485BPOS 1 videntetfs485b12262019doc.htm DEFINITIVE REGISTRATION STATEMENT Vident ETFs - 485B - 12.26.2019 Combined Document

Filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on December 26, 2019
1933 Act Registration File No. 333-179562
1940 Act File No. 811-22668
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM N‑1A
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
x
Pre‑Effective Amendment No. ___
¨
Post‑Effective Amendment No. 588
x
and
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940
x
Amendment No. 589
x
(Check appropriate box or boxes.)
ETF SERIES SOLUTIONS
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 (Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code): (414) 765-5586

Michael D. Barolsky, Vice President and Secretary
ETF Series Solutions
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
777 East Wisconsin Avenue, 10th Floor
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)

Copy to:
W. John McGuire
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541

As soon as practical after the effective date of this Registration Statement
(Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering)
It is proposed that this filing will become effective
¨
immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
x
on January 1, 2020 pursuant to paragraph (b)
¨
60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
¨
on                                pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
¨
75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
¨
on                                pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of Rule 485.

If appropriate, check the following box
[X]     this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.




EXPLANATORY NOTE
This filing delays the effectiveness of the Registrant’s Post-Effective Amendment No. 565 (the “Amendment”) to its Registration Statement (filed on October 28, 2019) until January 1, 2020.




PROSPECTUS
January 1, 2020







Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF® (VBND)
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund® (VUSE)
Vident International Equity Fund® (VIDI)

Principal U.S. Listing Exchange: NYSE Arca, Inc.












THE U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (“SEC”) HAS NOT APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ACCURACY OR ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

Beginning on January 1, 2021, as permitted by regulations adopted by the SEC, paper copies of the Funds’ shareholder reports will no longer be sent by mail, unless you specifically request paper copies of the Funds’ reports from your financial intermediary, such as a broker-dealer or bank. Instead, the reports will be made available on a website, and you will be notified by mail each time a report is posted and provided with a website link to access the report.
If you already elected to receive shareholder reports electronically, you will not be affected by this change and you need not take any action. Please contact your financial intermediary to elect to receive shareholder reports and other Fund communications electronically.
You may elect to receive all future Fund reports in paper free of charge. Please contact your financial intermediary to inform them that you wish to continue receiving paper copies of Fund shareholder reports and for details about whether your election to receive reports in paper will apply to all funds held with your financial intermediary.



Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
Vident International Equity Fund
Table of Contents
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF Summary
3
 
 
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund Summary
8
 
 
Vident International Equity Fund Summary
13
 
 
Additional Information About the Funds
19
 
 
Portfolio Holdings Information
25
 
 
Management
25
 
 
How to Buy and Sell Shares
27
 
 
Dividends, Distributions and Taxes
28
 
 
Distribution
30
 
 
Premium/Discount Information
30
 
 
Additional Notices
30
 
 
Financial Highlights
31

 
 
INVESTMENT PRODUCTS: n ARE NOT FDIC INSURED n MAY LOSE VALUE n ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED

2


Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF Summary
 
Investment Objective
The Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF (the “Fund” or the “U.S. Bond Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond IndexTM (the “Index” or the “U.S. Bond Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). This table and the Example below do not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay on their purchases and sales of Shares.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.41%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
None
Other Expenses
0.00%
Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses1
0.02%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.43%
1 Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses do not correlate to the ratio of expenses to average net assets provided in the Financial Highlights section of the Prospectus, which reflects only the operating expenses of the Fund and does not include acquired fund fees and expenses.
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$44
$138
$241
$542
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 384% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident Core U.S. Bond IndexTM  
The Vident Core U.S. Bond Index TM (Bloomberg:VUBDX) seeks to improve the overall mix of credit quality, interest rate and yield as compared to traditional U.S. core bond indices. The Index diversifies interest rate and credit risks across all core U.S. bond sectors, including U.S. Treasuries, U.S. agency securities, U.S. agency mortgage backed securities (“MBS”), and investment-grade corporate bonds, as well as non-core fixed income sectors such as high-yield corporate bonds (also known as “junk bonds”) and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (“TIPS”). While diversification among sectors is an important factor that will drive the risk/return profile of the strategy, another source of risk management is derived from the rules-based process that systematically over- or under-weights each sector based on valuations of each sector, historical relative valuations across sectors, sector default rates, and other quantitative factors. Within the investment grade and high yield corporate sectors, the strategy seeks to improve corporate bond exposures by screening for companies with relatively stronger leadership, governance, and creditworthiness factors. Within each sector, individual bonds are weighted based on a combination of yield, duration ( i.e. , interest rate sensitivity), creditworthiness, leadership, and governance factors, rather than amount of debt/bonds outstanding. The Index also seeks to improve liquidity by eliminating small issues and non-U.S. issuers.
The Index limits exposure to each of the high-yield corporate bonds and TIPS sectors to 20% and 15% of the Index, respectively. The Index will generally have an effective duration of three to seven years and will generally have an average credit quality of investment grade.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is rebalanced monthly and reconstituted quarterly in January, April, July, and October. As of December 13, 2019, the Index was comprised of 251 component securities.

3


The Index was created on November 30, 2015 by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the bonds that make up the Index. The Fund expects to use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it may invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole.
The Fund may utilize the “To Be Announced” (“TBA”) market for MBS investments. The TBA market allows investors to gain exposure to MBS with certain broad characteristics (maturity, coupon, age) without taking delivery of the actual securities until the settlement day which is once every month. In addition, the Fund may utilize the TBA roll market, in which one sells, in the TBA market, the security for current month settlement, while simultaneously committing to buy the same TBA security for next month settlement. The Fund may utilize the TBA roll market for extended periods of time without taking delivery of the physical securities.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index and TBA securities representing such component securities. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, believes, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Call Risk. During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, and the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund's income.
Cash Redemption Risk. The Fund’s investment strategy may require it to redeem shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds. The Fund may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind. As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Credit Risk. Debt issuers and other counterparties may not honor their obligations or may have their debt downgraded by ratings agencies.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.

4


Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Extension Risk. During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Government Obligations Risk. No assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law, such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”). Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
High-Yield Securities Risk. High-yield securities (also known as “junk bonds”) carry a greater degree of risk and are considered speculative by the major credit rating agencies. High-yield securities may be issued by companies that are restructuring, are smaller and less creditworthy, or are more highly indebted than other companies. This means that they may have more difficulty making scheduled payments of principal and interest. Changes in the value of high-yield securities are influenced more by changes in the financial and business position of the issuing company than by changes in interest rates when compared to investment grade securities. High-yield securities have greater volatility because there is less certainty that principal and interest payments will be made as scheduled. The Fund's investments in high-yield securities expose it to a substantial degree of credit risk. These investments are considered speculative under traditional investment standards. Prices of high-yield securities will rise and fall primarily in response to actual or perceived changes in the issuer's financial health, although changes in market interest rates also will affect prices. High-yield securities may experience reduced liquidity and sudden and substantial decreases in price.
Interest Rate Risk. An increase in interest rates may cause the value of fixed-income securities held by the Fund to decline. The Fund may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low rates and the effect of potential government fiscal policy initiatives and resulting market reaction to those initiatives.
Issuer-Specific Risk. Issuer-specific events, including changes in the financial condition of an issuer, can have a negative impact on the value of the Fund.
Liquidity Risk. Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. This can reduce the Fund's returns because the Fund may be unable to transact at advantageous times or prices.
Market Risk. The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The Fund may invest in U.S. government agency-backed mortgage- and asset-backed securities. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to interest rate risk. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index.

5


Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Prepayment Risk. This is the risk that a borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the Fund. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
TBA Securities and Rolls Risk. TBA transactions are subject to increased credit risk and increased overall investment exposure. TBA rolls involve the risk that the Fund’s counterparty will be unable to deliver the mortgage-backed securities underlying the TBA roll at the fixed time. If the buyer files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or its representative may ask for and receive an extension of time to decide whether to enforce the Fund’s repurchase obligation. In addition, the Fund earns interest by investing the transaction proceeds during the roll period. TBA roll transactions may have the effect of creating leverage in the Fund’s portfolio.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the indexes tracked by the Fund during the applicable period. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com .
Calendar Year Total Returns
chart-7d502c451ed56e00a43.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended September 30, 2019, the Fund’s total return was 9.06%.
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 3.06% for the quarter ended March 31, 2016, and the lowest quarterly return was -3.45% for the quarter ended December 31, 2016.

6


Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2018
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF

1 Year
Since Inception
(10/15/2014)
Return Before Taxes
-0.78%
1.00%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
-1.90%
0.06%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
-0.47%
0.35%
Vident Core U.S. Bond Index/Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-0.21%
1.88%
FTSE Broad Investment Grade Bond Index 
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-0.01%
1.58%
1 Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts. In certain cases, the figure representing “Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares” may be higher than the other return figures for the same period. A higher after-tax return results when a capital loss occurs upon redemption and provides an assumed tax deduction that benefits the investor.
Management
Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers
Denise M. Krisko, CFA, President of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since April 2015.
Jim Iredale, CFA, Senior Portfolio Manager – Fixed Income at VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since April 2015.
Habib Moudachirou, FRM, Senior Portfolio Manager at VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and most investors will buy and sell Shares through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. Creation Units generally consist of 100,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities closely approximating the holdings of the Fund (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.

7


Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund Summary
  
Investment Objective
The Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund (the “Fund” or “U.S. Equity Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Stock IndexTM (the “Index” or the “U.S. Stock Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). This table and the Example below do not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay on their purchases and sales of Shares.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.50%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
None
Other Expenses
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.50%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$51
$160
$280
$628
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 71% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident Core U.S. Stock IndexTM  
The Index is a rules-based, systematic strategy index comprised of equity securities of issuers domiciled and traded in the United States. The starting universe of eligible companies in the Index consists of U.S.-listed common stock of U.S. companies with market capitalizations of at least $1 billion ($800 million for companies already in the Index), meeting certain minimum liquidity requirements, and not structured as master limited partnerships. The universe of eligible companies is then screened to remove companies with significant accounting risks, governance risks, or other extreme risks, as described below.
The Index uses a forensic accounting model to score and rank companies in the Index universe based on a variety of accounting-related metrics (e.g., revenue recognition, earnings quality, changes in accruals, depreciation to capital expenditures, changes in days sales outstanding). The forensic accounting model eliminates the weakest 10% of companies from the Index universe.
The Index also assesses the corporate governance policies and practices of companies in the Index universe and scores such companies based on the number of such risks identified. Companies within each sector with the worst corporate governance scores are eliminated. Up to 10% of the companies in the Index universe may be eliminated by this screen.
Finally, the Index assesses companies in the Index universe for other extreme risks by identifying extraordinary events that may place shareholders’ capital at risk. Such extreme risks may include:
A senior executive has been dismissed or faces prosecution for personal misconduct or misrepresentation
The company has been late in its U.S. Securities and Exchange filings sometime in the past 12 months
The company has come under investigation, or been subject to fine, settlement, or conviction for issues related to securities fraud, misrepresentation, or deficiencies in investor protection sometime in the past two years
The company is experiencing difficulties obtaining needed financing or refinancing support

8


The company is in breach of existing debt covenants
The company is under threat of exchange delisting
Any companies flagged for any of the above extreme risks are removed from the Index universe.
The stocks remaining in the resulting universe are then evaluated, scored and ranked utilizing a proprietary multi-factor model, where each factor seeks to score different stock attributes (such as valuation, quality and momentum). At the time of each reconstitution, the stocks in the Index are weighted based on their relative scores, subject to a maximum allocation of 0.5% for any individual stock and certain liquidity thresholds. Overall sector weights are established based on the market capitalization of the universe of U.S.-listed common stocks of U.S. companies at the time of each reconstitution of the Index. The following are the major market sectors included in the Index: communication services, consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, financials, health care, industrials, information technology, materials, real estate, and utilities. A sector is comprised of multiple industries. For example, the energy sector is comprised of companies in, among others, the natural gas, oil, and petroleum industries.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually in January and July. As of December 13, 2019, the Index was comprised of 226 component securities.
The Index was created on December 31, 2014 by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks that make up the Index. The Fund will generally use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it may invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.

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Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Large-Capitalization Investing . The Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of large cap companies underperform securities of smaller-capitalization companies or the market as a whole. The securities of large cap companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Market Risk . The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of mid-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of mid-capitalization companies underperform securities of other capitalization ranges or the market as a whole. Securities of smaller companies are often more vulnerable to market volatility than securities of larger companies.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk. The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the following sectors and, therefore, the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting each of these sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Financial Sector Risk. This sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and fallout from the housing and sub-prime mortgage crisis. Insurance companies, in particular, may be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, catastrophic events, price and market competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. This sector has experienced significant losses in the recent past, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements and of recent or future regulation on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses.
Health Care Sector Risk. Companies in the health care sector are subject to extensive government regulation and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines, an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services, loss or impairment of intellectual property rights and litigation regarding product or service liability.

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Industrial Sector Risk. The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, and tax and governmental regulatory policies. As the demand for, or prices of, industrials increase, the value of the Fund’s investments generally would be expected to also increase. Conversely, declines in the demand for, or prices of, industrials generally would be expected to contribute to declines in the value of such securities. Such declines may occur quickly and without warning and may negatively impact the value of the Fund and your investment.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of small-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund may be more volatile than funds that invest in larger, more established companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Small-capitalization companies may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the indexes tracked by the Fund during the applicable period. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com .
Calendar Year Total Returns
chart-6a8ae64c5b8c4e867fc.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended September 30, 2019, the Fund’s total return was 11.40%.
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 8.86% for the quarter ended December 31, 2016, and the lowest quarterly return was -18.02% for the quarter ended December 31, 2018.

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Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2018
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
1 Year
Since Inception 
(1/21/2014)
Return Before Taxes
-14.75%
3.81%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
-15.03%
3.46%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
-8.49%
2.95%
Vident Core U.S. Stock Index/Vident Core U.S. Equity Index1 
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-14.75%
3.69%
Morningstar US Market Total Return Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-5.05%
8.15%
S&P 500 Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-4.38%
8.64%
1 Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Stock Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core U.S. Equity Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident Core U.S. Equity Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts. In certain cases, the figure representing “Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares” may be higher than the other return figures for the same period. A higher after-tax return results when a capital loss occurs upon redemption and provides an assumed tax deduction that benefits the investor.
Management
Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers
Denise M. Krisko, CFA, President of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2014 and was previously the Fund’s portfolio manager from its inception in January 2014 until November 2014 with the Fund’s previous sub-adviser.
Austin Wen, CFA, Portfolio Manager of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2018.
Habib Moudachirou, FRM, Senior Portfolio Manager at VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and most investors will buy and sell Shares through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. Creation Units generally consist of 100,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities closely approximating the holdings of the Fund (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.

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Vident International Equity Fund Summary
   
Investment Objective
The Vident International Equity Fund (the “Fund” or “International Equity Fund”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core International Equity Index™ (the “Index” or the “International Equity Index”).
Fees and Expenses of the Fund
The following table describes the fees and expenses you may pay if you buy, hold, and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”). This table and the Example below do not include the brokerage commissions that investors may pay on their purchases and sales of Shares.
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a percentage of the value of your investment)
 
Management Fees
0.61%
Distribution and/or Service (12b-1) Fees
None
Other Expenses
0.00%
Total Annual Fund Operating Expenses
0.61%
Expense Example
This Example is intended to help you compare the cost of investing in the Fund with the cost of investing in other funds. The Example assumes that you invest $10,000 in the Fund for the time periods indicated and then redeem all of your Shares at the end of those periods. The Example also assumes that your investment has a 5% return each year and that the Fund’s operating expenses remain the same. Although your actual costs may be higher or lower, based on these assumptions your costs would be:
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$62
$195
$340
$762
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual fund operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. For the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 76% of the average value of its portfolio.
Principal Investment Strategies of the Fund
The Fund employs a “passive management” – or indexing – investment approach designed to track the performance of the Index.
The Vident Core International Equity Index™
The Index is a rules-based, systematic strategy index comprised of equity securities of issuers in developed and emerging markets outside of the United States. The strategy seeks to provide a systematic and optimized investment process that addresses the risks and opportunities of allocating capital in and among international equities.
Country Allocation
Index construction begins by identifying a universe of countries that are deemed to represent the bulk of investable and reliable stock opportunities in the largest and most liquid developed and emerging markets countries located outside of the United States. The Index determines a country’s investability based on factors including the country’s liquidity, accessibility to foreign investors, opportunities for efficient transactions, and capital controls. The Index determines a country’s reliability based on factors including governance, regulatory oversight, market operational efficiency, legal protections for minority and foreign investors and institutional stability. While the number of countries represented in the Index may change from time to time (e.g., at Index reconstitution or rebalance), the number of countries represented in the Index is expected to generally be between 25 and 40.
Each country within the investable universe is assigned a Country Principles Score (“CPS”), which is calculated utilizing a proprietary scoring methodology that seeks to weigh the relative resilience of a country to economic and financial shocks and the relative attractiveness of its investment opportunities. A country’s resilience reflects the capacity of a country’s equity markets to absorb and recover from economic and financial shocks and is measured based on a variety of economic metrics related to its financial capital resources (e.g., the country’s deficit as a percentage of gross domestic product (“GDP”), physical capital resources (e.g., total investment as a percentage of GDP), human resources (e.g., productivity, GDP per capital), and institutional and organizational resources (i.e., measures of legal and corporate rights). A country’s investment opportunity is measured based on short- and long-term changes in the country’s business and regulatory environment and equity market valuations. Allocation across countries is based on an optimization model that seeks to maximize

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the Index’s overall CPS while ensuring the Index portfolio is liquid, well diversified across countries and regions, and transaction cost and turnover efficient.
Stock Selection
The Index employs a multi-factor model for scoring and ranking stocks listed on a securities exchange within each country in the Index universe. The model combines 20 factors into three distinct factor composites, each seeking to score different stock attributes:
Component
Examples
Weight
 
 
 
Valuation
Price-to-book ratio, cash flow to enterprise value
50%
Quality
Gross profitability, return on invested capital, margin expansion, leverage, debt & equity issuance
30%
Momentum
Total return for past six months
20%
 
 
 
Stocks are excluded from the Index universe if (i) they trade primarily in China, (ii) the stock’s issuer is domiciled in Russia or India and does not have a depositary receipt that meets the Index’s liquidity guidelines, (iii) the stock’s issuer has a market capitalization of less than US$1 billion (US$800 million for stocks already in the Index), or (iv) the stock does not meet certain minimum liquidity requirements.
At the time of each reconstitution, the optimization model weights the remaining stocks to maximize the attractive factor attributes of the stocks subject to the following constraints: (i) a maximum allocation of 0.5% for any individual stock, (ii) certain liquidity thresholds, (iii) a maximum allocation of 7.5% for any individual country, and (iv) sector allocations constrained to remain close to their sector weights in a traditional market capitalization weighted index.
All rules are systematized and rely on data available at the end of each rebalancing period. The Index is reconstituted and rebalanced semi-annually in January and July. As of December 13, 2019, the Index was comprised of 242 component securities.
The Index was created on December 31, 2014 by Vident Financial, LLC, the Index Provider, for use by the Fund.
The Fund’s Investment Strategy
The Fund attempts to invest all, or substantially all, of its assets in the common stocks that make up the Index. The Fund expects to use a “replication” strategy to achieve its investment objective, meaning it will invest in all of the component securities of the Index, but may, when the sub-adviser believes it is in the best interests of the Fund, use a “representative sampling” strategy, meaning it may invest in a sample of the securities in the Index whose risk, return and other characteristics closely resemble the risk, return and other characteristics of the Index as a whole.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of the Index and depositary receipts representing such component securities. Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”), the Fund’s investment adviser, expects that, over time, the correlation between the Fund’s performance and that of the Index, before fees and expenses, will be 95% or better.
To the extent the Index concentrates (i.e., holds more than 25% of its total assets) in the securities of a particular industry or group of related industries, the Fund will concentrate its investments to approximately the same extent as the Index.
Principal Risks of Investing in the Fund
The principal risks of investing in the Fund are summarized below. The principal risks are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which it appears. As with any investment, there is a risk that you could lose all or a portion of your investment in the Fund. Some or all of these risks may adversely affect the Fund’s net asset value per share (“NAV”), trading price, yield, total return and/or ability to meet its objectives. For more information about the risks of investing in the Fund, see the section in the Fund’s Prospectus titled “Additional Information About the Funds.”
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk. Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions may, without prior warning, lead to foreign government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares, and cause the Fund to decline in value.

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Currency Exchange Rate Risk. The Fund may invest a relatively large percentage of its assets in investments denominated in non-U.S. currencies or in securities that provide exposure to such currencies. Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investment and the value of your Shares. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning and you may lose money.
Emerging Markets Risk. The Fund may invest in companies organized in emerging market nations. Investments in securities and instruments traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and instruments or investments in more developed international markets. Such conditions may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Equity Market Risk. The equity securities held in the Fund’s portfolio may experience sudden, unpredictable drops in value or long periods of decline in value. This may occur because of factors that affect securities markets generally or factors affecting specific issuers, industries, or sectors in which the Fund invests. Common stocks are generally exposed to greater risk than other types of securities, such as preferred stock and debt obligations, because common stockholders generally have inferior rights to receive payment from issuers.
ETF Risks. The Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, it is exposed to the following risks:
Authorized Participants, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants (“APs”). In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including brokerage commissions imposed by brokers and bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and may be traded on U.S. exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Foreign Securities Risk. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. Investments in non-U.S. securities also may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. These and other factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk. To the extent the Fund invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region.
Geopolitical Risk. Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally, each of which may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Large-Capitalization Investing . The Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of large cap companies underperform securities of smaller-capitalization companies or the market as a whole. The securities of large cap companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.

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Market Risk . The trading prices of equity securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. The Fund’s NAV and market price may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Mid-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of mid-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected if securities of mid-capitalization companies underperform securities of other capitalization ranges or the market as a whole. Securities of smaller companies are often more vulnerable to market volatility than securities of larger companies.
Passive Investment Risk. The Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, the Index regardless of their investment merit. The Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, the Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk .   The Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase the Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in the Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors. The Fund may invest a significant portion of its assets in the following sectors and, therefore, the performance of the Fund could be negatively impacted by events affecting each of these sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Financial Sector Risk. This sector can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, government regulation, the rate of defaults on corporate, consumer and government debt, the availability and cost of capital, and fallout from the housing and sub-prime mortgage crisis. Insurance companies, in particular, may be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, catastrophic events, price and market competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. This sector has experienced significant losses in the recent past, and the impact of more stringent capital requirements and of recent or future regulation on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology malfunctions and failures have become increasingly frequent in this sector and have caused significant losses.
Industrial Sector Risk. The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, and tax and governmental regulatory policies.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability.
Small-Capitalization Investing. The Fund may invest in the securities of small-capitalization companies. As a result, the Fund may be more volatile than funds that invest in larger, more established companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Small-capitalization companies may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.

