10-K 1 caplq42016form10k.htm 10-K Document
FORM 10-K
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
(Mark One)
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________
Commission File No. 001-35711
caplpa03.jpg
CROSSAMERICA PARTNERS LP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
45-4165414
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
515 Hamilton Street, Suite 200
Allentown, PA
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
18101
(Zip Code)

(610) 625-8000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: Common units representing limited partner interests, $0.01 par value per share listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Large accelerated filer o     Accelerated filer þ     Non-accelerated filer o     Smaller reporting company o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $471.2 million based on the last sales price quoted as of June 30, 2016 on the New York Stock Exchange, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.
As of February 24, 2017, the registrant had outstanding 33,524,952 common units.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: None.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PAGE
 
 
 
 
 
 




PART I
COMMONLY USED TERMS
The following is a list of certain acronyms and terms generally used in the industry and throughout this document:
 
CrossAmerica Partners LP and subsidiaries:
CrossAmerica, the
   Partnership, we, us, our
CrossAmerica Partners LP
LGP Operations LLC
a wholly owned subsdiary of the Partnership
LGW
Lehigh Gas Wholesale LLC
LGPR
LGP Realty Holdings LP
LGWS
Lehigh Gas Wholesale Services, Inc. and subsidiaries
 
 
CrossAmerica Partners LP related and affiliated parties:
CST
CST Brands, Inc. and subsidiaries
CST Board
the Board of Directors of CST
DMI
Dunne Manning Inc., an entity associated with Joseph V. Topper, Jr., a member of the Board and a related party
DMS
Dunne Manning Stores LLC (formerly known as Lehigh Gas-Ohio, LLC), an entity associated with Joseph V. Topper, Jr., a member of the Board and a related party. DMS is an operator of retail motor fuel stations. DMS leases retail sites from us in accordance with a master lease agreement with us and DMS purchases substantially all of its motor fuel for these sites from us on a wholesale basis under rack plus pricing. The financial results of DMS are not consolidated with ours
General Partner
CrossAmerica GP LLC, the General Partner of CrossAmerica
CST Fuel Supply
CST Fuel Supply LP is the Parent of CST Marketing and Supply
CST Marketing and Supply
CST Marketing and Supply, LLC, a subsidiary of CST Fuel Supply, which provides wholesale fuel distribution to the majority of CST’s U.S. retail sites on a fixed markup per gallon
Topper Group
Joseph V. Topper, Jr., collectively with those of his affiliates and family trusts that have ownership interests in our Predecessor Entities, including DMI
Topstar
Topstar Enterprises, an entity associated with Joseph V. Topper, Jr. Topstar is an operator of retail sites that leases retail sites from us, but does not purchase fuel from us
 
 
Recent Acquisitions:
PMI
Petroleum Marketers, Inc., acquired in April 2014
Nice N Easy
Nice N Easy Grocery Shoppes, acquired in November 2014
Landmark
Landmark Industries, acquired in January 2015
Erickson
Erickson Oil Products, Inc., acquired in February 2015
One Stop
M&J Operations, LLC, acquired in July 2015
Franchised Holiday
   Stores
The franchised Holiday stores acquired by CrossAmerica from S/S/G Corporation in March 2016
State Oil Assets
The assets acquired from State Oil Company in September 2016
 
 

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Other Defined Terms:
 
Amended Omnibus
   Agreement
The Amended and Restated Omnibus Agreement, dated October 1, 2014, as amended on February 17, 2016 by and among CrossAmerica, the General Partner, DMI, DMS, CST Services and Joseph V. Topper, Jr., which amends and restates the original omnibus agreement that was executed in connection with CrossAmerica’s initial public offering on October 30, 2012. The terms of the Amended Omnibus Agreement were approved by the conflicts committee of the Board. Pursuant to the Amended Omnibus Agreement, CST Services agrees, among other things, to provide, or cause to be provided, to the Partnership the management services previously provided by DMI on substantially the same terms and conditions as were applicable to DMI under the Original Omnibus Agreement.
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Board
Board of Directors of our General Partner
BP
BP p.l.c.
Branded Motor Fuels
Motor fuels that are purchased from major integrated oil companies and refiners under supply agreements. We take legal title to the motor fuel when we receive it at the rack and generally arrange for a third-party transportation provider to take delivery of the motor fuel at the rack and deliver it to the appropriate sites in our network.
Couche-Tard
Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc.(TSX: ATD.A ATD.B)
DTW
Dealer tank wagon contracts, which are variable cent per gallon priced wholesale motor fuel distribution or supply contracts; DTW also refers to the pricing methodology under such contracts
EBITDA
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, a non-GAAP financial measure
EICP
The Partnership’s Executive Income Continuity Plan, as amended
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
ExxonMobil
ExxonMobil Corporation
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board
Form 10-K
CrossAmerica’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016
Getty
Getty Realty Corporation
GP Purchase
CST’s purchase from Lehigh Gas Corporation of 100% of the membership interests in the sole member of the General Partner
IDRs
Incentive Distribution Rights, which are partnership interests on our common units that provide for special distributions associated with increasing distributions. CST is the owner of 100% of the outstanding IDRs of CrossAmerica
IDR Purchase
CST’s purchase of all of the membership interests in limited liability companies formed by the 2004 Irrevocable Agreement of Trust of Joseph V. Topper, Sr. and the 2008 Irrevocable Agreement of Trust of John B. Reilly, Jr., which owned all of the IDRs in Lehigh Gas Partners LP.
Internal Revenue Code
Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended
IPO
Initial public offering of CrossAmerica Partners LP on October 30, 2012
IRS
Internal Revenue Service
LIBOR
London Interbank Offered Rate
Merger
The merger of Ultra Acquisition Corp. with CST, with CST surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Circle K Stores Inc. See Merger Agreement below
Merger Agreement
CST’s Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) entered into on August 21, 2016 with Circle K Stores Inc., a Texas corporation (“Parent”), and Ultra Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation and an indirect, wholly owned subsidiary of Parent (“Merger Sub”). Under and subject to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub will be merged with and into CST, with CST surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Parent. Parent is a wholly owned subsidiary of Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc.
MD&A
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Motiva
Motiva Enterprises, LLC

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NTI
CST’s new to industry stores opened after January 1, 2008, which is generally when CST began designing and operating its larger format stores that accommodate broader merchandise categories and food offerings and have more fuel dispensers than its legacy stores
NYSE
New York Stock Exchange
Partnership Agreement
the First Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of CrossAmerica Partners LP, dated as of October 1, 2014, as amended
Plan
In connection with the IPO, the General Partner adopted the Lehigh Gas Partners LP 2012 Incentive Award Plan, a long-term incentive plan for employees, officers, consultants and directors of the General Partner and any of its affiliates who perform services for the Partnership
Predecessor Entities
Wholesale distribution business of Lehigh Gas-Ohio, LLC and real property and leasehold interests contributed in connection with the IPO
QSR
Quick service restaurant
Retail site
A general term to refer to convenience stores, including those operated by commission agents, independent dealers, CST, DMS or lessee dealers, as well as company operated sites
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. GAAP
United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
UST
Underground storage tanks
Valero
Valero Energy Corporation and, where appropriate in context, one or more of its subsidiaries, or all of them taken as a whole
WTI
West Texas Intermediate crude oil

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements, including in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Forward-looking statements include the information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, business strategies, financing plans, competitive position, credit ratings, distribution growth, potential growth opportunities, potential operating performance improvements, potential improvements in return on capital employed, the effects of competition and the effects of future legislation or regulations. You can identify our forward-looking statements by the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “seek,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “expect,” “objective,” “projection,” “forecast,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “effort,” “target” and similar expressions. Such statements are based on management’s current views and assumptions, and involve risks and uncertainties that could affect expected results. These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements regarding:
future retail and wholesale gross profits, including gasoline, diesel and convenience store merchandise gross profits;
our anticipated level of capital investments, primarily through acquisitions, and the effect of these capital investments on our results of operations;
anticipated trends in the demand for, and volumes sold of, gasoline and diesel in the regions where we operate;
volatility in the equity and credit markets limiting access to capital markets;
our ability to integrate acquired businesses and to transition retail sites to lessee dealer operated sites;
expectations regarding environmental, tax and other regulatory initiatives; and
the effect of general economic and other conditions on our business.
In general, we based the forward-looking statements included in this quarterly report on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our company and the industry in which we operate. We caution you that these statements are not guarantees of future performance as they involve assumptions that, while made in good faith, may prove to be incorrect, and involve risks and uncertainties we cannot predict. In addition, we based many of these forward-looking statements on assumptions about future events that may prove to be inaccurate. Accordingly, our actual outcomes and results may differ materially from what we have expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. Any differences could result from a variety of factors, including the following:
CST’s Merger or its Merger Agreement and interim operating covenants contained therein;
the inability to satisfy the conditions specified in the Merger Agreement, including, without limitation, the receipt of necessary governmental or regulatory approvals required to complete the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement;
CST’s business strategy and operations and CST’s conflicts of interest with us and, post-merger, Couche-Tard’s business strategy and operations and Couche-Tard’s conflicts of interest with us;
availability of cash flow to pay the current quarterly distributions on our common units;
the availability and cost of competing motor fuels;
motor fuel price volatility or a reduction in demand for motor fuels;
competition in the industries and geographical areas in which we operate;
the consummation of financing, acquisition or disposition transactions and the effect thereof on our business;
our existing or future indebtedness;
our liquidity, results of operations and financial condition;
failure to comply with applicable tax and other regulations or governmental policies;
future legislation and changes in regulations or governmental policies or changes in enforcement or interpretations thereof;
future regulations and actions that could expand the non-exempt status of employees under the Fair Labor Standards Act;

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future income tax legislation;
changes in energy policy;
increases in energy conservation efforts;
technological advances;
the impact of worldwide economic and political conditions;
the impact of wars and acts of terrorism;
weather conditions or catastrophic weather-related damage;
earthquakes and other natural disasters;
hazards and risks associated with transporting and storing motor fuel;
unexpected environmental liabilities;
the outcome of pending or future litigation; and
our ability to comply with federal, provincial and state laws and regulations, including those related to environmental matters, the sale of alcohol, cigarettes and fresh foods, employment, health benefits, including the Affordable Care Act, immigration, and international trade.
You should consider the areas of risk described above, as well as those set forth in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, in connection with considering any forward-looking statements that may be made by us and our businesses generally. We cannot assure you that projected results or events reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or will occur. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made as of the date of this report. We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to any forward-looking statements, to report events or to report the occurrence of unanticipated events after the date of this report.

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ITEMS 1., 1A., and 2. BUSINESS, RISK FACTORS AND PROPERTIES
Overview
We are a Delaware limited partnership primarily engaged in the wholesale distribution of motor fuel and the ownership and leasing of real estate used in the retail distribution of motor fuel. We also generate revenues from the operation of retail sites.
On October 1, 2014, CST completed the GP Purchase and IDR Purchase for $17 million in cash and approximately 2 million shares of CST common stock for aggregate consideration of approximately $90 million. On August 21, 2016, CST, the owner of our General Partner, entered into the Merger Agreement. As a result, Circle K Stores Inc., a subsidiary of Couche-Tard, will, through its acquisition of CST, control CST’s interest in the General Partner and CST’s 19.8% limited partner interest in CrossAmerica as well as all of the IDRs. The Merger was approved by CST’s stockholders on November 16, 2016 and is subject to the receipt of regulatory approvals in the United States and Canada. The Merger is currently expected to close in the second quarter of 2017. The General Partner manages the operations and activities of CrossAmerica. The General Partner is managed and operated by the Board and executive officers of the General Partner. As a result of the GP Purchase, CST controls the General Partner and has the right to appoint all members of the Board. Therefore, CST controls the operations and activities of CrossAmerica even though CST does not own a majority of our outstanding limited partner units.
Our principal executive offices address is 515 Hamilton Street, Suite 200, Allentown, PA 18101, and our telephone number is (610) 625-8000. Our common units trade on the NYSE under the symbol “CAPL.”
The financial statements reflect the consolidated results of the Partnership and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Our primary operations are conducted by the following consolidated wholly owned subsidiaries:
LGW, which distributes motor fuels on a wholesale basis and generates qualified income under Section 7704(d) of the Internal Revenue Code;
LGPR, which functions as the real estate holding company of CrossAmerica and holds assets that generate rental income that is qualifying under Section 7704(d) of the Internal Revenue Code; and
LGWS, which owns and leases (or leases and sub-leases) real estate and personal property used in the retail distribution of motor fuels, as well as provides maintenance and other services to its customers. In addition, LGWS distributes motor fuels on a retail basis and sells convenience merchandise items to end customers at company operated retail sites and sells motor fuel on a retail basis at sites operated by commission agents. Income from LGWS generally is not qualifying income under Section 7704(d) of the Internal Revenue Code.
We conduct our business through two operating segments, Wholesale and Retail. As of December 31, 2016, we distributed motor fuel to nearly 1,200 sites located in 29 states (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin).
As part of our business strategy with CST, we intend, when favorable market conditions exist and pending approval by our Board’s independent conflicts committee and the approval of the executive committee of the CST Board and mutual agreement upon terms and other conditions, to purchase equity interests at fair market value in CST Fuel Supply, over time. The Merger Agreement prohibits, among other things, CST from selling its tangible and intangible properties or assets to us between August 21, 2016 and completion of the Merger. As such, there can be no assurance we will be able to purchase equity interests in CST Fuel Supply in the future. As of December 31, 2016, our total limited partner interest in CST Fuel Supply was 17.5%. See Note 15 for discussion of the July 2016 refund of a portion of the purchase price paid in 2015 by us to CST Fuel Supply associated with the reduction in wholesale distribution volume resulting from CST’s sale of its California and Wyoming assets.

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In 2015, we issued our common units as consideration in the purchase of equity interests in CST Fuel Supply and the real property associated with some of CST’s NTI retail sites. In addition, we also issued, and may continue to issue, our common units as payment for charges and expenses incurred by us under the Amended Omnibus Agreement. There is no obligation for CST to accept partnership units in lieu of cash for amounts due under the Amended Omnibus Agreement. Pursuant to a common unit purchase program announced in September 2015, CST has, from time to time, also acquired our common units through open market purchases. At December 31, 2016, after giving effect to these transactions, CST owned 19.8% of our limited partner interests.
Available Information
Our internet website is www.crossamericapartners.com. Information on this website is not part of this Form 10-K. Annual reports on our Form 10-K, quarterly reports on our Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K filed with (or furnished to) the SEC are available on this website free of charge, soon after such material is filed or furnished. In this same location, we also post our corporate governance guidelines, code of ethics and business conduct and the charters of the committees of our Board. These documents are available in print to any unitholder that makes a written request to CrossAmerica Partners L.P. Attn: Corporate Secretary, 515 Hamilton Street, Suite 200, Allentown, Pennsylvania 18101.
CST’s internet website is www.CSTBrands.com. Information on this website is not part of this Form 10-K. Annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K filed with (or furnished to) the SEC are available on this website free of charge, soon after such material is filed or furnished. In this same location, CST also posts its corporate governance guidelines, code of ethics and business conduct and the charters of the committees of the CST Board. These documents are available in print to any stockholder that makes a written request to CST Brands, Inc. Attn: Corporate Secretary, 19500 Bulverde Road, Suite 100, San Antonio, Texas 78259.
Operations
Wholesale Segment
Our primary operation is the wholesale distribution of motor fuel. Our Wholesale segment generated 2016 revenues of $1.6 billion. We are one of the ten largest independent distributors by volume in the United States for ExxonMobil, BP and Motiva (Shell), and we also distribute Chevron, Sunoco, Valero, Gulf, Citgo, Marathon and Phillips 66-branded motor fuels (approximately 83% of the motor fuel we distributed during 2016 was branded). We receive a fixed mark-up per gallon on approximately 87% of gallons sold to our customers. The remaining gallons are primarily DTW priced contracts with our customers. These contracts provide for variable, market based pricing. An increase in DTW gross profit results from the acquisition cost of wholesale motor fuel declining at a faster rate as compared to the rate retail motor fuel prices decline. Conversely, our DTW motor fuel gross profit declines when the cost of wholesale motor fuel increases at a faster rate as compared to the rate retail motor fuel prices increase.
Regarding our supplier relationships, a majority of our total gallons purchased are subject to discounts for prompt payment and other rebates and incentives, which are recorded within cost of sales. Prompt payment discounts are based on a percentage of the purchase price of motor fuel. As such, the dollar value of these discounts increase and decrease corresponding with motor fuel prices. Therefore, in periods of lower wholesale motor fuel prices, our gross profit is negatively affected and, in periods of higher wholesale motor fuel prices, our gross profit is positively affected (as it relates to these discounts).  Based on our current volumes, we estimate a $10 per barrel change in the price of crude oil would impact our overall annual wholesale motor fuel gross profit by approximately $2.2 million related to these payment discounts.

