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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 26, 2019.

Registration No. 333-230812

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

AMENDMENT NO. 1

TO

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

UBER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   7372   45-2647441

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

1455 Market Street, 4th Floor

San Francisco, California 94103

(415) 612-8582

(Address, including zip code and telephone number, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Nelson Chai

Chief Financial Officer

Uber Technologies, Inc.

1455 Market Street, 4th Floor

San Francisco, California 94103

(415) 612-8582

(Name, address, including zip code and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Tony West

Keir Gumbs

Uber Technologies, Inc.

1455 Market Street, 4th Floor

San Francisco, California 94103

(415) 612-8582

 

David Peinsipp

Siana Lowrey

Andrew Williamson

Cooley LLP

101 California Street, 5th Floor

San Francisco, California 94111

(415) 693-2000

 

Eric W. Blanchard

Kerry S. Burke

Brian K. Rosenzweig

Covington & Burling LLP

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, New York 10018

(212) 841-1000

 

Alan F. Denenberg

Sarah K. Solum

Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP

1600 El Camino Real

Menlo Park, California 94025

(650) 752-2000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

☒  

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Offering Price

Per Share(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(1)(2)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(3)

Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share

  207,000,000   $50.00   $10,350,000,000   $1,254,420

 

 

 

(1)

Includes the aggregate amount of additional shares that the underwriters have the option to purchase.

 

(2)

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

(3)

The Registrant previously paid $121,200 in connection with the initial filing of the Registration Statement.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

Issued April 26, 2019

 

 

LOGO

 

 

 

Common Stock    180,000,000 Shares

 

 

Uber Technologies, Inc. is offering 180,000,000 shares of its common stock. The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus are offering 27,000,000 shares of common stock if and to the extent that the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares described below. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders. This is our initial public offering, and no public market currently exists for our shares. We anticipate that the initial public offering price will be between $44.00 and $50.00 per share.

PayPal, Inc. has entered into an agreement with us pursuant to which it has agreed to purchase $500 million of our common stock in a private placement at a price per share equal to the initial public offering price. This transaction is contingent upon certain closing conditions, including the closing of this offering and certain regulatory approvals.

We have applied to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “UBER.”

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 32.

 

 

 

                                         
     Per Share      Total  

Price to Public

   $                    $                            

Underwriting Discounts and Commissions ¹

   $        $    

Proceeds to Uber

   $        $    

 

 

 

¹

See the section titled “Underwriters” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.

The underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional 27,000,000 shares of common stock from the selling stockholders solely to cover over-allotments, if any.

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 5,400,000 shares of common stock, or up to 3% of the 180,000,000 shares offered by this prospectus, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to certain qualifying Drivers in the United States. See the section titled “Underwriters—Directed Share Program.”

The Securities and Exchange Commission and state securities regulators have not approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock to purchasers on                , 2019.

 

 

 

Morgan Stanley   Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC   BofA Merrill Lynch
Barclays   Citigroup   Allen & Company LLC
RBC Capital Markets   SunTrust Robinson Humphrey   Deutsche Bank Securities
HSBC   SMBC   Mizuho Securities
Needham & Company   Loop Capital Markets   Siebert Cisneros Shank & Co., L.L.C.
Academy Securities   BTIG   Canaccord Genuity   CastleOak Securities, L.P.   Cowen   Evercore ISI   JMP Securities   Macquarie Capital
Mischler Financial Group, Inc.   Oppenheimer & Co.   Raymond James   William Blair   The Williams Capital Group, L.P.   TPG Capital BD

Prospectus dated                 , 2019.


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LOGO

We ignite opportunity by setting the world in motion.


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LOGO


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LOGO

 

6 Continents 3 Platform Offerings 700+ Cities 93M MAPCs 17M Trips a Day $78B Paid to Drivers MAPCs and Trips a day for the quarter ended March 31, 2019. All other data as of December 31, 2018.


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LOGO

10+ Billion Trips 10B Trips September 2018 12 Months later (+5B) 5B Trips September 2017 11 Months later (+3B) 2B Trips October 2016 7 Months later (+1B) 1B Trips March 2016 5 Years after launch (+1B) 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018


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Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than the information contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor the underwriters take responsibility for, and provide no assurance about the reliability of, any information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date.

No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of our common stock or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any such jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus applicable to those jurisdictions.

Through and including                     , 2019 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers that effect transactions in our common stock, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This delivery requirement is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to unsold allotments or subscriptions.

 

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GLOSSARY

Key Terms for Our Business

Consumer or end-user. Consumer or end-user refers to a platform user who transacts on our platform to take a Ridesharing or New Mobility ride or to order an Uber Eats meal.

Driver. Driver refers to an independent driver or courier who uses our platform to provide Ridesharing services, Uber Eats services, or both. The number of Drivers in a quarterly period is defined as the number of Drivers who provided a ride or delivered a meal on our platform at least once in a given month, averaged over each month in the quarter.

Minority-owned affiliates. Minority-owned affiliates refers to Didi, Grab, and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture.

New Mobility. New Mobility refers to products in our Personal Mobility offering that provide consumers with access to rides through a variety of modes, including dockless e-bikes and e-scooters.

Offerings. Offerings refer to our Personal Mobility, Uber Eats, and Uber Freight offerings.

Partner. Partner refers to any one of a Driver, restaurant, or shipper, all of whom are our customers.

Personal Mobility. Personal Mobility refers to our offering that includes our Ridesharing and New Mobility products.

Platform user. Platform user refers to any user of our platform, including Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers.

Ridesharing. Ridesharing refers to products in our Personal Mobility offering that connect consumers with Drivers who provide rides in a variety of vehicles, such as cars, auto rickshaws, motorbikes, minibuses, or taxis.

Key Terms for Our Key Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures

All of our key metrics and financial measures exclude historical results from China (which are included as discontinued operations in our audited consolidated financial statements), and, as noted below, certain of our key metrics also exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations. We now participate in China, Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (“Russia/CIS”), and Southeast Asia solely through our minority-owned affiliates.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Net Revenue are non-GAAP financial measures. For more information about how we use these non-GAAP financial measures in our business, the limitations of these measures, and a reconciliation of these measures to the most directly comparable GAAP measures, please see the section titled “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

2018 Divested Operations. We define 2018 Divested Operations as our operations in (i) Russia/CIS prior to the consummation of our Yandex.Taxi joint venture and (ii) Southeast Asia prior to the sale of those operations to Grab.

Adjusted EBITDA. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss), excluding (i) income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes, (ii) net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest, net of tax (iii) benefit from (provision for) income taxes, (iv) income (loss) from equity method investment, net of tax, (v) interest expense, (vi) other income (expense), net, (vii) depreciation and amortization, (viii) stock-based compensation expense, (ix) legal, tax, and regulatory reserves and settlements, (x) asset impairment/loss on sale of assets, (xi) acquisition and financing related expenses, and (xii) restructuring charges.

 

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Adjusted Net Revenue. We define Adjusted Net Revenue as revenue less (i) excess Driver incentives and (ii) Driver referrals. We believe that Adjusted Net Revenue is informative of our top line performance because it measures the total net financial activity reflected in the amount earned by us after taking into account all Driver and restaurant earnings, Driver incentives, and Driver referrals. Adjusted Net Revenue is lower than revenue in all reported periods.

Core Platform. Core Platform refers to one of the two operating segments that we use to manage our business. Core Platform consists primarily of Ridesharing and Uber Eats.

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue. We define Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue as Core Platform revenue less (i) excess Driver incentives and (ii) Driver referrals.

Core Platform Contribution Margin. We define Core Platform Contribution Margin as Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) as a percentage of Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue. Core Platform Contribution Margin demonstrates the margin that we generate after direct expenses. We believe that Core Platform Contribution Margin is a useful indicator of the economics of our Core Platform, as it does not include indirect unallocated research and development and general and administrative expenses (including expenses for our Advanced Technologies Group and Other Technology Programs).

Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss). We define Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) as Core Platform revenue less the following direct costs and expenses of our Core Platform: (i) cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization; (ii) operations and support; (iii) sales and marketing; (iv) research and development; and (v) general and administrative. Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) also reflects any applicable exclusions from Adjusted EBITDA and excludes the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

Driver or restaurant earnings. Driver or restaurant earnings refer to the net portion of the fare or the net portion of the order value that a Driver or a restaurant retains, respectively.

Driver incentives. Driver incentives refer to payments that we make to Drivers, which are separate from and in addition to the Driver’s portion of the fare paid by the consumer. For example, Driver incentives could include payments we make to Drivers should they choose to take advantage of an incentive offer and complete a consecutive number of trips or a cumulative number of trips on the platform over a defined period of time. Driver incentives are recorded as a reduction of revenue to the extent they are not excess Driver incentives (as defined below).

Driver referrals. Driver referrals refer to payments that we make to existing Drivers to refer new Drivers onto our platform. Driver referrals are recorded in sales and marketing expenses, as they represent the receipt of a distinct service of customer acquisition for which there is evidence of fair value.

Excess Driver incentives. Excess Driver incentives refer to cumulative payments, including incentives but excluding Driver referrals, to a Driver that exceed the cumulative revenue that we recognize from a Driver with no future guarantee of additional revenue. Cumulative payments to a Driver could exceed cumulative revenue from a Driver as a result of Driver incentives or when the amount paid to a Driver for a Trip exceeds the fare charged to the consumer. Excess Driver incentives are recorded in cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.

Gross Bookings. We define Gross Bookings as the total dollar value, including any applicable taxes, tolls, and fees, of Ridesharing and New Mobility rides, Uber Eats meal deliveries, and amounts paid by shippers for Uber Freight shipments, in each case without any adjustment for consumer discounts and refunds, Driver and restaurant earnings, and Driver incentives. Gross Bookings do not include tips earned by Drivers. Gross Bookings exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

Monthly Active Platform Consumers (“MAPCs”). We define MAPCs as the number of unique consumers who completed a Ridesharing or New Mobility ride or received an Uber Eats meal on our platform at least once

 

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in a given month, averaged over each month in the quarter. MAPCs presented for an annual period are MAPCs for the fourth quarter of the year. MAPCs exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

Other Bets. Other Bets refers to one of the two operating segments that we use to manage our business. Other Bets in 2017 consisted primarily of Uber Freight and in 2018 also included New Mobility.

Take Rate. We define Take Rate as Adjusted Net Revenue as a percentage of Gross Bookings. For purposes of Take Rate, Gross Bookings include the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

Trips. We define Trips as the number of completed consumer Ridesharing or New Mobility rides and Uber Eats meal deliveries in a given period. For example, an UberPOOL ride with three paying consumers represents three unique Trips, whereas an UberX ride with three passengers represents one Trip. Trips exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

 

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LOGO

Letter from our CEO


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LOGO

Letter from Dara Khosrowshahi Chief Executive Officer Ten years ago, Uber was born out of a watershed moment in technology. The rise of smartphones, the advent of app stores, and the desire for on-demand work supercharged Uber’s growth and created an entirely new standard of consumer convenience. What began as “tap a button and get a ride” has become something much more profound: ridesharing and carpooling; meal delivery and freight; electric bikes and scooters; and self-driving cars and urban aviation. Of course, in getting from point A to point B we didn’t get everything right. Some of the attributes that made Uber a wildly successful startup—a fierce sense of entrepreneurialism, our willingness to take risks that others might not, and that famous Uber hustle—led to missteps along the way. In fact, when I joined Uber as CEO, many people asked me why I would leave the stability of my previous job for one that was anything but. My answer was simple: Uber is a once-in-a-generation company, and the opportunity ahead of it is enormous. Today, Uber accounts for less than one percent of all miles driven globally. Just a small percentage of people in countries where Uber is available have ever used our services. And we are still barely scratching the surface when it comes to huge industries like food and logistics, and how the future of urban mobility will reshape cities for the better. Building this platform has required a willingness to challenge orthodoxies and reinvent—sometimes even disrupt—ourselves. Over the last decade, as the needs and preferences of our customers have changed, we’ve changed too. Now, we’re becoming something different once again: a public company. vi


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LOGO

Taking this step means that we have even greater responsibilities—to our shareholders, our customers, and our colleagues. That’s why, over the past 18 months, we have improved our governance and Board oversight; built a stronger and more cohesive management team; and made the changes necessary to ensure our company culture rewards teamwork and encourages employees to commit for the long term. Because we are not even one percent done with our work, we will operate with an eye toward the future. We will optimize for the happiness and loyalty of our customers rather than marginal trip or transaction growth. And we will not shy away from making short-term financial sacrifices where we see clear long-term benefits. Our continued success will come from stellar execution and the strength of the platform we have worked so hard to build. Our network spans tens of millions of consumers and partners and represents one of the world’s largest platforms for independent work. Our engineering and product teams are solving some of the most difficult problems at the intersection of the physical and digital worlds. And our regional operations teams let us build and run our business as true citizens of the cities we serve. I want to close with my commitment to you: I won’t be perfect, but I will listen to you; I will ensure that we treat our customers, our colleagues, and our cities with respect; and I will run our business with passion, humility, and integrity. Dara Khosrowshahi vii


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LOGO

Letter from our CEO


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully before making an investment decision. You should carefully consider, among other things, the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context otherwise requires, we use the terms “Uber,” the “company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar terms in this prospectus to refer to Uber Technologies, Inc. and, where appropriate, our consolidated subsidiaries.

UBER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

Overview

Our mission is to ignite opportunity by setting the world in motion.

We believe deeply in our bold mission. Every minute of every day, consumers and Drivers on our platform can tap a button and get a ride or tap a button and get work. We revolutionized personal mobility with Ridesharing, and we are leveraging our platform to redefine the massive meal delivery and logistics industries. While we have had unparalleled growth at scale, we are just getting started: only 2% of the population in the 63 countries where we operate used our offerings in the quarter ended December 31, 2018, based on MAPCs.

The foundation of our platform is our massive network, leading technology, operational excellence, and product expertise. Together, these elements power movement from point A to point B.

 

   

Massive network. Our massive, efficient, and intelligent network consists of tens of millions of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, carriers, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, as well as underlying data, technology, and shared infrastructure. Our network becomes smarter with every trip. In over 700 cities around the world, our network powers movement at the touch of a button for millions, and we hope eventually billions, of people.

 

   

Leading technology. We have built proprietary marketplace, routing, and payments technologies. Marketplace technologies are the core of our deep technology advantage and include demand prediction, matching and dispatching, and pricing technologies.

 

   

Operational excellence. Our regional on-the-ground operations teams use their extensive market-specific knowledge to rapidly launch and scale products in cities, support Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, and build and enhance relationships with cities and regulators.

 

   

Product expertise. Our products are built with the expertise that allows us to set the standard for powering movement on-demand, provide platform users with a contextual, intuitive interface, continually evolve features and functionality, and deliver safety and trust.

Our Personal Mobility, Uber Eats, and Uber Freight platform offerings each address large, fragmented markets.

Personal Mobility

Our Personal Mobility offering includes Ridesharing and New Mobility. Ridesharing refers to products that connect consumers with Drivers who provide rides in a variety of vehicles, such as cars, auto rickshaws,



 

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motorbikes, minibuses, or taxis. New Mobility refers to products that provide consumers with access to rides through a variety of modes, including dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. We aim to provide everyone, everywhere on our platform with access to a safe, reliable, affordable, and convenient trip within a few minutes of tapping a button. In the quarter ended December 31, 2018, the average wait time for a rider to be picked up by a Driver was five minutes. In addition to powering movement for riders, our platform powers opportunity for Drivers, fueling the future of independent work by providing Drivers with a reliable and flexible way to earn money.

We are committed to providing consumers with access to the best personal mobility options to meet their needs. We are investing in new modes of transportation that enable us to address a wider range of consumer use cases and represent a significant opportunity to bring additional trips onto our platform. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation, trips of less than three miles accounted for 46% of all U.S. vehicle trips in 2017. We believe that dockless e-bikes and e-scooters address many of these use cases and will replace a portion of these vehicle trips over time, particularly in urban environments that suffer from substantial traffic during peak commuting hours.

The rapid growth and scale of our Ridesharing products, which to date have accounted for virtually all of our Personal Mobility offering, demonstrates the size of our opportunity:

 

   

Revenue derived from our Ridesharing products grew from $3.5 billion in 2016 to $9.2 billion in 2018.

 

   

Gross Bookings derived from our Ridesharing products grew from $18.8 billion in 2016 to $41.5 billion in 2018.

 

   

Consumers traveled approximately 26 billion miles on our platform in 2018.

We believe that Personal Mobility represents a vast, rapidly growing, and underpenetrated market opportunity. We operate our Personal Mobility offering in 63 countries with an aggregate population of 4.1 billion people. Through our Personal Mobility offering, we estimate that our platform served 2% of the population in these countries based on MAPCs in the quarter ended December 31, 2018. We estimate that people traveled 4.7 trillion vehicle miles in trips under 30 miles in these countries in 2018, of which the approximately 26 billion miles traveled on our platform represent less than 1% penetration.

We believe that our Personal Mobility market share and ridesharing category position are key indicators of our progress towards our massive market opportunity. We calculate our Personal Mobility market share in a given region by dividing our Personal Mobility miles traveled by our estimates of the addressable market in miles traveled in the region. We estimate the size of the addressable market by multiplying the number of passenger cars in each country by our country-level estimates of miles traveled per car. Our estimates also include an estimated 4.4 trillion public transportation miles, which we allocate to regions based on their share of the population in our addressable market. See the section titled “Business—Our Market Opportunity” for more information. Based on this estimate, our Personal Mobility market share is less than 1% in every major region of the world where we operate.

We calculate our ridesharing category position within a given region by dividing our Ridesharing Gross Bookings by our estimates of total ridesharing Gross Bookings generated by us and other companies with similar ridesharing products. Based on these estimates, we have a leading ridesharing category position in every major region of the world where we operate, as shown in the graphic below. We also participate in certain regions through our minority-owned affiliates and intend to maintain our interests in these minority-owned affiliates to participate in the expected growth of ridesharing and other modes of personal mobility in the regions where they operate.



 

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Our Global Ridesharing Footprint(1)

 

 

LOGO

 

*

Does not include any increase in our category position in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan as a result of our pending acquisition of Careem.

(1) 

Percentages are based on our internal estimates of Gross Bookings and miles traveled using our currently available information. For more detail on ownership stakes, see the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Minority-Owned Affiliates.”

Uber Eats

Our Uber Eats offering allows consumers to search for and discover local restaurants, order a meal at the touch of a button, and have the meal delivered reliably and quickly. We launched our Uber Eats app just over three years ago, and we believe that Uber Eats has grown to be the largest meal delivery platform in the world outside of China based on Gross Bookings. We believe that our scale enables the average delivery time for Uber Eats to be faster than the average delivery time for our competitors. For the quarter ended December 31, 2018, the average delivery time was approximately 30 minutes. We believe that Uber Eats not only leverages, but also increases, the supply of Drivers on our network. For example, Uber Eats enables Ridesharing Drivers to increase their utilization and earnings by accessing additional demand for trips during non-peak Ridesharing times. Uber Eats also expands the pool of Drivers by enabling people who are not Ridesharing Drivers or who do not have access to Ridesharing-qualified vehicles to deliver meals on our platform. In addition to benefiting Drivers and consumers, Uber Eats provides restaurants with an instant mobile presence and efficient delivery capability, which we believe generates incremental demand and improves margins for restaurants by enabling them to serve more consumers without increasing their existing front-of-house expenses. Of the 91 million MAPCs on our platform, over 15 million received a meal using Uber Eats in the quarter ended December 31, 2018, tapping into our network of more than 220,000 restaurants in over 500 cities globally.

In connection with our transactions with Grab and Yandex, we contributed our meal delivery offerings in Southeast Asia and Russia/CIS to Grab and to our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, respectively, including our partnerships with certain significant global restaurant chains with operations in those markets. We expect to benefit from continued growth of the meal delivery industry in the regions where our minority-owned affiliates operate.



 

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Uber Freight

We believe that Uber Freight is revolutionizing the logistics industry. Uber Freight leverages our proprietary technology, brand awareness, and experience revolutionizing industries to create a transparent, on-demand marketplace that seamlessly connects shippers and carriers.

The freight industry today is highly fragmented and deeply inefficient. It can take several hours, sometimes days, for shippers to find a truck and driver for shipments, with most of the process conducted over the phone or by fax. Uber Freight greatly reduces friction in the logistics industry by providing an on-demand platform to automate and accelerate logistics transactions end-to-end. Uber Freight connects carriers with the most appropriate shipments available on our platform, and gives carriers upfront, transparent pricing and the ability to book a shipment with the touch of a button.

We serve shippers ranging from small- and medium-sized businesses to global enterprises by enabling them to create and tender shipments with a few clicks, secure capacity on demand with upfront pricing, and track those shipments in real-time from pickup to delivery. We believe that all of these factors represent significant efficiency improvements over traditional freight brokerage providers. Since Uber Freight’s public launch in the United States in May 2017, we have contracted with over 36,000 carriers that in aggregate have more than 400,000 drivers and have served over 1,000 shippers, including global enterprises such as Anheuser-Busch InBev, Niagara, Land O’Lakes, and Colgate-Palmolive. Uber Freight has grown to $125 million in revenue for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

In March 2019, we announced the expansion of our Uber Freight offering into Europe. Although Europe’s freight market is one of the largest and most sophisticated in the world, we believe that European shippers and carriers experience many of the same pain points in their current operations as U.S. shippers and carriers.

Platform Synergies

We intend to continue to invest in new platform offerings that we believe will further strengthen our platform and existing offerings and fuel multiple virtuous cycles of growth.

We can rapidly launch and scale platform products and offerings by leveraging our massive network, leading technology, operational excellence, and product expertise. Furthermore, each new product adds nodes to our network and strengthens these shared capabilities, enabling us to launch and invest in additional products more efficiently. For example, Uber Eats is used by many of the same consumers who use our Ridesharing products, is built on our existing technology stack, and has grown by leveraging many of the same regional operations teams that built our Ridesharing products. Similarly, in cities where we already operate, we can more efficiently launch other products and offerings, such as dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, by leveraging our existing network of Drivers and consumers and regional on-the-ground operations teams. As evidence of the power of our platform, Uber Eats grew to $2.6 billion in Gross Bookings for the quarter ended December 31, 2018, nearly three years following the launch of the Uber Eats app, which we believe makes our Uber Eats offering the largest meal delivery platform in the world outside of China. In addition, each new product or offering enables us to invest more efficiently because we share innovations and investments across our platform offerings. These synergies effectively lower our costs and allow us to invest in a scalable way that becomes increasingly efficient as we grow with each new product or offering.

Each platform offering also increases the value of our platform to platform users, enabling us to attract new platform users and to deepen engagement with existing platform users. Both of these dynamics grow our network scale and liquidity, which further increases the value of our platform to platform users. For example, Uber Eats attracts new consumers to our network – in the quarter ended December 31, 2018, 50% of first-time Uber Eats



 

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consumers were new to our platform. Additionally, in the quarter ended December 31, 2018, consumers who used both Personal Mobility and Uber Eats had 11.5 Trips per month on average, compared to 4.9 Trips per month on average for consumers who used a single offering in cities where both Personal Mobility and Uber Eats were offered. Similarly, having multiple offerings increases our engagement with Drivers. For example, with Uber Eats, Ridesharing Drivers can access additional demand for trips during non-peak Ridesharing times to increase their utilization and earnings. We believe that these trends will continue as we further expand Uber Eats from over 500 cities into nearly 700 cities where we already offer Personal Mobility.

The strength of our leading platform is demonstrated by our performance:

 

   

There were 91 million MAPCs for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

 

   

There were 1.5 billion Trips on our platform for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

 

   

There were 3.9 million Drivers on our platform for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

 

   

Drivers have earned over $78.2 billion on our platform since 2015, as well as $1.2 billion in tips since we introduced in-app tipping for Drivers in July 2017, in each case through December 31, 2018.

 

   

We had a 9% Core Platform Contribution Margin in 2018. See the section titled “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Notes about Certain Key Metrics—Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) and Margin” for additional information.

In 2018, Gross Bookings grew to $49.8 billion, up 45% from $34.4 billion in 2017. Over the same period, revenue reached $11.3 billion, up 42% from $7.9 billion in the prior year. Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue was $9.9 billion in 2018, up 39% from $7.1 billion in 2017. Net income (loss) was $1.0 billion in 2018 and $(4.0) billion in 2017. Adjusted EBITDA was $(1.8) billion in 2018 and $(2.6) billion in 2017. See the section titled “Summary Consolidated Financial and Operating Data—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for additional information.

Recent Developments

Acquisition of Careem

In March 2019, we entered into an asset purchase agreement to acquire substantially all of the assets and assume substantially all of the liabilities of Careem Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Careem”). Dubai-based Careem, founded in 2012, provides ridesharing, meal delivery, and payments services to millions of users in 115 cities across the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan. This acquisition advances our strategy of having a leading ridesharing category position in every major region of the world in which we operate. We expect the acquisition of Careem to significantly expand our presence in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan, which we believe are attractive markets due to their size and growth potential, driven by tech-savvy populations, high smartphone penetration, low rates of car ownership, and communities developing the next generation of transportation options to serve their growing populations. Careem has ridesharing operations in 14 countries excluding Sudan, which business we expect Careem to divest prior to the closing of our acquisition. We estimate that these 14 countries had an aggregate population of over 530 million people and accounted for 331 billion vehicle miles during the year ended December 31, 2018.

The purchase price for the acquisition is approximately $3.1 billion, consisting of up to approximately $1.7 billion of our unsecured convertible notes (the “Careem Convertible Notes”) and approximately $1.4 billion in cash, subject to certain adjustments. The acquisition of Careem’s business is subject to applicable regulatory approvals in certain of the countries in which Careem operates. The transaction is expected to close in January 2020. Following the closing of the acquisition, Careem co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Mudassir Sheikha will continue to lead the Careem business, which will report to its own board comprising three representatives from Uber and two representatives from Careem, which will allow Careem to preserve its brand and market-facing operations.



 

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ATG Investment

In April 2019, we entered into a Class A preferred unit purchase agreement (the “Unit Purchase Agreement”) with affiliates of SoftBank Vision Fund (“SoftBank”), Toyota Motor Corporation (“Toyota”), and DENSO Corporation (“DENSO” and, together with SoftBank and Toyota, the “ATG Investors”), pursuant to which the ATG Investors will invest an aggregate of $1.0 billion ($400 million from Toyota, $333 million from SoftBank, and $267 million from DENSO) in a newly formed corporate parent entity for our Advanced Technologies Group (“ATG”). This investment will enable us to raise dedicated capital to fund our ATG business and aims to accelerate the development and commercialization of automated ridesharing services. Pursuant to the Unit Purchase Agreement, we agreed to contribute certain of our subsidiaries and all assets and liabilities that are primarily related to our autonomous vehicle technologies (excluding liabilities arising from certain indemnification obligations related to the Levandowski arbitration and any remediation costs associated with certain obligations that may arise as a result of the Waymo settlement, each as described elsewhere in this prospectus), in exchange for common units of ATG representing an 86.2% stake in ATG on a fully diluted basis, reflecting an implied $7.25 billion valuation for ATG immediately following the closing of the investment. The ATG Investors will collectively receive a 13.8% stake in ATG on a fully diluted basis.

In connection with the investment, we have entered into a joint collaboration agreement with Toyota, DENSO, and ATG with respect to next-generation self-driving hardware and the development of self-driving vehicles leveraging technology from each of the parties (the “ATG Collaboration Agreement”), which will be effective as of the closing of the transaction. Pursuant to the ATG Collaboration Agreement, ATG and Toyota will agree on development plans, and thereafter Toyota will contribute to ATG up to an aggregate of $300 million in cash over six semi-annual installments to fund the ongoing activities contemplated under the ATG Collaboration Agreement. The ATG Collaboration Agreement represents an expansion of the existing relationship between ATG and Toyota and adds DENSO to the overall effort.

Private Placement

In April 2019, we entered into a stock purchase agreement with PayPal, Inc. (“PayPal”), pursuant to which PayPal will purchase $500 million of our common stock from us in a private placement at a price per share equal to the initial public offering price. The sale of the shares in the private placement is subject to certain closing conditions, including the closing of this offering and certain regulatory approvals. Concurrently, and subject to the closing of the private placement, we and PayPal extended our global partnership through the execution of an addendum to our existing commercial agreement. We and PayPal intend to explore future commercial payment collaborations, including the development of our digital wallet.

Recent Operating Results (Preliminary and Unaudited)

Set forth below are preliminary estimates of unaudited selected financial and other information for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and actual unaudited financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not yet available. The following information reflects our preliminary estimates based on currently available information and is subject to change. We have provided ranges, rather than specific amounts, for the preliminary estimates of the financial information described below primarily because our financial closing procedures for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are not yet complete and, as a result, our final results upon completion of our closing procedures may vary from the preliminary estimates. See the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional information regarding factors that could result in differences between the preliminary estimated ranges of certain of our financial results and operating data presented below and the actual financial results and other information we will report for the three months ended March 31, 2019.



 

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The preliminary estimates for the three months ended March 31, 2019 presented below have been prepared by, and are the responsibility of, management. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, has not audited, reviewed, compiled, or performed any procedures with respect to such preliminary information nor has PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP audited, reviewed, or compiled the financial information for the comparative three-month period ended March 31, 2018. Accordingly, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
     2018     2019
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions, except %)  
     (unaudited)  

Revenue

   $ 2,584     $ 3,043     $ 3,104  

Core Platform revenue

   $ 2,544     $ 2,901     $ 2,958  

Loss from operations

   $ (478   $ (1,131   $  (1,005

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.

   $ 3,748     $ (1,110   $  (1,000

Other Financial and Operating Data:

      

Monthly Active Platform Consumers(1)

     70       93       93  

Trips(2)

     1,136       1,550       1,550  

Gross Bookings(3)

   $  10,893     $ 14,443     $  14,658  

Ridesharing Gross Bookings

   $ 9,380     $ 11,280     $ 11,450  

Uber Eats Gross Bookings

   $ 1,473     $ 3,035     $ 3,075  

Other Bets Gross Bookings

   $ 40     $ 128     $ 133  

Adjusted Net Revenue(4)

   $ 2,423     $ 2,695     $ 2,770  

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue

   $ 2,383     $ 2,553     $ 2,624  

Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss)(5)

   $ 427     $ (180   $ (110

Core Platform Contribution Margin(5)

     18     (7 )%      (4 )% 

Adjusted EBITDA(6)

   $ (280   $ (954   $ (847

 

(1)

MAPCs represent the number of unique consumers who completed a Ridesharing or New Mobility ride or received an Uber Eats meal on our platform at least once in a given month, averaged over each month in the quarter. MAPCs exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations. MAPCs represent actual results for the periods presented.

 

(2)

Trips represent the number of completed consumer Ridesharing or New Mobility rides and Uber Eats meal deliveries in a given period. For example, an UberPOOL ride with three paying consumers represents three unique Trips, whereas an UberX ride with three passengers represents one Trip. Trips exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations. Trips represent actual results for the periods presented.