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Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may differ from each other for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by the Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of the Index at all times or may hold securities not included in the Index.
Performance
The following performance information indicates some of the risks of investing in the Fund. The bar chart shows the Fund’s performance for calendar years ended December 31. The table illustrates how the Fund’s average annual returns for the 1-year , 5-year, and since inception periods compare with those of a broad measure of market performance and the indexes tracked by the Fund during the applicable period. The Fund’s past performance, before and after taxes, does not necessarily indicate how it will perform in the future. Updated performance information is available on the Fund’s website at www.videntfunds.com .
Calendar Year Total Returns
chart-92388226c66e45c6990.jpg
For the year-to-date period ended September 30, 2019, the Fund’s total return was 5.35%.
During the period of time shown in the bar chart, the Fund’s highest quarterly return was 10.71% for the quarter ended March 31, 2017, and the lowest quarterly return was -13.57% for the quarter ended September 30, 2015.
Average Annual Total Returns
For the Periods Ended December 31, 2018
Vident International Equity Fund

1 Year
5 Year
Since Inception 
(10/29/2013)
Return Before Taxes
-17.32%
0.80%
0.27%
Return After Taxes on Distributions
-17.58%
0.51%
-0.01%
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares
-9.60%
0.86%
0.45%
Vident Core International Equity Index/Vident International Equity Index1
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-16.97%
1.69%
1.16%
Morningstar Global Markets ex-US Large-Mid Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-13.87%
0.95%
1.04%
Morningstar Global Markets ex-US Index
(reflects no deduction for fees, expenses, or taxes)
-14.17%
1.37%
1.46%
1 Effective January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective changed to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident Core International Equity Index. Prior to January 6, 2016, the Fund’s investment objective was to track the price and total return performance, before fees and expenses, of the Vident International Equity Index. Performance shown for periods prior to January 6, 2016 is that of the Vident International Equity Index.
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates during the period covered by the table above and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns shown are not relevant to investors who hold their Shares through tax-deferred arrangements such as an individual retirement account (“IRA”) or other tax-advantaged accounts. In certain cases, the figure representing “Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Shares” may be higher than the other return figures for the same period. A higher after-tax return results when a capital loss occurs upon redemption and provides an assumed tax deduction that benefits the investor.

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Management
Investment Adviser and Sub-Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC serves as investment adviser to the Fund.
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Fund.
Portfolio Managers
Denise M. Krisko, CFA, President of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since April 2015.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, Senior Portfolio Manager – International Equity of VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since September 2017.
Habib Moudachirou, FRM, Senior Portfolio Manager at VIA, has been a portfolio manager of the Fund since December 2019.
Purchase and Sale of Shares
Shares are listed on the Exchange, and most investors will buy and sell Shares through brokers at market prices, rather than NAV. Because Shares trade at market prices rather than NAV, Shares may trade at a price greater than NAV (premium) or less than NAV (discount).
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in large blocks known as “Creation Units,” which only APs (typically, broker-dealers) may purchase or redeem. Creation Units generally consist of 100,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. The Fund generally issues and redeems Creation Units in exchange for a portfolio of securities closely approximating the holdings of the Fund (the “Deposit Securities”) and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash.
Tax Information
Fund distributions are generally taxable as ordinary income, qualified dividend income, or capital gains (or a combination), unless your investment is in an IRA or other tax-advantaged account. Distributions on investments made through tax-deferred arrangements may be taxed later upon withdrawal of assets from those accounts.
Financial Intermediary Compensation
If you purchase Shares through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank) (an “Intermediary”), the Adviser or its affiliates may pay Intermediaries for certain activities related to the Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing, educational training or other initiatives related to the sale or promotion of Shares. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the Intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Any such arrangements do not result in increased Fund expenses. Ask your salesperson or visit the Intermediary’s website for more information.

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Additional Information About the Funds
Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Objectives. Each of the U.S. Bond Fund, U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”) seeks to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of an index developed by Vident Financial, LLC (the “Index Provider”). The Indexes consist of securities in the market suggested by the Fund’s name that meet specific criteria developed by the Index Provider. Each Fund’s investment objective has been adopted as a non-fundamental investment policy and may be changed without shareholder approval upon written notice to shareholders.
Additional Information About the Funds’ Investment Strategies. The Funds have adopted the following policies to comply with Rule 35d-1 under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Such policies have been adopted as non-fundamental investment policies and may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to shareholders. With respect to the policies below, the Funds define “equity securities” to mean common and preferred stocks, rights, warrants, depositary receipts, equity interests in real estate investment trusts (“REITs”), and master limited partnerships.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities that are principally traded in the United States.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Bond Fund will be invested in debt instruments that are principally traded in the United States.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the International Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities.
Additionally, each Fund generally may invest up to 20% of its total assets in securities not included in the applicable Index, but which the Fund believes will help it track its Index. For example, a Fund may invest in securities that are not components of its Index to reflect various corporate actions and other changes to the Index (such as reconstitutions, additions and deletions).
Vident Core U.S. Bond Index
Unlike most traditional indices that weight issuers based on market capitalization, the U.S. Bond Index uses a risk-based assessment of issuers, together with factors related to their attractiveness based on evolving economic, market and valuation conditions. The Index also seeks to mitigate some of the risks often associated with market capitalization-weighted indices, including issuer concentration.
Each issuer is determined to be a “U.S. issuer” based primarily on its place of organization or principal place of business. However, issuers with extensive foreign operations may be eliminated from the Index based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Duration is a measure of the sensitivity of a security's price to changes in interest rates. The longer a security's duration, the more sensitive it will be to changes in interest rates. Similarly, a portfolio with a longer average duration will be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than a portfolio with a shorter average duration. For example, if interest rates decline by 1%, the market value of a portfolio with a duration of five years would rise by approximately 5%. Conversely, if interest rates increase by 1%, the market value of the portfolio would decline by approximately 5%. For variable and floating rate instruments, the duration calculation incorporates the time to the next coupon reset date.
Vident Core U.S. Stock Index
The Index seeks to mitigate some of the risks often associated with market capitalization-weighted indices, including issuer concentration.
Each issuer is determined to be a “U.S. issuer” based primarily on its place of organization or principal place of business. However, issuers with extensive foreign operations may be eliminated from the Index based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Vident Core International Equity Index
The Index seeks to mitigate some of the risks often associated with market capitalization-weighted indices, including country, currency and issuer concentration, as well as higher weightings in more developed countries that also exhibit lower structural growth and deteriorating fiscal and/or fundamental risk characteristics.
Each issuer is associated with a country based primarily on its place of organization or the location of its primary listing exchange. However, issuers with multi-national operations may be assigned to an alternate country based on a variety of factors, such as the geographic location of the issuer’s assets, revenue sources, manufacturing facilities, employees and customers.
Each country is assigned a CPS semi-annually that identifies its fundamental risk characteristics (such as fiscal characteristics, monetary policy, political stability, demographics and economic freedom characteristics), while balancing those risks with a country’s respective opportunities. The ranking of stocks are also adjusted semi-annually utilizing a multi-factor model ranking stocks based on valuation, quality and momentum characteristics.

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Index/Trademark Licenses/Disclaimers. Vident Financial, LLCTM, the Index Provider, is a financial services company that focuses on structuring indices for institutional clients . The Index Provider is an affiliate of each Fund’s Adviser and Sub-Adviser.
Additional Information About the Funds’ Principal Risks. This section provides additional information regarding the principal risks described in each Fund Summary above. As in each Fund Summary above, the principal risks below are presented in alphabetical order to facilitate finding particular risks and comparing them with other funds. Each risk summarized below is considered a “principal risk” of investing in the Fund, regardless of the order in which they appear. Each of the factors below could have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance and trading prices.
Call Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). During periods of falling interest rates, an issuer of a callable bond held by the Fund may “call” or repay the security before its stated maturity, which may result in the Fund having to reinvest the proceeds at lower interest rates, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income.
Capital Controls and Sanctions Risk (International Equity Fund only). Economic conditions, such as volatile currency exchange rates and interest rates, political events, military action and other conditions, may, without prior warning, lead to government intervention (including intervention by the U.S. government with respect to foreign governments, economic sectors, foreign companies and related securities and interests) and the imposition of capital controls and/or sanctions, which may also include retaliatory actions of one government against another government, such as seizure of assets. Capital controls and/or sanctions include the prohibition of, or restrictions on, the ability to transfer currency, securities or other assets. Levies may be placed on profits repatriated by foreign entities (such as the Fund). Capital controls and/or sanctions may also impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities or currency, negatively impact the value and/or liquidity of such instruments, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares, and cause the Fund to decline in value.
Cash Redemption Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). When the Fund’s investment strategy requires it to redeem shares for cash or to otherwise include cash as part of its redemption proceeds, it may be required to sell or unwind portfolio investments in order to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause the Fund to recognize a capital gain that it might not have recognized if it had made a redemption in-kind (i.e., distribute securities as payment of redemption proceeds). As a result, the Fund may pay out higher annual capital gain distributions than if the in-kind redemption process was used.
Credit Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Credit risk is the risk that an issuer or guarantor of debt instruments or the counterparty to a derivatives contract, repurchase agreement or loan of portfolio securities will be unable or unwilling to make its timely interest and/or principal payments or to otherwise honor its obligations. Debt instruments are subject to varying degrees of credit risk, which may be reflected in their credit ratings. There is the chance that the Fund’s portfolio holdings will have their credit ratings downgraded or will default (i.e., fail to make scheduled interest or principal payments), potentially reducing the Fund’s income level or share price.
Currency Exchange Rate Risk (International Equity Fund only). Changes in currency exchange rates and the relative value of non-U.S. currencies will affect the value of the Fund’s investments and the value of your Shares. Because the Fund’s NAV is determined on the basis of U.S. dollars, the U.S. dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go down if the value of the local currency of the non-U.S. markets in which the Fund invests depreciates against the U.S. dollar. This is true even if the local currency value of securities in the Fund’s holdings goes up. Conversely, the dollar value of your investment in the Fund may go up if the value of the local currency appreciates against the U.S. dollar. The value of the U.S. dollar measured against other currencies is influenced by a variety of factors. These factors include: national debt levels and trade deficits, changes in balances of payments and trade, domestic and foreign interest and inflation rates, global or regional political, economic or financial events, monetary policies of governments, actual or potential government intervention, and global energy prices. Political instability, the possibility of government intervention and restrictive or opaque business and investment policies may also reduce the value of a country’s currency. Government monetary policies and the buying or selling of currency by a country’s government may also influence exchange rates. Currency exchange rates can be very volatile and can change quickly and unpredictably. As a result, the value of an investment in the Fund may change quickly and without warning, and you may lose money.
Emerging Markets Risk (International Equity Fund only). Investments in securities and instruments traded in developing or emerging markets, or that provide exposure to such securities or markets, can involve additional risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions not associated with investments in U.S. securities and instruments. For example, developing and emerging markets may be subject to (i) greater market volatility, (ii) lower trading volume and liquidity, (iii) greater social, political and economic uncertainty, (iv) governmental controls on foreign investments and limitations on repatriation of invested capital, (v) lower disclosure, corporate governance, auditing and financial reporting standards, (vi) fewer protections of property rights, (vii) restrictions on the transfer of securities or currency, and (viii) settlement and trading practices that differ from those in U.S. markets. Each of these factors may impact the ability of the Fund to buy, sell or otherwise transfer securities, adversely affect the trading market and price for Shares and cause the Fund to decline in value.

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Equity Market Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence in and perceptions of their issuers change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors including: expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic and banking crises. If you held common stock, or common stock equivalents, of any given issuer, you would generally be exposed to greater risk than if you held preferred stocks and debt obligations of the issuer because common stockholders, or holders of equivalent interests, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from issuers in comparison with the rights of preferred stockholders, bondholders, and other creditors of such issuers.
ETF Risks. Each Fund is an ETF, and, as a result of an ETF’s structure, is exposed to the following risks:
APs, Market Makers, and Liquidity Providers Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as APs. In addition, there may be a limited number of market makers and/or liquidity providers in the marketplace. To the extent either of the following events occur, Shares may trade at a material discount to NAV and possibly face delisting: (i) APs exit the business or otherwise become unable to process creation and/or redemption orders and no other APs step forward to perform these services, or (ii) market makers and/or liquidity providers exit the business or significantly reduce their business activities and no other entities step forward to perform their functions.
Costs of Buying or Selling Shares. Investors buying or selling Shares in the secondary market will pay brokerage commissions or other charges imposed by brokers, as determined by that broker. Brokerage commissions are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors seeking to buy or sell relatively small amounts of Shares. In addition, secondary market investors will also incur the cost of the difference between the price at which an investor is willing to buy Shares (the “bid” price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell Shares (the “ask” price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread varies over time for Shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if Shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if Shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Further, a relatively small investor base in the Fund, asset swings in the Fund and/or increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads. Due to the costs of buying or selling Shares, including bid/ask spreads, frequent trading of Shares may significantly reduce investment results and an investment in Shares may not be advisable for investors who anticipate regularly making small investments.
Shares May Trade at Prices Other Than NAV. As with all ETFs, Shares may be bought and sold in the secondary market at market prices. Although it is expected that the market price of Shares will approximate the Fund’s NAV, there may be times when the market price of Shares is more than the NAV intra-day (premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (discount) due to supply and demand of Shares or during periods of market volatility. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility, periods of steep market declines, and periods when there is limited trading activity for Shares in the secondary market, in which case such premiums or discounts may be significant.
Trading. Although Shares are listed for trading on the Exchange and may be listed or traded on U.S. and non-U.S. stock exchanges other than the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such Shares will develop or be maintained. Trading in Shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in Shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in Shares on the Exchange is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules, which temporarily halt trading on the Exchange when a decline in the S&P 500 Index during a single day reaches certain thresholds (e.g., 7%, 13%, and 20%). Additional rules applicable to the Exchange may halt trading in Shares when extraordinary volatility causes sudden, significant swings in the market price of Shares. There can be no assurance that Shares will trade with any volume, or at all, on any stock exchange. In stressed market conditions, the liquidity of Shares may begin to mirror the liquidity of the Fund’s underlying portfolio holdings, which can be significantly less liquid than Shares.
Extension Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). During periods of rising interest rates, certain debt obligations will be paid off substantially more slowly than originally anticipated and the value of those securities may fall sharply, resulting in a decline in the Fund’s income and potentially in the value of the Fund’s investments.
Foreign Securities Risk ( International Equity Fund only) . Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present with investments in U.S. securities. For example, investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to risk of loss due to foreign currency fluctuations or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than a U.S. issuer. Non-U.S. issuers may be subject to different accounting, auditing, financial reporting and investor protection standards than U.S. issuers. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. With respect to certain countries, there is the possibility of government intervention and expropriation or nationalization of assets. Because legal systems differ, there is also the possibility that it will be difficult to obtain or enforce legal judgments in certain countries. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be

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able to purchase or sell the Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Geographic Investment Risk (International Equity Fund only). To the extent that the Fund’s Index invests a significant portion of its assets in the securities of companies of a single country or region, it is more likely to be impacted by events or conditions affecting that country or region. For example, political and economic conditions and changes in regulatory, tax, or economic policy in a country could significantly affect the market in that country and in surrounding or related countries and have a negative impact on the Fund’s performance. Currency developments or restrictions, political and social instability, and changing economic conditions have resulted in significant market volatility.
Geopolitical Risk (International Equity Fund only). Some countries and regions in which the Fund invests have experienced security concerns, war or threats of war and aggression, terrorism, economic uncertainty, natural and environmental disasters and/or systemic market dislocations that have led, and in the future may lead, to increased short-term market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects on the U.S. and world economies and markets generally. Such geopolitical and other events may also disrupt securities markets and, during such market disruptions, the Fund’s exposure to the other risks described herein will likely increase. Each of the foregoing may negatively impact the Fund’s investments.
Government Obligations Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in securities issued, sponsored or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. However, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will provide financial support to U.S. government-sponsored agencies or instrumentalities where it is not obligated to do so by law. For instance, securities issued by the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”) are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. Securities issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have historically been supported only by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government. While the U.S. government provides financial support to various U.S. government-sponsored agencies and instrumentalities, such as those listed above, no assurance can be given that it will always do so. In September 2008, at the direction of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were placed into conservatorship under the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”), an independent regulator, and they remain in such status as of the date of this Prospectus. The U.S. government also took steps to provide additional financial support to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008–2009 financial downturn. Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented. A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due. This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt ceiling to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits. In August 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On August 2, 2019 , following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, which suspends the statutory debt limit through July 31, 2021. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
High-Yield Securities Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Below investment grade instruments are commonly referred to as "junk" or high-yield instruments and are regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer's capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Lower grade instruments may be particularly susceptible to economic downturns. It is likely that a prolonged or deepening economic recession could adversely affect the ability of the issuers of such instruments to repay principal and pay interest thereon, increase the incidence of default for such instruments and severely disrupt the market value of such instruments.
Lower grade instruments, though higher yielding, are characterized by higher risk. They may be subject to certain risks with respect to the issuing entity and to greater market fluctuations than certain lower yielding, higher rated instruments. The retail secondary market for lower grade instruments may be less liquid than that for higher rated instruments. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may also decrease the value and liquidity of these high-yield securities. Adverse conditions could make it difficult at times for the Fund to sell certain instruments or could result in lower prices than those used in calculating the Fund's NAV. Because of the substantial risks associated with investments in lower grade instruments, investors could lose money on their investment in the Fund, both in the short-term and the long-term.
The Fund's investments in distressed and defaulted securities may be considered speculative and involve substantial risks in addition to the risks of investing in junk bonds. The Fund will generally not receive interest payments on the distressed securities and the principal may also be at risk. These securities may present a substantial risk of default or may be in default at the time of investment, requiring the Fund to incur additional costs.

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Interest Rate Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). As interest rates rise, the value of a fixed-income security held by the Fund is likely to decrease. Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to interest rate changes, usually making them more volatile than securities with shorter durations. To the extent the Fund invests a substantial portion of its assets in fixed-income securities with longer-term durations, rising interest rates may cause the value of the Fund’s investments to decline significantly.
Issuer-Specific Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular type of security or issuer, and changes in general economic or political conditions can affect a security’s or instrument’s value. The value of securities of smaller, less well-known issuers can be more volatile than that of larger issuers. Issuer-specific events can have a negative impact on the value of the Fund.
Liquidity Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Liquidity risk exists when particular investments are difficult to purchase or sell. To the extent the Fund invests in illiquid securities or securities that become less liquid, such investments may have a negative effect on the returns of the Fund because the Fund may be unable to sell the illiquid securities at an advantageous time or price. To the extent that the Fund’s principal investment strategies involve investing in securities with substantial market and/or credit risk, the Fund will tend to have the greatest exposure to liquidity risk. Liquid investments may become illiquid after purchase by the Fund, particularly during periods of market turmoil. Illiquid investments may be harder to value, especially in changing markets, and if the Fund is forced to sell these investments to meet redemption requests or for other cash needs, the Fund may suffer a loss. There can be no assurance that a security that is deemed to be liquid when purchased will continue to be liquid for as long as it is held by the Fund.
Market Capitalization Risk.
Large-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of large-capitalization companies may be relatively mature compared to smaller companies and therefore subject to slower growth during times of economic expansion. Large-capitalization companies may also be unable to respond quickly to new competitive challenges, such as changes in technology and consumer tastes.
Mid-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of mid-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of large-capitalization companies. The securities of mid-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than large capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some medium capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, financial resources, and management personnel and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to large-capitalization companies.
Small-Capitalization Investing (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The securities of small-capitalization companies may be more vulnerable to adverse issuer, market, political, or economic developments than securities of larger-capitalization companies. The securities of small-capitalization companies generally trade in lower volumes and are subject to greater and more unpredictable price changes than larger capitalization stocks or the stock market as a whole. Some small capitalization companies have limited product lines, markets, and financial and managerial resources and tend to concentrate on fewer geographical markets relative to larger capitalization companies. There is typically less publicly available information concerning smaller-capitalization companies than for larger, more established companies. Small-capitalization companies also may be particularly sensitive to changes in interest rates, government regulation, borrowing costs and earnings.
Market Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The trading prices of debt securities and other instruments fluctuate in response to a variety of factors. These factors include events impacting the entire market or specific market segments, such as political, market and economic developments, as well as events that impact specific issuers. A Fund’s NAV and market price, like security and commodity prices generally, may fluctuate significantly in response to these and other factors. As a result, an investor could lose money over short or long periods of time.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). Mortgage- and asset-backed securities are more sensitive to interest rate risk than other types of fixed income securities. Modest movements in interest rates (both increases and decreases) may quickly and significantly reduce the value of certain types of these securities. When interest rates fall, mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk. Prepayment risk is the risk that the borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the investor. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund, which invests in mortgage- and asset-backed securities. When interest rates rise, certain types of mortgage- and asset-backed securities are subject to extension risk. Mortgage- and asset-backed securities can also be subject to the risk of default on the underlying residential or commercial mortgage(s) or other assets. Weakening real estate markets may cause default rates to rise, which would result in a decline in the value of mortgage-backed securities.

