10-K 1 pbf-2018123110k.htm 10-K Document


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark one)
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended: December 31, 2018
Or
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to             
Commission File Number: 001-35764
Commission File Number: 333-206728-02
 
PBF ENERGY INC.
PBF ENERGY COMPANY LLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
DELAWARE
DELAWARE
 
45-3763855 
61-1622166
 
 
 
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
One Sylvan Way, Second Floor
Parsippany, New Jersey
 
07054
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrants’ telephone number, including area code: (973) 455-7500
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.001 par value 
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. 
PBF Energy Inc.    x Yes ¨ No
PBF Energy Company LLC    ¨ Yes x No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
PBF Energy Inc.    ¨ Yes x No
PBF Energy Company LLC    ¨ Yes x No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
PBF Energy Inc.    x  Yes    ¨  No
PBF Energy Company LLC    x  Yes    ¨  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
PBF Energy Inc.    x  Yes    ¨  No
PBF Energy Company LLC    x  Yes    ¨  No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.      
PBF Energy Inc.    x  
PBF Energy Company LLC    x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
PBF Energy Inc.
 
Large accelerated
filer
x
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
Non-accelerated filer ¨
 
Smaller reporting
company
¨
 
Emerging growth company ¨
PBF Energy Company LLC
 
Large accelerated
filer
¨
 
Accelerated filer ¨
 
Non-accelerated filer x
 
Smaller reporting
company
¨
 
Emerging growth company ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
PBF Energy Inc.    ¨
PBF Energy Company LLC       ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
PBF Energy Inc.    ¨ Yes x No
PBF Energy Company LLC    ¨ Yes x No

The aggregate market value of the Common Stock of PBF Energy Inc. held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2018 was $4,728,225,380 based upon the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transaction closing price.
As of February 19, 2019, PBF Energy Inc. had outstanding 119,845,901 shares of Class A common stock and 20 shares of Class B common stock. PBF Energy Inc. is the sole managing member of, and owner of an equity interest representing approximately 99.0% of the outstanding economic interest in PBF Energy Company LLC as of December 31, 2018. There is no trading in the membership interest of PBF Energy Company LLC and therefore an aggregate market value based on such is not determinable. PBF Energy Company LLC has no common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

PBF Energy Inc. intends to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission a definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders within 120 days after December 31, 2018. Portions of the Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent stated herein.
 




PBF ENERGY INC. AND PBF ENERGY COMPANY LLC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


2



GLOSSARY OF SELECTED TERMS
Unless otherwise noted or indicated by context, the following terms used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K have the following meanings:
“AB32” refers to the greenhouse gas emission control regulations in the state of California to comply with Assembly Bill 32.
“ASCI” refers to the Argus Sour Crude Index, a pricing index used to approximate market prices for sour, heavy crude oil.
“Bakken” refers to both a crude oil production region generally covering North Dakota, Montana and Western Canada, and the crude oil that is produced in that region.
“barrel” refers to a common unit of measure in the oil industry, which equates to 42 gallons.
“blendstocks” refers to various compounds that are combined with gasoline or diesel from the crude oil refining process to make finished gasoline and diesel; these may include natural gasoline, FCC unit gasoline, ethanol, reformate or butane, among others.
“bpd” refers to an abbreviation for barrels per day.
“CAA” refers to the Clean Air Act.
“CAM Pipeline” or “CAM Connection Pipeline” refers to the Clovelly-Alliance-Meraux pipeline in Louisiana.
“CARB” refers to the California Air Resources Board; gasoline and diesel fuel sold in the state of California are regulated by CARB and require stricter quality and emissions reduction performance than required by other states.
“catalyst” refers to a substance that alters, accelerates, or instigates chemical changes, but is not produced as a product of the refining process.
“coke” refers to a coal-like substance that is produced from heavier crude oil fractions during the refining process.
“complexity” refers to the number, type and capacity of processing units at a refinery, measured by the Nelson Complexity Index, which is often used as a measure of a refinery’s ability to process lower quality crude in an economic manner.
“crack spread” refers to a simplified calculation that measures the difference between the price for light products and crude oil. For example, we reference (a) the 2-1-1 crack spread, which is a general industry standard utilized by our Delaware City, Paulsboro and Chalmette refineries that approximates the per barrel refining margin resulting from processing two barrels of crude oil to produce one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of heating oil or ULSD and (b) the 4-3-1 crack spread, which is a benchmark utilized by our Toledo and Torrance refineries that approximates the per barrel refining margin resulting from processing four barrels of crude oil to produce three barrels of gasoline and one-half barrel of jet fuel and one-half barrel of ULSD.
“Dated Brent” refers to Brent blend oil, a light, sweet North Sea crude oil, characterized by an API gravity of 38° and a sulfur content of approximately 0.4 weight percent that is used as a benchmark for other crude oils.
“distillates” refers primarily to diesel, heating oil, kerosene and jet fuel.

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“DNREC” refers to the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control.
“downstream” refers to the downstream sector of the energy industry generally describing oil refineries, marketing and distribution companies that refine crude oil and sell and distribute refined products. The opposite of the downstream sector is the upstream sector, which refers to exploration and production companies that search for and/or produce crude oil and natural gas underground or through drilling or exploratory wells.
“EPA” refers to the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
“Ethanol Permit” refers to a Coastal Zone Act permit for ethanol.
“ethanol” refers to a clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated liquid. Ethanol is typically produced chemically from ethylene, or biologically from fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate.
“feedstocks” refers to crude oil and partially refined petroleum products that are processed and blended into refined products.
“FASB” refers to the Financial Accounting Standards Board which develops U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
“FCC” refers to fluid catalytic cracking.
“FCU” refers to fluid coking unit.
“FERC” refers to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
“GAAP” refers to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board for nongovernmental entities.
“GHG” refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
“Group I base oils or lubricants” refers to conventionally refined products characterized by sulfur content less than 0.03% with a viscosity index between 80 and 120. Typically, these products are used in a variety of automotive and industrial applications.
“heavy crude oil” refers to a relatively inexpensive crude oil with a low API gravity characterized by high relative density and viscosity. Heavy crude oils require greater levels of processing to produce high value products such as gasoline and diesel.
“IDRs” refers to incentive distribution rights.
“IPO” refers to the initial public offering of PBF Energy Class A common stock which closed on December 18, 2012.
“J. Aron” refers to J. Aron & Company, a subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
“KV” refers to Kilovolts.
“LCM” refers to a GAAP requirement for inventory to be valued at the lower of cost or market.
“light crude oil” refers to a relatively expensive crude oil with a high API gravity characterized by low relative density and viscosity. Light crude oils require lower levels of processing to produce high value products such as gasoline and diesel.

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“light products” refers to the group of refined products with lower boiling temperatures, including gasoline and distillates.
“light-heavy differential” refers to the price difference between light crude oil and heavy crude oil.
“LLS” refers to Light Louisiana Sweet benchmark for crude oil reflective of Gulf coast economics for light sweet domestic and foreign crudes.
“LPG” refers to liquefied petroleum gas.
“Maya” refers to Maya crude oil, a heavy, sour crude oil characterized by an API gravity of approximately 22° and a sulfur content of approximately 3.3 weight percent that is used as a benchmark for other heavy crude oils.
“MLP” refers to the master limited partnership.
“MMBTU” refers to million British thermal units.
“MMSCFD” refers to million standard cubic feet per day.
“MOEM Pipeline” refers to a pipeline that originates at a terminal in Empire, Louisiana approximately 30 miles north of the mouth of the Mississippi River. The MOEM Pipeline is 14 inches in diameter, 54 miles long and transports crude from South Louisiana to the Chalmette refinery and transports Heavy Louisiana Sweet (HLS) and South Louisiana Intermediate (SLI) crude.
“MW” refers to Megawatt.
“Nelson Complexity Index” refers to the complexity of an oil refinery as measured by the Nelson Complexity Index, which is calculated on an annual basis by the Oil and Gas Journal. The Nelson Complexity Index assigns a complexity factor to each major piece of refinery equipment based on its complexity and cost in comparison to crude distillation, which is assigned a complexity factor of 1.0. The complexity of each piece of refinery equipment is then calculated by multiplying its complexity factor by its throughput ratio as a percentage of crude distillation capacity. Adding up the complexity values assigned to each piece of equipment, including crude distillation, determines a refinery’s complexity on the Nelson Complexity Index. A refinery with a complexity of 10.0 on the Nelson Complexity Index is considered ten times more complex than crude distillation for the same amount of throughput.
“NYH” refers to the New York Harbor market value of petroleum products.
“NYMEX” refers to the New York Mercantile Exchange.
“NYSE” refers to the New York Stock Exchange.
“PADD” refers to Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts.
“Platts” refers to Platts, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.
“PPM” refers to parts per million.
“RINS” refers to renewable fuel credits required for compliance with the Renewable Fuel Standard.
“refined products” refers to petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, that are produced by a refinery.
“sour crude oil” refers to a crude oil that is relatively high in sulfur content, requiring additional processing to remove the sulfur. Sour crude oil is typically less expensive than sweet crude oil.