 

(3)

Gross Bookings represent the total dollar value, including any applicable taxes, tolls, and fees, of Ridesharing and New Mobility rides, Uber Eats meal deliveries, and amounts paid by shippers for Uber Freight shipments, in each case without any adjustment for consumer discounts and refunds, Driver and restaurant earnings, and Driver incentives. Gross Bookings do not include tips earned by Drivers. Gross Bookings exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

 

(4)

See the section titled “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted Net Revenue” for more information.

 

(5)

See the section titled “—Notes about Certain Key Metrics—Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) and Margin” for more information.

 

(6)

See the section titled “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted EBITDA” for more information.

For the three months ended March 31, 2019, we expect revenue to be between $3.0 billion and $3.1 billion compared to $2.6 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2018. We expect Gross Bookings to be between $14.4 billion and $14.7 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2019, compared to $10.9 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2018, which represents an estimated increase of between 33% to 35%. The expected increase in Gross Bookings was primarily driven by a 33% increase in MAPCs over the same period, which drove a 36% increase in Trips. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, we expect net loss attributable



 

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to Uber Technologies, Inc. to be between $1.0 billion and $1.1 billion, compared to net income attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. of $3.7 billion for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The expected net loss attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. is due to increased loss from operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019 due to continued investment in our Core Platform, including increased incentive and promotion spend. Additionally, net income attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was impacted by $3.2 billion of gains from the divestitures of our Russia/CIS operations and our Southeast Asia operations, as well as a $2.0 billion unrealized gain on our investment in Didi during the same period.

We expect our Core Platform Contribution Margin to be within the range of (4)% to (7)% for the three months ended March 31, 2019. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, our Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) was negatively impacted by increased competitive pressures in certain markets, including the United States, as we increased our incentive and promotion spend to maintain our competitive position relative to prior periods. Our incentive and promotion spend varies widely from period to period and within various markets based on competitive dynamics and other factors. As a one-time illustration of this variance, we have calculated an estimated Core Platform Contribution Margin for our top five countries based on Gross Bookings during the three months ended March 31, 2019. The highest estimated Core Platform Contribution Margin among these countries was approximately 54%, and the lowest estimated Core Platform Contribution Margin was approximately (10)%. The estimated Core Platform Contribution Margin of our top five countries based on Gross Bookings does not represent the overall performance of our Core Platform, which is managed globally.



 

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The following tables provide reconciliations of our preliminary estimates of Adjusted Net Revenue, Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue, Ridesharing Adjusted Net Revenue, and Uber Eats Adjusted Net Revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2019, and reconciliations of actual Adjusted Net Revenue, Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue, Ridesharing Adjusted Net Revenue, and Uber Eats Adjusted Net Revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation:

      

Revenue

   $  2,584     $  3,043     $  3,104  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (129     (309     (301

Driver referrals

     (32     (39     (33
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Net Revenue

   $ 2,423     $ 2,695     $  2,770  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation(1):

      

Core Platform revenue

   $  2,544     $  2,901     $  2,958  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (129     (309     (301

Driver referrals

     (32     (39     (33
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue

   $  2,383     $  2,553   $  2,624  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue includes Ridesharing Adjusted Net Revenue, Uber Eats Adjusted Net Revenue, and Other Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue. Other Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue, which primarily consists of revenue associated with our Vehicle Solutions activities, does not include excess Driver incentives or Driver referrals and is equal to GAAP Other Core Platform revenue in all periods.



 

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     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Ridesharing Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation:

      

Ridesharing revenue

   $  2,180     $  2,340     $  2,378  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (32     (14     (11

Driver referrals

     (29     (32     (28
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ridesharing Adjusted Net Revenue

   $  2,119     $  2,294     $  2,339
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Uber Eats Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation:

      

Uber Eats revenue

   $  283     $  520     $  537  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (97      (295      (290

Driver referrals

     (3     (7     (5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Uber Eats Adjusted Net Revenue

   $ 183     $ 218     $ 242  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 


 

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The following table provides a reconciliation of our preliminary estimates of net loss attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. to our preliminary estimates of Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2019, and reconciles actual net income attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. to actual Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Adjusted EBITDA reconciliation:

      

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.

   $  3,748     $  (1,110   $  (1,000

Add (deduct):

      

Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest, net of tax

           (3     (5

Benefit from (provision for) income taxes

     576       4       34  

Gain from equity method investment, net of tax

     3       4       8  

Interest expense

     132       215       225  

Other income (expense), net(1)

      (4,937     (241     (267

Depreciation and amortization

     88       155       140  

Stock-based compensation expense

     63       12       10  

Asset impairment/loss on sale of assets

     32       10       8  

Acquisition and financing related expenses

     15              
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (280   $ (954 )   $ (847
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

The components of other income (expense), net are as follows:

 

                                                              
     Three Months Ended March 31,  
         2018             2019    
Estimated
 
     Actual     Low     High  
     (in millions)  
     (unaudited)  

Interest income

   $ 18     $ 44     $ 44  

Foreign currency exchange gains (losses), net

     13       (5     5  

Gain on divestiture

     3,161              

Unrealized gain on investments

     1,984       16       16  

Change in fair value of embedded derivatives

     (367     160       176  

Other

     128       26       26  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

   $  4,937     $  241     $  267  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

How We Approach the Future

We are on a new path forward with the hiring of our Chief Executive Officer Dara Khosrowshahi in September 2017 following many challenges regarding our culture, workplace practices, and reputation. In addition to hiring our Chief Executive Officer, we have revamped our senior executive team, hiring respected leaders with extensive public and private sector experience, including our Chief Financial Officer Nelson Chai, Chief Operating Officer Barney Harford, Chief Legal Officer Tony West, Chief People Officer Nikki Krishnamurthy, Chief Marketing Officer Rebecca Messina, Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer Bo Young Lee, Chief Trust and Security Officer Matt Olsen, and Chief Compliance and Ethics Officer Scott Schools. Our leadership team has sought to reform our culture fundamentally by improving our governance structure, strengthening our compliance program, creating and embracing new cultural norms, committing to diversity and inclusion, and rebuilding our relationships with employees, Drivers, consumers, cities, and regulators.



 

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We have significantly improved our governance structure and are adopting policies that are similar to those adopted by leading Fortune 500 companies, and we believe these governance improvements will benefit our performance. We built a seasoned, qualified board of directors with the addition of new independent directors in 2017 and 2018, including Ursula Burns, Wan Ling Martello, Ronald Sugar, and John Thain. We divided the roles of Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer and appointed Dr. Sugar as independent Chairperson. We replaced our supervoting structure with a one-share, one-vote structure. We believe that these continuing governance changes will help us to scale our business responsibly, effectively manage risk, and act with integrity and accountability to all stakeholders. We believe that going public will further enhance our transparency with shareholders, regulators, and government officials.

We are committed to building a best-in-class compliance program. We have made tremendous progress in creating a program that is designed to prevent and detect violations of corporate policy, law, and regulations. We continue to enhance our compliance and ethics program by conducting top-down risk assessments and developing policies and practices customized for our growing and evolving global business.

We place diversity and inclusion at the core of everything we do. We strive to create a workplace that is inclusive of everyone, where every person can be authentic, and where that authenticity is celebrated as a strength. In pursuit of that goal, our senior leadership team sponsors and provides resources to our employee resource groups (“ERGs”), which are created and operated by our employees, and which are constantly working to further build and improve our culture.

We embrace the future with optimism, and we work towards our mission based on eight cultural norms. Our team came together to write these norms from the ground up to reflect who we are and where we are going.

 

   

We do the right thing. Period.

 

   

We build globally, we live locally. We harness the power and scale of our global operations to deeply connect with the cities, communities, drivers, and riders that we serve every day.

 

   

We are customer obsessed. We work tirelessly to earn our customers’ trust and business by solving their problems, maximizing their earnings, or lowering their costs. We surprise and delight them. We make short-term sacrifices for a lifetime of loyalty.

 

   

We celebrate differences. We stand apart from the average. We ensure people of diverse backgrounds feel welcome. We encourage different opinions and approaches to be heard, and then we come together and build.

 

   

We act like owners. We seek out problems, and we solve them. We help each other and those who matter to us. We have a bias for action and accountability. We finish what we start, and we build Uber to last. And when we make mistakes, we’ll own up to them.

 

   

We persevere. We believe in the power of grit. We don’t seek the easy path. We look for the toughest challenges, and we push. Our collective resilience is our secret weapon.

 

   

We value ideas over hierarchy. We believe that the best ideas can come from anywhere, both inside and outside our company. Our job is to seek out those ideas, to shape and improve them through candid debate, and to take them from concept to action.

 

   

We make big bold bets. Sometimes we fail, but failure makes us smarter. We get back up, we make the next bet, and we go!

We are committed to using a proactive and collaborative approach with regulators. As a result, we are rebuilding and strengthening our relationships with regulators around the world and engaging in an ongoing, constructive dialogue. For example, in Berlin and Munich, we have actively worked with regulators to introduce



 

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eco-friendly products, such as dockless e-bikes and our all-electric vehicle product, Uber Green, to help those cities decrease air pollution, reduce urban congestion, and increase access to clean transportation options. Additionally, in 2018, we partnered with officials in the province of Mendoza, Argentina to design the country’s first ridesharing regulations. We believe that this long-term collaborative approach will enable us to drive positive legislative change and allow people all over the globe to benefit from modern and efficient transportation options.

We strengthened our commitment to Drivers as part of our new path forward. In June 2017, we launched our Driver-focused “180 Days of Change” campaign, during which we created 38 new features and improvements for Drivers, crafted specifically to address their feedback. These improvements, which include tipping, two-minute cancellation times, 24/7 phone support, long-trip notifications, and live rider locations, were initially launched in the United States and we are continuing to roll these improvements out globally. We have created an “Early Tester Program” for Drivers to try features and updates before they are widely available, and we continue to prioritize and promote good Driver relations. In November 2018, we introduced a Driver rewards program, Uber Pro, in beta mode in eight cities in the United States. We expect Uber Pro to provide Drivers with the opportunity to increase their earnings, receive discounts on vehicle maintenance and gas, and receive full tuition reimbursement to complete courses toward an undergraduate degree or a non-degree certificate through Arizona State University Online.

It is a new day at Uber.

Our Platform

Massive Network

We have a massive, efficient, and intelligent network consisting of tens of millions of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, carriers, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, as well as underlying data, technology, and shared infrastructure. Our network becomes smarter with every trip. In over 700 cities around the world, our network powers movement at the touch of a button for millions, and we hope eventually billions, of people. We have massive network scale and liquidity, with 1.5 billion Trips and an average wait time of five minutes for a rider to be picked up by a Driver in the quarter ended December 31, 2018. Every node we add to our network increases liquidity, and we intend to continue to add more Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, carriers, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. We also hope to add autonomous vehicles, delivery drones, and vertical takeoff and landing vehicles to our network, along with other future innovations.



 

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Our strategy is to create the largest network in each market so that we can have the greatest liquidity network effect, which we believe leads to a margin advantage.

 

   

Starting with supply to create a liquidity network effect.

Liquidity Network Effect

 

LOGO

More Drivers Driver Supply More Rides Per Hour and Higher Earnings For Drivers More Riders Lower Wait Times And Fares More Liquidity

 

   

Increasing scale, creating category leadership and a margin advantage. We can choose to use incentives, such as promotions for Drivers and consumers, to attract platform users on both sides of our network, which can result in a negative margin until we reach sufficient scale to reduce incentives. In certain markets, other operators may use incentives to attempt to mitigate the advantages of our more liquid network, and we will generally choose to match these incentives, even if it results in a negative margin, to compete effectively and grow our business. Generally, for a given geographic market, we believe that the operator with the larger network will have a higher margin than the operator with the smaller network. To the extent that competing ridesharing category participants choose to shift their strategy towards shorter-term profitability by reducing their incentives or employing other means of increasing their take rate, we believe that we would not be required to invest as heavily in incentives given the impact of price and Driver earnings on consumer and Driver behavior, respectively. In addition to competing against ridesharing category participants, we also expect to continue to use Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions to grow our business relative to lower-priced alternatives, such as personal vehicle ownership, and to maintain balance between Driver supply and consumer demand.

Leading Technology

Our technology manages dynamic, real-world interactions every second of every day. We have built proprietary marketplace, routing, and payments technologies.

 

   

Marketplace technologies. Our marketplace technologies comprise the real-time algorithmic decision engine that matches supply and demand for our Personal Mobility, Uber Eats, and Uber Freight offerings.

 

   

Demand prediction. Our proprietary demand prediction engine uses data to predict when and where peak ride and meal order volume will occur, allowing us to manage supply and demand in a city efficiently.



 

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Matching and dispatching. Our proprietary matching and dispatching algorithms generate more than 30 million match pair predictions per minute.

 

   

Pricing. Our technology sets product pricing in real-time at a local level. In areas and times of high demand, we deploy dynamic pricing to help restore balance between Driver supply and consumer demand. Dynamic pricing helps to balance demand during our busiest times so that a reliable ride is always within reach.

 

   

Routing technologies. We use advanced routing algorithms to build a carefully optimized system capable of handling hundreds of thousands of ETA requests per second.

 

   

Payments technologies. We have developed a robust payments infrastructure that includes flexible, secure, and trusted payment options.

 

   

Artificial intelligence and machine learning. We have built a machine learning software platform that powers hundreds of models behind our data-driven services across our offerings and in customer service and safety.

Operational Excellence

Our regional on-the-ground operations teams use their extensive market-specific knowledge to rapidly launch and scale products, support Drivers, consumers, and restaurants, and build and enhance relationships with cities and regulators.

 

   

Regional presence, global scale. We have regional operations teams in all of our markets. These regional on-the-ground teams enable us to better understand and contribute to communities that we serve. For example, as we expand dockless e-bikes and e-scooters into new cities, we can leverage our regional operations teams to more efficiently launch in a given market.

 

   

Platform user support. We are committed to providing reliable, regional, on-the-ground support for Drivers and consumers, including 24/7 phone support in the United States and certain other markets for Drivers and in-app support for consumers.

Product Expertise

Our products are built with the expertise that allows us to set the standard for powering movement on-demand, provide platform users with a contextual, intuitive interface, continually evolve features and functionality, and deliver safety and trust.

 

   

On-demand experience. We design mobile-native products that have defined the on-demand experience to power movement.

 

   

Contextual, intuitive interface. We aim to provide products that are consistent and easy-to-use for all platform users. We combine a sleek and seamless user interface with our artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities to create a sophisticated yet user-friendly experience.

 

   

Continuous, iterative feature and function development. By leveraging our network scale, we rapidly introduce and iterate new products and features in multiple markets across the globe.

 

   

Safety and trust. We design our products to include robust safety tools for all platform users. For example, in 2018, we launched our Safety Toolkit, which allows both Drivers and consumers to access a menu of safety features directly from the home screen of our app. We have a two-way ratings system that enables both Drivers and consumers to rate each other, which increases accountability on our platform.



 

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Our Autonomous Driving Strategy

We are investing in technology to power the next generation of transportation. ATG focuses on developing autonomous vehicle technologies, which we believe have the long-term potential to provide safer and more efficient rides and deliveries to consumers, as well as lower prices. ATG was established in 2015 in Pittsburgh with 40 researchers from Carnegie Robotics and Carnegie Mellon University. ATG has primary engineering offices in Pittsburgh, San Francisco, and Toronto with over 1,000 employees. ATG has built over 250 self-driving vehicles, collected data from millions of autonomous vehicle testing miles, and completed tens of thousands of passenger trips. Along the way to a potential future autonomous vehicle world, we believe that there will be a long period of hybrid autonomy, in which autonomous vehicles will be deployed gradually against specific use cases while Drivers continue to serve most consumer demand. As we solve specific autonomous use cases, we will deploy autonomous vehicles against them. Such situations may include trips along a standard, well-mapped route in a predictable environment in good weather. In other situations, such as those that involve substantial traffic, complex routes, or unusual weather conditions, we will continue to rely on Drivers. Moreover, high-demand events, such as concerts or sporting events, will likely exceed the capacity of a highly utilized, fully autonomous vehicle fleet and require the dynamic addition of Drivers to the network in real time. Our regional on-the-ground operations teams will be critical to maintaining reliable supply for such high-demand events. Deciding which trip receives a vehicle driven by a Driver and which receives an autonomous vehicle, and deploying both in real time while maintaining liquidity in all situations, is a dynamic that we believe is imperative for the success of an autonomous vehicle future. Accordingly, we believe that we will be uniquely suited for this dynamic during the expected long hybrid period of co-existence of Drivers and autonomous vehicles. Drivers are therefore a critical and differentiating advantage for us and will continue to be our valued partners for the long-term. We will continue to partner with original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), and other suppliers, such as Toyota and DENSO pursuant to the ATG Collaboration Agreement, and other technology companies to determine how to most effectively leverage our network during the transition to autonomous vehicle technologies.

Our Market Opportunity

We address a massive opportunity in powering movement from point A to point B. The scope of our bold mission, unparalleled size of our global network, and breadth of our platform offerings lead to a very large market opportunity for us. We view our market opportunity in terms of a total addressable market (“TAM”), which we believe that we can address over the long-term, and a serviceable addressable market (“SAM”), which we currently address. As of the quarter ended December 31, 2018, we had Ridesharing operations in 63 countries with an aggregate population of 4.1 billion people. For additional information regarding our estimates and calculations, see the section titled “Market, Industry, and Other Data.”

Personal Mobility

Our Personal Mobility TAM consists of 11.9 trillion miles per year, representing an estimated $5.7 trillion market opportunity in 175 countries. We include all passenger vehicle miles and all public transportation miles in all countries globally in our TAM, including those we have yet to enter, except for the 20 countries that we address through our ownership positions in our minority-owned affiliates, over which we have no operational control other than approval rights with respect to certain material corporate actions. We estimate that these 20 countries represent an additional estimated market opportunity of approximately $0.5 trillion.

Our current Personal Mobility SAM consists of 3.9 trillion miles per year, representing an estimated $2.5 trillion market opportunity in 57 countries. We include only these 57 countries in our SAM as they are the countries where we operate today, other than the six countries identified below where we experience significant regulatory restrictions. We also include all miles traveled in passenger vehicles for trips under 30 miles in our SAM. We do not include miles from trips greater than 30 miles, as the vast majority of our trips are shorter than



 

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this distance. While we believe that a portion of our trips can be a substitute for public transportation, we exclude public transportation miles from our SAM given the price differential between the two modes of transportation.

We plan to grow our current SAM by expanding further into our six near-term priority countries, Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain, where our ability to grow our Ridesharing operations to scale is currently and may continue to be limited by significant regulatory restrictions. We already offer certain Personal Mobility products such as livery vehicles, taxi partnerships, and dockless e-bikes in several of these countries, and hope to grow our presence in these six countries in the near future to the extent regulatory restrictions are reduced. For trips under 30 miles, we estimate that these six countries account for 0.8 trillion vehicle miles. We calculate the market opportunity of these 0.8 trillion vehicle miles to be $0.5 trillion. We refer to this opportunity, together with our current SAM, as our near-term SAM. Our near-term SAM consists of 4.7 trillion miles per year, representing an estimated $3.0 trillion market opportunity in 63 countries. We believe that we are just getting started: consumers only traveled approximately 26 billion miles on our platform in 2018, implying a less than 1% penetration rate of our near-term SAM.

 

LOGO

TAM: 175 Countries All Passenger Vehicle and Public Transport Trips 11.9Tn Miles $5.7Tn Passenger Vehicle Trips: 7.5Tn Miles $4.7Tn Public Transport: 4.4Tn Miles $1.0Tn Near-Term SAM: 63 Countries Passenger Vehicle Trips<30 Miles 4.7Tn Miles $3.0Tn Current SAM: 57 Countries Passenger Vehicle Trips< 30 Miles 3.9Tn Miles $2.5Tn Uber Personal Mobility Near-Term SAM Miles Penetration: less than 1%

Meal Delivery

According to Euromonitor International, the global spend for consumer food services, which includes full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, cafés and bars, and other consumer food services, was $2.8 trillion in 2017. Of this amount, we believe that our Uber Eats offering addresses a SAM of $795 billion, the amount that consumers spent in 2017 on meals from home delivery, takeaway, and drive-through worldwide from these consumer food services, including in the 19 countries we address through our ownership positions in our minority-owned affiliates. The home delivery market, which accounts for $161 billion of the global spend for consumer food services, has grown 77% year-over-year on average since 2013, significantly faster than the growth rate of the consumer food service market, which grew 5% on average over the same period. We expect that the home delivery market will continue to grow as a result of the convenience that it provides consumers. We believe that we penetrated 1.0% of this $795 billion market given our $7.9 billion of Uber Eats Gross Bookings for the year ended December 31, 2018.

We also believe that home delivery can address a portion of the $2.0 trillion eat-in restaurant spend, as more consumers choose to have prepared meals from restaurants delivered. Therefore, we estimate our TAM to be the entire $2.8 trillion consumer food services spend. However, given that spend at eat-in restaurants is often tied to



 

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the dining experience, we do not expect to address all of the eat-in spending included in our TAM. In addition, Euromonitor International estimated that global spend through store-based grocery retailers was $6.3 trillion in 2017. While we do not include this spend in the estimates for our TAM, we believe that Uber Eats can address a portion of this grocery spend with our existing meal delivery product.

Uber Freight

According to the American Trucking Associations, businesses spent $700 billion on trucking in the United States in 2017. Uber Freight currently addresses the brokerage portion of the United States market, which Armstrong & Associates estimates was $72 billion in 2017. We believe the business logistics market is moving towards an on-demand logistics model, as evidenced by the brokerage segment growing at a compound annual growth rate of over 11% from 1995 to 2017. We believe that we penetrated less than 0.1% of this $700 billion market given our $359 million of Uber Freight Gross Bookings for the year ended December 31, 2018.

While Uber Freight currently operates only in the United States, in March 2019, we announced the expansion of our Uber Freight offering into Europe. According to Armstrong & Associates, the European market for freight trucking was $600 billion in 2017, which, together with the $700 billion that businesses spent on trucking in the United States in 2017, totals an addressable market of $1.3 trillion that we believe represents the SAM for our Uber Freight offering. Globally, Armstrong & Associates estimates the market for freight trucking represented a $3.8 trillion opportunity in 2017, representing our TAM as we believe that we will address an increasing portion of the market over time.

Our Growth Strategy

Key elements of our growth strategy include:

 

   

Increasing Ridesharing penetration in existing markets;

 

   

Expanding Personal Mobility into new markets;

 

   

Continuing to invest in and expand Uber Eats;

 

   

Pursuing targeted investments and acquisitions;

 

   

Leveraging our platform to launch new products;

 

   

Increasing Driver and consumer engagement;

 

   

Continuing to invest in and expand Uber Freight;

 

   

Continuing to innovate and transform our products to meet platform user needs; and

 

   

Investing in advanced technologies, including autonomous vehicle technologies.

Summary Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves numerous risks, including the risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. You should carefully consider these risks before making an investment. The following are some of these risks, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business financial condition, operating results, or prospects.

 

   

The personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries are highly competitive, with well-established and low-cost alternatives that have been available for decades, low barriers to entry, low switching costs, and well-capitalized competitors in nearly every major geographic region.



 

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To remain competitive in certain markets, we have in the past lowered, and may continue to lower, fares or service fees, and we have in the past offered, and may continue to offer, significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions.

 

   

We have incurred significant losses since inception, including in the United States and other major markets. We expect our operating expenses to increase significantly in the foreseeable future, and we may not achieve profitability.

 

   

Our business would be adversely affected if Drivers were classified as employees instead of independent contractors.

 

   

If we are unable to attract or maintain a critical mass of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, whether as a result of competition or other factors, our platform will become less appealing to platform users.

 

   

Our workplace culture and forward-leaning approach created operational, compliance, and cultural challenges and our efforts to address these challenges may not be successful.

 

   

Maintaining and enhancing our brand and reputation is critical to our business prospects. We have previously received significant media coverage and negative publicity, particularly in 2017, regarding our brand and reputation, and a failure to rehabilitate our brand and reputation will cause our business to suffer.

 

   

Our workforce and operations have grown substantially since our inception and we expect that they will continue to do so. If we are unable to effectively manage that growth, our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.

 

   

Platform users may engage in, or be subject to, criminal, violent, inappropriate, or dangerous activity that results in major safety incidents, which may harm our ability to attract and retain Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers.

 

   

We are making substantial investments in new offerings and technologies, and expect to increase such investments in the future. These new ventures are inherently risky, and we may never realize any expected benefits from them.

 

   

We generate a significant percentage of our Gross Bookings from trips in large metropolitan areas and trips to and from airports, and these operations may be negatively affected.

 

   

We may fail to develop and successfully commercialize autonomous vehicle technologies and expect that our competitors will develop such technologies before us, and such technologies may fail to perform as expected, or may be inferior to those developed by our competitors.

 

   

Our potential acquisition of Careem is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties.

 

   

We may experience security or data privacy breaches or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or platform user data.

 

   

We may continue to be blocked from or limited in providing or operating our products and offerings in certain jurisdictions, and may be required to modify our business model in those jurisdictions as a result.

 

   

Our business is subject to numerous legal and regulatory risks that could have an adverse impact on our business and future prospects.

Corporate Information

We were founded in 2009 and incorporated as Ubercab, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in July 2010. In February 2011, we changed our name to Uber Technologies, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at



 

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1455 Market Street, 4th Floor, San Francisco, California 94103, and our telephone number is (415) 612-8582. Our website address is www.uber.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

Uber, Uber Technologies, the Uber logo, and other trade names, trademarks, or service marks of Uber appearing in this prospectus are the property of Uber. Trade names, trademarks, and service marks of other companies appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

  

180,000,000 shares

Common stock offered by the selling stockholders pursuant to the underwriters’ over-allotment option

  

27,000,000 shares

Common stock sold by us in the private placement

   Shortly after the closing of this offering, subject to certain regulatory approvals, PayPal will purchase $500 million of our common stock from us in a private placement at a price per share equal to the initial public offering price. Based on an assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, PayPal would purchase 10,638,298 shares. We will receive the full proceeds and will not pay any underwriting discounts or commissions with respect to the shares that are sold in the private placement. The sale of the shares in the private placement is subject to certain closing conditions, including the completion of this offering and certain regulatory approvals. The sale of these shares to PayPal will not be registered in this offering and will be subject to a lockup agreement with the underwriters for a period of 270 days after the date of this prospectus. See the section titled “Underwriters” for additional information regarding such restrictions.

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering and the private placement

  

1,676,959,021 shares

Use of proceeds

   We estimate that net proceeds to us from the sale of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $8.4 billion, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Additionally, our proceeds from the private placement to PayPal will be $500 million. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock in this offering by the selling stockholders.
   The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility and create a public market for our common stock. We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. We expect to use a portion of the net proceeds we receive to satisfy a portion of the anticipated tax withholding and remittance obligations related to the settlement of our outstanding restricted stock units (“RSUs”). We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or make investments in


 

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   businesses, products, offerings, and technologies, although we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds” for additional information.

Risk factors

   See the section titled “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

Driver appreciation reward

   To acknowledge Drivers who have participated in our success, we are paying a one-time cash Driver appreciation reward to qualifying Drivers in jurisdictions where we operate through owned operations, in an aggregate amount of approximately $300 million to over 1.1 million qualifying Drivers around the world. We expect to pay the Driver appreciation reward to qualifying Drivers on or around April 27, 2019.
   In the United States, each qualifying Driver will receive a Driver appreciation reward in an amount equal to $100, $500, $1,000, $10,000, $20,000, or $40,000, based on the number of lifetime Trips completed by the qualifying Driver. The amount of the Driver appreciation reward paid to qualifying Drivers outside the United States will be based on the same Trip criteria, but may be adjusted on a region-by-region basis to account for differences in average hourly earnings by region. Whether a Driver qualifies for a Driver appreciation reward will be based on the following criteria:
  

•   one Trip completed in 2019 as of April 7, 2019;

  

•   (i) 2,500, (ii) 5,000, (iii) 10,000, (iv) 20,000, (v) 30,000, or (vi) 40,000 lifetime Trips completed as of April 7, 2019; and

  

•   the Driver is in good standing.

   Qualifying Drivers will receive only one Driver appreciation reward, which will be the largest Driver appreciation reward for which they are eligible.

Directed share program

   At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 5,400,000 shares of common stock, or up to 3% of the shares offered by this prospectus, for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to certain qualifying Drivers in the United States. To qualify for the directed share program, a Driver must meet the minimum criteria for the Driver appreciation reward. The sales will be made at our direction by Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and its affiliates through a directed share program. The


 

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   number of shares of our common stock available for sale to the general public in this offering will be reduced to the extent that such qualifying Drivers purchase such reserved shares. Any reserved shares not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same terms as the other shares of common stock offered by this prospectus. Participants in this directed share program will not be subject to lockup or market standoff restrictions with the underwriters or with us with respect to any shares purchased through the directed share program.
   For additional information, see the section titled “Underwriters—Directed Share Program.”

Proposed NYSE trading symbol

   “UBER”

The 1,677.0 million shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 1,486.3 million shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, and excludes:

 

   

42.9 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $9.08 per share;

 

   

76.1 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs outstanding as of December 31, 2018, for which the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but for which the service-based vesting condition was not satisfied as of December 31, 2018 (we expect that vesting of certain of these RSUs through May 1, 2019 will result in the net issuance of 7.6 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 4.8 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

35.2 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs granted after December 31, 2018 (we expect that the service-based vesting condition will be satisfied as of May 1, 2019 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering with respect to certain of these RSUs, resulting in the net issuance of 0.5 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 0.3 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

217,359 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $10.44 per share (excluding warrants that are assumed to be exercised prior to the closing of this offering discussed in detail below);

 

   

3.8 million shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of $87.3 million of accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes (described below) from January 1, 2019 through an assumed conversion date of May 14, 2019, in connection with the closing of this offering;

 

   

up to 30.4 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of up to approximately $1.7 billion aggregate principal amount of the Careem Convertible Notes that we may issue in connection with the acquisition of Careem, which will be convertible at a conversion price of $55.00 per share. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Careem Convertible Notes” for more information;

 

   

130.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (“2019 Plan”), which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering; and



 

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25.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering.

In addition, unless we specifically state otherwise, the information in this prospectus assumes:

 

   

the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus;

 

   

the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the adoption of our amended and restated bylaws, each of which will be in effect prior to the closing of this offering;

 

   

the automatic conversion of 903.6 million shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 into 903.6 million shares of our common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering;

 

   

the net issuance of 38.3 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs outstanding as of December 31, 2018, for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, after withholding 24.5 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate);

 

   

the cash exercise of a warrant to purchase 150,071 shares of our Series E redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, which will result in the issuance of 150,071 shares of common stock in connection with this offering;

 

   

922,655 shares of our Series G redeemable convertible preferred stock issued in February 2019 upon the exercise of a warrant that was outstanding as of December 31, 2018, which will automatically convert into 922,655 shares of common stock in connection with this offering;

 

   

86.1 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of $2.9 billion aggregate principal amount of our outstanding unsecured paid-in-kind (“PIK”) convertible notes due 2021 (the “2021 Convertible Notes”) and unsecured PIK convertible notes due 2022 (the “2022 Convertible Notes,” and together with the 2021 Convertible Notes, the “Convertible Notes”) outstanding as of December 31, 2018, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share) in connection with the closing of this offering;

 

   

no exercise of outstanding stock options or settlement of outstanding RSUs subsequent to December 31, 2018; and

 

   

no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option.



