbers, profile photos, location information, drivers’ license numbers and Social Security numbers of Drivers, consumer payment card information, and Driver and restaurant bank account information. As such, we are an attractive target of data security attacks by third parties. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches or improper access to, use of, disclosure, alteration or destruction of any such data could result in significant liability and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on our reputation and brand, a diminished ability to retain or attract new platform users, and disruption to our business. We rely on third-party service providers to host or otherwise process some of our data and that of platform users, and any failure by such third party to prevent or mitigate security breaches or improper access to, disclosure, alteration or destruction of, such information could have similar adverse consequences for us.
Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade services, or sabotage systems change frequently and are often unrecognizable until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques and implement adequate preventative measures. Our servers and platform may be vulnerable to computer viruses or physical or electronic break-ins that our security measures may not detect. Individuals able to circumvent our security measures may misappropriate confidential, proprietary, or personal information held by or on behalf of us, disrupt our operations, damage our computers, or otherwise damage our business. In addition, we may need to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches or mitigate the impact of any such breaches, including potential liability that may not be limited to the amounts covered by our insurance.
Security breaches could also expose us to liability under various laws and regulations across jurisdictions and increase the risk of litigation and governmental investigation. We have been subject to security and data privacy incidents in the past and may be again in the future. For example, in May 2014, we experienced a data security incident in which an outside actor gained access to certain personal information belonging to Drivers through an access key written into code that an employee had unintentionally posted publicly on a code-sharing website used by software developers (the “2014 Breach”). In October and November of 2016, outside actors downloaded the personal data of approximately 57 million Drivers and consumers worldwide (the “2016 Breach”). The accessed data included the names,

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email addresses, mobile phone numbers, and drivers’ license numbers of approximately 600,000 Drivers, among other information. For further information on this incident, see the risk factors titled “—We currently are subject to a number of inquiries, investigations, and requests for information from the DOJ, the SEC and other U.S. and foreign government agencies, the adverse outcomes of which could harm our business” and “—We face risks related to our collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing of data, which could result in investigations, inquiries, litigation, fines, legislative, and regulatory action, and negative press about our privacy and data protection practices,” below. In November 2018, a third-party assessor ranked our maturity level for all but two security capabilities as below or at the minimum maturity end of our industry maturity range, which purports to be a composite range derived from the minimum and maximum maturity ratings across related industry sections in consumer products, travel and hospitality, banking and securities, and technology. As we expand our operations, we may also assume liabilities for breaches experienced by the companies we acquire. For example, in April 2018, Careem publicly disclosed and notified relevant regulatory authorities that it had been subject to a data security breach that allowed access to certain personal information of riders and drivers on its platform, as of January 14, 2018. If Careem becomes subject to liability as a result of this or other data security breaches, or if we fail to remediate this or any other data security breach that Careem or we experience, we may face harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities.
If we are unable to successfully introduce new or upgraded products, offerings, or features for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, we may fail to retain and attract such users to our platform and our operating results would be adversely affected.
To continue to retain and attract Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to our platform, we will need to continue to invest in the development of new products, offerings, and features that add value for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers and that differentiate us from our competitors. For example, in 2018, we redesigned our Driver application with features that better anticipate Driver needs, such as improved real-time communication and updates on the availability of riders and consumers and the pricing of fares and deliveries, and we acquired orderTalk to better integrate Eats with restaurant point-of-sale systems. In addition, in January 2020, we introduced a number of product changes in California intended to, among other things, provide Drivers with more information about rider destinations, trip distance, and expected fares, display prices more clearly, and allow users to select preferred Drivers, all of which are intended to further strengthen the independence of Drivers in California and protect their ability to work flexibly when using the Uber platform.
Developing and delivering these new or upgraded products, offerings, and features is costly, and the success of such new products, offerings, and features depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction, and market acceptance of such products, offerings, and features. Moreover, any such new or upgraded products, offerings, or features may not work as intended or may not provide intended value to platform users. For example, our recent product changes in California have resulted in, and may continue to result in, reduced demand for rides and reduced supply of Drivers on our platform, Driver dissatisfaction, and adverse impacts on the operation of our platform. If we are unable to continue to develop new or upgraded products, offerings, and features, or if platform users do not perceive value in such new or upgraded products, offerings, and features, platform users may choose not to use our platform, which would adversely affect our operating results.
If we are unable to manage supply chain risks related to New Mobility products such as dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and advanced technologies such as autonomous vehicles, our operations may be disrupted.
Our New Mobility products include dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and we are developing advanced technologies for autonomous vehicles. These products require and rely on hardware and other components that we source from third-party suppliers. The continued development of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, autonomous vehicle technologies, and other products depends on our ability to implement and manage supply chain logistics to secure the necessary components and hardware. We do not have significant experience in managing supply chain risks. We depend on a limited number of suppliers for our dockless e-bikes, and on a single supplier for our e-scooters that also supplies our primary competitors. It is possible that we may not be able to obtain a sufficient supply of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters in a timely manner, or at all. The timely development and performance of our New Mobility products is dependent on the materials, cooperation, and quality delivered by our suppliers. Further, we source certain specialized or custom-made components for our autonomous vehicle and other advanced technologies from a small number of specialized suppliers, and we may not be able to secure substitutes in a timely manner, on reasonable terms, or at all. Events that could disrupt our supply chain include, but are not limited to:
the imposition of trade laws or regulations;
the imposition of duties, tariffs, and other charges on imports and exports, including with respect to imports and exports of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters from China;
disruption in the supply of certain hardware and components from our international suppliers, particularly those in China;
public health concerns or epidemics, such as the recent coronavirus outbreak, affecting the production capabilities of our suppliers, including by resulting in quarantines or closures;
foreign currency fluctuations;
theft; and
restrictions on the transfer of funds.

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The occurrence of any of the foregoing could materially increase the cost and reduce or delay the supply of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters available on our platform and could materially delay our progress towards introducing autonomous vehicles onto our platform, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
We track certain operational metrics and our category position with internal systems and tools, and our equity stakes in minority-owned affiliates with information provided by such minority-owned affiliates, and do not independently verify such metrics. Certain of our operational metrics are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.
We track certain operational metrics, including key metrics such as MAPCs, Trips, Gross Bookings, and our category position, with internal systems and tools, and our equity stakes in minority-owned affiliates with information provided by such minority-owned affiliates, that are not independently verified by any third party and which may differ from estimates or similar metrics published by third parties due to differences in sources, methodologies, or the assumptions on which we rely. Our internal systems and tools have a number of limitations, and our methodologies for tracking these metrics may change over time, which could result in unexpected changes to our metrics, including the metrics we publicly disclose, or our estimates of our category position. If the internal systems and tools we use to track these metrics undercount or overcount performance or contain algorithmic or other technical errors, the data we report may not be accurate. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our metrics for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our products are used across large populations globally. For example, we believe that there are consumers who have multiple accounts, even though we prohibit that in our Terms of Service and implement measures to detect and prevent that behavior. In addition, limitations or errors with respect to how we measure data or with respect to the data that we measure may affect our understanding of certain details of our business, which could affect our long-term strategies. If our operating metrics or our estimates of our category position or our equity stakes in our minority-owned affiliates are not accurate representations of our business, or if investors do not perceive our operating metrics or estimates of our category position or equity stakes in our minority-owned affiliates to be accurate, or if we discover material inaccuracies with respect to these figures, our reputation may be significantly harmed, and our operating and financial results could be adversely affected.
In certain jurisdictions, we allow consumers to pay for rides and meal deliveries using cash, which raises numerous regulatory, operational, and safety concerns. If we do not successfully manage those concerns, we could become subject to adverse regulatory actions and suffer reputational harm or other adverse financial and accounting consequences.
In certain jurisdictions, including India, Brazil, and Mexico, as well as certain other countries in Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we allow consumers to use cash to pay Drivers the entire fare of rides and cost of meal deliveries (including our service fee from such rides and meal deliveries). In 2019, cash-paid trips accounted for approximately 11% of our global Gross Bookings. This percentage may increase in the future, particularly in the markets in which Careem operates. The use of cash in connection with our technology raises numerous regulatory, operational, and safety concerns. For example, many jurisdictions have specific regulations regarding the use of cash for ridesharing and certain jurisdictions prohibit the use of cash for ridesharing. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in the imposition of significant fines and penalties and could result in a regulator requiring that we suspend operations in those jurisdictions. In addition to these regulatory concerns, the use of cash with our Rides products and Eats offering can increase safety and security risks for Drivers and riders, including potential robbery, assault, violent or fatal attacks, and other criminal acts. In certain jurisdictions such as Brazil, serious safety incidents resulting in robberies and violent, fatal attacks on Drivers while using our platform have been reported. If we are not able to adequately address any of these concerns, we could suffer significant reputational harm, which could adversely impact our business.
In addition, establishing the proper infrastructure to ensure that we receive the correct service fee on cash trips is complex, and has in the past meant and may continue to mean that we cannot collect the entire service fee for certain of our cash-based trips. We have created systems for Drivers to collect and deposit the cash received for cash-based trips and deliveries, as well as systems for us to collect, deposit, and properly account for the cash received, some of which are not always effective, convenient, or widely-adopted by Drivers. Creating, maintaining, and improving these systems requires significant effort and resources, and we cannot guarantee these systems will be effective in collecting amounts due to us. Further, operating a business that uses cash raises compliance risks with respect to a variety of rules and regulations, including anti-money laundering laws. If Drivers fail to pay us under the terms of our agreements or if our collection systems fail, we may be adversely affected by both the inability to collect amounts due and the cost of enforcing the terms of our contracts, including litigation. Such collection failure and enforcement costs, along with any costs associated with a failure to comply with applicable rules and regulations, could, in the aggregate, impact our financial performance.
Loss or material modification of our credit card acceptance privileges could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.
In 2019, 89% of our Gross Bookings were paid by either credit card or debit card. As such, the loss of our credit card acceptance privileges would significantly limit our business model. We are required by our payment processors to comply with payment card network operating rules, including the Payment Card Industry (“PCI”) and Data Security Standard (the “Standard”). The Standard is a comprehensive set of requirements for enhancing payment account data security developed by the PCI Security Standards Council to help facilitate the broad adoption of consistent data security measures. Our failure to comply with the Standard and other network operating rules could result in fines or restrictions on our ability to accept payment cards. Under certain circumstances specified in the payment