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Passive Investment Risk. Each Fund invests in the securities included in, or representative of, its Index regardless of their investment merit. Each Fund does not attempt to outperform its Index or take defensive positions in declining markets. As a result, a Fund’s performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the market segments relating to its Index. The returns from the types of securities in which a Fund invests may underperform returns from the various general securities markets or different asset classes. This may cause a Fund to underperform other investment vehicles that invest in different asset classes. Different types of securities (for example, large-, mid- and small-capitalization stocks) tend to go through cycles of doing better – or worse – than the general securities markets. In the past, these periods have lasted for as long as several years.
Portfolio Turnover Risk .   Each Fund may trade all or a significant portion of the securities in its portfolio in connection with each rebalance and reconstitution of its Index. A high portfolio turnover rate increases transaction costs, which may increase a Fund’s expenses. Frequent trading may also cause adverse tax consequences for investors in a Fund due to an increase in short-term capital gains.
Prepayment Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). This is the risk that a borrower will prepay some or the entire principal owed to the Fund. If that happens, the Fund may have to replace the security by investing the proceeds in a security with a lower yield. This could reduce the share price and income distributions of the Fund.
Sector Risk. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in particular sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending, and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Financial Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Companies in the financial sector of an economy are often subject to extensive governmental regulation and intervention, which may adversely affect the scope of their activities, the prices they can charge and the amount of capital they must maintain. Governmental regulation may change frequently and may have significant adverse consequences for companies in the financial sector, including effects not intended by such regulation. The impact of recent or future regulation in various countries on any individual financial company or on the sector as a whole cannot be predicted.
Certain risks may impact the value of investments in the financial sector more severely than those of investments outside this sector, including the risks associated with companies that operate with substantial financial leverage. Companies in the financial sector may also be adversely affected by increases in interest rates and loan losses, decreases in the availability of money or asset valuations, credit rating downgrades and adverse conditions in other related markets.
Insurance companies, in particular, may be subject to severe price competition and/or rate regulation, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability. Insurance companies are subject to extensive government regulation in some countries and can be significantly affected by changes in interest rates, general economic conditions, price and marketing competition, the imposition of premium rate caps, or other changes in government regulation or tax law. Different segments of the insurance industry can be significantly affected by mortality and morbidity rates, environmental clean-up costs and catastrophic events such as earthquakes, hurricanes and terrorist acts.
The financial sector is also a target for cyber attacks and may experience technology malfunctions and disruptions. In recent years, cyber attacks and technology failures have become increasingly frequent and have caused significant losses.
Health Care Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund only). Companies in the health care sector are subject to extensive government regulation and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines and an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services. Companies in the health care sector are heavily dependent on obtaining and defending patents, which may be time consuming and costly, and the expiration of patents may also adversely affect the profitability of these companies. Health care companies are also subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims. In addition, their products can become obsolete due to industry innovation, changes in technologies or other market developments. Many new products in the health care sector require significant research and development and may be subject to regulatory approvals, all of which may be time consuming and costly with no guarantee that any product will come to market.

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Industrial Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). The industrial sector can be significantly affected by, among other things, worldwide economic growth, supply and demand for specific products and services, rapid technological developments, international political and economic developments, environmental issues, tariffs and trade barriers, and tax and governmental regulatory policies. As the demand for, or prices of, industrials increase, the value of the Fund’s investments generally would be expected to also increase. Conversely, declines in the demand for, or prices of, industrials generally would be expected to contribute to declines in the value of such securities. Such declines may occur quickly and without warning and may negatively impact the value of the Fund and your investment.
Information Technology Sector Risk (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the Fund’s investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.
TBA Securities and Rolls Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in TBA securities. In a TBA transaction, a seller agrees to deliver a security at a future date, but does not specify the particular security to be delivered. Instead, the seller agrees to accept any security that meets specified terms. The principal risks of TBA transactions are increased credit risk and increased overall investment exposure.
The Fund may enter into TBA roll transactions, in which the Fund sells mortgage-backed securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously contracts to purchase substantially similar securities on a specified future date from the same party. The investor may assume some risk because the characteristics of the MBS delivered to the investor may be less favorable than the MBS the investor delivered to the dealer. Because the dealer is not obligated to return the identical MBS collateral that the investor has delivered, both parties usually transact the dollar roll with generic MBS pools that have the same or less value than the average TBA-eligible security.
Tracking Error Risk. As with all index funds, the performance of the Fund and its Index may vary somewhat for a variety of reasons. For example, the Fund incurs operating expenses and portfolio transaction costs not incurred by its Index. In addition, the Fund may not be fully invested in the securities of its Index at all times or may hold securities not included in its Index. The Fund may use a representative sampling strategy to achieve its investment objective, if the Fund’s Sub-Adviser believes it is in the best interest of the Fund, which generally can be expected to produce a greater non-correlation risk.
Portfolio Holdings Information
Information about the Funds’ daily portfolio holdings is available at www.videntfunds.com . A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of the Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”).
Management
Investment Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory”) serves as the investment adviser to the Funds. Vident Advisory is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC, was formed in 2016, and commenced operations and registered with the SEC as an investment adviser in 2019. On October 30, 2018, the SEC issued an exemptive order to Vident Advisory and the Trust permitting Vident Advisory to manage index-based exchange-traded funds. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, each Fund pays Vident Advisory a unitary management fee, which is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on a percentage of each Fund’s average daily net assets, as shown in the following table:  
Fund
Management Fee
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
0.41%
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
0.50%
Vident International Equity Fund
0.61%
Prior to April 1, 2019, Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (“ETC”) served as the investment adviser to the Funds. During the fiscal period from September 1, 2018 through March 31, 2019, each Fund paid ETC for its advisory services under the same unitary management fee schedule described above.

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Out of the unitary management fee, Vident Advisory has agreed to pay substantially all expenses of the Funds, including the cost of transfer agency, custody, fund administration, securities lending and other non-distribution related services necessary for the Funds to operate, except for: the fee paid to Vident Advisory pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, interest charges on any borrowings, dividends and other expenses on securities sold short, taxes and related services , brokerage commissions and other expenses incurred in placing orders for the purchase and sale of securities and other investment instruments, acquired fund fees and expenses, accrued deferred tax liability, extraordinary expenses, and distribution (12b‑1) fees and expenses. The Adviser, in turn, compensates the Sub-Adviser from the management fee the Adviser receives.
The basis for the Board’s approval of the Funds’ Investment Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the period ended February 28, 2019.
Sub-Adviser
The Adviser has retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC to serve as sub-adviser for the Funds. VIA is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Funds. VIA, a registered investment adviser, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Its principal office is located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009. VIA was formed in 2014 and provides investment advisory services to ETFs, including the Funds. The Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities for the Funds, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions or in connection with any rebalancing or reconstitution of the Indexes, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For its services, the Sub-Adviser is paid a fee by the Adviser, which fee is calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate based on the average daily net assets of each Fund and subject to a minimum annual fee as follows:
Fund
Minimum Annual Fee
Asset-Based Fee
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
$50,000
4 bps (0.04%)
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
$75,000
6 bps (0.06%) on the first $250 million
5 bps (0.05%) on the next $250 million
4 bps (0.04%) on the next $500 million
3 bps (0.03%) on the balance over $1 billion
Vident International Equity Fund*
$75,000
6 bps (0.06%) on the first $500 million
5 bps (0.05%) on the next $500 million
4 bps (0.04%) on the balance over $1 billion
* Prior to April 1, 2019, ETC paid the Sub-Adviser a fee, calculated daily and paid monthly, at an annual rate of 8 bps (0.08%) on the first $500 million, 7 bps (0.07%) on the next $500 million, and 5 bps (0.05% ) on the balance over $1 billion based on the average daily net assets of the International Equity Fund and subject to a minimum annual fee of $75,000.
The basis for the Board’s approval of the Funds’ Sub-Advisory Agreement is available in the Funds’ Semi-Annual Report to Shareholders for the period ended February 28, 2019.
Portfolio Managers
The Funds are managed by VIA’s portfolio management team. The individual members of the team responsible for the day to day management of the Funds’ portfolios are listed below.
Denise Krisko, CFA, is a portfolio manager for each Fund. Ms. Krisko became the President of the Sub-Adviser in November 2014 and has over twenty years of investment management experience. Ms. Krisko was previously the Chief Investment Officer at Index Management Solutions, LLC (“IMS”). Prior to joining IMS in 2010, she was a Managing Director and Co-Head of the Equity Index Management and Head of East Coast Equity Index Strategies for Mellon Capital Management. She was also a Managing Director of The Bank of New York and Head of Equity Index Strategies for BNY Investment Advisors from August 2005 until the merger of The Bank of New York with Mellon Bank in 2007, when she assumed her role with Mellon Capital Management. Ms. Krisko attained the Chartered Financial Analyst (“CFA”) designation in 2000. Ms. Krisko graduated with a BS from Pennsylvania State University and obtained her MBA from Villanova University.
Jim Iredale, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Bond Fund. Mr. Iredale became a Senior Portfolio Manager – Fixed Income at Vident in 2015 and has over 15 years of experience managing fixed income products. Prior to joining Vident, Mr. Iredale was a Manager – Fixed Income with Ronald Blue & Co., one of the largest independent wealth management firms in the U.S., where he started in 1999. Mr. Iredale graduated with a BBA from the University of Georgia, Terry College of Business and obtained his JD from the University of Georgia School of Law. He holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Habib Moudachirou, FRM, is a portfolio manager for each Fund. Mr. Moudachirou became a Senior Portfolio Manager at Vident in 2018 and has over 17 years of experience that includes portfolio management in both active and strategic beta indexation internationally. Prior to joining Vident, he served as an Executive Director and Portfolio Manager at J.P. Morgan, where he was responsible for building and managing smart beta and alternative risk premia strategies; employing cost-effective and liquid replacement solutions for hedge fund exposure; and utilizing risk factor investing. From January 2012 to September 2015, he was a Portfolio Manager at Emerging Global

26


Advisors, where he was responsible for managing smart beta emerging market focused ETFs. Mr. Moudachirou is also an Adjunct Professor at the New York University School of Professional Studies. He holds a B.S. in Physics from Pierre and Marie Curie University as well as an M.S. in Quantitative Finance from the University of Rennes, France. Additionally, Mr. Moudachirou has an M.S.E. in Statistics from the French National School of Statistics University and Information Analysis, ENSAI. He also holds the Financial Risk Manager (“FRM”) designation.
Austin Wen, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the U.S. Equity Fund . Mr. Wen has been a Portfolio Manager of VIA since 2016 and has seven years of investment management experience. His focus at VIA is on portfolio management and trading, risk monitoring and investment analysis. Previously, he was an analyst for Vident Financial beginning in 2014, working on the development and review of investment solutions. He began his career in 2011 as a State Examiner for the Georgia Department of Banking and Finance. Mr. Wen obtained a BA in Finance from the University of Georgia and holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
Rafael Zayas, CFA, is a portfolio manager for the International Equity Fund. Mr. Zayas became a Senior Portfolio Manager – International Equity at Vident in 2017 and has over 15 years of experience that includes managing international equity portfolios, including in emerging and frontier markets. Prior to joining Vident, he was a Portfolio Manager – Direct Investments for seven years at Russell Investments, a global asset manager, where he co-managed more than $4 billion in quantitative strategies across global markets, including the Russell Strategic Call Overwriting Fund, a mutual fund. Mr. Zayas also helped Russell Investments launch its sponsored ETF initiative and advised on index methodologies. Prior to joining Russell Investments, Mr. Zayas was a Portfolio Manager – Equity Indexing at Mellon Capital Management, where he managed assets for internationally listed global equity ETFs. Mr. Zayas graduated with a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University and obtained a Certificate in Computational Finance and Risk Management from the University of Washington. He also attained the Chartered Financial Analyst designation in 2010.
The Funds’ SAI provides additional information about the Portfolio Managers’ compensation structure, other accounts managed by the Portfolio Managers, and the Portfolio Managers’ ownership of Shares of each Fund.
How to Buy and Sell Shares
Each Fund issues and redeems Shares at NAV only in Creation Units. Only APs may acquire Shares directly from a Fund, and only APs may tender their Shares for redemption directly to a Fund, at NAV. APs must be (i) a broker-dealer or other participant in the clearing process through the Continuous Net Settlement System of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”), a clearing agency that is registered with the SEC; or (ii) a Depository Trust Corporation (“DTC”) participant (as discussed below). In addition, each AP must execute a Participant Agreement that has been agreed to by the Distributor, and that has been accepted by the Transfer Agent, with respect to purchases and redemptions of Creation Units. Once created, Shares trade in the secondary market in quantities less than a Creation Unit.
Most investors buy and sell Shares in secondary market transactions through brokers. Shares are listed for trading on the secondary market on the Exchange and can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities.
When buying or selling Shares through a broker, you will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges, and you may pay some or all of the spread between the bid and the offer price in the secondary market on each leg of a round trip (purchase and sale) transaction. In addition, because secondary market transactions occur at market prices, you may pay more than NAV when you buy Shares and receive less than NAV when you sell those Shares.
Book Entry
Shares are held in book-entry form, which means that no stock certificates are issued. The DTC or its nominee is the record owner of all outstanding Shares.
Investors owning Shares are beneficial owners as shown on the records of DTC or its participants. DTC serves as the securities depository for all Shares. DTC’s participants include securities brokers and dealers, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other institutions that directly or indirectly maintain a custodial relationship with DTC. As a beneficial owner of Shares, you are not entitled to receive physical delivery of stock certificates or to have Shares registered in your name, and you are not considered a registered owner of Shares. Therefore, to exercise any right as an owner of Shares, you must rely upon the procedures of DTC and its participants. These procedures are the same as those that apply to any other securities that you hold in book entry or “street name” through your brokerage account.
Share Trading Prices on the Exchange
Trading prices of Shares on the Exchange may differ from the applicable Fund’s daily NAV. Market forces of supply and demand, economic conditions and other factors may affect the trading prices of Shares. To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, or other widely disseminated means an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for Shares as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Funds are not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and make no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs. If the calculation of the IIV is based on the basket of Deposit Securities and/or a designated amount of U.S. cash, such IIV may not represent the best possible valuation of a Fund’s portfolio because the basket of Deposit Securities does not necessarily reflect the precise composition of the current Fund portfolios at a particular point

27


in time and does not include a reduction for the fees, operating expenses, or transaction costs incurred by the Fund. The IIV should not be viewed as a “real-time” update of a Fund’s NAV because the IIV may not be calculated in the same manner as the NAV, which is computed only once a day, typically at the end of the business day. The IIV is generally determined by using both current market quotations and/or price quotations obtained from broker-dealers that may trade in the Deposit Securities.
Frequent Purchases and Redemptions of Shares
The Funds impose no restrictions on the frequency of purchases and redemptions of Shares. In determining not to approve a written, established policy, the Board evaluated the risks of market timing activities by Fund shareholders. Purchases and redemptions by APs, who are the only parties that may purchase or redeem Shares directly with a Fund, are an essential part of the ETF process and help keep Share trading prices in line with NAV. As such, the Funds accommodate frequent purchases and redemptions by APs. However, the Board has also determined that frequent purchases and redemptions for cash may increase tracking error and portfolio transaction costs and may lead to the realization of capital gains. To minimize these potential consequences of frequent purchases and redemptions, the Funds employ fair value pricing and may impose transaction fees on purchases and redemptions of Creation Units to cover the custodial and other costs incurred by a Fund in effecting trades. In addition, the Funds and the Adviser reserve the right to reject any purchase order at any time.
Determination of NAV
Each Fund’s NAV is calculated as of the scheduled close of regular trading on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), generally 4:00 p.m. Eastern time, each day the NYSE is open for business. Each NAV for a Fund is calculated by dividing the applicable Fund’s net assets by its Shares outstanding.
In calculating its NAV, each Fund generally values its assets on the basis of market quotations, last sale prices, or estimates of value furnished by a pricing service or brokers who make markets in such instruments. Debt obligations with maturities of 60 days or less are valued at amortized cost. The values of non-U.S. dollar denominated securities are converted to U.S. dollars using foreign currency exchange rates generally determined as of 4:00 p.m., London time. If the foregoing information is not available for a security held by a Fund or is determined to be unreliable, the security will be valued at fair value estimates under guidelines established by the Board (as described below).
Fair Value Pricing
The Board has adopted procedures and methodologies to fair value Fund securities whose market prices are not “readily available” or are deemed to be unreliable. For example, such circumstances may arise when: (i) a security has been de-listed or has had its trading halted or suspended; (ii) a security’s primary pricing source is unable or unwilling to provide a price; (iii) a security’s primary trading market is closed during regular market hours; or (iv) a security’s value is materially affected by events occurring after the close of the security’s primary trading market. Generally, when fair valuing a security, the Funds will take into account all reasonably available information that may be relevant to a particular valuation including, but not limited to, fundamental analytical data regarding the issuer, information relating to the issuer’s business, recent trades or offers of the security, general and/or specific market conditions and the specific facts giving rise to the need to fair value the security. Fair value determinations are made in good faith and in accordance with the fair value methodologies included in the Board-adopted valuation procedures. Due to the subjective and variable nature of fair value pricing, there can be no assurance that the Adviser or Sub-Adviser will be able to obtain the fair value assigned to the security upon the sale of such security.
Delivery of Shareholder Documents – Householding
Householding is an option available to certain investors of the Funds. Householding is a method of delivery, based on the preference of the individual investor, in which a single copy of certain shareholder documents can be delivered to investors who share the same address, even if their accounts are registered under different names. Householding for the Funds is available through certain broker-dealers. If you are interested in enrolling in householding and receiving a single copy of prospectuses and other shareholder documents, please contact your broker-dealer. If you are currently enrolled in householding and wish to change your householding status, please contact your broker-dealer.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by registered investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including Shares. The SEC has granted an exemptive order to the Trust permitting registered investment companies that enter into an agreement with the Trust (“Investing Funds”) to invest in the Funds, and certain other series of the Trust, beyond the limits of Section 12(d)(1), subject to certain terms and conditions. However, to the extent a Fund invests in securities of another investment company, including other Vident Funds, in excess of the limits contained in section 12(d)(1)(A), such exemptive relief will not be applicable to such Fund. Accordingly, Investing Funds must adhere to the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) when investing in such Fund.

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Dividends, Distributions and Taxes
Dividends and Distributions
Each Fund intends to pay out dividends, if any, quarterly. Each Fund intends to distribute any net realized capital gains to its shareholders at least annually. Each Fund will declare and pay capital gain distributions, if any, in cash. Distributions in cash may be reinvested automatically in additional whole Shares only if the broker through whom you purchased Shares makes such option available. Your broker is responsible for distributing the income and capital gain distributions to you.
Taxes
The following discussion is a summary of some important U.S. federal income tax considerations generally applicable to investments in a Fund. Your investment in a Fund may have other tax implications. Please consult your tax advisor about the tax consequences of an investment in Shares, including the possible application of foreign, state, and local tax laws.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”) made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017. Many of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and only apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. There are only minor changes with respect to the specific rules applicable to a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, such as a Fund. The Tax Act, however, made numerous other changes to the tax rules that may affect shareholders and the Funds. You are urged to consult with your own tax advisor regarding how the Tax Act affects your investment in the Funds.
Each Fund intends to qualify each year for treatment as a RIC. If a Fund meets certain minimum distribution requirements, a RIC is not subject to tax at the fund level on income and gains from investments that are timely distributed to shareholders. However, a Fund’s failure to qualify as a RIC or to meet minimum distribution requirements would result (if certain relief provisions were not available) in fund-level taxation and, consequently, a reduction in income available for distribution to shareholders.
Unless your investment in Shares is made through a tax-exempt entity or tax-advantaged account, such as an IRA plan, you need to be aware of the possible tax consequences when a Fund makes distributions, when you sell your Shares listed on the Exchange; and when you purchase or redeem Creation Units (institutional investors only).
Taxes on Distributions
Each Fund intends to distribute, at least annually, substantially all of its net investment income and net capital gains. For federal income tax purposes, distributions of investment income are generally taxable as ordinary income or qualified dividend income. Taxes on distributions of capital gains (if any) are determined by how long a Fund owned the investments that generated them, rather than how long a shareholder has owned his or her Shares. Sales of assets held by a Fund for more than one year generally result in long-term capital gains and losses, and sales of assets held by a Fund for one year or less generally result in short-term capital gains and losses. Distributions of a Fund’s net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gains over net short-term capital losses) that are reported by such Fund as capital gain dividends (“Capital Gain Dividends”) will be taxable as long-term capital gains, which for non-corporate shareholders are subject to tax at reduced rates of up to 20% (lower rates apply to individuals in lower tax brackets). Distributions of short-term capital gain will generally be taxable as ordinary income. Dividends and distributions are generally taxable to you whether you receive them in cash or reinvest them in additional Shares.
Distributions reported by a Fund as “qualified dividend income” are generally taxed to non-corporate shareholders at rates applicable to long-term capital gains, provided holding period and other requirements are met. “Qualified dividend income” generally is income derived from dividends paid by U.S. corporations or certain foreign corporations that are either incorporated in a U.S. possession or eligible for tax benefits under certain U.S. income tax treaties. In addition, dividends that the Fund received in respect of stock of certain foreign corporations may be qualified dividend income if that stock is readily tradable on an established U.S. securities market. Since the U.S. Bond Fund’s income is derived primarily from interest income, it is not expected that the Fund will distribute “qualified dividend income” or income that would qualify for the dividends-received deduction for corporate shareholders. In addition, since the International Equity Fund invests primarily in securities of non-U.S. issuers, it is not expected that a significant portion of the dividends received from such Fund will qualify for the dividends-received deduction for corporations.
Shortly after the close of each calendar year, you will be informed of the character of any distributions received from a Fund.
U.S. individuals with income exceeding specified thresholds are subject to a 3.8% Medicare contribution tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes interest, dividends, and certain capital gains (generally including capital gains distributions and capital gains realized on the sale of Shares). This 3.8% tax also applies to all or a portion of the undistributed net investment income of certain shareholders that are estates and trusts.
In general, your distributions are subject to federal income tax for the year in which they are paid. Certain distributions paid in January, however, may be treated as paid on December 31 of the prior year. Distributions are generally taxable even if they are paid from income or gains earned by a Fund before your investment (and thus were included in the Shares’ NAV when you purchased your Shares).
You may wish to avoid investing in a Fund shortly before a dividend or other distribution, because such a distribution will generally be taxable even though it may economically represent a return of a portion of your investment.