 

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

The following tables summarize our consolidated financial and operating data. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017, and 2018 (except the pro forma share and pro forma net income per share information) and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

You should read the following summary consolidated financial and operating data together with the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated financial and operating data in this section are not intended to replace our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and are qualified in their entirety by our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2016(1)             2017         2018      
     (in millions, except share amounts
which are reflected in thousands and
per share amounts)
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations

      

Revenue

   $ 3,845     $ 7,932     $ 11,270  

Costs and expenses

      

Cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below

     2,228       4,160       5,623  

Operations and support(2)

     881       1,354       1,516  

Sales and marketing(2)

     1,594       2,524       3,151  

Research and development(2)

     864       1,201       1,505  

General and administrative(2)

     981       2,263       2,082  

Depreciation and amortization(2)

     320       510       426  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

     6,868       12,012       14,303  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

     (3,023     (4,080     (3,033

Interest expense

     (334     (479     (648

Other income (expense), net(3)

     139       (16     4,993  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and loss from equity method investment

     (3,218     (4,575     1,312  

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

     28       (542     283  

Loss from equity method investment, net of tax

                 (42
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

     (3,246     (4,033     987  

Income from discontinued operations, net of income taxes (including gain on disposition in 2016)(4)

     2,876              
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) including redeemable non-controlling interest

     (370     (4,033     987  

Less: net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest, net of tax

                 (10
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.

   $ (370   $ (4,033   $ 997  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 


 

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     Year Ended December 31,  
         2016(1)             2017         2018      
     (in millions, except share amounts which
are reflected in thousands and per share
amounts)
 

Net income (loss) per share attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. common stockholders, basic and diluted(5):

      

Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share:

      

Continuing operations

   $ (7.89   $ (9.46   $  

Discontinued operations

     6.99              
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share

   $ (0.90   $ (9.46   $  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

      

Basic

     411,501       426,360       443,368  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     411,501       426,360       478,999  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net income per share attributable to common stockholders (unaudited):

      

Basic

       $ 1.33  
      

 

 

 

Diluted

       $ 1.27  
      

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute pro forma net income per share attributable to common stockholders (unaudited):

      

Basic

         1,453,906  
      

 

 

 

Diluted

         1,520,723  
      

 

 

 

 

(1)

On January 1, 2017, we adopted Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“Topic 606”), on a full retrospective basis. Accordingly, our audited consolidated financial statements for 2016 were recast to conform to Topic 606. See Notes 1 and 2 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

(2)

Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
           2016                  2017                  2018        
     (in millions)  

Operations and support

   $ 21      $ 30      $ 15  

Sales and marketing

     13        9        9  

Research and development

     45        25        65  

General and administrative

     49        73        83  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

   $             128      $             137      $             172  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(3)

The components of other income (expense), net, were as follows:

     Year Ended December 31,  
           2016                 2017                 2018        
     (in millions)  

Interest income

     22                     71       104  

Foreign currency exchange gains (losses), net

     (91     42       (45

Gain on divestiture

                 3,214  

Unrealized gain on investments

                 1,996  

Change in fair value of embedded derivatives

     142       (173     (501

Other

                   66       44       225  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income (expense), net

   $ 139     $ (16   $         4,993  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 


 

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(4)

See Note 15 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of our discontinued operations.

 

(5)

See Notes 1 and 12 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate basic and diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders and basic and diluted pro forma net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

 

     As of December 31, 2018  
     Actual     Pro Forma(1)(2)     Pro Forma
As Adjusted(2)(3)
 
     (in millions)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

    

Cash and cash equivalents

   $           6,406     $ 6,406     $ 15,266  

Working capital(4)

     4,399       3,239       12,104  

Total assets

     23,988       23,988       32,844  

Long-term debt, net of current portion

     6,869       4,535       4,535  

Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

     52              

Convertible debt embedded derivatives

     2,018              

Total liabilities

     17,196       13,761       13,757  

Redeemable convertible preferred stock

     14,177              

Additional paid-in capital

     668       20,749       29,610  

Accumulated deficit

     (7,865     (10,334     (10,334

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

     (7,385     10,227       19,088  

 

(1)

The pro forma consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (i) the automatic conversion of 903.6 million shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 into 903.6 million shares of our common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering, (ii) the net issuance of 38.3 million shares of our common stock upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, after giving effect to shares withheld to satisfy the associated withholding tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate) and the related increase in liabilities and corresponding decrease in additional paid-in capital, (iii) stock-based compensation expense of $3.0 billion associated with restricted stock awards, RSUs, SARs, and stock options for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied or partially satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, reflected as an increase in accumulated deficit, and an increase in additional paid-in capital for equity-settled awards or an increase in liabilities for cash-settled awards, (iv) the assumed cash exercise of a warrant to purchase 150,071 shares of our Series E redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, which will result in the issuance of 150,071 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise; (v) the automatic conversion of 922,655 shares of our Series G redeemable convertible preferred stock issued upon the exercise of a warrant in February 2019 into 922,655 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, (vi) 86.1 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of $2.9 billion accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes as of December 31, 2018, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, and the removal of the related embedded derivative liabilities, in connection with the closing of this offering, and (vii) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect immediately prior to the closing of this offering. For additional information, see Note 1 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

(2)

The pro forma as adjusted consolidated balance sheet data gives effect to (i) the pro forma items described in footnote (1) above and (ii) the issuance and sale by us of 180.0 million shares of our common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and the use of proceeds to satisfy the withholding tax obligations described in the footnote above, and (iii) the issuance and sale by us of 10.6 million shares of our common stock in the private placement to PayPal at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share.

 

(3)

Pro forma (items (ii)(b) and (vi)) and pro forma as adjusted consolidated balance sheet data are illustrative only and will change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share would increase (decrease) each of our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets, additional paid-in capital, and total stockholders’ equity (deficit) by $178.2 million, assuming the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after



 

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  deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) each of our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets, additional paid-in capital, and total stockholders’ equity (deficit) by approximately $46.5 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

(4)

Working capital is defined as total current assets less total current liabilities. See our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus for further details regarding our current assets and current liabilities.

 

                                                              
     Year Ended December 31,  
         2016             2017              2018      
     (in millions, except %)  

Other Financial and Operating Data:

       

Monthly Active Platform Consumers(1)

     45       68        91  

Trips(2)

     1,818       3,736        5,220  

Gross Bookings(3)

   $ 19,236     $ 34,409      $ 49,799  

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue(4)

   $ 3,170     $ 7,136      $ 9,924  

Core Platform Contribution Margin(5)

     (24 )%      0      9

Adjusted EBITDA(6)

   $ (2,517   $ (2,642    $ (1,847

 

(1)

MAPCs represent the number of unique consumers who completed a Ridesharing or New Mobility ride or received an Uber Eats meal on our platform at least once in a given month, averaged over each month in the quarter. MAPCs presented for an annual period are MAPCs for the fourth quarter of the year. MAPCs exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

 

(2)

Trips represent the number of completed consumer Ridesharing or New Mobility rides and Uber Eats meal deliveries in a given period. For example, an UberPOOL ride with three paying consumers represents three unique Trips, whereas an UberX ride with three passengers represents one Trip. Trips exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

 

(3)

Gross Bookings represent the total dollar value, including any applicable taxes, tolls, and fees, of Ridesharing and New Mobility rides, Uber Eats meal deliveries, and amounts paid by shippers for Uber Freight shipments, in each case without any adjustment for consumer discounts and refunds, Driver and restaurant earnings, and Driver incentives. Gross Bookings do not include tips earned by Drivers. Gross Bookings exclude the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

 

(4)

See the section titled “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted Net Revenue” below for more information.

 

(5)

See the section titled “—Notes about Certain Key Metrics—Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) and Margin” below for more information.

 

(6)

See the section titled “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Adjusted EBITDA” below for more information.

Notes about Certain Key Metrics

Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) and Margin

We define Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) as Core Platform revenue less the following direct costs and expenses of our Core Platform: (i) cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization; (ii) operations and support; (iii) sales and marketing; (iv) research and development; and (v) general and administrative. Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) also reflects any applicable exclusions from Adjusted EBITDA and excludes the impact of our 2018 Divested Operations.

We define Core Platform Contribution Margin as Core Platform Contribution Profit (Loss) as a percentage of Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue.

Core Platform Contribution Margin demonstrates the margin that we generate after direct expenses. We believe that Core Platform Contribution Margin is a useful indicator of the economics of our Core Platform, as it does not include indirect unallocated research and development and general and administrative expenses (including expenses for ATG and Other Technology Programs). However, Core Platform Contribution Margin is



 

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not a financial measure of, nor does it imply, profitability. We have not yet achieved profitability, and even if our revenue exceeds our direct expenses over time, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. The relationship of revenue to direct expenses is not necessarily indicative of future performance. Other companies that present contribution margin calculate it differently and, therefore, similarly titled measures presented by other companies may not be directly comparable to ours. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Segments” for additional information regarding our segment measures.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

We collect and analyze operating and financial data to evaluate the health of our business and assess our performance. In addition to revenue, net income (loss), loss from operations, and other results under GAAP, we use Adjusted Net Revenue and Adjusted EBITDA, which are described below, to evaluate our business. We have included these non-GAAP financial measures in this prospectus because they are key measures used by our management to evaluate our operating performance. Accordingly, we believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management team and board of directors. Our calculation of these non-GAAP financial measures may differ from similarly-titled non-GAAP measures, if any, reported by our peer companies. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as substitutes for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP.

Adjusted Net Revenue

We define Adjusted Net Revenue as revenue less (i) excess Driver incentives and (ii) Driver referrals. We define Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue as Core Platform revenue less (i) excess Driver incentives and (ii) Driver referrals. We believe that these measures are informative of our top line performance because they measure the total net financial activity reflected in the amount earned by us after taking into account all Driver and restaurant earnings, Driver incentives, and Driver referrals. Adjusted Net Revenue is lower than revenue in all reported periods.

Excess Driver incentives refer to cumulative payments, including incentives but excluding Driver referrals, to a Driver that exceed the cumulative revenue that we recognize from a Driver with no future guarantee of additional revenue. Cumulative payments to a Driver could exceed cumulative revenue from a Driver as a result of Driver incentives or when the amount paid to a Driver for a Trip exceeds the fare charged to the consumer. Further, cumulative payments to Drivers for Uber Eats deliveries historically have exceeded the cumulative delivery fees paid by consumers. Excess Driver incentives are recorded in cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization. Driver referrals are recorded in sales and marketing expenses. Management views Driver incentives and Driver referrals as Driver payments in the aggregate, whether they are classified as Driver incentives, excess Driver incentives, or Driver referrals.

These amounts largely depend on our business decisions. We include these amounts in Adjusted Net Revenue as it is useful to evaluate how increasing or decreasing incentives would impact our top line performance, and the overall net financial activity between us and our customers, which ultimately impacts our Take Rate.

Adjusted Net Revenue has limitations as a financial measure, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and is not meant as a substitute for revenue prepared in accordance with GAAP.



 

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The following tables present reconciliations of Adjusted Net Revenue and Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures for each of the periods indicated:

 

                                                              
     Year Ended December 31,  
     2016     2017     2018  
     (in millions)  

Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation:

      

Revenue

   $ 3,845     $ 7,932     $ 11,270  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (507     (530     (837

Driver referrals

     (167     (199     (136
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Net Revenue

   $ 3,171     $ 7,203     $ 10,297  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

                                                              
     Year Ended December 31,  
     2016     2017     2018  
     (in millions)  

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue reconciliation:

      

Core Platform revenue

   $ 3,844     $ 7,865     $ 10,897  

Deduct:

      

Excess Driver incentives

     (507     (530     (837

Driver referrals

     (167     (199     (136
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue

   $ 3,170     $ 7,136     $ 9,924  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The comparability of the results for each of the periods presented above was impacted by our 2018 Divested Operations. The 2018 Divested Operations decreased Adjusted Net Revenue by $49 million, $55 million, and $4 million in 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively, due to excess Driver incentives and Driver referrals for the 2018 Divested Operations being greater than revenue for the 2018 Divested Operations in each period. In addition, in 2018, we incurred charges for certain legal, tax, and regulatory reserves and settlements, which were classified in contra-revenue, as these charges include payments or potential payments to or on behalf of Drivers. These charges decreased revenue by $97 million in 2018.

Adjusted EBITDA.

We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss), excluding (i) income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of income taxes, (ii) net income (loss) attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest, net of tax (iii) benefit from (provision for) income taxes, (iv) income (loss) from equity method investment, net of tax, (v) interest expense, (vi) other income (expense), net, (vii) depreciation and amortization, (viii) stock-based compensation expense, (ix) legal, tax, and regulatory reserves and settlements, (x) asset impairment/loss on sale of assets, (xi) acquisition and financing related expenses, and (xii) restructuring charges.

We have included Adjusted EBITDA in this prospectus because it is a key measure used by our management team to evaluate our operating performance, generate future operating plans, and make strategic decisions, including those relating to operating expenses. Accordingly, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results in the same manner as our management team and board of directors. In addition, it provides a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our business, as it removes the effect of certain non-cash expenses and certain variable charges.

Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as a financial measure, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. These limitations include the following:

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain recurring, non-cash charges, such as depreciation of property and equipment and amortization of intangible assets, and although these are non-cash charges, the assets



 

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being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect all cash capital expenditure requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect period to period changes in taxes, income tax expense or the cash necessary to pay income taxes;

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the components of other income (expense), net, which includes interest income, foreign currency exchange gains (losses), net, gain on divestitures, unrealized gain on investments, and change in fair value of embedded derivatives; and

 

   

Adjusted EBITDA excludes legal, tax, and regulatory reserves and settlements that may reduce cash available to us.

The following table presents a reconciliation of net income (loss), the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted EBITDA for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
         2016             2017             2018      
     (in millions)  

Adjusted EBITDA Reconciliation:

      

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.

   $ (370   $ (4,033   $ 997  

Add (deduct):

      

(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of income taxes

     (2,876            

Net income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest, net of tax

                 (10

Benefit from (provision for) income taxes

     28       (542     283  

Income (loss) from equity method investment, net of tax

                 42  

Interest expense

     334       479       648  

Other income (expense), net

     (139     16       (4,993

Depreciation and amortization

     320       510       426  

Stock-based compensation expense

     128       137       172  

Legal, tax, and regulatory reserves and settlements

     49       440       340  

Asset impairment/loss on sale of assets

     9       340       237  

Acquisition and financing related expenses

           4       15  

Restructuring charges

           7       (4
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $  (2,517   $  (2,642   $  (1,847
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The comparability of the results for each of the periods presented above was impacted by our 2018 Divested Operations. The 2018 Divested Operations decreased net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. by $229 million, $481 million, and $127 million in 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. Any of the following risks could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects and could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, financial condition, operating results, or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.

Risks Related to Our Business

The personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries are highly competitive, with well-established and low-cost alternatives that have been available for decades, low barriers to entry, low switching costs, and well-capitalized competitors in nearly every major geographic region. If we are unable to compete effectively in these industries, our business and financial prospects would be adversely impacted.

Our platform provides offerings in the personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries. We compete on a global basis, and the markets in which we compete are highly fragmented. We face significant competition in each of the personal mobility, meal delivery, and logistics industries globally from existing, well-established, and low-cost alternatives, and in the future we expect to face competition from new market entrants given the low barriers to entry that characterize these industries. In addition, within each of these markets, the cost to switch between products is low. Consumers have a propensity to shift to the lowest-cost or highest-quality provider; Drivers have a propensity to shift to the platform with the highest earnings potential; restaurants have a propensity to shift to the delivery platform that offers the lowest service fee for their meals and provides the highest volume of orders; and shippers and carriers have a propensity to shift to the platform with the best price and most convenient service for hauling shipments. Further, while we work to expand globally and introduce new products and offerings across a range of industries, many of our competitors remain focused on a limited number of products or on a narrow geographic scope, allowing them to develop specialized expertise and employ resources in a more targeted manner than we do. As we and our competitors introduce new products and offerings, and as existing products evolve, we expect to become subject to additional competition. In addition, our competitors may adopt certain of our product features, or may adopt innovations that Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers value more highly than ours, which would render our products less attractive or reduce our ability to differentiate our products. Increased competition could result in, among other things, a reduction of the revenue we generate from the use of our platform, the number of platform users, the frequency of use of our platform, and our margins.

We face competition in each of our offerings, including:

 

   

Personal Mobility: Our Personal Mobility offering competes with personal vehicle ownership and usage, which accounts for the majority of passenger miles in the markets that we serve, and traditional transportation services, including taxicab companies and taxi-hailing services, livery services, and public transportation, which typically provides the lowest-cost transportation option in many cities. In Ridesharing, we compete with companies, including certain of our minority-owned affiliates, for Drivers and riders, including Lyft, OLA, Careem, Didi, Taxify, and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture. Our New Mobility products compete for riders in the bike and scooter space, including Motivate (an affiliate of Lyft), Lime, Bird, and Skip. We also compete with OEMs and other technology companies in the development of autonomous vehicle technologies and the deployment of autonomous vehicles, including Waymo, Cruise Automation, Tesla, Apple, Zoox, Aptiv, May Mobility, Pronto.ai, Aurora, and Nuro, whose offerings may prove more effective than our autonomous vehicle technologies. Waymo has already introduced a commercialized ridehailing fleet of autonomous vehicles, and it is possible that our other competitors could introduce autonomous vehicle offerings earlier than we will.

 

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Uber Eats: Our Uber Eats offering competes with numerous companies in the meal delivery space in various regions for Drivers, consumers, and restaurants, including GrubHub, DoorDash, Deliveroo, Swiggy, Postmates, Zomato, Delivery Hero, Just Eat, Takeaway.com, and Amazon. Our Uber Eats offering also competes with restaurants, meal kit delivery services, grocery delivery services, and traditional grocers.

 

   

Uber Freight: Our Uber Freight offering competes with global and North American freight brokers such as C.H. Robinson, Total Quality Logistics, XPO Logistics, Convoy, Echo Global Logistics, Coyote, Transfix, DHL, and NEXT Trucking.

Many of our competitors are well-capitalized and offer discounted services, Driver incentives, consumer discounts and promotions, innovative products and offerings, and alternative pricing models, which may be more attractive to consumers than those that we offer. Further, some of our current or potential competitors have, and may in the future continue to have, greater resources and access to larger Driver, consumer, restaurant, shipper, or carrier bases in a particular geographic market. In addition, our competitors in certain geographic markets enjoy substantial competitive advantages such as greater brand recognition, longer operating histories, larger marketing budgets, better localized knowledge, and more supportive regulatory regimes. In India, for example, our Uber Eats offering competes with Swiggy and Zomato, each of which has substantial market-specific knowledge and established relationships with local restaurants, affording them significant product advantages. As a result, such competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than us in such markets to new or changing opportunities, technologies, consumer preferences, regulations, or standards, which may render our products or offerings less attractive. In addition, future competitors may share in the effective benefit of any regulatory or governmental approvals and litigation victories we may achieve, without having to incur the costs we have incurred to obtain such benefits.

We are contractually restricted from competing with our minority-owned affiliates with respect to certain aspects of our business, including in China through August 2023, Russia/CIS through February 2025, and Southeast Asia through the longer of March 2023 or one year after we dispose of all interests in Grab, while none of our minority-owned affiliates are restricted from competing with us anywhere in the world. Didi currently competes with us in certain countries in Latin America and in Australia, and in 2018 made significant investments to gain or maintain category position in certain markets in Latin America. In addition, our Yandex.Taxi joint venture currently competes with us in certain countries in Europe. As Didi and our other minority-owned affiliates continue to expand their businesses, they may in the future compete with us in additional geographic markets.

Additionally, although we have entered into an asset purchase agreement to acquire Careem, we may not ultimately consummate the transaction. Further, because we may not receive local competition authority approval to consummate the transaction in some or all of the markets where such approval is required, we may be required in some or all of such markets to divest all or part of our or Careem’s operations. Any such divestiture would bring additional competition to these markets.

For all of these reasons, we may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors. Our inability to compete effectively would have an adverse effect on, or otherwise harm, our business, financial condition, and operating results.

To remain competitive in certain markets, we have in the past lowered, and may continue to lower, fares or service fees, and we have in the past offered, and may continue to offer, significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions, which may adversely affect our financial performance.

To remain competitive in certain markets and generate network scale and liquidity, we have in the past lowered, and expect in the future to continue to lower, fares or service fees, and we have offered and expect to continue to offer significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions. At times, in certain

 

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geographic markets, we have offered, and expect to continue to offer, Driver incentives that cause the total amount of the fare that a Driver retains, combined with the Driver incentives a Driver receives from us, to exceed the amount of Gross Bookings we generate for a given Trip. In certain geographic markets and regions, we do not have a leading category position, which may result in us choosing to further increase the amount of Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions that we offer in those geographic markets and regions. We cannot assure you that offering such Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions will be successful. Driver incentives, consumer discounts, promotions, and reductions in fares and our service fee have negatively affected, and will continue to negatively affect, our financial performance. Additionally, we rely on a pricing model to calculate consumer fares and Driver earnings, and we may in the future modify our pricing model and strategies. We cannot assure you that our pricing model or strategies will be successful in attracting consumers and Drivers.

In 2017, our ridesharing category position in the United States and Canada was significantly impacted by adverse publicity events. Although the rate of decline in our ridesharing category position has since moderated, our ridesharing category position generally declined in 2018 in the substantial majority of the regions in which we operate, impacted in part by heavy subsidies and discounts by our competitors in various markets that we felt compelled to match or exceed in order to remain competitive.

The markets in which we compete have attracted significant investments from a wide range of funding sources, and we anticipate that many of our competitors will continue to be highly capitalized. Moreover, certain of our stockholders, including SoftBank (our largest stockholder), Alphabet, and Didi, have made substantial investments in certain of our competitors and may increase such investments, make new investments in other competitors, or enter into strategic transactions with competitors in the future. These investments or strategic transactions, along with other competitive advantages discussed above, may allow our competitors to compete more effectively against us and continue to lower their prices, offer Driver incentives or consumer discounts and promotions, or otherwise attract Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to their platform and away from ours. Such competitive pressures may lead us to maintain or lower fares or service fees or maintain or increase our Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions. Ridesharing and other categories in which we compete are nascent, and we cannot guarantee that they will stabilize at a competitive equilibrium that will allow us to achieve profitability.

We have incurred significant losses since inception, including in the United States and other major markets. We expect our operating expenses to increase significantly in the foreseeable future, and we may not achieve profitability.

We have incurred significant losses since inception. We incurred operating losses of $4.0 billion and $3.0 billion in the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, and as of December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $7.9 billion. We will need to generate and sustain increased revenue levels and decrease proportionate expenses in future periods to achieve profitability in many of our largest markets, including in the United States, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability. We anticipate that we will continue to incur losses in the near term as a result of expected substantial increases in our operating expenses, as we continue to invest in order to: increase the number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers using our platform through incentives, discounts, and promotions; expand within existing or into new markets; increase our research and development expenses; invest in ATG and Other Technology Programs; expand marketing channels and operations; hire additional employees; and add new products and offerings to our platform. These efforts may prove more expensive than we anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these expenses. Many of our efforts to generate revenue are new and unproven, and any failure to adequately increase revenue or contain the related costs could prevent us from attaining or increasing profitability. In addition, we sometimes introduce new products, such as UberPOOL, that we expect to add value to our overall platform and network but which we expect will generate lower Gross Bookings per Trip or a lower Take Rate. Further, we charge a lower service fee to certain of our largest chain restaurant partners on our Uber Eats offering to grow the number of Uber Eats consumers, which may at times result in a negative take

 

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rate with respect to those transactions after considering amounts collected from consumers and paid to Drivers. As we expand our offerings to additional cities, our offerings in these cities may be less profitable than the markets in which we currently operate. As such, we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability in the near term or at all. Additionally, we may not realize the operating efficiencies we expect to achieve as a result of our acquisition of Careem and may continue to incur significant operating losses in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan in the future. Even if we do experience operating efficiencies, we do not expect improvements to our operating results, at least in the near term.

Our business would be adversely affected if Drivers were classified as employees instead of independent contractors.

The independent contractor status of Drivers is currently being challenged in courts and by government agencies in the United States and abroad. We are involved in numerous legal proceedings globally, including putative class and collective class action lawsuits, demands for arbitration, charges and claims before administrative agencies, and investigations or audits by labor, social security, and tax authorities that claim that Drivers should be treated as our employees (or as workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist), rather than as independent contractors. We believe that Drivers are independent contractors because, among other things, they can choose whether, when, and where to provide services on our platform, are free to provide services on our competitors’ platforms, and provide a vehicle to perform services on our platform. Nevertheless, we may not be successful in defending the independent contractor status of Drivers in some or all jurisdictions. Furthermore, the costs associated with defending, settling, or resolving pending and future lawsuits (including demands for arbitration) relating to the independent contractor status of Drivers could be material to our business. For example, in March 2019, we reached a preliminary settlement in the O’Connor, et al., v. Uber Technologies, Inc. and Yucesoy v. Uber Technologies, Inc., et al., class actions, pursuant to which we agreed to pay $20 million to Drivers who contracted with us in California and Massachusetts but with whom we have not entered into arbitration agreements, and who sought damages against us based on independent contractor misclassification, among other claims. The preliminary settlement is subject to a final approval hearing in July 2019. In addition, more than 60,000 Drivers who had entered into arbitration agreements with us have filed (or expressed an intention to file) arbitration demands against us that assert similar classification claims. These arbitration demands could result in significant costs to us, which could include filing fees of up to $1,500 for each arbitration demand for which we are found responsible, the legal costs incurred by us in connection with defending such arbitrations, and any adverse judgments issued against us in any such arbitrations.

Changes to foreign, state, and local laws governing the definition or classification of independent contractors, or judicial decisions regarding independent contractor classification, could require classification of Drivers as employees (or workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist). Examples of recent judicial decisions relating to independent contractor classification include the California Supreme Court’s recent decision in Dynamex Operations West, Inc. v. Superior Court, which established a new standard for determining employee or independent contractor status in the context of California wage orders, the Aslam, Farrar, Hoy and Mithu v. Uber BV, et al. ruling by the Employment Appeal Tribunal in the United Kingdom that found that Drivers are workers (rather than self-employed), and a decision by the French Supreme Court that a driver for a third-party meal delivery service was under a “subordinate relationship” of the service, indicating an employment relationship. In Razak v. Uber Technologies, Inc., the Third Circuit Court of Appeals is reviewing misclassification claims by UberBLACK Drivers in Philadelphia following a summary judgment order in our favor at the district court level, and we expect a decision in the near term. If, as a result of legislation or judicial decisions, we are required to classify Drivers as employees (or as workers or quasi-employees where those statuses exist), we would incur significant additional expenses for compensating Drivers, potentially including expenses associated with the application of wage and hour laws (including minimum wage, overtime, and meal and rest period requirements), employee benefits, social security contributions, taxes, and penalties. Further, any such reclassification would require us to fundamentally change our business model, and consequently have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

 

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If we are unable to attract or maintain a critical mass of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, whether as a result of competition or other factors, our platform will become less appealing to platform users, and our financial results would be adversely impacted.

Our success in a given geographic market significantly depends on our ability to maintain or increase our network scale and liquidity in that geographic market by attracting Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to our platform. If Drivers choose not to offer their services through our platform, or elect to offer them through a competitor’s platform, we may lack a sufficient supply of Drivers to attract consumers and restaurants to our platform. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience Driver supply constraints in most geographic markets in which we operate. To the extent that we experience Driver supply constraints in a given market, we may need to increase or may not be able to reduce the Driver incentives that we offer without adversely affecting the liquidity network effect that we experience in that market. Similarly, if carriers choose not to offer their services through our platform or elect to use other freight brokers, we may lack a sufficient supply of carriers in specific geographic markets to attract shippers to our platform. Furthermore, if restaurants choose to partner with other meal delivery services in a specific geographic market, or if restaurants choose to engage exclusively with our competitors, other restaurant marketing websites, or other delivery services, we may lack a sufficient variety and supply of restaurant options, or lack access to the most popular restaurants, such that our Uber Eats offering will become less appealing to consumers and restaurants. A significant amount of our Uber Eats Gross Bookings come from a limited number of restaurant chains, and this concentration increases the risk of fluctuations in our operating results and our sensitivity to any material adverse developments experienced by our significant restaurant partners. If platform users choose to use other ridesharing, meal delivery, or logistics services, we may lack sufficient opportunities for Drivers to earn a fare, carriers to book a shipment, or restaurants to provide a meal, which may reduce the perceived utility of our platform. An insufficient supply of platform users would decrease our network liquidity and adversely affect our revenue and financial results. Although we may benefit from having larger network scale and liquidity than some competitors, those network effects may not result in competitive advantages or may be overcome by smaller competitors. Maintaining a balance between supply and demand for rides in any given area at any given time and our ability to execute operationally may be more important to service quality than the absolute size of the network. If our service quality diminishes or our competitors’ products achieve greater market adoption, our competitors may be able to grow at a quicker rate than we do and may diminish our network effect.

Our number of platform users may decline materially or fluctuate as a result of many factors, including, among other things, dissatisfaction with the operation of our platform, the price of fares, meals, and shipments (including a reduction in incentives), dissatisfaction with the quality of service provided by the Drivers and restaurants on our platform, quality of platform user support, dissatisfaction with the restaurant selection on Uber Eats, negative publicity related to our brand, including as a result of safety incidents and corporate reporting related to safety, perceived political or geopolitical affiliations, treatment of Drivers, perception of a toxic work culture, perception that our culture has not fundamentally changed, or dissatisfaction with our products and offerings in general. For example, in January 2017, a backlash against us in response to accusations that we intended to profit from a protest against an executive order banning certain refugees and immigrants from entering the United States spurred #DeleteUber, a social media campaign that encouraged platform users to delete our app and cease use of our platform. As a result of the #DeleteUber campaign, hundreds of thousands of consumers stopped using the Uber platform within days of the campaign. In addition, if we are unable to provide high-quality support to platform users or respond to reported incidents, including safety incidents, in a timely and acceptable manner, our ability to attract and retain platform users could be adversely affected. If Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers do not establish or maintain active accounts with us, if a campaign similar to #DeleteUber occurs, if we fail to provide high-quality support, or if we cannot otherwise attract and retain a large number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, our revenue would decline, and our business would suffer.