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The following table highlights the aggregate volume of motor fuel distributed by our Wholesale segment to each of our principal customer groups by gallons sold for the periods (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
Wholesale Fuel Distribution End of Year Sites
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Gallons of motor fuel distributed to:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Independent dealers
362.3

 
418.1

 
396.9

 
403

 
370

 
416

Lessee dealers
268.4

 
169.7

 
143.8

 
420

 
290

 
205

DMS
164.6

 
177.6

 
224.0

 
153

 
191

 
197

CST
78.9

 
77.3

 
4.9

 
43

 
43

 
21

Company operated retail sites
84.7

 
133.1

 
45.1

 
73

 
115

 
87

Commission agents
75.7

 
75.6

 
73.0

 
95

 
66

 
75

Total
1,034.6

 
1,051.4

 
887.7

 
1,187

 
1,075

 
1,001

Independent Dealer Sites
The independent dealer owns or leases the property and owns all motor fuel and convenience store inventory.
We contract to exclusively distribute motor fuel to the independent dealer at a fixed mark-up per gallon or, in some cases, DTW.
Distribution contracts with independent dealers are typically 7 to 10 years in length.
As of December 31, 2016, the average remaining distribution contract term was 5.6 years.
Lessee Dealer Sites
We own or lease the property and then lease or sublease the site to a dealer.
The lessee dealer owns all motor fuel and retail site inventory and sets its own pricing and gross profit margins.
We collect wholesale motor fuel margins at a fixed mark-up per gallon or, in some cases, DTW.
Under our distribution contracts, we agree to supply a particular branded motor fuel or unbranded motor fuel to a site or group of sites and arrange for all transportation.
Exclusive distribution contracts with dealers who lease property from us run concurrent in length to the retail site’s lease period (generally 3 to 10 years).
Leases are generally triple net leases.
As of December 31, 2016, the average remaining lease agreement term was 3.9 years.
DMS Sites
We own or lease the property and then lease or sublease the site to DMS.
We entered into a 15-year motor fuel distribution agreement with DMS pursuant to which we distribute to DMS motor fuel at a fixed mark-up per gallon.
We entered into 15-year triple-net lease agreements with DMS pursuant to which DMS leases sites from us.
DMS owns motor fuel and retail site inventory and sets its own pricing and gross profit margin.
As of December 31, 2016, the average remaining term on our motor fuel distribution agreements with DMS was 10.8 years. The average remaining term on our lease agreements with DMS was 11.2 years.

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CST Sites
In conjunction with the joint acquisitions of Nice N Easy and Landmark with CST, we own the property and lease the retail sites to CST. Concurrently with these acquisitions, we entered into a 10-year motor fuel distribution agreement with CST, pursuant to which we distribute to CST motor fuels at a fixed mark-up per gallon.
We lease sites to CST under a 10-year triple-net master lease agreement.
CST owns all motor fuel and retail site inventory and sets its own pricing and gross profit margin.
As of December 31, 2016, the remaining term on our fuel distribution agreement was 7.9 years. The average remaining term on our lease agreements with CST was 8.2 years.
Rental Income
We also generate revenues through leasing or subleasing our real estate. We own or lease real and personal property and we lease or sublease to tenants, the substantial majority of which are wholesale customers as described above. As such, we manage our real estate leasing activities congruently with our wholesale business. We own approximately 57% of our properties that we lease to our dealers or utilize in our retail business. Our lease agreements with third party landlords have an average remaining lease term of 7.8 years as of December 31, 2016. Not all of the rental income we earn is a qualified source of income. Rental income from CST is not qualifying income.
CST Fuel Supply
As of December 31, 2016, our total limited partner interest in CST Fuel Supply was 17.5%. We receive pro rata distributions from CST Fuel Supply related to CST Marketing and Supply’s distribution of fuel to the majority of CST’s U.S. retail sites.
Retail Segment
Our Retail segment generated 2016 revenues of $467 million. We own or lease and operate retail sites. Subsequent to an acquisition, we evaluate the eventual long-term operation of each retail site acquired: (a) to be converted into a lessee dealer or (b) other strategic alternatives, including divestiture or longer term operation as a retail site. By converting retail sites into lessee dealers, we continue to benefit from motor fuel distribution volumes as well as rental income from lease or sublease arrangements while reducing operating expenses. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we converted 77 company operated retail sites in our Retail segment to lessee dealers in our Wholesale segment. As of December 31, 2016, we continue to operate 76 retail sites, including three liquor stores to which we do not distribute fuel on a wholesale basis.
Company Operated Sites
We own or lease the property, operate the retail site and retain all profits from motor fuel and retail site operations.
We own the motor fuel inventory at the sites and set the motor fuel pricing at the sites.
We maintain inventory from the time of the purchase of motor fuel from third party suppliers until the retail sale to the end customer. On average, we maintain approximately 5-days’ worth of motor fuel sales in inventory at each site.
LGW distributes on a wholesale basis all of the motor fuel required by our company operated sites, which owns the motor fuel inventory and distributes motor fuel to retail customers. LGW records qualifying wholesale motor fuel distribution gross income and LGWS records the non-qualifying retail distribution gross income.
Commission Sites
We own or lease the property and then lease or sublease the site to the commission agent, who pays rent to us and operates all the non-fuel related operations at the sites for its own account.
We own the motor fuel inventory at the sites, set the motor fuel pricing at the sites, and generate revenue from the retail sale of motor fuels to the end customer.
We pay the commission agent a commission for each gallon of fuel sold at the site.
LGW distributes motor fuel on a wholesale basis to LGWS, which owns the motor fuel inventory and distributes motor fuel to commission sites. LGW records qualifying wholesale motor fuel distribution gross income and LGWS records the non-qualifying retail gross income.

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As of December 31, 2016, the average remaining fuel distribution and lease agreement term was 2.7 years.
The following chart depicts how motor fuel is procured and distributed to our customer groups and how convenience merchandise items are procured and distributed to our company owned and operated retail sites. The chart also depicts the relationship of our real estate activities to our customer groups.
caplwholesale2016a04.jpg
Business Strategy and Objective
Our primary business objective is to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to make quarterly cash distributions to our unitholders and, over time, to increase our quarterly cash distributions. The amount of any distribution is subject to the discretion of the Board, and the Board may modify or revoke the cash distribution policy at any time. Our Partnership Agreement does not require us to pay any distributions.
Our business strategy to achieve our objective of paying and, over time, increasing our quarterly cash distributions, is focused on the following key initiatives:
Expand within and beyond our existing markets through acquisitions. Since our IPO and through February 24, 2017, we have completed acquisitions for a total of over 500 fee and leasehold sites for total consideration of approximately $0.9 billion;
Enhance our real estate business’ cash flows by owning or leasing sites in prime locations;
Increase our wholesale motor fuel distribution business by expanding market share;
Maintain strong relationships with major integrated oil companies and refiners;
Utilize operating knowledge to grow retail gross profits after the acquisition of retail sites; and
As part of our business strategy with CST, we intend, when favorable market conditions exist and pending approval by the Board’s independent conflicts committee and the approval of the executive committee of the board of directors of CST and mutual agreement upon terms and other conditions, to purchase equity interests at fair market value in CST Fuel Supply, over time. The Merger Agreement prohibits, among other things, CST from selling its tangible and intangible properties or assets to us between August 21, 2016 and completion of the Merger. As such, there can be no assurance we will be able to purchase equity interests in CST Fuel Supply in the future. As of December 31, 2016, our total equity interest in CST Fuel Supply was 17.5%.

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See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to CST’s Merger” for certain risks that could effect our ability to execute these key initiatives.
We believe our competitive strengths will allow us to capitalize on our strategic opportunities, including:
Stable cash flows from real estate rent income and wholesale motor fuel distribution;
Established history of acquiring sites and successfully integrating these sites and operations into our existing business;
Long-term relationships with major integrated oil companies and other key suppliers;
Retail site operating expertise; and
Prime real estate locations in areas with high traffic and considerable motor fuel consumption.
Supplier Arrangements
We distribute branded motor fuel under the Exxon, Mobil, BP, Shell, Chevron, Sunoco, Valero, Gulf, Citgo and Marathon brands to our customers. Branded motor fuels are purchased from major integrated oil companies and refiners under supply agreements. For the year ended December 31, 2016, our wholesale business purchased approximately 30%, 25% and 24% of its motor fuel from ExxonMobil, BP and Motiva (Shell), respectively. We purchase the motor fuel at the supplier’s applicable terminal rack price, which typically changes daily. Certain suppliers offer volume rebates or incentive payments to drive volumes and provide an incentive for branding new locations. Certain suppliers require that all or a portion of any such incentive payments be repaid to the supplier in the event that the sites are rebranded within a stated number of years. We also purchase unbranded motor fuel for distribution at a rack price. As of December 31, 2016, our supply agreements had a weighted-average remaining term of approximately 2.3 years.
Competition
Our wholesale motor fuel distribution business competes with other motor fuel distributors. Major competitive factors for us include, among others, customer service, price and quality of service and availability of products.
The convenience store industry is highly competitive and characterized by ease of entry and constant change in the number and type of retailers offering products and services of the type we sell in our retail sites. We compete with other retail site chains, independently owned retail sites, motor fuel stations, supermarkets, drugstores, discount stores, dollar stores, club stores and hypermarkets. Major competitive factors include, among others, location, ease of access, product and service selection, motor fuel brands, pricing, customer service, store appearance, and cleanliness.
Seasonality
Our business exhibits substantial seasonality due to our wholesale and retail sites being located in certain geographic areas that are affected by seasonal weather and temperature trends and associated changes in retail customer activity during different seasons. Historically, sales volumes have been highest in the second and third quarters (during the summer activity months) and lowest during the winter months in the first and fourth quarters.
Trade Names, Service Marks and Trademarks
We are a wholesale distributor of motor fuel for various major integrated oil companies and are licensed to market/resell motor fuel under their respective motor fuel brands.
We are not aware of any facts that would negatively affect our continuing use of any trademarks, trade names or service marks.
Environmental Laws and Regulations
We are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to USTs, the release or discharge of materials into the air, water and soil, waste management, pollution prevention measures, storage, handling, use and disposal of hazardous materials, the exposure of persons to hazardous materials, greenhouse gas emissions, and characteristics, composition, storage and sale of motor fuel and the health and safety of our employees. We incorporate by reference into this section our disclosures included in Note 2 under the captions “Environmental Matters” and “Asset Retirement Obligations” and Note 11 under the caption “Asset Retirement Obligations” of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

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Other Regulatory Matters
Our retail sites are subject to regulation by federal, state, and/or local agencies and to licensing and regulations by state and local health, sanitation, safety, fire and other departments relating to the development and operation of retail sites, including regulations relating to zoning and building requirements and the preparation and sale of food.
Our retail operations are also subject to federal, state, and/or local laws governing such matters as wage rates, overtime, working conditions and citizenship requirements. At the federal, state and local levels where we operate, there are proposals under consideration from time to time to increase minimum wage rates and modify or restrict immigration policies.
Employees
As of December 31, 2016, we had 744 employees who provide services to our retail operations, all of whom are employed by one of our subsidiaries.
The General Partner manages our operations and activities. Under the Amended Omnibus Agreement, employees of CST provide management services to us. As of December 31, 2016, pursuant to the Amended Omnibus Agreement, 87 employees of CST provided exclusive management services to us.

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RISK FACTORS
If any of the following risks were to occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, we might not be able to pay distributions on our common units, the trading price of our common units could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. Also, please read “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Limited partner interests are inherently different from the capital stock of a corporation although many of the business risks to which we are subject are similar to those that would be faced by a corporation engaged in a similar business.
On August 21, 2016, CST, the owner of our General Partner, entered into the Merger Agreement. As a result, Circle K Stores Inc., a subsidiary of Couche-Tard, will, through its acquisition of CST, control CST’s interest in the General Partner and CST’s 19.8% limited partner interest in CrossAmerica as well as all of the incentive distribution rights. The Merger is currently expected to close in the second quarter of 2017.
Risks Relating to CST’s Merger
The pending Merger could adversely impact our business and strategic plans for growth.
Until its closing, the Merger will continue to require the time and attention of CST’s management, and may increase the challenge of recruiting and retaining talented and skilled personnel, which in turn could impact the level of services CST is able to provide to us. The Merger Agreement contains certain restrictions on our operations and, as a result, our revenue, operating results, growth in distributable cash flow and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
Upon closing of the Merger, we could incur significant severance costs.
Under the EICP, the Merger is considered a change in control event. Any participants in the EICP who experience a qualifying termination event upon or following consummation of the Merger will be entitled to certain payments and benefits that would be reimbursable by us, which could be material and adversely affect the amount of cash available for distribution.
Upon the closing of the Merger, Couche-Tard will control us, and may have conflicts of interest with us.
Upon the closing of the Merger, Couche-Tard will have control of our General Partner, and will have the right to remove, appoint and approve the General Partner’s Board and appointment of officers; decisions regarding our strategic direction, including acquisitions; the timing and amount of distributions, if any; and other matters affecting our capital structure; and other significant decisions that could impact our financial results, the amount of cash available for distribution and our liquidity.
Upon the closing of the Merger, Couche-Tard will control the General Partner of CST Fuel Supply.
Upon the closing of the Merger, Couche-Tard will control the general partner of CST Fuel Supply and its wholly owned subsidiary, CST Marketing and Supply. The Partnership owns a 17.5% limited partner interest in CST Fuel Supply and derives substantial economic benefit from distributions made by CST Fuel Supply; however,  there is no contractual obligation on CST, or Couche-Tard upon the closing of the merger, to make distributions from CST Fuel Supply, and the decisions as the timing and amount of any distributions are controlled by CST and, upon the closing the Merger, Couche-Tard. Any decrease in the distributions from CST Fuel Supply could be material and adversely affect the amount of cash available for distribution.
Risks Relating to Our Industry and Our Business
We may not have sufficient distributable cash from operations to enable us to pay our quarterly distribution following the establishment of cash available for distribution and payment of fees and expenses.
We may not have sufficient cash each quarter to pay our current quarterly distribution or any distribution.
The amount of cash we can distribute on our units principally depends upon the amount of cash we generate from our operations, which will fluctuate from quarter to quarter based on, among other things:
demand for motor fuel products in the markets we serve, including seasonal fluctuations, and the margin per gallon we earn selling and distributing motor fuel;
the wholesale price of motor fuel and its impact on the payment discounts we receive;
seasonal trends in the industries in which we operate;

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the impact that severe storms could have to our suppliers’ operations;
competition from other companies that sell motor fuel products or operate retail sites in our targeted market areas;
the inability to identify and acquire suitable sites or to negotiate acceptable leases for such sites;
the potential inability to obtain adequate financing to fund our expansion;
the level of our operating costs, including the amount and manner in which payments to CST are made under the Amended Omnibus Agreement;
prevailing economic conditions;
regulatory actions affecting the supply of or demand for motor fuel, our operations, our existing contracts or our operating costs; and
volatility of prices for motor fuel.
In addition, the actual amount of cash we will have available for distribution will depend on other factors such as:
the level of capital expenditures we make;
the restrictions contained in our credit facility;
our debt service requirements;
the cost of acquisitions;
fluctuations in our working capital needs;
our ability to borrow under our credit facility to make distributions to our unitholders; and
the amount, if any, of cash reserves established by our General Partner in its discretion. 
There is no guarantee that we will distribute quarterly cash distributions to our unitholders in any quarter. See “Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities—Cash Distribution Policy.”
The amount of cash we have available for distribution to unitholders depends primarily on our cash flow rather than on our  profitability, which may prevent us from making cash distributions, even during periods when we record net income.
The amount of cash we have available for distribution depends primarily on our cash flow, and not solely on profitability, which will be affected by non-cash items. As a result, we may make cash distributions during periods when we record losses for financial accounting purposes and may not make cash distributions during periods when we record net income for financial accounting purposes.
If we are unable to make acquisitions on economically acceptable terms, our future growth and ability to increase distributions to unitholders will be limited.
Our strategy to grow our business and increase distributions to unitholders is dependent on our ability to make acquisitions that result in an increase in cash flow. Our growth strategy is based, in large part, on our expectation of ongoing divestitures of retail and wholesale fuel distribution assets by industry participants. We may be unable to make accretive acquisitions for any of the following reasons:
we are unable to identify attractive acquisition candidates or negotiate acceptable purchase contracts for them;
we are unable to raise financing for such acquisitions on economically acceptable terms, for example if the market price for our common units declines;
we are outbid by competitors; or
we or the seller are unable to obtain any necessary consents.
If we are unable to make acquisitions on economically acceptable terms, our future growth and ability to increase distributions to unitholders will be limited. In addition, if we consummate any future acquisitions, our capitalization and results of operations may

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change significantly. We may also consummate acquisitions, which at the time of consummation we believe will be accretive, but ultimately may not be accretive. If any of these events occurred, our future growth could be adversely affected.
Any acquisitions are subject to substantial risks that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Any acquisitions involve potential risks, including, among other things:
the validity of our assumptions about revenues, capital expenditures and operating costs of the acquired business or assets, as well as assumptions about achieving synergies with our existing business;
the incurrence of substantial unforeseen environmental and other liabilities arising out of the acquired businesses or assets, including liabilities arising from the operation of the acquired businesses or assets prior to our acquisition, for which we are not indemnified or for which the indemnity is inadequate;
the costs associated with additional debt or equity capital, which may result in a significant increase in our interest expense and financial leverage resulting from any additional debt incurred to finance the acquisition, or the issuance of additional common units on which we will make distributions, either of which could offset the expected accretion to our unitholders from any such acquisition and could be exacerbated by volatility in the equity or debt capital markets;
a failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as increased available distributable cash flow, enhanced competitive position or new customer relationships;
the inability to timely and effectively integrate the operations of recently acquired businesses or assets, particularly those in new geographic areas or in new lines of business;
a decrease in our liquidity by using a significant portion of our available cash or borrowing capacity to finance the acquisition;
the incurrence of other significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets, asset devaluation or restructuring charges;
performance from the acquired assets and businesses that is below the forecasts we used in evaluating the acquisition;
a significant increase in our working capital requirements;
competition in our targeted market areas;
customer or key employee loss from the acquired businesses; and
diversion of our management’s attention from other business concerns.
In addition, our ability to purchase or lease additional sites involves certain potential risks, including the inability to identify and acquire suitable sites or to negotiate acceptable leases or subleases for such sites and difficulties in adapting our distribution and other operational and management systems to an expanded network of sites.
Our reviews of businesses or assets proposed to be acquired are inherently imperfect because it generally is not feasible to perform an in-depth review of businesses and assets involved in each acquisition. Even a detailed review of assets and businesses may not necessarily reveal existing or potential problems, nor will it permit a buyer to become sufficiently familiar with the assets or businesses to fully assess their deficiencies and potential. For example, inspections may not always be performed on every asset, and environmental problems, such as groundwater contamination, are not necessarily observable even when an inspection is undertaken. Unitholders will not have the opportunity to evaluate the economic, financial and other relevant information that we will consider in determining the application of our funds and other resources toward the acquisition of certain businesses or assets.
Volatility in crude oil and wholesale motor fuel costs affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
For the year ended December 31, 2016, motor fuel revenue accounted for 89% of our total revenues and motor fuel gross profit accounted for 40% of total gross profit. Wholesale motor fuel costs are directly related to, and fluctuate with, the price of crude oil. Volatility in the price of crude oil, and subsequently wholesale motor fuel prices, is caused by many factors, including general political conditions, acts of war or terrorism, instability in oil producing regions, particularly in the Middle East and South America, and the value of U.S. dollars relative to other foreign currencies, particularly those of oil producing nations. In addition, the supply