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If you are neither a resident nor a citizen of the United States or if you are a foreign entity, distributions (other than Capital Gain Dividends) paid to you by a Fund will generally be subject to a U.S. withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless a lower treaty rate applies. A Fund may, under certain circumstances, report all or a portion of a dividend as an “interest-related dividend” or a “short-term capital gain dividend,” which would generally be exempt from this 30% U.S. withholding tax, provided certain other requirements are met.
Each Fund (or a financial intermediary, such as a broker, through which a shareholder owns Shares) generally is required to withhold and remit to the U.S. Treasury a percentage of the taxable distributions and sale or redemption proceeds paid to any shareholder who fails to properly furnish a correct taxpayer identification number, who has underreported dividend or interest income, or who fails to certify that he, she or it is not subject to such withholding.
Taxes When Fund Shares are Sold on the Exchange
Any capital gain or loss realized upon a sale of Shares generally is treated as a long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less. However, any capital loss on a sale of Shares held for six months or less is treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of Capital Gain Dividends paid with respect to such Shares. The ability to deduct capital losses may be limited.
Taxes on Purchases and Redemptions of Creation Units
An AP having the U.S. dollar as its functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes who exchanges securities for Creation Units generally recognizes a gain or a loss. The gain or loss will be equal to the difference between the value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and the exchanging AP’s aggregate basis in the securities delivered, plus the amount of any cash paid for the Creation Units. An AP who exchanges Creation Units for securities will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the exchanging AP’s basis in the Creation Units and the aggregate U.S. dollar market value of the securities received, plus any cash received for such Creation Units. The Internal Revenue Service may assert, however, that a loss that is realized upon an exchange of securities for Creation Units may not be currently deducted under the rules governing “wash sales” (for an AP who does not mark-to-market their holdings), or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons exchanging securities should consult their own tax advisor with respect to whether wash sale rules apply and when a loss might be deductible.
Any capital gain or loss realized upon redemption of Creation Units is generally treated as long-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for more than one year and as a short-term capital gain or loss if Shares have been held for one year or less.
Each Fund may include a payment of cash in addition to, or in place of, the delivery of a basket of securities upon the redemption of Creation Units. Such Fund may sell portfolio securities to obtain the cash needed to distribute redemption proceeds. This may cause such Fund to recognize investment income and/or capital gains or losses that it might not have recognized if it had completely satisfied the redemption in-kind. As a result, such Fund may be less tax efficient if it includes such a cash payment in the proceeds paid upon the redemption of Creation Units.
Foreign Investments by the Funds
Interest and other income received by a Fund with respect to foreign securities may give rise to withholding and other taxes imposed by foreign countries. Tax conventions between certain countries and the United States may reduce or eliminate such taxes. If as of the close of a taxable year more than 50% of the value of a Fund’s assets consists of certain foreign stock or securities, each such Fund will be eligible to elect to “pass through” to investors the amount of foreign income and similar taxes (including withholding taxes) paid by such Fund during that taxable year. This means that investors would be considered to have received as additional income their respective Shares of such foreign taxes, but may be entitled to either a corresponding tax deduction in calculating taxable income, or, subject to certain limitations, a credit in calculating federal income tax. If a Fund does not so elect, each such Fund will be entitled to claim a deduction for certain foreign taxes incurred by such Fund. A Fund (or its administrative agent) will notify you if it makes such an election and provide you with the information necessary to reflect foreign taxes paid on your income tax return.
The foregoing discussion summarizes some of the possible consequences under current federal tax law of an investment in each Fund. It is not a substitute for personal tax advice. You also may be subject to state and local tax on Fund distributions and sales of Shares. Consult your personal tax advisor about the potential tax consequences of an investment in Shares under all applicable tax laws. For more information, please see the section entitled “Federal Income Taxes” in the SAI.
Distribution
The Distributor, ALPS Distributors, Inc. , is a broker-dealer registered with the SEC. The Distributor distributes Creation Units for the Funds on an agency basis and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The Distributor has no role in determining the policies of the Funds or the securities that are purchased or sold by the Funds. The Distributor’s principal address is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80203 .
The Board has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) pursuant to Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act. In accordance with the Plan, each Fund is authorized to pay an amount up to 0.25% of its average daily net assets each year for certain distribution-related activities and shareholder services.

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No Rule 12b-1 fees are currently paid by the Funds, and there are no plans to impose these fees. However, in the event Rule 12b-1 fees are charged in the future, because the fees are paid out of Fund assets, over time these fees will increase the cost of your investment and may cost you more than certain other types of sales charges.
Premium/Discount Information
Information regarding how often Shares of each Fund trade on the Exchange at a price above (i.e., at a premium) or below (i.e., at a discount) the NAV of such Fund is available on the Funds’ website at www.videntfunds.com .
Additional Notices
Shares are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by the Exchange. The Exchange makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the Shares or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Funds to track the total return performance of their respective Index or the ability of the Indexes identified herein to track the performance of their constituent securities. The Exchange is not responsible for, nor has it participated in, the determination of the compilation or the calculation of the Indexes, nor in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of the Shares to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. The Exchange has no obligation or liability to owners of the Shares in connection with the administration, marketing, or trading of the Shares.
The Exchange does not guarantee the accuracy and/or the completeness of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Funds, owners of the Shares, or any other person or entity from the use of the Indexes or the data included therein. The Exchange makes no express or implied warranties, and hereby expressly disclaims all warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose with respect to the Indexes or the data included therein. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall the Exchange have any liability for any lost profits or indirect, punitive, special, or consequential damages even if notified of the possibility thereof.
The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Index Provider, and the Funds make no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of Shares or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the Funds particularly. the Index Provider is a licensor of certain trademarks, service marks and trade names of each Fund. The Index Provider has no obligation to take the needs of the Funds or the owners of Shares into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the Indexes. The Index Provider is not responsible for, and has not participated in, the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of Shares to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the Shares are redeemable. Each Fund, the Index Provider and the Adviser do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, or performance of the Indexes or the data included therein and shall have no liability in connection with the Indexes or Index calculations. The Index Provider owns the Indexes and the Index methodologies and is the licensor of the Indexes to the Adviser, the licensees and the Index receipt agents. The Index Provider has contracted with each Index calculation agent to maintain and calculate the Indexes used by the Funds. Each index calculation agent shall have no liability for any errors or omissions in calculating the Index.
Financial Highlights
The financial highlights tables are intended to help you understand each Fund’s financial performance for the period of the Funds’ operations. Certain information reflects financial results for a single Share. The total returns in the tables represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in a Fund (assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions). This information has been audited by Cohen & Company, Ltd. , the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, whose report, along with the Funds’ financial statements, is included in the Funds’ annual report, which is available upon request.

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VIDENT CORE U.S. BOND STRATEGY ETF

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each period
 
 
Year Ended August 31,
 
Period
Ended
August 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015(a)
 
Net Asset Value, Beginning of Period
$
47.93

 
$
50.26

 
$
51.65

 
$
49.57

 
$
50.00

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  INVESTMENT OPERATIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income(b)
1.50

 
1.17

 
0.92

 
0.86

 
0.63

 
Net Realized and Unrealized
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Gain (Loss) on Investments
3.34

 
(2.39
)
 
(0.74
)
 
1.96

 
(0.70
)
 
Total from Investment Operations
4.84

 
(1.22
)
 
0.18

 
2.82

 
(0.07
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESS DISTRIBUTIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From Net Investment Income
(1.56
)
 
(1.11
)
 
(0.93
)
 
(0.74
)
 
(0.39
)
 
From Net Realized Gains

 

 
(0.65
)
 

 

 
Total Distributions
(1.56
)
 
(1.11
)
 
(1.58
)
 
(0.74
)
 
(0.39
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CAPITAL SHARE TRANSACTIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transaction Fees
0.01

 

(c) 
0.01

 

(c) 
0.03

 
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$
51.22

 
$
47.93

 
$
50.26

 
$
51.65

 
$
49.57

 
Total Return
10.37
%
 
-2.42
 %
 
0.50
%
 
5.76
%
 
-0.08
 %
(d) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets at End of Period (000’s)
$
486,612

 
$
536,796

 
$
557,851

 
$
480,334

 
$
426,297

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RATIOS TO AVERAGE NET ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (Before Management Fees Waived)
0.41
%
 
0.43
 %
 
0.45
%
 
0.45
%
 
0.45
 %
(e) 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (After Management Fees Waived)
0.41
%
 
0.42
 %
 
0.45
%
 
0.45
%
 
0.45
 %
(e) 
Net Investment Income to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (Before Management Fees Waived)
3.11
%
 
2.42
 %
 
1.86
%
 
1.72
%
 
1.43
 %
(e) 
Net Investment Income to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  (After Management Fees Waived)
3.11
%
 
2.43
 %
 
1.86
%
 
1.72
%
 
1.43
 %
(e) 
Portfolio Turnover Rate(f)
384
%
 
324
 %
 
296
%
 
440
%
 
409
 %
(d) 
(a)
Commencement of operations on October 15, 2014.
(b)
Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(c)
Less than $0.005.
(d)
Not annualized.
(e)
Annualized.
(f)
Excludes impact of in-kind transactions.

32


VIDENT CORE U.S. EQUITY FUND

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each year
 
 
Year Ended August 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Net Asset Value,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Beginning of Period
$
35.33

 
$
29.83

 
$
26.55

 
$
25.37

 
$
26.77

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  INVESTMENT OPERATIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income (Loss)(a)
0.49

 
0.40

 
0.35

 
0.47

 
0.46

 
Net Realized and Unrealized
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Gain (Loss) on Investments
(5.60
)
 
5.52

 
3.20

 
1.17

 
(1.43
)
 
Total from Investment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Operations
(5.11
)
 
5.92

 
3.55

 
1.64

 
(0.97
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESS DISTRIBUTIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From Net Investment Income
(0.50
)
 
(0.42
)
 
(0.27
)
 
(0.46
)
 
(0.43
)
 
From Net Realized Gains

 

 

 

 

(b) 
Total Distributions
(0.50
)
 
(0.42
)
 
(0.27
)
 
(0.46
)
 
(0.43
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CAPITAL SHARE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  TRANSACTIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transaction Fees

(b) 

 

 

 

(b) 
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$
29.72

 
$
35.33

 
$
29.83

 
$
26.55

 
$
25.37

 
Total Return
-14.49
 %
 
19.95
%
 
13.42
%
 
6.61
%
 
-3.70
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets at End of Period (000’s)
$
478,413

 
$
671,355

 
$
501,156

 
$
467,248

 
$
400,787

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RATIOS TO AVERAGE NET ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Before Management Fees Waived)
0.50
 %
 
0.52
%
 
0.55
%
 
0.55
%
 
0.55
 %
 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(After Management Fees Waived)
0.50
 %
 
0.51
%
 
0.55
%
 
0.55
%
 
0.55
 %
 
Net Investment Income to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Before Management Fees Waived)
1.56
 %
 
1.20
%
 
1.24
%
 
1.87
%
 
1.72
 %
 
Net Investment Income to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(After Management Fees Waived)
1.56
 %
 
1.21
%
 
1.24
%
 
1.87
%
 
1.72
 %
 
Portfolio Turnover Rate(c)
71
 %
 
63
%
 
68
%
 
114
%
 
90
 %
 
(a)
Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(b)
Less than $0.005.
(c)
Excludes impact of in-kind transactions.

33


VIDENT INTERNATIONAL EQUITY FUND

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For a capital share outstanding throughout each year
 
 
Year Ended August 31,
 
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
Net Asset Value,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Beginning of Period
$
25.19

 
$
27.16

 
$
21.60

 
$
20.82

 
$
25.70

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INCOME (LOSS) FROM
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  INVESTMENT OPERATIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Investment Income (Loss)(a)
0.74

 
0.60

 
0.50

 
0.46

 
0.44

 
Net Realized and Unrealized
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Gain (Loss) on Investments
(2.64
)
 
(1.91
)
 
5.60

 
0.70

 
(4.89
)
 
Total from Investment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Operations
(1.90
)
 
(1.31
)
 
6.10

 
1.16

 
(4.45
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LESS DISTRIBUTIONS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
From Net Investment Income
(0.70
)
 
(0.66
)
 
(0.54
)
 
(0.38
)
 
(0.43
)
 
Total Distributions
(0.70
)
 
(0.66
)
 
(0.54
)
 
(0.38
)
 
(0.43
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CAPITAL SHARE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  TRANSACTIONS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Transaction Fees

(b) 

(b) 

(b) 

(b) 

(b) 
Net Asset Value, End of Period
$
22.59

 
$
25.19

 
$
27.16

 
$
21.60

 
$
20.82

 
Total Return
-7.61
 %
 
-4.97
 %
 
28.70
%
 
5.68
%
 
-17.60
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Assets at End of Period (000’s)
$
569,345

 
$
609,628

 
$
722,364

 
$
583,078

 
$
616,410

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RATIOS TO AVERAGE NET ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Before Management Fees Waived)
0.61
 %
 
0.64
 %
 
0.68
%
 
0.68
%
 
0.71
 %
 
Expenses to Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(After Management Fees Waived)
0.61
 %
 
0.63
 %
 
0.68
%
 
0.68
%
 
0.71
 %
 
Net Investment Income to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Before Management Fees Waived)
3.09
 %
 
2.18
 %
 
2.13
%
 
2.25
%
 
1.85
 %
 
Net Investment Income to
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Net Assets
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(After Management Fees Waived)
3.09
 %
 
2.19
 %
 
2.13
%
 
2.25
%
 
1.85
 %
 
Portfolio Turnover Rate(c)
76
 %
 
66
 %
 
73
%
 
106
%
 
43
 %
 
(a)
Calculated based on average shares outstanding during the period.
(b)
Less than $0.005.
(c)
Excludes impact of in-kind transactions.

34


Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
Vident International Equity Fund
Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Sub-Adviser
Vident Investment Advisory, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Custodian
U.S. Bank National Association
1555 N. Rivercenter Drive, Suite 302 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53212
Distributor
ALPS Distributors, Inc.
1290 Broadway, Suite 1000
Denver, Colorado 80203
Legal Counsel
Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLP
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20004-2541
Index Provider
Vident Financial, LLC
1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515
Alpharetta, Georgia 30009
Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Cohen & Company, Ltd.
342 North Water Street, Suite 830
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Transfer Agent, Fund Accountant and Administrator
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC
d/b/a U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
615 East Michigan Street 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Investors may find more information about the Funds in the following documents:
Statement of Additional Information: The Funds’ SAI provides additional details about the investments of the Funds and certain other additional information. A current SAI dated January 1, 2020 is on file with the SEC and is herein incorporated by reference into this Prospectus. It is legally considered a part of this Prospectus.
Annual/Semi-Annual Reports: Additional information about each Fund’s investments will be available in the Funds’ annual and semi-annual reports to shareholders. In the annual report you will find a discussion of the market conditions and investment strategies that significantly affected the Funds’ performance.
To make shareholder inquiries, for more detailed information on the Funds, or to request the SAI or annual or semi-annual shareholder reports (once available) free of charge, please:
Call:
1-800-617-0004
Monday through Friday
8:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m. (Central time)
 
Write:
Vident Funds
c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services
P.O. Box 701
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202
Visit:
www.videntfunds.com
 
 
 

Shareholder reports and other information about the Funds are available, free of charge, on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
No person is authorized to give any information or to make any representations about the Funds and their Shares not contained in this Prospectus and you should not rely on any other information. Read and keep this Prospectus for future reference.

(SEC Investment Company Act File No. 811-22668)

35

Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF® (VBND)
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund® (VUSE)
Vident International Equity Fund® (VIDI)

Each a series of ETF Series Solutions
Listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
January 1, 2020
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the prospectus dated January 1, 2020 , as may be supplemented from time to time (“Prospectus”), of the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF (“U.S. Bond Fund”), Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund (“U.S. Equity Fund”) and Vident International Equity Fund (“International Equity Fund”) (each, a “Fund” and, collectively, the “Funds”), each a series of ETF Series Solutions (the “Trust”). Capitalized terms used herein that are not defined have the same meaning as in the Prospectus, unless otherwise noted.
A copy of the Prospectus may be obtained, without charge by calling 1-800-617-0004, visiting www.videntfunds.com , or writing to Vident Funds, c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, P.O. Box 701, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201.
The Funds’ audited financial statements for their most recent fiscal year are incorporated into this SAI by reference to the Funds’ Annual Report to Shareholders (File No. 811-22668). You may obtain a copy of the Funds’ Annual Report at no charge by request to the Funds at the address or phone number noted above.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUNDS
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, POLICIES, AND RELATED RISKS
DESCRIPTION OF PERMITTED INVESTMENTS
ADDITIONAL INDEX INFORMATION
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS, CONTROL PERSONS, AND MANAGEMENT OWNERSHIP
CODES OF ETHICS
PROXY VOTING POLICIES
INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS
THE DISTRIBUTOR
THE ADMINISTRATOR, CUSTODIAN, AND TRANSFER AGENT
SECURITIES LENDING ACTIVITIES
LEGAL COUNSEL
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
DESCRIPTION OF SHARES
LIMITATION OF TRUSTEES’ LIABILITY
BROKERAGE TRANSACTIONS
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM
PURCHASE AND REDEMPTION OF SHARES IN CREATION UNITS
DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE
DIVIDENDS AND DISTRIBUTIONS
FEDERAL INCOME TAXES
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Appendix A
Appendix B

1


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE TRUST AND THE FUNDS
The Trust is an open-end management investment company consisting of multiple investment series. This SAI relates to the Funds. The Trust was organized as a Delaware statutory trust on February 9, 2012. The Trust is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (together with the rules and regulations adopted thereunder, as amended, the “1940 Act”), as an open-end management investment company and the offering of the Funds’ shares (“Shares”) is registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Trust is governed by its Board of Trustees (the “Board”). Vident Advisory, LLC (“Vident Advisory” or the “Adviser”) serves as investment adviser to the Funds. Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (the “Sub-Adviser”) serves as sub-adviser to the Funds. The investment objective of the Funds is to seek to track the performance, before fees and expenses, of an applicable underlying Index.
Each Fund offers and issues Shares at its net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). The U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund each generally offer and issue Shares in exchange for a basket of securities included in the applicable Fund’s Index (“Deposit Securities”) together with the deposit of a specified cash payment (“Cash Component”). The U.S. Bond Fund generally offers and issues Shares in exchange for cash. The Trust reserves the right to permit or require the substitution of a “cash in lieu” amount (“Deposit Cash”) to be added to the Cash Component to replace any Deposit Security. Shares are listed on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “Exchange”) and trade on the Exchange at market prices that may differ from the Shares’ NAV. A Creation Unit of a Fund generally consists of 100,000 Shares, though this may change from time to time. Creation Units are not expected to consist of fewer than 25,000 Shares. As a practical matter, only institutions or large investors purchase or redeem Creation Units. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable securities.
Shares may be issued in advance of receipt of Deposit Securities subject to various conditions, including a requirement to maintain on deposit with the Trust cash at least equal to a specified percentage of the value of the missing Deposit Securities, as set forth in the Participant Agreement (as defined below). The Trust may impose a transaction fee for each creation or redemption. In all cases, such fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of the SEC applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. As in the case of other publicly traded securities, brokers’ commissions on transactions in the secondary market will be based on negotiated commission rates at customary levels.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT INVESTMENT OBJECTIVES, POLICIES, AND RELATED RISKS
Each Fund’s investment objective and principal investment strategies are described in the Prospectus. The following information supplements, and should be read in conjunction with, the Prospectus. For a description of certain permitted investments, see “Description of Permitted Investments” in this SAI.
With respect to each Fund’s investments, unless otherwise noted, if a percentage limitation on investment is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a subsequent increase or decrease as a result of market movement or redemption will not result in a violation of such investment limitation.
Diversification
Each Fund is “diversified” within the meaning of the 1940 Act. Under applicable federal laws, to qualify as a diversified fund, each Fund, with respect to 75% of its total assets, may not invest greater than 5% of its total assets in any one issuer and may not hold greater than 10% of the securities of one issuer. The remaining 25% of each Fund’s total assets does not need to be “diversified” and may be invested in securities of a single issuer, subject to other applicable laws. The diversification of a fund’s holdings is measured at the time the fund purchases a security. However, if a fund purchases a security and holds it for a period of time, the security may become a larger percentage of the fund’s total assets due to movements in the financial markets. If the market affects several securities held by a fund, the fund may have a greater percentage of its assets invested in securities of fewer issuers. However, each Fund intends to satisfy the asset diversification requirements for qualification as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). See “Federal Income Taxes” below for details.
General Risks
The value of a Fund’s portfolio securities may fluctuate with changes in the financial condition of an issuer or counterparty, changes in specific economic or political conditions that affect a particular security or issuer and changes in general economic or political conditions. An investor in a Fund could lose money over short or long periods of time.
There can be no guarantee that a liquid market for the securities held by a Fund will be maintained. The existence of a liquid trading market for certain securities may depend on whether dealers will make a market in such securities. There can be no assurance that a market will be made or maintained or that any such market will be or remain liquid. The price at which securities may be sold and the value of Shares will be adversely affected if trading markets for a Fund’s portfolio securities are limited or absent, or if bid/ask spreads are wide.