5



“Saudi Aramco” refers to Saudi Arabian Oil Company.
“SEC” refers to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Sunoco” refers to Sunoco, LLC.
“sweet crude oil” refers to a crude oil that is relatively low in sulfur content, requiring less processing to remove the sulfur than sour crude oil. Sweet crude oil is typically more expensive than sour crude oil.
“Syncrude” refers to a blend of Canadian synthetic oil, a light, sweet crude oil, typically characterized by API gravity between 30° and 32° and a sulfur content of approximately 0.1-0.2 weight percent.
“TCJA” refers to the U.S. government comprehensive tax legislation enacted on December 22, 2017 and commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
“throughput” refers to the volume processed through a unit or refinery.
“turnaround” refers to a periodically required shutdown and comprehensive maintenance event to refurbish and maintain a refinery unit or units that involves the inspection of such units and occurs generally on a periodic cycle.
“ULSD” refers to ultra-low-sulfur diesel.
“Valero” refers to Valero Energy Corporation.
“WCS” refers to Western Canadian Select, a heavy, sour crude oil blend typically characterized by API gravity between 20° and 22° and a sulfur content of approximately 3.5 weight percent that is used as a benchmark for heavy Western Canadian crude oil.
“WTI” refers to West Texas Intermediate crude oil, a light, sweet crude oil, typically characterized by API gravity between 38° and 40° and a sulfur content of approximately 0.3 weight percent that is used as a benchmark for other crude oils.
“WTS” refers to West Texas Sour crude oil, a sour crude oil characterized by API gravity between 30° and 33° and a sulfur content of approximately 1.28 weight percent that is used as a benchmark for other sour crude oils.
“yield” refers to the percentage of refined products that is produced from crude oil and other feedstocks.

Explanatory Note
This Annual Report on Form 10-K is filed by PBF Energy Inc. (“PBF Energy”) and PBF Energy Company LLC (“PBF LLC”). Each Registrant hereto is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this report that relates to such Registrant. Each Registrant hereto is not filing any information that does not relate to such Registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information. PBF Energy is a holding company whose primary asset is an equity interest in PBF LLC. PBF Energy is the sole managing member of, and owner of an equity interest representing approximately 99.0% of the outstanding economic interests in PBF LLC as of December 31, 2018. PBF Energy operates and controls all of the business and affairs and consolidates the financial results of PBF LLC and its subsidiaries. PBF LLC is a holding company for the companies that directly and indirectly own and operate the business. As of December 31, 2018, PBF LLC also holds a 44.0% limited partner interest, a non-economic general partner interest and all of the incentive distribution rights in PBFX, a publicly-traded master limited partnership (“MLP”).


6



PART I
This Annual Report on Form 10-K is filed by PBF Energy and PBF LLC. Discussions or areas of this report that either apply only to PBF Energy or PBF LLC are clearly noted in such sections. Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Company”, “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to both PBF Energy and PBF LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries, including PBF Holding Company LLC (“PBF Holding”), PBF Investments LLC (“PBF Investments”), Toledo Refining Company LLC (“Toledo Refining” or “TRC”), Paulsboro Refining Company LLC (“Paulsboro Refining” or “PRC”), Delaware City Refining Company LLC (“Delaware City Refining” or “DCR”), Chalmette Refining, L.L.C. (“Chalmette Refining”), PBF Western Region LLC (“PBF Western Region”), Torrance Refining Company LLC (“Torrance Refining”), Torrance Logistics Company LLC (“Torrance Logistics”), PBF Logistics GP LLC (“PBF GP”) and PBF Logistics LP (“PBFX”).
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we make certain forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our plans, strategies, objectives, expectations, intentions, and resources, under the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 to the extent such statements relate to the operations of an entity that is not a limited liability company or a partnership. You should read our forward-looking statements together with our disclosures under the heading: “Cautionary Statement for the Purpose of Safe Harbor Provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.” When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A.


7



ITEM. 1 BUSINESS
Overview and Corporate Structure
We are one of the largest independent petroleum refiners and suppliers of unbranded transportation fuels, heating oil, petrochemical feedstocks, lubricants and other petroleum products in the United States. We sell our products throughout the Northeast, Midwest, Gulf Coast and West Coast of the United States, as well as in other regions of the United States, Canada and Mexico and are able to ship products to other international destinations. We were formed in 2008 to pursue acquisitions of crude oil refineries and downstream assets in North America. As of December 31, 2018, we own and operate five domestic oil refineries and related assets, which we acquired in 2010, 2011, 2015 and 2016. Our refineries have a combined processing capacity, known as throughput, of approximately 900,000 barrels per day (“bpd”), and a weighted-average Nelson Complexity Index of 12.2. We operate in two reportable business segments: Refining and Logistics.
PBF Energy was formed on November 7, 2011 and is a holding company whose primary asset is a controlling equity interest in PBF LLC. We are the sole managing member of PBF LLC and operate and control all of the business and affairs of PBF LLC. We consolidate the financial results of PBF LLC and its subsidiaries and record a noncontrolling interest in our consolidated financial statements representing the economic interests of the members of PBF LLC other than PBF Energy. PBF LLC is a holding company for the companies that directly or indirectly own and operate our business. PBF Holding is a wholly-owned subsidiary of PBF LLC and is the parent company for our refining operations. PBF Energy, through its ownership of PBF LLC, also consolidates the financial results of PBFX and records a noncontrolling interest for the economic interests in PBFX held by the public common unitholders of PBFX.
As of December 31, 2018, PBF Energy held 119,895,422 PBF LLC Series C Units and our current and former executive officers and directors and certain employees and others held 1,206,325 PBF LLC Series A Units (we refer to all of the holders of the PBF LLC Series A Units as “the members of PBF LLC other than PBF Energy”). As a result, the holders of PBF Energy’s issued and outstanding shares of its Class A common stock have approximately 99.0% of the voting power in PBF Energy, and the members of PBF LLC other than PBF Energy through their holdings of Class B common stock have approximately 1.0% of the voting power in PBF Energy.
On May 14, 2014, PBFX completed its initial public offering (the “PBFX Offering”). As of December 31, 2018, PBF LLC held a 44.0% limited partner interest (consisting of 19,953,631 common units) in PBFX, with the remaining 56.0% limited partner interest held by the public unitholders. PBF LLC also owned all of the incentive distribution rights (“IDRs”) and indirectly owns a non-economic general partner interest in PBFX through its wholly-owned subsidiary, PBF Logistics GP LLC (“PBF GP”), the general partner of PBFX. On February 13, 2019, PBFX entered into an Equity Restructuring Agreement (the “IDR Restructuring Agreement”) with PBF GP, pursuant to which the IDRs held by PBF LLC will be canceled and converted into newly issued PBFX common units (the “IDR Restructuring”). Prior to the IDR Restructuring, the IDRs entitled PBF LLC to receive increasing percentages, up to a maximum of 50.0%, of the cash PBFX distributed from operating surplus in excess of $0.345 per unit per quarter. The IDR Restructuring is expected to close on February 28, 2019. Subsequent to the closing of the IDR Restructuring, the IDRs will be canceled, no future distributions will be made to PBF LLC with respect to the IDRs and the newly issued common units will be entitled to normal distributions. As a result of the payment on May 31, 2017 by PBFX of its distribution for the first quarter of 2017, the financial tests required for conversion of all of PBFX’s previously outstanding subordinated units into common units were satisfied. In addition, all of PBFX’s subordinated units, which were owned by PBF LLC, converted on a one-for-one basis into common units effective June 1, 2017. The conversion of the subordinated units did not impact the amount of cash distributions paid by PBFX or the total number of its outstanding units. The subordinated units were issued by PBFX in connection with the PBFX Offering.



8



The following map details the locations of our refineries and the location of PBFX’s assets (each as defined below):
locationgrapha04.jpg


9



Refining
Our five refineries are located in Delaware City, Delaware, Paulsboro, New Jersey, Toledo, Ohio, New Orleans, Louisiana and Torrance, California. Each refinery is briefly described in the table below:
Refinery
Region
Nelson Complexity Index
Throughput Capacity (in barrels per day)
PADD
Crude Processed (1)
Source (1)
Delaware City
East Coast
11.3

190,000

1

light sweet through heavy sour
water, rail
Paulsboro
East Coast
13.2

180,000

1

light sweet through heavy sour
water
Toledo
Mid-Continent
9.2

170,000

2

light sweet
pipeline, truck, rail
Chalmette
Gulf Coast
12.7

189,000

3

light sweet through heavy sour
water, pipeline
Torrance
West Coast
14.9

155,000

5

medium and heavy
pipeline, water, truck
________
(1) Reflects the typical crude and feedstocks and related sources utilized under normal operating conditions and prevailing market environments.
Logistics
PBFX is a fee-based, growth-oriented, publicly-traded Delaware master limited partnership (“MLP”) formed by PBF Energy to own or lease, operate, develop and acquire crude oil and refined petroleum products terminals, pipelines, storage facilities and similar logistics assets. PBFX engages in the receiving, handling, storage and transferring of crude oil, refined products, natural gas and intermediates from sources located throughout the United States and Canada for PBF Energy in support of certain of its refineries, as well as for third-party customers. As of December 31, 2018, a substantial majority of PBFX’s revenue is derived from long-term, fee-based commercial agreements with PBF Holding, which include minimum volume commitments, for receiving, handling, storing and transferring crude oil, refined products and natural gas. PBF Energy also has agreements with PBFX that establish fees for certain general and administrative services and operational and maintenance services provided by PBF Holding to PBFX. These transactions, other than those with third parties, are eliminated by us in consolidation.
On April 16, 2018, PBFX’s wholly-owned subsidiary, PBF Logistics Products Terminals LLC (“PLPT”), completed the purchase of two refined product terminals located in Knoxville, Tennessee, which include product tanks, pipeline connections to the Colonial Pipeline Company and Plantation Pipe Line Company pipeline systems and truck loading facilities (the “Knoxville Terminals”) from Cummins Terminals, Inc. (“Cummins”).
On July 16, 2018, PBFX entered into four contribution agreements with PBF LLC pursuant to which PBF LLC contributed to PBFX certain of its subsidiaries (the “Development Assets Contribution Agreements”). Pursuant to the Development Assets Contribution Agreements, PBF LLC contributed to PBFX all of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of: Toledo Rail Logistics Company LLC (“TRLC”), whose assets consist of a loading and unloading rail facility located at PBF Holding’s Toledo Refinery (the “Toledo Rail Products Facility”); Chalmette Logistics Company LLC (“CLC”), whose assets consist of a truck loading rack facility (the “Chalmette Truck Rack”) and a rail yard facility (the “Chalmette Rosin Yard”), both of which are located at PBF Holding’s Chalmette Refinery; Paulsboro Terminaling Company LLC (“PTC”), whose assets consist of a lube oil terminal facility located at PBF Holding’s Paulsboro Refinery (the “Paulsboro Lube Oil Terminal”); and DCR Storage and Loading Company LLC (“DSLC”), whose assets consist of an ethanol storage facility located at PBF Holding’s Delaware City Refinery (the “Delaware Ethanol Storage Facility” and collectively with the Toledo Rail