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of motor fuel and our wholesale purchase costs could be adversely affected in the event of a shortage or oversupply of product, which could result from, among other things, interruptions of fuel production at oil refineries, new supply sources, sustained increases or decreases in global demand or the fact that our motor fuel contracts do not guarantee an uninterrupted, unlimited supply of motor fuel.
Significant increases and volatility in wholesale motor fuel costs could result in lower gross profit dollars, as an increase in the retail price of motor fuel could impact consumer demand for motor fuel and convenience merchandise and could result in lower wholesale motor fuel gross profit dollars. Dramatic increases in oil prices reduce retail motor fuel gross profits, because wholesale motor fuel costs typically increase faster than retailers are able to pass them along to customers. In addition, significant decreases in oil prices and the corresponding decreases in wholesale motor fuel sales prices can result in lower revenues and gross profit margins, as our wholesale motor fuel gross profits include discounts from our suppliers calculated as a percentage of the cost of wholesale motor fuel. As the market prices of crude oil, and, correspondingly, the market prices of wholesale motor fuel, experience significant and rapid fluctuations, we attempt to pass along wholesale motor fuel price changes to our customers through retail price changes; however, we are not always able to do so immediately. The timing of any related increase or decrease in sales prices is affected by competitive conditions in each geographic market in which we operate. As such, our revenues and gross profit for motor fuel can increase or decrease significantly and rapidly over short periods of time and potentially adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and ability to make distributions to our unitholders. The volatility in crude oil and wholesale motor fuel costs and sales prices makes it extremely difficult to forecast future motor fuel gross profits or predict the effect that future wholesale costs and sales price fluctuations will have on our operating results and financial condition.
Seasonality in wholesale motor fuel costs and sales, as well as merchandise sales, affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Oil prices, wholesale motor fuel costs, motor fuel sales volumes, motor fuel gross profits and merchandise sales often experience seasonal fluctuations. For example, consumer demand for motor fuel typically increases during the summer driving season and typically falls during the winter months. Travel, recreation and construction are typically higher in these months in the geographic areas in which we operate, increasing the demand for motor fuel and merchandise that we sell. Therefore, our revenues are typically higher in the second and third quarters of our fiscal year. A significant change in any of these factors, including a significant decrease in consumer demand (other than typical seasonal variations), could materially affect our motor fuel and merchandise volumes, motor fuel gross profit and overall customer traffic, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Both the wholesale motor fuel distribution and the retail motor fuel industries are characterized by intense competition and fragmentation, and our failure to effectively compete could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
The markets for distribution of wholesale motor fuel and the sale of retail motor fuel are highly competitive and fragmented, which results in narrow margins. We have numerous competitors and some may have significantly greater resources and name recognition than we do. We rely on our ability to provide value added reliable services and to control our operating costs to maintain our margins and competitive position. If we were to fail to maintain the quality of our services, wholesale customers could choose alternative distribution sources and retail customers could purchase from other retailers, each decreasing our margins. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that major integrated oil companies will not decide to distribute their own products in direct competition with us or that large wholesale customers will not attempt to buy directly from the major integrated oil companies. The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and our ability to make distributions.
Changes in credit or debit card expenses could reduce our gross profit, especially on motor fuel sold at our company operated retail sites.
A significant portion of our sales at our company operated retail sites involve payment using credit or debit cards. We are assessed fees as a percentage of transaction amounts and not as a fixed dollar amount or percentage of our gross profits. Higher motor fuel prices result in higher credit and debit card expenses, and an increase in credit or debit card use or an increase in fees would have a similar effect. Therefore, credit and debit card fees charged on motor fuel purchases that are more expensive as a result of higher motor fuel prices are not necessarily accompanied by higher gross profits. In fact, such fees may cause lower gross profits. Lower gross profits on motor fuel sales caused by higher fees may decrease our overall gross profit and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
General economic conditions that are largely out of our control could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Recessionary economic conditions, higher interest rates, higher motor fuel and other energy costs, inflation, increases in commodity

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prices, higher levels of unemployment, higher consumer debt levels, higher tax rates and other changes in tax laws or other economic factors may affect consumer spending or buying habits, and could adversely affect the demand for motor fuel and convenience items we sell at our retail sites. Unfavorable economic conditions, higher motor fuel prices and unemployment levels can affect consumer confidence, spending patterns and miles driven, with many customers “trading down” to lower priced products in certain categories when unfavorable conditions exist. These factors can lead to sales declines in both motor fuel and general merchandise, and in turn have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A tightening of credit in the financial markets or an increase in interest rates may make it more difficult for wholesale customers and suppliers to obtain financing and, depending on the degree to which it occurs, there may be a material increase in the nonpayment or other nonperformance by our customers and suppliers. Even if our credit review and analysis mechanisms work properly, we may experience financial losses in our dealings with these third parties. A material increase in the nonpayment or other nonperformance by our wholesale customers and/or suppliers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Changes in consumer behavior and travel as a result of changing economic conditions, labor strikes or otherwise could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
In the retail motor fuel industry, customer traffic is generally driven by consumer preferences and spending trends, growth rates for commercial truck traffic and trends in travel and weather. Changes in economic conditions generally, or in the regions in which we operate, could adversely affect consumer spending patterns and travel in our markets. In particular, weakening economic conditions may result in decreases in miles driven and discretionary consumer spending and travel, which affect spending on motor fuel and convenience items. In addition, changes in the types of products and services demanded by consumers or labor strikes in the construction industry or other industries that employ customers who visit our stores, may adversely affect our sales and gross profit. Additionally, negative publicity or perception surrounding motor fuel suppliers could adversely affect their reputation and brand image, which may negatively affect our motor fuel sales and gross profit. Similarly, advanced technology and increased use of “green” automobiles (e.g., those automobiles that do not use petroleum-based motor fuel or that are powered by hybrid engines) would reduce demand for motor fuel. Our success depends on our ability to anticipate and respond in a timely manner to changing consumer demands and preferences while continuing to sell products and services that remain relevant to the consumer and thus will positively impact overall merchandise gross profit.
Legal, technological, political and scientific developments regarding climate change and fuel efficiency may decrease demand for motor fuel.
Developments aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions’ contribution to climate change may decrease the demand or increase the cost for our major product, petroleum-based motor fuel. Attitudes toward this product and its relationship to the environment may significantly affect our effectiveness in marketing our product and sales. Government efforts to steer the public toward non-petroleum-based fuel dependent modes of transportation may foster a negative perception toward motor fuel or increase costs for our product, thus affecting the public’s attitude toward our major product. New technologies that increase fuel efficiency or offer alternative vehicle power sources or laws or regulations to increase fuel efficiency, reduce consumption or offer alternative vehicle power sources may result in decreased demand for petroleum-based motor fuel. We may also incur increased costs for our product which we may not be able to pass along to our customers. These developments could potentially have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Future tobacco legislation, campaigns to discourage smoking, increased use of tobacco alternatives, increases in tobacco taxes and wholesale cost increases of tobacco products could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Sales of tobacco products have historically accounted for a significant portion of our total sales of retail site merchandise. Increases in wholesale cigarette costs and tax increases on tobacco products, as well as future legislation, national and local campaigns to discourage smoking in the U.S., and increased use of tobacco alternatives such as electronic cigarettes, may have an adverse effect on the demand for tobacco products, and therefore reduce our revenues and profits. Competitive pressures in our markets can make it difficult to pass price increases on to our customers. These factors could materially and adversely affect our retail price of cigarettes, cigarette unit volume and sales, merchandise gross profit and overall customer traffic. Reduced sales of tobacco products or smaller gross profits on the sales we make could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Currently, major cigarette manufacturers offer substantial rebates to retailers. We include these rebates as a component of our gross profit. In the event these rebates are no longer offered, or decreased, our profit from cigarette sales will decrease accordingly. In addition, reduced retail display allowances on cigarettes offered by cigarette manufacturers negatively affect gross profits. These factors could materially affect our retail price of cigarettes, cigarette unit volume and revenues, merchandise gross profit and

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overall customer traffic, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
We are subject to extensive government laws and regulations, and the cost of compliance with such laws and regulations can be material.
Our business and properties are subject to extensive local, state and federal governmental laws and regulations relating to, among other things, environmental conditions, the sale of alcohol, tobacco and money orders, employment conditions, including minimum wage requirements, and public accessibility requirements. The cost of compliance with these laws and regulations can have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. In addition, failure to comply with local, state, provincial and federal laws and regulations to which our operations are subject may result in penalties and costs that could adversely affect our business and our operating results.
In certain areas where our retail sites are located, state or local laws limit the retail sites’ hours of operation or their sale of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, possible inhalants and lottery tickets, in particular to minors. Failure to comply with these laws could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations because these state and local regulatory agencies have the power to revoke, suspend or deny applications for and renewals of permits and licenses relating to the sale of these products or to seek other remedies, such as the imposition of fines or other penalties. Moreover, these laws may impact our sales volumes in general, as customers who purchase certain products such as alcoholic beverages typically buy other products when they shop. Laws that curtail the consumer’s ability to buy certain products at our retail sites may curtail consumer demand for other products that we sell.
If a portion of our workforce were to create or become part of a labor union, we could be forced to increase our compensation levels in order to avoid work disruptions or stoppages. Any appreciable increase in the statutory minimum wage or unionization of our workforce could result in an increase in our labor costs and such cost increase, or the penalties for failing to comply with such statutory minimums, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Further, U.S. health care reform legislation requires us to provide additional health insurance benefits to our employees, or health insurance coverage to additional employees, and has increased our costs and expenses.
Any changes in the laws or regulations described above that are adverse to us and our properties could affect our operating and financial performance. In addition, new regulations are proposed from time to time which, if adopted, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to extensive government laws and regulations concerning our employees, and the cost of compliance with such laws and regulations can be material.
Regulations related to wages and other compensation affect our business. Any appreciable increase in applicable employment laws and regulations, including the statutory minimum wage, exemption levels or overtime regulations could result in an increase in labor costs and such cost increase, or the penalties for failing to comply with such statutory minimums, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
Further, the Affordable Care Act and related reforms make and will continue to make sweeping and fundamental changes to the U.S. health care system. This requires us to provide additional health insurance benefits to the employees providing services to us, or health insurance coverage to additional employees, and as a result may increase our costs and expenses. In addition, we are directly and indirectly affected by new tax legislation and regulation and the interpretation of tax laws and regulations. This includes potential changes in tax laws or the interpretation of tax laws relating to incentive compensation such as profit interests. Changes in such legislation, regulation or interpretation could have an adverse effect on our incentive compensation structures and thereby affect our operating results and financial condition.
Any changes in the employment, benefit plan, tax or labor laws or regulations described above that are adverse to us could affect our operating and financial performance. In addition, new regulations are proposed from time to time which, if adopted, could have a material adverse effect on our employment practices, operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to extensive federal, state and local environmental laws, and the cost of complying with such laws may be material.
Our operations are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations, including those relating to emissions to the air, discharges into water, releases of hazardous and toxic substances and remediation of contaminated sites. Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations, we may, as the owner or operator, be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of contamination at our current locations or our former locations, whether or not we knew of, or were responsible for, the presence

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of such contamination. In particular, as an owner and operator of motor fueling stations, we face risks relating to petroleum product contamination that other retail site operators not engaged in such activities would not face. The remediation costs and other costs required to clean up or treat contaminated sites could be substantial. Contamination on and from our current or former locations may subject us to liability to third parties or governmental authorities for injuries to persons, property or natural resources and may adversely affect our ability to sell or rent our properties or to borrow money using such properties as collateral.
In the U.S., persons who dispose of or arrange for the disposal or treatment of hazardous or toxic substances at third party sites may also be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of such substances at these disposal sites although such sites are not owned by such persons. Our current and historic operation of many locations and the disposal of contaminated soil and groundwater wastes generated during cleanups of contamination at such locations could expose us to such liability.
We are subject to extensive environmental laws and regulations regulating USTs and vapor recovery systems. Compliance with existing and future environmental laws regulating such tanks and systems may require significant expenditures. In the U.S., we pay fees to state “leaking UST” trust funds in states where they exist. These state trust funds are expected to pay or reimburse us for remediation expenses related to contamination associated with USTs subject to their jurisdiction. Such payments are always subject to a deductible paid by us, specified per incident caps and specified maximum annual payments, which vary among the funds.
Additionally, such funds may have eligibility requirements that not all of our sites will meet. To the extent state funds or other responsible parties do not pay or delay payments for remediation, we will be obligated to make these payments, which, in the aggregate, could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We can give no assurance that these funds or responsible third parties are or will continue to remain viable. See Note 16 of the notes to consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K under the caption “Litigation Matters” for a discussion of certain allegations made against us related to the remediation activities of USTs.
Motor fuel operations present risks of soil and groundwater contamination. In the future, we may incur substantial expenditures for remediation of contamination that has not been discovered at existing locations or locations which we may acquire. We regularly monitor our facilities for environmental contamination and record liabilities on our financial statements to cover potential environmental remediation and compliance costs when probable to occur and reasonably estimable. However, we can make no assurance that the liabilities we have recorded are the only environmental liabilities relating to our current and former locations, that material environmental conditions not known to us do not exist, that future laws or regulations will not impose material environmental liability on us or that our actual environmental liabilities will not exceed our reserves. In addition, failure to comply with any environmental regulations or an increase in regulations could materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Unfavorable weather conditions, the impact of climate change or other trends or developments in the regions in which we operate could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Our retail sites are located in regions throughout the U.S. that are susceptible to certain severe weather events and potential impacts of climate change, such as hurricanes, severe thunderstorms, snowstorms, tornadoes and extreme heat and cold. Inclement weather conditions could damage our facilities, our suppliers or could have a significant impact on consumer behavior, travel and retail site traffic patterns, as well as our ability to operate our retail sites. We could also be affected by regional occurrences, such as energy shortages or increases in energy prices, fires or other natural disasters. Besides these more obvious consequences of severe weather, our ability to insure these locations and the related cost of such insurance may also affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
We could be adversely affected if we are not able to attract and retain a strong management team.
We are dependent on our ability to attract and retain a strong management team. If, for any reason, we are not able to attract and retain qualified senior personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. We also are dependent on our ability to recruit qualified retail site and field managers. If we fail to attract and retain these individuals at reasonable compensation levels, our operating results may be adversely affected.
We depend on three principal suppliers for the majority of our motor fuel. A disruption in supply or a change in our relationship with any one of them could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
ExxonMobil, BP and Motiva collectively supplied approximately 79% of our motor fuel purchases in 2016. We purchased approximately 30%, 25% and 24% of its motor fuel from ExxonMobil, BP and Motiva, respectively. A change of motor fuel suppliers, a disruption in supply or a significant change in pricing with any of these suppliers could have a material adverse effect

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on our business.
We rely on our suppliers to provide trade credit terms to adequately fund our on-going operations.
Our business is impacted by the availability of trade credit to fund motor fuel purchases and inventory purchases of our retail sites. An actual or perceived downgrade in our liquidity or operations could cause our suppliers to seek credit support in the form of additional collateral, limit the extension of trade credit or otherwise materially modify their payment terms. Any material changes in the payments terms, including payment discounts, or availability of trade credit provided by our principal suppliers could impact our liquidity, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Pending or future litigation could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Litigation and publicity concerning motor fuel or food quality, health and other issues could result in significant liabilities or litigation costs and cause consumers to avoid our retail sites.
Retail site businesses can be adversely affected by litigation and complaints from customers or government agencies resulting from motor fuel or food quality, illness or other health or environmental concerns or operating issues stemming from one or more locations. Additionally, we may become a party to individual personal injury, off-specification motor fuel, products liability, consumer protection act, contract disputes, wage and hour unemployment claims and other legal actions in the ordinary course of our business and we are occasionally exposed to industry-wide or class-action claims arising from the products we carry or industry-specific business practices. Adverse publicity about these allegations may negatively affect us, regardless of whether the allegations are true, by discouraging customers from purchasing motor fuel, merchandise or food at one or more of our retail sites. We could also incur significant liabilities if a lawsuit or claim results in a decision against us. Even if we are successful in defending such litigation, our litigation costs could be significant, and the litigation may divert time and money away from our operations and adversely affect our performance. Our defense costs and any resulting damage awards may not be fully covered by our insurance policies. Please see Note 16 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
The dangers inherent in the storage and transport of motor fuel could cause disruptions and could expose us to potentially significant losses, costs or liabilities.
We store motor fuel in storage tanks at our retail sites. These operations are subject to significant hazards and risks inherent in storing and transporting motor fuel. These hazards and risks include, but are not limited to, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, spills, discharges and other releases, any of which could result in distribution difficulties and disruptions, environmental pollution, governmentally imposed fines or cleanup obligations, personal injury or wrongful death claims and other damage to our properties and the properties of others. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distributions to our unitholders.
We depend on transportation providers for the transportation of substantially all of our motor fuel. Thus, a change of providers or a significant change in our relationship with any of these providers could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
Substantially all of the motor fuel we distribute is transported from motor fuel terminals to gas stations by third party carriers. A change of transportation providers, a disruption in service or a significant change in our relationship with any of these transportation carriers could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations that govern the product quality specifications of the motor fuel that we distribute and sell.
Various federal, state and local agencies have the authority to prescribe specific product quality specifications to the sale of commodities. Changes in product quality specifications, such as reformulated fuels mandates, reduced sulfur content in refined petroleum products, or other more stringent requirements for fuels, could reduce our ability to procure product and our sales volume, require us to incur additional handling costs, and/or require the expenditure of capital. If we are unable to procure product or to recover these costs through increased sales, our ability to meet our financial obligations could be adversely affected. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in substantial penalties.
Our motor fuel sales in our Wholesale segment are generated under contracts that must be renegotiated or replaced periodically. If we are unable to successfully renegotiate or replace these contracts, then our business, financial condition and results of operations and ability to make distributions to unitholders could be adversely affected.
Our Wholesale segment’s motor fuel sales are generated under contracts that must be periodically renegotiated or replaced. As these contracts expire, they must be renegotiated or replaced. We may be unable to renegotiate or replace these contracts when they expire, and the terms of any renegotiated contracts may not be as favorable as the contracts they replace. Whether these