Cyber Security Risk. Investment companies, such as the Funds, and their service providers may be subject to operational and information security risks resulting from cyber attacks. Cyber attacks include, among other behaviors, stealing or corrupting data maintained online or digitally, denial of service attacks on websites, the unauthorized release of confidential information or various other forms of cyber security breaches. Cyber attacks affecting a Fund or the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, custodian, transfer agent, intermediaries and other third-party service providers may adversely impact a Fund. For instance, cyber attacks may interfere with the processing of shareholder transactions, impact a Fund’s ability to calculate its NAV, cause the release of private shareholder information or confidential company information, impede trading, subject a Fund to regulatory fines or financial losses, and cause reputational damage. A Fund may also incur additional costs for cyber security risk management purposes. Similar types of cyber security risks are also present for issuers of securities in which a Fund invests, which could result in material adverse consequences for such issuers, and may cause a Fund’s investments in such portfolio companies to lose value.
DESCRIPTION OF PERMITTED INVESTMENTS
The following are descriptions of the Funds’ permitted investments and investment practices and the associated risk factors. A Fund will only invest in any of the following instruments or engage in any of the following investment practices if such investment or activity is consistent with a Fund’s investment objective and permitted by the Fund’s stated investment policies. Each of the permitted investments described below applies to each Fund unless otherwise noted.
Corporate Debt Securities (U.S. Bond Fund only). Corporate debt securities are long- and short-term debt obligations issued by companies (such as publicly issued and privately placed bonds, notes and commercial paper). The Adviser considers corporate debt securities to be of investment grade quality if they are rated BBB or higher by Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”), a division of the McGraw Hill Companies, or Baa or higher by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. (“Moody’s”), or if unrated, determined by the Adviser to be of comparable quality. Investment grade debt securities generally have adequate to strong protection of principal and interest payments. In the lower end of this category, adverse economic conditions or changing circumstances are more likely to lead to a weakened capacity to pay interest and repay principal than in higher rated categories.
Currency Transactions (International Equity Fund only). The Fund may enter into foreign currency forward and foreign currency futures contracts to facilitate local securities settlements or to protect against currency exposure in connection with distributions to shareholders. The Fund does not expect to engage in currency transactions for the purpose of hedging against declines in the value of the Fund’s total assets that are denominated in one or more foreign currencies.
Forward Foreign Currency Contracts. A forward foreign currency exchange contract (“forward contract”) involves an obligation to purchase or sell a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract. These contracts are principally traded in the interbank market conducted directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. Forward contracts are contracts between parties in which one party agrees to make a payment to the other party (the counterparty) based on the market value or level of a specified currency. In return, the counterparty agrees to make payment to the first party based on the return of a different specified currency. A forward contract generally has no margin deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades. These contracts typically are settled by physical delivery of the underlying currency or currencies in the amount of the full contract value.
A non-deliverable forward contract is a forward contract where there is no physical settlement of two currencies at maturity. Non-deliverable forward contracts will usually be done on a net basis, with the Fund receiving or paying only the net amount of the two payments. The net amount of the excess, if any, of the Fund’s obligations over its entitlements with respect to each non-deliverable forward contract is accrued on a daily basis and an amount of cash or highly liquid securities having an aggregate value at least equal to the accrued excess is maintained in an account at the Fund’s custodian bank. The risk of loss with respect to non-deliverable forward contracts generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make or receive.
Foreign Currency Futures Contracts. A foreign currency futures contract is a contract involving an obligation to deliver or acquire the specified amount of a specific currency, at a specified price and at a specified future time. Futures contracts may be settled on a net cash payment basis rather than by the sale and delivery of the underlying currency.
Currency exchange transactions involve a significant degree of risk and the markets in which currency exchange transactions are effected are highly volatile, highly specialized and highly technical. Significant changes, including changes in liquidity and prices, can occur in such markets within very short periods of time, often within minutes. Currency exchange trading risks include, but are not limited to, exchange rate risk, maturity gap, interest rate risk, and potential interference by foreign governments through regulation of local exchange markets, foreign investment or particular transactions in foreign currency. If the Fund utilizes foreign currency transactions at an inappropriate time, such transactions may not serve their intended purpose of improving the correlation of the Fund’s return with the performance of its underlying Index and may lower the Fund’s return. The Fund could experience losses if the value of any currency forwards and futures positions is poorly correlated with its other investments or if it could not close out its positions because of an illiquid market. Such contracts are subject to the risk that the counterparty will default on its obligations. In addition, the Fund will incur transaction costs, including trading commissions, in connection with certain foreign currency transactions.

3


Depositary Receipts (International Equity Fund only). To the extent the Fund invests in stocks of foreign corporations, the Fund’s investment in securities of foreign companies may be in the form of depositary receipts or other securities convertible into securities of foreign issuers. American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”) are dollar-denominated receipts representing interests in the securities of a foreign issuer, which securities may not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as the securities into which they may be converted. ADRs are receipts typically issued by United States banks and trust companies which evidence ownership of underlying securities issued by a foreign corporation. Generally, ADRs in registered form are designed for use in domestic securities markets and are traded on exchanges or over-the-counter in the United States. Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), and International Depositary Receipts (“IDRs”) are similar to ADRs in that they are certificates evidencing ownership of shares of a foreign issuer, however, GDRs, EDRs, and IDRs may be issued in bearer form and denominated in other currencies, and are generally designed for use in specific or multiple securities markets outside the U.S. EDRs, for example, are designed for use in European securities markets, while GDRs are designed for use throughout the world. Depositary receipts will not necessarily be denominated in the same currency as their underlying securities.
The Fund will not invest in any unlisted Depositary Receipts or any Depositary Receipt that the Sub-Adviser deems to be illiquid or for which pricing information is not readily available. In addition, all Depositary Receipts generally must be sponsored. However, the Fund may invest in unsponsored Depositary Receipts under certain limited circumstances. The issuers of unsponsored Depositary Receipts are not obligated to disclose material information in the United States and, therefore, there may be less information available regarding such issuers and there may not be a correlation between such information and the value of the Depositary Receipts. The use of Depositary Receipts may increase tracking error relative to the underlying Index.
Equity Securities (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). Equity securities, such as the common stocks of an issuer, are subject to stock market fluctuations and therefore may experience volatile changes in value as market conditions, consumer sentiment or the financial condition of the issuers change. A decrease in value of the equity securities in a Fund’s portfolio may also cause the value of the Fund’s Shares to decline.
An investment in the Funds should be made with an understanding of the risks inherent in an investment in equity securities, including the risk that the financial condition of issuers may become impaired or that the general condition of the stock market may deteriorate (either of which may cause a decrease in the value of a Fund’s portfolio securities and therefore a decrease in the value of Shares). Common stocks are susceptible to general stock market fluctuations and to volatile increases and decreases in value as market confidence and perceptions change. These investor perceptions are based on various and unpredictable factors, including expectations regarding government, economic, monetary and fiscal policies; inflation and interest rates; economic expansion or contraction; and global or regional political, economic or banking crises.
Holders of common stocks incur more risk than holders of preferred stocks and debt obligations because common stockholders, as owners of the issuer, generally have inferior rights to receive payments from the issuer in comparison with the rights of creditors or holders of debt obligations or preferred stocks. Further, unlike debt securities, which typically have a stated principal amount payable at maturity (whose value, however, is subject to market fluctuations prior thereto), or preferred stocks, which typically have a liquidation preference and which may have stated optional or mandatory redemption provisions, common stocks have neither a fixed principal amount nor a maturity. Common stock values are subject to market fluctuations as long as the common stock remains outstanding.
When-Issued Securities: A when-issued security is one whose terms are available and for which a market exists, but which has not been issued. When a Fund engages in when-issued transactions, it relies on the other party to consummate the sale. If the other party fails to complete the sale, a Fund may miss the opportunity to obtain the security at a favorable price or yield.
When purchasing a security on a when-issued basis, a Fund assumes the rights and risks of ownership of the security, including the risk of price and yield changes. At the time of settlement, the value of the security may be more or less than the purchase price. The yield available in the market when the delivery takes place also may be higher than those obtained in the transaction itself. Because a Fund does not pay for the security until the delivery date, these risks are in addition to the risks associated with its other investments.
Decisions to enter into “when-issued” transactions will be considered on a case-by-case basis when necessary to maintain continuity in a company’s index membership. A Fund will segregate cash or liquid securities equal in value to commitments for the when-issued transactions. A Fund will segregate additional liquid assets daily so that the value of such assets is equal to the amount of the commitments.
Types of Equity Securities:
Common Stocks — Common stocks represent units of ownership in a company. Common stocks usually carry voting rights and earn dividends. Unlike preferred stocks, which are described below, dividends on common stocks are not fixed but are declared at the discretion of the company’s board of directors.
Preferred Stocks — Preferred stocks are also units of ownership in a company. Preferred stocks normally have preference over common stock in the payment of dividends and the liquidation of the company. However, in all other respects, preferred stocks are subordinated to the liabilities of the issuer. Unlike common stocks, preferred stocks are generally not entitled to vote on corporate matters. Types of preferred stocks include adjustable-rate preferred stock, fixed dividend preferred stock, perpetual preferred stock, and sinking fund preferred stock.

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Generally, the market values of preferred stock with a fixed dividend rate and no conversion element vary inversely with interest rates and perceived credit risk.
Rights and Warrants — A right is a privilege granted to existing shareholders of a corporation to subscribe to shares of a new issue of common stock before it is issued. Rights normally have a short life of usually two to four weeks, are freely transferable and entitle the holder to buy the new common stock at a lower price than the public offering price. Warrants are securities that are usually issued together with a debt security or preferred stock and that give the holder the right to buy proportionate amount of common stock at a specified price. Warrants are freely transferable and are traded on major exchanges. Unlike rights, warrants normally have a life that is measured in years and entitles the holder to buy common stock of a company at a price that is usually higher than the market price at the time the warrant is issued. Corporations often issue warrants to make the accompanying debt security more attractive.
An investment in warrants and rights may entail greater risks than certain other types of investments. Generally, rights and warrants do not carry the right to receive dividends or exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying securities, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. In addition, their value does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities, and they cease to have value if they are not exercised on or before their expiration date. Investing in rights and warrants increases the potential profit or loss to be realized from the investment as compared with investing the same amount in the underlying securities.
Exchange-Traded Notes (“ETNs”). A Fund may invest in ETNs. ETNs generally are senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt securities issued by a sponsor, such as an investment bank. ETNs are traded on exchanges and the returns are linked to the performance of market indexes. In addition to trading ETNs on exchanges, investors may redeem ETNs directly with the issuer on a periodic basis, typically in a minimum amount of 50,000 units, or hold the ETNs until maturity. The value of an ETN may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in the underlying market, changes in the applicable interest rates, and economic, legal, political or geographic events that affect the referenced market. Because ETNs are debt securities, they are subject to credit risk. If the issuer has financial difficulties or goes bankrupt, a Fund may not receive the return it was promised. If a rating agency lowers an issuer’s credit rating, the value of the ETN may decline and a lower credit rating reflects a greater risk that the issuer will default on its obligation. There may be restrictions on a Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN. There are no periodic interest payments for ETNs, and principal is not protected. A Fund’s decision to sell its ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market.
Fixed Income Securities. The Funds may invest in fixed income securities. Even though interest-bearing securities are investments that promise a stable stream of income, the prices of such securities are affected by changes in interest rates. In general, fixed income security prices rise when interest rates fall and fall when interest rates rise. Securities with shorter maturities, while offering lower yields, generally provide greater price stability than longer term securities and are less affected by changes in interest rates. The values of fixed income securities also may be affected by changes in the credit rating or financial condition of the issuing entities. Once the rating of a portfolio security has been changed, the Funds will consider all circumstances deemed relevant in determining whether to continue to hold the security.
Fixed income investments bear certain risks, including credit risk, or the ability of an issuer to pay interest and principal as they become due. Generally, higher yielding bonds are subject to more credit risk than lower yielding bonds. Interest rate risk refers to the fluctuations in value of fixed income securities resulting from the inverse relationship between the market value of outstanding fixed income securities and changes in interest rates. An increase in interest rates will generally reduce the market value of fixed income investments and a decline in interest rates will tend to increase their value.
Call risk is the risk that an issuer will pay principal on an obligation earlier than scheduled or expected, which would accelerate cash flows from, and shorten the average life of, the security. Bonds are typically called when interest rates have declined. In the event of a bond being called, the Adviser may have to reinvest the proceeds in lower yielding securities to the detriment of the Funds.
Extension risk is the risk that an issuer may pay principal on an obligation slower than expected, having the effect of extending the average life and duration of the obligation. This typically happens when interest rates have increased.
A number of factors, including changes in a central bank’s monetary policies or general improvements in the economy, may cause interest rates to rise. Fixed income securities with longer durations are more sensitive to interest rate changes than securities with shorter durations, making them more volatile. This means their prices are more likely to experience a considerable reduction in response to a rise in interest rates.
When investing in fixed income securities, the Funds may purchase securities regardless of their rating, including fixed income securities rated below investment grade – securities rated below investment grade are often referred to as high yield securities or “junk bonds”. High yield securities or “junk bonds,” involve special risks in addition to the risks associated with investments in higher rated fixed income securities. While offering a greater potential opportunity for capital appreciation and higher yields, high yield securities may be subject to greater levels of interest rate, credit and liquidity risk, may entail greater potential price volatility, and may be less liquid than higher rated fixed income securities. High yield securities may be regarded as predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s continuing ability to meet principal and interest payments. They may also be more susceptible to real or perceived adverse economic and competitive industry conditions than higher rated securities. Fixed income securities rated in the lowest investment grade categories by the rating agencies may also possess speculative characteristics. If securities are in default with respect to the payment of interest or the

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repayment of principal, or present an imminent risk of default with respect to such payments, the issuer of such securities may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case a Fund may lose its entire investment in the high yield security. In addition, to the extent that there is no established retail secondary market, there may be thin trading of high yield securities, and this may have an impact on a Fund’s ability to accurately value high yield securities and the Fund’s assets and on the Fund’s ability to dispose of the securities. Adverse publicity and investor perception, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may decrease the values and liquidity of high yield securities especially in a thinly traded market.
Fixed-Income Securities Ratings (U.S. Bond Fund only). The nationally recognized statistical rating organizations publish ratings based upon their assessment of the relative creditworthiness of the rated fixed-income securities. Generally, a lower rating indicates higher credit risk, and higher yields are ordinarily available from fixed-income securities in the lower rating categories to compensate investors for the increased credit risk. Any use of credit ratings in evaluating fixed-income securities can involve certain risks. For example, ratings assigned by the rating agencies are based upon an analysis completed at the time of the rating of the obligor’s ability to pay interest and repay principal, typically relying to a large extent on historical data. Rating agencies typically rely to a large extent on historical data which may not accurately represent present or future circumstances. Ratings do not purport to reflect to risk of fluctuations in market value of the fixed-income security and are not absolute standards of quality and only express the rating agency’s current opinion of an obligor’s overall financial capacity to pay its financial obligations. A credit rating is not a statement of fact or a recommendation to purchase, sell or hold a fixed-income obligation. Also, credit quality can change suddenly and unexpectedly, and credit ratings may not reflect the issuer’s current financial condition or events since the security was last rated. Rating agencies may have a financial interest in generating business, including the arranger or issuer of the security that normally pays for that rating, and a low rating might affect future business. While rating agencies have policies and procedures to address this potential conflict of interest, there is a risk that these policies will fail to prevent a conflict of interest from impacting the rating. Additionally, legislation has been enacted in an effort to reform rating agencies. Rules have also been adopted by the SEC to require rating agencies to provide additional disclosure and reduce conflicts of interest, and further reform has been proposed. It is uncertain how such legislation or additional regulation might impact the ratings agencies business and the Sub-Adviser’s investment process.
Prepayment risk occurs when a fixed-income investment held by the Fund may be repaid in whole or in part prior to its maturity. The amount of prepayable obligations the Fund invests in from time to time may be affected by general business conditions, market interest rates, borrowers’ financial conditions and competitive conditions among lenders. In a period of declining interest rates, borrowers may repay investments more quickly than anticipated, reducing the yield to maturity and the average life of the relevant investment. Moreover, when the Fund reinvests the proceeds of a prepayment in these circumstances, it will likely receive a rate of interest that is lower than the rate on the security that was prepaid. To the extent that the Fund purchases a relevant investment at a premium, prepayments may result in a loss to the extent of the premium paid. If the Fund buys such investments at a discount, both scheduled payments and unscheduled prepayments will increase current and total returns and unscheduled prepayments will also accelerate the recognition of income. In a period of rising interest rates, prepayments of investments may occur at a slower than expected rate, creating maturity extension risk. This particular risk may effectively change an investment that was considered short- or intermediate-term at the time of purchase into a longer-term investment. Since the value of longer-term investments generally fluctuates more widely in response to changes in interest rates than short-term investments, maturity extension risk could increase the volatility of the Fund. When interest rates decline, the value of an investment with prepayment features may not increase as much as that of other fixed-income securities and, as noted above, changes in market rates of interest may accelerate or delay prepayments and thus affect maturities.
High Yield and Unrated Securities Risk (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in high yield securities and unrated securities of similar credit quality (commonly known as “junk bonds”). High yield securities generally pay higher yields (greater income) than investment in higher quality securities; however, high yield securities may be subject to greater levels of interest rate, credit and liquidity risk than funds that do not invest in such securities, and are considered predominantly speculative with respect to an issuer’s continuing ability to make principal and interest payments. Successful investment in high yield securities and unrated securities of similar quality involves greater investment risk and is highly dependent on the applicable investment adviser’s credit analysis. The value of these securities often fluctuates in response to company, political or economic developments and declines significantly over short periods of time or during periods of general economic difficulty. An economic downturn or period of rising interest rates could adversely affect the market for these securities and reduce the ability to sell these securities (liquidity risk). These securities can also be thinly traded or have restrictions on resale, making them difficult to sell at an acceptable price. Because objective pricing data may be less available, judgment may play a greater role in the valuation process. If the issuer of a security is in default with respect to interest or principal payments, the Fund may lose its entire investment.
Illiquid Investments. Each Fund may invest up to an aggregate amount of 15% of its net assets in illiquid investments, as such term is defined by Rule 22e-4 of the 1940 Act. A Fund may not invest in illiquid investments if, as a result of such investment, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in illiquid investments. Illiquid investments include securities subject to contractual or other restrictions on resale and other instruments that lack readily available markets. The inability of a Fund to dispose of illiquid investments readily or at a reasonable price could impair a Fund’s ability to raise cash for redemptions or other purposes. The liquidity of securities purchased by a Fund, which are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144A, except for certain 144A bonds, will be monitored by a Fund on an ongoing basis. In the event that more than 15% of a Fund’s net assets are invested in illiquid investments, the Fund, in accordance with Rule 22e-4(b)(1)(iv), will report the occurrence to both the Board and the SEC and seek to reduce its holdings of illiquid investments within a reasonable period of time.

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Investment Company Securities. A Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies. The 1940 Act generally prohibits a fund from acquiring more than 3% of the outstanding voting shares of an investment company and limits such investments to no more than 5% of the fund’s total assets in any single investment company and no more than 10% in any combination of two or more investment companies. A Fund may purchase or otherwise invest in shares of affiliated or non-affiliated exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”) and money market funds.
A Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, closed-end funds and open-end (mutual) funds (also called underlying funds). Such underlying funds may include affiliated or non-affiliated investment companies and may include underlying funds pursuing 130/30 investment strategies or other long/short investment strategies (“Long/Short Funds”).
To the extent such underlying funds are index-based, these underlying funds will generally attempt to replicate the performance of a particular index. An underlying fund may not always hold all of the same securities as the index it attempts to track. An underlying fund may use statistical sampling techniques to attempt to replicate the returns of an index. Statistical sampling techniques attempt to match the investment characteristics of the index and the fund by taking into account such factors as capitalization, industry exposures, dividend yield, price/earnings (P/E) ratio, price/book (P/B) ratio, and earnings growth. An underlying fund may not track the index perfectly because differences between the index and the fund’s portfolio can cause differences in performance. In addition, expenses and transaction costs, the size and frequency of cash flow into and out of the underlying fund, and differences between how and when the underlying fund and the index are valued can cause differences in performance.
When a Fund invests in underlying funds it will indirectly bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses payable directly by the underlying fund. In connection with its investments in other investment companies, a Fund will incur higher expenses, many of which may be duplicative. Furthermore, to the extent a Fund invests in shares of ETFs and underlying funds, its performance will be directly related to the ability of the ETFs and underlying funds to meet their respective investment objectives, as well as the allocation of such Fund’s assets among the ETFs and underlying funds by the Sub-Adviser. Accordingly, a Fund’s investment performance will be influenced by the investment strategies of and risks associated with the ETFs and underlying funds in direct proportion to the amount of assets such Fund allocates to the ETFs and underlying funds utilizing such strategies.
Investments in ETFs involve certain inherent risks generally associated with investments in a broadly-based portfolio of stocks, including the following risks: (1) the general level of stock prices may decline, thereby adversely affecting the value of each unit of the ETF or other instrument; (2) an ETF, to the extent such ETF is index-based, may not fully replicate the performance of its benchmark index because of the temporary unavailability of certain index securities in the secondary market or discrepancies between the ETF and the index with respect to the weightings of securities or number of stocks held; (3) an ETF may also be adversely affected by the performance of the specific index, market sector or group of industries on which it is based; and (4) an ETF, to the extent such ETF is index-based, may not track an index as well as a traditional index mutual fund because ETFs are valued by the market and, therefore, there may be a difference between the market value and the ETF’s NAV. Additionally, investments in fixed income ETFs involve certain inherent risks generally associated with investments in fixed income securities, including the risk of fluctuation in market value based on interest rates rising or declining and risks of a decrease in liquidity, such that no assurances can be made that an active trading market for underlying ETFs will be maintained.
There is also a risk that the underlying funds or ETFs may terminate due to extraordinary events. For example, any of the service providers to the underlying fund or ETF, such as the trustee or sponsor, may close or otherwise fail to perform their obligations to the underlying fund or ETF, and the underlying fund or ETF may not be able to find a substitute service provider. Also, the underlying fund or ETF may be dependent upon licenses to use the various indices as a basis for determining their compositions and/or otherwise to use certain trade names. If these licenses are terminated, the respective underlying fund or ETF may also terminate. In addition, an underlying fund or ETF may terminate if its net assets fall below a certain amount.
Long/Short Funds may make short sales as part of their overall portfolio management strategies or to offset a potential decline in value. Long/Short Funds may engage in short sales with respect to individual equity securities or shares of ETFs. A short sale involves the sale of a security that is borrowed from a broker or other institution to complete the sale. Long/Short Funds may engage in short sales with respect to securities they own, as well as securities that they do not own. Short sales expose a Long/Short Fund, and consequently the investing Fund, to the risk that the Long/Short Fund will be required to acquire, convert or exchange securities to replace the borrowed securities (also known as “covering” the short position) at a time when the securities sold short have appreciated in value, thus resulting in a loss to the Long/Short Fund. A Long/Short Fund’s investment performance, and consequently the investing Fund’s performance, may also suffer if the Long/Short Fund is required to close out a short position earlier than it had intended. Each Long/Short Fund must segregate assets determined to be liquid, or otherwise cover its positions in a permissible manner. Each Long/Short Fund will be required to pledge its liquid assets to the broker to secure its performance on short sales. As a result, the assets pledged may not be available to meet a Long/Short Fund’s needs for immediate cash or other liquidity. In addition, Long/Short Funds may be subject to expenses related to short sales that are not typically associated with investing in securities directly, such as costs of borrowing and margin account maintenance costs associated with the applicable Long/Short Fund’s open short positions. These types of short sales expenses are sometimes referred to as the “negative cost of carry,” and will tend to cause a Long/Short Fund, and consequently an investing Fund, to lose money on a short sale even in instances where the price of the securities sold short does not change over the duration of the short sale. Dividend expenses on securities sold short will be borne by the shareholders of the applicable Long/Short Fund, and consequently by the investing Fund.