The number of Drivers and restaurants on our platform could decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including Drivers ceasing to provide their services through our platform, passage or enforcement of local laws limiting our products and offerings, the low switching costs between competitor platforms or services, and dissatisfaction with our brand or reputation, pricing model (including potential reductions in incentives), ability

 

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to prevent safety incidents, or other aspects of our business. While we aim to provide an earnings opportunity comparable to that available in retail, wholesale, or restaurant services or other similar work, we continue to experience dissatisfaction with our platform from a significant number of Drivers. In particular, as we aim to reduce Driver incentives to improve our financial performance, we expect Driver dissatisfaction will generally increase. Often, we are forced to make tradeoffs between the satisfaction of various platform users, as a change that one category of users views as positive will likely be viewed as negative to another category of users. We also take certain measures to protect against fraud, help increase safety, and prevent privacy and security breaches, including terminating access to our platform for users with low ratings or reported incidents, and imposing certain qualifications for Drivers and restaurants, which may damage our relationships with platform users or discourage or diminish their use of our platform. Further, we are investing in our autonomous vehicle strategy, which may add to Driver dissatisfaction over time, as it may reduce the need for Drivers. Driver dissatisfaction has in the past resulted in protests by Drivers, most recently in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Such protests have resulted, and any future protests may result, in interruptions to our business. Continued Driver dissatisfaction may also result in a decline in our number of platform users, which would reduce our network liquidity, and which in turn may cause a further decline in platform usage. Any decline in the number of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers using our platform would reduce the value of our network and would harm our future operating results.

In addition, changes in Driver qualification and background-check requirements may increase our costs and reduce our ability to onboard additional Drivers to our platform. Our Driver qualification and background check process varies by jurisdiction, and there have been allegations, including from regulators, legislators, prosecutors, taxicab owners, and consumers, that our background check process is insufficient or inadequate. With respect to Drivers who are only eligible to make deliveries through Uber Eats, our qualification and background check standards are generally less extensive than the standards for Drivers who are eligible to provide rides through our Ridesharing products. Legislators and regulators may pass laws or adopt regulations in the future requiring Drivers to undergo a materially different type of qualification, screening, or background check process, or that limit our ability to access information used in the background check process in an efficient manner, which could be costly and time-consuming. Required changes in the qualification, screening, and background check process (including, following the closing of our acquisition of Careem, any changes to such processes of Careem) could also reduce the number of Drivers in those markets or extend the time required to recruit new Drivers to our platform, which would adversely impact our business and growth. Furthermore, we rely on a single background-check provider in certain jurisdictions, and we may not be able to arrange for adequate background checks from a different provider on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The failure of this provider to provide background checks on a timely basis would result in our inability to onboard new Drivers or retain existing Drivers undergoing periodic background checks that are required to continue using our platform.

Our workplace culture and forward-leaning approach created operational, compliance, and cultural challenges, and a failure to address these challenges would adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

Our workplace culture and forward-leaning approach created significant operational and cultural challenges that have in the past harmed, and may in the future continue to harm, our business results and financial condition. Our focus on aggressive growth and intense competition, and our prior failure to prioritize compliance, has led to increased regulatory scrutiny globally. Recent changes in our company’s cultural norms and composition of our leadership team, together with our ongoing commitment to address and resolve our historical cultural and compliance problems and promote transparency and collaboration, may not be successful, and regulators may continue to perceive us negatively, which would adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

Our workplace culture also created a lack of transparency internally, which has resulted in siloed teams that lack coordination and knowledge sharing, causing misalignment and inefficiencies in operational and strategic objectives. Furthermore, many of our regional operations are not centrally managed, such that key policies may not be adequately communicated or managed to achieve consistent business objectives across functions and regions. Although we have reorganized some of our teams to address such issues, such reorganizations may not be successful in aligning operational or strategic objectives across our company.

 

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Maintaining and enhancing our brand and reputation is critical to our business prospects. We have previously received significant media coverage and negative publicity, particularly in 2017, regarding our brand and reputation, and failure to rehabilitate our brand and reputation will cause our business to suffer.

Maintaining and enhancing our brand and reputation is critical to our ability to attract new employees and platform users, to preserve and deepen the engagement of our existing employees and platform users, and to mitigate legislative or regulatory scrutiny, litigation, government investigations, and adverse platform user sentiment.

We have previously received a high degree of negative media coverage around the world, which has adversely affected our brand and reputation and fueled distrust of our company. In 2017, the #DeleteUber campaign prompted hundreds of thousands of consumers to stop using our platform within days. Subsequently, our reputation was further harmed when an employee published a blog post alleging, among other things, that we had a toxic culture and that certain sexual harassment and discriminatory practices occurred in our workplace. Shortly thereafter, we had a number of highly publicized events and allegations, including investigations related to a software tool allegedly designed to evade and deceive authorities, a high-profile lawsuit filed against us by Waymo, and our disclosure of a data security breach. These events and the public response to such events, as well as other negative publicity we have faced in recent years, have adversely affected our brand and reputation, which makes it difficult for us to attract and retain platform users, reduces confidence in and use of our products and offerings, invites legislative and regulatory scrutiny, and results in litigation and governmental investigations. Concurrently with and after these events, our competitors raised additional capital, increased their investments in certain markets, and improved their category positions and market shares, and may continue to do so.

In 2019, we plan to release a transparency report, which will provide the public with data related to reports of sexual assaults and other safety incidents claimed to have occurred on our platform in the United States. The public responses to this transparency report or similar public reporting of safety incidents claimed to have occurred on our platform, which may include disclosure of reports provided to regulators, may result in negative media coverage and increased regulatory scrutiny and could adversely affect our reputation with platform users. Further unfavorable media coverage and negative publicity could adversely impact our financial results and future prospects. As our platform continues to scale and becomes increasingly interconnected, resulting in increased media coverage and public awareness of our brand, future damage to our brand and reputation could have an amplified effect on our various platform offerings. Additionally, following the closing of our acquisition of Careem, the Careem brand and its apps will continue to operate in parallel with our brand and apps, and any damage or reputational harm to the Careem brand could adversely impact our brand and reputation.

Our brand and reputation might also be harmed by events outside of our control. For example, we faced negative press related to suicides of taxi drivers in New York City reportedly related to the impact of ridesharing on the taxi cab industry. In addition, we have licensed our brand to Didi in China and to our Yandex.Taxi joint venture in Russia/CIS, and while we have certain contractual protections in place governing the use of our brand by these companies, we do not control these businesses, we are not able to anticipate their actions, and consumers may not be aware that these service providers are not controlled by us. Furthermore, if Drivers, restaurants, or carriers provide diminished quality of service, are involved in incidents regarding safety or privacy, engage in malfeasance, or otherwise violate the law, we may receive unfavorable press coverage and our reputation and business may be harmed. As a result, any of these third parties could take actions that result in harm to our brand, reputation, and consequently our business.

While we have taken significant steps to rehabilitate our brand and reputation, the successful rehabilitation of our brand will depend largely on maintaining a good reputation, minimizing the number of safety incidents, improving our culture and workplace practices, improving our compliance programs, maintaining a high quality of service and ethical behavior, and continuing our marketing and public relations efforts. Our brand promotion, reputation building, and media strategies have involved significant costs and may not be successful. We anticipate that other competitors and potential competitors will expand their offerings, which will make maintaining and enhancing our reputation and brand increasingly more difficult and expensive. If we fail to

 

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successfully rehabilitate our brand in the current or future competitive environment or if events similar to those that occurred in 2017 occur in the future, our brand and reputation would be further damaged and our business may suffer.

Our workforce and operations have grown substantially since our inception and we expect that they will continue to do so. If we are unable to effectively manage that growth, our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.

Since our inception, we have experienced rapid growth in the United States and internationally. This expansion increases the complexity of our business and has placed, and will continue to place, significant strain on our management, personnel, operations, systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. We may not be able to manage our growth effectively, which could damage our reputation and negatively affect our operating results.

As our operations have expanded, we have grown from 159 employees as of December 31, 2012 to 22,263 global employees as of December 31, 2018, of whom 11,488 were located outside the United States. We expect the total number of our employees located outside the United States to increase significantly as we expand globally, including as a result of our acquisition of Careem. Properly managing our growth will require us to continue to hire, train, and manage qualified employees and staff, including engineers, operations personnel, financial and accounting staff, and sales and marketing staff, and to improve and maintain our technology. If our new hires perform poorly, if we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, managing, and integrating these new employees and staff, or if we are not successful in retaining our existing employees and staff, our business may be harmed. For example, we operated without key leadership positions filled, including our chief operating officer and chief financial officer, for sustained periods of time. Properly managing our growth will require us to establish consistent policies across regions and functions, and a failure to do so could likewise harm our business.

Our failure to upgrade our technology or network infrastructure effectively to support our growth could result in unanticipated system disruptions, slow response times, or poor experiences for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers. To manage the growth of our operations and personnel and improve the technology that supports our business operations, as well as our financial and management systems, disclosure controls and procedures, and internal controls over financial reporting, we will be required to commit substantial financial, operational, and technical resources. In particular, we will need to improve our transaction processing and reporting, operational, and financial systems, procedures, and controls. For example, due to our significant growth, especially with respect to our high-growth emerging offerings like Uber Eats and Uber Freight, we face challenges in timely and appropriately designing controls in response to evolving risks of material misstatement. These improvements will be particularly challenging if we acquire new businesses with different systems, such as Careem. Our current and planned personnel, systems, procedures, and controls may not be adequate to support our future operations. If we are unable to expand our operations and hire additional qualified personnel in an efficient manner, or if our operational technology is insufficient to reliably service Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers, platform user satisfaction will be adversely affected and may cause platform users to switch to our competitors’ platforms, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our organizational structure is complex and will continue to grow as we add additional Drivers, consumers, restaurants, carriers, shippers, employees, products and offerings, and technologies, and as we continue to expand globally (including as a result of our acquisition of Careem). We will need to improve our operational, financial, and management controls as well as our reporting systems and procedures to support the growth of our organizational structure. We will require capital and management resources to grow and mature in these areas. If we are unable to effectively manage the growth of our business, the quality of our platform may suffer, and we may be unable to address competitive challenges, which would adversely affect our overall business, operations, and financial condition.

 

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If platform users engage in, or are subject to, criminal, violent, inappropriate, or dangerous activity that results in major safety incidents, our ability to attract and retain Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers may be harmed, which could have an adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial condition, and operating results.

We are not able to control or predict the actions of platform users and third parties, either during their use of our platform or otherwise, and we may be unable to protect or provide a safe environment for Drivers and consumers as a result of certain actions by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, carriers, and third parties. Such actions may result in injuries, property damage, or loss of life for consumers and third parties, or business interruption, brand and reputational damage, or significant liabilities for us. Although we administer certain qualification processes for users of the platform, including background checks on Drivers through third-party service providers, these qualification processes and background checks may not expose all potentially relevant information and are limited in certain jurisdictions according to national and local laws, and our third-party service providers may fail to conduct such background checks adequately or disclose information that could be relevant to a determination of eligibility. Further, the qualification and background check standards for Uber Eats Drivers are generally less extensive than those conducted for Ridesharing Drivers. In addition, we do not independently test Drivers’ driving skills. Consequently, we expect to continue to receive complaints from riders and other consumers, as well as actual or threatened legal action against us related to Driver conduct. We have also faced civil litigation alleging, among other things, inadequate Driver qualification processes and background checks, and general misrepresentations regarding the safety of our platform.

If Drivers or carriers, or individuals impersonating Drivers or carriers, engage in criminal activity, misconduct, or inappropriate conduct or use our platform as a conduit for criminal activity, consumers and shippers may not consider our products and offerings safe, and we may receive negative press coverage as a result of our business relationship with such Driver or carrier, which would adversely impact our brand, reputation, and business. There have been numerous incidents and allegations worldwide of Drivers, or individuals impersonating Drivers, sexually assaulting, abusing, and kidnapping consumers, or otherwise engaging in criminal activity while using our platform. For example, in December 2014, a Driver in New Delhi, India kidnapped and raped a female consumer, and was convicted in October 2015. Furthermore, if consumers engage in criminal activity or misconduct while using our platform, Drivers and restaurants may be unwilling to continue using our platform. In addition, certain regions where we operate have high rates of violent crime, which has impacted Drivers and consumers in those regions. For example, in Latin America, there have been numerous and increasing reports of Drivers and consumers being victimized by violent crime, such as armed robbery, violent assault, and rape, while taking or providing a trip on our platform. If other criminal, inappropriate, or other negative incidents occur due to the conduct of platform users or third parties, our ability to attract platform users may be harmed, and our business and financial results could be adversely affected.

Public reporting or disclosure of reported safety information, including information about safety incidents reportedly occurring on or related to our platform, whether generated by us or third parties such as media or regulators, may adversely impact our business and financial results.

Further, we may be subject to claims of significant liability based on traffic accidents, deaths, injuries, or other incidents that are caused by Drivers, consumers, or third parties while using our platform, or even when Drivers, consumers, or third parties are not actively using our platform. On a smaller scale, we may face litigation related to claims by Drivers for the actions of consumers or third parties. Our auto liability and general liability insurance policies may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed, and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability. These incidents may subject us to liability and negative publicity, which would increase our operating costs and adversely affect our business, operating results, and future prospects. Even if these claims do not result in liability, we will incur significant costs in investigating and defending against them. As we expand our products and offerings, such as Uber Freight and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, this insurance risk will grow.

 

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We are making substantial investments in new offerings and technologies, and expect to increase such investments in the future. These new ventures are inherently risky, and we may never realize any expected benefits from them.

We have made substantial investments to develop new offerings and technologies, including autonomous vehicle technologies, dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, Uber Freight, and Uber Elevate, and we intend to continue investing significant resources in developing new technologies, tools, features, services, products and offerings. For example, we believe that autonomous vehicles will be an important part of our offerings over the long term, and in 2018, we incurred $457 million of research and development expenses for our ATG and Other Technology Programs initiatives. We expect to increase our investments in these new initiatives in the near term. Additionally, following the closing of our acquisition of Careem, we plan to invest significant resources to develop and expand new offerings and technologies in the markets in which Careem operates. We also expect to spend substantial amounts to purchase additional dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, which are susceptible to theft and destruction, as we seek to build our network and increase our scale, and to expand these products to additional markets. If we do not spend our development budget efficiently or effectively on commercially successful and innovative technologies, we may not realize the expected benefits of our strategy. Our new initiatives also have a high degree of risk, as each involves nascent industries and unproven business strategies and technologies with which we have limited or no prior development or operating experience. Because such offerings and technologies are new, they will likely involve claims and liabilities (including, but not limited to, personal injury claims), expenses, regulatory challenges, and other risks, some of which we do not currently anticipate. For example, we discontinued certain products, such as Xchange Leasing, our vehicle leasing business in the United States because we failed to operate it efficiently. There can be no assurance that consumer demand for such initiatives will exist or be sustained at the levels that we anticipate, or that any of these initiatives will gain sufficient traction or market acceptance to generate sufficient revenue to offset any new expenses or liabilities associated with these new investments. It is also possible that products and offerings developed by others will render our products and offerings noncompetitive or obsolete. Further, our development efforts with respect to new products, offerings and technologies could distract management from current operations, and will divert capital and other resources from our more established products, offerings and technologies. Even if we are successful in developing new products, offerings or technologies, regulatory authorities may subject us to new rules or restrictions in response to our innovations that could increase our expenses or prevent us from successfully commercializing new products, offerings or technologies. If we do not realize the expected benefits of our investments, our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects may be harmed.

Our business is substantially dependent on operations outside the United States, including those in markets in which we have limited experience, and if we are unable to manage the risks presented by our business model internationally, our financial results and future prospects will be adversely impacted.

As of the quarter ended December 31, 2018, we operated in over 63 countries, and markets outside the United States accounted for approximately 74% of all Trips. We have limited experience operating in many jurisdictions outside of the United States and have made, and expect to continue to make, significant investments to expand our international operations and compete with local competitors. For example, we have been making significant investments in incentives and promotions to help drive growth in India, a country in which local competitors, particularly Ola, Swiggy, and Zomato, are well capitalized and have local operating expertise. In addition, in March 2019, we announced our agreement to acquire Careem and the expansion of our Uber Freight offering into Europe. Such investments may not be successful and may negatively affect our operating results.

Conducting our business internationally, particularly in countries in which we have limited experience, subjects us to risks that we do not face to the same degree in the United States. These risks include, among others:

 

   

operational and compliance challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences;

 

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the resources required to localize our business, which requires the translation of our mobile app and website into foreign languages and the adaptation of our operations to local practices, laws, and regulations and any changes in such practices, laws, and regulations;

 

   

laws and regulations more restrictive than those in the United States, including laws governing competition, pricing, payment methods, Internet activities, transportation services (such as taxis and vehicles for hire), transportation network companies (such as ridesharing), logistics services, payment processing and payment gateways, real estate tenancy laws, tax and social security laws, employment and labor laws, driver screening and background checks, licensing regulations, email messaging, privacy, location services, collection, use, processing, or sharing of personal information, ownership of intellectual property, and other activities important to our business;

 

   

competition with companies or other services (such as taxis or vehicles for hire) that understand local markets better than we do, that have pre-existing relationships with potential platform users in those markets, or that are favored by government or regulatory authorities in those markets;

 

   

differing levels of social acceptance of our brand, products, and offerings;

 

   

differing levels of technological compatibility with our platform;

 

   

exposure to business cultures in which improper business practices may be prevalent;

 

   

legal uncertainty regarding our liability for the actions of platform users and third parties, including uncertainty resulting from unique local laws or a lack of clear legal precedent;

 

   

difficulties in managing, growing, and staffing international operations, including in countries in which foreign employees may become part of labor unions, employee representative bodies, or collective bargaining agreements, and challenges relating to work stoppages or slowdowns;

 

   

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

 

   

managing operations in markets in which cash transactions are favored over credit or debit cards;

 

   

regulations governing the control of local currencies that impact our ability to collect fares on behalf of Drivers and remit those funds to Drivers in the same currencies, as well as higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud;

 

   

adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax systems, and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;

 

   

increased financial accounting and reporting burdens, and complexities associated with implementing and maintaining adequate internal controls;

 

   

difficulties in implementing and maintaining the financial systems and processes needed to enable compliance across multiple offerings and jurisdictions;

 

   

import and export restrictions and changes in trade regulation;

 

   

political, social, and economic instability abroad, terrorist attacks and security concerns in general, and societal crime conditions that can directly impact platform users; and

 

   

reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some markets.

These risks could adversely affect our international operations, which could in turn adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We have limited influence over our minority-owned affiliates, which subjects us to substantial risks, including potential loss of value.

Our international growth strategy has included the restructuring of our business and assets in certain jurisdictions by partnering with and investing in local ridesharing and meal delivery companies to participate in

 

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those markets rather than operate in those markets independently. As a result, a significant portion of our assets includes minority ownership positions in each of Didi, Grab, and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, each of which operate ridesharing, meal delivery, and related logistics businesses in their respective primary markets in China, Southeast Asia, and Russia/CIS.

Our ownership in these entities involves significant risks that are outside our control. We are not represented on the management team or board of directors of Didi, and therefore we do not participate in the day-to-day management of Didi or the actions taken by its board of directors. We are not represented on the management teams of Grab or our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, and therefore do not participate in the day-to-day management of Grab or our Yandex.Taxi joint venture. Although we are represented on each of the boards of directors of Grab and our Yandex.Taxi joint venture, we do not have a controlling influence on those boards, other than with respect to certain approval rights over material corporate actions. As a result, the boards of directors or management teams of these companies may make decisions or take actions with which we disagree or that may be harmful to the value of our ownership in these companies. Additionally, these companies have expanded their offerings, and we expect them to continue to expand their offerings in the future, to compete with us in various markets throughout the world such as in certain countries in Latin America and in Australia where we compete with Didi and certain countries in Europe where we compete with our Yandex.Taxi joint venture. While this could enhance the value of our ownership interest in these companies, our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects would be adversely affected by such expansion into markets in which we operate.

Any material decline in the business of these entities would adversely affect the value of our assets and our financial results. Furthermore, the value of these assets is based in part on the market valuations of these entities, and weakened financial markets may adversely affect such valuations. These positions could expose us to risks, litigation, and unknown liabilities because, among other things, these companies have limited operating histories in an evolving industry and may have less predictable operating results; are privately owned and, as a result, limited public information is available and we may not learn all the material information regarding these businesses; are domiciled and operate in countries with particular economic, tax, political, legal, safety, and regulatory risks; depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of individuals, and, as a result, the death, disability, resignation, or termination of one or more of these individuals could have an adverse effect on the relevant company’s operations; and will likely require substantial additional capital to support their operations and expansion and to maintain their competitive positions. Any of these risks could materially affect the value of our assets, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or the trading price of our common stock.

Further, we are contractually limited in our ability to sell or transfer these assets. Until February 2021, we are prohibited from transferring any shares in our Yandex.Taxi joint venture without the consent of Yandex, and for a period of time thereafter any transfer is subject to a right of first refusal in favor of Yandex. While we are not prohibited from transferring our shares in Didi or Grab, the transferability of such shares are subject to both a right of first refusal and a co-sale right in favor of certain shareholders of each of Didi and Grab. There is currently no public market for any of these securities, and there may be no market in the future if and when we decide to sell such assets. Furthermore, we may be required to sell these assets at a time at which we would not be able to realize what we believe to be the long-term value of these assets. For example, if we were deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), we may be required to sell some or all of such assets so that we would not be subject to the requirements of the Investment Company Act. Additionally, we may have to pay significant taxes upon the sale or transfer of these assets. Accordingly, we may never realize the value of these assets relative to the contributions we made to these businesses.

 

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We may experience significant fluctuations in our operating results. If we are unable to achieve or sustain profitability, our prospects would be adversely affected and investors may lose some or all of the value of their investment.

Our operating results may vary significantly and are not necessarily an indication of future performance. These fluctuations may be a result of a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control. In particular, we experience seasonal fluctuations in our financial results. For Ridesharing, we typically generate higher revenue in our fourth quarter compared to other quarters due in part to fourth quarter holiday and business demand, and typically generate lower revenue in our third quarter compared to other quarters due in part to less usage of our platform during peak vacation season in certain cities, such as Paris. We have typically experienced lower quarter-over-quarter growth in Ridesharing in the first quarter. For Uber Eats, we expect to experience seasonal increases in our revenue in the first and fourth quarters compared to the second and third quarters, although the historical growth of Uber Eats has masked these seasonal fluctuations. Our growth has made, and may in the future make, seasonal fluctuations difficult to detect. We expect these seasonal trends to become more pronounced over time as our growth slows. Other seasonal trends may develop or these existing seasonal trends may become more extreme, which would contribute to fluctuations in our operating results. In addition to seasonality, our operating results may fluctuate as a result of factors including our ability to attract and retain new platform users, increased competition in the markets in which we operate, our ability to expand our operations in new and existing markets, our ability to maintain an adequate growth rate and effectively manage that growth, our ability to keep pace with technological changes in the industries in which we operate, changes in governmental or other regulations affecting our business, harm to our brand or reputation, and other risks described elsewhere in this prospectus. As such, we may not accurately forecast our operating results. We base our expense levels and investment plans on estimates. A significant portion of our expenses and investments are fixed, and we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our revenue is less than expected, resulting in losses that exceed our expectations. If we are unable to achieve sustained profits, our prospects would be adversely affected and investors may lose some or all of the value of their investment.

If our growth slows more significantly than we currently expect, we may not be able to achieve profitability, which would adversely affect our financial results and future prospects.

Our Gross Bookings, revenue, and Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue growth rates (in particular with respect to our Ridesharing products) have slowed in recent periods, and we expect that they will continue to slow in the future. We believe that our growth depends on a number of factors, including our ability to:

 

   

grow supply and demand on our platform;

 

   

increase existing platform users’ activity on our platform;

 

   

continue to introduce our platform to new markets;

 

   

provide high-quality support to Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers;

 

   

expand our business and increase our market share and category position;

 

   

compete with the products and offerings of, and pricing and incentives offered by, our competitors;

 

   

develop new products, offerings, and technologies;

 

   

identify and acquire or invest in businesses, products, offerings, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform (including, for example, our pending acquisition of Careem);

 

   

penetrate suburban and rural areas and increase the number of rides taken on our platform outside metropolitan areas;

 

   

reduce the costs of our Personal Mobility offering to better compete with personal vehicle ownership and usage and other low-cost alternatives like public transportation, which in many cases can be faster or cheaper than any other form of transportation;

 

   

maintain existing local regulations in key markets where we operate;

 

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enter or expand operations in some of the key countries in which we are currently limited by local regulations, such as Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain; and

 

   

increase positive perception of our brand.

We may not successfully accomplish any of these objectives. A softening of Driver, consumer, restaurant, shipper, or carrier demand, whether caused by changes in the preferences of such parties, failure to maintain our brand, changes in the U.S. or global economies, licensing fees in various jurisdictions, competition, or other factors, may result in decreased revenue or growth and our financial results and future prospects would be adversely impacted. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses, and if we cannot increase our revenue at a faster rate than the increase in our expenses, we will not achieve profitability.

We generate a significant percentage of our Gross Bookings from trips in large metropolitan areas and trips to and from airports. If our operations in large metropolitan areas or ability to provide trips to and from airports are negatively affected, our financial results and future prospects would be adversely impacted.

In 2018, we derived 24% of our Ridesharing Gross Bookings from five metropolitan areas – Los Angeles, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States; London in the United Kingdom; and São Paulo in Brazil. We experience greater competition in large metropolitan areas than we do in other markets in which we operate, which has led us to offer significant Driver incentives and consumer discounts and promotions in these large metropolitan areas. As a result of our geographic concentration, our business and financial results are susceptible to economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances in each of these large metropolitan areas. An economic downturn, increased competition, or regulatory obstacles in any of these key metropolitan areas would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results to a much greater degree than would the occurrence of such events in other areas. In addition, any changes to local laws or regulations within these key metropolitan areas that affect our ability to operate or increase our operating expenses in these markets would have an adverse effect on our business. For example, in August 2018, New York City approved regulations for the local for-hire market (which includes our Ridesharing products), including a cap on the number of new for-hire vehicle licenses for ridesharing services. In addition, in December 2018, New York City approved per-mile and per-minute rates for drivers, designed to target minimum hourly earnings for drivers providing for-hire services in New York City and surrounding areas. These minimum rates took effect in February 2019. We are still working through adjustments to be made with respect to rider promotions, driver supply, and other aspects of our business in response to these regulations; however, these regulations had a negative impact on our financial performance in New York City in the first quarter of 2019 and may have a similar adverse impact in the future. Additionally, members of the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco recently proposed imposing a surcharge on ridesharing trips in San Francisco, and a ballot measure to enact this surcharge may be introduced in 2019. In addition, other jurisdictions such as Seattle have in the past considered or may consider regulations that would implement minimum wage requirements or permit drivers to negotiate for minimum wages while providing services on our platform. Further, we expect that we will continue to face challenges in penetrating lower-density suburban and rural areas, where our network is smaller and less liquid, the cost of personal vehicle ownership is lower, and personal vehicle ownership is more convenient. If we are not successful in penetrating suburban and rural areas, or if we are unable to operate in certain key metropolitan areas in the future, our ability to serve what we consider to be our total addressable market would be limited, and our business, financial condition, and operating results would suffer.

Over the same period, we generated 15% of our Ridesharing Gross Bookings from trips that either started or were completed at an airport, and we expect this percentage to increase in the future. As a result of this concentration, our operating results are susceptible to existing regulations and regulatory changes that impact the ability of drivers using our platform to provide trips to and from airports. Certain airports currently regulate ridesharing within airport boundaries, including by mandating that ridesharing service providers obtain airport-specific licenses, and some airports, particularly those outside the United States, have banned ridesharing operations altogether. Despite such bans, some Drivers continue to provide Ridesharing services, including trips to and from airports, despite lacking the requisite permits. Such actions may result in the imposition of fines or

 

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sanctions, including further bans on our ability to operate within airport boundaries, against us or Drivers. Additional bans on our airport operations, or any permitting requirements or instances of non-compliance by Drivers, would significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, if drop-offs or pick-ups of riders become inconvenient because of airport rules or regulations, or more expensive because of airport-imposed fees, the number of Drivers or consumers could decrease, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. While we have entered into agreements with most major U.S. airports as well as certain airports outside the United States to allow the use of our platform within airport boundaries, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to renew such agreements, and we may not be successful in negotiating similar agreements with airports in all jurisdictions.

If we fail to develop and successfully commercialize autonomous vehicle technologies or fail to develop such technologies before our competitors, or if such technologies fail to perform as expected, are inferior to those of our competitors, or are perceived as less safe than those of our competitors or non-autonomous vehicles, our financial performance and prospects would be adversely impacted.

We have invested, and we expect to continue to invest, substantial amounts in autonomous vehicle technologies. As discussed elsewhere in this prospectus, we believe that autonomous vehicle technologies may have the ability to meaningfully impact the industries in which we compete. While we believe that autonomous vehicles present substantial opportunities, the development of such technology is expensive and time-consuming and may not be successful. Several other companies, including Waymo, Cruise Automation, Tesla, Apple, Zoox, Aptiv, May Mobility, Pronto.ai, Aurora, and Nuro, are also developing autonomous vehicle technologies, either alone or through collaborations with car manufacturers, and we expect that they will use such technology to further compete with us in the personal mobility, meal delivery, or logistics industries. We expect certain competitors to commercialize autonomous vehicle technologies at scale before we do. Waymo has already introduced a commercialized ridehailing fleet of autonomous vehicles, and it is possible that other of our competitors could introduce autonomous vehicle offerings earlier than we will. In the event that our competitors bring autonomous vehicles to market before we do, or their technology is or is perceived to be superior to ours, they may be able to leverage such technology to compete more effectively with us, which would adversely impact our financial performance and our prospects. For example, use of autonomous vehicles could substantially reduce the cost of providing ridesharing, meal delivery, or logistics services, which could allow competitors to offer such services at a substantially lower price as compared to the price available to consumers on our platform. If a significant number of consumers choose to use our competitors’ offerings over ours, our financial performance and prospects would be adversely impacted.

Autonomous vehicle technologies involve significant risks and liabilities. We have conducted real-world testing of our autonomous vehicles, involving a trained driver in the driver’s seat monitoring operations while the vehicle is in autonomous mode. In March 2018, one of these test vehicles struck and killed a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona. Following that incident, we voluntarily suspended real-world testing of our autonomous vehicles for several months in all markets where we were conducting real-world testing, which was a setback for our autonomous vehicle technology efforts. Failures of our autonomous vehicle technologies or additional crashes involving autonomous vehicles using our technology would generate substantial liability for us, create additional negative publicity about us, or result in regulatory scrutiny, all of which would have an adverse effect on our reputation, brand, business, prospects, and operating results.