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card network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments, or other assessments of our compliance with the Standard. Such activities may reveal that we have failed to comply with the Standard. If an audit, self- assessment, or other test determines that we need to take steps to remediate any deficiencies, such remediation efforts may distract our management team and require us to undertake costly and time consuming remediation efforts. In addition, even if we comply with the Standard, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach. Moreover, the payment card networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret existing rules that we or our processors might find difficult or even impossible to follow, or costly to implement. In addition to violations of network rules, including the Standard, any failure to maintain good relationships with the payment card networks could impact our ability to receive incentives from them, could increase our costs, or could otherwise harm our business. The loss of our credit card acceptance privileges for any one of these reasons, or the significant modification of the terms under which we obtain credit card acceptance privileges, may have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, and operating results.
The successful operation of our business depends upon the performance and reliability of Internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control.
Our business depends on the performance and reliability of Internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control. Disruptions in Internet infrastructure or GPS signals or the failure of telecommunications network operators to provide us with the bandwidth we need to provide our products and offerings could interfere with the speed and availability of our platform. For example, in January 2018, some T-Mobile customers traveling internationally experienced a mobile service outage and as a result were unable to use our platform. If our platform is unavailable when platform users attempt to access it, or if our platform does not load as quickly as platform users expect, platform users may not return to our platform as often in the future, or at all, and may use our competitors’ products or offerings more often. In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by national telecommunications operators. If mobile Internet access fees or other charges to Internet users increase, consumer traffic may decrease, which may in turn cause our revenue to significantly decrease.
Our business depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of mobile communications systems. The occurrence of an unanticipated problem, such as a power outage, telecommunications delay or failure, security breach, or computer virus could result in delays or interruptions to our products, offerings, and platform, as well as business interruptions for us and platform users. Furthermore, foreign governments may leverage their ability to shut down directed services, and local governments may shut down our platform at the routing level. Any of these events could damage our reputation, significantly disrupt our operations, and subject us to liability, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. We have invested significant resources to develop new products to mitigate the impact of potential interruptions to mobile communications systems, which can be used by consumers in territories where mobile communications systems are less efficient. However, these products may ultimately be unsuccessful.
We rely on third parties maintaining open marketplaces to distribute our platform and to provide the software we use in certain of our products and offerings. If such third parties interfere with the distribution of our products or offerings or with our use of such software, our business would be adversely affected.
Our platform relies on third parties maintaining open marketplaces, including the Apple App Store and Google Play, which make applications available for download. We cannot assure you that the marketplaces through which we distribute our platform will maintain their current structures or that such marketplaces will not charge us fees to list our applications for download. We rely upon certain third parties to provide software for our products and offerings, including Google Maps for the mapping function that is critical to the functionality of our platform. We do not believe that an alternative mapping solution exists that can provide the global functionality that we require to offer our platform in all of the markets in which we operate. We do not control all mapping functions employed by our platform or Drivers using our platform, and it is possible that such mapping functions may not be reliable. If such third parties cease to provide access to the third-party software that we and Drivers use, do not provide access to such software on terms that we believe to be attractive or reasonable, or do not provide us with the most current version of such software, we may be required to seek comparable software from other sources, which may be more expensive or inferior, or may not be available at all, any of which would adversely affect our business.
Our business depends upon the interoperability of our platform across devices, operating systems, and third-party applications that we do not control.
One of the most important features of our platform is its broad interoperability with a range of devices, operating systems, and third-party applications. Our platform is accessible from the web and from devices running various operating systems such as iOS and Android. We depend on the accessibility of our platform across these third-party operating systems and applications that we do not control. Moreover, third-party services and products are constantly evolving, and we may not be able to modify our platform to assure its compatibility with that of other third parties following development changes. The loss of interoperability, whether due to actions of third parties or otherwise, could adversely affect our business.
We rely on third parties for elements of the payment processing infrastructure underlying our platform. If these third-party elements become unavailable or unavailable on favorable terms, our business could be adversely affected.
The convenient payment mechanisms provided by our platform are key factors contributing to the development of our business. We rely on third parties for elements of our payment-processing infrastructure to remit payments to Drivers, restaurants, and carriers using

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our platform, and these third parties may refuse to renew our agreements with them on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us on acceptable terms or at all, our business may be disrupted. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we generally pay interchange fees and other processing and gateway fees, and such fees result in significant costs. In addition, online payment providers are under continued pressure to pay increased fees to banks to process funds, and there is no assurance that such online payment providers will not pass any increased costs on to merchant partners, including us. If these fees increase over time, our operating costs will increase, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.
In addition, system failures have at times prevented us from making payments to Drivers in accordance with our typical timelines and processes, and have caused substantial Driver dissatisfaction and generated a significant number of Driver complaints. Future failures of the payment processing infrastructure underlying our platform could cause Drivers to lose trust in our payment operations and could cause them to instead use our competitors’ platforms. If the quality or convenience of our payment processing infrastructure declines as a result of these limitations or for any other reason, the attractiveness of our business to Drivers, restaurants, and carriers could be adversely affected. If we are forced to migrate to other third-party payment service providers for any reason, the transition would require significant time and management resources, and may not be as effective, efficient, or well-received by platform users.
Computer malware, viruses, spamming, and phishing attacks could harm our reputation, business, and operating results.
We rely heavily on information technology systems across our operations. Our information technology systems, including mobile and online platforms and mobile payment systems, administrative functions such as human resources, payroll, accounting, and internal and external communications, and the information technology systems of our third-party business partners and service providers, contain proprietary or confidential information related to business and personal data, including sensitive personal data, entrusted to us by platform users, employees, and job candidates. Computer malware, viruses, spamming, and phishing attacks have become more prevalent in our industry, have occurred on our systems in the past, and may occur on our systems in the future. Various other factors may also cause system failures, including power outages, catastrophic events, inadequate or ineffective redundancy, issues with upgrading or creating new systems or platforms, flaws in third-party software or services, errors by our employees or third-party service providers, or breaches in the security of these systems or platforms. For example, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or platform users to disclose information to gain access to our data or the data of platform users. If our incident response, disaster recovery, and business continuity plans do not resolve these issues in an effective manner, they could result in adverse impacts to our business operations and our financial results. Because of our prominence, the number of platform users, and the types and volume of personal data on our systems, we may be a particularly attractive target for such attacks. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our data and that of platform users, and to prevent data loss, undesirable activities on our platform, and security breaches, we cannot guarantee that such measures will provide absolute security. Our efforts on this front may be unsuccessful as a result of, for example, software bugs or other technical malfunctions; employee, contractor, or vendor error or malfeasance; government surveillance; or other threats that evolve, and we may incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyber-attacks. Any actual or perceived failure to maintain the performance, reliability, security, and availability of our products, offerings, and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of platform users and certain regulators would likely harm our reputation and result in loss of revenue from the adverse impact to our reputation and brand, disruption to our business, and our decreased ability to attract and retain Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers.
Our platform is highly technical, and any undetected errors could adversely affect our business.
Our platform is a complex system composed of many interoperating components and incorporates software that is highly complex. Our business is dependent upon our ability to prevent system interruption on our platform. Our software, including open source software that is incorporated into our code, may now or in the future contain undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities. Some errors in our software code may only be discovered after the code has been released. Bugs in our software, third-party software including open source software that is incorporated into our code, misconfigurations of our systems, and unintended interactions between systems could result in our failure to comply with certain federal, state, or foreign reporting obligations, or could cause downtime that would impact the availability of our service to platform users. We have from time to time found defects or errors in our system and may discover additional defects in the future that could result in platform unavailability or system disruption. In addition, we have experienced outages on our platform due to circumstances within our control, such as outages due to software limitations. We rely on co-located data centers for the operation of our platform. If our co-located data centers fail, our platform users may experience down time. If sustained or repeated, any of these outages could reduce the attractiveness of our platform to platform users. For example, as a result of an error with one of our routine maintenance releases in February 2018, we experienced an outage on our platform for 28 minutes, resulting in Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers being unable to log on to our platform in major cities, including Las Vegas, Atlanta, New York, and Washington D.C. In addition, our release of new software in the past has inadvertently caused, and may in the future cause, interruptions in the availability or functionality of our platform. Any errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities discovered in our code or systems after release could result in an interruption in the availability of our platform or a negative experience for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, and could also result in negative publicity and unfavorable media coverage, damage to our reputation, loss of platform users, loss of revenue or liability for damages, regulatory inquiries, or other proceedings, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

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We currently rely on a small number of third-party service providers to host a significant portion of our platform, and any interruptions or delays in services from these third parties could impair the delivery of our products and offerings and harm our business.
We use a combination of third-party cloud computing services and co-located data centers in the United States and abroad. We do not control the physical operation of any of the co-located data centers we use or the operations of our third-party service providers. These third-party operations and co-located data centers may experience break-ins, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, sabotage, acts of vandalism, and other misconduct. These facilities may also be vulnerable to damage or interruption from power loss, telecommunications failures, fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and similar events. Our systems do not provide complete redundancy of data storage or processing, and as a result, the occurrence of any such event, a decision by our third-party service providers to close our co-located data centers without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems may result in our inability to serve data reliably or require us to migrate our data to either a new on-premise data center or cloud computing service. This could be time consuming and costly and may result in the loss of data, any of which could significantly interrupt the provision of our products and offerings and harm our reputation and brand. We may not be able to easily switch to another cloud or data center provider in the event of any disruptions or interference to the services we use, and even if we do, other cloud and data center providers are subject to the same risks. Additionally, our co-located data center facility agreements are of limited durations, and our co-located data center facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to renew our agreements with these facilities on commercially reasonable terms, we may experience delays in the provision of our products and offerings until an agreement with another co-located data center is arranged. Interruptions in the delivery of our products and offerings may reduce our revenue, cause Drivers, restaurants, and carriers to stop offering their services through our platform, and reduce use of our platform by consumers and shippers. Our business and operating results may be harmed if current and potential Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers believe our platform is unreliable. In addition, if we are unable to scale our data storage and computational capacity sufficiently or on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to innovate and introduce new products on our platform may be delayed or compromised, which would have an adverse effect on our growth and business.
Our use of third-party open source software could adversely affect our ability to offer our products and offerings and subjects us to possible litigation.
We use third-party open source software in connection with the development of our platform. From time to time, companies that use third-party open source software have faced claims challenging the use of such open source software and their compliance with the terms of the applicable open source license. We may be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software, or claiming non-compliance with the applicable open source licensing terms. Some open source licenses require end-users who distribute or make available across a network software and services that include open source software to make available all or part of such software, which in some circumstances could include valuable proprietary code. While we employ practices designed to monitor our compliance with the licenses of third-party open source software and protect our valuable proprietary source code, we have not run a complete open source license review and may inadvertently use third-party open source software in a manner that exposes us to claims of non-compliance with the applicable terms of such license, including claims for infringement of intellectual property rights or for breach of contract. Furthermore, there is an increasing number of open-source software license types, almost none of which have been tested in a court of law, resulting in a dearth of guidance regarding the proper legal interpretation of such licenses. If we were to receive a claim of non-compliance with the terms of any of our open source licenses, we may be required to publicly release certain portions of our proprietary source code or expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.
In addition, the use of third-party open source software typically exposes us to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software because open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the functionality or origin of the software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to compromise our platform. Additionally, because any software source code that we make available under an open source license or that we contribute to existing open source projects becomes publicly available, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights in such software source code may be limited or lost entirely, and we would be unable to prevent our competitors or others from using such contributed software source code. Any of the foregoing could be harmful to our business, financial condition, or operating results and could help our competitors develop products and offerings that are similar to or better than ours.
We have incurred a significant amount of debt and may in the future incur additional indebtedness. Our payment obligations under such indebtedness may limit the funds available to us, and the terms of our debt agreements may restrict our flexibility in operating our business.
As of December 31, 2019, we had total outstanding indebtedness of $5.8 billion aggregate principal amount. In addition, approximately $1.7 billion of the Careem Convertible Notes were issued to Careem stockholders upon the closing of our acquisition of Careem. The Careem Convertible Notes do not bear interest and will mature 90 days after their respective dates of issuance. Subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt, or refinance our debt. In particular, we may need to incur additional debt to finance the purchase of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters or autonomous vehicles, and such financing may not be available to us on attractive terms or at all.
We may be required to use a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness.