10



Products Facility, the Chalmette Truck Rack, the Chalmette Rosin Yard, and the Paulsboro Lube Oil Terminal, the “Development Assets”). The acquisition of the Development Assets closed on July 31, 2018.
On October 1, 2018, PBFX completed the purchase of CPI Operations LLC (the “East Coast Storage Assets Acquisition”), a subsidiary of Crown Point International, LLC (“Crown Point”). The East Coast Storage Assets consist of a storage facility with related infrastructure and equipment and other idled assets located on the Delaware River near Paulsboro, New Jersey.
See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.”
Available Information
Our website address is www.pbfenergy.com. Information contained on our website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any other materials filed with (or furnished to) the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) by us are available on our website (under “Investors”) free of charge, soon after we file or furnish such material. In this same location, we also post our corporate governance guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, and the charters of the committees of our board of directors. These documents are available free of charge in print to any stockholder that makes a written request to the Secretary, PBF Energy Inc., One Sylvan Way, Second Floor, Parsippany, New Jersey 07054.

11



The diagram below depicts our organizational structure as of December 31, 2018:
structurechartat123118.gif

12



Operating Segments
We operate in two reportable business segments: Refining and Logistics. Our five oil refineries, including certain related logistics assets that are not owned by PBFX, are engaged in the refining of crude oil and other feedstocks into petroleum products, and are aggregated into the Refining segment. PBFX operates certain logistics assets such as crude oil and refined petroleum products terminals, pipelines and storage facilities. Certain of PBFX’s assets were previously operated and owned by various subsidiaries of PBF Holding and were acquired by PBFX in a series of transactions since its inception. PBFX is reported in the Logistics segment. A substantial majority of PBFX’s revenue is derived from long-term, fee based commercial agreements with PBF Holding and its subsidiaries and these intersegment related revenues are eliminated in consolidation. See “Note 20 - Segment Information” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, for detailed information on our operating results by business segment.
Refining Segment
We own and operate five refineries providing geographic and market diversity. We produce a variety of products at each of our refineries, including gasoline, ULSD, heating oil, jet fuel, lubricants, petrochemicals and asphalt. We sell our products throughout the Northeast, Midwest, Gulf Coast and West Coast of the United States, as well as in other regions of the United States, Canada and Mexico, and are able to ship products to other international destinations.
Delaware City Refinery
Overview. The Delaware City refinery is located on an approximately 5,000-acre site, with access to waterborne cargoes and an extensive distribution network of pipelines, barges and tankers, truck and rail. Delaware City is a fully integrated operation that receives crude via rail at its crude unloading facilities, or ship or barge at its docks located on the Delaware River. The crude and other feedstocks are stored in an extensive tank farm prior to processing. In addition, there is a 15-lane, 76,000 bpd capacity truck loading rack located adjacent to the refinery and a 23-mile interstate pipeline that are used to distribute clean products, which were sold to PBFX in conjunction with its acquisition of the DCR Products Pipeline and Truck Rack (as defined in “Note 3 - PBF Logistics LP” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements) in May 2015.
As a result of its configuration and process units, Delaware City has the capability of processing a slate of heavy crudes with a high concentration of high sulfur crudes and is one of the largest and most complex refineries on the East Coast. The Delaware City refinery is one of two heavy crude coking refineries, the other being our Paulsboro refinery, on the East Coast of the United States with coking capacity equal to approximately 25% of crude capacity.
The Delaware City refinery primarily processes a variety of medium to heavy, sour crude oils, but can run light, sweet crude oils as well. The refinery has large conversion capacity with its 82,000 bpd fluid catalytic cracking unit (“FCC unit”), 47,000 bpd fluid coking unit and 18,000 bpd hydrocracking unit with vacuum distillation.

13



The following table approximates the Delaware City refinery’s major process unit capacities. Unit capacities are shown in barrels per stream day.
Refinery Units
 
Nameplate
Capacity
Crude Distillation Unit
 
190,000

Vacuum Distillation Unit
 
102,000

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
 
82,000

Hydrotreating Units
 
160,000

Hydrocracking Unit
 
18,000

Catalytic Reforming Unit
 
43,000

Benzene / Toluene Extraction Unit
 
15,000

Butane Isomerization Unit
 
6,000

Alkylation Unit
 
11,000

Polymerization Unit
 
16,000

Fluid Coking Unit
 
47,000

Feedstocks and Supply Arrangements. We source our crude oil needs for Delaware City primarily through short-term and spot market agreements.
Refined Product Yield and Distribution. The Delaware City refinery predominantly produces gasoline, jet fuel, ULSD and ultra-low sulfur heating oil as well as certain other products. We market and sell all of our refined products independently to a variety of customers on the spot market or through term agreements.
Inventory Intermediation Agreement. On June 26, 2013, we entered into an Inventory Intermediation Agreement (the “Inventory Intermediation Agreement”) with J. Aron & Company, a subsidiary of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (“J. Aron”) to support the operations of the Delaware City refinery, which commenced upon the termination of the previous product offtake agreement. Pursuant to such Inventory Intermediation Agreement, J. Aron purchases the Products (as defined in “Item 1A - Risk Factors”) produced and delivered into the refinery’s storage tanks on a daily basis. J. Aron further agrees to sell to us on a daily basis the Products delivered out of the refinery’s storage tanks. On certain dates subsequent to the inception of the Inventory Intermediation Agreements, we and our subsidiary, DCR, entered into amendments to the amended and restated inventory intermediation agreement (as amended, the “Amended Delaware Intermediation Agreement”) with J. Aron pursuant to which certain terms of the Inventory Intermediation Agreements were amended, including, among other things, pricing and an extension of the term. The most recent of these amendments was executed on September 8, 2017 which extended the term to July 1, 2019, which term may be further extended by mutual consent of the parties to July 1, 2020. At expiration, we will have to repurchase the inventories outstanding under the Amended Delaware Intermediation Agreement at that time.
Tankage Capacity. The Delaware City refinery has total storage capacity of approximately 10.0 million barrels. Of the total, approximately 3.6 million barrels of storage capacity are dedicated to crude oil and other feedstock storage with the remaining 6.4 million barrels allocated to finished products, intermediates and other products.
Energy and Other Utilities. Under normal operating conditions, the Delaware City refinery consumes approximately 65,000 MMBTU per day of natural gas supplied via pipeline from third parties. The Delaware City refinery has a 280 MW power plant located on site that consists of two natural gas-fueled turbines with combined capacity of approximately 140 MW and four turbo generators with combined nameplate capacity of approximately 140 MW. Collectively, this power plant produces electricity in excess of Delaware City’s refinery load of approximately 90 MW. Excess electricity is sold into the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland, or PJM, grid. Steam is primarily produced by a combination of three dedicated boilers, two heat recovery steam generators on the gas turbines, and is supplemented by secondary boilers at the FCC and Coker. Hydrogen is provided via the refinery’s

14



steam methane reformer and continuous catalytic reformer. During 2018, we signed an agreement with a third-party for the construction and subsequent lease of a new 25 million cubic feet per day hydrogen facility (the “Hydrogen Facility”) which is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2020. Upon completion, the Hydrogen Facility will provide us with additional complex crude processing capabilities.
Paulsboro Refinery
Overview. The Paulsboro refinery is located on approximately 950 acres on the Delaware River in Paulsboro, New Jersey, near Philadelphia and approximately 30 miles away from Delaware City. Paulsboro receives crude and feedstocks via its marine terminal on the Delaware River. Paulsboro is one of two operating refineries on the East Coast with coking capacity, the other being our Delaware City refinery. The Paulsboro refinery primarily processes a variety of medium and heavy, sour crude oils but can run light, sweet crude oils as well.
The following table approximates the Paulsboro refinery’s major process unit capacities. Unit capacities are shown in barrels per stream day. 
Refinery Units
 
Nameplate
Capacity
Crude Distillation Units
 
168,000

Vacuum Distillation Units
 
83,000

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
 
55,000

Hydrotreating Units
 
141,000

Catalytic Reforming Unit
 
32,000

Alkylation Unit
 
11,000

Lube Oil Processing Unit
 
12,000

Delayed Coking Unit
 
27,000

Propane Deasphalting Unit
 
11,000

Feedstocks and Supply Arrangements. We have a contract with Saudi Aramco pursuant to which we have purchased up to approximately 100,000 bpd of crude oil from Saudi Aramco that is processed at Paulsboro. The crude purchased under this contract is priced off the ASCI.
Refined Product Yield and Distribution. The Paulsboro refinery predominantly produces gasoline, diesel fuels and jet fuel and also manufactures Group I base oils or lubricants and asphalt. We market and sell all of our refined products independently to a variety of customers on the spot market or through term agreements under which we sell approximately 35% of our Paulsboro refinery’s gasoline production.
Inventory Intermediation Agreement. On June 26, 2013, we entered into an Inventory Intermediation Agreement with J. Aron to support the operations of the Paulsboro refinery, which commenced upon the termination of the previous product offtake agreement. Pursuant to such Inventory Intermediation Agreement, J. Aron purchases the Products produced and delivered into the refinery’s storage tanks on a daily basis. J. Aron further agrees to sell to us on a daily basis the Products delivered out of the refinery’s storage tanks. On certain dates subsequent to the inception of the Inventory Intermediation Agreements, we and our subsidiary, PRC, entered into amendments to the amended and restated inventory intermediation agreement (as amended, the “Amended Paulsboro Intermediation Agreement”) with J. Aron pursuant to which certain terms of the Inventory Intermediation Agreements were amended, including, among other things, pricing and an extension of the term. The most recent of these amendments was executed on September 8, 2017 which extended the term to December 31, 2019, which may be further extended by mutual consent of the parties to December 31, 2020. At expiration, we will be required to repurchase the inventories outstanding under the Amended Paulsboro Intermediation Agreement at that time.
Tankage Capacity. The Paulsboro refinery has total storage capacity of approximately 7.5 million barrels. Of the total, approximately 2.1 million barrels are dedicated to crude oil storage with the remaining 5.4 million barrels allocated to finished products, intermediates and other products.