The development of our autonomous vehicle technologies is highly dependent on internally developed software, as well as on partnerships with third parties such as OEMs and other suppliers, including Toyota and DENSO pursuant to the ATG Collaboration Agreement. We develop and integrate self-driving software into our autonomous vehicle technologies and work with OEMs and other suppliers to develop autonomous vehicle technology hardware. We partner with OEMs that will seek to manufacture vehicles capable of incorporating our autonomous vehicle technologies. Our dependence on these relationships exposes us to the risk that components manufactured by OEMs or other suppliers could contain defects that would cause our autonomous vehicle technologies to not operate as intended. Further, reliance on these relationships exposes us to risks beyond our

 

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control, such as third-party software or manufacturing defects, which would substantially impair our ability to deploy autonomous vehicles. If our autonomous vehicle technologies were to contain design or manufacturing defects that caused such technology to not perform as expected, or if we were unable to deploy autonomous vehicles as a result of manufacturing delays by OEMs, our financial performance and our prospects could be harmed.

We expect that governments will develop regulations that are specifically designed to apply to autonomous vehicles. These regulations could include requirements that significantly delay or narrowly limit the commercialization of autonomous vehicles, limit the number of autonomous vehicles that we can manufacture or use on our platform, or impose significant liabilities on manufacturers or operators of autonomous vehicles or developers of autonomous vehicle technologies. If regulations of this nature are implemented, we may not be able to commercialize our autonomous vehicle technologies in the manner we expect, or at all. Further, if we are unable to comply with existing or new regulations or laws applicable to autonomous vehicles, we could become subject to substantial fines or penalties.

In April 2019, we entered into the Unit Purchase Agreement with SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO pursuant to which these investors will invest an aggregate of $1.0 billion ($400 million from Toyota, $333 million from SoftBank, and $267 million from DENSO) in a newly formed corporate parent entity for ATG. This investment will enable us to raise dedicated capital to fund our ATG business and aims to accelerate the development and commercialization of automated ridesharing services. In connection with the investment, we have entered into the ATG Collaboration Agreement with Toyota, DENSO, and ATG with respect to next-generation self-driving hardware and the development of self-driving vehicles leveraging technology from each of the parties. The closing of the transaction is expected to occur in July 2019; however, we cannot assure you that the transaction will be consummated, or that it will have the effects that we anticipate.

Our business depends on retaining and attracting high-quality personnel, and continued attrition, future attrition, or unsuccessful succession planning could adversely affect our business.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain high-quality management, operations, engineering, and other personnel who are in high demand, are often subject to competing employment offers, and are attractive recruiting targets for our competitors. Challenges related to our culture and workplace practices and negative publicity we experience have in the past led to significant attrition and made it more difficult to attract high-quality employees. Future challenges related to our culture and workplace practices or additional negative publicity could lead to further attrition and difficulty attracting high-quality employees. In 2017, we experienced significant leadership changes, which disrupted our business and increased attrition among senior management and employees, and during the third quarter of 2018, annualized attrition among employees was near peak levels. Future leadership transitions and management changes may cause uncertainty in, or a disruption to, our business, and may increase the likelihood of senior management or other employee turnover. The loss of qualified executives and employees, or an inability to attract, retain, and motivate high-quality executives and employees required for the planned expansion of our business, may harm our operating results and impair our ability to grow.

In addition, we depend on the continued services and performance of our key personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer Dara Khosrowshahi. We have entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Khosrowshahi, which is at-will and has no specific duration. Other key members of our management team joined our company after August 2017, and none had previously worked within our industry. Recently hired executives may view our business differently than members of our prior management team and, over time, may make changes to our personnel and their responsibilities as well as our strategic focus, operations, or business plans. We may not be able to properly manage any such shift in focus, and any changes to our business may ultimately prove unsuccessful.

In addition, our failure to put in place adequate succession plans for senior and key management roles or the failure of key employees to successfully transition into new roles could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. The unexpected or abrupt departure of one or more of our key personnel and the failure to

 

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effectively transfer knowledge and effect smooth key personnel transitions has had and may in the future have an adverse effect on our business resulting from the loss of such person’s skills, knowledge of our business, and years of industry experience. If we cannot effectively manage leadership transitions and management changes in the future, our reputation and future business prospects could be adversely affected.

To attract and retain key personnel, we use equity incentives, among other measures. These measures may not be sufficient to attract and retain the personnel we require to operate our business effectively. Additionally, key members of our management team and many of our employees hold RSUs that will vest in connection with this offering, or hold stock options that will become exercisable for common stock that will be tradeable following this offering, which we expect will adversely impact our ability to retain employees. Further the equity incentives we currently use to attract, retain, and motivate employees may not be as effective as in the past, particularly if the value of the underlying stock does not increase commensurate with expectations or consistent with our historical stock price growth. If we are unable to attract and retain high-quality management and operating personnel, our business, financial condition, and operating results could be adversely affected.

The impact of economic conditions, including the resulting effect on discretionary consumer spending, may harm our business and operating results.

Our performance is subject to economic conditions and their impact on levels of discretionary consumer spending. Some of the factors that have an impact on discretionary consumer spending include general economic conditions, unemployment, consumer debt, reductions in net worth, residential real estate and mortgage markets, taxation, energy prices, interest rates, consumer confidence, and other macroeconomic factors. Consumer preferences tend to shift to lower-cost alternatives during recessionary periods and other periods in which disposable income is adversely affected. In such circumstances, consumers may choose to use one of our lower price-point products, such as UberPOOL, over a higher Gross Bookings per Trip offering, may choose to forego our offerings for lower-cost personal vehicle or public transportation alternatives, or may reduce total miles traveled as economic activity decreases. Such a shift in consumer behavior may reduce our network liquidity and may harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. Likewise, small businesses that do not have substantial resources, including many of the restaurants in our network, tend to be more adversely affected by poor economic conditions than large businesses. Further, because spending for food purchases from restaurants is generally considered discretionary, any decline in consumer spending may have a disproportionate effect on our Uber Eats offering. If spending at many of the restaurants in our network declines, or if a significant number of these restaurants go out of business, consumers may be less likely to use our products and offerings, which could harm our business and operating results. Alternatively, if economic conditions improve, it could lead to Drivers obtaining additional or alternative opportunities for work, which could negatively impact the number of Drivers on our platform, and thereby reduce our network liquidity.

Increases in fuel, food, labor, energy, and other costs could adversely affect our operating results.

Factors such as inflation, increased fuel prices, and increased vehicle purchase, rental, or maintenance costs may increase the costs incurred by Drivers and carriers when providing services on our platform. Similarly, factors such as inflation, increased food costs, increased labor and employee benefit costs, increased rental costs, and increased energy costs may increase restaurant operating costs, particularly in certain international markets, such as Egypt. Many of the factors affecting Driver, restaurant, and carrier costs are beyond the control of these parties. In many cases, these increased costs may cause Drivers and carriers to spend less time providing services on our platform or to seek alternative sources of income. Likewise, these increased costs may cause restaurants to pass costs on to consumers by increasing prices, which would likely cause order volume to decline, may cause restaurants to cease operations altogether, or may cause carriers to pass costs on to shippers, which may cause shipments on our platform to decline. A decreased supply of Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, or carriers on our platform would decrease our network liquidity, which could harm our business and operating results.

 

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We will require additional capital to support the growth of our business, and this capital might not be available on reasonable terms or at all.

To continue to effectively compete, we will require additional funds to support the growth of our business and allow us to invest in new products, offerings, and markets. In particular, our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products and autonomous vehicle development efforts are capital and operations intensive. While we entered into the Unit Purchase Agreement in April 2019 pursuant to which the ATG Investors will invest an aggregate of $1 billion in ATG, we will likely require additional capital to expand these products or continue these development efforts. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders may suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue may have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of existing stockholders. Certain of our existing debt instruments contain, and any debt financing we secure in the future could contain, restrictive covenants relating to our ability to incur additional indebtedness and other financial and operational matters that make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital with which to pursue business opportunities. For example, our existing debt instruments contain significant restrictions on our ability to incur additional secured indebtedness. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when required, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges and competition may be significantly limited.

If we experience security or data privacy breaches or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data, or platform user data, we may face loss of revenue, harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities.

We collect, use, and process a variety of personal data, such as email addresses, mobile phone numbers, profile photos, location information, drivers’ license numbers and Social Security numbers of Drivers, consumer payment card information, and Driver and restaurant bank account information. As such, we are an attractive target of data security attacks by third parties. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches or improper access to, use of, or disclosure of any such data could result in significant liability and a material loss of revenue resulting from the adverse impact on our reputation and brand, a diminished ability to retain or attract new platform users, and disruption to our business. We rely on third-party service providers to host or otherwise process some of our data and that of platform users, and any failure by such third party to prevent or mitigate security breaches or improper access to, or disclosure of, such information could have similar adverse consequences for us.

Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade services, or sabotage systems change frequently and are often unrecognizable until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques and implement adequate preventative measures. Our servers and platform may be vulnerable to computer viruses or physical or electronic break-ins that our security measures may not detect. Individuals able to circumvent our security measures may misappropriate confidential, proprietary, or personal information held by or on behalf of us, disrupt our operations, damage our computers, or otherwise damage our business. In addition, we may need to expend significant resources to protect against security breaches or mitigate the impact of any such breaches, including potential liability that may not be limited to the amounts covered by our insurance.

Security breaches could also expose us to liability under various laws and regulations across jurisdictions and increase the risk of litigation and governmental investigation. We have been subject to security and data privacy incidents in the past and may be again in the future. For example, in May 2014, we experienced a data security incident in which an outside actor gained access to certain personal information belonging to Drivers through an access key written into code that an employee had unintentionally posted publicly on a code-sharing website used by software developers (the “2014 Breach”). In October and November of 2016, outside actors downloaded the personal data of approximately 57 million Drivers and consumers worldwide (the “2016 Breach”). The accessed data included the names, email addresses, mobile phone numbers, and drivers’ license numbers of approximately 600,000 Drivers, among other information. For further information on this incident,

 

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see the risk factors titled “—We currently are subject to a number of inquiries, investigations, and requests for information from the U.S. Department of Justice (the “DOJ”) and other U.S. and foreign government agencies, the adverse outcomes of which could harm our business” and “—We face risks related to our collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing of data, which could result in investigations, inquiries, litigation, fines, legislative, and regulatory action, and negative press about our privacy and data protection practices,” below. In November 2018, a third-party assessor ranked our maturity level for all but two security capabilities as below or at the minimum maturity end of our industry maturity range, which purports to be a composite range derived from the minimum and maximum maturity ratings across related industry sections in consumer products, travel and hospitality, banking and securities, and technology. As we expand our operations, we may also assume liabilities for breaches experienced by the companies we acquire. For example, in April 2018, Careem publicly disclosed and notified relevant regulatory authorities that it had been subject to a data security breach that allowed access to certain personal information of riders and drivers on its platform, as of January 14, 2018. If Careem becomes subject to liability as a result of this or other data security breaches, or if we (following the completion of our acquisition of Careem) fail to remediate this or any other data security breach that Careem or we experience, we may face harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities.

If we are unable to introduce new or upgraded products, offerings, or features that Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers recognize as valuable, we may fail to retain and attract such users to our platform and our operating results would be adversely affected.

To continue to retain and attract Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers to our platform, we will need to continue to invest in the development of new products, offerings, and features that add value for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers and that differentiate us from our competitors. For example, in 2018, we redesigned our Driver application with features that better anticipate Driver needs, such as improved real-time communication and updates on the availability of riders and consumers and the pricing of fares and deliveries, and we acquired orderTalk to better integrate Uber Eats with restaurant point-of-sale systems. Developing and delivering these new or upgraded products, offerings, and features is costly, and the success of such new products, offerings, and features depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction, and market acceptance of such products, offerings, and features. Moreover, any such new or upgraded products, offerings, or features may not work as intended or may not provide intended value to platform users. If we are unable to continue to develop new or upgraded products, offerings, and features, or if platform users do not perceive value in such new or upgraded products, offerings, and features, platform users may choose not to use our platform, which would adversely affect our operating results.

If we are unable to manage supply chain risks related to New Mobility products within our Personal Mobility offering such as dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and advanced technologies such as autonomous vehicles, our operations may be disrupted.

We have expanded our Personal Mobility products to include dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and are developing advanced technologies for autonomous vehicles. These products require and rely on hardware and other components that we source from third-party suppliers. The continued development of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, autonomous vehicle technologies, and other products depends on our ability to implement and manage supply chain logistics to secure the necessary components and hardware. We do not have significant experience in managing supply chain risks. We depend on a limited number of suppliers for our dockless e-bikes, and on a single supplier for our e-scooters that also supplies our primary competitors. It is possible that we may not be able to obtain a sufficient supply of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters in a timely manner, or at all. Further, we source certain specialized or custom-made components for our autonomous vehicle and other advanced technologies from a small number of specialized suppliers, and we may not be able to secure substitutes in a timely manner, on reasonable terms, or at all. Events that could disrupt our supply chain include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the imposition of trade laws or regulations;

 

   

the imposition of duties, tariffs, and other charges on imports and exports, including with respect to imports and exports of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters from China;

 

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disruption in the supply of certain hardware and components from our international suppliers, particularly those in China;

 

   

foreign currency fluctuations;

 

   

theft; and

 

   

restrictions on the transfer of funds.

The occurrence of any of the foregoing could materially increase the cost and reduce or delay the supply of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters available on our platform and could materially delay our progress towards introducing autonomous vehicles onto our platform, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

We track certain operational metrics and our category position with internal systems and tools, and our equity stakes in minority-owned affiliates with information provided by such minority-owned affiliates, and do not independently verify such metrics. Certain of our operational metrics are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and negatively affect our business.

We track certain operational metrics, including key metrics such as MAPCs, Trips, Gross Bookings, and our category position, with internal systems and tools, and our equity stakes in minority-owned affiliates with information provided by such minority-owned affiliates, that are not independently verified by any third party and which may differ from estimates or similar metrics published by third parties due to differences in sources, methodologies, or the assumptions on which we rely. Our internal systems and tools have a number of limitations, and our methodologies for tracking these metrics may change over time, which could result in unexpected changes to our metrics, including the metrics we publicly disclose, or our estimates of our category position. If the internal systems and tools we use to track these metrics undercount or overcount performance or contain algorithmic or other technical errors, the data we report may not be accurate. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our metrics for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our products are used across large populations globally. For example, we believe that there are consumers who have multiple accounts, even though we prohibit that in our Terms of Service and implement measures to detect and prevent that behavior. In addition, limitations or errors with respect to how we measure data or with respect to the data that we measure may affect our understanding of certain details of our business, which could affect our long-term strategies. If our operating metrics or our estimates of our category position or our equity stakes in our minority-owned affiliates are not accurate representations of our business, or if investors do not perceive our operating metrics or estimates of our category position or equity stakes in our minority-owned affiliates to be accurate, or if we discover material inaccuracies with respect to these figures, our reputation may be significantly harmed, and our operating and financial results could be adversely affected.

In certain jurisdictions, we allow consumers to pay for rides and meal deliveries using cash, which raises numerous regulatory, operational, and safety concerns. If we do not successfully manage those concerns, we could become subject to adverse regulatory actions and suffer reputational harm or other adverse financial and accounting consequences.

In certain jurisdictions, including India, Brazil, and Mexico, as well as certain other countries in Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, we allow consumers to use cash to pay Drivers the entire fare of rides and cost of meal deliveries (including our service fee from such rides and meal deliveries). In 2018, cash-paid trips accounted for approximately 13% of our global Gross Bookings. This percentage may increase in the future, particularly in the markets in which Careem operates. The use of cash in connection with our technology raises numerous regulatory, operational, and safety concerns. For example, many jurisdictions have specific regulations regarding the use of cash for ridesharing. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in the

 

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imposition of significant fines and penalties and could result in a regulator requiring that we suspend operations in those jurisdictions. In addition to these regulatory concerns, the use of cash with our Ridesharing products and Uber Eats offering can increase safety and security risks for Drivers and riders, including potential robbery, assault, violent or fatal attacks, and other criminal acts. In certain jurisdictions such as Brazil, serious safety incidents resulting in robberies and violent, fatal attacks on Drivers while using our platform have been reported. If we are not able to adequately address any of these concerns, we could suffer significant reputational harm, which could adversely impact our business.

In addition, establishing the proper infrastructure to ensure that we receive the correct service fee on cash trips is complex, and has in the past meant and may continue to mean that we cannot collect the entire service fee for certain of our cash-based trips. We have created systems for Drivers to collect and deposit the cash received for cash-based trips and deliveries, as well as systems for us to collect, deposit, and properly account for the cash received, some of which are not always effective, convenient, or widely-adopted by Drivers. Creating, maintaining, and improving these systems requires significant effort and resources, and we cannot guarantee these systems will be effective in collecting amounts due to us. Further, operating a business that uses cash raises compliance risks with respect to a variety of rules and regulations, including anti-money laundering laws. If Drivers fail to pay us under the terms of our agreements or if our collection systems fail, we may be adversely affected by both the inability to collect amounts due and the cost of enforcing the terms of our contracts, including litigation. Such collection failure and enforcement costs, along with any costs associated with a failure to comply with applicable rules and regulations, could, in the aggregate, impact our financial performance.

Loss or material modification of our credit card acceptance privileges could have an adverse effect on our business and operating results.

In 2018, 87% of our Gross Bookings were paid by either credit card or debit card. As such, the loss of our credit card acceptance privileges would significantly limit our business model. We are required by our payment processors to comply with payment card network operating rules, including the Payment Card Industry (“PCI”) and Data Security Standard (the “Standard”). The Standard is a comprehensive set of requirements for enhancing payment account data security developed by the PCI Security Standards Council to help facilitate the broad adoption of consistent data security measures. Our failure to comply with the Standard and other network operating rules could result in fines or restrictions on our ability to accept payment cards. Under certain circumstances specified in the payment card network rules, we may be required to submit to periodic audits, self-assessments, or other assessments of our compliance with the Standard. Such activities may reveal that we have failed to comply with the Standard. If an audit, self-assessment, or other test determines that we need to take steps to remediate any deficiencies, such remediation efforts may distract our management team and require us to undertake costly and time consuming remediation efforts. In addition, even if we comply with the Standard, there is no assurance that we will be protected from a security breach. Moreover, the payment card networks could adopt new operating rules or interpret existing rules that we or our processors might find difficult or even impossible to follow, or costly to implement. In addition to violations of network rules, including the Standard, any failure to maintain good relationships with the payment card networks could impact our ability to receive incentives from them, could increase our costs, or could otherwise harm our business. The loss of our credit card acceptance privileges for any one of these reasons, or the significant modification of the terms under which we obtain credit card acceptance privileges, may have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, and operating results.

The successful operation of our business depends upon the performance and reliability of Internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control.

Our business depends on the performance and reliability of Internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control. Disruptions in Internet infrastructure or GPS signals or the failure of telecommunications network operators to provide us with the bandwidth we need to provide our products and offerings could interfere with the speed and availability of our platform. For example, in January 2018, some T-Mobile customers traveling internationally experienced a mobile service outage and as a result were unable to use our platform. If our platform

 

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is unavailable when platform users attempt to access it, or if our platform does not load as quickly as platform users expect, platform users may not return to our platform as often in the future, or at all, and may use our competitors’ products or offerings more often. In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by national telecommunications operators. If mobile Internet access fees or other charges to Internet users increase, consumer traffic may decrease, which may in turn cause our revenue to significantly decrease.

Our business depends on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of mobile communications systems. The occurrence of an unanticipated problem, such as a power outage, telecommunications delay or failure, security breach, or computer virus could result in delays or interruptions to our products, offerings, and platform, as well as business interruptions for us and platform users. Furthermore, foreign governments may leverage their ability to shut down directed services, and local governments may shut down our platform at the routing level. Any of these events could damage our reputation, significantly disrupt our operations, and subject us to liability, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. We have invested significant resources to develop new products to mitigate the impact of potential interruptions to mobile communications systems, which can be used by consumers in territories where mobile communications systems are less efficient. However, these products may ultimately be unsuccessful.

We rely on third parties maintaining open marketplaces to distribute our platform and to provide the software we use in certain of our products and offerings. If such third parties interfere with the distribution of our products or offerings or with our use of such software, our business would be adversely affected.

Our platform relies on third parties maintaining open marketplaces, including the Apple App Store and Google Play, which make applications available for download. We cannot assure you that the marketplaces through which we distribute our platform will maintain their current structures or that such marketplaces will not charge us fees to list our applications for download. We rely upon certain third parties to provide software for our products and offerings, including Google Maps for the mapping function that is critical to the functionality of our platform. We do not believe that an alternative mapping solution exists that can provide the global functionality that we require to offer our platform in all of the markets in which we operate. We do not control all mapping functions employed by our platform or Drivers using our platform, and it is possible that such mapping functions may not be reliable. If such third parties cease to provide access to the third-party software that we and Drivers use, do not provide access to such software on terms that we believe to be attractive or reasonable, or do not provide us with the most current version of such software, we may be required to seek comparable software from other sources, which may be more expensive or inferior, or may not be available at all, any of which would adversely affect our business.

Our business depends upon the interoperability of our platform across devices, operating systems, and third-party applications that we do not control.

One of the most important features of our platform is its broad interoperability with a range of devices, operating systems, and third-party applications. Our platform is accessible from the web and from devices running various operating systems such as iOS and Android. We depend on the accessibility of our platform across these third-party operating systems and applications that we do not control. Moreover, third-party services and products are constantly evolving, and we may not be able to modify our platform to assure its compatibility with that of other third parties following development changes. The loss of interoperability, whether due to actions of third parties or otherwise, could adversely affect our business.

We rely on third parties for elements of the payment processing infrastructure underlying our platform. If these third-party elements become unavailable or unavailable on favorable terms, our business could be adversely affected.

The convenient payment mechanisms provided by our platform are key factors contributing to the development of our business. We rely on third parties for elements of our payment-processing infrastructure to remit payments to Drivers, restaurants, and carriers using our platform, and these third parties may refuse to

 

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renew our agreements with them on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If these companies become unwilling or unable to provide these services to us on acceptable terms or at all, our business may be disrupted. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we generally pay interchange fees and other processing and gateway fees, and such fees result in significant costs. In addition, online payment providers are under continued pressure to pay increased fees to banks to process funds, and there is no assurance that such online payment providers will not pass any increased costs on to merchant partners, including us. If these fees increase over time, our operating costs will increase, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

In addition, system failures have at times prevented us from making payments to Drivers in accordance with our typical timelines and processes, and have caused substantial Driver dissatisfaction and generated a significant number of Driver complaints. Future failures of the payment processing infrastructure underlying our platform could cause Drivers to lose trust in our payment operations and could cause them to instead use our competitors’ platforms. If the quality or convenience of our payment processing infrastructure declines as a result of these limitations or for any other reason, the attractiveness of our business to Drivers, restaurants, and carriers could be adversely affected. If we are forced to migrate to other third-party payment service providers for any reason, the transition would require significant time and management resources, and may not be as effective, efficient, or well-received by platform users.

Computer malware, viruses, spamming, and phishing attacks could harm our reputation, business, and operating results.

We rely heavily on information technology systems across our operations. Our information technology systems, including mobile and online platforms and mobile payment systems, administrative functions such as human resources, payroll, accounting, and internal and external communications, and the information technology systems of our third-party business partners and service providers contain proprietary or confidential information related to business and sensitive personal data, including personally identifiable information, entrusted to us by platform users, employees, and job candidates. Computer malware, viruses, spamming, and phishing attacks have become more prevalent in our industry, have occurred on our systems in the past, and may occur on our systems in the future. Various other factors may also cause system failures, including power outages, catastrophic events, inadequate or ineffective redundancy, issues with upgrading or creating new systems or platforms, flaws in third-party software or services, errors by our employees or third-party service providers, or breaches in the security of these systems or platforms. For example, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees or platform users to disclose information to gain access to our data or the data of platform users. If our incident response, disaster recovery, and business continuity plans do not resolve these issues in an effective manner, they could result in adverse impacts to our business operations and our financial results. Because of our prominence, the number of platform users, and the types and volume of personal data on our systems, we may be a particularly attractive target for such attacks. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our data and that of platform users, and to prevent data loss, undesirable activities on our platform, and security breaches, we cannot assure you that such measures will provide absolute security. Our efforts on this front may be unsuccessful as a result of, for example, software bugs or other technical malfunctions; employee, contractor, or vendor error or malfeasance; government surveillance; or other threats that evolve, and we may incur significant costs in protecting against or remediating cyber-attacks. Any actual or perceived failure to maintain the performance, reliability, security, and availability of our products, offerings, and technical infrastructure to the satisfaction of platform users and certain regulators would likely harm our reputation and result in loss of revenue from the adverse impact to our reputation and brand, disruption to our business, and our decreased ability to attract and retain Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers.

Our platform is highly technical, and any undetected errors could adversely affect our business.

Our platform is a complex system composed of many interoperating components and incorporates software that is highly complex. Our business is dependent upon our ability to prevent system interruption on our platform.

 

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Our software, including open source software that is incorporated into our code, may now or in the future contain undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities. Some errors in our software code may only be discovered after the code has been released. Bugs in our software, third-party software including open source software that is incorporated into our code, misconfigurations of our systems, and unintended interactions between systems could result in our failure to comply with certain federal, state, or foreign reporting obligations, or could cause downtime that would impact the availability of our service to platform users. We have from time to time found defects or errors in our system and may discover additional defects in the future that could result in platform unavailability or system disruption. In addition, we have experienced outages on our platform due to circumstances within our control, such as outages due to software limitations. We rely on co-located data centers for the operation of our platform. If our co-located data centers fail, our platform users may experience down time. If sustained or repeated, any of these outages could reduce the attractiveness of our platform to platform users. For example, as a result of an error with one of our routine maintenance releases in February 2018, we experienced an outage on our platform for 28 minutes, resulting in Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers being unable to log on to our platform in major cities, including Las Vegas, Atlanta, New York, and Washington D.C. In addition, our release of new software in the past has inadvertently caused, and may in the future cause, interruptions in the availability or functionality of our platform. Any errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities discovered in our code or systems after release could result in an interruption in the availability of our platform or a negative experience for Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers, and could also result in negative publicity and unfavorable media coverage, damage to our reputation, loss of platform users, loss of revenue or liability for damages, regulatory inquiries, or other proceedings, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

We currently rely on a small number of third-party service providers to host a significant portion of our platform, and any interruptions or delays in services from these third parties could impair the delivery of our products and offerings and harm our business.

We use a combination of third-party cloud computing services and co-located data centers in the United States and abroad. We do not control the physical operation of any of the co-located data centers we use or the operations of our third-party service providers. These third-party operations and co-located data centers may experience break-ins, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, sabotage, acts of vandalism, and other misconduct. These facilities may also be vulnerable to damage or interruption from power loss, telecommunications failures, fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and similar events. Our systems do not provide complete redundancy of data storage or processing, and as a result, the occurrence of any such event, a decision by our third-party service providers to close our co-located data centers without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems may result in our inability to serve data reliably or require us to migrate our data to either a new on-premise data center or cloud computing service. This could be time consuming and costly and may result in the loss of data, any of which could significantly interrupt the provision of our products and offerings and harm our reputation and brand. We may not be able to easily switch to another cloud or data center provider in the event of any disruptions or interference to the services we use, and even if we do, other cloud and data center providers are subject to the same risks. Additionally, our co-located data center facility agreements are of limited durations, and our co-located data center facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. If we are unable to renew our agreements with these facilities on commercially reasonable terms, we may experience delays in the provision of our products and offerings until an agreement with another co-located data center is arranged. Interruptions in the delivery of our products and offerings may reduce our revenue, cause Drivers, restaurants, and carriers to stop offering their services through our platform, and reduce use of our platform by consumers and shippers. Our business and operating results may be harmed if current and potential Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers believe our platform is unreliable. In addition, if we are unable to scale our data storage and computational capacity sufficiently or on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to innovate and introduce new products on our platform may be delayed or compromised, which would have an adverse effect on our growth and business.

 

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Our use of third-party open source software could adversely affect our ability to offer our products and offerings and subjects us to possible litigation.

We use third-party open source software in connection with the development of our platform. From time to time, companies that use third-party open source software have faced claims challenging the use of such open source software and their compliance with the terms of the applicable open source license. We may be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software, or claiming non-compliance with the applicable open source licensing terms. Some open source licenses require end-users who distribute or make available across a network software and services that include open source software to make available all or part of such software, which in some circumstances could include valuable proprietary code. While we employ practices designed to monitor our compliance with the licenses of third-party open source software and protect our valuable proprietary source code, we have not run a complete open source license review and may inadvertently use third-party open source software in a manner that exposes us to claims of non-compliance with the applicable terms of such license, including claims for infringement of intellectual property rights or for breach of contract. Furthermore, there is an increasing number of open-source software license types, almost none of which have been tested in a court of law, resulting in a dearth of guidance regarding the proper legal interpretation of such licenses. If we were to receive a claim of non-compliance with the terms of any of our open source licenses, we may be required to publicly release certain portions of our proprietary source code or expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.

In addition, the use of third-party open source software typically exposes us to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software because open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the functionality or origin of the software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to compromise our platform. Additionally, because any software source code that we contribute to open source projects becomes publicly available, our ability to protect our intellectual property rights in such software source code may be limited or lost entirely, and we would be unable to prevent our competitors or others from using such contributed software source code. Any of the foregoing could be harmful to our business, financial condition, or operating results and could help our competitors develop products and offerings that are similar to or better than ours.

We have incurred a significant amount of debt and may in the future incur additional indebtedness. Our payment obligations under such indebtedness may limit the funds available to us, and the terms of our debt agreements may restrict our flexibility in operating our business.

As of December 31, 2018, we had total outstanding indebtedness of $7.5 billion aggregate principal amount, including $1.8 billion aggregate principal amount of our outstanding 2021 Convertible Notes and $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of our outstanding 2022 Convertible Notes. We expect the Convertible Notes will be converted into our common stock in connection with this offering. In addition, we have agreed to issue up to approximately $1.7 billion of the Careem Convertible Notes to Careem stockholders, a majority of which will be issued upon the closing of our acquisition of Careem. The Careem Convertible Notes do not bear interest and will mature 90 days after their respective dates of issuance. Subject to the limitations in the terms of our existing and future indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may incur additional debt, secure existing or future debt, or refinance our debt. In particular, we may need to incur additional debt to finance the purchase of dockless e-bikes and e-scooters or autonomous vehicles, and such financing may not be available to us on attractive terms or at all.

We may be required to use a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness. Such payments will reduce the funds available to us for working capital, capital expenditures, and other corporate purposes and limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, expansion plans, and other investments, which may in turn limit our ability to implement our business strategy, heighten our vulnerability to downturns in our business, the industry, or in the general economy, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry, and prevent us from taking

 

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advantage of business opportunities as they arise. For example, the Careem Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of our common stock at the election of each note holder at a price of $55.00 per share. Some or all of the holders of the Careem Convertible Notes may not elect to convert their notes prior to their maturity, in which case we will be required to repay such notes in cash. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future financing will be available to us in amounts sufficient to enable us to make required and timely payments on our indebtedness, or to fund our operations. To date, we have used a substantial amount of cash for operating activities, and we cannot assure you when we will begin to generate cash from operating activities in amounts sufficient to cover our debt service obligations.