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Such payments will reduce the funds available to us for working capital, capital expenditures, and other corporate purposes and limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, expansion plans, and other investments, which may in turn limit our ability to implement our business strategy, heighten our vulnerability to downturns in our business, the industry, or in the general economy, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry, and prevent us from taking advantage of business opportunities as they arise. For example, the Careem Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of our common stock at the election of each note holder at a price of $55 per share. Some or all of the holders of the Careem Convertible Notes may not elect to convert their notes prior to their maturity, in which case we will be required to repay such notes in cash. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future financing will be available to us in amounts sufficient to enable us to make required and timely payments on our indebtedness, or to fund our operations. To date, we have used a substantial amount of cash for operating activities, and we cannot assure you when we will begin to generate cash from operating activities in amounts sufficient to cover our debt service obligations.
In addition, under certain of our existing debt instruments, we and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to limitations regarding our business and operations, including limitations on incurring additional indebtedness and liens, limitations on certain consolidations, mergers, and sales of assets, and restrictions on the payment of dividends or distributions. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve additional restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions or divestitures. Any default under our debt arrangements could require that we repay our loans immediately, and may limit our ability to obtain additional financing, which in turn may have an adverse effect on our cash flows and liquidity.
In addition, we are exposed to interest rate risk related to some of our indebtedness, which is discussed in greater detail under the section titled “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Interest Rate Risk.”
We may have exposure to materially greater than anticipated tax liabilities.
The tax laws applicable to our global business activities are subject to uncertainty and can be interpreted differently by different companies. For example, we may become subject to sales tax rates in certain jurisdictions that are significantly greater than the rates we currently pay in those jurisdictions. Like many other multinational corporations, we are subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign jurisdictions and have structured our operations to reduce our effective tax rate. Currently, certain jurisdictions are investigating our compliance with tax rules. If it is determined that we are not compliant with such rules, we could owe additional taxes. Additionally, the taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate have in the past, and may in the future, examine or challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology, which could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position and operating results. Furthermore, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles. We are subject to regular review and audit by both U.S. federal and state tax authorities, as well as foreign tax authorities, and currently face numerous audits in the United States and abroad. Any adverse outcome of such reviews and audits could have an adverse effect on our financial position and operating results. In addition, the determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by our management, and we have engaged in many transactions for which the ultimate tax determination remains uncertain. The ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made. Our tax positions or tax returns are subject to change, and therefore we cannot accurately predict whether we may incur material additional tax liabilities in the future, which could impact our financial position. In addition, in connection with any planned or future acquisitions, we may acquire businesses that have differing licenses and other arrangements that may be challenged by tax authorities for not being at arm’s-length or that are otherwise potentially less tax efficient than our licenses and arrangements. Any subsequent integration or continued operation of such acquired businesses may result in an increased effective tax rate in certain jurisdictions or potential indirect tax costs, which could result in us incurring additional tax liabilities or having to establish a reserve in our consolidated financial statements, and could adversely affect our financial results.
Changes in global and U.S. tax legislation may adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.
We are a U.S.-based multinational company subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. U.S. tax legislation enacted in 2017 has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. corporations, including reducing the U.S. corporate income tax rate, revising the rules governing net operating losses effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, providing a transition of U.S. international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a modified territorial system, imposing a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017, and imposing new limitations on the deductibility of interest. Many of these changes were effective immediately, without any transition periods or grandfathering for existing transactions. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, as well as interpretations and implementing regulations by the U.S. Treasury and U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), any of which could lessen or increase certain adverse impacts of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation, which often uses federal taxable income as a starting point for computing state and local tax liabilities.
We are unable to predict what global or U.S. tax reforms may be proposed or enacted in the future or what effects such future changes

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would have on our business. Any such changes in tax legislation, regulations, policies or practices in the jurisdictions in which we operate could increase the estimated tax liability that we have expensed to date and paid or accrued on our balance sheet; affect our financial position, future operating results, cash flows, and effective tax rates where we have operations; reduce post-tax returns to our stockholders; and increase the complexity, burden, and cost of tax compliance. We are subject to potential changes in relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, and interpretations, including changes to tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals. For example, in March 2018, the European Commission released a proposal for a European Council directive on taxation of specified digital services. The proposal calls for an interim tax on certain revenues from digital activities, as well as a longer-term regime that creates a taxable presence for digital services and imposes tax on digital profits. We do not yet know the impact this proposal, if implemented, would have on our financial results. Additionally, other countries could introduce similar digital services taxes. The governments of countries in which we operate and other governmental bodies could make unprecedented assertions about how taxation is determined in their jurisdictions that are contrary to the way in which we have interpreted and historically applied the rules and regulations described above in our income tax returns filed in such jurisdictions. New laws could significantly increase our tax obligations in the countries in which we do business or require us to change the manner in which we operate our business. As a result of the large and expanding scale of our international business activities, many of these changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position, operating results, and cash flows.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2019, we had net operating loss carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes and state income tax purposes of $8.8 billion and $8.3 billion, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. If not utilized, the federal net operating loss carryforward amounts generated prior to January 1, 2018 will begin to expire in 2031, and the state net operating loss carryforward amounts will begin to expire in 2020. As of December 31, 2019, we also had foreign net operating loss carryforwards of $2.7 billion that will begin to expire in 2024. Realization of these net operating loss carryforwards depends on our future taxable income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income may be limited. We may experience ownership changes in the future because of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carry-forwards and other tax attributes to offset U.S. federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us.
We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
Because we conduct a significant and growing portion of our business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar but report our consolidated financial results in U.S. dollars, we face exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. As exchange rates vary, revenue, cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, operating expenses, other income and expense, and assets and liabilities, when translated, may also vary materially and thus affect our overall financial results. We have not to date, but may in the future, enter into hedging arrangements to manage foreign currency translation, but such activity may not completely eliminate fluctuations in our operating results due to currency exchange rate changes. Hedging arrangements are inherently risky, and we do not have experience establishing hedging programs, which could expose us to additional risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
Our acquisition of Careem is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties.
In March 2019, we entered into an asset purchase agreement to acquire Careem for approximately $3.1 billion, consisting of up to approximately $1.7 billion of the Careem Convertible Notes and approximately $1.4 billion in cash, subject to certain adjustments. In January 2020, we completed the acquisition following clearance of the transaction in Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which represent substantially all of the major markets where regulatory approval was required, and in February 2020, we received regulatory approval in Pakistan. We continue to seek regulatory approval in Qatar and Morocco, and upon receipt of such approvals, we will proceed to close the acquisition of the Careem businesses in those countries.
We acquired substantially all of the assets and assumed substantially all of the liabilities of Careem, including liabilities associated with any data security breaches it has experienced in the past. In markets where we have not received regulatory approval, the acquisition could be blocked, delayed, or subject to significant limitations or restrictions on our ability to operate in any of such markets, and we could be required to divest our or Careem’s business in any such markets. For example, the Qatar competition authority issued a decision in August 2019 blocking the proposed acquisition in Qatar, of which we are appealing. Based on gross bookings in 2018, Careem’s business in Qatar represents approximately 1.8% of its overall business.
In addition, some or all of the holders of the Careem Convertible Notes may not elect to convert their notes into shares of our common stock at any time prior to their maturity 90 days after issuance, in which case we will be required to repay their notes in cash.
Pursuant to our agreement with Careem, the Careem brand and ridesharing, meal delivery, and payments apps will continue to operate in parallel with Uber’s apps following the closing of the acquisition. Careem’s Chief Executive Officer will continue to be the Chief

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Executive Officer of Careem and will report to an Uber-controlled board of directors. Although we will integrate certain general and administrative functions at the Uber parent level, Careem’s engineering, human resources, and operations teams will continue to operate independently and report to Careem’s Chief Executive Officer. This structure may delay the efficiencies that we expect to gain from the acquisition and our brand and reputation could be impacted by any damage or reputational harm to the Careem brand.
Careem has historically shared certain user data with certain government authorities, which conflicts with our global policies regarding data use, sharing, and ownership. We expect to maintain our data use, sharing, and ownership practices for both our business and Careem’s business following the closing of the acquisition, and doing so may cause our relationships with government authorities in certain jurisdictions to suffer, and may result in such government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or Careem’s app on either a temporary or indefinite basis.
Our acquisition of Careem has increased our risks under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other similar laws outside the United States. We have worked with Careem’s compliance team to develop and implement employee training and related compliance processes. Our existing and planned safeguards, including training and compliance programs to discourage corrupt practices by such parties, may not prove effective, and such parties may engage in conduct for which we could be held responsible.
Any of these risks and uncertainties could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
If we are unable to identify and successfully acquire suitable businesses, our operating results and prospects could be harmed, and any businesses we acquire may not perform as expected or be effectively integrated.
As part of our business strategy, we have entered into, and expect to continue to enter into, agreements to acquire companies, form joint ventures, divest portions or aspects of our business, sell minority stakes in portions or aspects of our business, and acquire complementary companies or technologies, including divestitures in China, Southeast Asia and India, our Yandex.Taxi joint venture in Russia/CIS, our acquisition of Careem, and the investment by SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO in ATG (the “ATG Investment Transaction”). Competition within our industry for acquisitions of businesses, technologies, and assets is intense. As such, even if we are able to identify a target for acquisition, we may not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to receive approval from the applicable competition authorities, or such target may be acquired by another company, including one of our competitors. For example, our acquisition of Careem continues to be subject to approval from the regional competition authorities in certain markets in which Careem operates. Pursuant to the terms of our agreement with Careem, failure to obtain approval in one or more of these countries could require us to divest our or Careem’s business in that country. Moreover, the ATG Investment Transaction is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. For example, if the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”) unwinds the ATG Collaboration Agreement or requires mitigation measures that materially and adversely affect the strategic benefits of the ATG Collaboration Agreement, SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO will each have the right to require ATG to redeem some or all of their preferred units at a price equal to their respective initial investment amounts.
Further, negotiations for potential acquisitions or other transactions may result in the diversion of our management’s time and significant out-of-pocket costs. We may expend significant cash or incur substantial debt to finance such acquisitions, and such indebtedness may restrict our business or require the use of available cash to make interest and principal payments. In addition, we may finance or otherwise complete acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, which may result in dilution to our stockholders, or if such convertible debt securities are not converted, significant cash outlays. If we fail to evaluate and execute acquisitions successfully or fail to successfully address any of these risks, our business, financial condition, and operating results may be harmed.
In addition, any businesses we acquire may not perform as well as we expect. Failure to manage and successfully integrate recently acquired businesses and technologies, including managing any privacy or data security risks associated with such acquisitions, may harm our operating results and expansion prospects. The process of integrating an acquired company, business, or technology or acquired personnel into our company is subject to various risks and challenges, including:
diverting management time and focus from operating our business to acquisition integration;
disrupting our ongoing business operations;
platform user acceptance of the acquired company’s offerings;
implementing or remediating the controls, procedures, and policies of the acquired company;
integrating the acquired business onto our systems and ensuring the acquired business meets our financial reporting requirements and timelines;
retaining and integrating acquired employees, including aligning incentives between acquired employees and existing employees, as well as managing costs associated with eliminating redundancies or transferring employees on acceptable terms with minimal business disruption;
maintaining important business relationships and contracts of the acquired business;
liability for pre-acquisition activities of the acquired company;
litigation or other claims or liabilities arising in connection with the acquisition or the acquired company; and