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contracts are successfully renegotiated or replaced is often times subject to factors beyond our control. Such factors include fluctuations in motor fuel prices, counterparty ability to pay for or accept the contracted volumes and a competitive marketplace for the services offered by us. If we cannot successfully renegotiate or replace our contracts or must renegotiate or replace them on less favorable terms, sales from these arrangements could decline and our ability to make distributions to its unitholders could be adversely affected.
We rely on our IT systems and network infrastructure to manage numerous aspects of our business, and a disruption of these systems could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
We depend on our IT systems and network infrastructure to manage numerous aspects of our business and provide analytical information to management. These systems are an essential component of our business and growth strategies, and a serious disruption to them could significantly limit our ability to manage and operate our business efficiently. These systems are vulnerable to, among other things, damage and interruption from power loss or natural disasters, computer system and network failures, loss of telecommunications services, physical and electronic loss of data, security breaches and computer viruses, which could result in a loss of sensitive business information, systems interruption or the disruption of our business operations. To protect against unauthorized access or attacks, we have implemented infrastructure protection technologies and disaster recovery plans, but there can be no assurance that a technology systems breach or systems failure will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Our business and our reputation could be adversely affected by the failure to protect sensitive customer, employee or vendor data, whether as a result of cyber security attacks or otherwise, or to comply with applicable regulations relating to data security and privacy.
In the normal course of our business as a motor fuel and merchandise retailer, we obtain large amounts of personal data, including credit and debit card information from our customers. While we have invested significant amounts in the protection of our IT systems and maintain what we believe are adequate security controls over individually identifiable customer, employee and vendor data provided to us, a breakdown or a breach in our systems that results in the unauthorized release of individually identifiable customer or other sensitive data could nonetheless occur.
Cyber attacks are rapidly evolving and becoming increasingly sophisticated. A successful cyber attack resulting in the loss of sensitive customer, employee or vendor data could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and could result in litigation against us or the imposition of penalties. Moreover, a security breach could require that we expend significant additional resources to upgrade further the security measures that we employ to guard against cyber attacks.
Our debt levels and debt agreement covenants may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing and in pursuing other business opportunities.
We have a significant amount of debt. At December 31, 2016, we had $467.2 million of total debt and $94.1 million of availability under the CrossAmerica revolving credit facility. Our credit agreement requires, among other things, that we have, after giving effect to any acquisition, at least $20.0 million, in the aggregate, of borrowing availability under the revolving credit facility and unrestricted cash on the balance sheet on the date of such acquisition. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity—Debt” for a discussion of the terms of our amended and restated credit facility entered into in March 2014, as amended in December 2016. Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences to us, including the following:
our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes may be impaired or such financing may not be available on favorable terms;
covenants contained in our credit facility will require us to meet financial tests that may affect our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our business, including possible acquisition opportunities;
we will need a substantial portion of our cash flow to make interest payments on our indebtedness, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for operations, future business opportunities and distributions to unitholders;
our debt level will make us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our business or the economy generally; and
our debt level may limit our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions.

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Our ability to service our indebtedness will depend upon, among other things, our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. If our operating results are not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness, we will be forced to take actions, such as reducing distributions, reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments and/or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our indebtedness, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. We may not be able to effect any of these actions on satisfactory terms, or at all.
Our credit facility contains operating and financial restrictions that may limit our business, financing activities and ability to make distributions to unitholders.
The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit facility and any future financing agreements could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage, expand or pursue our business activities. For example, our credit facility may restrict our ability to:
make distributions if any potential default or event of default occurs;
incur additional indebtedness, including the issuance of certain preferred equity interests, or guarantee other indebtedness;
grant liens or make certain negative pledges;
make certain advances, loans or investments;
make any material change to the nature of our business, including mergers, consolidations, liquidations and dissolutions;
make certain capital expenditures in excess of specified levels;
acquire another company;
enter into a sale-leaseback transaction or certain sales or leases of assets;
enter into certain affiliate transactions; or
make certain repurchases of equity interests.
Our credit facility will limit our ability to pay distributions upon the occurrence of the following events, among others:
failure to pay any principal when due or failure to pay any interest, fees or other amounts owing under our credit facility when due, subject to any applicable grace period;
failure of any representation or warranty in our credit agreement to be true and correct, and the failure of any representation or warranty in any other agreement delivered in connection with our credit facility to be true and correct in any material respect;
failure to perform or otherwise comply with the covenants in our credit facility or in other loan documents beyond the applicable notice and grace period;
any default in the performance of any obligation or condition beyond the applicable grace period relating to any other indebtedness of more than $7.5 million;
failure of the lenders to have a perfected first priority security interest in the collateral pledged by any loan party;
the entry of one or more judgments in excess of $20.0 million, to the extent any payments pursuant to the judgment are not covered by insurance;
a change in ownership control of us or our General Partner (other than the change in control related to the Merger);
a violation of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, or “ERISA”; and
a bankruptcy or insolvency event involving us or any of our subsidiaries.
Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in our credit facility may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, our ability to comply with these covenants may be impaired. If we violate any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our credit facility, the debt issued under the credit facility may become immediately due and payable, and our lenders’ commitment to make

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further loans to us may terminate. We might not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make these accelerated payments. In addition, our obligations under our credit facility will be secured by substantially all of our assets, and if we are unable to repay our indebtedness under our credit facility, the lenders could seek to foreclose on such assets.
We may not be able to lease sites we own or sub-lease sites we lease on favorable terms and any such failure could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
We may lease and/or sub-lease certain sites to lessee dealers, commission agents, CST or to DMS where the rent expense is more than the lease payments. If we are unable to obtain tenants on favorable terms for sites we own or lease, the lease payments we receive may not be adequate to cover our rent expense for leased sites and may not be adequate to ensure that we meet our debt service requirements. We cannot provide any assurance that the margins on our wholesale distribution of motor fuels to these sites will be adequate to off-set unfavorable lease terms. The occurrence of these events could adversely affect our results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
The operations at sites we own or lease are subject to inherent risk, operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions and insurance may not adequately cover any such exposure. The occurrence of a significant event or release that is not fully insured could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and reduce our ability to make distributions to unitholders.
The presence of flammable and combustible products at our sites provides the potential for fires and explosions that could destroy both property and human life. Furthermore, our operations are subject to unforeseen interruptions such as natural disasters, adverse weather and other events beyond our control. Motor fuels also have the potential to cause environmental damage if improperly handled or released. If any of these events were to occur, we could incur substantial losses and/or curtailment of related operations because of personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment, and pollution or other environmental damage.
We are not fully insured against all risks incident to our business. We may be unable to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we desire at reasonable rates. As a result of market conditions, premiums and deductibles for certain of our insurance policies have increased and could escalate further. In some instances, certain insurance could become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. If we were to incur a significant liability for which we were not fully insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and ability to make distributions to unitholders.
We are relying on DMI to indemnify us for any costs or expenses that we incur for environmental liabilities and third-party claims, regardless of when a claim is made, that are based on environmental conditions in existence prior to the closing of the IPO at our Predecessor’s sites. To the extent escrow accounts, insurance and/or payments from DMI are not sufficient to cover any such costs or expenses, our business, financial condition and results of operations and ability to make distributions to unitholders could be adversely affected.
The Amended Omnibus Agreement provides that DMI must indemnify us for any costs or expenses that we incur for environmental liabilities and third-party claims, regardless of when a claim is made, that are based on environmental conditions in existence prior to the closing of the IPO at our Predecessor’s sites. DMI is the beneficiary of escrow accounts created to cover the cost to remediate certain environmental liabilities. In addition, DMI maintains insurance policies to cover environmental liabilities and/or, where available, participates in state programs that may also assist in funding the costs of environmental liabilities. There are certain sites that were acquired by us in connection with the IPO with existing environmental liabilities that are not covered by escrow accounts, state funds or insurance policies. As of December 31, 2016, DMI had an aggregate of approximately $1.0 million of environmental liabilities on sites acquired by us that are not covered by escrow accounts, state funds or insurance policies. To the extent escrow accounts, insurance and/or payments from DMI are not sufficient to cover any such costs or expenses, our business, liquidity and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Risks Inherent in an Investment in Us
CST controls, and after the Merger, Couche-Tard will control, us and may have conflicts of interest with us in the future.
CST currently controls, and after the Merger, Couche-Tard will control, our General Partner, including the election of directors; decisions regarding mergers, consolidations or acquisitions, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and other matters affecting our capital structure; and other significant decisions that could impact our financial results and the amount of cash available for distribution. In addition, CST may compete directly with us for future acquisitions, which may conflict with our core strategy to grow our business and increase distributions to unitholders. As long as CST or Couche-Tard continues to own our General Partner, it will continue to be able to effectively control our decisions.

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CST owns, and after the Merger, Couche-Tard will own, the sole member of our General Partner, which has sole responsibility for conducting our business and managing our operations. Our General Partner and its affiliates, including CST, have conflicts of interest with us and limited fiduciary duties and they may favor their own interests to the detriment of us and our unitholders.
CST owns, and after the Merger, Couche-Tard will own, the sole member of and controls our General Partner and has and will have the ability to appoint all of the directors of our Board. Although our General Partner has a legal duty to manage in good faith, the executive officers and directors of our Board have a fiduciary duty to manage our General Partner in a manner beneficial to its owner, CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable. Furthermore, certain officers of our General Partner are directors of our Board or officers of affiliates of our General Partner. Therefore, conflicts of interest may arise in the future between us and our unitholders, on the one hand, and our General Partner, on the other hand. In resolving these conflicts of interest, our General Partner may favor its own interests and the interests of CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, over our interests and the interests of our common unitholders. These conflicts include the following situations, among others:
our General Partner is allowed to take into account the interests of parties other than us, such as CST, in resolving conflicts of interest, which has the effect of limiting its fiduciary duty to our unitholders;
neither our Partnership Agreement nor any other agreement requires CST to pursue a business strategy that favors us;
some officers of our General Partner who will provide services to us will devote time to affiliates of our General Partner and may be compensated for services rendered to such affiliate;
our Partnership Agreement limits the liability of and reduces fiduciary duties owed by our General Partner and also restricts the remedies available to unitholders for actions that, without the limitations, might constitute breaches of fiduciary duty;
except in limited circumstances, our General Partner has the power and authority to conduct our business without unitholder approval;
our General Partner determines the amount and timing of asset purchases and sales, borrowings, issuances of additional partnership securities and the creation, reductions or increases of cash reserves, each of which can affect the amount of cash that is available for distribution to our unitholders, and to the holders of the IDRs;
our General Partner determines the amount and timing of any capital expenditures and whether a capital expenditure is classified as a maintenance capital expenditure, which reduces operating surplus. Such determination can affect the amount of cash available for distribution to our unitholders and to the holders of the IDRs;
our General Partner may cause us to borrow funds in order to permit the payment of cash distributions, even if the purpose or effect of the borrowing is to make incentive distributions;
our Partnership Agreement permits us to distribute up to $15 million as operating surplus, even if it is generated from asset sales, non-working capital borrowings or other sources that would otherwise constitute capital surplus. This cash may be used to fund distributions on the IDRs;
our Partnership Agreement does not restrict our General Partner from causing us to pay it or its affiliates for any services rendered to us or entering into additional contractual arrangements with its affiliates on our behalf;
our General Partner intends to limit its liability regarding our contractual and other obligations;
our General Partner may exercise its right to call and purchase our common units if it and its affiliates own more than 80% of our common units;
our General Partner controls the enforcement of obligations that it and its affiliates owe to us;
our General Partner decides whether to retain separate counsel, accountants or others to perform services for us;
the holders of our IDRs may transfer their IDRs without unitholder approval; and
our General Partner may elect to cause us to issue common units to the holders of our IDRs in connection with a resetting of the target distribution levels related to the IDRs without the approval of the conflicts committee of the Board or the unitholders. This election may result in lower distributions to the common unitholders in certain situations.

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The owner of our General Partner or the Board may modify or revoke our cash distribution policy at any time at their discretion. Our Partnership Agreement does not require us to pay any distributions at all.
The Board has adopted a cash distribution policy pursuant to which we intend to distribute quarterly an amount at least equal to the minimum quarterly distribution of $0.4375 per unit on all of our units to the extent we have sufficient cash from our operations after the establishment of reserves and the payment of our expenses. However, CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, as the owner of our General Partner or the Board may change such policy at any time at their discretion and could elect not to pay distributions for one or more quarters. In addition, our credit facility includes certain restrictions on our ability to make distributions.
In addition, our Partnership Agreement does not require us to pay any distributions at all. Accordingly, investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the permanence of such a policy in making an investment decision. Any modification or revocation of our cash distribution policy could substantially reduce or eliminate the amounts of distributions to our unitholders. The amount of distributions we make, if any, and the decision to make any distribution at all will be determined by CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, as the owner of our General Partner of the Board, whose interests may differ from those of our common unitholders.
We rely on the employees of CST to provide key management services to our business pursuant to the Amended Omnibus Agreement. If our Amended Omnibus Agreement is terminated, we may not be able to find suitable replacements to perform such services for us without interruption to our business or increased costs.
Under our Amended Omnibus Agreement, CST provides us with the personnel necessary to support our management, administrative and operating services, including accounting, tax, legal, internal audit, risk management and compliance, environmental compliance and remediation management oversight, treasury, information technology and other administrative functions, as well as the management and operation of our wholesale distribution and retail business. If our Amended Omnibus Agreement is terminated, we may suffer interruptions to our business or increased costs to replace these services.
The liability of DMI and CST is limited under our Amended Omnibus Agreement and we have agreed to indemnify DMI and CST against certain liabilities, which may expose us to significant expenses.
The Amended Omnibus Agreement provides that we must indemnify DMI and CST for certain liabilities, including any liabilities incurred by CST attributable to the operating and administrative services provided to us under the agreement, other than liabilities resulting from DMI’s or CST’s bad faith, fraud, or willful misconduct, as applicable.
Our General Partner has and intends to limit its liability regarding our obligations.
Our General Partner has and intends to limit its liability under contractual arrangements between us and third parties so that the counterparties to such arrangements have recourse only against our assets, and not against our General Partner or its assets. Our General Partner may therefore cause us to incur indebtedness or other obligations that are nonrecourse to our General Partner. Our Partnership Agreement provides that any action taken by our General Partner to limit its liability is not a breach of our General Partner’s fiduciary duties, even if we could have obtained more favorable terms without the limitation on liability. In addition, we are obligated to reimburse or indemnify our General Partner to the extent that it incurs obligations on our behalf. Any such reimbursement or indemnification payments would reduce the amount of cash otherwise available for distribution to our unitholders.
If we distribute a significant portion of our cash available for distribution to our partners, our ability to grow and make acquisitions could be limited.
We may determine to distribute a significant portion of our cash available for distribution to our unitholders. In addition, we expect to rely primarily upon external financing sources, including commercial bank borrowings and the issuance of debt and equity securities, to fund our acquisitions and expansion capital expenditures. To the extent we are unable to finance growth externally, distributing a significant portion of our cash available for distribution may impair our ability to grow.
In addition, if we distribute a significant portion of our cash available for distribution, our growth may not be as fast as that of businesses that reinvest their cash available for distribution to expand ongoing operations. To the extent we issue additional units in connection with any acquisitions or expansion capital expenditures, the payment of distributions on those additional units may increase the risk that we will be unable to maintain or increase our per unit distribution level. There are no limitations in our Partnership Agreement or our new credit facility on our ability to issue additional units, provided there is no default under the credit facility, including units ranking senior to the common units. The incurrence of additional commercial borrowings or other debt to finance our growth strategy would result in increased interest expense, which, in turn, may impact the cash available for distribution to our unitholders. Our ability to incur debt is limited by the Merger Agreement.