In addition, under certain of our existing debt instruments, we and certain of our subsidiaries are subject to limitations regarding our business and operations, including limitations on incurring additional indebtedness and liens, limitations on certain consolidations, mergers, and sales of assets, and restrictions on the payment of dividends or distributions. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve additional restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions or divestitures. Any default under our debt arrangements could require that we repay our loans immediately, and may limit our ability to obtain additional financing, which in turn may have an adverse effect on our cash flows and liquidity.

In addition, we are exposed to interest rate risk related to some of our indebtedness, which is discussed in greater detail under the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Qualitative and Quantitative Factors about Market Risk—Interest Rate Risk.”

We may have exposure to materially greater than anticipated tax liabilities.

The tax laws applicable to our global business activities are subject to uncertainty and can be interpreted differently by different companies. For example, we may become subject to sales tax rates in certain jurisdictions that are significantly greater than the rates we currently pay in those jurisdictions. Like many other multinational corporations, we are subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign jurisdictions and have structured our operations to reduce our effective tax rate. Currently, certain jurisdictions are investigating our compliance with tax rules. If it is determined that we are not compliant with such rules, we could owe additional taxes. Additionally, the taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate have in the past, and may in the future, examine or challenge our methodologies for valuing developed technology, which could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position and operating results. Furthermore, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions that have lower statutory tax rates and higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting principles. We are subject to regular review and audit by both U.S. federal and state tax authorities, as well as foreign tax authorities, and currently face numerous audits in the United States and abroad. Any adverse outcome of such reviews and audits could have an adverse effect on our financial position and operating results. In addition, the determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by our management, and we have engaged in many transactions for which the ultimate tax determination remains uncertain. The ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made. Our tax positions or tax returns are subject to change, and therefore we cannot accurately predict whether we may incur material additional tax liabilities in the future, which could impact our financial position. In addition, in connection with any planned or future acquisitions, we may acquire businesses that have differing licenses and other arrangements that may be challenged by tax authorities for not being at arm’s-length or that are otherwise potentially less tax efficient than our licenses and arrangements. Any subsequent integration or continued operation of such acquired businesses may result in an increased effective tax rate in certain jurisdictions or potential indirect tax costs, which could result in us incurring additional tax liabilities or having to establish a reserve in our consolidated financial statements, and could adversely affect our financial results.

 

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Changes in global and U.S. tax legislation may adversely affect our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows.

We are a U.S.-based multinational company subject to tax in multiple U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. U.S. tax legislation enacted in 2017 has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. corporations, including reducing the U.S. corporate income tax rate, revising the rules governing net operating losses effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, providing a transition of U.S. international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a modified territorial system, imposing a one-time transition tax on the mandatory deemed repatriation of cumulative foreign earnings as of December 31, 2017, and imposing new limitations on the deductibility of interest. Many of these changes were effective immediately, without any transition periods or grandfathering for existing transactions. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, as well as interpretations and implementing regulations by the U.S. Treasury and U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), any of which could lessen or increase certain adverse impacts of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation, which often uses federal taxable income as a starting point for computing state and local tax liabilities.

We are unable to predict what global or U.S. tax reforms may be proposed or enacted in the future or what effects such future changes would have on our business. Any such changes in tax legislation, regulations, policies or practices in the jurisdictions in which we operate could increase the estimated tax liability that we have expensed to date and paid or accrued on our balance sheet; affect our financial position, future operating results, cash flows, and effective tax rates where we have operations; reduce post-tax returns to our stockholders; and increase the complexity, burden, and cost of tax compliance. We are subject to potential changes in relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, and interpretations, including changes to tax laws applicable to corporate multinationals. The governments of countries in which we operate and other governmental bodies could make unprecedented assertions about how taxation is determined in their jurisdictions that are contrary to the way in which we have interpreted and historically applied the rules and regulations described above in our income tax returns filed in such jurisdictions. New laws could significantly increase our tax obligations in the countries in which we do business or require us to change the manner in which we operate our business. As a result of the large and expanding scale of our international business activities, many of these changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position, operating results, and cash flows.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2018, we had net operating loss carryforwards for U.S. federal income tax purposes and state income tax purposes of $5.1 billion and $4.4 billion, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. If not utilized, the federal net operating loss carryforward amounts generated prior to January 1, 2018 will begin to expire in 2030, and the state net operating loss carryforward amounts will begin to expire in 2019. Realization of these net operating loss carryforwards depends on our future taxable income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards and other pre-change tax attributes, such as research tax credits, to offset its post-change income may be limited. We may experience ownership changes in the future because of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carry-forwards and other tax attributes to offset U.S. federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us.

We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Because we conduct a significant and growing portion of our business in currencies other than the U.S. dollar but report our consolidated financial results in U.S. dollars, we face exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

 

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As exchange rates vary, revenue, cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, operating expenses, other income and expense, and assets and liabilities, when translated, may also vary materially and thus affect our overall financial results. We have not to date, but may in the future, enter into hedging arrangements to manage foreign currency translation, but such activity may not completely eliminate fluctuations in our operating results due to currency exchange rate changes. Hedging arrangements are inherently risky, and we do not have experience establishing hedging programs, which could expose us to additional risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

Our potential acquisition of Careem is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties.

In March 2019, we entered into an asset purchase agreement to acquire Careem for approximately $3.1 billion, consisting of up to approximately $1.7 billion of the Careem Convertible Notes and approximately $1.4 billion in cash, subject to certain adjustments. We expect the acquisition to close in January 2020. We will acquire substantially all of the assets and assume substantially all of the liabilities of Careem, including liabilities associated with any data security breaches it has experienced in the past. Our acquisition of Careem is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including, in particular, that we must obtain the approval of competition authorities in certain markets in which Careem operates, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain approval in any or all of these markets. The acquisition could be blocked, delayed, or subject to significant limitations or restrictions on our ability to operate in one or more markets, and we could be required to divest our or Careem’s business in one or more markets. Subsequent to the announcement of our acquisition of Careem, the Egyptian Competition Authority (“ECA”) issued a press release expressing concerns regarding the proposed acquisition.

Although Careem has agreed to a reduction of the purchase price in the event we do not receive regulatory approval in some or all of the markets in which Careem operates, any such reduction would be limited to only a portion of the value ascribed to Careem’s operations in such markets, and any such reductions in the aggregate would be capped at 15% of the total purchase price. Additionally, 10% of the total purchase price will be subject to a holdback for a limited period of time after the closing of the acquisition to satisfy any potential indemnification claims. Accordingly, we will be required to pay at least 75% of the total purchase price (including the full cash portion of the purchase price) upon the closing of the acquisition, regardless of which, if any, competition approvals we are able to obtain prior to the closing date. As a result, our acquisition of Careem will result in a significant cash expenditure and increased indebtedness, which may not be commensurate with the value of Careem’s operations that we are able to acquire upon the closing of the acquisition.

In addition, some or all of the holders of the Careem Convertible Notes may not elect to convert their notes into shares of our common stock at any time prior to their maturity 90 days after issuance, in which case we will be required to repay their notes in cash.

Pursuant to our agreement with Careem, the Careem brand and ridesharing, meal delivery, and payments apps will continue to operate in parallel with Uber’s apps following the closing of the acquisition. Careem’s Chief Executive Officer will continue to be the Chief Executive Officer of Careem and will report to an Uber-controlled board of directors. Although we will integrate certain general and administrative functions at the Uber parent level, Careem’s engineering, human resources, and operations teams will continue to operate independently and report to Careem’s Chief Executive Officer. This structure may reduce the synergies that we expect to gain from the acquisition and our brand and reputation could be impacted by any damage or reputational harm to the Careem brand.

Careem has historically shared certain user data with certain government authorities, which conflicts with our global policies regarding data use, sharing, and ownership. We expect to maintain our data use, sharing, and ownership practices for both our business and Careem’s business following the closing of the acquisition, and doing so may cause our relationships with government authorities in certain jurisdictions to suffer, and may result in such government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or Careem’s app on either a temporary or indefinite basis.

 

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Our acquisition of Careem will also increase our risks under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other similar laws outside the United States. After the acquisition, we plan to provide significant training to Careem’s employees, consultants, and business partners. Our existing and planned safeguards, including training and compliance programs to discourage corrupt practices by such parties, may not prove effective, and such parties may engage in conduct for which we could be held responsible.

Any of these risks and uncertainties could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

If we are unable to identify and successfully acquire suitable businesses, our operating results and prospects could be harmed, and any businesses we acquire may not perform as expected or be effectively integrated.

As part of our business strategy, we have entered into, and expect to continue to enter into, agreements to acquire companies, form joint ventures, divest portions or aspects of our business, sell minority stakes in portions or aspects of our business, and acquire complementary companies or technologies, including divestitures in China and Southeast Asia, our Yandex.Taxi joint venture in Russia/CIS, our agreement to acquire Careem, and the potential investment by SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO in ATG. Competition within our industry for acquisitions of businesses, technologies, and assets is intense. As such, even if we are able to identify a target for acquisition, we may not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to receive approval from the applicable competition authorities, or such target may be acquired by another company, including one of our competitors. For example, our acquisition of Careem is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including, in particular, approval from the regional competition authorities in certain markets in which Careem operates. Pursuant to the terms of our agreement with Careem, failure to obtain approval in one or more of these countries could require us to divest our or Careem’s business in that country. Moreover, the potential investment by the ATG Investors in ATG is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. For example, if the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (“CFIUS”) blocks or unwinds the ATG Collaboration Agreement or requires mitigation measures that materially and adversely affect the strategic benefits of the ATG Collaboration Agreement, SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO will each have the right to require ATG to redeem some or all of their preferred units at a price equal to their respective initial investment amounts. Further, if CFIUS requires certain other mitigation measures to be taken by ATG, SoftBank, or Toyota that are not acceptable to the applicable party, then SoftBank or Toyota, as applicable, will have the right to transfer some or all of their preferred units to a third party, subject to a right of first refusal in our favor. CFIUS approval is not a condition to the closing of the transaction.

Further, negotiations for potential acquisitions or other transactions may result in the diversion of our management’s time and significant out-of-pocket costs. We may expend significant cash or incur substantial debt to finance such acquisitions, and such indebtedness may restrict our business or require the use of available cash to make interest and principal payments. In addition, we may finance or otherwise complete acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, which may result in dilution to our stockholders, or if such convertible debt securities are not converted, significant cash outlays. If we fail to evaluate and execute acquisitions successfully or fail to successfully address any of these risks, our business, financial condition, and operating results may be harmed.

In addition, any businesses we may acquire (including Careem) may not perform as well as we expect. Failure to manage and successfully integrate recently acquired businesses and technologies, including managing any privacy or data security risks associated with such acquisitions, may harm our operating results and expansion prospects. The process of integrating an acquired company, business, or technology or acquired personnel into our company is subject to various risks and challenges, including:

 

   

diverting management time and focus from operating our business to acquisition integration;

 

   

disrupting our ongoing business operations;

 

   

platform user acceptance of the acquired company’s offerings;

 

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implementing or remediating the controls, procedures, and policies of the acquired company;

 

   

integrating the acquired business onto our systems and ensuring the acquired business meets our financial reporting requirements and timelines;

 

   

retaining and integrating acquired employees, including aligning incentives between acquired employees and existing employees, as well as managing costs associated with eliminating redundancies or transferring employees on acceptable terms with minimal business disruption;

 

   

maintaining important business relationships and contracts of the acquired business;

 

   

liability for pre-acquisition activities of the acquired company;

 

   

litigation or other claims or liabilities arising in connection with the acquired company;

 

   

impairment charges associated with goodwill, long-lived assets, investments, and other acquired intangible assets; and

 

   

other unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures.

We may not receive a favorable return on investment for prior or future business combinations, including with respect to ATG, Careem, or our minority-owned affiliates, and we cannot predict whether these acquisitions, divestitures, or investments will be accretive to the value of our common stock. If we do not obtain approval from local competition authorities in connection with our acquisition of Careem, and as a result are required to divest portions or aspects of our or Careem’s business or discontinue or limit our or Careem’s operations in certain countries, we may limit our growth and negatively affect our operating results. It is also possible that acquisitions, combinations, divestitures, joint ventures, or other strategic transactions we announce could be viewed negatively by the press, investors, platform users, or regulators, any or all of which may adversely affect our reputation and our business. Any of these factors may adversely affect our ability to consummate a transaction, our financial condition, and our operating results.

Legal and Regulatory Risks Related to Our Business

We may continue to be blocked from or limited in providing or operating our products and offerings in certain jurisdictions, and may be required to modify our business model in those jurisdictions as a result.

In certain jurisdictions, including key markets such as Argentina, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Spain, our ridesharing business model has been blocked, capped, or suspended, or we have been required to change our business model, due primarily to laws and significant regulatory restrictions in such jurisdictions. In some cases, we have applied for and obtained licenses or permits to operate and must continue to comply with the license or permit requirements or risk revocation. In addition, we may not be able to maintain or renew any such license or permit. For example, Transport for London (“TfL”) announced in September 2017 that it would not renew our license to operate in London because it determined that we were not fit and proper to hold an operator’s license. We appealed this decision and in June 2018, we were granted a license to operate in London on a 15-month term (instead of the usual five-year term). If we are not successful in complying with the terms of the 15-month license and, as a result, it is terminated or not renewed, we would likely appeal any such decision as we did in 2017. Any inability to operate in London, as well as the publicity concerning any such termination or non-renewal, would adversely affect our business, revenue, and operating results. We cannot predict whether the TfL decision, or future regulatory decisions or legislation in other jurisdictions, may embolden or encourage other authorities to take similar actions even where we are operating according to the terms of an existing license or permit.

Traditional taxicab and car service operators in various jurisdictions continue to lobby legislators and regulators to block our Ridesharing products or to require us to comply with regulatory, insurance, record-keeping, licensing, and other requirements to which taxicab and car services are subject. For example, in January 2019, we suspended our Ridesharing products in Barcelona after the regional government enacted

 

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regulations mandating minimum wait times before riders could be picked up by ridesharing drivers. In December 2018, New York City approved per-mile and per-minute rates, designed to target minimum hourly earnings, for drivers providing for-hire services in New York City, such as those provided by Drivers on our platform. These minimum rates took effect in February 2019. We are still working through adjustments to be made with respect to rider promotions, driver supply, and other aspects of our business in response to these regulations; however, these regulations had a negative impact on our financial performance in New York City in the first quarter of 2019 and may have a similar adverse impact in the future. In August 2018, the New York City Council voted to approve various measures to further regulate our business, including driver earning rules, licensing requirements, and a one-year freeze on new for-hire vehicle licenses for ridesharing services like those enabled via our platform, while the city studies whether a permanent freeze would help reduce congestion. Additionally, members of the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco recently proposed imposing a surcharge on ridesharing trips in San Francisco, and a ballot measure to enact this surcharge may be introduced in 2019. In addition, other jurisdictions such as Seattle have in the past considered or may consider regulations which would implement minimum wage requirements or permit drivers to negotiate for minimum wages while providing services on our platform. Similar legislative or regulatory initiatives are being considered or have been enacted in countries outside the United States. If other jurisdictions impose similar regulations, our business growth could be adversely affected.

In certain jurisdictions, we are subject to national, state, local, or municipal laws and regulations that are ambiguous in their application or enforcement or that we believe are invalid or inapplicable. In such jurisdictions, we may be subject to regulatory fines and proceedings and, in certain cases, may be required to cease operations altogether if we continue to operate our business as currently conducted, unless and until such laws and regulations are reformed to clarify that our business operations are fully compliant. In certain of these jurisdictions, we continue to provide our products and offerings while we assess the applicability of these laws and regulations to our products and offerings or while we seek regulatory or policy changes to address concerns with respect to our ability to comply with these laws and regulations. Our decision to continue operating in these instances has come under investigation or has otherwise been subject to scrutiny by government authorities. Our continuation of this practice and other past practices may result in fines or other penalties against us and Drivers imposed by local regulators, potentially increasing the risk that our licenses or permits that are necessary to operate in such jurisdictions will not be renewed. Such fines and penalties have in the past been, and may in the future continue to be, imposed solely on Drivers, which may cause Drivers to stop providing services on our platform. In many instances, we make the business decision as a gesture of goodwill to pay the fines on behalf of Drivers or to pay Drivers’ defense costs, which, in the aggregate, can be in the millions of dollars. Furthermore, such business practices may also result in negative press coverage, which may discourage Drivers and consumers from using our platform and could adversely affect our revenue. In addition, we face regulatory obstacles, including those lobbied for by our competitors or from local governments globally, that have favored and may continue to favor local or incumbent competitors, including obstacles for potential Drivers seeking to obtain required licenses or vehicle certifications. We have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, significant costs in defending our right to operate in accordance with our business model in many jurisdictions. To the extent that efforts to block or limit our operations are successful, or we or Drivers are required to comply with regulatory and other requirements applicable to taxicab and car services, our revenue and growth would be adversely affected.

Our business is subject to numerous legal and regulatory risks that could have an adverse impact on our business and future prospects.

Our platform is available in over 700 cities across 63 countries. We are subject to differing, and sometimes conflicting, laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we provide our offerings. A large number of proposals are before various national, regional, and local legislative bodies and regulatory entities, both within the United States and in foreign jurisdictions, regarding issues related to our business model. Certain proposals, if adopted, could significantly and materially harm our business, financial condition, and operating results by restricting or limiting how we operate our business, increasing our operating costs, and decreasing our number of platform users. We cannot predict whether or when such proposals may be adopted.

 

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Further, existing or new laws and regulations could expose us to substantial liability, including significant expenses necessary to comply with such laws and regulations, and could dampen the growth and usage of our platform. For example, as we expand our offerings in new areas, such as non-emergency medical transportation, we may be subject to additional healthcare-related federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, because our offerings are frequently first-to-market in the jurisdictions in which we operate, several local jurisdictions have passed, and we expect additional jurisdictions to pass, laws and regulations that limit or block our ability to offer our products to Drivers and consumers in those jurisdictions, thereby impeding overall use of our platform. We are actively challenging some of these laws and regulations and are lobbying other jurisdictions to oppose similar restrictions on our business, especially our ridesharing services. Further, because a substantial portion of our business involves vehicles that run on fossil fuels, laws, regulations, or governmental actions seeking to curb air pollution or emissions may impact our business. For example, in response to London’s efforts to cut emissions and improve air quality in the city (including the institution of a toxicity charge for polluting vehicles in the city center congestion zone and the introduction of an “Ultra Low Emissions Zone” that went into effect in April 2019), we have added a clean-air fee of 15 pence per mile to each trip on our platform in London, and plan to help Drivers on our platform fully transition to electric vehicles by 2025. Additionally, proposed ridesharing regulations in Egypt may require us to share certain personal data with government authorities to operate our app, which we may not be willing to provide. Our failure to share such data in accordance with these regulations may result in government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or (after the acquisition) Careem’s app in Egypt on either a temporary or indefinite basis.

Additionally, the United Kingdom held a referendum on June 23, 2016, to determine whether the United Kingdom should leave the European Union (“EU”) or remain as a member state, the outcome of which was in favor of leaving the EU, which is commonly referred to as Brexit. Lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU rules and regulations to replace or replicate in the event of a withdrawal, including financial laws and regulations (including relating to payment processing), tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws, and employment laws, could decrease foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom, increase costs, depress economic activity, and restrict access to capital.

In addition, we are currently involved in litigation in a number of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We initiated some of these legal challenges to contest the application of certain laws and regulations to our business. Others have been brought by taxicab owners, local regulators, local law enforcement, and platform users, including Drivers and consumers. These include individual, multiple plaintiff, and putative class and class action claims for alleged violation of laws related to, among other things, transportation, competition, advertising, consumer protection, fee calculations, personal injuries, privacy, intellectual property, product liability, discrimination, safety, and employment. These legislative and regulatory proceedings, allegations, and lawsuits are expensive and time consuming to defend, and, if resolved adversely to us, could result in financial damages or penalties, including criminal penalties, incarceration, and sanctions for individuals employed by us or parties with whom we contract, which could harm our ability to operate our business as planned in one or more of the jurisdictions in which we operate, which could adversely affect our business, revenue, and operating results.

We may face legal risks specific to our new dockless e-bike and e-scooter products, including those that result from quality problems that may arise with our hardware products, which may result in product recalls, litigation, enforcement actions, or regulatory proceedings, and could adversely affect our business, brand, financial condition, and results of operations.

As we expand our Personal Mobility offering to include dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, we expect to become subject to additional risks distinct from those relating to our Ridesharing products and our meal delivery and logistics offerings. Consumers may not be technically proficient in using dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, and they may not know to wear, or intentionally choose not to wear, protective equipment designed to enhance the safety of these products, including helmets. User error, together with the failure to use protective equipment, increases the risk of injuries or death while using these products. Non-compliance with standard traffic laws, as well as urban

 

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hazards such as unpaved or uneven roadways, increases the risk and severity of potential injuries. In addition, we offer our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products predominantly in metropolitan areas, where consumers using dockless e-bikes and e-scooters need to share, navigate, and at times contend with narrow and heavily congested roads occupied by cars, buses and light rail, especially during “rush” hours, all of which heighten the potential of injuries or death. Although we advise platform users of local requirements, including applicable helmet laws, and offer promotional codes for and occasionally give away helmets during promotions or in accordance with local regulations, we do not otherwise provide protective equipment to consumers using our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. Further, dockless e-bike and e-scooter maintenance, whether performed or facilitated by us, is difficult to ensure, and improper maintenance could lead to serious rider injury or death. Consumers using dockless e-bikes or e-scooters face a more severe level of injury in the event of a collision than that faced while riding in a vehicle, given the less sophisticated, and in some cases absent, passive protection systems on dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. As such, our dockless e-bike and e-scooter products expose us to increased liability.

Additionally, we rely on third parties to manufacture our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters and their component parts. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, issues with our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters that may lead to product liability, personal injury or death, or property damage claims. In response, we have taken action to replace, modify, increase maintenance frequency, or limit the use of such products, and may need to do so in the future. Such issues may also lead to recalls, market withdrawals, or regulatory actions by governmental authorities. Any of these events could result in increased governmental and regulatory scrutiny, harm to our reputation, significant financial costs, reduced demand from consumers for our products, and additional safety and testing requirements. For example, we have previously replaced rechargeable batteries for dockless e-bikes that did not meet performance expectations under certain conditions, which led to significant replacement costs and launch delays. The occurrence of real or perceived quality problems or material defects in our current or future dockless e-bikes or e-scooters could result in negative publicity, market withdrawals, regulatory proceedings, enforcement actions, or lawsuits filed against us, particularly if consumers are injured. Even if injuries to consumers are not the result of any defects in or the failure to properly maintain or repair our products, we may incur expenses to defend or settle any claims and our brand and reputation may be harmed.

Our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters are currently subject to operating restrictions or caps in certain cities and municipalities.

Most jurisdictions in which we provide our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, including Santa Monica and Austin, limit the aggregate number of dockless e-bikes or e-scooters that we may provide in a given jurisdiction. In other jurisdictions, such as Fort Lauderdale, we have failed to secure permits to offer dockless e-bikes or e-scooters, which allows our competitors to operate in those markets while we cannot. In addition, many jurisdictions have not yet authorized dockless e-bike or e-scooter operations, which in some cases has limited our ability to expand our operations. In many major metropolitan areas, such as New York City, governmental bodies have entered into exclusive contracts for docked e-bike services in certain portions of the city, including Manhattan, and those jurisdictions may interpret such exclusive deals to prohibit dockless e-bikes provided by other operators. We face a combination of these limitations in certain cities, including San Francisco, where the number of dockless e-bikes we can offer is subject to a cap, where we failed to obtain one of two permits for a limited scooter pilot program, and where our exclusive license to operate dockless e-bikes will expire at the end of 2019, and in Madrid, where the city provided permits to more than fifteen companies, with each company subject to a cap. Our inability to expand our dockless e-bikes and e-scooters could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Changes in, or failure to comply with, competition laws could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.

Competition authorities closely scrutinize us under U.S. and foreign antitrust and competition laws. An increasing number of governments are enforcing competition laws and are doing so with increased scrutiny, including governments in large markets such as the EU, the United States, Brazil, and India, particularly

 

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surrounding issues of predatory pricing, price-fixing, and abuse of market power. Many of these jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct. For example, complaints have been filed in several jurisdictions, including in the United States and India, alleging that our prices are too high (surge pricing) or too low (discounts or predatory pricing), or both. In December 2018, a purported assignee of Sidecar, an early competitor in the ridesharing business, filed a lawsuit against us asserting claims under both federal and California law based on allegations that we engaged in anti-competitive conduct. If one jurisdiction imposes or proposes to impose new requirements or restrictions on our business, other jurisdictions may follow. Further, any new requirements or restrictions, or proposed requirements or restrictions, could result in adverse publicity or fines, whether or not valid or subject to appeal.

In addition, governmental agencies and regulators may, among other things, prohibit future acquisitions, divestitures, or combinations we plan to make, impose significant fines or penalties, require divestiture of certain of our assets, or impose other restrictions that limit or require us to modify our operations, including limitations on our contractual relationships with platform users or restrictions on our pricing models. For example, our acquisition of Careem is subject to approval by the relevant competition authorities in certain markets in which Careem operates, and failure to obtain approval in one or more of these markets could require us to divest our or Careem’s business in those markets. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain competition authority approval in any or all of these markets. Additionally, in connection with our transaction with Grab, the Competition and Consumer Commission of Singapore concluded that such transaction was a violation of local competition laws and imposed fines and restrictions on both us and Grab; similarly, the Philippine Competition Commission approved our transaction with Grab subject to remedial measures and imposed fines relating to our and Grab’s compliance with the commission’s interim order. Furthermore, the review of our sale of our China operations to Didi in August 2016 by the Chinese authorities (the Anti-Monopoly Bureau of the Ministry of Commerce, now a part of the State Administration for Market Regulations) is still ongoing, and it is not clear how or when that proceeding will be resolved. Such rulings may alter the way in which we do business and, therefore, may continue to increase our costs or liabilities or reduce demand for our platform, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.

Our business is subject to extensive government regulation and oversight relating to the provision of payment and financial services.

Most jurisdictions in which we operate have laws that govern payment and financial services activities. Regulators in certain jurisdictions may determine that certain aspects of our business are subject to these laws and could require us to obtain licenses to continue to operate in such jurisdictions. Our subsidiary in the Netherlands, Uber Payments B.V., is registered and authorized by its competent authority, De Nederlandsche Bank, as an electronic money institution. This authorization permits Uber Payments B.V. to provide payment services (including acquiring and executing payment transactions and money remittances, as referred to in the Revised Payment Services Directive (2015/2366/EU)) and to issue electronic money in the Netherlands. In addition, Uber Payments B.V. has notified De Nederlandsche Bank that it will provide such services on a cross-border passport basis into other countries within the European Economic Area (the “EEA”). We continue to critically evaluate our options for seeking additional licenses and approvals in several other jurisdictions to optimize our payment solutions and support the future growth of our business. We could be denied such licenses, have existing licenses revoked, or be required to make significant changes to our business operations before being granted such licenses. For example, it is prohibited for persons to hold, acquire, or increase a “qualifying holding” in an electronic money institution with a corporate seat in the Netherlands, such as Uber Payments B.V., prior to receiving a declaration of no objection (“DNO”) from De Nederlandsche Bank. A “qualifying holding” is a direct or indirect holding of 10% or more of the issued share capital of an electronic money institution, the ability to exercise directly or indirectly 10% or more of the voting rights in an electronic money institution, or the ability to exercise directly or indirectly a similar influence over an electronic money institution. We cannot guarantee that a person intending to hold, acquire, or increase a qualifying holding in us will receive a DNO in the future, and a failure of such person to receive a DNO could expose that person to financial regulatory enforcement action in the Netherlands and could cause our electronic money institution license to be negatively

 

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impacted or revoked. If we are denied payment or other financial licenses or such licenses are revoked, we could be forced to cease or limit business operations in certain jurisdictions, including in the EEA, and even if we are able to obtain such licenses, we could be subject to fines or other enforcement action, or stripped of such licenses, if we are found to violate the requirements of such licenses. In some countries, it is not clear whether we are required to be licensed as a payment services provider where we rely on local payment providers to disburse payments. Were local regulators to determine that such arrangements require us to be so licensed, such regulators may block payments to Drivers, restaurants, shippers or carriers. Such regulatory actions, or the need to obtain regulatory approvals, could impose significant costs and involve substantial delay in payments we make in certain local markets, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.

Beginning in September 2019, payments made by platform users with payment accounts in the EEA for services provided through our platform will be subject to Strong Customer Authentication (“SCA”) regulatory requirements. In many cases, SCA will require a platform user to engage in additional steps to authenticate each payment transaction. These additional authentication requirements may make our platform user experience in the EEA substantially less convenient, and such loss of convenience could meaningfully reduce the frequency with which platform users use our platform or could cause some platform users to stop using our platform entirely, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects. Further, once SCA is implemented, many payment transactions on our platform may fail to be authenticated due to platform users not completing all necessary authentication steps. Thus, in some cases, we may not receive payment from consumers in advance of paying Drivers for services received by those users. A substantial increase in the frequency with which we make Driver payments without having received corresponding payments from consumers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

In addition, laws related to money transmission and online payments are evolving, and changes in such laws could affect our ability to provide payment processing on our platform in the same form and on the same terms as we have historically, or at all. For example, changes to our business in Europe, combined with changes to the EU Payment Services Directive, caused aspects of our payment operations in the EEA to fall within the scope of European payments regulation. As a result, one of our subsidiaries, Uber Payments B.V., is directly subject to financial services regulations (including those relating to anti-money laundering, terrorist financing, and sanctioned or prohibited persons) in the Netherlands and in other countries in the EEA where it conducts business. In addition, as we evolve our business or make changes to our business structure, we may be subject to additional laws or requirements related to money transmission, online payments, and financial regulation. These laws govern, among other things, money transmission, prepaid access instruments, electronic funds transfers, anti-money laundering, counter-terrorist financing, banking, systemic integrity risk assessments, cyber-security of payment processes, and import and export restrictions. Our business operations, including our payments to Drivers and restaurants, may not always comply with these financial laws and regulations. Historical or future non-compliance with these laws or regulations could result in significant criminal and civil lawsuits, penalties, forfeiture of significant assets, or other enforcement actions. Costs associated with fines and enforcement actions, as well as reputational harm, changes in compliance requirements, or limits on our ability to expand our product offerings, could harm our business.