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impairment charges associated with goodwill, long-lived assets, investments, and other acquired intangible assets.
We may not receive a favorable return on investment for prior or future business combinations, including with respect to ATG, Careem or our minority-owned affiliates, and we cannot predict whether these transactions will be accretive to the value of our common stock. It is also possible that acquisitions, combinations, divestitures, joint ventures, or other strategic transactions we announce could be viewed negatively by the press, investors, platform users, or regulators, any or all of which may adversely affect our reputation and our business. Any of these factors may adversely affect our ability to consummate a transaction, our financial condition, and our operating results.
Legal and Regulatory Risks Related to Our Business
We may continue to be blocked from or limited in providing or operating our products and offerings in certain jurisdictions, and may be required to modify our business model in those jurisdictions as a result.
In certain jurisdictions, including key markets such as Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain, our ridesharing business model has been blocked, capped, or suspended, or we have been required to change our business model, due primarily to laws and significant regulatory restrictions in such jurisdictions. In some cases, we have applied for and obtained licenses or permits to operate and must continue to comply with the license or permit requirements or risk revocation. In addition, we may not be able to maintain or renew any such license or permit. For example, TfL scrutinizes our business on an on-going basis and we are subject to license reviews at renewal. In September 2019, TfL granted us a two month license, finding us a fit and proper operator, but in November 2019, TfL declined to issue us a license, finding that we were not “fit and proper,” including with respect to confidence in our change and release management processes. We have appealed the decision and are able to continue operations pending judicial proceedings. We expect the appeal to be heard in Westminster Magistrates Court in mid-2020. Any inability to operate in London, as well as the publicity concerning an adverse judicial decision, would adversely affect our business, revenue, and operating results. We cannot predict whether the TfL decision, or future regulatory decisions or legislation in other jurisdictions, may embolden or encourage other authorities to take similar actions even where we are operating according to the terms of an existing license or permit. Additionally, in April 2019, Mexico City’s Secretaría de Movilidad passed an amendment to existing ridesharing regulations implementing certain operational requirements, including a prohibition on the use of cash to pay for ridesharing services and, effective as of November 2019, a requirement that Drivers in Mexico City obtain additional licenses to provide ridesharing services. We are still evaluating the impact of these regulations, but such operational requirements, if implemented without modification, could have a negative impact on our business and our failure to comply with such regulations may result in a revocation of our license to operate in Mexico City.
Traditional taxicab and car service operators in various jurisdictions continue to lobby legislators and regulators to block our Rides products or to require us to comply with regulatory, insurance, record-keeping, licensing, and other requirements to which taxicab and car services are subject. For example, in January 2019, we suspended our Rides products in Barcelona after the regional government enacted regulations mandating minimum wait times before riders could be picked up by ridesharing drivers. In December 2018, New York City’s Taxi and Limousine Commission implemented a per-mile and per-minute minimum trip payment formula, designed to establish a minimum pay standard, for drivers providing for-hire services in New York City, such as those provided by Drivers on our platform. These minimum rates took effect in February 2019. We are still working through adjustments to be made with respect to rider promotions, driver supply, and other aspects of our business in response to these regulations; however, these regulations had a negative impact on our financial performance in New York City in the first quarter of 2019 and may have a similar adverse impact in the future. In August 2018, the New York City Council voted to approve various measures to further regulate our business, including driver earning rules, licensing requirements, and a one-year freeze on new for-hire vehicle licenses for ridesharing services like those enabled via our platform, while the city studies whether a permanent freeze would help reduce congestion. In August 2019, New York City’s Taxi and Limousine Commission voted to extend such freeze on for-hire vehicle licenses and also voted to enact a new “cruising cap,” intended to reduce the number of for-hire vehicles operating without passengers on platforms like ours in the central business district of New York City. Although such “cruising cap” was struck down by a New York state judge in December 2019, the freeze on for-hire vehicle licenses remains. Additionally, in November 2019, a ballot measure to impose a surcharge on ridesharing trips in San Francisco was passed by voters in San Francisco and such surcharge took effect on January 1, 2020. Also in January 2020, a new tax went into effect in Chicago that imposes a surcharge of up to $3 per ridesharing trip taken in Chicago. In addition, other jurisdictions such as Seattle have in the past considered or may consider regulations which would implement minimum wage requirements or permit drivers to negotiate for minimum wages while providing services on our platform. Similar legislative or regulatory initiatives are being considered or have been enacted in countries outside the United States. If other jurisdictions impose similar regulations, our business growth could be adversely affected.
In certain jurisdictions, we are subject to national, state, local, or municipal laws and regulations that are ambiguous in their application or enforcement or that we believe are invalid or inapplicable. In such jurisdictions, we may be subject to regulatory fines and proceedings and, in certain cases, may be required to cease operations altogether if we continue to operate our business as currently conducted, unless and until such laws and regulations are reformed to clarify that our business operations are fully compliant. For example, on January 31, 2020, we ceased offering our Rides products in Colombia after a Colombian court ruled that we violated local competition laws. We have appealed the decision, which does not suspend its enforceability, and although the Colombian courts have not ruled on the appeal, we have made certain changes to our Rides products in Colombia and re-launched Rides in Colombia in February 2020. Furthermore, in certain of these jurisdictions, we continue to provide our products and offerings while we assess the applicability of these laws and regulations to our products and offerings or while we seek regulatory or policy changes to address concerns with respect to our ability

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to comply with these laws and regulations. Our decision to continue operating in these instances has come under investigation or has otherwise been subject to scrutiny by government authorities. Our continuation of this practice and other past practices may result in fines or other penalties against us and Drivers imposed by local regulators, potentially increasing the risk that our licenses or permits that are necessary to operate in such jurisdictions will not be renewed. Such fines and penalties have in the past been, and may in the future continue to be, imposed solely on Drivers, which may cause Drivers to stop providing services on our platform. In many instances, we make the business decision as a gesture of goodwill to pay the fines on behalf of Drivers or to pay Drivers’ defense costs, which, in the aggregate, can be in the millions of dollars. Furthermore, such business practices may also result in negative press coverage, which may discourage Drivers and consumers from using our platform and could adversely affect our revenue. In addition, we face regulatory obstacles, including those lobbied for by our competitors or from local governments globally, that have favored and may continue to favor local or incumbent competitors, including obstacles for potential Drivers seeking to obtain required licenses or vehicle certifications. We have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, significant costs in defending our right to operate in accordance with our business model in many jurisdictions. To the extent that efforts to block or limit our operations are successful, or we or Drivers are required to comply with regulatory and other requirements applicable to taxicab and car services, our revenue and growth would be adversely affected.
Our business is subject to numerous legal and regulatory risks that could have an adverse impact on our business and future prospects.
Our platform is available in approximately 10,000 cities across 69 countries. We are subject to differing, and sometimes conflicting, laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we provide our offerings. A large number of proposals are before various national, regional, and local legislative bodies and regulatory entities, both within the United States and in foreign jurisdictions, regarding issues related to our business model. Certain proposals, if adopted, could significantly and materially harm our business, financial condition, and operating results by restricting or limiting how we operate our business, increasing our operating costs, and decreasing our number of platform users. We cannot predict whether or when such proposals may be adopted.
Further, existing or new laws and regulations could expose us to substantial liability, including significant expenses necessary to comply with such laws and regulations, and could dampen the growth and usage of our platform. For example, as we expand our offerings in new areas, such as non-emergency medical transportation, we may be subject to additional healthcare-related federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, because our offerings are frequently first-to-market in the jurisdictions in which we operate, several local jurisdictions have passed, and we expect additional jurisdictions to pass, laws and regulations that limit or block our ability to offer our products to Drivers and consumers in those jurisdictions, thereby impeding overall use of our platform. We are actively challenging some of these laws and regulations and are lobbying other jurisdictions to oppose similar restrictions on our business, especially our ridesharing services. Further, because a substantial portion of our business involves vehicles that run on fossil fuels, laws, regulations, or governmental actions seeking to curb air pollution or emissions may impact our business. For example, in response to London’s efforts to cut emissions and improve air quality in the city (including the institution of a toxicity charge for polluting vehicles in the city center congestion zone and the introduction of an “Ultra Low Emissions Zone” that went into effect in April 2019), we have added a clean-air fee of 15 pence per mile to each trip on our platform in London, and plan to help Drivers on our platform fully transition to electric vehicles by 2025. Additionally, proposed ridesharing regulations in Egypt and other jurisdictions may require us to share certain personal data with government authorities to operate our app, which we may not be willing to provide. Our failure to share such data in accordance with these regulations may result in government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or Careem’s app in Egypt on either a temporary or indefinite basis.
Additionally, effective January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom commenced an exit from the European Union (“EU”), commonly referred to as Brexit. During a transition period that is set to expire on December 31, 2020, the British government will continue to negotiate the terms of the United Kingdom's future relationship with the EU. The outcome of these negotiations is uncertain, and we do not know to what extent Brexit will ultimately impact the business and regulatory environment in the United Kingdom, the rest of the EU, or other countries. Lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU rules and regulations to replace or replicate, including financial laws and regulations (including relating to payment processing), tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws, and employment laws, could decrease foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom, increase costs, depress economic activity, and restrict access to capital.
In addition, we are currently involved in litigation in a number of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We initiated some of these legal challenges to contest the application of certain laws and regulations to our business. Others have been brought by taxicab owners, local regulators, local law enforcement, and platform users, including Drivers and consumers. These include individual, multiple plaintiff, and putative class and class action claims for alleged violation of laws related to, among other things, transportation, competition, advertising, consumer protection, fee calculations, personal injuries, privacy, intellectual property, product liability, discrimination, safety, and employment. For example, in May 2019, a class action was filed against us and certain of our subsidiaries in the Supreme Court of Victoria, Australia on behalf of participants in the taxi, hire-car, limousine, and charter vehicle industry who were licensed to operate in particular regions of Australia during certain periods between April 2014 and August 2017. The class action alleges that we operated unlawfully in such regions during such periods. These legislative and regulatory proceedings, allegations, and lawsuits are expensive and time consuming to defend, and, if resolved adversely to us, could result in financial damages or penalties, including criminal penalties, incarceration, and sanctions for individuals employed by us or parties with whom we contract, which could harm our ability to operate

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our business as planned in one or more of the jurisdictions in which we operate, which could adversely affect our business, revenue, and operating results.
We face legal risks specific to our new dockless e-bike and e-scooter products, including those that result from quality problems that may arise with our hardware products, which may result in product recalls, litigation, enforcement actions, or regulatory proceedings, and could adversely affect our business, brand, financial condition, and results of operations.
As we expand our New Mobility offerings to include dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, we expect to become subject to additional risks distinct from those relating to our Rides, Eats and Freight offerings. Consumers may not be technically proficient in using dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, and they may not know to wear, or intentionally choose not to wear, protective equipment designed to enhance the safety of these products, including helmets. User error, together with the failure to use protective equipment, increases the risk of injuries or death while using these products. Non-compliance with standard traffic laws, as well as urban hazards such as unpaved or uneven roadways, increases the risk and severity of potential injuries. In addition, we offer our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products predominantly in metropolitan areas, where consumers using dockless e-bikes and e-scooters need to share, navigate, and at times contend with narrow and heavily congested roads occupied by cars, buses and light rail, especially during “rush” hours, all of which heighten the potential of injuries or death. Although we advise platform users of local requirements, including applicable helmet laws, and offer promotional codes for and occasionally give away helmets during promotions or in accordance with local regulations, we do not otherwise provide protective equipment to consumers using our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. Further, dockless e-bike and e-scooter maintenance, whether performed or facilitated by us, is difficult to ensure, and improper maintenance could lead to serious rider injury or death. Consumers using dockless e-bikes or e-scooters face a more severe level of injury in the event of a collision than that faced while riding in a vehicle, given the less sophisticated, and in some cases absent, passive protection systems on dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. In addition, government regulators in certain jurisdictions have placed the responsibility for user error on e-bike and e-scooter operators, and we cannot assure you that other jurisdictions will not do the same. As such, our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products expose us to increased liability.
Additionally, we rely on third parties to manufacture our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and their component parts. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, issues with our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters that may lead to product liability, personal injury or death, property damage claims, and increased scrutiny by governmental authorities. In response, we have taken action to replace, modify, increase maintenance frequency, or limit the use of such products, and may need to do so in the future. Such issues may also lead to recalls, market withdrawals, or regulatory actions by governmental authorities. Any of these events could result in increased governmental and regulatory scrutiny, harm to our reputation, significant financial costs, reduced demand from consumers for our products, and additional safety and testing requirements. For example, we have previously replaced rechargeable batteries for dockless e-bikes that did not meet performance expectations under certain conditions, which led to significant replacement costs and launch delays. The occurrence of real or perceived quality problems or material defects in our current or future dockless e-bikes or e-scooters could result in negative publicity, market withdrawals, regulatory proceedings, enforcement actions, or lawsuits filed against us, particularly if consumers are injured. Even if injuries to consumers are not the result of any defects in or the failure to properly maintain or repair our products, we may incur expenses to defend or settle any claims and our brand and reputation may be harmed.
Our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters are currently subject to operating restrictions or caps in certain cities and municipalities.
Most jurisdictions in which we provide our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, including Santa Monica and Austin, limit the aggregate number of dockless e-bikes or e-scooters that we may provide in a given jurisdiction. In other jurisdictions, such as Fort Lauderdale, we have failed to secure permits to offer dockless e-bikes or e-scooters, which allows our competitors to operate in those markets while we cannot. In addition, many jurisdictions have not yet authorized dockless e-bike or e-scooter operations, which in some cases has limited our ability to expand our operations. In many major metropolitan areas, such as New York City, Chicago and San Francisco, governmental bodies have entered into exclusive contracts for docked e-bike services in certain portions of the city, including Manhattan, and those jurisdictions may interpret such exclusive deals to prohibit dockless e-bikes provided by other operators. We face a combination of these limitations in certain cities. Even in jurisdictions where we have current permits to operate, a city may restructure its permitting process and we may fail to secure the right to operate in the future. Our inability to expand our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Additionally, most dockless e-bike and e-scooter operating regulations are jurisdiction-specific and many jurisdictions have broad and evolving interpretations of what constitutes compliance with their regulations. This operational uncertainty increases our exposure to reputational damage, financial harm, reduced availability of and demand for our products, and our ability to efficiently manage operations.
Changes in, or failure to comply with, competition laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Competition authorities closely scrutinize us under U.S. and foreign antitrust and competition laws. An increasing number of governments are enforcing competition laws and are doing so with increased scrutiny, including governments in large markets such as the EU, the United States, Brazil, and India, particularly surrounding issues of predatory pricing, price-fixing, and abuse of market power. Many of these jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct. For example, complaints have been filed in several jurisdictions, including in the United States and India, alleging that our prices are too high (surge pricing) or too low (discounts or predatory pricing), or both. In February 2020, a purported assignee of Sidecar, an early competitor in the ridesharing business, re-filed a lawsuit against us asserting claims under both federal and California law based on allegations that we engaged in anti-