15



Energy and Other Utilities. Under normal operating conditions, the Paulsboro refinery consumes approximately 40,000 MMBTU per day of natural gas supplied via pipeline from third parties. The Paulsboro refinery is mostly self-sufficient for electrical power through a mix of gas and steam turbine generators. The Paulsboro refinery generation typically supplies about 57 MW of the total 63 MW total refinery load. There are circumstances where available generation is greater than the total refinery load, but the Paulsboro refinery does not typically export power to the utility grid. If necessary, supplemental electrical power is available on a guaranteed basis from the local utility. The Paulsboro refinery is connected to the grid via three separate 69KV aerial feeders and has the ability to run entirely on imported power. Steam is produced in three boilers and a heat recovery steam generator fed by the exhaust from the gas turbine. In addition, there are a number of waste heat boilers and furnace stack economizers throughout the refinery that supplement the steam generation capacity. Backup capability is provided by package boilers. The Paulsboro refinery’s current hydrogen needs are met by the hydrogen supply from the reformer. In addition, the refinery employs a standalone steam methane reformer. This ancillary hydrogen plant is utilized as a back-up source of hydrogen for the refinery’s process units.
Toledo Refinery
Overview. The Toledo refinery primarily processes a slate of light, sweet crudes from Canada, the Mid-Continent, the Bakken region and the U.S. Gulf Coast. The Toledo refinery is located on a 282-acre site near Toledo, Ohio, approximately 60 miles from Detroit. Crude is delivered to the Toledo refinery through three primary pipelines: (1) Enbridge from the north, (2) Capline from the south and (3) Mid-Valley from the south. Crude is also delivered to a nearby terminal by rail and from local sources by truck to a truck unloading facility within the refinery.
The following table approximates the Toledo refinery’s major process unit capacities. Unit capacities are shown in barrels per stream day.
Refinery Units
 
Nameplate
Capacity
Crude Distillation Unit
 
170,000

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
 
79,000

Hydrotreating Units
 
95,000

Hydrocracking Unit
 
45,000

Catalytic Reforming Units
 
45,000

Alkylation Unit
 
10,000

Polymerization Unit
 
7,000

UDEX Unit
 
16,300

Feedstocks and Supply Arrangements. We source our crude oil needs for Toledo primarily through short-term and spot market agreements.
Refined Product Yield and Distribution. Toledo produces finished products including gasoline and ULSD, in addition to a variety of high-value petrochemicals including benzene, toluene, xylene, nonene and tetramer. Toledo is connected, via pipelines, to an extensive distribution network throughout Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The finished products are transported on pipelines owned by Sunoco Logistics Partners L.P. and Buckeye Partners. In addition, we have proprietary connections to a variety of smaller pipelines and spurs that help us optimize our clean products distribution. A significant portion of Toledo’s gasoline and ULSD are distributed through the approximately 36 terminals in this network.

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We have an agreement with Sunoco whereby Sunoco purchases gasoline and distillate products representing approximately one-third of the Toledo refinery’s gasoline and distillates production. The agreement had an initial three-year term, subject to certain early termination rights. In March 2017, the agreement was renewed and extended for a two-year term. We are currently in the process of negotiating a renewal of this agreement. We sell the bulk of the petrochemicals produced at the Toledo refinery through short-term contracts or on the spot market and the majority of the petrochemical distribution is done via rail.
Tankage Capacity. The Toledo refinery has total storage capacity of approximately 4.5 million barrels. The Toledo refinery receives its crude through pipeline connections and a truck rack. Of the total, approximately 1.3 million barrels are dedicated to crude oil storage with the remaining 3.2 million barrels allocated to intermediates and products. A portion of storage capacity dedicated to crude oil and finished products was sold to PBFX in conjunction with its acquisition of the Toledo Storage Facility (as defined in “Note 3 - PBF Logistics LP” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements) in December 2014.
Energy and Other Utilities. Under normal operating conditions, the Toledo refinery consumes approximately 20,000 MMBTU per day of natural gas supplied via pipeline from third parties. The Toledo refinery purchases its electricity from the PJM grid and has a long-term contract to purchase hydrogen and steam from a local third-party supplier. In addition to the third-party steam supplier, Toledo consumes a portion of the steam that is generated by its various process units.
Chalmette Refinery
Overview. The Chalmette refinery is located on a 400-acre site near New Orleans, Louisiana. It is a dual-train coking refinery and is capable of processing both light and heavy crude oil through its 189,000 bpd crude units and downstream units. Chalmette Refining owns 100% of the MOEM Pipeline, providing access to the Empire Terminal, as well as the CAM Connection Pipeline, providing access to the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port facility through a third-party pipeline. Chalmette Refining also owns 80% of each of the Collins Pipeline Company and T&M Terminal Company, both located in Collins, Mississippi, which provide a clean products outlet for the refinery to the Plantation and Colonial Pipelines. In addition, there is also a marine terminal capable of importing waterborne feedstocks and loading or unloading finished products; a clean products truck rack which provides access to local markets; and a crude and product storage facility.
The following table approximates the Chalmette refinery’s major process unit capacities. Unit capacities are shown in barrels per stream day.
Refinery Units
 
Nameplate
Capacity
Crude Distillation Units
 
189,000

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
 
72,000

Hydrotreating Units
 
186,000

Delayed Coker
 
29,000

Catalytic Reforming Unit
 
40,000

Alkylation Unit
 
15,000

Feedstocks and Supply Arrangements. We source our crude oil and feedstock needs for Chalmette through connections to the CAM and MOEM pipelines as well as our marine terminal. On November 1, 2015, we entered into a market-based crude supply agreement with Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. (“PDVSA”) that has a ten-year term with a renewal option for an additional five years, subject to certain early termination rights. The pricing for the crude supply is market based and is agreed upon on a quarterly basis by both parties. We have not sourced crude oil under this agreement since the third quarter of 2017 as PDVSA has suspended deliveries due to the parties’ inability to agree to mutually acceptable payment terms.

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Refined Product Yield and Distribution. The Chalmette refinery predominantly produces gasoline and diesel fuels and also manufactures high-value petrochemicals including benzene and xylene. Products produced at the Chalmette refinery are transferred to customers through pipelines, the marine terminal and truck rack. The majority of our clean products are delivered to customers via pipelines. Our ownership of the Collins Pipeline and T&M Terminal provides Chalmette with strategic access to Southeast and East Coast markets through third-party logistics.
Tankage Capacity. Chalmette has a total tankage capacity of approximately 8.1 million barrels. Of this total, approximately 2.6 million barrels are allocated to crude oil storage with the remaining 5.5 million barrels allocated to intermediates and products.
Energy and Other Utilities. Under normal operating conditions, the Chalmette refinery consumes approximately 30,000 MMBTU per day of natural gas supplied via pipeline from third parties. The Chalmette refinery purchases its electricity from a local utility and has a long-term contract to purchase hydrogen and steam from third-party suppliers.
Coker Project: The Chalmette refinery is currently in the process of restarting its idled 12,000 barrel per day coker unit to increase the refinery’s long-term feedstock flexibility and be positioned to benefit from potential dislocations in the price for heavy and high-sulfur feedstocks. The unit is expected to be in service by the end of 2019 and is expected to increase the refinery’s total coking capacity to approximately 42,000 barrels per day.
Torrance Refinery
Acquisition. On July 1, 2016, we acquired from ExxonMobil and its subsidiary, Mobil Pacific Pipe Line Company, the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets (collectively, the “Torrance Acquisition”).
Overview. The Torrance refinery is located on 750 acres in Torrance, California. It is a high-conversion crude, delayed-coking refinery. It is capable of processing both heavy and medium crude oil through its crude unit and downstream units. In addition to refining assets, the Torrance Acquisition included a number of high-quality logistics assets including a sophisticated network of crude and products pipelines, product distribution terminals and refinery crude and product storage facilities. The most significant logistics asset is a crude gathering and transportation system which delivers San Joaquin Valley crude oil directly from the field to the refinery. Additionally, included in the transaction are several pipelines which provide access to sources of crude oil including the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, as well as clean product outlets with a direct pipeline that supplies jet fuel to the Los Angeles airport.
The following table approximates the Torrance refinery’s major process unit capacities. Unit capacities are shown in barrels per stream day.
Refinery Units
 
Nameplate
Capacity
Crude Distillation Unit
 
155,000

Vacuum Distillation Unit
 
102,000

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
 
88,000

Hydrotreating Units
 
151,000

Hydrocracking Unit
 
23,000

Alkylation Unit
 
27,000

Delayed Coker
 
53,000

Feedstocks and Supply Arrangements. The Torrance refinery primarily processes a variety of medium and heavy crude oils. In connection with the closing of the Torrance Acquisition, we entered into a crude supply agreement with ExxonMobil for approximately 60,000 bpd of crude oil that can be processed at our Torrance refinery. This crude supply agreement has a five-year term with an automatic renewal feature unless either party gives thirty-six months prior written notice. Additionally, we obtain crude and feedstocks from other sources through connections to third-party pipelines as well as ship docks and truck racks.