Further, our payment system is susceptible to illegal and improper uses, including money laundering, terrorist financing, fraudulent sales of goods or services, and payments to sanctioned parties. We have invested and will need to continue to invest substantial resources to comply with applicable anti-money laundering and sanctions laws, and in the EEA to conduct appropriate risk assessments and implement appropriate controls as a regulated financial service provider. Government authorities may seek to bring legal action against us if our payment system is used for improper or illegal purposes or if our enterprise risk management or controls in the EEA are not adequately assessed, updated, or implemented, and any such action could result in financial or reputational harm to our business.

 

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We currently are subject to a number of inquiries, investigations, and requests for information from the DOJ and other U.S. and foreign government agencies, the adverse outcomes of which could harm our business.

We are the subject of DOJ criminal inquiries and investigations, as well as related civil enforcement inquiries and investigations by other government agencies in the United States and abroad. Those inquiries and investigations cover a broad range of matters, including our data designation and document retention policies related to the 2016 Breach, which involved the breach of certain archived consumer data hosted on a cloud-based service that outside actors accessed and downloaded. We have in the past and may in the future settle claims related to such matters. For example, in September 2018, after investigations and various lawsuits relating to the 2016 Breach, we settled with the Attorneys General of all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia through stipulated judgments and payment in an aggregate amount of $148 million related to our failure to report the incident for approximately one year. In April 2018, we entered into a consent decree that lasts through 2038 covering the 2014 Breach and the 2016 Breach with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”), which the FTC Commissioners approved in October 2018. In November 2018, U.K. and Dutch regulators imposed fines totaling approximately $1.2 million related to the 2016 Breach. The 2016 Breach may lead to additional costly and time-consuming regulatory investigations and litigation from other government entities, as well as potentially material fines and penalties imposed by other U.S. and international regulators. We are also subject to inquiries and or investigations by various government authorities related to, among other matters, the use of a tool to limit the vehicle views available to regulatory enforcement authorities (known as Greyball), alleged deceptive business practices and fraud, the use of alleged inappropriate means to obtain a rape victim’s medical records, and our disclosures to certain investors. Investigations and enforcement actions from such entities, as well as continued negative publicity and an erosion of current and prospective platform users’ trust, could severely disrupt our business.

We are also subject to inquiries and investigations by government agencies related to certain transactions we have entered into in the United States and other countries. For example, in connection with the Grab transaction, the Competition and Consumer Commission of Singapore concluded that the transaction violated local competition laws and imposed fines and restrictions on both us and Grab, including a requirement that Grab cannot require drivers to drive exclusively on its platform, a prohibition on “excessive price surges,” and protections for driver commission rates. In addition, the Philippine Competition Commission approved the transaction subject to similar restrictions, including a cap on maximum allowable fares and a requirement that Grab cannot require drivers to drive exclusively on its platform, and imposed fines relating to our and Grab’s non-compliance with its interim measures order during the pendency of the commission’s antitrust review.

These government inquiries and investigations are time-consuming and require a great deal of financial resources and attention from us and our senior management. If any of these matters are resolved adversely to us, we may be subject to additional fines, penalties, and other sanctions, and could be forced to change our business practices substantially in the relevant jurisdictions. Any such determinations could also result in significant adverse publicity or additional reputational harm, and could result in or complicate other inquiries, investigations, or lawsuits from other regulators in future merger control or conduct investigations. Any of these developments could result in material financial damages, operational restrictions, and harm our business.

We face risks related to our collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing of data, which could result in investigations, inquiries, litigation, fines, legislative, and regulatory action, and negative press about our privacy and data protection practices.

The nature of our business exposes us to claims, including civil lawsuits in the United States such as those related to the 2014 Breach and the 2016 Breach. These and any future data breaches could result in violation of applicable U.S. and international privacy, data protection, and other laws. Such violations subject us to individual or consumer class action litigation as well as governmental investigations and proceedings by federal, state, and local regulatory entities in the United States and internationally, resulting in exposure to material civil or criminal liability. Our data security and privacy practices have been the subject of inquiries from government agencies and regulators. In April 2018, we entered into an FTC consent decree pursuant to which we agreed, among other

 

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things, to implement a comprehensive privacy program, undergo biannual third-party audits, and not misrepresent how we protect consumer information through 2038. In October 2018, the FTC approved the final settlement, which exposes us to penalties for future failure to report security incidents. In November 2018, U.K. and Dutch regulators imposed fines totaling approximately $1.2 million. We have also entered into settlement agreements with numerous state enforcement agencies. In January 2016, we entered into a settlement with the Office of the New York State Attorney General under which we agreed to enhance our data security practices. In September 2018, we entered into stipulated judgments with the state attorneys general of all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia relating to the 2016 Breach, which involved payment of $148 million and assurances that we would enhance our data security and privacy practices. Failure to comply with these and other orders could result in substantial fines, enforcement actions, injunctive relief, and other penalties that may be costly or that may impact our business. We may also assume liabilities for breaches experienced by the companies we acquire as we expand our operations. For example, in April 2018, Careem publicly disclosed and notified relevant regulatory authorities that it had been subject to a data security breach that allowed access to certain personal information of riders and drivers on its platform as of January 14, 2018. If Careem becomes subject to liability as a result of this or other data security breaches or if we (following the completion of our acquisition of Careem) fail to remediate this or any other data security breach that Careem or we experience, we may face harm to our brand, business disruption, and significant liabilities. Our general liability insurance and corporate risk program may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for the full extent of our potential liabilities.

This risk is enhanced in certain jurisdictions with stringent data privacy laws and, as we expand our products, offerings, and operations domestically and internationally, we may become subject to amended or additional laws that impose substantial additional obligations related to data privacy. The EU adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) in 2016, and it became effective in May 2018. The GDPR applies extraterritorially and imposes stringent requirements for controllers and processors of personal data. Such requirements include higher consent standards to process personal data, robust disclosures regarding the use of personal data, strengthened individual data rights, data breach requirements, limitations on data retention, strengthened requirements for special categories of personal data and pseudonymised (i.e., key-coded) data, and additional obligations for contracting with service providers that may process personal data. The GDPR further provides that EU member states may institute additional laws and regulations impacting the processing of personal data, including (i) special categories of personal data (e.g., racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, and religious or philosophical beliefs) and (ii) profiling of individuals and automated individual decision-making. Such additional laws and regulations could limit our ability to use and share personal or other data, thereby increasing our costs and harming our business and financial condition. Non-compliance with the GDPR (including any non-compliance by any acquired business such as Careem) is subject to significant penalties, including fines of up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of total worldwide revenue, and injunctions against the processing of personal data. Other jurisdictions outside the EU are similarly introducing or enhancing privacy and data security laws, rules, and regulations, which could increase our compliance costs and the risks associated with non-compliance. For example, California recently adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”), which provides new data privacy rights for consumers and new operational requirements for businesses. The CCPA includes a statutory damages framework and private rights of action against businesses that fail to comply with certain CCPA terms or implement reasonable security procedures and practices to prevent data breaches. The CCPA goes into effect in January 2020.

Additionally, we are subject to laws, rules, and regulations regarding cross-border transfers of personal data, including laws relating to transfer of personal data outside the EEA. We rely on transfer mechanisms permitted under these laws, including the EU Standard Contract Clauses. Such mechanisms have recently received heightened regulatory and judicial scrutiny. If we cannot rely on existing mechanisms for transferring personal data from the EEA, the United Kingdom, or other jurisdictions, we may be unable to transfer personal data of Drivers, consumers, or employees in those regions. In addition, we may be required to disclose personal data pursuant to demands from government agencies, including from state and city regulators as a requirement for obtaining or maintaining a license or otherwise, from law enforcement agencies, and from intelligence agencies.

 

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This disclosure may result in a failure or perceived failure by us to comply with privacy and data protection policies, notices, laws, rules, and regulations, could result in proceedings or actions against us in the same or other jurisdictions, and could have an adverse impact on our reputation and brand. In addition, Careem has historically shared certain user data with certain government authorities, which conflicts with our global policies regarding data use, sharing, and ownership. We expect to maintain our data use, sharing, and ownership practices for both our business and Careem’s business following the closing of the acquisition, and doing so may cause our relationship with government authorities in certain jurisdictions to suffer, and may result in such government authorities assessing significant fines or penalties against us or shutting down our or Careem’s app on either a temporary or indefinite basis. Further, if any jurisdiction in which we operate changes its laws, rules, or regulations relating to data residency or local computation such that we are unable to comply in a timely manner or at all, we may risk losing our rights to operate in such jurisdictions. This could adversely affect the manner in which we provide our products and offerings and thus materially affect our operations and financial results.

Such data protection laws, rules, and regulations are complex and their interpretation is rapidly evolving, making implementation and enforcement, and thus compliance requirements, ambiguous, uncertain, and potentially inconsistent. Compliance with such laws may require changes to our data collection, use, transfer, disclosure, and other processing and certain other related business practices and may thereby increase compliance costs. Additionally, any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with privacy and data protection policies, notices, laws, rules, and regulations could result in proceedings or actions against us by individuals, consumer rights groups, governmental entities or agencies, or others. We could incur significant costs investigating and defending such claims and, if found liable, significant damages. Further, these proceedings and any subsequent adverse outcomes may subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity. If any of these events were to occur, our business and financial results could be significantly disrupted and adversely affected.

Adverse litigation judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved could expose us to monetary damages or limit our ability to operate our business.

We have in the past been, are currently, and may in the future become, involved in private actions, collective actions, investigations, and various other legal proceedings by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, carriers, employees, commercial partners, competitors or, government agencies, among others. We are subject to litigation relating to various matters including Driver classification, Drivers’ tips and taxes, the Americans with Disabilities Act, antitrust, intellectual property infringement, data privacy, unfair competition, workplace culture, safety practices, and employment and human resources practices. The results of any such litigation, investigations, and legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and expensive. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, costly, and harmful to our reputation, and could require significant amounts of management time and corporate resources. If any of these legal proceedings were to be determined adversely to us, or we were to enter into a settlement arrangement, we could be exposed to monetary damages or be forced to change the way in which we operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

In addition, we regularly include arbitration provisions in our terms of service with end-users. These provisions are intended to streamline the litigation process for all parties involved, as arbitration can in some cases be faster and less costly than litigating disputes in state or federal court. However, arbitration may become more costly for us, or the volume of arbitrations may increase and become burdensome. Further, the use of arbitration provisions may subject us to certain risks to our reputation and brand, as these provisions have been the subject of increasing public scrutiny. To minimize these risks, we may voluntarily limit our use of arbitration provisions, or we may be required to do so, in any legal or regulatory proceeding, either of which could increase our litigation costs and exposure in respect of such proceedings. For example, effective May 15, 2018, we ended mandatory arbitration of sexual misconduct claims by platform users and employees.

Further, with the potential for conflicting rules regarding the scope and enforceability of arbitration on a state-by-state basis, as well as conflicting rules between state and federal law, some or all of our arbitration

 

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provisions could be subject to challenge or may need to be revised to exempt certain categories of protection. If our arbitration agreements were found to be unenforceable, in whole or in part, or specific claims were required to be exempted from arbitration, we could experience an increase in our litigation costs and the time involved in resolving such disputes, and we could face increased exposure to potentially costly lawsuits, each of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and prospects.

We have operations in countries known to experience high levels of corruption and are currently subject to inquiries, investigations, and requests for information with respect to our compliance with a number of anti-corruption laws to which we are subject.

We have operations in, and have business relationships with, entities in countries known to experience high levels of corruption. We are subject to the FCPA and other similar laws outside the United States that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments, their officials, and political parties for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. U.S. and non-U.S. regulators alike continue to focus on the enforcement of these laws, and we may be subject to additional compliance requirements to identify criminal activity and payments to sanctioned parties. Our activities in certain countries with high levels of corruption enhance the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers or carriers, employees, consultants, or business partners in violation of various anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, even though the actions of these parties are often outside our control. Our acquisition of Careem may further enhance this risk because users of Careem’s platform and Careem’s employees, consultants, and business partners may not be familiar with, or currently subject to, these anti-corruption laws. After the acquisition, we plan to provide significant training to Careem’s employees, consultants, and business partners. However, our existing and future safeguards, including training and compliance programs to discourage these practices by such parties, may not prove effective, and such parties may engage in conduct for which we could be held responsible. Additional compliance requirements may compel us to revise or expand our compliance program, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of platform users and monitor international and domestic transactions. We received requests from the DOJ in May 2017 and August 2017 with respect to an investigation into allegations of small payments to police in Indonesia and other potential improper payments in other countries in which we operate or have operated, including Malaysia, China, and India. The investigation is ongoing, and we are cooperating with the DOJ. If we are determined to have violated the FCPA or similar laws, we may be subject to criminal sanctions and other liabilities, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Drivers may become subject to increased licensing requirements, and we may be required to obtain additional licenses or cap the number of Drivers using our platform.

Many Drivers currently are not required to obtain a commercial taxi or livery license in their respective jurisdictions. However, numerous jurisdictions in which we operate have conducted investigations or taken action to enforce existing licensing rules, including markets within Latin America and the Asia-Pacific region, and many others, including countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, have adopted or proposed new laws or regulations that require Drivers to be licensed with local authorities or require us or our subsidiaries to be licensed as a transportation company. Local regulations requiring the licensing of us or Drivers may adversely affect our ability to scale our business and operations. In addition, it is possible that various jurisdictions could impose caps on the number of licensed Drivers or vehicles with whom we may partner or impose limitations on the maximum number of hours a Driver may work, similar to recent regulations that were adopted in Spain and New York City, which have temporarily frozen new vehicle licenses for Drivers using platforms like ours. If we or Drivers become subject to such caps, limitations, or licensing requirements, our business and growth prospects would be adversely impacted.

We may be subject to liability for the means we use to attract and onboard Drivers.

We operate in an industry in which the competition for Drivers is intense. In this highly competitive environment, the means we use to onboard and attract Drivers may be challenged by competitors, government

 

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regulators, or individual plaintiffs. For example, putative class actions have been filed by individual plaintiffs against us for alleged violation of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, alleging, among other things, that plaintiffs received text messages from us regarding our Driver program without their consent or after indicating to us they no longer wished to receive such text messages. In addition, in early 2017, we settled an investigation by the FTC into statements we made regarding potential Driver earnings and third-party vehicle leasing and financing programs. In connection with this matter, we agreed, among other things, to pay $20 million to the FTC for Driver redress. These lawsuits are expensive and time consuming to defend, and, if resolved adversely to us, could result in material financial damages and penalties, costly adjustments to our business practices, and negative publicity. In addition, we could incur substantial expense and possible loss of revenue if competitors file additional lawsuits or other claims challenging these practices.

Our business depends heavily on insurance coverage for Drivers and on other types of insurance for additional risks related to our business. If insurance carriers change the terms of such insurance in a manner not favorable to Drivers or to us, if we are required to purchase additional insurance for other aspects of our business, or if we fail to comply with regulations governing insurance coverage, our business could be harmed.

We use a combination of third-party insurance and self-insurance mechanisms, including a wholly owned captive insurance subsidiary. Insurance related to our Ridesharing products may include third-party automobile, automobile comprehensive and collision, physical damage, and uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage. We require Drivers to carry automobile insurance in most countries, and in many cases we also maintain insurance on behalf of Drivers. We rely on a limited number of ridesharing insurance providers, particularly internationally, and should such providers discontinue or increase the cost of coverage, we cannot guarantee that we would be able to secure replacement coverage on reasonable terms or at all. In addition to insurance related to our Ridesharing products, we maintain other automobile insurance coverage for owned vehicles and employee activity, as well as insurance coverage for non-automotive corporate risks including general liability, workers’ compensation, property, cyber liability, and director and officers’ liability. If our insurance carriers change the terms of our policies in a manner not favorable to us or Drivers, our insurance costs could increase. The cost of insurance that we maintain on behalf of Drivers is higher in the United States and Canada than in other geographies. Further, if the insurance coverage we maintain is not adequate to cover losses that occur, we could be liable for significant additional costs.

In addition, we and our captive insurance subsidiary are party to certain reinsurance and indemnification arrangements that transfer a significant portion of the risk from the insurance provider to us or our captive insurance subsidiary, which could require us to pay out material amounts that may be in excess of our insurance reserves, resulting in harm to our financial condition. Our insurance reserves account for unpaid losses and loss adjustment expenses for risks retained by us through our captive insurance subsidiary and other risk retention mechanisms. Such amounts are based on actuarial estimates, historical claim information, and industry data. While management believes that these reserve amounts are adequate, the ultimate liability could be in excess of our reserves.

We may be subject to claims of significant liability based on traffic accidents, injuries, or other incidents that are claimed to have been caused by Drivers who use our platform, even when those Drivers are not actively using our platform or when an individual impersonates a Driver. As we expand to include more offerings on our platform, our insurance needs will likely extend to those additional offerings, including Uber Freight, autonomous vehicles, and dockless e-bikes and e-scooters. As a result, our automobile liability and general liability insurance policies may not cover all potential claims related to traffic accidents, injuries, or other incidents that are claimed to have been caused by Drivers who use our platform, and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that we could face. Even if these claims do not result in liability, we could incur significant costs in investigating and defending against them. If we are subject to claims of liability relating to the acts of Drivers or others using our platform, we may be subject to negative publicity and incur additional expenses, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

 

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In addition, we are subject to local laws, rules, and regulations relating to insurance coverage which could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others. Legislation has been passed in many U.S. jurisdictions that codifies these insurance requirements with respect to ridesharing. Additional legislation has been proposed in other jurisdictions that seeks to codify or change insurance requirements with respect to ridesharing. Further, various municipalities have imposed or are considering legislation mandating certain levels of insurance for dockless e-bikes and e-scooters, and service providers and business customers of Uber Freight and Uber for Business may require higher levels of coverage as a condition to entering into certain key contracts with us. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with local laws, rules, and regulations or contractual obligations relating to insurance coverage could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others. These lawsuits, proceedings, or actions may subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity, require us to increase our insurance coverage, require us to amend our insurance policy disclosure, increase our costs, and disrupt our business.

We may be subject to pricing regulations, as well as related litigation or regulatory inquiries.

Our revenue is dependent on the pricing model we use to calculate consumer fares and Driver earnings. Our pricing model, including dynamic pricing, has been, and will likely continue to be, challenged, banned, limited in emergencies, and capped in certain jurisdictions. For example, in 2016, following the filing of a petition in the Delhi High Court relating to surge pricing, we agreed to not calculate consumer fares in excess of the maximum government-mandated fares in New Delhi, India. Further, in 2018, Honolulu, Hawaii became the first U.S. city to pass legislation to cap surge pricing if increased rates exceed the maximum fare set by the city. Additional regulation of our pricing model could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, our pricing model has been the subject of litigation and regulatory inquiries related to, among other things, the calculation of and statements regarding consumer fares and Driver earnings (including rates, fees, surcharges, and tolls), as well as the use of surge pricing during emergencies and natural disasters. As a result, we may be forced to change our pricing model in certain jurisdictions, which could harm our revenue or result in a sub-optimal tax structure.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, or if third parties are successful in claiming that we are misappropriating the intellectual property of others, we may incur significant expense and our business may be adversely affected.

Our intellectual property includes the content of our website, mobile applications, registered domain names, software code, firmware, hardware and hardware designs, registered and unregistered trademarks, trademark applications, copyrights, trade secrets, inventions (whether or not patentable), patents, and patent applications. We believe that our intellectual property is essential to our business and affords us a competitive advantage in the markets in which we operate. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, our brand and reputation may be harmed, Drivers, consumers, restaurants, shippers, and carriers could devalue our products and offerings, and our ability to compete effectively may be impaired.

To protect our intellectual property, we rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, patent, and trade secret laws, contractual provisions, end-user policies, and disclosure restrictions. Upon discovery of potential infringement of our intellectual property, we promptly take action to protect our rights as appropriate. We also enter into confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and seek to control access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information in a commercially prudent manner. The efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property may not be sufficient or effective. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we currently or in the future will operate. In addition, it may be possible for other parties to copy or reverse-engineer our products and offerings or obtain and use the content of our website without authorization. Further, we may be unable to prevent competitors from acquiring domain names or trademarks that are similar to, infringe upon, or diminish the value of our domain names, trademarks, service marks, and other proprietary rights. Moreover, our trade secrets may be compromised by third parties or our employees, which would cause us to lose the competitive

 

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advantage derived from the compromised trade secret. Further, we may be unable to detect infringement of our intellectual property rights, and even if we detect such violations and decide to enforce our intellectual property rights, we may not be successful, and may incur significant expenses, in such efforts. In addition, any such enforcement efforts may be time-consuming and may divert management’s attention. Further, such enforcement efforts may result in a ruling that our intellectual property rights are unenforceable. Any failure to protect or any loss of our intellectual property may have an adverse effect on our ability to compete and may adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operating results.

Companies in the Internet and technology industries, and other patent and trademark holders, including “non-practicing entities,” seeking to profit from royalties in connection with grants of licenses or seeking to obtain injunctions, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. We have and may in the future continue to receive notices that claim we have misappropriated, misused, or infringed upon other parties’ intellectual property rights. Furthermore, from time to time we may introduce or acquire new products, including in areas in which we historically have not operated, which could increase our exposure to patent and other intellectual property claims. In addition, we have been sued, and we may in the future be sued, for allegations of intellectual property infringement or threats of trade secret misappropriation. For example, in February 2017, Waymo filed a lawsuit against us alleging, among other things, theft of trade secrets and patent infringement arising from our acquisition of Ottomotto LLC. In February 2018, we entered into a settlement agreement with Waymo. This agreement resolved Waymo’s claims and provided for certain measures, including the joint retention of an independent software expert, to ensure that our autonomous vehicle hardware and software do not misappropriate Waymo intellectual property. The independent software expert recently identified, on an interim basis, certain functions in our autonomous vehicle software that are problematic and other functions that are not. If these interim findings become final, they could result in a license fee or in design changes that could require substantial time and resources to implement, and could limit or delay our production of autonomous vehicle technologies.

Any intellectual property claim against us, regardless of merit, could be time consuming and expensive to settle or litigate, could divert our management’s attention and other resources, and could hurt goodwill associated with our brand. These claims may also subject us to significant liability for damages and may result in us having to stop using technology, content, branding, or business methods found to be in violation of another party’s rights. Further, certain adverse outcomes of such proceedings could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively in existing or future businesses.

We may be required or may opt to seek a license for the right to use intellectual property held by others, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if a license is available, we may be required to pay significant royalties, which may increase our operating expenses. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, content, branding, or business methods, which could require significant effort and expense and make us less competitive. If we cannot license or develop alternative technology, content, branding, or business methods for any allegedly infringing aspect of our business, we may be unable to compete effectively or we may be prevented from operating our business in certain jurisdictions. Any of these results could harm our operating results.

Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles.

The accounting for our business is complicated, particularly in the area of revenue recognition, and is subject to change based on the evolution of our business model, interpretations of relevant accounting principles, enforcement of existing or new regulations, and changes in SEC or other agency policies, rules, regulations, and interpretations, of accounting regulations. Changes to our business model and accounting methods could result in changes to our financial statements, including changes in revenue and expenses in any period, or in certain categories of revenue and expenses moving to different periods, may result in materially different financial results, and may require that we change how we process, analyze, and report financial information and our financial reporting controls.

 

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If we are deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could have an adverse effect on our business.

The Investment Company Act contains substantive legal requirements that regulate the manner in which “investment companies” are permitted to conduct their business activities. We believe that we have conducted our business in a manner that does not result in being characterized as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act because we are primarily engaged in a non-investment company business. Although a significant portion of our assets constitute investments in non-controlled entities (including in China), referred to elsewhere in this prospectus as minority-owned affiliates, we believe that we are not an investment company as defined by the Investment Company Act. While we intend to conduct our operations such that we will not be deemed an investment company, such a determination would require us to initiate burdensome compliance requirements and comply with restrictions imposed by the Investment Company Act that would limit our activities, including limitations on our capital structure and our ability to transact with affiliates, which would have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To avoid such a determination, we may be required to conduct our business in a manner that does not subject us to the requirements of the Investment Company Act, which could have an adverse effect on our business. For example, we may be required to sell certain of our assets and pay significant taxes upon the sale or transfer of such assets.

Risks Related to Our Initial Public Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock may be volatile or may decline steeply or suddenly regardless of our operating performance, and we may not be able to meet investor or analyst expectations. You may not be able to resell your shares at or above the initial public offering price and may lose all or part of your investment.

The initial public offering price for our common stock was determined through negotiations between the underwriters and us, and may vary from the market price of our common stock following this offering. If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may not be able to resell those shares at or above the initial public offering price. We cannot assure you that the market price following our this offering will equal or exceed prices in privately negotiated transactions of our shares that have occurred from time to time before this offering. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate or decline significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in MAPCs, Trips, Core Platform Contribution Margin, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Revenue, Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue, Gross Bookings, revenue, or other operating and financial results;

 

   

announcements by us or estimates by third parties of actual or anticipated changes in the number of Drivers and consumers on our platform;

 

   

variations between our actual operating results and the expectations of securities analysts, investors, and the financial community;

 

   

actions of securities analysts who initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant products or features, technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

 

   

negative media coverage or publicity;

 

   

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular, including our competitors;

 

   

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;

 

   

lawsuits threatened, filed, or decided against us;

 

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developments in legislation or regulatory actions, including interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies (including any competition authorities blocking, delaying, or subjecting our acquisition of Careem to significant limitations or restrictions on our ability to operate in one or more markets, or requiring us to divest our or Careem’s business in one or more markets);

 

   

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;

 

   

any major change in our board of directors or management;

 

   

any safety incidents or public reports of safety incidents that occur on our platform or in our industry;

 

   

statements, commentary, or opinions by public officials that our product offerings are or may be unlawful, regardless of any interim or final rulings by judicial or regulatory bodies; and

 

   

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, natural disasters, or responses to these events.

In addition, price and volume fluctuations in the stock markets have affected and continue to affect many technology companies’ stock prices. Often, their stock prices have fluctuated in ways unrelated or disproportionate to the companies’ operating performance. In the past, stockholders have filed securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and seriously harm our business. In addition, the occurrence of any of the factors listed above, among others, may cause our stock price to decline significantly, and there can be no assurance that our stock price would recover. As such, you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the initial public offering price, and you may lose some or all of your investment.

Delaware law and provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws that will be in effect at the closing of this offering could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the trading price of our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws that will be in effect at the closing of this offering contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock by acting to discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions will include the following:

 

   

our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill vacancies created by the expansion of our board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;

 

   

advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals, which may reduce the number of stockholder proposals available for stockholder consideration;

 

   

limitations on convening special stockholder meetings, which could make it difficult for our stockholders to adopt desired governance changes;

 

   

prohibition on cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates; and

 

   

our board of directors will be able to issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock, which makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.

Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock. In addition, under our existing debt instruments, we, and

 

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certain of our subsidiaries, are subject to certain limitations on our business and operations, including limitations on certain consolidations, mergers, and sales of assets. For information regarding these and other provisions, see the risk factor titled “—We have incurred a significant amount of debt and may in the future incur additional indebtedness. Our payment obligations under such indebtedness may limit the funds available to us, and the terms of our debt agreements may restrict our flexibility in operating our business” and the section titled “Description of Capital Stock—Anti-Takeover Provisions.”

An active trading market for our common stock may never develop or be sustained.

We have applied to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “UBER.” However, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our common stock will develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that any market will be sustained. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the likelihood that an active trading market for our common stock will develop or be maintained, the liquidity of any trading market, your ability to sell your shares of our common stock when desired, or the price that you may obtain for your shares.

Sales, directly or indirectly, of shares of our common stock by existing equityholders could cause our stock price to decline.

Sales, directly or indirectly, of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, or the public perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our existing equityholders have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold, and may take, or attempt to take, steps to sell, directly or indirectly, their shares or otherwise secure, or limit the risk to, the value of their unrecognized gains on those shares. Each of our directors, executive officers, the selling stockholders, and substantially all of the other record holders of our outstanding shares of common stock and securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of our common stock have entered into lockup agreements with the underwriters and are also subject to market standoff agreements with us, or are subject to market standoff agreements with us but have not entered into lockup agreements with the underwriters. These lockup and market standoff agreements are intended to restrict the ability of record holders of our equity interests to sell or transfer their equity interests during the period ending on and including the 180th day after the date of this prospectus, subject to the limitations or exceptions described below and in the section titled “Underwriters.”

We have a large number of equityholders and such equityholders have acquired their interests over an extended period of time and pursuant to a number of different agreements containing a variety of terms governing restrictions on the sale, short sale, transfer, hedging, pledging, or other disposition of their interests in our equity. Record holders of our outstanding shares of common stock and securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of our common stock are subject to restrictions on their ability to sell or transfer their equity either prior to the pricing of this offering (the “Pre-Pricing Period”) or from the pricing of this offering through the date that is 180 days after the date of this prospectus (the “Post-Pricing Period”). During the Pre-Pricing Period, record holders of approximately 97% of our outstanding equity interests on a fully diluted basis are subject to the restrictions on the sale, transfer, short sale, hedging, pledging, or other disposition of their equity interests imposed by either (i) lockup agreements with the underwriters that are effective when signed, and which were signed on or prior to April 26, 2019, (ii) market standoff agreements with us, or (iii) agreements that subject their equity interests to transfer restrictions set forth in our bylaws. During the Post-Pricing Period (and before giving effect to the shares sold in this offering), (i) approximately 76% of our outstanding registered equity interests are subject to restrictions imposed by lockup agreements with the underwriters, (ii) an additional approximately 17% are subject to the market standoff provisions in our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which imposes restrictions on the sale, short sale, loan, granting of any option to purchase, or other disposition of any of our securities, or entering into any swap or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our securities, and (iii) the remaining approximately 7% are subject to restrictions contained in a variety of market standoff agreements with us which

 

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include restrictions on the sale, short sale, loan, granting of any option to purchase, or other disposition of our securities, and in some cases other restrictions. The forms and specific restrictive provisions within these market standoff provisions vary significantly between equityholders. For example, some of these market standoff agreements do not specifically restrict hedging transactions and others may be subject to different interpretations between us and equityholders as to whether they restrict hedging. Sales, short sales, or hedging transactions involving our equity securities, whether before or after this offering and whether or not we believe them to be prohibited, could adversely affect the price of our common stock. In addition, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC may waive the lockup agreements entered into by record holders of our securities with the underwriters before they expire.

Record holders of our securities are typically the parties to the lockup agreements with the underwriters and to the market standoff agreements with us referred to above, while holders of beneficial interests in our shares who are not also record holders in respect of such shares are not typically subject to any such agreements or other similar restrictions. Accordingly, we believe that holders of beneficial interests who are not record holders and are not bound by market standoff or lockup agreements could enter into transactions with respect to those beneficial interests that negatively impact our stock price. In addition, an equityholder who is neither subject to a market standoff agreement with us nor a lockup agreement with the underwriters may be able to sell, short sell, transfer, hedge, pledge, or otherwise dispose of or attempt to sell, short sell, transfer, hedge, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, their equity interests at any time after the closing of this offering.