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competitive conduct, after a federal judge dismissed Sidecar’s original lawsuit against us, which was based on similar allegations. If one jurisdiction imposes or proposes to impose new requirements or restrictions on our business, other jurisdictions may follow. Further, any new requirements or restrictions, or proposed requirements or restrictions, could result in adverse publicity or fines, whether or not valid or subject to appeal.
In addition, governmental agencies and regulators may, among other things, prohibit future acquisitions, divestitures, or combinations we plan to make, impose significant fines or penalties, require divestiture of certain of our assets, or impose other restrictions that limit or require us to modify our operations, including limitations on our contractual relationships with platform users or restrictions on our pricing models. For example, while our acquisition of Careem has been approved in Egypt, Jordan, KSA, UAE and Pakistan, it continues to be subject to approval in Morocco and Qatar and a failure to obtain approval in one or more of these remaining markets could require us to divest our or Careem’s business in those markets. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain competition authority approval in any or all of these markets. Such rulings may alter the way in which we do business and, therefore, may continue to increase our costs or liabilities or reduce demand for our platform, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Our business is subject to extensive government regulation and oversight relating to the provision of payment and financial services.
Most jurisdictions in which we operate have laws that govern payment and financial services activities. Regulators in certain jurisdictions may determine that certain aspects of our business are subject to these laws and could require us to obtain licenses to continue to operate in such jurisdictions. Our subsidiary in the Netherlands, Uber Payments B.V., is registered and authorized by its competent authority, De Nederlandsche Bank, as an electronic money institution. This authorization permits Uber Payments B.V. to provide payment services (including acquiring and executing payment transactions and money remittances, as referred to in the Revised Payment Services Directive (2015/2366/EU)) and to issue electronic money in the Netherlands. In addition, Uber Payments B.V. has notified De Nederlandsche Bank that it will provide such services on a cross-border passport basis into other countries within the EEA. We continue to critically evaluate our options for seeking additional licenses and approvals in several other jurisdictions to optimize our payment solutions and support the future growth of our business. We could be denied such licenses, have existing licenses revoked, or be required to make significant changes to our business operations before being granted such licenses. For example, it is prohibited for persons to hold, acquire, or increase a “qualifying holding” in an electronic money institution with a corporate seat in the Netherlands, such as Uber Payments B.V., prior to receiving a declaration of no objection (“DNO”) from De Nederlandsche Bank. A “qualifying holding” is a direct or indirect holding of 10% or more of the issued share capital of an electronic money institution, the ability to exercise directly or indirectly 10% or more of the voting rights in an electronic money institution, or the ability to exercise directly or indirectly a similar influence over an electronic money institution. We cannot guarantee that a person intending to hold, acquire, or increase a qualifying holding in us will receive a DNO in the future, and a failure of such person to receive a DNO could expose that person to financial regulatory enforcement action in the Netherlands and could cause our electronic money institution license to be negatively impacted or revoked. If we are denied payment or other financial licenses or such licenses are revoked, we could be forced to cease or limit business operations in certain jurisdictions, including in the EEA, and even if we are able to obtain such licenses, we could be subject to fines or other enforcement action, or stripped of such licenses, if we are found to violate the requirements of such licenses. In some countries, it is not clear whether we are required to be licensed as a payment services provider. Were local regulators to determine that such arrangements require us to be so licensed, such regulators may block payments to Drivers, restaurants, shippers or carriers. Such regulatory actions, or the need to obtain regulatory approvals, could impose significant costs and involve substantial delay in payments we make in certain local markets, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Effective September 2019, payments made by platform users with payment accounts in the EEA for services provided through our platform are subject to Strong Customer Authentication (“SCA”) regulatory requirements. In many cases, SCA will require a platform user to engage in additional steps to authenticate each payment transaction. These additional authentication requirements may make our platform user experience in the EEA substantially less convenient, and such loss of convenience could meaningfully reduce the frequency with which platform users use our platform or could cause some platform users to stop using our platform entirely, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects. Further, once SCA is implemented, many payment transactions on our platform may fail to be authenticated due to platform users not completing all necessary authentication steps. Thus, in some cases, we may not receive payment from consumers in advance of paying Drivers for services received by those users. A substantial increase in the frequency with which we make Driver payments without having received corresponding payments from consumers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
In addition, laws related to money transmission and online payments are evolving, and changes in such laws could affect our ability to provide payment processing on our platform in the same form and on the same terms as we have historically, or at all. For example, changes to our business in Europe, combined with changes to the EU Payment Services Directive, caused aspects of our payment operations in the EEA to fall within the scope of European payments regulation. As a result, one of our subsidiaries, Uber Payments B.V., is directly subject to financial services regulations (including those relating to anti-money laundering, terrorist financing, and sanctioned or prohibited persons) in the Netherlands and in other countries in the EEA where it conducts business. Our payment operations in the EEA are in the process of transitioning to the Uber Payments B.V. regulated entity in order to comply with the European payments regulations.
In addition, as we evolve our business or make changes to our business structure, we may be subject to additional laws or requirements related to money transmission, online payments, and financial regulation. These laws govern, among other things, money transmission, prepaid access instruments, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, banking, systemic integrity

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risk assessments, security of payment processes, and import and export restrictions. Our business operations, including our payments to Drivers and restaurants, may not always comply with these financial laws and regulations. Historical or future non-compliance with these laws or regulations could result in significant criminal and civil lawsuits, penalties, forfeiture of significant assets, or other enforcement actions. Costs associated with fines and enforcement actions, as well as reputational harm, changes in compliance requirements, or limits on our ability to expand our product offerings, could harm our business.
Further, our payment system is susceptible to illegal and improper uses, including money laundering, terrorist financing, fraudulent sales of goods or services, and payments to sanctioned parties. We have invested and will need to continue to invest substantial resources to comply with applicable anti-money laundering and sanctions laws, and in the EEA to conduct appropriate risk assessments and implement appropriate controls as a regulated financial service provider. Government authorities may seek to bring legal action against us if our payment system is used for improper or illegal purposes or if our enterprise risk management or controls in the EEA are not adequately assessed, updated, or implemented, and any such action could result in financial or reputational harm to our business.
We currently are subject to a number of inquiries, investigations, and requests for information from the DOJ, the SEC, and other U.S. and foreign government agencies, the adverse outcomes of which could harm our business.
We are the subject of DOJ criminal inquiries and investigations, as well as civil enforcement inquiries and investigations by other government agencies, including the SEC, in the United States and abroad. Those inquiries and investigations cover a broad range of matters, including our data designation and document retention policies related to the 2016 Breach, which involved the breach of certain archived consumer data hosted on a cloud-based service that outside actors accessed and downloaded. We have in the past and may in the future, settle claims related to such matters. For example, in September 2018, after investigations and various lawsuits relating to the 2016 Breach, we settled with the Attorneys General of all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia through stipulated judgments and payment in an aggregate amount of $148 million related to our failure to report the incident for approximately one year. In April 2018, we entered into a consent decree that lasts through 2038 covering the 2014 Breach and the 2016 Breach with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”), which the FTC Commissioners approved in October 2018. In November and December 2018, U.K., Dutch and French regulators imposed fines totaling approximately $1.6 million related to the 2016 Breach. The 2016 Breach may lead to additional costly and time-consuming regulatory investigations and litigation from other government entities, as well as potentially material fines and penalties imposed by other U.S. and international regulators. We are also subject to inquiries and or investigations by various government authorities related to, among other matters, alleged deceptive business practices and fraud and the adequacy of our disclosures to potential investors and other potential stockholders. Investigations and enforcement actions from such entities, as well as continued negative publicity and an erosion of current and prospective platform users’ trust, could severely disrupt our business.
We are also subject to inquiries and investigations by government agencies related to certain transactions we have entered into in the United States and other countries. For example, in connection with the Grab transaction, the Competition and Consumer Commission of Singapore concluded that the transaction violated local competition laws and imposed fines and restrictions on both us and Grab, including a requirement that Grab cannot require drivers to drive exclusively on its platform, a prohibition on “excessive price surges,” and protections for driver commission rates. In addition, the Philippine Competition Commission approved the transaction subject to similar restrictions, including a cap on maximum allowable fares and a requirement that Grab cannot require drivers to drive exclusively on its platform, and imposed fines relating to our and Grab’s non-compliance with its interim measures order during the pendency of the commission’s antitrust review. We are currently appealing parts of the Singapore and Philippines decisions. Furthermore, the Careem transaction has not been approved by competition authorities in Qatar and Morocco, and we cannot assure you that the transaction will be approved in any or all of such countries.
These government inquiries and investigations are time-consuming and require a great deal of financial resources and attention from us and our senior management. If any of these matters are resolved adversely to us, we may be subject to additional fines, penalties, and other sanctions, and could be forced to change our business practices substantially in the relevant jurisdictions. Any such determinations could also result in significant adverse publicity or additional reputational harm, and could result in or complicate other inquiries, investigations, or lawsuits from other regulators in future merger control or conduct investigations. Any of these developments could result in material financial damages, operational restrictions, and harm our business.
We face risks related to our collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing of data, which could result in investigations, inquiries, litigation, fines, legislative, and regulatory action, and negative press about our privacy and data protection practices.
The nature of our business exposes us to claims, including civil lawsuits in the United States such as those related to the 2014 Breach and the 2016 Breach. These and any future data privacy or security incidents could result in violation of applicable U.S. and international privacy, data protection, and other laws. Such violations subject us to individual or consumer class action litigation as well as governmental investigations and proceedings by federal, state, and local regulatory entities in the United States and internationally, resulting in exposure to material civil or criminal liability. Our data security and privacy practices have been the subject of inquiries from government agencies and regulators, not all of which are finally resolved. In April 2018, we entered into an FTC consent decree pursuant to which we agreed, among other things, to implement a comprehensive privacy program, undergo biennial third-party audits, and not misrepresent how we protect consumer information through 2038. In October 2018, the FTC approved the final settlement, which exposes us to penalties, for, amongst other activities, future failure to report security incidents. In November and December 2018, U.K., Dutch and French supervisory authorities imposed fines totaling approximately $1.6 million. We have also entered into settlement agreements with numerous state