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Refined Product Yield and Distribution. The Torrance refinery predominantly produces gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuels. Products produced at the Torrance refinery are transferred to customers through pipelines, the marine terminal and truck rack. The majority of clean products are delivered to customers via pipelines. Concurrently with the acquisition of the refinery on July 1, 2016, we entered into an offtake agreement with ExxonMobil pursuant to which ExxonMobil purchases up to 50% of our gasoline production. This offtake agreement had an initial term of three years and was scheduled to automatically renew for another three-year term unless either party provided six-months written notice of its intent to terminate the agreement. This contract has been terminated and will not be renewed upon expiration on July 1, 2019. On a prospective basis, we will market and sell all of our refined products independently to a variety of customers either on the spot market or through term agreements.
Tankage Capacity. Torrance has a total tankage capacity of approximately 8.6 million barrels. Of this total, approximately 2.1 million barrels are allocated to crude oil storage with the remaining 6.5 million barrels allocated to intermediates and products.
Energy and Other Utilities. Under normal operating conditions, the Torrance refinery consumes approximately 45,000 MMBTU per day of natural gas supplied via pipeline from third parties. The Torrance refinery generates some power internally using a combination of steam and gas turbines and purchases any additional needed power from the local utility. The Torrance refinery has a long-term contract to purchase hydrogen from a third-party supplier.
Logistics Segment
We formed PBFX, a publicly-traded MLP, to own or lease, operate, develop and acquire crude oil and refined petroleum products terminals, pipelines, storage facilities and similar logistics assets. PBFX’s operations are aggregated into the Logistics segment. PBFX engages in the receiving, handling, storage and transferring of crude oil, refined products, natural gas and intermediates from sources located throughout the United States and Canada for PBF Energy in support of its refineries, as well as for third-party customers. A substantial majority of PBFX’s revenues is derived from long-term, fee-based commercial agreements with PBF Holding, which include minimum volume commitments for receiving, handling, storing and transferring crude oil, refined products and natural gas. PBFX’s third-party revenue is primarily derived from its third-party acquisitions. PBF Energy also has agreements with PBFX that establish fees for certain general and administrative services and operational and maintenance services provided by PBF Holding to PBFX. These transactions, other than those with third parties, are eliminated by PBF Energy and PBF LLC in consolidation.
As of December 31, 2018, PBFX’s assets consist of the following:
Asset
Capacity
Products Handled
Location Supported
Transportation and Terminaling
 
 
DCR Rail Terminal (a)(b)
130,000 bpd unloading capacity
Crude
Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries
DCR West Rack (a)(b)
40,000 bpd unloading capacity
Crude
Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries
Toledo Truck Terminal (a)
22,500 bpd unloading capacity
Crude
Toledo refinery
Toledo Storage Facility - propane loading facility (a)
11,000 bpd throughput capacity
Propane
Toledo refinery
DCR Products Pipeline (a)
125,000 bpd pipeline capacity
Refined products
Delaware City refinery
DCR Truck Rack (a)
76,000 bpd throughput capacity
Gasoline, distillates and LPGs
Delaware City refinery

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East Coast Terminals
various throughput capacity and approximately 4.2 million barrel aggregate shell capacity
Refined products
Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries
Torrance Valley Pipeline (a)
110,000 bpd pipeline capacity
Crude
Torrance refinery
Paulsboro Natural Gas Pipeline (a)
60,000 dth/d pipeline capacity
Natural gas
Paulsboro refinery
Toledo Products Terminal
various throughput capacity and 110,000 barrel aggregate shell capacity
Refined products
Toledo refinery
Knoxville Terminals
various throughput capacity and 520,000 barrel aggregate shell capacity
Gasoline, distillates and LPGs
Chalmette refinery
Toledo Rail Products Facility (a)(c)
16,000 bpd loading capacity
Crude, LPGs, gasoline and distillates
Toledo refinery
Chalmette Truck Rack (a)(c)
20,000 bpd loading capacity
Gasoline and distillates
Chalmette refinery
Chalmette Rosin Yard (a)(c)
17,000 bpd unloading capacity
LPGs
Chalmette refinery
Paulsboro Lube Oil Terminal (a)(c)
various throughput capacity and 229,000 barrel aggregate shell capacity
Lubes
Paulsboro refinery
Delaware Ethanol Storage Facility (a)(c)
various throughput capacity and 100,000 barrel aggregate shell capacity
Ethanol
Delaware refinery
 
Storage
 
 
 
Toledo Storage Facility (a)
approximately 3.9 million barrel aggregate shell capacity (d)
Crude, refined products and intermediates
Toledo refinery
Chalmette Storage Tank
625,000 barrel shell capacity
Crude
Chalmette refinery
East Coast Storage Assets
approximately 4.0 million barrel aggregate shell capacity (e)
Crude, feedstock and asphalt
Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries
___________________

(a)
These assets represent the assets that PBFX acquired from PBF LLC.
(b)
These assets are collectively referred to as the “DCR Rail Facility”.
(c)
These assets are collectively referred to as the “Development Assets”.
(d)
Of the approximately 3.9 million barrel aggregate shell capacity, approximately 1.3 million barrels are dedicated to crude and approximately 2.6 million barrels are allocated to refined products and intermediates.
(e)
Of the approximately 4.0 million barrel aggregate shell capacity, approximately 3.0 million barrels are dedicated to crude and feedstock and approximately 1.0 million barrels are allocated to asphalt.

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Transactions with PBFX
Since the inception of PBFX in 2014, PBF LLC and PBFX have entered into a series of drop-down transactions. Such transactions occurring in the three years ended December 31, 2018 are discussed below.
On August 31, 2016, PBFX entered into a contribution agreement (the “TVPC Contribution Agreement”) between PBFX and PBF LLC. Pursuant to the TVPC Contribution Agreement, PBFX acquired from PBF LLC 50% of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of TVPC, whose assets consist of the San Joaquin Valley Pipeline system (which was acquired as a part of the Torrance Acquisition). The total consideration paid to PBF LLC was $175.0 million, which was funded by PBFX with $20.0 million of cash on hand, $76.2 million in proceeds from the sale of marketable securities, and $78.8 million in net proceeds from the PBFX equity offering in August 2016.
On February 15, 2017, PBFX entered into the PNGPC Contribution Agreement between PBFX and PBF LLC. Pursuant to the PNGPC Contribution Agreement, PBF LLC contributed to PBFX’s wholly-owned subsidiary, PBFX Operating Company LLC (“PBFX Op Co”), all of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of PNGPC. PNGPC owns and operates an existing interstate natural gas pipeline that originates in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, at an interconnection with Texas Eastern pipeline that runs under the Delaware River and terminates at the delivery point to PBF Holding’s Paulsboro refinery, and is subject to regulation by the FERC. In connection with the PNGPC Contribution Agreement, PBFX constructed a new 24” pipeline to replace the existing pipeline, which commenced services in August 2017. In consideration for the PNGPC limited liability company interests, PBFX delivered to PBF LLC (i) an $11.6 million intercompany promissory note in favor of Paulsboro Refining Company LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of PBF Holding, (ii) an expansion rights and right of first refusal agreement in favor of PBF LLC with respect to the Paulsboro Natural Gas Pipeline and (iii) an assignment and assumption agreement with respect to certain outstanding litigation involving PNGPC and the existing pipeline.
Effective February 2017, PBF Holding and PBFX Op Co entered into a ten-year storage services agreement under which PBFX, through PBFX Op Co, began providing storage services to PBF Holding commencing on November 1, 2017 upon the completion of the construction of a new crude tank with a shell capacity of 625,000 barrels at PBF Holding’s Chalmette Refinery. PBFX Op Co and Chalmette Refining have entered into a twenty-year lease for the premises upon which the tank is located and a project management agreement pursuant to which Chalmette Refining managed the construction of the tank.
On July 16, 2018, PBFX entered into the Development Assets Contribution Agreements with PBF LLC. Pursuant to the Development Asset Contribution Agreements, PBF LLC contributed all of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of the Development Assets to PBFX effective July 31, 2018. In consideration for the Development Assets limited liability company interests, PBFX delivered to PBF LLC total consideration of $31.6 million consisting of 1,494,134 common units of PBFX.
In connection with the foregoing transactions, PBF Holding entered into commercial agreements with PBFX entities for the provision of services which require minimum monthly throughput volumes. Subsequent to the transactions described above, as of December 31, 2018, PBF LLC holds a 44.0% limited partner interest in PBFX consisting of 19,953,631 common units.
PBFX IDR Restructuring Agreement

On February 13, 2019, PBFX entered into the IDR Restructuring Agreement with PBF GP, pursuant to which the IDRs held by PBF LLC will be canceled and converted into 10,000,000 newly issued common units. The IDR Restructuring is expected to close on February 28, 2019. Subsequent to the closing of the IDR Restructuring, no distributions will be made to PBF LLC with respect to the IDRs and the newly issued common units will be entitled to normal distributions.