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Generally, under the 1940 Act, a fund may not acquire shares of another investment company (including ETFs) if, immediately after such acquisition, (i) such fund would hold more than 3% of the other investment company’s total outstanding shares, (ii) if such fund’s investment in securities of the other investment company would be more than 5% of the value of the total assets of the fund, or (iii) if more than 10% of such fund’s total assets would be invested in investment companies. The SEC has granted orders for exemptive relief to certain ETFs that permit investments in those ETFs by other investment companies (such as the Funds) in excess of these limits. The Funds may invest in ETFs that have received such exemptive orders from the SEC, pursuant to the conditions specified in such orders. In accordance with Section 12(d)(1)(F)(i) of the 1940 Act, the Funds may also invest in ETFs that have not received such exemptive orders as long as the Funds (and all of their affiliated persons, including the Adviser) do not acquire more than 3% of the total outstanding stock of such underlying ETF, unless otherwise permitted to do so pursuant to permission granted by the SEC. If a Fund seeks to redeem shares of an underlying ETF purchased in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F), the underlying ETF is not obligated to redeem an amount exceeding 1% of the underlying ETF’s outstanding shares during a period of less than 30 days. In accordance with Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, the Funds may also invest without limitation in shares of other investment companies that are part of the same group of investment companies and that meet certain additional requirements.
Money Market Instruments. A Fund may invest a portion of its assets in high-quality money market instruments on an ongoing basis to provide liquidity or for other reasons. The instruments in which a Fund may invest include: (i) short-term obligations issued by the U.S. Government; (ii) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), fixed time deposits and bankers’ acceptances of U.S. and foreign banks and similar institutions; (iii) commercial paper rated at the date of purchase “Prime-1” by Moody’s or “A-1+” or “A-1” by S&P or, if unrated, of comparable quality as determined by the Fund; and (iv) repurchase agreements. CDs are short-term negotiable obligations of commercial banks. Time deposits are non-negotiable deposits maintained in banking institutions for specified periods of time at stated interest rates. Banker’s acceptances are time drafts drawn on commercial banks by borrowers, usually in connection with international transactions.
Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities. MBS in which the Fund may invest are mortgage-related securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. Mortgage-related securities represent ownership in pools of mortgage loans assembled for sale to investors by various government agencies such as the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) and government-related organizations such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), as well as by nongovernment issuers such as commercial banks, savings and loan institutions, mortgage bankers and private mortgage insurance companies. Although certain mortgage-related securities are guaranteed by a third party or otherwise similarly secured, the market value of the security, which may fluctuate, is not so secured. These securities differ from conventional bonds in that the principal is paid back to the investor as payments are made on the underlying mortgages in the pool. Accordingly, the investing Fund receives monthly scheduled payments of principal and interest along with any unscheduled principal prepayments on the underlying mortgages. Because these scheduled and unscheduled principal payments must be reinvested at prevailing interest rates, mortgage-backed securities do not provide an effective means of locking in long-term interest rates for the investor.
In addition, there are a number of important differences among the agencies and instrumentalities of the U.S. government that issue mortgage-related securities and among the securities they issue. Mortgage-related securities issued by GNMA include GNMA Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as Ginnie Maes) which are guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest. That guarantee is backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. GNMA is a corporation wholly owned by the U.S. government within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Mortgage-related securities issued by FNMA include FNMA Guaranteed Mortgage Pass-Through Certificates (also known as Fannie Maes) and are guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FNMA itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FNMA is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders. Mortgage-related securities issued by FHLMC include FHLMC Mortgage Participation Certificates (also known as Freddie Macs) guaranteed as to payment of principal and interest by FHLMC itself and backed by a line of credit with the U.S. Treasury. FHLMC is a government-sponsored entity wholly owned by public stockholders.
On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced a federal takeover of Fannie Mae and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), placing the two federal instrumentalities in conservatorship. Under the takeover, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality (the “Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement” or “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, the U.S. Treasury pledged to provide up to $200 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event their liabilities exceed their assets. This was intended to ensure that the instrumentalities maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was amending the Agreement to allow the $200 billion cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in net worth over the next three years. As a result of this Agreement, the investments of holders, including the Funds, of mortgage-backed securities and other obligations issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are protected.

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Asset-backed securities are structured like MBS, but instead of mortgage loans or interests in mortgage loans, the underlying assets may include such items as motor vehicle installment sales contracts or installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from credit card agreements and from sales of personal property. Regular payments received on asset-backed securities include both interest and principal. Asset-backed securities typically have no U.S. government backing. Additionally, the ability of an issuer of asset-backed securities to enforce its security interest in the underlying assets may be limited.
If the Fund purchases a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security at a premium, the premium may be lost if there is a decline in the market value of the security whether resulting from changes in interest rates or prepayments in the underlying collateral. As with other interest-bearing securities, the prices of such securities are inversely affected by changes in interest rates. Although the value of a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security may decline when interest rates rise, the converse is not necessarily true, since in periods of declining interest rates the mortgages and loans underlying the securities are prone to prepayment, thereby shortening the average life of the security and shortening the period of time over which income at the higher rate is received. When interest rates are rising, the rate of prepayment tends to decrease, thereby lengthening the period of time over which income at the lower rate is received. For these and other reasons, a mortgage-backed or other asset-backed security’s average maturity may be shortened or lengthened as a result of interest rate fluctuations and, therefore, it is not possible to predict accurately the security’s return. In addition, while the trading market for short-term mortgages and asset-backed securities is ordinarily quite liquid, in times of financial stress the trading market for these securities may become restricted.
Non-U.S. Securities (International Equity Fund only). The Fund invests primarily in non-U.S. equity securities. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain risks that may not be present in investments in U.S. securities. For example, non-U.S. securities may be subject to currency risks or to political or economic instability. There may be less information publicly available about a non-U.S. issuer than about a U.S. issuer, and a foreign issuer may or may not be subject to uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and practices comparable to those in the U.S. Investments in non-U.S. securities may be subject to withholding or other taxes and may be subject to additional trading, settlement, custodial, and operational risks. Other risks of investing in such securities include political or economic instability in the country involved, the difficulty of predicting international trade patterns and the possibility of imposition of exchange controls. The prices of such securities may be more volatile than those of domestic securities. With respect to certain foreign countries, there is a possibility of expropriation of assets or nationalization, imposition of withholding taxes on dividend or interest payments, difficulty in obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities or diplomatic developments which could affect investment in these countries. Losses and other expenses may be incurred in converting between various currencies in connection with purchases and sales of foreign securities. Since foreign exchanges may be open on days when the Fund does not price its Shares, the value of the securities in the Fund’s portfolio may change on days when shareholders will not be able to purchase or sell Shares. Conversely, Shares may trade on days when foreign exchanges are closed. Each of these factors can make investments in the Fund more volatile and potentially less liquid than other types of investments.
Non-U.S. stock markets may not be as developed or efficient as, and may be more volatile than, those in the U.S. While the volume of shares traded on non-U.S. stock markets generally has been growing, such markets usually have substantially less volume than U.S. markets. Therefore, the Fund’s investment in non-U.S. equity securities may be less liquid and subject to more rapid and erratic price movements than comparable securities listed for trading on U.S. exchanges. Non-U.S. equity securities may trade at price/earnings multiples higher than comparable U.S. securities and such levels may not be sustainable. There may be less government supervision and regulation of foreign stock exchanges, brokers, banks and listed companies abroad than in the U.S. Moreover, settlement practices for transactions in foreign markets may differ from those in U.S. markets. Such differences may include delays beyond periods customary in the U.S. and practices, such as delivery of securities prior to receipt of payment, that increase the likelihood of a failed settlement, which can result in losses to the Fund. The value of non-U.S. investments and the investment income derived from them may also be affected unfavorably by changes in currency exchange control regulations. Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial expenses and other fees are also generally higher than for securities traded in the U.S. This may cause the Fund to incur higher portfolio transaction costs than domestic equity funds. Fluctuations in exchange rates may also affect the earning power and asset value of the foreign entity issuing a security, even one denominated in U.S. dollars. Dividend and interest payments may be repatriated based on the exchange rate at the time of disbursement, and restrictions on capital flows may be imposed.
Set forth below for certain markets in which the Fund may invest are brief descriptions of some of the conditions and risks in each such market.
Investments in Emerging Markets Securities. Investments in securities listed and traded in emerging markets are subject to additional risks that may not be present for U.S. investments or investments in more developed non-U.S. markets. Such risks may include: (i) greater market volatility; (ii) lower trading volume; (iii) greater social, political and economic uncertainty; (iv) governmental controls on foreign investments and limitations on repatriation of invested capital; (v) the risk that companies may be held to lower disclosure, corporate governance, auditing and financial reporting standards than companies in more developed markets; and (vi) the risk that there may be less protection of property rights than in other countries. Emerging markets are generally less liquid and less efficient than developed securities markets.

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Investments in Europe. Most developed countries in Western Europe are members of the European Union (“EU”), and many are also members of the European Monetary Union (EMU), which requires compliance with restrictions on inflation rates, deficits, and debt levels. Unemployment in certain European nations is historically high and several countries face significant debt problems. These conditions can significantly affect every country in Europe. The euro is the official currency of the EU. Each Fund, through its investments in Europe, may have significant exposure to the euro and events affecting the euro. Recent market events affecting several of the EU member countries have adversely affected the sovereign debt issued by those countries, and ultimately may lead to a decline in the value of the euro. A significant decline in the value of the euro may produce unpredictable effects on trade and commerce generally and could lead to increased volatility in financial markets worldwide.
At a referendum in June 2016, the United Kingdom (“UK”) voted to leave the EU. On March 29, 2017, the UK formally notified the European Council of its intention to withdraw from the EU (known as “Brexit”) within two years after providing such notice, leading to an official date for Brexit of March 29, 2019. However, on March 29, 2019, the Parliament of the UK voted down a formal plan whereby the UK would withdraw from the EU without any agreements in place regarding future dealings between the governments of both parties, as well as their respective businesses. The EU has since granted the UK an extension to allow it to remain a member of the EU through October 31, 2019, subject to certain conditions, to provide the UK additional time to negotiate such agreements with the EU. Unable to negotiate a Brexit agreement by the October 31 deadline, Parliament voted to (i) hold a general election on December 12, 2019 and (ii) delay Brexit until January 31, 2020, unless agreement on the terms of the UK’s withdrawal is reached in advance of this date, at which point an earlier withdrawal can take place. If an agreement between the UK and EU is not met in advance of January 31, 2020, the UK will be forced to leave the EU on February 1, 2020, with no agreements in place (known as a “hard Brexit”). Negotiations are ongoing and subject to further developments.
During this period and beyond, the impact on the UK and European economies and the broader global economy could be significant, resulting in negative impacts, such as increased volatility and illiquidity, potentially lower economic growth on markets in the UK, Europe, and globally, and changes in legal and regulatory regimes to which certain Fund assets are or become subject, any of which may adversely affect the value of a Fund’s investments. Also, as a result of the referendum, on June 27, 2016, Standard & Poor’s (“S&P”) downgraded the UK’s credit rating from “AAA” to “AA” with a “negative outlook,” and on June 30, 2016, S&P downgraded the EU’s credit rating from “AA+” to “AA”. Other credit ratings agencies have taken similar actions.
The effects of Brexit will depend, in part, on agreements the UK negotiates to retain access to EU markets, either during a transitional period or more permanently, including, but not limited to, current trade and finance agreements. Brexit could lead to legal and tax uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations, as the UK determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. The extent of the impact of the withdrawal negotiations in the UK and in global markets, as well as any associated adverse consequences, remain unclear, and the uncertainty may have a significant negative effect on the value of a Fund investments. If one or more other countries were to exit the EU or abandon the use of the euro as a currency, the value of investments tied to those countries or the euro could decline significantly and unpredictably.
Real Estate Investment Trusts (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). A Fund may invest in the securities of real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) to the extent allowed by law. Risks associated with investments in securities of REITs include decline in the value of real estate, risks related to general and local economic conditions, overbuilding and increased competition, increases in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, casualty or condemnation losses, variations in rental income, changes in neighborhood values, the appeal of properties to tenants, and increases in interest rates. In addition, equity REITs may be affected by changes in the values of the underlying property owned by the trusts, while mortgage REITs may be affected by the quality of credit extended. REITs are dependent upon management skills, may not be diversified and are subject to the risks of financing projects. REITs are also subject to heavy cash-flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, self-liquidation and the possibility of failing to qualify for the favorable United States federal income tax treatment generally available to REITs under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and failing to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act. If an issuer of debt securities collateralized by real estate defaults, it is conceivable that the REITs could end up holding the underlying real estate.
Repurchase Agreements. A Fund may invest in repurchase agreements with commercial banks, brokers or dealers to generate income from its excess cash balances and to invest securities lending cash collateral. A repurchase agreement is an agreement under which a Fund acquires a financial instrument (e.g., a security issued by the U.S. government or an agency thereof, a banker’s acceptance or a certificate of deposit) from a seller, subject to resale to the seller at an agreed upon price and date (normally, the next Business Day). A repurchase agreement may be considered a loan collateralized by securities. The resale price reflects an agreed upon interest rate effective for the period the instrument is held by the applicable Fund and is unrelated to the interest rate on the underlying instrument.
In these repurchase agreement transactions, the securities acquired by a Fund (including accrued interest earned thereon) must have a total value in excess of the value of the repurchase agreement and are held by the Custodian until repurchased. No more than an aggregate of 15% of a Fund’s net assets will be invested in illiquid investments, including repurchase agreements having maturities longer than seven days and securities subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale, or for which there are no readily available market quotations.

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The use of repurchase agreements involves certain risks. For example, if the other party to the agreement defaults on its obligation to repurchase the underlying security at a time when the value of the security has declined, a Fund may incur a loss upon disposition of the security. If the other party to the agreement becomes insolvent and subject to liquidation or reorganization under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or other laws, a court may determine that the underlying security is collateral for a loan by a Fund not within the control of the Fund and, therefore, the Fund may not be able to substantiate its interest in the underlying security and may be deemed an unsecured creditor of the other party to the agreement.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements. A Fund may enter into reverse repurchase agreements, which involve the sale of securities held by the Fund subject to its agreement to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon date or upon demand and at a price reflecting a market rate of interest. Reverse repurchase agreements are subject to a Fund’s limitation on borrowings and may be entered into only with banks or securities dealers or their affiliates. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, a Fund will maintain the segregation, either on its records or with the Trust’s custodian, of cash or other liquid securities, marked-to-market daily, in an amount at least equal to its obligations under the reverse repurchase agreement.
Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the buyer of the securities sold by a Fund might be unable to deliver them when that Fund seeks to repurchase. If the buyer of securities under a reverse repurchase agreement files for bankruptcy or becomes insolvent, the buyer or trustee or receiver may receive an extension of time to determine whether to enforce a Fund’s obligation to repurchase the securities, and the Fund’s use of the proceeds of the reverse repurchase agreement may effectively be restricted pending such decision.
Securities Lending. Each Fund may lend portfolio securities in an amount up to one-third of its total assets to brokers, dealers and other financial institutions. In a portfolio securities lending transaction, a Fund receives from the borrower an amount equal to the interest paid or the dividends declared on the loaned securities during the term of the loan as well as the interest on the collateral securities, less any fees (such as finders or administrative fees) the Fund pays in arranging the loan. A Fund may share the interest it receives on the collateral securities with the borrower. The terms of each Fund’s loans permit each Fund to reacquire loaned securities on five business days’ notice or in time to vote on any important matter. Loans are subject to termination at the option of the applicable Fund or borrower at any time, and the borrowed securities must be returned when the loan is terminated. The Funds may pay fees to arrange for securities loans.
The SEC currently requires that the following conditions must be met whenever a Fund’s portfolio securities are loaned: (1) the Fund must receive at least 100% cash collateral from the borrower; (2) the borrower must increase such collateral whenever the market value of the securities rises above the level of such collateral; (3) the Fund must be able to terminate the loan at any time; (4) the Fund must receive reasonable interest on the loan, as well as any dividends, interest or other distributions on the loaned securities, and any increase in market value; (5) the Fund may pay only reasonable custodian fees approved by the Board in connection with the loan; (6) while voting rights on the loaned securities may pass to the borrower, the Board must terminate the loan and regain the right to vote the securities if a material event adversely affecting the investment occurs, and (7) the Fund may not loan its portfolio securities so that the value of the loaned securities is more than one-third of its total asset value, including collateral received from such loans. These conditions may be subject to future modification. Such loans will be terminable at any time upon specified notice. A Fund might experience the risk of loss if the institution with which it has engaged in a portfolio loan transaction breaches its agreement with the Fund. In addition, the Funds will not enter into any portfolio security lending arrangement having a duration of longer than one year. The principal risk of portfolio lending is potential default or insolvency of the borrower. In either of these cases, a Fund could experience delays in recovering securities or collateral or could lose all or part of the value of the loaned securities. As part of participating in a lending program, the applicable Fund may be required to invest in collateralized debt or other securities that bear the risk of loss of principal. In addition, all investments made with the collateral received are subject to the risks associated with such investments. If such investments lose value, a Fund will have to cover the loss when repaying the collateral.
Any loans of portfolio securities are fully collateralized based on values that are marked-to-market daily. Any securities that a Fund may receive as collateral will not become part of the Fund’s investment portfolio at the time of the loan and, in the event of a default by the borrower, the Fund will, if permitted by law, dispose of such collateral except for such part thereof that is a security in which the Fund is permitted to invest. During the time securities are on loan, the borrower will pay a Fund any accrued income on those securities, and the Fund may invest the cash collateral and earn income or receive an agreed-upon fee from a borrower that has delivered cash-equivalent collateral.
TBA Transactions (U.S. Bond Fund only). The Fund may invest in U.S. agency MBS. In the basic MBS structure, mortgages with similar issuer, term and coupon characteristics are collected and aggregated into a “pool” consisting of multiple mortgage loans. The pool is assigned a CUSIP number and undivided interests in the pool are traded and sold as pass-through securities. The holder of the security is entitled to a pro rata share of principal and interest payments (including unscheduled prepayments) from the pool of mortgage loans.
An investment in a specific pool of pass-through securities requires an analysis of the specific prepayment risk of mortgages within the covered pool (since mortgagors typically have the option to prepay their loans). The level of prepayments on a pool of mortgage securities is difficult to predict and can impact the subsequent cash flows and value of the mortgage pool. In addition, when trading specific mortgage pools, precise execution, delivery and settlement arrangements must be negotiated for each transaction. These factors combine to make trading in mortgage pools somewhat cumbersome.

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For the foregoing and other reasons, the Fund may seek to obtain exposure to U.S. agency MBS through the use of “to-be-announced” or “TBA transactions.” “TBA” refers to a commonly used mechanism for the forward settlement of U.S. agency MBS, and not to a separate type of MBS. Most transactions in MBS occur through the use of TBA transactions. TBA transactions generally are conducted in accordance with widely-accepted guidelines which establish commonly observed terms and conditions for execution, settlement and delivery. In a TBA transaction, the buyer and seller decide on general trade parameters, such as agency, settlement date, paramount, and price. The actual pools delivered generally are determined two days prior to settlement date. The Fund intends to use TBA transactions in several ways. For example, the Fund expects that it will regularly enter into TBA agreements and “roll over” such agreements prior to the settlement date stipulated in such agreements. This type of TBA transaction is sometimes known as a “TBA roll.” In a “TBA roll” the Fund generally will sell the obligation to purchase the pools stipulated in the TBA agreement prior to the stipulated settlement date and will enter into a new TBA agreement for future delivery of pools of MBS. In addition, the Fund may enter into TBA agreements and settle such transactions on the stipulated settlement date by accepting actual receipt or delivery of the pools of MBS stipulated in the TBA agreement.
Default by or bankruptcy of a counterparty to a TBA transaction would expose the Fund to possible loss because of adverse market action, expenses or delays in connection with the purchase or sale of the pools of MBS specified in the TBA transaction. To minimize this risk, the Fund will enter into TBA transactions only with established counterparties (such as major broker-dealers) and the Sub-Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of such counterparties. In addition, the Fund may accept assignments of TBA transactions from Authorized Participants (as defined below) from time to time. The Fund’s use of “TBA rolls” may cause the Fund to experience higher portfolio turnover, higher transaction costs and to pay higher capital gain distributions to shareholders (which may be taxable) than other funds.
The Fund intends to invest cash pending settlement of any TBA transactions in money market instruments, repurchase agreements, commercial paper (including asset-backed commercial paper) or other high-quality, liquid short-term instruments, which may include money market funds affiliated with the Sub-Adviser.
Tracking Stocks (U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund only). A Fund may invest in tracking stocks. A tracking stock is a separate class of common stock whose value is linked to a specific business unit or operating division within a larger company and which is designed to “track” the performance of such business unit or division. The tracking stock may pay dividends to shareholders independent of the parent company. The parent company, rather than the business unit or division, generally is the issuer of tracking stock. However, holders of the tracking stock may not have the same rights as holders of the company’s common stock.
U.S. Government Securities. A Fund may invest in U.S. government securities. Securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities include U.S. Treasury securities, which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury and which differ only in their interest rates, maturities, and times of issuance. U.S. Treasury bills have initial maturities of one-year or less; U.S. Treasury notes have initial maturities of one to ten years; and U.S. Treasury bonds generally have initial maturities of greater than ten years. Certain U.S. government securities are issued or guaranteed by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. government including, but not limited to, obligations of U.S. government agencies or instrumentalities such as the Federal National Mortgage Association (“Fannie Mae”), the Government National Mortgage Association (“Ginnie Mae”), the Small Business Administration, the Federal Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Home Loan Banks, Banks for Cooperatives (including the Central Bank for Cooperatives), the Federal Land Banks, the Federal Intermediate Credit Banks, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, the Student Loan Marketing Association, the National Credit Union Administration and the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac).
Some obligations issued or guaranteed by U.S. government agencies and instrumentalities, including, for example, Ginnie Mae pass-through certificates, are supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those securities issued by Fannie Mae, are supported by the discretionary authority of the U.S. government to purchase certain obligations of the federal agency, while other obligations issued by or guaranteed by federal agencies, such as those of the Federal Home Loan Banks, are supported by the right of the issuer to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while the U.S. government provides financial support to such U.S. government-sponsored federal agencies, no assurance can be given that the U.S. government will always do so, since the U.S. government is not so obligated by law. U.S. Treasury notes and bonds typically pay coupon interest semi-annually and repay the principal at maturity.
On September 7, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced a federal takeover of Fannie Mae and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (“Freddie Mac”), placing the two federal instrumentalities in conservatorship. Under the takeover, the U.S. Treasury agreed to acquire $1 billion of senior preferred stock of each instrumentality and obtained warrants for the purchase of common stock of each instrumentality (the “Senior Preferred Stock Purchase Agreement” or “Agreement”). Under the Agreement, the U.S. Treasury pledged to provide up to $200 billion per instrumentality as needed, including the contribution of cash capital to the instrumentalities in the event their liabilities exceed their assets. This was intended to ensure that the instrumentalities maintain a positive net worth and meet their financial obligations, preventing mandatory triggering of receivership. On December 24, 2009, the U.S. Treasury announced that it was amending the Agreement to allow the $200 billion cap on the U.S. Treasury’s funding commitment to increase as necessary to accommodate any cumulative reduction in net worth over the next three years. As a result of this Agreement, the investments of holders, including the Funds, of mortgage-backed securities and other obligations issued by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are protected.