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enforcement agencies. In January 2016, we entered into a settlement with the Office of the New York State Attorney General under which we agreed to enhance our data security practices. In September 2018, we entered into stipulated judgments with the state attorneys general of all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia relating to the 2016 Breach, which involved payment of $148 million and assurances that we would enhance our data security and privacy practices. Failure to comply with these and other orders could result in substantial fines, enforcement actions, injunctive relief, and other penalties that may be costly or that may impact our business. We may also assume liabilities for breaches experienced by the companies we acquire as we expand our operations. For example, in April 2018, Careem publicly disclosed and notified relevant regulatory authorities that it had been subject to a data security breach that allowed access to certain personal information of riders and drivers on its platform as of January 14, 2018. If Careem becomes subject to liability as a result of this or other data security breaches or if we fail to remediate this or any other data security breach that Careem or we experience, we may face harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities. Our general liability insurance and corporate risk program may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for the full extent of our potential liabilities.
This risk is enhanced in certain jurisdictions with stringent data privacy laws and, as we expand our products, offerings, and operations domestically and internationally, we may become subject to amended or additional laws that impose substantial additional obligations related to data privacy. The EU adopted the GDPR in 2016, and it became effective in May 2018. The GDPR applies extraterritorially and imposes stringent requirements for controllers and processors of personal data. Such requirements include higher consent standards to process personal data, robust disclosures regarding the use of personal data, strengthened individual data rights, data breach requirements, limitations on data retention, strengthened requirements for special categories of personal data and pseudonymised (i.e., key-coded) data, and additional obligations for contracting with service providers that may process personal data. The GDPR further provides that EU member states may institute additional laws and regulations impacting the processing of personal data, including (i) special categories of personal data (e.g., racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, and religious or philosophical beliefs) and (ii) profiling of individuals and automated individual decision-making. Such additional laws and regulations could limit our ability to use and share personal or other data, thereby increasing our costs and harming our business and financial condition. Non-compliance with the GDPR (including any non-compliance by any acquired business) is subject to significant penalties, including fines of up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of total worldwide revenue, and injunctions against the processing of personal data. Other jurisdictions outside the EU are similarly introducing or enhancing privacy and data security laws, rules, and regulations, which will increase our compliance costs and the risks associated with non-compliance. For example, the CCPA, which provides new data privacy rights for consumers and new operational requirements for businesses, went into effect in January 2020. The CCPA includes a statutory damages framework and private rights of action against businesses that fail to comply with certain CCPA terms or implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. Brazil provides another example, having passed the General Data Protection Law (Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessaoais, or LGPD) in 2018, which is expected to go into effect in August 2020.
Additionally, we are subject to laws, rules, and regulations regarding cross-border transfers of personal data, including laws relating to transfer of personal data outside the EEA. We rely on transfer mechanisms permitted under these laws, including the EU Standard Contract Clauses. Such mechanisms have recently received heightened regulatory and judicial scrutiny. If we cannot rely on existing mechanisms for transferring personal data from the EEA, the United Kingdom, or other jurisdictions, we may be unable to transfer personal data of Drivers, consumers, or employees in those regions. In addition, we may be required to disclose personal data pursuant to demands from government agencies, including from state and city regulators as a requirement for obtaining or maintaining a license or otherwise, from law enforcement agencies, and from intelligence agencies. This disclosure may result in a failure or perceived failure by us to comply with privacy and data protection policies, notices, laws, rules, and regulations, could result in proceedings or actions against us in the same or other jurisdictions, and could have an adverse impact on our reputation and brand. In addition, Careem has historically shared certain user data with certain government authorities, which conflicts with our global policies regarding data use, sharing, and ownership. We expect to maintain our data use, sharing, and ownership practices for both our business and Careem’s business, and doing so may cause our relationship with government authorities in certain jurisdictions to suffer, and may result in such government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or Careem’s app on either a temporary or indefinite basis. Further, if any jurisdiction in which we operate changes its laws, rules, or regulations relating to data residency or local computation such that we are unable to comply in a timely manner or at all, we may risk losing our rights to operate in such jurisdictions. This could adversely affect the manner in which we provide our products and offerings and thus materially affect our operations and financial results.
Such data protection laws, rules, and regulations are complex and their interpretation is rapidly evolving, making implementation and enforcement, and thus compliance requirements, ambiguous, uncertain, and potentially inconsistent. Compliance with such laws may require changes to our data collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing and certain other related business practices and may thereby increase compliance costs. Additionally, any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with privacy and data protection policies, notices, laws, rules, and regulations could result in proceedings or actions against us by individuals, consumer rights groups, governmental entities or agencies, or others. We could incur significant costs investigating and defending such claims and, if found liable, significant damages. Further, these proceedings and any subsequent adverse outcomes may subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity. If any of these events were to occur, our business and financial results could be significantly disrupted and adversely affected.

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Adverse litigation judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved could expose us to monetary damages or limit our ability to operate our business.
We have in the past been, are currently, and may in the future become, involved in private actions, collective actions, investigations, and various other legal proceedings by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, carriers, employees, commercial partners, competitors or, government agencies, among others. We are subject to litigation relating to various matters including Driver classification, Drivers’ tips and taxes, the Americans with Disabilities Act, antitrust, intellectual property infringement, data privacy, unfair competition, workplace culture, safety practices, and employment and human resources practices. The results of any such litigation, investigations, and legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and expensive. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, costly, and harmful to our reputation, and could require significant amounts of management time and corporate resources. If any of these legal proceedings were to be determined adversely to us, or we were to enter into a settlement arrangement, we could be exposed to monetary damages or be forced to change the way in which we operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
In addition, we regularly include arbitration provisions in our terms of service with end-users. These provisions are intended to streamline the litigation process for all parties involved, as arbitration can in some cases be faster and less costly than litigating disputes in state or federal court. However, arbitration may become more costly for us, or the volume of arbitrations may increase and become burdensome. Further, the use of arbitration provisions may subject us to certain risks to our reputation and brand, as these provisions have been the subject of increasing public scrutiny. To minimize these risks, we may voluntarily limit our use of arbitration provisions, or we may be required to do so, in any legal or regulatory proceeding, either of which could increase our litigation costs and exposure in respect of such proceedings. For example, effective May 15, 2018, we ended mandatory arbitration of sexual misconduct claims by platform users and employees.
Further, with the potential for conflicting rules regarding the scope and enforceability of arbitration on a state-by-state basis, as well as conflicting rules between state and federal law, some or all of our arbitration provisions could be subject to challenge or may need to be revised to exempt certain categories of protection. If our arbitration agreements were found to be unenforceable, in whole or in part, or specific claims were required to be exempted from arbitration, we could experience an increase in our litigation costs and the time involved in resolving such disputes, and we could face increased exposure to potentially costly lawsuits, each of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.
We have operations in countries known to experience high levels of corruption and are currently subject to inquiries, investigations, and requests for information with respect to our compliance with a number of anti-corruption laws to which we are subject.
We have operations in, and have business relationships with, entities in countries known to experience high levels of corruption. We are subject to the FCPA and other similar laws outside the United States that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments, their officials, and political parties for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. U.S. and non-U.S. regulators alike continue to focus on the enforcement of these laws, and we may be subject to additional compliance requirements to identify criminal activity and payments to sanctioned parties. Our activities in certain countries with high levels of corruption enhance the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers or carriers, employees, consultants, or business partners in violation of various anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, even though the actions of these parties are often outside our control. Our acquisition of Careem may further enhance this risk because users of Careem’s platform and Careem’s employees, consultants, and business partners may not be familiar with, and may not have been previously subject to, these anti-corruption laws. We plan to provide significant training to Careem’s employees, consultants, and business partners. However, our existing and future safeguards, including training and compliance programs to discourage these practices by such parties, may not prove effective, and such parties may engage in conduct for which we could be held responsible. Additional compliance requirements may compel us to revise or expand our compliance program, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of platform users and monitor international and domestic transactions. We received requests from the DOJ in May 2017 and August 2017 with respect to an investigation into allegations of small payments to police in Indonesia and other potential improper payments in other countries in which we operate or have operated, including Malaysia, China, and India. In December 2019, the Fraud Section of the DOJ’s Criminal Division (the “Fraud Section”) informed us that the Fraud Section closed its inquiry and will not be pursuing enforcement action against us in relation to such matters.
Drivers may become subject to increased licensing requirements, and we may be required to obtain additional licenses or cap the number of Drivers using our platform.
Many Drivers currently are not required to obtain a commercial taxi or livery license in their respective jurisdictions. However, numerous jurisdictions in which we operate have conducted investigations or taken action to enforce existing licensing rules, including markets within Latin America and the Asia-Pacific region, and many others, including countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, have adopted or proposed new laws or regulations that require Drivers to be licensed with local authorities or require us or our subsidiaries to be licensed as a transportation company. Local regulations requiring the licensing of us or Drivers may adversely affect our ability to scale our business and operations. In addition, it is possible that various jurisdictions could impose caps on the number of licensed Drivers or vehicles with whom we may partner or impose limitations on the maximum number of hours a Driver may work, similar to recent regulations that were adopted in Spain and New York City, which have temporarily frozen new vehicle licenses for Drivers using platforms like ours. If we or Drivers become subject to such caps, limitations, or licensing requirements, our business and growth prospects would

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be adversely impacted.
We may be subject to liability for the means we use to attract and onboard Drivers.
We operate in an industry in which the competition for Drivers is intense. In this highly competitive environment, the means we use to onboard and attract Drivers may be challenged by competitors, government regulators, or individual plaintiffs. For example, putative class actions have been filed by individual plaintiffs against us for alleged violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, alleging, among other things, that plaintiffs received text messages from us regarding our Driver program without their consent or after indicating to us they no longer wished to receive such text messages. In addition, in early 2017, we settled an investigation by the FTC into statements we made regarding potential Driver earnings and third-party vehicle leasing and financing programs. In connection with this matter, we agreed, among other things, to pay $20 million to the FTC for Driver redress. These lawsuits are expensive and time consuming to defend, and, if resolved adversely to us, could result in material financial damages and penalties, costly adjustments to our business practices, and negative publicity. In addition, we could incur substantial expense and possible loss of revenue if competitors file additional lawsuits or other claims challenging these practices.
Our business depends heavily on insurance coverage for Drivers and on other types of insurance for additional risks related to our business. If insurance carriers change the terms of such insurance in a manner not favorable to Drivers or to us, if we are required to purchase additional insurance for other aspects of our business, or if we fail to comply with regulations governing insurance coverage, our business could be harmed.
We use a combination of third-party insurance and self-insurance mechanisms, including a wholly owned captive insurance subsidiary. Insurance related to our Rides products may include third-party automobile, automobile comprehensive and collision, physical damage, and uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage. We require Drivers to carry automobile insurance in most countries, and in many cases we also maintain insurance on behalf of Drivers. We rely on a limited number of ridesharing insurance providers, particularly internationally, and should such providers discontinue or increase the cost of coverage, we cannot guarantee that we would be able to secure replacement coverage on reasonable terms or at all. For example, one of our insurance providers recently announced early termination of coverage and was replaced with other insurance providers. In addition to insurance related to our Rides products, we maintain other automobile insurance coverage for owned vehicles and employee activity, as well as insurance coverage for non-automotive corporate risks including general liability, workers’ compensation, property, cyber liability, and director and officers’ liability. If our insurance carriers change the terms of our policies in a manner unfavorable to us or Drivers, our insurance costs could increase. The cost of insurance that we maintain on behalf of Drivers is higher in the United States and Canada than in other geographies. Further, if the insurance coverage we maintain is not adequate to cover losses that occur, we could be liable for significant additional costs.
In addition, we and our captive insurance subsidiary are party to certain reinsurance and indemnification arrangements that transfer a significant portion of the risk from the insurance provider to us or our captive insurance subsidiary, which could require us to pay out material amounts that may be in excess of our insurance reserves, resulting in harm to our financial condition. Our insurance reserves account for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses for risks retained by us through our captive insurance subsidiary and other risk retention mechanisms. Such amounts are based on actuarial estimates, historical claim information, and industry data. While management believes that these reserve amounts are adequate, the ultimate liability could be in excess of our reserves.
We may be subject to claims of significant liability based on traffic accidents, injuries, or other incidents that are claimed to have been caused by Drivers who use our platform, even when those Drivers are not actively using our platform or when an individual impersonates a Driver. As we expand to include more offerings on our platform, our insurance needs will likely extend to those additional offerings, including Freight, autonomous vehicles, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. As a result, our automobile liability and general liability insurance policies may not cover all potential claims related to traffic accidents, injuries, or other incidents that are claimed to have been caused by Drivers who use our platform, and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that we could face. Even if these claims do not result in liability, we could incur significant costs in investigating and defending against them. If we are subject to claims of liability relating to the acts of Drivers or others using our platform, we may be subject to negative publicity and incur additional expenses, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
In addition, we are subject to local laws, rules, and regulations relating to insurance coverage which could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others. Legislation has been passed in many U.S. jurisdictions that codifies these insurance requirements with respect to ridesharing. Additional legislation has been proposed in other jurisdictions that seeks to codify or change insurance requirements with respect to ridesharing. Further, various municipalities have imposed or are considering legislation mandating certain levels of insurance for dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, and service providers and business customers of Freight and Uber for Business may require higher levels of coverage as a condition to entering into certain key contracts with us. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with local laws, rules, and regulations or contractual obligations relating to insurance coverage could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others. These lawsuits, proceedings, or actions may subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity, require us to increase our insurance coverage, require us to amend our insurance policy disclosure, increase our costs, and disrupt our business.
We may be subject to pricing regulations, as well as related litigation or regulatory inquiries.
Our revenue is dependent on the pricing models we use to calculate consumer fares and Driver earnings. Our pricing models, including