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Principal Products
Our refineries make various grades of gasoline, distillates (including diesel fuel, jet fuel and ULSD) and other products from crude oil, other feedstocks, and blending components. We sell these products through our commercial accounts, and sales with major oil companies. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, gasoline and distillates accounted for 84.7%, 84.1% and 88.0% of our revenues, respectively.
Customers
We sell a variety of refined products to a diverse customer base. The majority of our refined products are primarily sold through short-term contracts or on the spot market. However, we do have product offtake arrangements for a portion of our clean products. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of our revenues, respectively. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, no single customer accounted for 10% or more of our total trade accounts receivable.
Seasonality
Demand for gasoline and diesel is generally higher during the summer months than during the winter months due to seasonal increases in highway traffic and construction work. Decreased demand during the winter months can lower gasoline and diesel prices. As a result, our operating results for the first and fourth calendar quarters may be lower than those for the second and third calendar quarters of each year. Refining margins remain volatile and our results of operations may not reflect these historical seasonal trends. Additionally, the degree of seasonality may differ by the geographic areas in which we operate. Most of the effects of seasonality on PBFX’s operating results are mitigated through fee-based commercial agreements with us that include minimum volume commitments.
Competition
The refining business is very competitive. We compete directly with various other refining companies on the East, Gulf and West Coasts and in the Mid-Continent, with integrated oil companies, with foreign refiners that import products into the United States and with producers and marketers in other industries supplying alternative forms of energy and fuels to satisfy the requirements of industrial, commercial and individual consumers. Some of our competitors have expanded the capacity of their refineries and internationally new refineries are coming on line which could also affect our competitive position.
Profitability in the refining industry depends largely on refined product margins, which can fluctuate significantly, as well as crude oil prices and differentials between the prices of different grades of crude oil, operating efficiency and reliability, product mix and costs of product distribution and transportation. Certain of our competitors that have larger and more complex refineries may be able to realize lower per-barrel costs or higher margins per barrel of throughput. Several of our principal competitors are integrated national or international oil companies that are larger and have substantially greater resources. Because of their integrated operations and larger capitalization, these companies may be more flexible in responding to volatile industry or market conditions, such as shortages of feedstocks or intense price fluctuations. Refining margins are frequently impacted by sharp changes in crude oil costs, which may not be immediately reflected in product prices.
The refining industry is highly competitive with respect to feedstock supply. Unlike certain of our competitors that have access to proprietary controlled sources of crude oil production available for use at their own refineries, we obtain all of our crude oil and substantially all other feedstocks from unaffiliated sources. The availability and cost of crude oil and feedstock are affected by global supply and demand. We have no crude oil reserves and are not engaged in the exploration or production of crude oil. We believe, however, that we will be able to obtain adequate crude oil and other feedstocks at generally competitive prices for the foreseeable future.

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Our complex refinery system and sourcing optionality may position us favorably to benefit from changes in certain market conditions and governmental or industry regulations, such as the pending requirement from the International Maritime Organization (“IMO”) related to the reduction in sulfur content of marine fuels to a maximum of 0.5% effective January 1, 2020. Due to our relative refinery complexity and ample coking capacity, we anticipate being able to favorably capture the benefit from potential product margin uplift associated with an increase in demand for low sulfur fuel or a widening of the discount on high-sulfur feedstocks as a result of the new IMO regulations.
Corporate Offices
We currently lease approximately 58,000 square feet for our principal corporate offices in Parsippany, New Jersey. The lease for our principal corporate offices expires in 2022. Functions performed in the Parsippany office include overall corporate management, refinery and HSE management, planning and strategy, corporate finance, commercial operations, logistics, contract administration, marketing, investor relations, governmental affairs, accounting, tax, treasury, information technology, legal and human resources support functions.
We lease approximately 4,000 square feet for our regional corporate office in Long Beach, California. The lease for our Long Beach office expires in 2021. Functions performed in the Long Beach office include overall regional corporate management, planning and strategy, commercial operations, logistics, contract administration, marketing and governmental affairs.
We lease approximately 5,000 square feet for our regional corporate office in The Woodlands, Texas. The lease for The Woodlands office expires in 2022. Functions performed in The Woodlands include pipeline control center operations and logistics operations, engineering and regulatory support functions.
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 3,266 employees, of which 1,625 are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Our hourly employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements through the United Steel Workers (“USW”), the Independent Oil Workers (“IOW”) and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (“IBEW”). We consider our relations with the represented employees to be satisfactory.
Location
 
Number of employees
 
Employees covered by collective bargaining agreements
 
Collective bargaining agreements
 
Expiration date
Headquarters
 
379

 

 
N/A
 
N/A
Delaware City refinery
 
559

 
377

 
USW
 
January 2022
Paulsboro refinery
 
470

 
291

 
IOW
 
March 2022
Toledo refinery
 
528

 
331

 
USW
 
February 2022
Chalmette refinery
 
562

 
264

 
USW
 
January 2022
Torrance refinery
 
578

 
288

 
USW
IBEW
 
January 2022*
January 2022
Torrance logistics
 
108

 
45

 
USW
 
January 2022*
April 2021
PBFX
 
82

 
29

 
USW
 
February 2022
April 2021
Total employees
 
3,266

 
1,625

 
 
 
 
* Tentative agreement has been reached and upon ratification and execution will extend the collective bargaining agreement related to Torrance refinery and Torrance logistics employees covered under the USW agreement through January 2022.

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Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following is a list of our executive officers as of February 21, 2019:
Name
 
Age (as of December 31, 2018)
 
Position
Thomas J. Nimbley
 
67

 
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors
Matthew C. Lucey
 
45

 
President
Erik Young
 
41

 
Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer
Paul Davis
 
56

 
President, Western Region
Thomas L. O’Connor
 
46

 
Senior Vice President, Commercial
Herman Seedorf
 
67

 
Senior Vice President, Refining
Trecia Canty
 
49

 
Senior Vice President, General Counsel & Corporate Secretary
Thomas J. Nimbley has served as our Chief Executive Officer since June 2010 and on our Board of Directors since October 2014. He has served as the Chairman of our Board since July 2016. He was our Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer from March 2010 through June 2010. In his capacity as our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Nimbley also serves as a director and the Chief Executive Officer of certain of our subsidiaries and our affiliates, including Chairman of the Board of PBF GP. Prior to joining us, Mr. Nimbley served as a Principal for Nimbley Consultants LLC from June 2005 to March 2010, where he provided consulting services and assisted on the acquisition of two refineries. He previously served as Senior Vice President and head of Refining for Phillips Petroleum Company (“Phillips”) and subsequently Senior Vice President and head of Refining for ConocoPhillips (“ConocoPhillips”) domestic refining system (13 locations) following the merger of Phillips and Conoco Inc. Before joining Phillips at the time of its acquisition of Tosco Corporation (“Tosco”) in September 2001, Mr. Nimbley served in various positions with Tosco and its subsidiaries starting in April 1993.
Matthew C. Lucey has served as our President since January 2015 and was our Executive Vice President from April 2014 to December 2014. Mr. Lucey served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer from April 2010 to March 2014. Mr. Lucey joined us as our Vice President, Finance in April 2008. Mr. Lucey is also a director of certain of our subsidiaries, including PBF GP. Prior thereto, Mr. Lucey served as a Managing Director of M.E. Zukerman & Co., a New York-based private equity firm specializing in several sectors of the broader energy industry, from 2001 to 2008. Before joining M.E. Zukerman & Co., Mr. Lucey spent six years in the banking industry.
Erik Young has served as our Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since April 2014 after joining us in December 2010 as Director, Strategic Planning where he was responsible for both corporate development and capital markets initiatives. Mr. Young is also a director of certain of our subsidiaries, including PBF GP. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Young spent eleven years in corporate finance, strategic planning and mergers and acquisitions roles across a variety of industries. He began his career in investment banking before joining J.F. Lehman & Company, a private equity investment firm, in 2001.
Paul Davis has served as our President, PBF Energy Western Region LLC since September 2017. Mr. Davis joined us in April of 2012 and held various executive roles in our commercial operations, including Co-Head of Commercial, prior to serving as Senior Vice President, Western Region Commercial Operations from September 2015 to September 2017. Previously, Mr. Davis was responsible for managing the U.S. clean products commercial operations for Hess Energy Trading Company from 2006 to 2012. Prior to that, Mr. Davis was responsible for Premcor’s U.S. Midwest clean products disposition group. Mr. Davis has over 29 years of experience in commercial operations in crude oil and refined products, including 16 years with the ExxonMobil Corporation in various operational and commercial positions, including sourcing refinery feedstocks and crude oil and the disposition of refined petroleum products, as well as optimization roles within refineries.