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The total public debt of the United States as a percentage of gross domestic product has grown rapidly since the beginning of the 2008‑2009 financial downturn.  Although high debt levels do not necessarily indicate or cause economic problems, they may create certain systemic risks if sound debt management practices are not implemented.  A high national debt can raise concerns that the U.S. government will not be able to make principal or interest payments when they are due.  This increase has also necessitated the need for the U.S. Congress to negotiate adjustments to the statutory debt limit to increase the cap on the amount the U.S. government is permitted to borrow to meet its existing obligations and finance current budget deficits.  In August 2011, S&P lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. In explaining the downgrade at that time, S&P cited, among other reasons, controversy over raising the statutory debt limit and growth in public spending. On August 2, 2019, following passage by Congress, the President of the United States signed the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019, which suspends the statutory debt limit through July 31, 2021. Any controversy or ongoing uncertainty regarding the statutory debt ceiling negotiations may impact the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating and may cause market uncertainty. As a result, market prices and yields of securities supported by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government may be adversely affected.
Future Developments. The Board may, in the future, authorize a Fund to invest in securities contracts and investments other than those listed in this SAI and in the Funds’ Prospectus, provided they are consistent with the Fund’s investment objective and do not violate any investment restrictions or policies.
ADDITIONAL INDEX INFORMATION
During each reconstitution, securities are screened to determine whether they comply with the index methodologies and are eligible to be included in the Index. The date of the determination is sometimes referred to as the “Index measurement date” or the “Screening Point.” Based on this screening, securities that meet the Index requirements are added to the Index, and securities that do not meet such requirements are dropped from the Index.
Index Maintenance. Index maintenance for each Index occurs throughout the year and includes monitoring and implementing the adjustments for company additions and deletions, stock splits, corporate restructurings and other corporate actions. Corporate actions are generally implemented after the close of trading on the day prior to the ex-date of such corporate actions. To the extent reasonably practicable, such changes will be announced at least two days prior to their implementation.
Index Availability. The Indexes are calculated and disseminated throughout each day the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) is open for trading.
Index Calculation Agent. To minimize any potential for conflicts caused by side-by-side management of each Fund’s underlying index by Vident Financial, LLC (the “Index Provider”) and each Fund by the Sub-Adviser, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Index Provider, the Index Provider has retained an unaffiliated third-party service provider to calculate each Index (the “Calculation Agent”). The Calculation Agent, using the applicable rules-based methodology, will calculate, maintain and disseminate the applicable Index(es) on a daily basis. The Index Provider will monitor the results produced by each Calculation Agent to help ensure that the Indexes are being calculated in accordance with their applicable rules-based methodology. In addition, the Index Provider has established policies and procedures designed to prevent non-public information regarding pending changes to the Indexes from being used or disseminated in an improper manner. Furthermore, the Sub-Adviser has established policies and procedures designed to prevent improper use and dissemination of non-public information about the Funds’ portfolio strategies and to prevent the Funds’ portfolio managers from having sole influence on the construction of the Index methodologies.
INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS
The Trust has adopted the following investment restrictions as fundamental policies with respect to the Funds. These restrictions cannot be changed with respect to a Fund without the approval of the holders of a majority of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities. For the purposes of the 1940 Act, a “majority of outstanding shares” means the vote of the lesser of: (1) 67% or more of the voting securities of the Fund present at the meeting if the holders of more than 50% of the Fund’s outstanding voting securities are present or represented by proxy; or (2) more than 50% of the outstanding voting securities of the Fund.
Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the U.S. Bond Fund may not:
1.
Concentrate its investments (i.e., hold more than 25% of its total assets) in any industry or group of related industries, except that the Fund will concentrate to approximately the same extent that the Index concentrates in the securities of such particular industry or group of related industries. For purposes of this limitation, securities of the U.S. government (including its agencies and instrumentalities), repurchase agreements collateralized by U.S. government securities and securities of state or municipal governments and their political subdivisions are not considered to be issued by members of any industry.
2.
Borrow money or issue senior securities (as defined under the 1940 Act), except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
3.
Make loans, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
4.
Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business.

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5.
Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act. This shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities.
6.
Underwrite securities issued by other persons, except to the extent permitted under the 1940 Act.
7.
With respect to 75% of its total assets, purchase the securities of any one issuer if, immediately after and as a result of such purchase, (a) the value of the Fund’s holdings in the securities of such issuer exceeds 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets, or (b) the Fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer (with the exception that this restriction does not apply to the Fund’s investments in the securities of the U.S. Government, or its agencies or instrumentalities, or other investment companies).
Except with the approval of a majority of the outstanding voting securities, the U.S. Equity Fund and International Equity Fund may not:
1.
Purchase the securities of any issuer (other than securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities) if, as a result, more than 25% of the Fund’s total assets would be invested in the securities of companies whose principal business activities are in the same industry, except that the Fund will invest more than 25% of its total assets in securities of the same industry to approximately the same extent that the Fund’s underlying Index concentrates in the securities of a particular industry or group of industries.
2.
Issue senior securities, except as permitted under the 1940 Act.
3.
Borrow money, except as permitted under the 1940 Act.
4.
Lend any security or make any other loan except as permitted under the 1940 Act. This means that no more than 33 1/3% of its total assets would be lent to other parties. This limitation does not apply to purchases of debt securities or to repurchase agreements, or to acquisitions of loans, loan participations or other forms of debt instruments, permissible under the Fund’s investment policies.
5.
Purchase or sell real estate unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from investing in securities or other instruments backed by real estate, real estate investment trusts or securities of companies engaged in the real estate business).
6.
Purchase or sell physical commodities unless acquired as a result of ownership of securities or other instruments (but this shall not prevent the Fund from purchasing or selling options and futures contracts or from investing in securities or other instruments backed by physical commodities).
7.
Act as an underwriter of another issuer’s securities, except to the extent that the Fund may be considered an underwriter within the meaning of the Securities Act in the disposition of portfolio securities.
8.
With respect to 75% of its total assets, purchase the securities of any one issuer if, immediately after and as a result of such purchase, (a) the value of the Fund’s holdings in the securities of such issuer exceeds 5% of the value of the Fund’s total assets, or (b) the Fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer (with the exception that this restriction does not apply to the Fund’s investments in the securities of the U.S. Government, or its agencies or instrumentalities, or other investment companies).
In addition to the investment restrictions adopted as fundamental policies as set forth above, each Fund observes the following non-fundamental restrictions, which may be changed without a shareholder vote.
1.
Each Fund will not invest in illiquid investments if, as a result of such investment, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in illiquid investments. An illiquid investment is any investment that the applicable Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.
2.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the U.S. Bond Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of its Index and TBA securities representing such component securities. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the U.S. Equity Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of its Index. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the International Equity Fund’s total assets (exclusive of collateral held from securities lending) will be invested in the component securities of its Index and depositary receipts representing such component securities.

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3.
Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities that are principally traded in the United States. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the U.S. Bond Fund will be invested in debt instruments that are principally traded in the United States. Under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the net assets, plus borrowings for investment purposes, of the International Equity Fund will be invested in equity securities. With respect to the foregoing policies, the Funds define “equity securities” to mean common and preferred stocks, rights, warrants, depositary receipts, equity interests in REITs, and master limited partnerships. The foregoing policies may be changed without shareholder approval upon 60 days’ written notice to the applicable shareholders.
If a percentage limitation is adhered to at the time of investment or contract, a later increase or decrease in percentage resulting from any change in value or total or net assets will not result in a violation of such restriction, except that the percentage limitation with respect to the borrowing of money will be observed continuously.
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
Shares are listed for trading and trade throughout the day on the Exchange.
There can be no assurance that a Fund will continue to meet the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of Shares. The Exchange will consider the suspension of trading in, and will initiate delisting proceedings of, the Shares of a Fund under any of the following circumstances: (i) if any of the requirements set forth in the Exchange rules are not continuously maintained; (ii) if the Exchange files separate proposals under Section 19(b) of the 1940 Act and any of the statements regarding (a) the index composition; (b) the description of the applicable Fund; (c) limitations on such Fund’s portfolio holdings or reference assets; (d) dissemination and availability of the index or intraday indicative values; or (e) the applicability of the Exchange listing rules specified in such proposals are not continuously maintained; (iii) if, following the initial 12-month period beginning at the commencement of trading of a Fund, there are fewer than 50 beneficial owners of the Shares of such Fund; (iv) if the value of a Fund’s underlying index is no longer calculated or available or an interruption to the dissemination persists past the trading day in which it occurred or the underlying index is replaced with a new index, unless the new underlying index meets certain Exchange requirements; (v) if the intraday indicative value is no longer disseminated at least every 15 seconds during the Exchange’s regular market session and the interruption to the dissemination persists past the trading day in which it occurred; or (vi) such other event shall occur or condition shall exist that, in the opinion of the Exchange, makes further dealings on the Exchange inadvisable. The Exchange will remove the Shares of a Fund from listing and trading upon termination of such Fund.
The Trust reserves the right to adjust the price levels of Shares in the future to help maintain convenient trading ranges for investors. Any adjustments would be accomplished through stock splits or reverse stock splits, which would have no effect on the net assets of the applicable Fund.
To provide additional information regarding the indicative value of Shares, the Exchange or a market data vendor disseminates information every 15 seconds through the facilities of the Consolidated Tape Association, or other widely disseminated means, an updated “intraday indicative value” (“IIV”) for each Fund as calculated by an information provider or market data vendor. The Trust is not involved in or responsible for any aspect of the calculation or dissemination of the IIVs and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the IIVs.
MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUST
Board Responsibilities. The management and affairs of the Trust and its series are overseen by the Board, which elects the officers of the Trust who are responsible for administering the day-to-day operations of the Trust and the Funds. The Board has approved contracts, as described below, under which certain companies provide essential services to the Trust.
The day-to-day business of the Trust, including the management of risk, is performed by third-party service providers, such as the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, the Distributor, and the Administrator. The Board is responsible for overseeing the Trust’s service providers and, thus, has oversight responsibility with respect to risk management performed by those service providers. Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of a Fund. The Funds and their service providers employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify such events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur. Each service provider is responsible for one or more discrete aspects of the Trust’s business (e.g., the Sub-Adviser is responsible for the day-to-day management of each Fund’s portfolio investments) and, consequently, for managing the risks associated with that business. The Board has emphasized to the Funds’ service providers the importance of maintaining vigorous risk management.

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The Board’s role in risk oversight begins before the inception of the Funds, at which time certain of the Funds’ service providers present the Board with information concerning the investment objectives, strategies, and risks of the Funds as well as proposed investment limitations for the Funds. Additionally, the Adviser and Sub-Adviser provide the Board with an overview of, among other things, its investment philosophy, brokerage practices, and compliance infrastructure. Thereafter, the Board continues its oversight function as various personnel, including the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, as well as personnel of the Sub-Adviser, and other service providers such as the Funds’ independent accountants, make periodic reports to the Audit Committee or to the Board with respect to various aspects of risk management. The Board and the Audit Committee oversee efforts by management and service providers to manage risks to which the Funds may be exposed.
The Board is responsible for overseeing the nature, extent, and quality of the services provided to the Funds by the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser and receives information about those services at its regular meetings. In addition, on an annual basis (following the initial two-year period), in connection with its consideration of whether to renew the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, and Sub-Advisory Agreement with the Sub-Adviser, the Board or its designee may meet with the Adviser and/or Sub-Adviser to review such services. Among other things, the Board regularly considers the Adviser’s and Sub-Adviser’s adherence to each Fund’s investment restrictions and compliance with various Fund policies and procedures and with applicable securities regulations. The Board also reviews information about each Fund’s performance and each Fund’s investments, including, for example, portfolio holdings schedules.
The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer reports regularly to the Board to review and discuss compliance issues and Fund and Adviser or Sub-Adviser risk assessments. At least annually, the Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer, as well as personnel of the Adviser, provides the Board with a report reviewing the adequacy and effectiveness of the Trust’s policies and procedures and those of its service providers, including the Adviser and the Sub-Adviser. The report addresses the operation of the policies and procedures of the Trust and each service provider since the date of the last report; any material changes to the policies and procedures since the date of the last report; any recommendations for material changes to the policies and procedures; and any material compliance matters since the date of the last report.
The Board receives reports from the Funds’ service providers regarding operational risks and risks related to the valuation and liquidity of portfolio securities. Annually, the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm reviews with the Audit Committee its audit of the Funds’ financial statements, focusing on major areas of risk encountered by the Funds and noting any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in the Funds’ internal controls. Additionally, in connection with its oversight function, the Board oversees Fund management’s implementation of disclosure controls and procedures, which are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Trust in its periodic reports with the SEC are recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the required time periods. The Board also oversees the Trust’s internal controls over financial reporting, which comprise policies and procedures designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of the Trust’s financial reporting and the preparation of the Trust’s financial statements.
From their review of these reports and discussions with the Adviser and Sub-Adviser, the Chief Compliance Officer, independent registered public accounting firm and other service providers, the Board and the Audit Committee learn in detail about the material risks of each Fund, thereby facilitating a dialogue about how management and service providers identify and mitigate those risks.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect a Fund can be identified and/or quantified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve a Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness. Moreover, reports received by the Board as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information. Most of the Funds’ investment management and business affairs are carried out by or through the Adviser, Sub-Adviser, and other service providers, each of which has an independent interest in risk management but whose policies and the methods by which one or more risk management functions are carried out may differ from the Funds’ and each other’s in the setting of priorities, the resources available or the effectiveness of relevant controls. As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s ability to monitor and manage risk, as a practical matter, is subject to limitations.
Members of the Board. There are four members of the Board, three of whom are not interested persons of the Trust, as that term is defined in the 1940 Act (the “Independent Trustees”). Mr. Michael A. Castino serves as Chairman of the Board and is an interested person of the Trust, and Mr. Leonard M. Rush serves as the Trust’s Lead Independent Trustee. As Lead Independent Trustee, Mr. Rush acts as a spokesperson for the Independent Trustees in between meetings of the Board, serves as a liaison for the Independent Trustees with the Trust’s service providers, officers, and legal counsel to discuss ideas informally, and participates in setting the agenda for meetings of the Board and separate meetings or executive sessions of the Independent Trustees.
The Board is comprised of a super-majority (75 percent) of Independent Trustees. There is an Audit Committee of the Board that is chaired by an Independent Trustee and comprised solely of Independent Trustees. The Audit Committee chair presides at the Audit Committee meetings, participates in formulating agendas for Audit Committee meetings, and coordinates with management to serve as a liaison between the Independent Trustees and management on matters within the scope of responsibilities of the Audit Committee as set forth in its Board-approved charter. The Trust has determined its leadership structure is appropriate given the specific characteristics and circumstances of the Trust. The Trust made this determination in consideration of, among other things, the fact that the Independent Trustees of the Trust constitute a super-majority of the Board, the number of Independent Trustees that constitute the Board, the amount

16


of assets under management in the Trust, and the number of funds overseen by the Board. The Board also believes that its leadership structure facilitates the orderly and efficient flow of information to the Independent Trustees from Fund management.
Additional information about each Trustee of the Trust is set forth below. The address of each Trustee of the Trust is c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, 615 E. Michigan Street, Milwaukee, WI 53202.
Name and
Year of Birth
Position Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served


Principal Occupation(s) During Past 5 Years
Number of Portfolios in Fund Complex Overseen by Trustee
Other Directorships Held by Trustee During Past 5 Years
Independent Trustees
Leonard M. Rush, CPA
Born: 1946
Lead Independent Trustee and Audit Committee Chairman
Indefinite term;
since 2012
Retired; formerly Chief Financial Officer, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated (wealth management firm) (2000–2011).
50
Independent Trustee, Managed Portfolio Series (39 portfolios) (since 2011).
David A. Massart
Born: 1967
Trustee
Indefinite term;
since 2012
Co-Founder, President, and Chief Investment Strategist, Next Generation Wealth Management, Inc. (since 2005).
50
Independent Trustee, Managed Portfolio Series (39 portfolios) (since 2011).
Janet D. Olsen
Born: 1956
Trustee
Indefinite term;
since 2018
Retired; formerly Managing Director and General Counsel, Artisan Partners Limited Partnership (investment adviser) (2000–2013); Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc. (2012–2013); Vice President and General Counsel, Artisan Funds, Inc. (investment company) (2001–2012).
50
Independent Trustee, PPM Funds (9 portfolios) (since 2018).
Interested Trustee
Michael A. Castino
Born: 1967
Trustee and Chairman
Indefinite term; Trustee
since 2014;
Chairman
since 2013
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2013); Managing Director of Index Services, Zacks Investment Management (2011–2013).
50
None
Individual Trustee Qualifications. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve on the Board because of their ability to review and understand information about the Funds provided to them by management, to identify and request other information they may deem relevant to the performance of their duties, to question management and other service providers regarding material factors bearing on the management and administration of the Funds, and to exercise their business judgment in a manner that serves the best interests of each Fund’s shareholders. The Trust has concluded that each of the Trustees should serve as a Trustee based on his or her own experience, qualifications, attributes and skills as described below.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Rush should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial industry experience, including serving in several different senior executive roles at various global financial services firms, and the experience he has gained as serving as trustee of another investment company trust since 2011. He most recently served as Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated and several other affiliated entities and served as the Treasurer for Baird Funds. He also served as the Chief Financial Officer for Fidelity Investments’ four broker-dealers and has substantial experience with mutual fund and investment advisory organizations and related businesses, including Vice President and Head of Compliance for Fidelity Investments, a Vice President at Credit Suisse First Boston, a Manager with Goldman Sachs, & Co. and a Senior Manager with Deloitte & Touche. Mr. Rush has been determined to qualify as an Audit Committee Financial Expert for the Trust.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Massart should serve as a Trustee because of his substantial industry experience, including over two decades working with high net worth individuals, families, trusts, and retirement accounts to make strategic and tactical asset allocation decisions, evaluate and select investment managers, and manage complex client relationships, and the experience he has gained as serving as trustee of another investment company trust since 2011. He is currently the President and Chief Investment Strategist of the SEC registered investment advisory firm he co-founded. Previously, he served as Managing Director of Strong Private Client and as a Manager of Wells Fargo Investments, LLC.

17


The Trust has concluded that Ms. Olsen should serve as a Trustee because of her substantial industry experience, including over a decade serving as a senior executive of an investment management firm and a related public company, and the experience she has gained by serving as an executive officer of another investment company from 2001 to 2012. Ms. Olsen most recently served as Managing Director and General Counsel of Artisan Partners Limited Partnership, a registered investment adviser serving primarily investment companies and institutional investors, and several affiliated entities, including its general partner, Artisan Partners Asset Management Inc. (NYSE: APAM), and as an executive officer of Artisan Funds Inc.
The Trust has concluded that Mr. Castino should serve as Trustee because of the experience he gained as Chairman of the Trust since 2013, as a senior officer of U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as U.S. Bank Global Fund Services (“Fund Services” or the “Transfer Agent”), since 2012, and in his past roles with investment management firms and indexing firms involved with ETFs, as well as his experience in and knowledge of the financial services industry.
In its periodic assessment of the effectiveness of the Board, the Board considers the complementary individual skills and experience of the individual Trustees primarily in the broader context of the Board’s overall composition so that the Board, as a body, possesses the appropriate (and appropriately diverse) skills and experience to oversee the business of the funds.
Board Committees. The Board has established the following standing committees of the Board:
Audit Committee. The Board has a standing Audit Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Audit Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibilities of the Audit Committee include: recommending which firm to engage as the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm and whether to terminate this relationship; reviewing the independent registered public accounting firm’s compensation, the proposed scope and terms of its engagement, and the firm’s independence; pre-approving audit and non-audit services provided by the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm to the Trust and certain other affiliated entities; serving as a channel of communication between the independent registered public accounting firm and the Trustees; reviewing the results of each external audit, including any qualifications in the independent registered public accounting firm’s opinion, any related management letter, management’s responses to recommendations made by the independent registered public accounting firm in connection with the audit, reports submitted to the Committee by the internal auditing department of the Trust’s Administrator that are material to the Trust as a whole, if any, and management’s responses to any such reports; reviewing the Funds’ audited financial statements and considering any significant disputes between the Trust’s management and the independent registered public accounting firm that arose in connection with the preparation of those financial statements; considering, in consultation with the independent registered public accounting firm and the Trust’s senior internal accounting executive, if any, the independent registered public accounting firms’ report on the adequacy of the Trust’s internal financial controls; reviewing, in consultation with the Funds’ independent registered public accounting firm, major changes regarding auditing and accounting principles and practices to be followed when preparing the Funds’ financial statements; and other audit related matters. Each Independent Trustee currently serves as a member of the Audit Committee. During the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019, the Audit Committee met four times.
The Audit Committee also serves as the Qualified Legal Compliance Committee (“QLCC”) for the Trust for the purpose of compliance with Rules 205.2(k) and 205.3(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations, regarding alternative reporting procedures for attorneys retained or employed by an issuer who appear and practice before the SEC on behalf of the issuer (the “issuer attorneys”). An issuer attorney who becomes aware of evidence of a material violation by the Trust, or by any officer, director, employee, or agent of the Trust, may report evidence of such material violation to the QLCC as an alternative to the reporting requirements of Rule 205.3(b) (which requires reporting to the chief legal officer and potentially “up the ladder” to other entities).
Nominating Committee. The Board has a standing Nominating Committee that is composed of each of the Independent Trustees of the Trust. The Nominating Committee operates under a written charter approved by the Board. The principal responsibility of the Nominating Committee is to consider, recommend and nominate candidates to fill vacancies on the Trust’s Board, if any. The Nominating Committee generally will not consider nominees recommended by shareholders. The Nominating Committee meets periodically, as necessary. During the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019 , the Nominating Committee met one time.
Valuation Committee. The Board has delegated day-to-day valuation issues to a Valuation Committee that is comprised of certain officers of the Trust. Although the Valuation Committee is not a committee of the Board (i.e., no Trustee is a member of the Valuation Committee), the Valuation Committee’s membership is appointed by the Board and its charter and applicable procedures are approved by the Board. The function of the Valuation Committee is to value securities held by any series of the Trust for which current and reliable market quotations are not readily available. Such securities are valued at their respective fair values as determined in good faith by the Valuation Committee and the actions of the Valuation Committee are subsequently reviewed and ratified by the Board. The Valuation Committee meets as necessary.