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dynamic pricing, have been, and will likely continue to be, challenged, banned, limited in emergencies, and capped in certain jurisdictions. For example, in 2016, following the filing of a petition in the Delhi High Court relating to surge pricing, we agreed to not calculate consumer fares in excess of the maximum government-mandated fares in New Delhi, India. This practice has now been adopted in all major Indian cities where legal proceedings have limited the use of surge pricing. Further, in 2018, Honolulu, Hawaii became the first U.S. city to pass legislation to cap surge pricing if increased rates exceed the maximum fare set by the city. Additional regulation of our pricing models could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, our pricing model has been the subject of litigation and regulatory inquiries related to, among other things, the calculation of and statements regarding consumer fares and Driver earnings (including rates, fees, surcharges, and tolls), as well as the use of surge pricing during emergencies and natural disasters. As a result, we may be forced to change our pricing models in certain jurisdictions, which could harm our revenue or result in a sub-optimal tax structure.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, or if third parties are successful in claiming that we are misappropriating the intellectual property of others, we may incur significant expense and our business may be adversely affected.
Our intellectual property includes the content of our website, mobile applications, registered domain names, software code, firmware, hardware and hardware designs, registered and unregistered trademarks, trademark applications, copyrights, trade secrets, inventions (whether or not patentable), patents, and patent applications. We believe that our intellectual property is essential to our business and affords us a competitive advantage in the markets in which we operate. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, our brand and reputation may be harmed, Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers could devalue our products and offerings, and our ability to compete effectively may be impaired.
To protect our intellectual property, we rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws, contractual provisions, end-user policies, and disclosure restrictions. Upon discovery of potential infringement of our intellectual property, we assess and when necessary, take action to protect our rights as appropriate. We also enter into confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and seek to control access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information in a commercially prudent manner. The efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property may not be sufficient or effective. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we currently or in the future will operate. In addition, it may be possible for other parties to copy or reverse-engineer our products and offerings or obtain and use the content of our website without authorization. Further, we may be unable to prevent competitors or other third parties from acquiring or using domain names or trademarks that are similar to, infringe upon, or diminish the value of our domain names, trademarks, service marks, and other proprietary rights. Moreover, our trade secrets may be compromised by third parties or our employees, which would cause us to lose the competitive advantage derived from the compromised trade secrets. Further, we may be unable to detect infringement of our intellectual property rights, and even if we detect such violations and decide to enforce our intellectual property rights, we may not be successful, and may incur significant expenses, in such efforts. In addition, any such enforcement efforts may be time-consuming and may divert management’s attention. Further, such enforcement efforts may result in a ruling that our intellectual property rights are unenforceable or invalid. Any failure to protect or any loss of our intellectual property may have an adverse effect on our ability to compete and may adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.
Companies in the Internet and technology industries, and other patent and trademark holders, including “non-practicing entities,” seeking to profit from royalties in connection with grants of licenses or seeking to obtain injunctions, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have and may in the future continue to receive notices that claim we have misappropriated, misused, or infringed upon other parties’ intellectual property rights.
Furthermore, from time to time we may introduce or acquire new products, including in areas in which we historically have not operated, which could increase our exposure to patent and other intellectual property claims. In addition, we have been sued, and we may in the future be sued, for allegations of intellectual property infringement or threats of trade secret misappropriation. For example, in February 2017, Waymo filed a lawsuit against us alleging, among other things, theft of trade secrets and patent infringement arising from our acquisition of Ottomotto LLC. In February 2018, we entered into a settlement agreement with Waymo. This agreement resolved Waymo’s claims and provided for certain measures, including the joint retention of an independent software expert, to ensure that our autonomous vehicle hardware and software do not misappropriate Waymo intellectual property. In response to certain adverse findings by the independent software expert, we have made design changes to our autonomous vehicle software, which have been reviewed and approved by the independent software expert as embodying no misappropriation of Waymo trade secrets. This review and approval resolves the independent software review process set out in the settlement agreement with Waymo. In addition, in August 2019, a federal grand jury indicted Anthony Levandowski, a cofounder of Ottomotto LLC and a former employee of ours, on charges of theft of trade secrets from Waymo.
Any intellectual property claim against us, regardless of merit, could be time consuming and expensive to settle or litigate, could divert our management’s attention and other resources, and could hurt goodwill associated with our brand. These claims may also subject us to significant liability for damages and may result in us having to stop using technology, content, branding, or business methods found to be in violation of another party’s rights. Further, certain adverse outcomes of such proceedings could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively in existing or future businesses.

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We may be required or may opt to seek a license for the right to use intellectual property held by others, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if a license is available, we may be required to pay significant royalties, which may increase our operating expenses. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, content, branding, or business methods, which could require significant effort and expense and make us less competitive. If we cannot license or develop alternative technology, content, branding, or business methods for any allegedly infringing aspect of our business, we may be unable to compete effectively or we may be prevented from operating our business in certain jurisdictions. Any of these results could harm our operating results.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles.
The accounting for our business is complicated, particularly in the area of revenue recognition, and is subject to change based on the evolution of our business model, interpretations of relevant accounting principles, enforcement of existing or new regulations, and changes in SEC or other agency policies, rules, regulations, and interpretations, of accounting regulations. Changes to our business model and accounting methods could result in changes to our financial statements, including changes in revenue and expenses in any period, or in certain categories of revenue and expenses moving to different periods, may result in materially different financial results, and may require that we change how we process, analyze, and report financial information and our financial reporting controls.
If we are deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could have an adverse effect on our business.
The Investment Company Act contains substantive legal requirements that regulate the manner in which “investment companies” are permitted to conduct their business activities. We believe that we have conducted our business in a manner that does not result in being characterized as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act because we are primarily engaged in a non-investment company business. Although a significant portion of our assets constitute investments in non-controlled entities (including in China), referred to elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as minority-owned affiliates, we believe that we are not an investment company as defined by the Investment Company Act. While we intend to conduct our operations such that we will not be deemed an investment company, such a determination would require us to initiate burdensome compliance requirements and comply with restrictions imposed by the Investment Company Act that would limit our activities, including limitations on our capital structure and our ability to transact with affiliates, which would have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To avoid such a determination, we may be required to conduct our business in a manner that does not subject us to the requirements of the Investment Company Act, which could have an adverse effect on our business. For example, we may be required to sell certain of our assets and pay significant taxes upon the sale or transfer of such assets.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock has been, and may continue to be, volatile or may decline steeply or suddenly regardless of our operating performance, and we may not be able to meet investor or analyst expectations. You may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid and may lose all or part of your investment.
If you purchase shares of our common stock, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above the price you paid. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate or decline significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in MAPCs, Trips, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Revenue, Gross Bookings, revenue, or other operating and financial results;
announcements by us or estimates by third parties of actual or anticipated changes in the number of Drivers and consumers on our platform;
variations between our actual operating results and the expectations of our management, securities analysts, investors, the financial community;
actions of securities analysts who initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
negative media coverage or publicity;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular, including our competitors;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;
lawsuits threatened, filed, or decided against us;
developments in legislation or regulatory actions, including interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies (including

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any competition authorities blocking, delaying, or subjecting our acquisition of Careem to significant limitations or restrictions on our ability to operate in one or more markets, or requiring us to divest our or Careem’s business in one or more markets);
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;
any major change in our board of directors or management;
any safety incidents or public reports of safety incidents that occur on our platform or in our industry;
statements, commentary, or opinions by public officials that our product offerings are or may be unlawful, regardless of any interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters, public health concerns or epidemics, such as the recent coronavirus outbreak, natural disasters, or responses to these events.
In addition, price and volume fluctuations in the stock markets have affected and continue to affect many technology companies’ stock prices. Often, their stock prices have fluctuated in ways unrelated or disproportionate to the companies’ operating performance. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. For example, beginning in September 2019, several putative class actions were filed in California state and federal courts against us, our directors, certain of our officers, and the underwriters named in our IPO registration statement alleging violations of securities laws in connection with our IPO. Securities litigation could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and seriously harm our business. In addition, the occurrence of any of the factors listed above, among others, may cause our stock price to decline significantly, and there can be no assurance that our stock price would recover. As such, you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid, and you may lose some or all of your investment.
Delaware law and provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock by acting to discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions include the following:
our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill vacancies created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals, which may reduce the number of stockholder proposals available for stockholder consideration;
limitations on stockholder ability to convene special stockholder meetings, which could make it difficult for our stockholders to adopt desired governance changes;
prohibition on cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates; and
our board of directors is able to issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock, which makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.
Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock. In addition, under our existing debt instruments, we, and certain of our subsidiaries, are subject to certain limitations on our business and operations, including limitations on certain consolidations, mergers, and sales of assets. For information regarding these and other provisions, see the risk factor titled “-We have incurred a significant amount of debt and may in the future incur additional indebtedness. Our payment obligations under such indebtedness may limit the funds available to us, and the terms of our debt agreements may restrict our flexibility in operating our business.”
Sales, directly or indirectly, of shares of our common stock by existing equityholders could cause our stock price to decline.
Sales, directly or indirectly, of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or the public perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

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Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our existing executive officers, directors, and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions, including mergers, consolidations, or the sale of us or all or substantially all of our assets.
As of December 31, 2019 and based on a review of recent SEC filings, our executive officers, directors, and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our common stock, in the aggregate, beneficially owned approximately 17.6% of our outstanding shares of common stock. These persons, acting together, will be able to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations, or the sale of us or all or substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation, or other business combination involving our company, or discouraging a potential acquirer from otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change of control would benefit our other stockholders.
We have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds from our IPO, and we may not use them effectively.
We cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of the remaining net proceeds that we have received from our IPO. Our management has broad discretion in applying the net proceeds we received from our IPO. We have used and may use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures, and we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, offerings, or technologies. We have used some of the net proceeds to satisfy tax withholding obligations related to the vesting of RSUs, which vested in connection with our IPO. We may also spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our stockholders disagree. If our management fails to use these funds effectively, our business could be seriously harmed. Pending their use, the net proceeds from our initial public offering may be invested in a way that does not produce income or that loses value.
If securities or industry analysts either do not publish research about us, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business, or our market, or, if such analysts change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the trading price or trading volume of our common stock could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced in part by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If one or more of the analysts initiate research with an unfavorable rating or downgrade our common stock, provide more favorable recommendations about our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume of our common stock to decline.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, certain of our existing debt instruments include restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, result in more litigation, and divert management’s attention from operating our business.
As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the NYSE, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Complying with these rules and regulations has increased our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and operating results.
By disclosing information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If those claims are successful, our business could be seriously harmed. Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, the time and resources needed to resolve them could divert our management’s resources and seriously harm our business.
As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”), to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. We currently are required to disclose changes in internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting on a quarterly basis.