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Thomas L. O’Connor has served as our Senior Vice President, Commercial since September 2015. Mr. O’Connor joined us as Senior Vice President in September 2014 with responsibility for business development and growing the business of PBFX, and from January to September 2015, served as our Co-Head of commercial activities. Prior to joining us, Mr. O’Connor worked at Morgan Stanley since 2000 in various positions, most recently as a Managing Director and Global Head of Crude Oil Trading and Global Co-Head of Oil Flow Trading. Prior to joining Morgan Stanley, Mr. O’Connor worked for Tosco from 1995 to 2000 in the Atlantic Basin Fuel Oil and Feedstocks group.
Herman Seedorf serves as our Senior Vice President of Refining. Mr. Seedorf originally joined us in February of 2011 as the Delaware City Refinery Plant Manager and became Senior Vice President, Eastern Region Refining, in September of 2013. Prior to 2011, Mr. Seedorf served as the refinery manager of the Wood River Refinery in Roxana, Illinois, and also as an officer of the joint venture between ConocoPhillips and Cenovus Energy Inc. Mr. Seedorf’s oversight responsibilities included the development and execution of the multi-billion dollar upgrade project which enabled the expanded processing of Canadian crude oils. He also served as the refinery manager of the Bayway Refinery in Linden, New Jersey for four years during the time period that it was an asset of Tosco. Mr. Seedorf began his career in the petroleum industry with Exxon Corporation (“Exxon”) in 1980.
Trecia Canty has served as our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since September 2015. In her role, Ms. Canty is responsible for the legal department and outside counsel, which provide a broad range of support for the Company’s business activities, including corporate governance, compliance, litigations and mergers and acquisitions. Previously, Ms. Canty was named Vice President, Senior Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Secretary in October 2014 and led our commercial and finance legal operations since joining us in November 2012. Ms. Canty is also a director of certain of our subsidiaries. Prior to joining us, Ms. Canty served as Associate General Counsel, Corporate and Assistant Secretary of Southwestern Energy Company, where her responsibilities included finance and mergers and acquisitions, securities and corporate compliance and corporate governance. She also provided legal support to the midstream marketing and logistics businesses. Prior to joining Southwestern Energy Company in 2004, she was an associate with Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
Our refineries, pipelines and related operations are subject to extensive and frequently changing federal, state and local laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, those relating to the discharge of materials into the environment or that otherwise relate to the protection of the environment, waste management and the characteristics and the compositions of fuels. Compliance with existing and anticipated laws and regulations can increase the overall cost of operating the refineries, including remediation, operating costs and capital costs to construct, maintain and upgrade equipment and facilities. Permits are also required under these laws for the operation of our refineries, pipelines and related operations and these permits are subject to revocation, modification and renewal. Compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permits will continue to have an impact on our operations, results of operations and capital requirements. We believe that our current operations are in substantial compliance with existing environmental laws, regulations and permits.
In connection with the Paulsboro refinery acquisition, we assumed certain environmental remediation obligations. The Paulsboro environmental liability of $11.0 million recorded as of December 31, 2018 ($10.3 million as of December 31, 2017) represents the present value of expected future costs discounted at a rate of 8.0%. The current portion of the environmental liability is recorded in Accrued expenses and the non-current portion is recorded in Other long-term liabilities. As of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, this liability is self-guaranteed by us.
In connection with the acquisition of the Delaware City assets, Valero Energy Corporation (“Valero”) remains responsible for certain pre-acquisition environmental obligations up to $20.0 million and the predecessor to Valero in ownership of the refinery retains other historical obligations.

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In connection with the acquisition of the Delaware City assets and the Paulsboro refinery, the Company and Valero purchased ten year, $75.0 million environmental insurance policies to insure against unknown environmental liabilities at each site. In connection with the Toledo refinery acquisition, Sunoco, Inc. (R&M) remains responsible for environmental remediation for conditions that existed on the closing date for twenty years from March 1, 2011, subject to certain limitations.
In connection with the acquisition of the Chalmette refinery, we obtained $3.9 million in financial assurance (in the form of a surety bond) to cover estimated potential site remediation costs associated with an agreed to Administrative Order of Consent with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”). The estimated cost assumes remedial activities will continue for a minimum of thirty years. Further, in connection with the acquisition of the Chalmette refinery, we purchased a ten year, $100.0 million environmental insurance policy to insure against unknown environmental liabilities at the refinery. At the time we acquired the Chalmette refinery it was subject to a Consolidated Compliance Order and Notice of Potential Penalty (the “Order”) issued by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (“LDEQ”) covering deviations from 2009 and 2010. Chalmette Refining and LDEQ subsequently entered into a dispute resolution agreement to negotiate the resolution of deviations on or before December 31, 2014. On May 18, 2018 the Order was settled by LDEQ and the Chalmette refinery for an administrative penalty of $741,000, of which $100,000 has been paid in cash and the remainder has been spent on beneficial environmental projects.
The Delaware City refinery appealed a Notice of Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order issued in March 2017, including a $150,000 fine, alleging violation of a 2013 Secretary’s Order authorizing crude oil shipment by barge. The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (the “DNREC”) determined that the Delaware City refinery had violated the order by failing to make timely and full disclosure to DNREC about the nature and extent of those shipments, and had misrepresented the number of shipments that went to other facilities. The Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order conclude that the 2013 Secretary’s Order was violated by the refinery by shipping crude oil from the Delaware City terminal to three locations other than the Paulsboro refinery, on 15 days in 2014, making a total of 17 separate barge shipments containing approximately 35.7 million gallons of crude oil in total. On April 28, 2017, the Delaware City refinery appealed the Notice of Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order. On March 5, 2018, Notice of Penalty Assessment was settled by DNREC, the Delaware Attorney General and Delaware City refinery for $100,000. The Delaware City refinery made no admissions with respect to the alleged violations and agreed to request a Coastal Zone Act status decision prior to making crude oil shipments to destinations other than Paulsboro. The Coastal Zone Act status decision request was submitted to DNREC and the outstanding appeal was withdrawn as required under the settlement agreement.
On December 28, 2016, DNREC issued a Coastal Zone Act permit (the “Ethanol Permit”) to DCR allowing the utilization of existing tanks and existing marine loading equipment at their existing facilities to enable denatured ethanol to be loaded from storage tanks to marine vessels and shipped to offsite facilities. On January 13, 2017, the issuance of the Ethanol Permit was appealed by two environmental groups. On February 27, 2017, the Coastal Zone Industrial Board (the “Coastal Zone Board”) held a public hearing and dismissed the appeal, determining that the appellants did not have standing. The appellants filed an appeal of the Coastal Zone Board’s decision with the Delaware Superior Court (the “Superior Court”) on March 30, 2017. On January 19, 2018, the Superior Court rendered an Opinion regarding the decision of the Coastal Zone Board to dismiss the appeal of the Ethanol Permit for the ethanol project. The Judge determined that the record created by the Coastal Zone Board was insufficient for the Superior Court to make a decision, and therefore remanded the case back to the Coastal Zone Board to address the deficiency in the record. Specifically, the Superior Court directed the Coastal Zone Board to address any evidence concerning whether the appellants’ claimed injuries would be affected by the increased quantity of ethanol shipments. On remand, the Coastal Zone Board met on January 28, 2019 and reversed its previous decision on standing, ruling that the appellants have standing to appeal the issuance of the Ethanol Permit. DCR is currently evaluating its appeal options.

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At the time we acquired the Toledo refinery, EPA had initiated an investigation into the compliance of the refinery with EPA standards governing flaring pursuant to Section 114 of the Clean Air Act. On February 1, 2013, EPA issued an Amended Notice of Violation, and on September 20, 2013, EPA issued a Notice of Violation and Finding of Violation to Toledo refinery, alleging certain violations of the Clean Air Act at its Plant 4 and Plant 9 flares since the acquisition of the refinery on March 1, 2011. Toledo refinery and EPA subsequently entered into tolling agreements pending settlement discussions. Although the resolution has not been finalized, the civil administrative penalty is anticipated to be approximately $645,000 including supplemental environmental projects. To the extent the administrative penalty exceeds such amount, it is not expected to be material to us.
In connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we assumed certain pre-existing environmental liabilities totaling $130.8 million as of December 31, 2018 ($136.5 million as of December 31, 2017), related to certain environmental remediation obligations to address existing soil and groundwater contamination and monitoring activities and other clean-up activities, which reflects the current estimated cost of the remediation obligations. The current portion of the environmental liability is recorded in Accrued expenses and the non-current portion is recorded in Other long-term liabilities in our consolidated balance sheet. In addition, in connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we purchased a ten year, $100.0 million environmental insurance policy to insure against unknown environmental liabilities. Furthermore, in connection with the acquisition, we assumed responsibility for certain specified environmental matters that occurred prior to our ownership of the refinery and the logistics assets, including specified incidents and/or notices of violations (“NOVs”) issued by regulatory agencies in various years before our ownership, including the Southern California Air Quality Management District (“SCAQMD”) and the Division of Occupational Safety and Health of the State of California (“Cal/OSHA”).
In connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we agreed to take responsibility for NOV No. P63405 that ExxonMobil had received from the SCAQMD for Title V deviations that are alleged to have occurred in 2015. On August 14, 2018, we received a letter from SCAQMD offering to settle this NOV for $515,250. We are currently in communication with SCAQMD to resolve this NOV.
Subsequent to the acquisition, further NOVs were issued by the SCAQMD, Cal/OSHA, the City of Torrance, the City of Torrance Fire Department and the Los Angeles County Sanitation District related to alleged operational violations, emission discharges and/or flaring incidents at the refinery and the logistics assets both before and after our acquisition. EPA in November 2016 conducted a Risk Management Plan (“RMP”) inspection following the acquisition related to Torrance operations and issued preliminary findings in March 2017 concerning RMP potential operational violations. We are currently in communication with EPA to resolve the RMP preliminary findings. EPA and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (“DTSC”) in December 2016 conducted a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) inspection following the acquisition related to Torrance operations and also issued in March 2017 preliminary findings concerning RCRA potential operational violations. In April 2017, EPA referred the RCRA preliminary findings to DTSC for final resolution. On March 1, 2018, we received a notice of intent to sue from Environmental Integrity Project, on behalf of Environment California, under RCRA with respect to the alleged violations from EPA’s and DTSC’s December 2016 inspection. On March 2, 2018, DTSC issued an order to correct alleged RCRA violations relating to the accumulation of oil bearing materials in roll off bins during 2016 and 2017. On June 14, 2018, the Torrance refinery and DTSC reached settlement regarding the oil bearing materials in the form of a stipulation and order, wherein the Torrance refinery agreed that it would recycle or properly dispose of the oil bearing materials by the end of 2018 and pay an administrative penalty of $150,000. The Torrance refinery has complied with these requirements. Following this settlement, in June 2018, DTSC referred the remaining alleged RCRA violations from EPA’s and DTSC’s December 2016 inspection to the California Attorney General for final resolution. The Torrance refinery and the California Attorney General are in discussions to resolve these remaining alleged RCRA violations. Other than the $150,000 DTSC administrative penalty, no other settlement or penalty demands have been received to date with respect to any of the other NOVs, preliminary findings, or order that are in excess of $100,000. As the ultimate outcomes are uncertain, we cannot currently estimate the final amount or timing of their resolution, but any such amount is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows, individually or in the aggregate.