Based on shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018, on the closing of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of 1,677.0 million shares of common stock, after giving effect to the conversion of 903.6 million shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 into 903.6 million shares of common stock on the closing of this offering, the conversion of our Convertible Notes into 86.1 million shares of common stock assuming a conversion date of December 31, 2018 and the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, the net issuance of 38.3 million shares of common stock pursuant to RSUs that were service-vested as of December 31, 2018, the issuance of 150,071 shares of common stock pursuant to the cash exercise of warrants to purchase shares of our Series E redeemable convertible preferred stock, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to common stock and additional paid-in capital for such exercises, the automatic conversion of 922,655 shares of our Series G redeemable convertible preferred stock issued upon the exercise of a warrant in February 2019 into 922,655 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, and the issuance of 190.6 million shares in this offering and the private placement. The shares of common stock sold in this offering will be freely tradable, without restriction, in the public market immediately after this offering. After the lockup and market standoff agreements expire, all 1,677.0 million shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018 (assuming the closing of the offering) will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting agreements and Rules 144 and 701 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). An additional 119.2 million shares of common stock were subject to outstanding stock options, RSUs for which the service-based vesting condition was not satisfied as of December 31, 2019, and warrants as of December 31, 2018, and outstanding RSUs covering an aggregate of 35.2 million shares of common stock were granted subsequent to December 31, 2018. We intend to file a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act covering all the shares of common stock subject to outstanding equity awards and shares reserved for issuance under our stock plans. That registration statement will become effective immediately on its filing, and shares covered by that registration statement will be eligible for sale in the public markets, subject to Rule 144 limitations applicable to affiliates and any lockup and market standoff agreements described above. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. For a detailed description of our outstanding equity securities, see the section titled “Capitalization.”

 

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We anticipate incurring a substantial obligation in connection with tax liabilities on the initial settlement of RSUs in connection with this offering. The manner in which we fund these tax liabilities may have an adverse effect on our financial condition or may add to the dilution of our stockholders in the offering.

In light of the large number of RSUs that will initially settle in connection with this offering, we anticipate that we will expend substantial funds to satisfy tax withholding and remittance obligations on the effective date of our registration statement. Substantially all of the RSUs granted prior to the date of this prospectus, which we sometimes refer to as the pre-offering RSUs, vest upon the satisfaction of both a service-based vesting condition and a liquidity event-based vesting condition. The service-based vesting condition is generally satisfied over a period of four years, and the liquidity event-based condition is satisfied on the earlier of (i) the effective date of this offering and (ii) the date of a change in control. As a result, a large number of RSUs which have previously satisfied the service-based vesting condition will vest in connection with the effectiveness of this offering. On the settlement dates for the pre-offering RSUs, we plan to withhold shares and remit income taxes on behalf of the holders of the pre-offering RSUs at applicable statutory rates, which we refer to as a net settlement.

We anticipate that we will net settle RSUs that have previously satisfied the service-based vesting condition and will vest in connection with this offering, and withhold and remit income taxes at applicable statutory rates based on the value of the underlying shares on the settlement date. For pre-offering RSUs that will vest after the effectiveness of our offering and prior to the expiration of the lockup period, we anticipate that we will continue to net settle RSUs. However, we will continue to have discretion to sell-to-cover rather than net settle with respect to these RSUs.

Based on the number of pre-offering RSUs outstanding as of May 1, 2019 for which the service-based vesting condition had been satisfied on that date, and assuming (i) the liquidity event-based vesting condition had been satisfied on that date, (ii) that the price of our common stock at the time of settlement was equal to the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, and (iii) a 39% tax withholding rate, we estimate that this tax obligation on the initial settlement date would be approximately $1.4 billion in the aggregate. Accordingly, we would expect to deliver an aggregate of approximately 46.4 million shares of our common stock to pre-offering RSU holders after withholding an aggregate of approximately 29.7 million shares of our common stock. In connection with these net settlements, we would withhold and remit the tax liabilities on behalf of the pre-offering RSU holders to the relevant tax authorities in cash. The amount of this obligation could be higher or lower, depending on the price of shares of our common stock in this offering, and the actual number of pre-offering RSUs outstanding for which the service-based vesting condition has been satisfied on the initial settlement date.

Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our existing executive officers, directors, and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions, including mergers, consolidations, or the sale of us or all or substantially all of our assets.

Upon the closing of this offering, our executive officers, directors, and current beneficial owners of 5% or more of our common stock will, in the aggregate, beneficially own approximately 44.7% of our outstanding shares of common stock, assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. These persons, acting together, will be able to significantly influence all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and the approval of significant corporate transactions, such as mergers, consolidations, or the sale of us or all or substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control, including a merger, consolidation, or other business combination involving our company, or discouraging a potential acquirer from otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change of control would benefit our other stockholders. Additionally, certain of our stockholders, including SoftBank (our largest stockholder), Alphabet, and Didi, have made substantial investments in certain of our competitors, and may increase such investments or make new investments in other competitors in the future. Therefore, the interests of this group of stockholders may not align with the interests of other stockholders.

 

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We have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds from this offering, and we may not use them effectively.

We cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering. Our management will have broad discretion in applying the net proceeds we receive from this offering. We may use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures, and we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, offerings, or technologies. We expect to use some of the net proceeds to satisfy tax withholding obligations related to the vesting of RSUs, which will vest in connection with this offering. We may also spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our stockholders disagree. If our management fails to use these funds effectively, our business could be seriously harmed. Pending their use, the net proceeds from our initial public offering may be invested in a way that does not produce income or that loses value.

If securities or industry analysts either do not publish research about us, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business, or our market, or, if such analysts change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the trading price or trading volume of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced in part by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If one or more of the analysts initiate research with an unfavorable rating or downgrade our common stock, provide more favorable recommendations about our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume of our common stock to decline.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, certain of our existing debt instruments include restrictions on our ability to pay cash dividends. As a result, you may only receive a return on your investment in our common stock if the market price of our common stock increases.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, result in more litigation, and divert management’s attention from operating our business.

As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the NYSE, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Complying with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and operating results.

By disclosing information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If those claims are successful, our business could be seriously harmed. Even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, the time and resources needed to resolve them could divert our management’s resources and seriously harm our business.

 

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As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”), to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for the year ending December 31, 2020. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for the year ending December 31, 2020. We are required to disclose changes in internal control over financial reporting that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting on a quarterly basis.

We have commenced the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, and we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing, and any required remediation in a timely fashion. Our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management efforts. In addition, as our business continues to grow in size and complexity, we are improving our processes and infrastructure to help ensure we can prepare financial reporting and disclosures within the timeline required for a public company. We may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge to compile the system and process documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404. In addition, prior to completing our internal control assessment under Section 404, we may become aware of and disclose material weaknesses that will require timely remediation. Due to our significant growth, especially with respect to high-growth emerging offerings like Uber Eats and Uber Freight, we face challenges in timely and appropriately designing controls in response to evolving risks of material misstatement. During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective.

We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or operating results. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain these and other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.

If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution.

The assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock immediately after this offering. If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will experience substantial and immediate dilution in the pro forma net tangible book value per share of $35.76 per share as of December 31, 2018, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share. That is because the price that you pay will be substantially greater than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of the common stock that you acquire. This dilution is due in large part to the fact that our earlier investors paid substantially less than the initial public offering price when they purchased their shares of our capital stock and also due to the conversion of our outstanding Convertible Notes at the consummation of the initial public offering. You will experience additional dilution when option holders

 

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exercise their right to purchase common stock under our equity incentive plans, when RSUs vest and settle, when we issue equity awards to our employees under our equity incentive plans, or when we otherwise issue additional shares of our common stock. For more information, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect at the closing of this offering will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect at the closing of this offering will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law:

 

   

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

   

any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;

 

   

any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers, or employees arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws;

 

   

any action regarding our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws;

 

   

any action as to which the Delaware General Corporation Law confers jurisdiction to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and

 

   

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine.

This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the U.S. federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, subject to and contingent upon a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision.

These exclusive-forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. If any other court of competent jurisdiction were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could seriously harm our business. For example, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware recently determined that a provision stating that U.S. federal district courts are the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act is not enforceable. However, this decision may be reviewed and ultimately overturned by the Delaware Supreme Court.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “hope,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. In particular, information appearing under “Business,” “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” includes forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

 

   

our ability to successfully compete in highly competitive markets;

 

   

our ability to effectively manage our growth and maintain and improve our corporate culture;

 

   

our expectations regarding financial performance, including but not limited to revenue, Core Platform Adjusted Net Revenue, potential profitability, ability to generate positive Core Platform Contribution Margin and Adjusted EBITDA, expenses, and other results of operations;

 

   

our expectations regarding future operating performance, including but not limited to our expectations regarding future MAPCs, Trips, Gross Bookings, and Take Rate;

 

   

our expectations regarding our competitors’ use of incentives and promotions, our competitors’ ability to raise capital, and the effects of such incentives and promotions on our growth and results of operations;

 

   

our anticipated investments in new products and offerings, and the effect of these investments on our results of operations;

 

   

our anticipated capital expenditures and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;

 

   

our ability to close the acquisition of Careem and to integrate Careem and any future acquisitions into our operations;

 

   

the closing of the investment by SoftBank, Toyota, and DENSO in ATG and approval of certain terms of the ATG Collaboration Agreement by CFIUS;

 

   

anticipated technology trends and developments and our ability to address those trends and developments with our products and offerings;

 

   

the size of our addressable markets, market share, category positions, and market trends, including our ability to grow our business in the six countries we have identified as near-term priorities;

 

   

the safety, affordability, and convenience of our platform and our offerings;

 

   

our ability to identify, recruit, and retain skilled personnel, including key members of senior management;

 

   

our expected growth in the number of platform users, and our ability to promote our brand and attract and retain platform users;

 

   

our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property rights;

 

   

our ability to introduce new products and offerings and enhance existing products and offerings;

 

   

our ability to successfully enter into new geographies, expand our presence in countries in which we are limited by regulatory restrictions, and manage our international expansion;

 

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the availability of capital to grow our business;

 

   

our ability to meet the requirements of our existing debt;

 

   

our ability to prevent disturbance to our information technology systems;

 

   

our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us;

 

   

our ability to comply with existing, modified, or new laws and regulations applying to our business;

 

   

our ability to enforce the transfer and other restrictions set forth in the market standoff provisions with us;

 

   

our ability to implement, maintain, and improve effective internal controls; and

 

   

our use of the net proceeds from this offering.

Actual events or results may differ from those expressed in forward-looking statements. As such, you should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, operating results, prospects, strategy, and financial needs. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a highly competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe that such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information, actual results, revised expectations, or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.

 

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MARKET, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including the size and opportunity of the markets in which we operate, is based on information from various sources, on assumptions that we have made that are based on such information and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of the markets in which we operate. This information involves many assumptions and limitations and is inherently imprecise, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk Factors,” that could cause results to differ materially from the assumptions underlying these publications and reports.

We use multiple sources and assumptions to calculate our TAM and our SAM discussed in the section titled “Business—Market Opportunity.” Our population estimates are based on data from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook report from October 2018. When we refer to the 63 countries in which we have Ridesharing operations, we include only countries where we had at least 10,000 Ridesharing Trips on our platform during the quarter ended December 31, 2018. We calculate the number of urban public transportation passenger miles based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (“OECD”) estimate of 5.2 trillion total public transportation passenger miles in 2015, which includes urban public transportation passenger miles. Of these 5.2 trillion public transportation passenger miles, we estimate that 4.4 trillion are in our TAM based on the geographical mix of vehicle miles. We calculate the breakdown of miles by trip distance based on data from the 2017 National Household Travel Survey Transferability Statistics from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics. For additional detail, see the section titled “Business—Market Opportunity.”

We use data from Euromonitor International, Consumer Foodservice (2019 edition) for the consumer foodservice sales figures, which are foodservice value RSP, year-over-year exchange rate, on pages 17, 18, 175, and 176. We use data from Euromonitor International, Retailing (2019 edition) for the spend through store-based grocery retailers, which figures are retail value RSP including sales tax, at current price, on page 181.

We use data from the following Temple University study on pages 168 and 230: Greenwood, Brad N. and Sunil Wattal, “Show Me the Way to Go Home: An Empirical Investigation of Ride-Sharing and Alcohol Related Motor Vehicle Fatalities.” MIS Quarterly 41.1 (2017): 163-187. This article is not incorporated into this prospectus.

Certain monetary amounts, percentages, and other figures included elsewhere in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables or charts may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that net proceeds to us from the sale of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $8.4 billion based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Additionally, our proceeds from the private placement to PayPal will be $500 million. We will not receive proceeds from the sale of common stock in this offering by the selling stockholders.

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $178.2 million, assuming the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $46.5 million, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility and to create a public market for our common stock.

We intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or make investments in businesses, products, offerings, and technologies, although we do not have agreements or commitments for any material acquisitions or investments at this time.

We expect to use some of the net proceeds from this offering to satisfy a portion of the anticipated tax withholding and remittance obligations related to the settlement of our outstanding RSUs that will vest in connection with this offering. Based on 76.1 million RSUs outstanding for which the service condition has been met as of May 1, 2019, and based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, we estimate that these tax withholding obligations on the initial settlement date would be approximately $1.4 billion in the aggregate. Each $1.00 increase in the price of our common stock at the time of settlement from the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, assuming no change in the applicable tax rates, would increase the amount we would be required to pay to satisfy these obligations by approximately $29.7 million. Each $1.00 decrease in the price of our common stock at the time of settlement from the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, assuming no change to the applicable tax rates, would decrease the amount we would be required to pay to satisfy these obligations by approximately $29.7 million.

The expected use of net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our present plans and business conditions. We cannot predict with certainty all of the particular uses for the proceeds of this offering or the amounts that we will actually spend on the uses set forth above. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in applying the net proceeds of this offering. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the anticipated growth of our business. Pending their use, we intend to invest the net proceeds of this offering in a variety of capital-preservation investments, including short- and intermediate-term investments, interest-bearing investments, investment-grade securities, government securities, and money market funds.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. The terms of certain of our outstanding debt instruments restrict our ability to pay dividends or make distributions on our common stock, and we may enter into credit agreements or other borrowing arrangements in the future that will restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends or make distributions on our capital stock. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash and cash equivalents and our capitalization as of December 31, 2018:

 

   

on an actual basis;

 

   

on a pro forma basis, giving effect to (i) the automatic conversion of 903.6 million shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 into 903.6 million shares of our common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering, (ii) the net issuance of 38.3 million shares of our common stock upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, after giving effect to shares withheld to satisfy the associated withholding tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate) and the related increase in liabilities and corresponding decrease in additional paid-in capital, (iii) stock-based compensation expense of $3.0 billion associated with restricted stock awards, RSUs, SARs, and stock options for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied or partially satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, reflected as an increase in accumulated deficit, and an increase in additional paid-in capital for equity-settled awards or an increase in liabilities for cash-settled awards, (iv) the assumed cash exercise of a warrant to purchase 150,071 shares of our Series E redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, which will result in the issuance of 150,071 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, (v) the automatic conversion of 922,655 shares of our Series G redeemable convertible preferred stock issued upon the exercise of a warrant in February 2019 into 922,655 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, (vi) 86.1 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of $2.9 billion accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes as of December 31, 2018, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $ 47.00 per share, and the removal of the related embedded derivative liabilities, in connection with the closing of this offering, and (vii) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect immediately prior to the closing of this offering; and

 

   

on a pro forma as adjusted basis, giving effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above, (ii) the issuance and sale by us of 180.0 million shares of common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and the use of proceeds to satisfy the withholding tax obligations described above, and (iii) the issuance and sale by us of 10.6 million shares of our common stock in the private placement to PayPal at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share.

 

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You should read this table together with the sections titled “Selected Consolidated Financial and Operating Data” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

                                                                    
     As of December 31, 2018  
       Actual       Pro Forma(1)     Pro Forma,
As  Adjusted(1)
 
     (in millions, except per share amounts)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 6,406     $ 6,406     $ 15,266  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Long-term debt:

      

2016 Senior Secured Term Loan(2)

   $ 1,101     $
1,101
 
  $ 1,101  

2018 Senior Secured Term Loan(3)

     1,473       1,473       1,473  

2021 Convertible Notes(4)

     1,505              

2022 Convertible Notes(5)

     829              

2023 Senior Notes(6)

     496       496       496  

2026 Senior Notes(7)

     1,492       1,492       1,492  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total long-term debt

   $ 6,896     $ 4,562     $ 4,562  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

   $ 52     $     $  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Convertible debt embedded derivatives

   $ 2,018     $     $  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.00001 par value; 946 shares authorized, 904 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

   $   14,177     $     $  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

      

Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, actual; 10 shares authorized and no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

                  

Common stock, $0.00001 par value; 2,696 shares authorized, 457 shares issued and outstanding, actual; 5,000 shares authorized, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted; 1,486 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma; 1,677 shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

                  

Additional paid-in capital

     668       20,749       29,610  

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (188     (188     (188

Accumulated deficit

     (7,865     (10,334     (10,334
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)

   $ (7,385   $ 10,227     $ 19,088  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 15,758     $ 14,789     $ 23,650  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Pro forma (items (ii)(b) and (vi)) and pro forma as adjusted consolidated cash and cash equivalents and capitalization data are illustrative only and will change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share would increase (decrease) each of our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit) and total capitalization by approximately $178.2 million, assuming the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) each of our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ equity (deficit), and total capitalization by approximately $46.5 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

(2)

2016 Senior Secured Term Loan consists of $1,124 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $23 million.

 

(3)

2018 Senior Secured Term Loan consists of $1,493 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $20 million.

 

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(4)

2021 Convertible Notes consists of $1,844 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $339 million.

 

(5)

2022 Convertible Notes consists of $1,030 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $201 million.

 

(6)

2023 Senior Notes consists of $500 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $4 million.

 

(7)

2026 Senior Notes consists of $1,500 million of principal, net of discount and issuance costs of $8 million.

The 1,486.3 million shares of our common stock outstanding, pro forma, and the 1,677.0 million shares of our common stock outstanding, pro forma as adjusted, exclude:

 

   

42.9 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $9.08 per share;

 

   

76.1 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs outstanding as of December 31, 2018, for which the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but for which the service-based vesting condition was not satisfied as of December 31, 2018 (we expect that vesting of certain of these RSUs through May 1, 2019 will result in the net issuance of 7.6 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 4.8 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

35.2 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs granted after December 31, 2018 (we expect that the service-based vesting condition will be satisfied as of May 1, 2019 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering with respect to certain of these RSUs, resulting in the net issuance of 0.5 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 0.3 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

217,359 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $10.44 per share (excluding warrants that are assumed to be exercised prior to the closing of this offering);

 

   

3.8 million shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of $87.3 million of accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes from January 1, 2019 through an assumed conversion date of May 14, 2019, in connection with the closing of this offering;

 

   

up to 30.4 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of up to approximately $1.7 billion aggregate principal amount of the Careem Convertible Notes that we may issue in connection with the acquisition of Careem, which will be convertible at a conversion price of $55.00 per share. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Careem Convertible Notes” for more information;

 

   

130.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Plan, which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering; and

 

   

25.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our ESPP, which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 was $(7,624) million or $(16.68) per share. Our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 was $9,988 million, or $6.72 per share, based on the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to (i) the automatic conversion of 903.6 million shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 into 903.6 million shares of our common stock immediately prior to the closing of this offering, (ii) the net issuance of 38.3 million shares of our common stock upon the vesting and settlement of RSUs for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, after giving effect to shares withheld to satisfy the associated withholding tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate), and the related increase in liabilities and corresponding decrease in additional paid-in capital, (iii) stock-based compensation expense of $3.0 billion associated with restricted stock awards, RSUs, SARs, and stock options for which the service-based vesting condition was satisfied or partially satisfied as of December 31, 2018 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, reflected as an increase in accumulated deficit, and an increase in additional paid-in capital for equity-settled awards or an increase in liabilities for cash-settled awards, (iv) the assumed cash exercise of a warrant to purchase 150,071 shares of our Series E redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, which will result in the issuance of 150,071 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, (v) the automatic conversion of 922,655 shares of our Series G redeemable convertible preferred stock issued upon the exercise of a warrant in February 2019 into 922,655 shares of our common stock in connection with this offering, and the related reclassification of the redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability to additional paid-in capital for this exercise, (vi) 86.1 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of $2.9 billion accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes as of December 31, 2018, based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, and the removal of the related embedded derivative liabilities, in connection with the closing of this offering, and (vii) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect immediately prior to the closing of this offering.

Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value represents our pro forma net tangible book value after giving effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above, (ii) the issuance and sale by us of 180.0 million shares of common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and the use of proceeds to satisfy the withholding tax obligations described above, and (iii) the issuance and sale by us of 10.6 million shares of our common stock in the private placement to PayPal at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share. For additional information, see Note 1 to our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been $18.9 billion, or $11.24 per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $4.52 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $35.76 per share to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering and the private placement to PayPal. We determine dilution by

 

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subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the amount of cash that a new investor paid for a share of common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share

   $ 47.00  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

   $ (16.68

Increase per share attributable to the pro forma adjustments described above

     23.40  
  

 

 

 

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

     6.72  

Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares in this offering

     4.52  
  

 

 

 

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share

     11.24  
  

Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering

   $ 35.76  
  

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and may change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering. Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by $0.11 per share and increase (decrease) the dilution to new investors by $0.89 per share, in each case assuming the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value by approximately $0.02 per share and increase (decrease) the dilution to new investors by the assumed initial public offering price of $0.02 per share, in each case assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses.

The following table summarizes, as of December 31, 2018, on a pro forma as adjusted basis, as described above, the number of shares of our common stock, the total consideration, and the average price per share (i) paid to us by existing stockholders and (ii) to be paid by new investors acquiring our common stock in this offering and the private placement to PayPal at the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share, before deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

                                                                                                        
     Shares Acquired     Total Consideration     Weighted-
Average
Price Per
Share
 
     Number      Percent     Amount      Percent  

Existing stockholders

     1,486,320,723        88.6   $ 16,218,069,054        64.4     $10.91  

New investors

     190,638,298        11.4       8,960,000,006        35.6       $47.00  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total

     1,676,959,021        100.0   $ 25,178,069,060        100.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by new investors and total consideration paid by all stockholders by approximately $178.2 million, assuming that the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters exercise in full their over-allotment option, the total number of shares held by new investors will increase to 217.6 million shares, or 13.0% of the total number of shares outstanding following the closing of this offering.

 

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The 1,486.3 million shares of our common stock outstanding, pro forma, and the 1,677.0 million shares of our common stock outstanding, pro forma as adjusted, exclude:

 

   

42.9 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $9.08 per share;

 

   

76.1 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs outstanding as of December 31, 2018, for which the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering, but for which the service-based vesting condition was not satisfied as of December 31, 2018 (we expect that vesting of certain of these RSUs through May 1, 2019 will result in the net issuance of 7.6 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 4.8 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

35.2 million shares of our common stock subject to RSUs granted after December 31, 2018 (we expect that the service-based vesting condition will be satisfied as of May 1, 2019 and the liquidity event-based vesting condition will be satisfied in connection with this offering with respect to certain of these RSUs, resulting in the net issuance of 0.5 million shares in connection with this offering, after withholding 0.3 million shares to satisfy associated estimated income tax obligations (based on the assumed initial public offering price of $47.00 per share and an assumed 39% tax withholding rate));

 

   

217,359 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of December 31, 2018, with a weighted-average exercise price of $10.44 per share (excluding warrants that are assumed to be exercised prior to the closing of this offering);

 

   

up to 30.4 million shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of up to approximately $1.7 billion aggregate principal amount of the Careem Convertible Notes that we may issue in connection with the acquisition of Careem, which will be convertible at a conversion price of $55.00 per share. See the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Careem Convertible Notes” for more information;

 

   

3.8 million shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of $87.3 million of accrued principal and accrued and unpaid interest on the Convertible Notes from January 1, 2019 through an assumed conversion date of May 14, 2019, in connection with the closing of this offering;

 

   

130.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Plan, which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering; and

 

   

25.0 million shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under our ESPP, which will become effective on the date of the underwriting agreement between us and the underwriters for this offering.

To the extent any outstanding options or warrants to purchase our common stock are exercised or any outstanding RSUs or RSUs that we may grant in the future vest, or we issue additional shares of common stock, new investors will experience further dilution. If all outstanding awards under our Amended and Restated 2010 Stock Plan (the “2010 Plan”) and Amended and Restated 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2013 Plan”), as well as outstanding awards granted outside of our equity compensation plans, as of December 31, 2018, were exercised or settled, assuming no net settlement of RSUs or net or cashless exercise of stock options, then our existing stockholders, including the holders of these equity awards, would own 89.5% and our new investors would own 10.5% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on the closing of this offering.

 

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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The following unaudited pro forma consolidated financial information presents our unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 after giving effect to the divestitures of our businesses in Russia/CIS and Southeast Asia.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we divested the following two operations (“Divestitures”):

 

   

In February 2018, we divested and contributed our operations in Russia/CIS to a newly created entity, MLU B.V., in exchange for a non-controlling interest in that entity. We received a 38.0% equity ownership interest in MLU B.V. based upon the total shares outstanding at the close of the transaction on an as-converted basis but without taking into account securities exercisable or exchangeable for shares of capital stock or its equivalent (including outstanding vested or unvested stock-based awards and any reserved but unissued stock-based awards under any equity incentive plan). Based on our currently available information, we estimate our equity ownership interest in MLU B.V. to be 38.0% as of December 31, 2018.

 

   

In March 2018, we completed the sale of our operations in Southeast Asia to Grab Holdings Inc. (“Grab”) in exchange for shares of Grab Series G Preferred Stock representing a 30.0% equity ownership interest based upon the total shares outstanding at the close of the transaction on an as-converted basis but without taking into account securities exercisable or exchangeable for shares of capital stock or its equivalent (including outstanding vested or unvested stock-based awards and any reserved but unissued stock-based awards under any equity incentive plan). Based on our currently available information, we estimate our equity ownership interest in Grab to be 23.2% as of December 31, 2018.

The unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 assumes that the Divestitures occurred on January 1, 2018.

The unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations is intended for illustrative purposes only, and does not necessarily indicate our results of operations that would have been achieved if the Divestitures had occurred on January 1, 2018, nor is it indicative of our future results of operations.

The unaudited pro forma consolidated statement of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

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Uber Technologies, Inc. Unaudited Pro Forma Consolidated Statement of Operations For the Year Ended December 31, 2018

 

                                                                                                                                                                    
          Pro Forma Adjustments        
    Uber
Technologies, Inc.
    Divestiture of
Southeast Asia(a)
    Divestiture of
Russia/CIS(b)
    Other     Pro Forma  
   

(in millions, except share amounts which are reflected in thousands,

and per share amounts)

 

Revenue

  $ 11,270     $ (10   $ (4   $     $ 11,256  

Costs and expenses

         

Cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below

    5,623       (28     (7           5,588  

Operations and support

    1,516       (36     (5           1,475  

Sales and marketing

    3,151       (60     (1           3,090  

Research and development

    1,505                         1,505  

General and administrative

    2,082       (4           (14 )(c)(d)      2,064  

Depreciation and amortization

    426       (2                 424  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

    14,303       (130     (13     (14     14,146  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

    (3,033     120       9       14       (2,890

Interest expense

    (648                       (648

Other income (expense), net

    4,993                   (3,254 )(e)(f)      1,739  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and loss from equity method investment

    1,312       120       9       (3,240     (1,799

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

    283                   (121 )(g)      162  

Loss from equity method investment, net of tax

    (42                       (42
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) including redeemable non-controlling interest

    987       120       9       (3,119     (2,003

Less: net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest, net of tax

    (10                        
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income (loss) attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc.

  $ 997     $ 120     $ 9     $ (3,119   $ (2,003
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss per share attributable to Uber Technologies, Inc. common stockholders:

         

Basic

  $           $ (4.52
 

 

 

         

 

 

 

Diluted

  $           $ (4.52
 

 

 

         

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:

         

Basic

    443,368             443,368  
 

 

 

         

 

 

 

Diluted

    478,999             443,368  
 

 

 

         

 

 

 

 

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Pro Forma Adjustments

The pro forma adjustments are based on estimates and assumptions that management believes are reasonable. These pro forma adjustments include those adjustments that are directly attributable to the Divestitures, factually supportable, and expected to have a continuing impact. These adjustments are described below:

 

(a)

Reflects the elimination of the operating results of our Southeast Asia operations as reflected in our historical consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

(b)

Reflects the elimination of the operating results of our Russia/CIS operations as reflected in our historical consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

(c)

Reflects the removal of $8 million of legal, tax, and accounting fees incurred by us that were directly related to the Divestitures but were not allocated to the Southeast Asia and Russia/CIS operations in our accounting records.

 

(d)

Reflects the removal of $6 million of regulatory fines that were directly attributable and levied subsequent to the Southeast Asia divestiture.

 

(e)

Reflects the removal of $40 million of other income related to transition services we provided in connection with the Divestitures.

 

(f)

Reflects the elimination of $2.3 billion of pre-tax gain associated with the Southeast Asia divestiture and $954 million of pre-tax gain associated with the Russia/CIS divestiture as reflected in other income (expense), net in our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018.

 

(g)

Reflects the estimated income tax impact of $121 million as a result of the pro forma adjustments. The amount primarily represents the tax impact of the gain recognized from the Divestitures based on the statutory rates in effect for the period presented.

 

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OPERATING DATA

The following tables set forth our selected consolidated financial and operating data. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017, and 2018 (except the pro forma share and pro forma net income per share information) and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2016 is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this prospectus. The selected consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss data for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2015 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014 and 2015 have been derived from our accounting records and have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, except that such data has not been recast to conform to Topic 606, as discussed in footnote (1) below.

You should read the following selected consolidated financial and operating data together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected audited consolidated financial and operating data in this section are not intended to replace our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and are qualified in their entirety by the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.

 

                                                                                                        
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2014(1)     2015(1)     2016(1)     2017     2018  
    (unaudited)     (unaudited)                    
    (in millions, except share amounts which are reflected in
thousands and per share amounts)
 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

         

Revenue

  $ 495     $ 1,995     $ 3,845     $ 7,932     $ 11,270  

Costs and expenses

         

Cost of revenue, exclusive of depreciation and amortization shown separately below

    388       1,077       2,228       4,160       5,623  

Operations and support(2)

    165       466       881       1,354       1,516  

Sales and marketing(2)

    245       626       1,594       2,524       3,151  

Research and development(2)

    81       348       864       1,201       1,505  

General and administrative(2)

    249       740       981       2,263       2,082  

Depreciation and amortization(2)

    11       77       320       510       426  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

    1,139       3,334       6,868       12,012       14,303  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loss from operations

    (644     (1,339     (3,023     (4,080     (3,033

Gain on bargain purchase

          39                    

Interest expense

          (179     (334     (479     (648

Other income (expense), net(3)

    (7     (124     139       (16     4,993