18


Principal Officers of the Trust
The officers of the Trust conduct and supervise its daily business. The address of each officer of the Trust is c/o U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, 615 E. Michigan Street, Milwaukee, WI 53202. Additional information about the Trust’s officers is as follows:
Name and
Year of Birth
Position(s) Held with the Trust
Term of Office and Length of Time Served
Principal Occupation(s)
During Past 5 Years
Kristina R. Nelson
Born: 1982
President
Indefinite term;
since 2019
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2014); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2013–2014).
Michael D. Barolsky
Born: 1981
Vice President and Secretary
Indefinite term;
since 2014
(other roles since 2013)
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2019); Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2012–2019); Associate, Thompson Hine LLP (law firm) (2008–2012).
James R. Butz
Born: 1982
Chief Compliance Officer
Indefinite term;
since 2015
Senior Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2014–2015); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2011–2014).
Kristen M. Weitzel, CPA
Born: 1977
Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2014
(other roles since 2013)
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2015); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2011–2015); Manager, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (accounting firm) (2005–2011).
Brett M. Wickmann
Born: 1982
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2017
Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2017); Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2012–2017).
Elizabeth A. Winske
Born: 1983
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2017
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2016); Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2012–2016).
Jason Shlensky
Born: 1987
Assistant Treasurer
Indefinite term;
since 2019
Assistant Vice President, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (since 2019); Officer, U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC (2014–2019).
Trustee Ownership of Shares. The Funds are required to show the dollar amount ranges of each Trustee’s “beneficial ownership” of Shares and each other series of the Trust as of the end of the most recently completed calendar year. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act.
As of December 31, 2018, no Trustees of the Trust owned Shares of the Funds or shares of any other series of the Trust.
Board Compensation. The Independent Trustees each receive an annual trustee fee of $149,000 for attendance at the four regularly scheduled quarterly meetings and one annual meeting, if necessary, and receive additional compensation for each additional meeting attended of $2,000, as well as reimbursement for travel and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with attendance at Board meetings. The Lead Independent Trustee receives an additional annual fee of $10,000. The Chairman of the Audit Committee receives an additional annual fee of $8,000. The Trust has no pension or retirement plan.
The following table shows the compensation earned by each Trustee during the fiscal year ended August 31, 2019. Independent Trustee fees are paid by the adviser to each series of the Trust and not by the Funds. Trustee compensation does not include reimbursed out-of-pocket expenses in connection with attendance at meetings.
 Name
Aggregate Compensation From Fund
Total Compensation From Fund Complex Paid to Trustees
Interested Trustee
Michael A. Castino
$0
$0
Independent Trustees
David A. Massart
$0
$133,250
Janet D. Olsen
$0
$133,250
Leonard M. Rush, CPA
$0
$148,625

19


PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS, CONTROL PERSONS, AND MANAGEMENT OWNERSHIP
A principal shareholder is any person who owns of record or beneficially 5% or more of the outstanding Shares of a Fund. A control person is a shareholder that owns beneficially or through controlled companies more than 25% of the voting securities of a company or acknowledges the existence of control. Shareholders owning voting securities in excess of 25% may determine the outcome of any matter affecting and voted on by shareholders of a Fund.
As of December 2, 2019, no Trustees and officers of the Trust owned Shares of the Funds, and the following shareholders were considered to be principal shareholders and control persons of each Fund:
U.S. Bond Fund
Name and Address
% Ownership
Type of Ownership
National Financial Services, LLC
200 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10281
93.57%
Record
Thrivent Trust Company
625 Fourth Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55415
(a federal trust company subsidiary of Thrivent Financial for Lutherans)
94.01%*
Beneficial
*
Based on the percentage of shares owned as of September 30, 2019 (the most recent available date) as reported on Form 13F.

U.S. Equity Fund
Name and Address
% Ownership
Type of Ownership
National Financial Services, LLC
200 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10281
96.18%
Record
Thrivent Trust Company
625 Fourth Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55415
(a federal trust company subsidiary of Thrivent Financial for Lutherans)
93.80%*
Beneficial
*
Based on the percentage of shares owned as of September 30, 2019 (the most recent available date) as reported on Form 13F.

International Equity Fund
Name and Address
% Ownership
Type of Ownership
National Financial Services, LLC
200 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10281
88.45%
Record
CDS Clearing and Depository Services, Inc.
Shareholder Communications
1190 Avenue des Canadiens-de-Montréal
17 étage, Tour Deloitte
Montréal, Québec H3B 0G7
6.13%
Record
Thrivent Trust Company
625 Fourth Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55415
(a federal trust company subsidiary of Thrivent Financial for Lutherans)
87.31%*
Beneficial
*
Based on the percentage of shares owned as of September 30, 2019 (the most recent available date) as reported on Form 13F.
CODES OF ETHICS
The Trust, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, and the Distributor (as defined under “ The Distributor ”) have each adopted codes of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 of the 1940 Act. These codes of ethics are designed to prevent affiliated persons of the Trust, the Adviser, the Sub-Adviser and the Distributor from engaging in deceptive, manipulative or fraudulent activities in connection with securities held or to be acquired by the Funds (which may also be held by persons subject to the codes of ethics). Each Code of Ethics permits personnel subject to that Code of Ethics to invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, subject to certain limitations, including limitations related to securities that may be purchased or held by the Funds.

20


There can be no assurance that the codes of ethics will be effective in preventing such activities. Each code of ethics may be examined at the office of the SEC in Washington, D.C. or on the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
PROXY VOTING POLICIES
The Funds have delegated proxy voting responsibilities to the Adviser, subject to the Board’s oversight. In delegating proxy responsibilities, the Board has directed that proxies be voted consistent with each Fund’s and its shareholders’ best interests and in compliance with all applicable proxy voting rules and regulations. The Adviser has adopted proxy voting policies and guidelines for this purpose (“Proxy Voting Policies”) and has engaged a third-party proxy solicitation firm to assist with voting proxies in a timely manner. A copy of the Proxy Voting Policies is set forth in Appendix B to this SAI. The Trust’s Chief Compliance Officer is responsible for monitoring the effectiveness of the Proxy Voting Policies. The Proxy Voting Policies have been adopted by the Trust as the policies and procedures that the Adviser will use when voting proxies on behalf of a Fund.
The Proxy Voting Policies address, among other things, material conflicts of interest that may arise between the interests of the Funds and the interests of the Adviser. The Proxy Voting Policies will ensure that all issues brought to shareholders are analyzed in light of the Adviser’s fiduciary responsibilities.
When available, information on how the Funds voted proxies relating to portfolio securities during the most recent 12-month period ended June 30 will be available (1) without charge, upon request, by calling 1‑800‑617‑0004 and (2) on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
INVESTMENT ADVISER AND SUB-ADVISER
Investment Adviser
Vident Advisory, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company located at 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009, serves as the investment adviser to the Funds. The Adviser was formed in in 2016 and commenced operations and registered with the SEC as an investment adviser in 2019, and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. Vident Financial, LLC was formed in 2013 to develop and license investment market solutions (indices and funds) based on strategies that combine sophisticated risk-balancing methodologies, economic freedom metrics, valuation, and investor behavior. Vident Financial, LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Vident Investors’ Oversight Trust. Vince L. Birley, Brian Shepler , and Mohammad Baki serve as the trustees of the Vident Investors’ Oversight Trust.
Pursuant to an Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”) between the Trust, on behalf of the Funds, and the Adviser, the Adviser provides investment advice to the Funds, oversees the day-to-day operations of the Funds, subject to the direction and control of the Board and the officers of the Trust, and provides office facilities and equipment and certain clerical, bookkeeping and administrative services. The Adviser bears the costs of all advisory and substantially all non-advisory services required to operate the Funds, in exchange for a single unitary management fee from each Fund. For services provided to each Fund, the applicable Fund pays the Adviser the following unitary management fee at an annual rate based on the Fund’s average daily net assets:
Name of Fund
Management Fee
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
0.41%
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
0.50%
Vident International Equity Fund
0.61%
Prior to April 1, 2019, Exchange Traded Concepts, LLC (“ETC”) served as the investment adviser to the Funds. During the fiscal period from September 1, 2018 through March 31, 2019, each Fund paid ETC for its advisory services under the same unitary management fee schedule described above.
The Advisory Agreement with respect to the Funds will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Advisory Agreement will be renewable from year to year with respect to a Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Adviser or the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares of the applicable Fund. The Advisory Agreement automatically terminates on assignment and is terminable on a 60-day written notice either by the Trust or the Adviser.
The Adviser shall not be liable to the Trust or any shareholder for anything done or omitted by it, except acts or omissions involving willful misfeasance, bad faith, negligence or reckless disregard of the duties imposed upon it by its agreement with the Trust or for any losses that may be sustained in the purchase, holding or sale of any security.




The table below shows advisory fees paid by the Funds for the fiscal years ended August 31, as applicable to each Fund:
Name of Fund
2019*
2018
2017
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
$1,991,728
$2,433,464
$2,285,844
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
$2,604,350
$3,209,344
$2,690,297
Vident International Equity Fund
$3,560,050
$4,313,713
$4,207,745
* For the period from April 1, 2019 to August 31, 2019, the Fund paid the Adviser $833,139, $1,041,889, and $1,505,862 for its advisory services for the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF, Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund and Vident International Equity Fund, respectively.
Sub-Adviser
The Trust, on behalf of the Funds, and the Adviser have retained Vident Investment Advisory, LLC (“VIA” or the “Sub-Adviser”), 1125 Sanctuary Parkway, Suite 515, Alpharetta, Georgia 30009, to serve as sub-adviser for the Funds. The Sub-Adviser was established in 2014 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Vident Financial, LLC. See “Investment Adviser” above for more details regarding Vident Financial.
Pursuant to a Sub-Advisory Agreement between the Trust, the Adviser, and the Sub-Adviser (the “Sub-Advisory Agreement”), the Sub-Adviser is responsible for trading portfolio securities on behalf of the Funds, including selecting broker-dealers to execute purchase and sale transactions as instructed by the Adviser or in connection with any rebalancing or reconstitution of a Fund’s respective Index, subject to the supervision of the Adviser and the Board. For the services it provides to the Funds, the Sub-Adviser is compensated by the Adviser from the management fees paid by the Funds to the Adviser.
The Sub-Advisory Agreement will continue in force for an initial period of two years. Thereafter, the Sub-Advisory Agreement is renewable from year to year with respect to a Fund, so long as its continuance is approved at least annually (1) by the vote, cast in person at a meeting called for that purpose, of a majority of those Trustees who are not “interested persons” of the Trust; and (2) by the majority vote of either the full Board or the vote of a majority of the outstanding Shares of the applicable Fund. The Sub-Advisory Agreement will terminate automatically in the event of its assignment, and is terminable at any time without penalty by the Board or, with respect to a Fund, by a majority of the outstanding Shares, or by the Adviser, in each case upon 60 days’ written notice to the Sub-Adviser, or by the Sub-Adviser on 90 days’ written notice to the Adviser and the Trust. The Sub-Advisory Agreement provides that the Sub-Adviser shall not be protected against any liability to the Trust or its shareholders by reason of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on its part in the performance of its duties or from reckless disregard of its obligations or duties thereunder.
VIA was entitled to receive the following sub-advisory fees for the fiscal years ended August 31, as applicable to each Fund. ETC was responsible for paying the amounts in the table below, except where otherwise indicated.
Name of Fund
2019*
2018
2017
Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF
$267,554
$328,912
$328,532
Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund
$208,348
$272,847
$244,508
Vident International Equity Fund
$458,530
$549,664
$544,110
* For the period from April 1, 2019 to August 31, 2019, the Adviser paid the Sub-Adviser $112,082, $83,351, and $193,763 for its sub-advisory services for the Vident Core U.S. Bond Strategy ETF, Vident Core U.S. Equity Fund, and Vident International Equity Fund, respectively.
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS
Compensation
The Funds’ portfolio managers receive a fixed base salary and discretionary bonus that are not tied to the performance of the Funds.
Share Ownership
The Funds are required to show the dollar ranges of the portfolio managers’ “beneficial ownership” of Shares of each Fund as of the end of the most recently completed fiscal year or a more recent date for a new portfolio manager. Dollar amount ranges disclosed are established by the SEC. “Beneficial ownership” is determined in accordance with Rule 16a-1(a)(2) under the 1934 Act. As of August 31, 2019 , the Portfolio Managers did not beneficially own Shares of any Fund.

22


Other Accounts 
In addition to the Funds, the portfolio managers managed the following other accounts as of August 31, 2019, none of which were subject to a performance fee:

Portfolio Manager
Registered
Investment Companies
Other Pooled
Investment Vehicles
Other Accounts
Number of Accounts
Total Assets in the Accounts
Number of Accounts
Total Assets in the Accounts
Number of Accounts
Total Assets in the Accounts
Denise M. Krisko, CFA
32
$2.5 billion
5
$106.7 million
0
$0
Jim Iredale, CFA
0
$0
0
$0
97
$143.2 million
Rafael Zayas, CFA
8
$1.4 billion
0
$0
0
$0
Austin Wen, CFA
21
$1.1 billion
1
$54.5 million
0
$0
Habib Moudachirou, FRM
4
$18.9 million
4
$52.1 million
0
$0
Conflicts of Interest
A portfolio manager’s management of “other accounts” may give rise to potential conflicts of interest in connection with their management of the Funds’ investments, on the one hand, and the investments of the other accounts, on the other. The other accounts may have the same investment objectives as a Fund. Therefore, a potential conflict of interest may arise as a result of the identical investment objectives, whereby a portfolio manager could favor one account over another. Another potential conflict could include a portfolio manager’s knowledge about the size, timing and possible market impact of Fund trades, whereby a portfolio manager could use this information to the advantage of other accounts and to the disadvantage of the Funds they manage. However, the Sub-Adviser has established policies and procedures to ensure that the purchase and sale of securities among all accounts the Sub-Adviser manages are fairly and equitably allocated.
Conflicts may also arise because portfolio decisions regarding a Fund may benefit other accounts managed by the Sub-Adviser or its affiliates. For example, the sale of a long position or establishment of a short position by a fund sub-advised by the Sub-Adviser may impair the price of the same security sold short by (and therefore benefit) one or more other funds sub-advised by the Sub-Adviser, and the purchase of a security or covering of a short position in a security by a Fund may increase the price of the same security held by (and therefore benefit) one or more other funds sub-advised by the Sub-Adviser.
Conflicts may also arise when selecting other funds sub-advised by the Sub-Adviser as investments for a Fund because (i) the fees paid by the Adviser to the Sub-Adviser for sub-advising certain other funds may be higher than the fees paid by the applicable Fund or another fund and (ii) the fees received by the Sub-Adviser and its affiliates as index provider may be higher for some funds than for the applicable Fund or another fund.
THE DISTRIBUTOR
The Trust and ALPS Distributors, Inc. (the “Distributor”) are parties to a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”), whereby the Distributor acts as principal underwriter for the Trust and distributes Shares. Shares are continuously offered for sale by the Distributor only in Creation Units. The Distributor will not distribute Shares in amounts less than a Creation Unit and does not maintain a secondary market in Shares. The principal business address of the Distributor is 1290 Broadway, Suite 1000, Denver, Colorado 80203 .
Under the Distribution Agreement, the Distributor, as agent for the Trust, will receive orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units, provided that any subscriptions and orders will not be binding on the Trust until accepted by the Trust. The Distributor is a broker-dealer registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and a member of FINRA.
The Distributor may also enter into agreements with securities dealers (“Soliciting Dealers”) who will solicit purchases of Creation Units of Shares. Such Soliciting Dealers may also be Authorized Participants (as discussed in “Procedures for Purchase of Creation Units” below) or DTC participants (as defined below).
The Distribution Agreement will continue for two years from its effective date and is renewable annually thereafter. The continuance of the Distribution Agreement must be specifically approved at least annually (i) by the vote of the Trustees or by a vote of the shareholders of the Fund and (ii) by the vote of a majority of the Independent Trustees who have no direct or indirect financial interest in the operations of the Distribution Agreement or any related agreement, cast in person at a meeting called for the purpose of voting on such approval. The Distribution Agreement is terminable without penalty by the Trust on 60 days’ written notice when authorized either by majority vote of its outstanding voting Shares or by a vote of a majority of its Board (including a majority of the Independent Trustees), or by the Distributor on 60 days’ written notice, and will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Distribution Agreement provides that in the absence of willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence on the part of the Distributor, or reckless disregard by it of its obligations thereunder, the Distributor shall not be liable for any action or failure to act in accordance with its duties thereunder.
Intermediary Compensation. The Adviser, the Sub-Adviser, or their affiliates, out of their own resources and not out of Fund assets (i.e., without additional cost to the Fund or its shareholders), may pay certain broker dealers, banks and other financial intermediaries (“Intermediaries”) for certain activities related to a Fund, including participation in activities that are designed to make Intermediaries

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more knowledgeable about exchange traded products, including the Fund, or for other activities, such as marketing and educational training or support. These arrangements are not financed by a Fund and, thus, do not result in increased Fund expenses. They are not reflected in the fees and expenses listed in the fees and expenses sections of a Fund’s Prospectus and they do not change the price paid by investors for the purchase of Shares or the amount received by a shareholder as proceeds from the redemption of Shares.
Such compensation may be paid to Intermediaries that provide services to a Fund, including marketing and education support (such as through conferences, webinars and printed communications). The Adviser and Sub-Adviser periodically assess the advisability of continuing to make these payments. Payments to an Intermediary may be significant to the Intermediary, and amounts that Intermediaries pay to your adviser, broker or other investment professional, if any, may also be significant to such adviser, broker or investment professional. Because an Intermediary may make decisions about what investment options it will make available or recommend, and what services to provide in connection with various products, based on payments it receives or is eligible to receive, such payments create conflicts of interest between the Intermediary and its clients. For example, these financial incentives may cause the Intermediary to recommend a Fund over other investments. The same conflict of interest exists with respect to your financial adviser, broker or investment professional if he or she receives similar payments from his or her Intermediary firm.
Intermediary information is current only as of the date of this SAI. Please contact your adviser, broker, or other investment professional for more information regarding any payments his or her Intermediary firm may receive. Any payments made by the Adviser, Sub-Adviser or their affiliates to an Intermediary may create the incentive for an Intermediary to encourage customers to buy Shares.
If you have any additional questions, please call 1-800-617-0004.
Distribution and Service Plan. The Trust has adopted a Distribution and Service Plan (the “Plan”) in accordance with the provisions of Rule 12b-1 under the 1940 Act, which regulates circumstances under which an investment company may directly or indirectly bear expenses relating to the distribution of its shares. No payments pursuant to the Plan are expected to be made during the twelve (12) month period from the date of this SAI. Rule 12b-1 fees to be paid by a Fund under the Plan may only be imposed after approval by the Board.
Continuance of the Plan must be approved annually by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and by a majority of the Trustees who are not interested persons (as defined in the 1940 Act) of the Trust and have no direct or indirect financial interest in the Plan or in any agreements related to the Plan (“Qualified Trustees”). The Plan requires that quarterly written reports of amounts spent under the Plan and the purposes of such expenditures be furnished to and reviewed by the Trustees. The Plan may not be amended to increase materially the amount that may be spent thereunder without approval by a majority of the outstanding Shares of the Fund. All material amendments of the Plan will require approval by a majority of the Trustees of the Trust and of the Qualified Trustees.
The Plan provides that each Fund pays the Distributor an annual fee of up to a maximum of 0.25% of the average daily net assets of the Shares. Under the Plan, the Distributor may make payments pursuant to written agreements to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations and insurance companies including, without limit, investment counselors, broker-dealers and the Distributor’s affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, “Agents”) as compensation for services and reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance. The Plan is characterized as a compensation plan since the distribution fee will be paid to the Distributor without regard to the distribution expenses incurred by the Distributor or the amount of payments made to other financial institutions and intermediaries. The Trust intends to operate the Plan in accordance with its terms and with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) rules concerning sales charges.
Under the Plan, subject to the limitations of applicable law and regulations, each Fund is authorized to compensate the Distributor up to the maximum amount to finance any activity primarily intended to result in the sale of Creation Units of the Fund or for providing or arranging for others to provide shareholder services and for the maintenance of shareholder accounts. Such activities may include, but are not limited to: (i) delivering copies of a Fund’s then current reports, prospectuses, notices, and similar materials, to prospective purchasers of Creation Units; (ii) marketing and promotional services, including advertising; (iii) paying the costs of and compensating others, including APs with whom the Distributor has entered into written Authorized Participant Agreements, for performing shareholder servicing on behalf of a Fund; (iv) compensating certain APs for providing assistance in distributing the Creation Units of a Fund, including the travel and communication expenses and salaries and/or commissions of sales personnel in connection with the distribution of the Creation Units of a Fund; (v) payments to financial institutions and intermediaries such as banks, savings and loan associations, insurance companies and investment counselors, broker-dealers, mutual fund supermarkets and the affiliates and subsidiaries of the Trust’s service providers as compensation for services or reimbursement of expenses incurred in connection with distribution assistance; (vi) facilitating communications with beneficial owners of Shares, including the cost of providing (or paying others to provide) services to beneficial owners of Shares, including, but not limited to, assistance in answering inquiries related to Shareholder accounts; and (vii) such other services and obligations as are set forth in the Distribution Agreement.
THE ADMINISTRATOR, CUSTODIAN, AND TRANSFER AGENT
U.S. Bancorp Fund Services, LLC, doing business as, U.S. Bank Global Fund Services, located at 615 East Michigan Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202, serves as the Funds’ transfer agent, administrator, and index receipt agent.
Pursuant to a Fund Administration Servicing Agreement and a Fund Accounting Servicing Agreement between the Trust and Fund Services, Fund Services provides the Trust with administrative and management services (other than investment advisory services) and accounting services, including portfolio accounting services, tax accounting services and furnishing financial reports. In this capacity,

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Fund Services does not have any responsibility or authority for the management of the Funds, the determination of investment policy, or for any matter pertaining to the distribution o