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There are no limitations in our Partnership Agreement on our ability to issue units ranking senior to the common units.
In accordance with Delaware law and the provisions of our Partnership Agreement, we may issue additional partnership interests that are senior to the common units in right of distribution, liquidation and voting. The issuance by us of units of senior rank may (i) reduce or eliminate the amount of cash available for distribution to our common unitholders; (ii) diminish the relative voting strength of the total common units outstanding as a class; or (iii) subordinate the claims of the common unitholders to our assets in the event of our liquidation.
Our Partnership Agreement replaces, eliminates and modifies, as applicable, the duties, including the fiduciary duties, of our General Partner, the Board or any committee thereof, and modifies the burden of proof in any action brought against the General Partner, the Board or any committee thereof.
Our Partnership Agreement contains provisions that modify the duties of the General Partner, including the fiduciary duties of the General Partner, and restricts the remedies available to unitholders for actions taken by our General Partner that might otherwise constitute breaches of fiduciary duty under Delaware partnership law. For example, our Partnership Agreement:
provides that whenever our General Partner, the Board or any committee of the Board makes a determination or takes, or declines to take, any other action in its capacity as the general partner of the Partnership, our General Partner is required to make such determination, or take or decline to take such other action, in good faith, and will not be subject to any higher standard under any Delaware Act, or any other law, rule or regulation, or at equity;
provides that any determination, act or failure to act by our General Partner will be deemed in good faith unless such party believed such determination, other action or failure to act, given the totality of the circumstance, was adverse to the interests of the Partnership;
in any proceeding brought by the Partnership, any limited partner, or any Person who acquires an interest in a Partnership Interest or any other Person who is bound by the Partnership Agreement, challenging such action, determination or failure to act, the Person bringing or prosecuting such proceeding shall have the burden of proving that such determination, action or failure to act was not in good faith;
provides that whenever the General Partner makes a determination or takes or declines to take any other action in its individual capacity as opposed to in its capacity as the general partner of the Partnership, whether under the Partnership Agreement or any other agreement contemplated thereby, then the General Partner, or any affiliate thereof, are entitled to the fullest extent permitted by law, to make such determination or to take or decline to take such other action free of any fiduciary duty, duty of good faith, obligation imposed by Delaware Act, law, rule or in equity to the Partnership, any limited partner or any Person who acquires an interest in a Partnership interest or any other Person who is bound by the Partnership Agreement. Examples of decisions that our General Partner may make in its individual capacity include:
how to allocate business opportunities among us and its affiliates;
whether to exercise its call right;
whether to elect to reset target distribution levels; and
whether or not to consent to any merger or consolidation of the Partnership or amendment to the Partnership Agreement.
provides that our General Partner and its officers and directors will not be liable for monetary damages to the Partnership or our limited partners resulting from any act or omission unless there has been a final and non-appealable judgment entered by a court of competent jurisdiction determining that our General Partner or its officers and directors, as the case may be, acted in bad faith or, in the case of a criminal matter, acted with knowledge that the conduct was criminal;
provides that the General Partner may consult with legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, management consultants, investment bankers and other consultants and advisers selected by it, and any act taken or omitted in reliance upon the advice or opinion (including an opinion of counsel) of such persons as to matters that the General Partner reasonably believes to be within such person’s professional or expert competence shall be conclusively presumed to have been done or omitted in good faith and in accordance with such advice or opinion; and
provides that our General Partner will not be in breach of its obligations under the Partnership Agreement or its fiduciary duties to us or our limited partners if a transaction with an affiliate or the resolution of a conflict of interest is:

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approved by the conflicts committee of the Board, although our General Partner is not obligated to seek such approval; or
approved by the vote of a majority of the outstanding common units, excluding any common units owned by our General Partner and its affiliates.
By purchasing a common unit, a unitholder is treated as having consented to the provisions in the Partnership Agreement, including the provisions discussed above.
Our General Partner’s affiliates may compete with us.
Our Partnership Agreement provides that our General Partner will be restricted from engaging in any business activities other than acting as our General Partner and those activities incidental to its ownership interest in us. Except as provided in the Amended Omnibus Agreement, affiliates of our General Partner are not prohibited from engaging in other businesses or activities, including those that might be in direct competition with us.
Pursuant to the terms of our Partnership Agreement, the doctrine of corporate opportunity, or any analogous doctrine, does not apply to our General Partner, CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, or any of their affiliates, including their executive officers and directors. Any such person or entity that becomes aware of a potential transaction, agreement, arrangement or other matter that may be an opportunity for us will not have any duty to communicate or offer such opportunity to us. Any such person or entity will not be liable to us or to any limited partner for breach of any fiduciary duty or other duty by reason of the fact that such person or entity pursues or acquires such opportunity for itself, directs such opportunity to another person or entity or does not communicate such opportunity or information to us. This may create actual and potential conflicts of interest between us and affiliates of our General Partner and result in less than favorable treatment of us and our unitholders. Conflicts of interest may arise in the future between us and our unitholders, on the one hand, and the affiliates of our General Partner and CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, on the other hand. In resolving these conflicts, CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, may favor their own interests over the interests of our unitholders.
CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, as the holder of our IDRs, may elect to cause us to issue common units to the holders of our IDRs in connection with a resetting of the target distribution levels related to the IDRs, without the approval of the conflicts committee of the Board or the holders of our common units. This could result in lower distributions to holders of our common units.
The holder of our IDRs, has the right, at any time when the holders of our IDRs have received incentive distributions at the highest level to which they are entitled (50%) for each of the prior four consecutive fiscal quarters, to reset the initial target distribution levels at higher levels based on our distributions at the time of the exercise of the reset election. Following such a reset election, the minimum quarterly distribution will be adjusted to equal the reset minimum quarterly distribution and the target distribution levels will be reset to correspondingly higher levels based on percentage increases above the reset minimum quarterly distribution.
If the holder of our IDRs elects to reset the target distribution levels, it will be entitled to receive a number of common units. The number of common units to be issued to the holder of our IDRs will equal the number of common units that would have entitled the holder of our IDRs to an aggregate quarterly cash distribution in the prior quarter equal to the distributions to the holder of our IDRs on the IDRs in the prior quarter. It is possible that the holder of our IDRs could exercise this reset election at a time when it is experiencing, or expects to experience, declines in the cash distributions that the holder of our IDRs receives related to the IDRs and may, therefore, desire to be issued common units rather than retain the right to receive IDRs based on the initial target distribution levels. This risk could be elevated if our IDRs are transferred to another party. As a result, a reset election may cause our common unitholders to experience a reduction in the amount of cash distributions that our common unitholders would have otherwise received had we not issued new common units to the holder of our IDRs in connection with resetting the target distribution levels.
Holders of our common units have limited voting rights and are not entitled to elect our General Partner or its directors, which could reduce the price at which the common units will trade.
Unlike the holders of common stock in a corporation, unitholders have only limited voting rights on matters affecting our business and, therefore, limited ability to influence management’s decisions regarding our business. Unitholders will have no right on an annual or ongoing basis to elect our General Partner or its Board. The Board, including the independent directors, is chosen entirely by CST, as a result of its ownership of our General Partner, and not by our unitholders. Unlike publicly traded corporations, we will not conduct annual meetings of our unitholders to elect directors or conduct other matters routinely conducted at annual meetings of stockholders of corporations. As a result of these limitations, the price at which the common units will trade could be diminished because of the absence or reduction of a takeover premium in the trading price.

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Even if holders of our common units are dissatisfied, they may not be able to remove our General Partner.
If our unitholders are dissatisfied with the performance of our General Partner, they will have limited ability to remove our General Partner. The vote of the holders of at least 66  23 % of all outstanding common units voting together as a single class is required to remove our General Partner. As of February 24, 2017, CST owns approximately 19.8% of our outstanding common units. The Topper Group, including DMI, owns approximately 23.0% of our outstanding common units. Pursuant to a voting agreement, dated October 1, 2014, the Topper Group agreed to vote such units in accordance with the recommendation of the Board, allowing CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, to effectively block the removal of the General Partner. The voting agreement will remain in effect so long as Mr.Topper is a director or officer of our General Partner or the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the outstanding common units of the Partnership.
Our General Partner interest or the control of our General Partner may be transferred to a third party without unitholder consent.
Our General Partner may transfer its General Partner interest to a third party in a merger or in a sale of all or substantially all of its assets without the consent of our unitholders. Furthermore, our Partnership Agreement does not restrict the ability of the members of our General Partner to transfer its membership interests in our General Partner to a third party. The new members of our General Partner would then be in a position to replace the Board and executive officers of our General Partner with their own designees and thereby exert significant control over the decisions taken by the Board and executive officers of our General Partner. This effectively permits a “change of control” without the vote or consent of the unitholders. See “Upon the closing of the Merger, Couche-Tard will control us, and may have conflicts of interest with us” above.
Our General Partner has a call right that may require unitholders to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price.
If at any time our General Partner and its affiliates hold more than 80% of the common units, our General Partner will have the right, but not the obligation, which it may assign to any of its affiliates or to us, to acquire all, but not less than all, of the common units held by unaffiliated persons at a price equal to the greater of (1) the average of the daily closing price of the common units over the 20 trading days preceding the date three days before notice of exercise of the call right is first mailed and (2) the highest per-unit price paid by our General Partner or any of its affiliates for common units during the 90-day period preceding the date such notice is first mailed. As a result, unitholders may be required to sell their common units at an undesirable time or price and may not receive any return or a negative return on their investment. Unitholders may also incur a tax liability upon a sale of their units. Our General Partner is not obligated to obtain a fairness opinion regarding the value of the common units to be repurchased by it upon exercise of the call right. There is no restriction in our Partnership Agreement that prevents our General Partner from issuing additional common units and exercising its call right. If our General Partner exercised its call right, the effect would be to take us private and, if the units were subsequently deregistered, we would no longer be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. As of December 31, 2016, the Topper Group, including DMI, owned approximately 23.0% of our outstanding common units.
The market price of our common units could be adversely affected by sales of substantial amounts of our common units in the public or private markets, including sales by the Topper Group, DMI or other large holders.
As of February 24, 2017, we had 33,524,952 common units outstanding. Sales by the Topper Group, DMI or other large holders such as CST or Couche-Tard, as applicable, of a substantial number of our common units in the public markets, or the perception that such sales might occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common units or could impair our ability to obtain capital through an offering of equity securities. In addition, we have agreed to provide registration rights to the Topper Group, including DMI. Under our Partnership Agreement and pursuant to a registration rights agreement that we have entered into, the Topper Group and DMI have registration rights relating to the offer and sale of any units that they hold, subject to certain limitations.
We may issue unlimited additional units without unitholder approval, which would dilute existing unitholder ownership interests.
Our Partnership Agreement does not limit the number of additional limited partner interests, including limited partner interests that rank senior to the common units that we may issue at any time without the approval of our unitholders. The issuance of additional common units or other equity interests of equal or senior rank could have the following effects:
our existing unitholders’ proportionate ownership interest in us will decrease;
the amount of cash available for distribution on each unit may decrease;
the risk that a shortfall in the payment of the minimum quarterly distribution will be borne by our common unitholders will increase;

23



the ratio of taxable income to distributions may increase;
the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding unit may be diminished;
the claims of the common unitholders to our assets in the event of our liquidation may be subordinated; and
the market price of our common units may decline.
We are limited by the Merger Agreement in additional units we may issue until the closing of the Merger, which could limit our ability to raise capital for acquisitions and expansion.
Our General Partner’s discretion in establishing cash reserves may reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to unitholders.
The Partnership Agreement requires our General Partner to deduct from operating surplus cash reserves that it determines are necessary to fund our future operating expenditures. The General Partner may reduce cash available for distribution by establishing cash reserves for the proper conduct of our business, to comply with applicable law or agreements to which we are a party or to provide funds for future distributions to partners. These cash reserves will affect the amount of cash available for distribution to unitholders.
Our Partnership Agreement restricts the voting rights of unitholders owning 20% or more of our common units.
Our Partnership Agreement restricts unitholders’ voting rights by providing that any units held by a person or group that owns 20% or more of any class of units then outstanding, other than our General Partner and its affiliates, their transferees and persons who acquired such units with the prior approval of the Board, cannot vote on any matter.
Management fees and cost reimbursements due to our General Partner and CST for services provided to us or on our behalf will reduce cash available for distribution to our unitholders. The amount and timing of such reimbursements will be determined by our General Partner.
Prior to making any distribution on our common units, we will pay CST the management fee and reimburse our General Partner and CST for all out-of-pocket third-party expenses they incur and payments they make on our behalf. Our Partnership Agreement provides that our General Partner will determine in good faith the expenses that are allocable to us. In addition, pursuant to the Amended Omnibus Agreement, CST will be entitled to reimbursement for certain expenses that they incur on our behalf. Our Partnership Agreement does not limit the amount of expenses for which our General Partner and CST may be reimbursed. The reimbursement of expenses and payment of fees, if any, to our General Partner and CST will reduce the amount of cash available to pay distributions to our unitholders.
Unitholders may have liability to repay distributions and in certain circumstances may be personally liable for the obligations of the partnership.
Under certain circumstances, unitholders may have to repay amounts wrongfully returned or distributed to them. Under Section 17-607 of the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act (the “Delaware Act”), we may not make a distribution to our unitholders if the distribution would cause our liabilities to exceed the fair value of our assets. Delaware law provides that for a period of three years from the date of the impermissible distribution, limited partners who received the distribution and who knew at the time of the distribution that it violated Delaware law will be liable to the limited partnership for the distribution amount. Liabilities to partners on account of their partnership interests and liabilities that are non-recourse to the partnership are not counted for purposes of determining whether a distribution is permitted.
It may be determined that the right, or the exercise of the right by the limited partners as a group, to (i) remove or replace our General Partner, (ii) approve some amendments to our Partnership Agreement or (iii) take other action under our Partnership Agreement constitutes “participation in the control” of our business. A limited partner that participates in the control of our business within the meaning of the Delaware Act may be held personally liable for our obligations under the laws of Delaware, to the same extent as our General Partner. This liability would extend to persons who transact business with us under the reasonable belief that the limited partner is a General Partner. Neither our Partnership Agreement nor the Delaware Act specifically provides for legal recourse against our General Partner if a limited partner were to lose limited liability through any fault of our General Partner.
The NYSE does not require a publicly traded partnership like us to comply with certain of its corporate governance requirements.
Our common units are listed on the NYSE. Because we are a publicly traded partnership, the NYSE does not require us to have a majority of independent directors on our General Partner’s board of directors. Additionally, the NYSE does not require us as a publicly traded partnership to maintain a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee.

24



Accordingly, unitholders will not have the same protections afforded to certain corporations that are subject to all of the NYSE corporate governance requirements. Please read “Management—Management of CrossAmerica Partners LP.”
An increase in interest rates may cause the market price of our common units to decline and a significant increase in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to service our indebtedness.
Like all equity investments, an investment in our common units is subject to certain risks. Borrowings under the credit facility will bear interest at variable rates. If market interest rates increase, such variable-rate debt will create higher debt service requirements, which could adversely affect our cash flow and ability to make cash distributions. In exchange for accepting these risks, investors may expect to receive a higher rate of return than would otherwise be obtainable from lower-risk investments. Accordingly, as interest rates rise, the ability of investors to obtain higher risk-adjusted rates of return by purchasing government-backed debt securities may cause a corresponding decline in demand for riskier investments generally, including yield-based equity investments such as publicly traded limited partnership interests. Reduced demand for our common units resulting from investors seeking other more favorable investment opportunities may cause the trading price of our common units to decline.
The interest rate on our credit facility is variable; therefore, we have exposure to movements in interest rates. A significant increase in interest rates could adversely affect our ability to service our indebtedness. The increased cost could make the financing of our business activities more expensive. These added expenses could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Tax Risks
Our tax treatment depends in large part on our status as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and our otherwise not being subject to a material amount of U.S. federal, state and local income or franchise tax. If the IRS were to treat us as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes or if we were to otherwise be subject to a material amount of additional entity level income, franchise or other taxation for U.S. federal, state or local tax purposes, then our cash available for distribution to our unitholders would be substantially reduced.
The anticipated after-tax benefit of an investment in our common units depends largely on our being treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A publicly traded partnership, such as us, may be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes unless 90% or more of its gross income for every taxable year it is publicly traded consists of qualifying income. Based on our current operations we believe that we will be able to satisfy this requirement and, thus, be able to be treated as a partnership, rather than a corporation, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, a change in our business, or a change in current law, could also cause us to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes or otherwise subject us to entity-level taxation.
If we were required to be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes or otherwise subject to entity-level taxation, then we would pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at the corporate tax rate which, under current law, is a maximum of 35%. We would also likely pay state and local income tax at varying rates. Distributions to our unitholders would generally be taxed again as either a dividend (to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) and/or as taxable gain after recovery of a unitholder’s U.S. federal income tax basis in their units, and no income, gains, losses, deductions or credits would flow through to our unitholders. Because a U.S. federal income tax would be imposed upon us as a corporation, our cash available for distribution to our unitholders would be substantially reduced. Thus, treatment of us as a corporation would result in a material reduction in the anticipated cash flow and after-tax return to our unitholders, likely causing a substantial reduction in the value of our common units.
At the state level, were we to be subject to federal income tax, we would also be subject to the income tax provisions of many states. Moreover, because of widespread state budget deficits and other reasons, several states are evaluating ways to independently subject partnerships to entity-level taxation through the imposition of state income taxes, franchise taxes and other forms of taxation. For example, we are required to pay Texas margin tax on our gross income apportioned to Texas. Imposition of any additional such taxes on us or an increase in the existing tax rates would reduce the cash available for distribution to our unitholders.
Our Partnership Agreement provides that if a law is enacted or existing law is modified or interpreted in a manner that results in us becoming subject to either: (a) entity-level taxation for U.S. federal, state, local and/or foreign income and/or withholding tax purposes to which we were not subject prior to such enactment, modification or interpretation, and/or (b) an increased amount of one or more of such taxes (including as a result of an increase in tax rates), then the minimum quarterly distribution amounts and the target distribution amounts may be adjusted (i.e., reduced) to reflect the impact of that law on us.