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We have commenced the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, and we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing, and any required remediation in a timely fashion. Our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. In addition, as our business continues to grow in size and complexity, we are improving our processes and infrastructure to help ensure we can prepare financial reporting and disclosures within the timeline required for a public company. We may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge to compile the system and process documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404. In addition, prior to completing our internal control assessment under Section 404, we may become aware of and disclose material weaknesses that will require timely remediation. Due to our significant growth, especially with respect to high-growth offerings like Eats, Freight, and New Mobility, we face challenges in consistent performance of controls in response to evolving risks of misstatement. In addition, due to our continuous development of new products and technology solutions, we face challenges in timely and appropriately designing or executing controls. Our financial reporting infrastructure, including our information technology general computer systems and controls, is also evolving in support of our growing business activities and continued enhancement and automation of our internal control over financial reporting, which results in challenges in the design and consistent execution of such controls. During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective.
We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or operating results. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain these and other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States of America are the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law:
any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;
any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers, or employees arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws;
any action regarding our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws;
any action as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and
any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.
This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the U.S. federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), subject to and contingent upon a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision.
These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. If any other court of competent jurisdiction were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could seriously harm our business. For example, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware recently determined that a provision stating that U.S. federal district courts are the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act is not enforceable. However, this decision may be reviewed and ultimately overturned by the Delaware Supreme Court.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2019, we leased office facilities around the world totaling 10.0 million square feet, including 2.4 million square feet for our corporate headquarters in San Francisco, California. We are in the process of constructing new Bay Area offices, including our 1.1 million square foot San Francisco headquarters, which we expect to open in 2020. During 2019, we purchased 593 acres of land in Pennsylvania to build a test track for the purpose of testing the performance of autonomous vehicles, as well as an office building. This land is used primarily for our ATG and Other Technology Programs segment.
We believe our facilities, which are generally used by all of our reportable segments, are adequate and suitable for our current needs and that should it be needed, suitable additional or alternative space will be available to accommodate our operations.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are a party to various legal actions and government investigations, and similar or other actions could be brought against us in the future. The most significant of these matters are described below.
Legal Proceedings Described in Note 15 to Our Consolidated Financial Statements
Note 15 - Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K includes information on legal proceedings that constitute material contingencies for financial reporting purposes that could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or liquidity if they were resolved in a manner that is adverse to us. This item should be read in conjunction with Note 15 for information regarding the following material legal proceedings, which information is incorporated into this item by reference:
AB5 Lawsuits and Governmental Inquiries
O’Connor, et al., v. Uber Technologies, Inc., et al and Yucesoy v. Uber Technologies, Inc., et al.
State Unemployment Tax Proceedings
Google v. Levandowski; Google v. Levandowski & Ron
Copenhagen Criminal Prosecution
Aslam, Farrar, Hoy and Mithu v. Uber B.V., Uber Britannia Ltd. and Uber London Ltd.
Legal Proceedings That Are Not Described in Note 15 to Our Consolidated Financial Statements
In addition to the matters that are identified in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and incorporated into this item by reference, the following matter also constitutes a material pending legal proceeding, other than ordinary course litigation incidental to our business, to which we are or any of our subsidiaries is a party.
Australia Class Action
In May 2019, an Australian law firm filed a class action in the Supreme Court of Victoria, Australia, against us and certain of our subsidiaries, on behalf of certain participants in the taxi and hire-car industry. The plaintiff alleges that the Uber entities conspired to injure the group members during the period 2014 to 2017 by either directly breaching transport legislation or commissioning offenses against transport legislation by UberX Rides Drivers in Australia. We deny these allegations and intend to vigorously defend against the lawsuit.
Other Legal Proceedings
While it is not possible to determine the outcome of the legal actions, investigations, and proceedings brought against us, we believe that, except for the matters described above, the resolution of all such matters will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or liquidity, but could be material to our consolidated results of operations in any one accounting period. We are currently involved in, and may in the future be involved in, legal proceedings, litigation, claims, and government investigations in the ordinary course of business. In addition, the nature of our business exposes us to claims related to the classification of Drivers and the compliance of our business with applicable law. This risk is enhanced in certain jurisdictions outside the United States where we may be less protected under local laws than we are in the United States. Although the results of the legal proceedings, claims, and government investigations in which we are involved cannot be predicted with certainty, we do not believe that the final outcome of these matters is reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or operating results. Regardless of final outcomes, however, any such legal proceedings, claims, and government investigations may nonetheless impose a significant burden on management and employees and may come with costly defense costs or unfavorable preliminary and interim rulings.

44


ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information for Common Stock
Our common stock has been listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “UBER” since May 10, 2019. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
Holders of our Common Stock
As of February 19, 2020, there were 387 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The terms of certain of our outstanding debt instruments restrict our ability to pay dividends or make distributions on our common stock, and we may enter into credit agreements or other borrowing arrangements in the future that will restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends or make distributions on our capital stock. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
From January 1, 2019 through May 13, 2019 (the date of the filing of our registration statement on Form S-1), we granted to our directors, officers, employees, consultants and other service providers restricted stock units for an aggregate 40 million shares of our common stock under our 2013 Equity Incentive Plan.
On May 16, 2019, we closed a private placement investment by PayPal, Inc. in which we issued and sold 11 million shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $45.00 per share and received aggregate proceeds of $500 million.
The foregoing transaction(s) did not involve any underwriters, any underwriting discounts or commissions, or any public offering. We believe the offers, sales, and issuances of the above securities were exempt from registration under the Securities Act by virtue of Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act (or Regulation D or Regulation S promulgated thereunder), because the issuance of securities to the recipient did not involve a public offering, or in reliance on Rule 701 because the transactions were pursuant to compensatory benefit plans or contracts relating to compensation as provided under such rule. The recipients of the securities in each of these transactions represented their intentions to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof. All recipients had adequate access, through their relationships with us or otherwise, to information about us. The issuances of these securities were made without any general solicitation or advertising.
Use of Proceeds
On May 14, 2019, we closed our initial public offering (“ IPO”), in which we sold 180 million shares of our common stock at a price of $45.00 per share. The offer and sale of the shares in the IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to an effective registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-230812). We raised approximately $8.0 billion in net proceeds after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions of $106 million and offering expenses. We have used a portion of the net proceeds, and intend to use the remainder of the net proceeds, from our IPO for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses and capital expenditures. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds we received from our IPO to acquire businesses, products, services, or technologies. The representatives of the underwriters of our IPO were Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC. No payments were made by us to directors, officers or persons owning ten percent or more of our common stock or to their associates, or to our affiliates, other than payments in the ordinary course of business to officers for salaries and to non-employee directors pursuant to our director compensation policy.
Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of Uber Technologies, Inc. under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act.

45


The following graph compares the cumulative total return to stockholders on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index, (“S&P 500”), and the S&P 500 Information Technology Sector Index (“S&P 500 IT”). An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each index on May 10, 2019, the date our common stock began trading on the NYSE, and its relative performance is tracked through December 31, 2019. The returns shown are based on historical results and are not intended to suggest future performance.
stockgraph-q42019.jpg
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected audited consolidated financial data in this section are not intended to replace our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and are qualified in their entirety by the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.
The selected consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss data for the year ended December 31, 2015 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015 have been derived from our accounting records and have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Year Ended December 31,
 
2015 (1)
 
2016 (1)
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In millions, except share amounts which are reflected in thousands, and per share amounts)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
1,995

 
$
3,845

 
$
7,932

 
$
11,270

 
$
14,147

Total costs and expenses (2)
3,334

 
6,868

 
12,012

 
14,303

 
22,743

Loss from operations
(1,339
)
 
(3,023
)
 
(4,080
)
 
(3,033
)
 
(8,596
)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and loss from equity method investment (3)
(1,603
)
 
(3,218
)
 
(4,575
)
 
1,312

 
(8,433
)
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes (4)
(1,098
)
 
2,876

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.
(2,688
)
 
(370
)
 
(4,033
)
 
997

 
(8,506
)
Net income (loss) per share attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share: (5)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(3.89
)
 
$
(7.89
)
 
$
(9.46
)
 
$

 
$
(6.81
)
Discontinued operations
(2.68
)
 
6.99

 

 

 

Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share
$
(6.57
)
 
$
(0.90
)
 
$
(9.46
)
 
$

 
$
(6.81
)
Weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
408,838

 
411,501

 
426,360

 
443,368

 
1,248,353

Diluted
408,838

 
411,501

 
426,360

 
478,999

 
1,248,353

(1) 
On January 1, 2017, we adopted ASC 606 on a full retrospective basis. Accordingly, our audited consolidated financial statements for 2016 were recast to conform to ASC 606. See Note 1 - Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 2 - Revenue included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Comparative information for 2015 continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for this period and has not been recast to conform to ASC 606.
(2) 
Total costs and expenses include $209 million$128 million$137 million, $172 million and $4.6 billion of stock-based compensation for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2019, total costs and expenses included $3.6 billion of stock-based compensation expense for awards with a performance-based vesting condition satisfied upon our IPO. For additional information, see Note 11 - Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock, Common Stock, and Equity (Deficit) to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3) 
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and loss from equity method investment in 2018 includes a $2.3 billion gain on the sale of the our Southeast Asia operations, a $2.0 billion unrealized gain on our non-marketable equity securities related to Didi and a $954 million gain on the disposal of our Uber Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (“Russia/CIS”) operations. For additional information, see Note 10 - Supplemental Financial Statement Information to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(4) 
In 2016, income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes reflects a gain on disposition of discontinued operations related to the divestiture of Uber China, partially offset by the loss from operations from Uber China.
(5) 
For a description of our computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share see Note 1 - Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 13 - Net Income (Loss) Per Share to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

47


 
As of December 31,
 
2015 (1)
 
2016 (1)
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019 (2), (3)
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(In millions)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
4,188

 
$
6,241

 
$
4,393

 
$
6,406

 
$
10,873

Short-term investments

 

 

 

 
440

Working capital (3)
4,644

 
4,589

 
2,990

 
4,399

 
8,286

Total assets
6,740

 
15,713

 
15,426

 
23,988

 
31,761

Long-term debt, net of current portion
1,423

 
3,087

 
3,048

 
6,869

 
5,707

Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability
3

 
211

 
125

 
52

 

Total liabilities
4,078

 
9,198

 
11,773

 
17,196

 
16,578

Redeemable convertible preferred stock
6,256

 
11,111

 
12,210

 
14,177

 

Additional paid-in capital
120

 
209

 
320

 
668

 
30,739

Accumulated deficit
(4,265
)
 
(4,806
)
 
(8,874
)
 
(7,865
)
 
(16,362
)
Total equity (deficit)
(4,146
)
 
(4,596
)
 
(8,557
)
 
(7,385
)
 
14,872

(1) 
On January 1, 2017, we adopted ASC 606 on a full retrospective basis. Accordingly, our audited consolidated financial statements for 2016 were recast to conform to ASC 606. See Note 1 - Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Note 2 - Revenue included in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Comparative information for 2015 continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for this period and has not been recast to conform to ASC 606.
(2) 
On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC 842, “Leases” (“ASC 842”) using the modified retrospective transition method and used the effective date as the date of initial application. Consequently, financial information is not updated for periods before January 1, 2019. For additional information, see Note 1 - Description of Business and Sum