25



We have subsidiaries that are treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes and are subject to entity-level U.S. federal, state and local income and franchise tax.
We conduct a portion of our operations and business through one or more direct and indirect subsidiaries that are treated as corporations for federal income tax purposes (including LGWS). We may elect to conduct additional operations through these corporate subsidiaries in the future. These corporate subsidiaries are subject to corporate-level taxes, which reduce the cash available for distribution to us and, in turn, to unitholders. If the IRS were to successfully assert that these corporations have more tax liability than we anticipate or legislation were enacted that increased the corporate tax rate, our cash available for distribution to unit holders would be further reduced.
A significant amount of our income is attributable to our leasing of real property to DMS. If DMS were to become related to us for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the real property rents that we receive from DMS would no longer constitute qualifying income and we would likely be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
A significant amount of our qualifying income is composed of real property rents from DMS attributable to the sites that DMS leases from us. In general, any real property rents that we receive from a tenant or sub-tenant of ours in which we, directly or indirectly, own or are treated as owning by reason of the application of certain constructive ownership rules: (a) at least 10% of such tenant’s or sub-tenant’s stock (voting power or value) in the case where such tenant or sub-tenant is a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or (b) an interest of at least 10% of such tenant’s or sub-tenant’s assets or net profits in the case where such tenant or sub-tenant is not a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes (as would be the case with respect to DMS), would not constitute qualifying income. After applying certain constructive ownership rules, we will be treated as owning the 5% interest in the assets and net profits of DMS that Joseph V. Topper, Jr. actually and constructively owns. If we were considered to directly or indirectly own an interest of 10% or more of the assets or net profits of DMS, then the real property rents that we receive from DMS would no longer constitute qualifying income in which case, based on our current operations, we would likely no longer qualify to be treated as a “partnership” (and instead would be treated as a corporation) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Our and DMS’ governing documents contain transfer restrictions designed to prevent us from being treated as directly or indirectly owning by reason of the application of constructive ownership rules an interest of 10% or more of DMS’ assets or net profits. We received an opinion of counsel at the closing of the IPO that transfer restrictions are generally enforceable under Delaware law, but a court could determine that these restrictions are inapplicable or unenforceable.
The tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships or an investment in our common units could be subject to potential legislative, judicial or administrative changes and differing interpretations, possibly on a retroactive basis.
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of publicly traded partnerships, including us, or of an investment in our common units may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial changes or differing interpretations at any time. For example, from time to time, members of Congress propose and consider such substantive changes to the existing federal income tax laws that affect publicly traded partnerships. If successful, these proposals or other similar proposals could eliminate the qualifying income exception upon which we rely for our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Any modification to the U.S. federal income tax laws may be applied retroactively and could make it more difficult or impossible for us to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We are unable to predict whether any of these changes or other proposals will ultimately be enacted. Any such changes could negatively impact the value of an investment in our common units.
If the IRS contests the U.S. federal income tax positions we take, the market for our common units may be adversely impacted and the costs of any contest will reduce our cash available for distribution to our unitholders. We have not requested any ruling from the IRS with respect to our treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes or any other U.S. federal income tax matter affecting us. The IRS may adopt positions that differ from the positions we take. It may be necessary to resort to administrative or court proceedings to sustain some or all of the positions we take. A court may not agree with some or all of the positions we take. Any contest with the IRS may materially and adversely impact the market for our common units and the price at which they trade. In addition, the costs of any contest with the IRS, which will be borne indirectly by our unitholders and our General Partner, will result in a reduction in cash available for distribution.
Our unitholders are required to pay taxes on their share of income from us even if they do not receive any cash distributions from us.
Our unitholders are required to pay U.S. federal income taxes and, in some cases, state and local taxes, on their allocable share of our taxable income and gain even if they do not receive any cash distributions from us. Our unitholders may not receive cash distributions from us equal to their share of our taxable income or even equal to the actual tax due with respect to that income.

26



Tax gain or loss on the disposition of our common units could be more or less than expected.
If a unitholder sells common units, the unitholder will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the amount realized and that unitholder’s tax basis in those common units. Distributions per common unit in excess of a unitholder’s allocable share of our net taxable income result in a decrease in that unitholder’s tax basis in its common units. The amount of this decreased tax basis, with respect to the units sold will, in effect, become taxable income to that unitholder, if that unitholder sells such units at a price greater than that unitholder’s tax basis in those units, even if the sales price received is less than the original cost. Furthermore, a substantial portion of the amount realized, whether or not representing gain, may be taxed as ordinary income due to potential recapture of depreciation and amortization deductions and certain other items. In addition, because the amount realized includes a unitholder’s share of our non-recourse liabilities, if a unitholder sells units, that unitholder may incur a tax liability in excess of the amount of cash received from the sale.
Tax-exempt organizations and non-U.S. persons face unique tax issues from owning common units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them.
Investment in our common units by an organization that is exempt from U.S. federal income tax, such as employee benefit plans, individual retirement accounts, and non-U.S. persons raises issues unique to them. For example, a substantial amount of our U.S. federal taxable income and gain constitute gross income from an unrelated trade or business and the amount thereof allocable to a tax-exempt organization would be taxable to such organization as unrelated business taxable income. Distributions to a non-U.S. person that holds our common units will be reduced by U.S. federal withholding taxes imposed at the highest applicable U.S. federal income tax rate and such non-U.S. person will be required to file U.S. federal income tax returns and pay U.S. federal income tax, to the extent not previously withheld, on his, her or its allocable share of our taxable income and gain. Any tax-exempt organization or a non-U.S. person should consult its tax advisor before investing in our common units.
Our unitholders are subject to state and local income taxes and return filing requirements in states and localities where they do not live as a result of investing in our common units.
In addition to U.S. federal income taxes, our unitholders will likely be subject to other taxes, such as state and local income taxes, unincorporated business taxes and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that are imposed by the various jurisdictions in which we do business or own property, even if they do not live in any of those jurisdictions. Our unitholders will likely be required to file state and local income tax returns and pay state and local income taxes in some or all of these various jurisdictions. Further, our unitholders may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with those requirements. We currently conduct business in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Each of these states (other than Florida and Texas) currently imposes a personal income tax on individuals (except that Tennessee only imposes a personal income tax on interest and dividends and New Hampshire only imposes a personal income tax on interest, dividends and gambling winnings) as well as an income, business profits and/or a franchise tax on corporations and other entities. We may own property or conduct business in other states, localities or foreign countries in the future. It is the responsibility of each unitholder to file all U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax returns. Our counsel has not rendered an opinion on the state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences of an investment in our common units.
We will treat each purchaser of our common units as having the same tax benefits without regard to the actual common units purchased. The IRS may challenge this treatment, which could adversely affect the value of the common units.
Because we cannot match transferors and transferees of common units, we will adopt depreciation and amortization positions that may not conform to all aspects of existing Treasury Regulations. A successful IRS challenge to those positions could adversely affect the amount of U.S. federal income tax benefits available to our unitholders. It also could affect the timing of these tax benefits or the amount of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes from any sale of common units and could have a negative impact on the value of our common units or result in audit adjustments to a unitholder’s U.S. federal income tax returns.
We prorate our items of income, gain, loss and deduction for U.S. federal income tax purposes and allocate them between transferors and transferees of our common units each month based upon the ownership of our common units on the first business day of each month and as of the opening of the applicable exchange on which our common units are listed, instead of on the basis of the date a particular common unit is transferred. The IRS may challenge this treatment, which could change the allocation of items of income, gain, loss and deduction among our unitholders.
We generally prorate our items of income, gain, loss and deduction between transferors and transferees of our common units each month based upon the ownership of our common units on the first day of each month, instead of on the basis of the date a particular common unit is transferred. Although simplifying conventions are contemplated by the Code and most publicly traded partnerships use similar simplifying conventions, the use of this method may not be permitted under existing Treasury Regulations as there is

27



no direct or indirect controlling authority on this issue. The Department of the Treasury and the IRS have issued Treasury Regulations that provide a safe harbor pursuant to which a publicly traded partnership may use a similar monthly simplifying convention to allocate tax items among transferor and transferee unitholders. The Treasury Regulations do not specifically authorize the use of the proration method we have adopted. If the IRS were to successfully challenge our proration method, we may be required to change the allocation of items of income, gain, loss and deduction among our unitholders.
If a unitholder loans their common units to a short seller to cover a short sale of common units, they may be considered to have disposed of those common units for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If so, the unitholder would no longer be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a partner with respect to those common units during the period of the loan and they may recognize gain or loss from such deemed disposition.
During the period of the loan of common units to the short seller, any of our income, gain, loss or deduction with respect to such common units may not be reportable by the respective unitholder, and any cash distributions received by the unitholder as to those common units could be fully taxable to them as ordinary income. Our counsel has not rendered an opinion regarding the treatment of a unitholder where common units are loaned to a short seller to cover a short sale of common units. Unitholders desiring to assure their status as partners and avoid the risk of gain recognition from a loan of their common units are urged to modify any applicable brokerage account agreements to prohibit their brokers from borrowing their common units.
We have adopted certain valuation methodologies that may result in a shift of income, gain, loss and deduction between our General Partner and the unitholders. The IRS may challenge this treatment, which could adversely affect the value of the common units.
When we issue additional units or engage in certain other transactions, our General Partner will determine the fair market value of our assets and allocate any unrealized gain or loss attributable to our assets to the capital accounts of our unitholders and our General Partner. Although we may from time to time consult with professional appraisers regarding valuation matters, including the valuation of our assets, our General Partner will make many of the fair market value determinations of our assets using a methodology based on the market value of our common units as a means to measure the fair market value of our assets. Our methodology may be viewed as understating or overstating the value of our assets. In that case, there may be a shift of income, gain, loss and deduction between certain unitholders and our General Partner, which may be unfavorable to such unitholders. The IRS may challenge our valuation methods and allocations of income, gain, loss and deduction between our General Partner and certain of our unitholders.
A successful IRS challenge to these methods or allocations could adversely affect the amount of taxable income, gain or loss being allocated to our unitholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes. It also could affect the amount of taxable gain from our unitholders’ sale of common units and could have a negative impact on the value of the common units or result in audit adjustments to our unitholders’ U.S. federal income tax returns without the benefit of additional deductions.
The sale or exchange of 50% or more of the total interest in our capital and profits within a twelve-month period will result in the termination of our partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
We will be considered to have technically terminated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes if there is a sale or exchange of 50% or more of the total interest in our capital and profits within a twelve-month period. For purposes of determining whether a technical tax termination has occurred, a sale or exchange of 50% or more of the total interest in our capital and profits could occur, if for example, when added to regular market trading, the Topper Group, which owns collectively approximately 23.0% of the total interest in our capital and profits, were to sell or exchange their collective interest in us within a period of twelve months. For purposes of determining whether the 50% threshold has been met, multiple sales of the same interest will be counted only once. Our technical termination would, among other things, result in the closing of our taxable year for all unitholders, which could result in us filing two U.S. federal income tax returns (and unitholders receiving two Schedule K-1s) for one calendar year. However, pursuant to an IRS relief procedure the IRS may allow, among other things, a constructively terminated partnership to provide a single Schedule K-1 for the calendar year in which a termination occurs. Our technical termination could also result in the re-starting of the recovery period for our assets (and, thus, result in a significant deferral of depreciation and amortization deductions allowable in computing our U.S. federal taxable income). In the case of a unitholder reporting on a taxable year other than a calendar year, the closing of our taxable year may also result in more than twelve months of our taxable income or loss being includable in his taxable income for the year of termination. Our technical termination, however, would not affect our classification as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes but instead we would be treated as a new partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we were treated as a new partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would be required to make new tax elections and could be subject to penalties if we were unable to determine that a technical termination occurred.

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If the IRS were to contest the U.S. federal income tax positions we take, it may adversely impact the market for our common units, and the costs of any such contest would reduce distributable cash flow to our unitholders.
As part of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, legislation was passed requiring large partnerships to pay federal tax deficiencies at the partnership level, unless the partnership elects to take into account any federal tax deficiency by including the adjustment in the Form K-1s of the partners in the year in which the audit is completed. These rules differ from the current rules which require that the IRS to determine the deficiency at the partnership level, but collect the tax deficiency directly from the partners who were partners in the partnership in the taxable year that was audited. The new rules are effective for our 2015 taxable year, but we may elect to apply the new rules to our 2016 or 2017 taxable yeas. We will evaluate the new audit rules and determine at a later date whether or not to elect early application. We will also determine at a later date whether to pay the tax deficiency, if any, at the partnership level or to include the adjustment in the Form K-1s of the partners.
PROPERTIES
The following table shows the aggregate number of sites we owned or leased by customer groups at December 31, 2016:
 
Owned
Sites
 
Leased
Sites
 
Total
Sites
 
Percentage of
Total Sites
Lessee dealers
227

 
241

 
468

 
53
%
Independent dealers

 

 

 

CST
74

 

 
74

 
8
%
DMS
90

 
78

 
168

 
19
%
Commission agents
45

 
55

 
100

 
11
%
Company operated retail sites
65

 
11

 
76

 
9
%
Total
501

 
385

 
886

 
100
%
We conduct business at sites located in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin.
The following table provides a history of our sites acquired, changes between customer groups or sold during 2016:
 
Lessee Dealers
 
CST
 
DMS
 
Commission Agents
 
Company Operated
 
Total
Number at beginning of period
337

 
74

 
207

 
73

 
116

 
807

Acquired
57

 

 

 
1

 
37

 
95

Changes between customer groups
85

 

 
(33
)
 
24

 
(76
)
 

Sold
(4
)
 

 

 
(1
)
 

 
(5
)
Other
(7
)
 

 
(6
)
 
3

 
(1
)
 
(11
)
Number at end of period(a)  
468

 
74

 
168

 
100

 
76

 
886

(a) This amount excludes 403 independent dealer sites and includes 28 closed sites and 71 sites where CrossAmerica only collects rent.
Our principal executive offices are in Allentown, Pennsylvania in approximately 27,000 square feet of leased office space.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are from time to time party to various lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. These actions typically seek, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury, breach of contract, property damages, environmental damages, employment-related claims and damages, punitive damages, civil penalties or other losses, or injunctive

29



or declaratory relief. With respect to all such lawsuits, claims and proceedings, we record a reserve when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In addition, we disclose matters for which management believes a material loss is at least reasonably possible. None of these proceedings, separately or in the aggregate, are expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In all instances, management has assessed the matter based on current information and made a judgment concerning its potential outcome, giving due consideration to the nature of the claim, the amount and nature of damages sought and the probability of success. Management’s judgment may prove materially inaccurate, and such judgment is made subject to the known uncertainties of litigation.
We are a co-defendant, together with our General Partner, CST and CST Services LLC, in a lawsuit brought by Charles Nifong, a former employee of CST Services LLC who previously provided services to us as Chief Investment Officer and Vice President of Finance (Court of Common Pleas,  Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, case number 2015-1003). The plaintiff alleges breach of contract and associated claims relating to his termination of employment and claimed severance benefits under the EICP totaling approximately $1.6 million. We intend to contest the action vigorously. Under the EICP, we are obligated to pay reasonable legal expenses incurred by the plaintiff in connection with this dispute whether we are successful in our defense or not.
Additional information regarding legal proceedings is included in Note 16 to the financial statements.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
As of February 24, 2017, we had 33,524,952 common units outstanding, held by approximately 19 holders of record. Our common units are listed and trade on the NYSE under the symbol “CAPL.” Included in the number of common units outstanding are 5,838,830 common units currently owned by CST, which cannot be transferred absent registration with the SEC or an available exemption from the SEC’s registration requirements. See “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Unitholder Matters.”
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices for our common units, as reported by the NYSE, and cash distributions paid per common unit. The last reported sales price of our common units on the NYSE on February 24, 2017 was $26.38 per share.
 
 
Common Unit Price Range
 
Cash Distributions Declared
Per Unit
 
 
High
 
Low
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
40.87

 
$
32.03

 
$
0.5425

Second Quarter
 
$
35.89

 
$
26.70

 
$
0.5475

Third Quarter
 
$
31.49

 
$
20.00

 
$
0.5625

Fourth Quarter
 
$
27.69

 
$
21.31

 
$
0.5775

2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Quarter
 
$
26.65

 
$
17.39

 
$
0.5925

Second Quarter
 
$
25.50

 
$
22.50

 
$
0.5975

Third Quarter
 
$
26.95

 
$
23.01

 
$
0.6025

Fourth Quarter
 
$
27.91

 
$
24.07

 
$
0.6075

Cash Distribution Policy
General
The Board has adopted a policy to make cash distributions per unit each quarter, in an amount determined by the Board following the end of such quarter. In general, we expect that cash distributed for each quarter will equal cash generated from operations less cash needed for maintenance capital expenditures, accrued but unpaid expenses (including the management fee to CST), reimbursement of expenses incurred by our General Partner, debt service and other contractual obligations and reserves for future operating and capital needs or for future distributions to our partners. We expect that the Board will reserve excess cash, from time to time, in an effort to sustain or permit gradual or consistent increases in quarterly distributions. Restrictions in our credit facility could limit our ability to pay distributions upon the occurrence of certain events. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Credit Facility.” The Board may also determine to borrow to fund distributions in quarters when we generate less cash available for distribution than necessary to sustain or grow our cash distributions per unit. The factors that we believe will be the primary drivers of our cash generated from operations are changes in demand for motor fuels, the number of sites to which we distribute motor fuels, the margin per gallon we are able to generate at such sites and the profitability of sites we own and lease.
Our cash distribution policy, established by our General Partner, is to distribute each quarter an amount at least equal to the minimum quarterly distribution of $0.4375 per unit on all units ($1.75 per unit on an annualized basis). The distribution declared by the Board in January 2017 was $0.6125 per unit (or $2.45 per unit on an annualized basis). Our General Partner may determine at any time that it is in the best interest of our Partnership to modify or revoke our cash distribution policy. Modification of our cash distribution policy may result in distributions of amounts less than, or greater than, our minimum quarterly distribution, and revocation of our cash distribution policy could result in no distributions at all. In addition, our credit facility includes certain restrictions on our ability to make cash distributions.

31



IDRs
IDRs represent the right to receive an increasing percentage (15.0%, 25.0% and 50.0%) of our quarterly distributions from operating surplus after the minimum quarterly distribution and the target distribution levels (as described under Minimum Quarterly Distribution below) have been achieved. CST holds our IDRs and has the right to transfer these rights at any time. The distributions declared since March 2014 exceed the 15% threshold and the distributions declared since June 2015 exceed the 25% threshold.
Minimum Quarterly Distribution
If cash distributions to our unitholders exceed $0.5031 per unit in any quarter, our unitholders and the holders of our IDRs, will receive distributions according to the following percentage allocations:
Total Quarterly Distribution Per Common and Subordinated Unit
 
Marginal Percentage Interest in Distribution
Target Amount
  
Unitholders
 
Holders of IDRs
above $0.5031 up to $0.5469
  
 
85
%
 
 
15
%
above $0.5469 up to $0.6563
  
 
75
%
 
 
25
%
above $0.6563
  
 
50
%
 
 
50
%
Quarterly distribution activity during 2016 was as follows:
Quarter Ended
 
Record Date
 
Payment Date
 
Cash Distribution (per unit)
 
Cash Distribution (in millions)
March 31, 2016
 
February 12, 2016
 
February 24, 2016
 
$
0.5925

 
$
19.6

June 30, 2016
 
May 19, 2016
 
May 31, 2016
 
$
0.5975

 
$
19.9

September 30, 2016
 
August 8, 2016
 
August 15, 2016
 
$
0.6025

 
$
20.1

December 31, 2016
 
November 4, 2016
 
November 15, 2016
 
$
0.6075

 
$
20.4

We expect to continue the practice of paying quarterly cash distributions, though the timing, declaration, amount and payment of future distributions to unitholders will fall within the discretion of the Board. Our indebtedness also restricts our ability to pay distributions. As such, there can be no assurance we will continue to pay distributions in the future.
Subordination Period
On February 25, 2016, the subordination period under the Partnership Agreement ended. At that time, each outstanding subordinated unit converted into one common unit and as such participates pro rata with the other common units in cash distributions.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
We issued an aggregate of 440,266 and 5,398,564 common units to CST in 2016 and 2015 as consideration for asset purchases and settlement of the management fee. These units are restricted and cannot be transferred absent registration with the SEC or an available exemption from the SEC’s registration requirements. These issuances were made in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. See “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Unitholder Matters.”

32



Common Unit Repurchase Program
On November 2, 2015, our Board approved a common unit repurchase program under Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act authorizing us to repurchase up to an aggregate of $25 million of the common units representing limited partner interests in the Partnership. Under the program, we may make purchases in the open market after November 9, 2015 in accordance with Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act, or in privately negotiated transactions, pursuant to a trading plan under Rule 10b5-1 of the Exchange Act or otherwise. Any purchases will be funded from available cash on hand. The common unit repurchase program does not require us to acquire any specific number of common units and may be suspended or terminated by us at any time without prior notice. The purchases will not be made from any officer, director or control person of CrossAmerica or CST. The Merger Agreement prohibits us from making any further repurchases of our common units. The following table shows the purchases made during the year ended December 31, 2016:
Period
 
Total Number of Units Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Unit
 
Total Cost of Units Purchased
 
Amount Remaining under the Program
January 1 - March 31, 2016
 
112,492

 
$
24.47

 
$
2,752,240

 
$
18,644,689

April 1 - June 30, 2016
 
20,971

 
$
23.86

 
$
500,413

 
$
18,144,276

July 1 - September 30, 2016
 

 
$

 
$

 
$
18,144,276

October 1 - December 31, 2016
 

 
$

 
$

 
$
18,144,276

January 1 - December 31, 2016
 
133,463
 

 
$
3,252,653

 
$
18,144,276

CrossAmerica Common Unit Purchases by CST
On September 21, 2015, CST announced that the independent executive committee of its board of directors approved a unit purchase program under Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act, authorizing CST to purchase up to an aggregate of $50 million of the common units representing limited partner interests in CrossAmerica. The unit purchase program does not have a fixed expiration date and may be modified, suspended or terminated at any time at CST’s discretion. Through February 24, 2017, CST had purchased $19.8 million, or 804,667 common units, at an average price of $24.64 per common unit, which cannot be transferred absent registration with the SEC or an available exemption from the SEC’s registration requirements. The Merger Agreement prohibits CST from making any further purchases of CrossAmerica common units.
Management Fee Issuance
As approved by the independent conflicts committee of the Board and the executive committee of CST’s board of directors, the Partnership and CST mutually agreed to settle, from time to time, a portion of the full amount due under the terms of the Amended Omnibus Agreement in newly issued common units representing limited partner interests in the Partnership. These issuances of common units were made in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. We issued the following common units to CST for the periods presented below under the terms of the Amended Omnibus Agreement:
Quarter Ended
 
Date of Issuance
 
Number of Common Units Issued
June 30, 2015
 
July 16, 2015
 
145,056

September 30, 2015
 
October 26, 2015
 
114,256

December 31, 2015
 
March 31, 2016
 
145,137

March 31, 2016
 
May 9, 2016
 
83,218

June 30, 2016
 
August 2, 2016
 
101,087

September 30, 2016
 
October 27, 2016
 
110,824

December 31, 2016
 
*
 
171,039

* Expected to be issued on February 28, 2017

33



ITEM 6. SELECTED HISTORICAL CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED AND CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected financial data reflect the operating data for the periods and as of the dates indicated. On October 30, 2012, we completed our IPO. At the closing of our IPO, a portion of the business of our Predecessor and its subsidiaries and affiliates was contributed to us. As such, the results of our Predecessor are not comparable to our results as certain assets were not contributed to us as they did not meet our strategic and geographic plan.
To ensure a full understanding, you should read the selected financial data presented below in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.

34



The financial data below are presented in thousands.
 
 
Consolidated CrossAmerica Partners LP
 
 
Combined Lehigh Gas Entities (Predecessor) Period from January 1 to October 30, 2012
 
 
 
For the Year Ended December 31,
 
Period from October 31 to December 31, 2012
 
 
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
 
 
 
Income Statement Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues(a)
 
$
1,869,806

 
$
2,226,271

 
$
2,664,868

 
$
1,936,059

 
$
311,774

 
 
$
1,573,502

 
Operating income
 
32,171

 
26,017

 
8,640

 
30,177

 
881

 
 
15,148

 
Income (loss) from
   continuing operations
   after income taxes
 
10,715

 
11,462

 
(6,171
)
 
18,070

 
(1,356
)
 
 
2,805

 
Net income (loss)
   attributable to partners
 
10,704

 
11,441

 
(6,162
)
 
18,070

 
(1,356
)
 
 
$
3,114

 
Net income (loss) per
   common and
   subordinated unit-basic
 
$
0.22

 
$
0.35

 
$
(0.32
)
 
$
1.18

 
$
(0.09
)
 
 
n/a

 
Net income (loss) per
   common and
   subordinated unit-diluted
 
$
0.22

 
$
0.35

 
$
(0.32
)
 
$
1.18

 
$
(0.09
)
 
 
n/a

 
Operating Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wholesale
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average motor fuel
   distribution sites
 
1,128

 
1,064

 
923

 
708

 
667

 
 
576

 
Gallons of motor fuel
   distributed (in millions) (b)
 
1,034.6

 
1,051.4

 
887.7

 
637.8

 
103.6

 
 
501.6

 
Motor fuel gross margin
 
$
54,112

 
$
58,606

 
$
60,606

 
$
43,850

 
$
9,936

 
 
$
32,788

 
Motor fuel gross margin per
   gallon (c)
 
$
0.052

 
$
0.056

 
$
0.068

 
$
0.069

 
$
0.096

 
 
$
0.065

 
Rent income(a)
 
$
74,955

 
$
59,956

 
$
47,348

 
$
40,210

 
$
5,178

 
 
$
16,044

 
Retail
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average total system sites
 
157

 
202

 
119

 
21

 
n/a

 
 
n/a

 
Gallons of motor fuel
   sold (in millions)
 
159.7

 
211.2

 
136.5

 
20.2

 
n/a

 
 
n/a

 
Motor fuel gross margin
   per gallon
 
$
0.053

 
$
0.092

 
$
0.059

 
$
0.032

 
n/a

 
 
n/a

 
Merchandise gross margin
   percentage
 
24.6
%
 
26.3
%
 
30.6
%
 
n/a

 
n/a

 
 
n/a

 
Other Financial Data
   (unaudited)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA(d)
 
$
103,634

 
$
90,314

 
$
61,424

 
$
54,904

 
$
2,992

 
 
$
25,804

 
Distributable Cash Flow(d)
 
$
81,628

 
$
69,733

 
$
44,063

 
$
39,296

 
$
999

 
 
(e) 

 
Distributions paid per
   common unit
 
$
2.4000

 
$
2.2300

 
$
2.0800

 
$
1.7273

 
$

 
 
(e) 

 
(a) 
Prior to 2016, we netted lease executory costs such as real estate taxes, maintenance, and utilities that we paid and re-billed customers against rental income on our statement of operations. During the first quarter of 2016, we began accounting for such amounts as rent income and operating expenses and reflected this change in presentation retrospectively back through 2014. This change resulted in a $10.8 million and $8.9 million increase in rent and other income and operating expenses for the wholesale segment for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We did not reflect this change in 2013 or 2012.
(b) 
Excludes gallons of motor fuel distributed to sites classified as discontinued operations with respect to the periods presented for our Predecessor.

35



(c) 
Fuel margin per gallon represents (1) total revenues from motor fuel sales, less total cost of revenues from motor fuel sales, divided by (2) total gallons of motor fuel distributed.
(d)  
See reconciliation of non-GAAP measures under the heading “Management’s Discussion of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Measures” below.
(e) 
Results for these periods were not presented as these non-GAAP financial measures were not used at that time.
 
 
Consolidated CrossAmerica Partners LP
 
 
 
As of December 31,
 
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
1,350

 
$
1,192

 
$
15,170

 
$
4,115

 
$
4,768

 
Total current assets (a)
 
65,407

 
58,119

 
76,805

 
35,496

 
22,974

 
Total assets (a) (b)
 
931,989

 
861,444

 
598,446

 
391,621

 
317,851

 
Total current liabilities (a)
 
75,133

 
74,898

 
95,222

 
38,857

 
32,153

 
Long-term debt, excluding current portion (b)
 
465,119

 
403,714

 
226,815

 
173,509

 
183,751

 
Total liabilities (a) (b)
 
711,178

 
592,588

 
407,955

 
296,950

 
303,306

 
Total equity
 
$
220,811

 
$
268,856

 
$
190,491

 
$
94,671

 
$
14,545

 
(a) Balances as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 were not retrospectively adjusted for the adoption of ASU 2015-17, which related to the presentation of deferred taxes.
(b) Balances as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 were not retrospectively adjusted for the adoption of ASU 2015-03, which related to the presentation of deferred financing costs.

36



ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
MD&A is organized as follows:
CST’s Merger Agreement—This section provides information on the pending Merger.
Significant Factors Affecting Our Profitability—This section describes the significant impact on our results of operations caused by crude oil commodity price volatility, seasonality and acquisition and financing activities.
Results of Operations—This section provides an analysis of our results of operations, including the results of operations of our business segments, for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, an outlook for our business and non-GAAP financial measures.
Liquidity and Capital Resources—This section provides a discussion of our financial condition and cash flows. It also includes a discussion of our debt, capital requirements and other matters impacting our liquidity and capital resources.
New Accounting Policies—This section describes new accounting pronouncements that we have already adopted, those that we are required to adopt in the future, and those that became applicable in the current year as a result of new circumstances.
Critical Accounting Policies Involving Critical Accounting Estimates—This section describes the accounting policies and estimates that we consider most important for our business and that require significant judgment.

37


The following MD&A is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. This section is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, Items 1., 1A. and 8. (which includes our consolidated financial statements) included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
CST’s Merger Agreement
Under the terms of the Merger Agreement, Circle K Stores Inc. will, through its acquisition of CST, control CST’s interest in the General Partner and CST’s 19.8% limited partner interest in us as well as all of the IDRs. The transaction is subject to the receipt of regulatory approvals in the United States and Canada. The transaction is currently expected to close in the second quarter of 2017. See CST’s Definitive Proxy Statement filed with the SEC on October 11, 2016.
Significant Factors Affecting our Profitability
The Significance of Crude Oil and Wholesale Motor Fuel Prices on Our Revenues, Cost of Sales and Gross Profit
Wholesale segment
The prices paid to our motor fuel suppliers for wholesale motor fuel (which affects our cost of sales) are highly correlated to the price of crude oil. The crude oil commodity markets are highly volatile, and the market prices of crude oil, and, correspondingly, the market prices of wholesale motor fuel, experience significant and rapid fluctuations. We receive a fixed mark-up per gallon on approximately 87% of gallons sold to our customers. The remaining gallons are primarily DTW priced contracts with our customers. These contracts provide for variable, market based pricing that results in motor fuel gross profit effects similar to retail motor fuel gross profits (as crude oil prices decline, motor fuel gross profit generally increases, as discussed in our Retail segment below). The increase in DTW gross profit results from the acquisition cost of wholesale motor fuel declining at a faster rate as compared to the rate retail motor fuel prices decline. Conversely, our DTW motor fuel gross profit declines when the cost of wholesale motor fuel increases at a faster rate as compared to the rate retail motor fuel prices increase.
Regarding our supplier relationships, a majority of our total gallons purchased are subject to discounts for prompt payment and other rebates and incentives, which are recorded within cost of sales. Prompt payment discounts are based on a percentage of the purchase price of motor fuel. As such, the dollar value of these discounts increase and decrease corresponding with motor fuel prices. Therefore, in periods of lower wholesale motor fuel prices, our gross profit is negatively affected and, in periods of higher wholesale motor fuel prices, our gross profit is positively affected (as it relates to these discounts). Based on our current volumes, we estimate a $10 per barrel change in the price of crude oil would impact our overall annual wholesale motor fuel gross profit by approximately $2.2 million related to these payment discounts.
Retail segment
The prices we pay for wholesale motor fuel are closely correlated to the price of crude oil. The crude oil commodity markets are highly volatile, and the market prices of crude oil and wholesale motor fuel experience significant and rapid fluctuations. We attempt to pass along wholesale motor fuel price changes to our retail customers through “at the pump” retail price changes; however, market conditions do not always allow us to do so immediately. The timing of any related increase or decrease in “at the pump” retail prices is affected by competitive conditions in each geographic market in which we operate. As such, the prices we charge our customers for motor fuel and the gross profit we receive on our motor fuel sales can increase or decrease significantly and rapidly over short periods of time.
Changes in our average motor fuel selling price per gallon and gross margin for the periods ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 are directly related to the changes in crude oil and wholesale motor fuel prices over the same period. Variations in our reported revenues and cost of sales are, therefore, primarily related to the price of crude oil and wholesale motor fuel prices and generally not as a result of changes in motor fuel sales volumes, unless otherwise indicated and discussed below.
We typically experience lower retail motor fuel gross profits in periods when the wholesale cost of motor fuel increases, and higher retail motor fuel gross profits in periods when the wholesale cost of motor fuel declines rapidly.
Seasonality Effects on Volumes
Our business is subject to seasonality due to our wholesale and retail sites being located in certain geographic areas that are affected by seasonal weather and temperature trends and associated changes in retail customer activity during different seasons. Historically, sales volumes have been highest in the second and third quarters (during the summer months) and lowest during the winter months in the first and fourth quarters.

38


Impact of Inflation
Inflation affects our financial performance by increasing certain of our operating expenses and cost of goods sold. Operating expenses include labor costs, leases, and general and administrative expenses. While our Wholesale segment benefits from higher terms discount as a result of higher fuel costs, inflation could negatively impact our Retail segment as a result of higher motor fuel, merchandise and operating costs. Although we have historically been able to pass on increased costs through price increases, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.
Acquisition and Financing Activity
Our results of operations and financial condition are also impacted by our acquisition and financing activities as summarized below.
2016
On February 5, 2016, we purchased independent dealer and subwholesaler contracts from CST for $2.9 million. See Notes 3 and 15 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
On March 29, 2016, we closed on the acquisition of Franchised Holiday Stores and company operated liquor stores from S/S/G Corporation for approximately $52.4 million, including working capital. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
On July 7, 2016, CST provided an $18.2 million refund payment to us related to our interest in CST Fuel Supply. See Note 15 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
On September 27, 2016, we acquired the State Oil Assets located in the greater Chicago market for approximately $41.9 million, including working capital. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
On December 13, 2016, we amended our credit facility to provide additional flexibility to support achieving our growth strategy. See Note 12 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
On December 21, 2016, we sold the real property at 17 fee sites acquired in the State Oil Assets acquisition for $25.0 million in proceeds, which were used to repay borrowings under the credit facility. We then leased these sites back under a triple net lease agreement. See Note 11 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
2015
In January 2015, we closed on the purchase of a 5% limited partner equity interest in CST Fuel Supply for aggregate consideration of 1.5 million common units. See Notes 3 and 16 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
In January 2015, in connection with the joint acquisition by CST and the Partnership of 22 retail sites from Landmark, we acquired the real property of the 22 fee sites for $41.2 million. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
In February 2015, we closed on the purchase of all of the outstanding capital stock of Erickson and certain related assets for an aggregate purchase price of $83.8 million, including working capital. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
In June 2015, we closed on the sale of 4.6 million common units for net proceeds of approximately $138.5 million. In July 2015, we closed on the sale of an additional 0.2 million common units for net proceeds of approximately $6.4 million in accordance with the underwriters’ option to purchase additional common units associated with the June offering. We used the proceeds to reduce indebtedness outstanding under our credit facility. See Note 17 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
In July 2015, we closed on the purchase of a 12.5% limited partner equity interest in CST Fuel Supply for aggregate consideration of 3.3 million common units and cash in the amount of $17.5 million. See Notes 3 and 16 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.

39


In July 2015, we completed the purchase of real property at 29 NTIs from CST in exchange for an aggregate consideration of approximately 0.3 million common units and cash in the amount of $124.4 million, with an aggregate consideration of $134.0 million on the date of closing. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
In July 2015, we closed on the purchase of retail sites from One Stop and certain related assets for $45.0 million, including working capital. See Note 3 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information.
2014
In March 2014, we entered into an amended and restated credit agreement. The amended and restated credit facility is a senior secured revolving credit facility maturing March 4, 2019 with a total borrowing capacity of $550.0 million.
In April 2014, we acquired PMI for an aggregate purchase price of $73.5 million, including working capital, which resulted in the acquisition of 87 retail sites in Virginia and West Virginia.
In May 2014, we completed our acquisition of 52 wholesale supply contracts, one sub-wholesaler contract, five fee sites, six leasehold sites and certain other assets from affiliates of Atlas Oil Company for an aggregate purchase price of $39.2 million, including working capital.
In September 2014, we issued 4.1 million common units resulting in net proceeds of $135.0 million. We used the proceeds to reduce indebtedness outstanding under our credit facility.
On October 1, 2014, CST completed the GP Purchase and we entered into the Amended Omnibus Agreement.
In November 2014, in connection with the joint acquisition by CST and the Partnership of Nice N Easy, we acquired the real property and underground storage tanks relating to 23 fee sites and the fuel distribution agreements with respect to 25 Nice N Easy retail sites for $53.8 million.


40


Results of Operations
Consolidated Income Statement Analysis
Below is an analysis of our consolidated statements of operations and provides the primary reasons for significant increases and decreases in the various income statement line items from period to period. Our consolidated statements of operations are as follows (in thousands):
 
 
 Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Operating revenues
 
$
1,869,806

 
$
2,226,271

 
$
2,664,868

Cost of sales
 
1,714,239

 
2,056,807

 
2,539,967

Gross profit
 
155,567

 
169,464

 
124,901

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from CST Fuel Supply equity
 
16,048

 
10,528

 

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses
 
61,074

 
72,229

 
47,749

General and administrative expenses
 
24,156

 
36,238

 
36,880

Depreciation, amortization and accretion expense
 
54,412

 
48,227

 
33,285

Total operating expenses
 
139,642

 
156,694

 
117,914

Gain on sales of assets, net
 
198

 
2,719

 
1,653

Operating income
 
32,171

 
26,017

 
8,640

Other income, net
 
848

 
396

 
466

Interest expense
 
(22,757
)
 
(18,493
)
 
(16,631
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
10,262

 
7,920

 
(7,525
)
Income tax benefit
 
(453
)
 
(3,542
)
 
(1,354
)
Consolidated net income (loss)
 
10,715

 
11,462

 
(6,171
)
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
11

 
21

 
(9
)
Net income (loss) attributable to CrossAmerica limited
   Partners
 
10,704

 
11,441

 
(6,162
)
Distributions to CST as holder of the incentive
   distribution rights
 
(3,392
)
 
(1,390
)
 
(245
)
Net income (loss) available to CrossAmerica limited
   Partners
 
$
7,312

 
$
10,051

 
$
(6,407
)

41




Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015
Consolidated Results
Operating revenues declined $356.5 million, or 16%, while gross profit declined $13.9 million, or 8%.
Operating revenues
Significant items impacting these results prior to the elimination of intercompany revenues were:
A $268.2 million, or 14%, decline in our Wholesale segment revenues primarily attributable to:
A $254.2 million decline (95% of the total decline in Wholesale Segment operating revenues) attributable to a decrease in the wholesale price of our motor fuel. The average daily spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil decreased 11% to $43.29 per barrel during 2016, compared to $48.66 per barrel during 2015. The wholesale price of motor fuel is highly correlated to the price of crude oil.
A $29.5 million decrease as a result of the divestiture of low margin wholesale fuel supply contracts and other assets acquired in the PMI acquisition, partially offset by the impact of the Erickson, One Stop, Franchised Holiday Stores and State Oil Assets acquisitions.
Partially offsetting this decline was a $15.0 million increase primarily related to rental income associated with the acquisition from CST of NTI retail sites in July 2015 and the State Oil Assets acquisition as well as converting company operated retail sites to lessee dealer sites.
A $205.2 million, or 31%, decline in our Retail segment revenues primarily attributable to:
A decline of $44.6 million primarily attributable to a decrease in the retail price of our motor fuel driven by a decline in wholesale motor fuel prices as noted above.
A decrease of $124.0 million from a 24% decrease in motor fuel volumes sold related to the conversion of company operated retail sites to lessee dealer sites during 2015 and 2016, partially offset by the incremental volume generated by the Franchised Holiday Stores acquisition.
A $36.6 million decline in our merchandise revenues attributable to the conversion of company operated retail sites to lessee dealer sites during 2015 and 2016, partially offset by the incremental merchandise revenues generated by the Franchised Holiday Stores acquisition.
Intersegment revenues
We present the results of operations of our segments consistently with how our management views the business. Therefore, our segments are presented before intersegment eliminations (which consist of motor fuel sold by our Wholesale segment to our Retail segment). As a result, in order to reconcile to our consolidated change in operating revenues, a discussion of the change in intersegment revenues is included in our consolidated MD&A discussion.
Our intersegment revenues decreased $116.9 million, primarily attributable to the declines in price and volume discussed above.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales declined $342.6 million as a result of the decline in the wholesale price and gallons sold of motor fuel as noted above. See “Results of Operations—Segment Results” for additional gross profit analyses.
Income from CST Fuel Supply equity
See “Results of Operations—Segment Results—Wholesale” for discussion.
Operating expenses
See “Results of Operations—Segment Results” for additional operating expenses analyses.

42




General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses declined $12.1 million primarily attributable to the integration of prior year acquisitions and other cost savings initiatives, which reduced expenses by approximately $9.9 million. Additionally, equity-based compensation expense decreased $1.2 million as a result of less equity awards being granted in 2016 as compared to 2015.
Depreciation, amortization and accretion expense
Depreciation, amortization and accretion expense increased $6.2 million primarily driven by our 2015 and 2016 acquisitions.
Interest expense
Interest expense increased $4.3 million due to additional borrowings during 2015 and 2016 to fund acquisitions.
Income tax benefit
We recorded income tax benefits of $0.5 million and $3.5 million for 2016 and 2015, respectively. The decrease in the income tax benefit was primarily due to a decrease in the loss generated by our corporate subsidiaries. In addition, we recorded a reduction in the valuation allowance of $0.2 million during 2015.

43




Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014
Consolidated Results
Operating revenues declined $438.6 million, or 16%, while gross profit increased $44.6 million, or 36%.
Operating revenues
Significant items impacting these results prior to the elimination of intercompany revenues were:
A $443.7 million, or 19%, decline in our Wholesale segment primarily attributable to:
An $879.7 million decline attributable to a decrease in the wholesale price of our motor fuel. The average daily spot price of WTI crude oil decreased 48% to $48.66 per barrel for 2015, compared to $93.17 per barrel for 2014. The wholesale price of motor fuel is highly correlated to the price of crude oil.
Partially offsetting this decline was a $423.7 million increase primarily related to an 18.4% increase in volume from our 2014 and 2015 acquisitions.
Other revenues increased $13.0 million driven by additional rental income from the Nice N Easy, Landmark and NTI acquisitions, as well as our company operated retail sites being converted to lessee dealer sites during 2015.
A $160.1 million, or 31%, increase in our Retail segment primarily attributable to:
An increase of $242.5 million from a 55% increase in motor fuel volumes sold related to the Erickson and One Stop acquisitions.
A $101.1 million increase in our merchandise revenues attributable to retail site operations from our 2014 and 2015 acquisitions.
Partially offsetting these revenue increases was a decline of $183.5 million primarily attributable to a decrease in the retail price of our motor fuel driven by a decline in wholesale motor fuel prices as noted above, as well as converting company operated retail sites to independent dealer sites.
Intersegment revenues
We present the results of operations of our segments consistently with how our management views the business. Therefore, our segments are presented before intersegment eliminations (which consist of motor fuel sold by our Wholesale segment to our Retail segment). As a result, in order to reconcile to our consolidated change in operating revenues, a discussion of the change in intersegment revenues is included in our consolidated MD&A discussion.
Our intersegment revenues increased $155.0 million, primarily attributable to an increase in our Wholesale segment selling motor fuel to the retail sites acquired in the One Stop and the Erickson acquisitions, which are included in our Retail segment.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales declined $483.2 million, primarily from the decline in wholesale gasoline prices, which were partially offset by an increase in volumes purchased by our 2014 and 2015 acquisitions. See “Results of Operations—Segment Results” for additional gross profit analyses.
Income from CST Fuel Supply
See “Results of Operations—Segment Results—Wholesale” for discussion.
Operating expenses
See “Results of Operations—Segment Results” for additional operating expenses analyses.


44




General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses declined $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to the prior year, primarily attributable to a $6.8 million decrease in stock based compensation related to the accelerated vesting as a result of the GP Purchase in 2014. This decrease was offset by higher costs associated with the Erickson and One Stop acquisitions in 2015.
Depreciation, amortization and accretion expense
Depreciation, amortization and accretion expense increased $14.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the prior year, primarily driven by our 2014 and 2015 acquisitions.
Gains on sales of assets, net
Gains on sales of assets, net, increased $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to the prior year. The net gain recognized for the year ended December 31, 2015 primarily related to the sale of individual sites and the divestiture of certain assets acquired in the PMI acquisition.
Income tax benefit
The income tax benefit increased from $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 to $3.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. The income tax benefit for both periods was due primarily to losses reported by LGWS.

45




Segment Results
We present the results of operations of our segments consistent with how our management views the business. Therefore, our segments are presented before intersegment eliminations (which consist of motor fuel sold by our Wholesale segment to our Retail segment). These comparisons are not necessarily indicative of future results.
Wholesale
The following table highlights the results of operations and certain operating metrics of our Wholesale segment. The narrative following these tables provides an analysis of the results of operations of that segment (thousands of dollars, except for the number of distribution sites and per gallon amounts):
 
 
 Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Gross profit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel–third party
 
$
29,242

 
$
29,377

 
$
31,193

Motor fuel–intersegment and related party
 
24,870

 
29,229

 
29,413

Motor fuel gross profit
 
54,112

 
58,606

 
60,606

Rent and other(a)
 
58,672

 
45,757

 
34,321

Total gross profit
 
112,784

 
104,363

 
94,927

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from CST Fuel Supply equity(b)
 
16,048

 
10,528

 

Operating expenses(a)
 
(25,956
)
 
(26,091
)
 
(24,915
)
Adjusted EBITDA(c)
 
$
102,876

 
$
88,800

 
$
70,012

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel distribution sites (end of period):(d)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel–third party
 
 
 
 
 
 
Independent dealers(e)
 
403

 
370

 
416

Lessee dealers(f)
 
420

 
290

 
205

Total motor fuel distribution–third party sites
 
823

 
660

 
621

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel–intersegment and related party
 
 
 
 
 
 
DMS (related party)(g)
 
153

 
191

 
197

CST (related party)
 
43

 
43

 
21

Commission agents (Retail segment)(h)
 
95

 
66

 
75

Company operated retail sites (Retail segment)(i)
 
73

 
115

 
87

Total motor fuel distribution–intersegment and
   related party sites
 
364

 
415

 
380

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel distribution sites (average during the period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel-third party distribution
 
749

 
626

 
565

Motor fuel-intersegment and related party
   distribution
 
379

 
438

 
358


46




 
 
 Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total volume of gallons distributed (in thousands)
 
1,034,585

 
1,051,357

 
887,677

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel gallons distributed per site per day:(j)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel–third party
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total weighted average motor fuel distributed–
   third party
 
2,204

 
2,422

 
2,391

Independent dealers
 
2,363

 
2,733

 
2,656

Lessee dealers
 
2,033

 
1,926

 
1,924

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel–intersegment and related party
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total weighted average motor fuel distributed–
   intersegment and related party
 
2,914

 
2,899

 
2,657

DMS (related party)
 
2,496

 
2,486

 
2,607

CST (related party)
 
5,013

 
5,032

 
3,832

Commission agents (Retail segment)
 
2,932

 
2,909

 
3,101

Company operated retail sites (Retail segment)
 
2,723

 
2,824

 
2,271

  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wholesale margin per gallon–total system
 
$
0.052

 
$
0.056

 
$
0.068

Wholesale margin per gallon–third party sites(k)
 
$
0.046

 
$
0.050

 
$
0.058

Wholesale margin per gallon–intersegment and
   related party
 
$
0.062

 
$
0.063

 
$
0.085

(a)
Prior to 2016, we netted lease executory costs such as real estate taxes, maintenance, and utilities that we paid and re-billed to customers on our statement of operations. During the first quarter of 2016, we began accounting for such amounts as rent income and operating expenses and reflected this change in presentation retrospectively. This change resulted in a $10.8 million and $8.9 million increase in rent and other income and operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
(b)
Represents income from our equity interest in CST Fuel Supply.
(c)
Please see the reconciliation of our segment’s Adjusted EBITDA to consolidated net income under the heading “Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”
(d)
In addition, as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, we distributed motor fuel to 14 and 17 sub-wholesalers who distributed to additional sites.
(e)
The increase in the independent dealer site count was primarily attributable to 21 independent dealer contracts assigned to us by CST and 25 wholesale fuel supply contracts acquired in the State Oil Assets acquisition, partially offset by a net 13 terminated motor fuel supply contracts that were not renewed.
(f)
The increase in the lessee dealer site count was primarily attributable to converting 77 company operated retail sites in our Retail segment to lessee dealers in our Wholesale segment in 2016 and the 49 sites acquired in the September 2016 State Oil Assets acquisition.
(g)
The decrease in the DMS site count was primarily due to sites converted to a third party lessee dealer or commission agent. Through the first five years of the lease with DMS, the lease agreement allows for a limited number of sites to be removed from the lease by each of DMS and us. This right generally expires October 31, 2017.
(h)
The increase in the commission agent site count was primarily attributable to 25 DMS sites being converted to commission agent sites in 2016.
(i)
The decrease in the company operated retail site count was primarily attributable to 77 company operated retail sites being converted to lessee dealer sites in 2016, partially offset by the 31 Franchised Holiday Stores.
(j)
Does not include the motor fuel gallons distributed to sub-wholesalers. The decrease in independent dealer gallons sold per day are due to the divestiture of commercial wholesale supply contracts associated with the PMI acquisition, whereby gallons distributed are reduced but the site count is not affected.
(k)
Includes the wholesale gross margin for motor fuel distributed to sub-wholesalers.



47




Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015
The results were driven by:
Motor Fuel Gross profit
The $4.5 million decrease in motor fuel gross profit was due to a $3.6 million decline primarily from decreased payment discounts and incentives due to the decline in motor fuel prices as a result of the decrease in crude oil and the remaining decline was primarily due to a decline in motor fuel gallons sold due to the termination of commercial wholesale fuel supply contracts and disposing certain terminal assets acquired in the PMI acquisition, partially offset by the impact of the Erickson, One Stop, Franchised Holiday Stores and State Oil Assets acquisitions. The average daily spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil decreased 11% to $43.29 per barrel during 2016, compared to $48.66 during 2015. See “Significant Factors Affecting our Profitability—The Significance of Crude Oil and Wholesale Motor Fuel Prices on Our Revenues, Cost of Sales and Gross Profit.”
Rent and other gross profit
Rent and other margin increased $12.9 million primarily as a result of our acquisition from CST of NTI retail sites in July 2015 and the State Oil Assets acquisition in September 2016, as well as converting company operated retail sites to lessee dealer sites.
Income from CST Fuel Supply equity
Income from our investment in CST Fuel Supply increased $5.5 million as a result of the additional 12.5% equity interest we acquired in July 2015, partially offset by CST’s sale of its California and Wyoming retail sites.
Operating expenses
Operating expenses decreased $0.1 million primarily from a $5.2 million cost savings associated with disposing of certain transportation and terminal assets acquired in the PMI acquisition, partially offset by an increase in operating expenses driven by our acquisitions.

Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2014
The results were driven by:
Motor Fuel Gross profit
The decrease in gross profit was due to a decline of $13.2 million in our motor fuel gross profit primarily attributable to a decline in our payment discounts and incentives, which are discussed under the heading “The Significance of Crude Oil and Wholesale Motor Fuel Prices on Our Revenues, Cost of Sales and Gross Profit” partially offset by an $11.1 million increase primarily attributable to an increase in motor fuel volume.
Rent and other gross profit
Rent and other margin increased $11.4 million primarily from our acquisitions, including the acquisition and leaseback of NTIs with CST, as well as converting company operated retail sites to lessee dealer sites.
Income from CST Fuel Supply
We recorded $10.5 million of income from our investment in CST Fuel Supply, which we acquired in January (5%) and July (12.5%) of 2015.
Operating expenses
Operating expenses increased $1.2 million primarily as a result of incremental operating expenses from our 2014 and 2015 acquisitions, partially offset by the divestiture of certain PMI assets during 2015.

48




Retail
The following table highlights the results of operations and certain operating metrics of our Retail segment. The narrative following these tables provides an analysis of the results of operations of that segment (thousands of dollars, except for the number of retail sites and per gallon amounts):
 
 
 Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Gross profit:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Motor fuel
 
$
8,538

 
$
19,444

 
$
8,088

Merchandise and services
 
30,068

 
41,690

 
17,598

Other
 
4,073

 
4,014

 
4,394

Total gross profit
 
42,679

 
65,148

 
30,080

Operating expenses
 
(35,118
)
 
(46,138
)
 
(22,834
)
Acquisition-related costs
 
212

 

 

Inventory fair value adjustments(a)
 
91

 
1,356

 
1,483

Adjusted EBITDA(b)
 
$
7,864

 
$
20,366

 
$
8,729

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Retail sites (end of period):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commission agents(c)
 
95

 
66

 
75

Company operated retail sites(d)
 
76

 
116

 
87

Total system sites at the end of the period
 
171

 
182

 
162

Total system operating statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average retail sites during the period(c)(d)
 
157

 
202

 
119

Motor fuel sales (gallons per site per day)
 
2,780

 
2,862

 
3,148

Motor fuel gross profit per gallon, net of credit card
   fees and commissions
 
$
0.053

 
$
0.092

 
$
0.059

Commission agents statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average retail sites during the period(c)
 
71

 
70

 
64

Motor fuel sales (gallons per site per day)
 
2,875

 
2,957

 
3,086

Motor fuel gross profit per gallon, net of credit card
   fees and commissions
 
$
0.018

 
$
0.023

 
$
0.003

Company operated retail site statistics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average retail sites during the period(d)
 
86

 
132

 
54

Motor fuel sales (gallons per site per day)
 
2,701

 
2,812

 
3,221

Motor fuel gross profit per gallon, net of credit card
   fees
 
$
0.085

 
$
0.130

 
$
0.123

Merchandise and services sales (per site per day)(e)
 
$
3,790

 
$
3,345

 
$
2,902

Merchandise and s