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In connection with the PBFX Plains Asset Purchase (as defined in “Note 4 - Acquisitions” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), PBFX is responsible for the environmental remediation costs for conditions that existed on the closing date up to a maximum of $250,000 per year for ten years, with Plains All American Pipeline, L.P. remaining responsible for any and all additional costs above such amounts during such period. The recorded environmental liability associated with the PBFX Plains Asset Purchase as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $1.6 million and $1.9 million, respectively.
In connection with the Knoxville Terminal Purchase (as defined in “Note 4 - Acquisitions” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), PBFX and Cummins purchased a ten-year, $30.0 million environmental insurance policy against unknown environmental liabilities. PBFX did not assume, and is currently not aware of, any material pre-existing environmental obligations. Additionally, the seller remains responsible for pre-acquisition environmental obligations up to a specified amount for a specified period of time.
In connection with the East Coast Storage Assets  Acquisition (as defined in “Note 4 - Acquisitions” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), PBFX purchased a ten-year, $30.0 million environmental insurance policy against unknown environmental liabilities. Additionally, the seller remains responsible for pre-acquisition environmental obligations up to a specified amount for a specified period of time. The recorded environmental liability associated with the East Coast Storage Assets Acquisition as of December 31, 2018 was $885,000.
Applicable Federal and State Regulatory Requirements
Our operations and many of the products we manufacture are subject to certain specific requirements of the Clean Air Act (the “CAA”) and related state and local regulations. The CAA contains provisions that require capital expenditures for the installation of certain air pollution control devices at our refineries. Subsequent rule making authorized by the CAA or similar laws or new agency interpretations of existing rules, may necessitate additional expenditures in future years.
In 2010, New York State adopted a Low-Sulfur Heating Oil mandate that, beginning July 1, 2012, requires all heating oil sold in New York State to contain no more than 15 parts per million (“PPM”) sulfur. Since July 1, 2012, other states in the Northeast market began requiring heating oil sold in their state to contain no more than 15 PPM sulfur. Currently, all of the Northeastern states and Washington DC have adopted sulfur controls on heating oil. As of July 1, 2018, most of the Northeastern states require heating oil with 15 PPM or less sulfur (except for Pennsylvania and Maryland - where less than 500 PPM sulfur is required). All of the heating oil we currently produce meet these specifications. The mandate and other requirements do not currently have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
EPA issued the final Tier 3 Gasoline standards on March 3, 2014 under the CAA. This final rule establishes more stringent vehicle emission standards and further reduces the sulfur content of gasoline starting in January 2017. The new standard is set at 10 PPM sulfur in gasoline on an annual average basis starting January 1, 2017, with a credit trading program to provide compliance flexibility. EPA responded to industry comments on the proposed rule and maintained the per gallon sulfur cap on gasoline at the existing 80 PPM cap. The refineries are complying with these new requirements as planned, either directly or using flexibility provided by sulfur credits generated or purchased in advance as an economic optimization. The standards set by the new rule are not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We are required to comply with the Renewable Fuel Standard (“RFS”) implemented by EPA, which sets annual quotas for the quantity of renewable fuels (such as ethanol) that must be blended into motor fuels consumed in the United States. In July 2018, EPA issued proposed amendments to the RFS program regulations that would establish annual percentage standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and renewable fuels that would apply to all gasoline and diesel produced in the U.S. or imported in the year 2019. In addition, the separate proposal includes a proposed biomass-based diesel applicable volume for 2020. It is likely that RIN production will continue to be lower than needed forcing obligated parties, such as us, to purchase cellulosic waiver credits or purchase excess RINs from suppliers on the open market.

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In addition, on November 26, 2018 EPA finalized revisions to an existing air regulation concerning Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (“MACT”) for Petroleum Refineries. The regulation requires additional continuous monitoring systems for eligible process safety valves relieving to atmosphere, minimum flare gas heat (Btu) content, and delayed coke drum vent controls to be installed by January 30, 2019. In addition, a program for ambient fence line monitoring for benzene was implemented prior to the deadline of January 30, 2018. We are in the process of implementing the requirements of this regulation. The regulation does not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
EPA published a Final Rule to the Clean Water Act (“CWA”) Section 316(b) in August 2014 regarding cooling water intake structures, which includes requirements for petroleum refineries. The purpose of this rule is to prevent fish from being trapped against cooling water intake screens (impingement) and to prevent fish from being drawn through cooling water systems (entrainment). Facilities will be required to implement Best Technology Available (“BTA”) as soon as possible, but state agencies have the discretion to establish implementation time lines. We continue to evaluate the impact of this regulation, and at this time do not anticipate it having a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
As a result of the Torrance Acquisition, we are subject to greenhouse gas emission control regulations in the state of California pursuant to Assembly Bill 32 (“AB32”). AB32 imposes a statewide cap on greenhouse gas emissions, including emissions from transportation fuels, with the aim of returning the state to 1990 emission levels by 2020. AB32 is implemented through two market mechanisms including the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (“LCFS”) and Cap and Trade, which was extended for an additional ten years to 2030 in July 2017. We are responsible for the AB32 obligations related to the Torrance refinery beginning on July 1, 2016 and must purchase emission credits to comply with these obligations. Additionally, in September 2016, the state of California enacted Senate Bill 32 (“SB32”) which further reduces greenhouse gas emissions targets to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030.
However, subsequent to the acquisition, we are recovering the majority of these costs from our customers, and as such do not expect this obligation to materially impact our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. To the degree there are unfavorable changes to AB32 or SB32 regulations or we are unable to recover such compliance costs from customers, these regulations could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We are subject to obligations to purchase RINs. On February 15, 2017, we received a notification that EPA records indicated that PBF Holding used potentially invalid RINs that were in fact verified under EPA’s RIN Quality Assurance Program (“QAP”) by an independent auditor as QAP A RINs. Under the regulations, use of potentially invalid QAP A RINs provided the user with an affirmative defense from civil penalties provided certain conditions are met. We have asserted the affirmative defense and if accepted by EPA will not be required to replace these RINs and will not be subject to civil penalties under the program. It is reasonably possible that EPA will not accept our defense and may assess penalties in these matters but any such amount is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
As of January 1, 2011, we are required to comply with EPA’s Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources, or MSAT2, regulations on gasoline that impose reductions in the benzene content of our produced gasoline. We purchase benzene credits to meet these requirements. Our planned capital projects will reduce the amount of benzene credits that we need to purchase. In addition, the renewable fuel standards mandate the blending of prescribed percentages of renewable fuels (e.g., ethanol and biofuels) into our produced gasoline and diesel. These new requirements, other requirements of the CAA and other presently existing or future environmental regulations may cause us to make substantial capital expenditures as well as the purchase of credits at significant cost, to enable our refineries to produce products that meet applicable requirements.
The federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”), also known as “Superfund,” imposes liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a “hazardous substance” into the environment. These persons include the current or former owner or operator of the disposal site or sites where the release occurred and companies that disposed of or arranged for the disposal of the hazardous substances.

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Under CERCLA, such persons may be subject to joint and several liability for investigation and the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. As discussed more fully above, certain of our sites are subject to these laws and we may be held liable for investigation and remediation costs or claims for natural resource damages. It is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by hazardous substances or other pollutants released into the environment. Analogous state laws impose similar responsibilities and liabilities on responsible parties. In our current normal operations, we have generated waste, some of which falls within the statutory definition of a “hazardous substance” and some of which may have been disposed of at sites that may require cleanup under Superfund.
As is the case with all companies engaged in industries similar to ours, we face potential exposure to future claims and lawsuits involving environmental matters. These matters include soil and water contamination, air pollution, personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by substances which we manufactured, handled, used, released or disposed of.
Current and future environmental regulations are expected to require additional expenditures, including expenditures for investigation and remediation, which may be significant, at our refineries and at our other facilities. To the extent that future expenditures for these purposes are material and can be reasonably determined, these costs are disclosed and accrued.
Our operations are also subject to various laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety. We maintain safety training and maintenance programs as part of our ongoing efforts to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Compliance with applicable health and safety laws and regulations has required and continues to require substantial expenditures.
We cannot predict what additional health, safety and environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted or become effective in the future or how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted with respect to our operations. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations or adverse changes in the interpretation of existing requirements or discovery of new information such as unknown contamination could have an adverse effect on the financial position and the results of our operations and could require substantial expenditures for the installation and operation of systems and equipment that we do not currently possess.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
You should carefully read the risks and uncertainties described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties may also impair our business operations. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows would likely suffer. In that case, the trading price of PBF Energy Class A common stock could fall.
The price volatility of crude oil, other feedstocks, blendstocks, refined products and fuel and utility services may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability, cash flows and liquidity.
Our revenues, profitability, cash flows and liquidity from operations depend primarily on the margin above operating expenses (including the cost of refinery feedstocks, such as crude oil, intermediate partially refined petroleum products, and natural gas liquids that are processed and blended into refined products) at which we are able to sell refined products. Refining is primarily a margin-based business and, to increase profitability, it is important to maximize the yields of high value finished products while minimizing the costs of feedstock and operating expenses. When the margin between refined product prices and crude oil and other feedstock costs contracts, our earnings, profitability and cash flows are negatively affected. Refining margins historically have been volatile, and are likely to continue to be volatile, as a result of a variety of factors, including fluctuations in the prices of crude oil, other feedstocks, refined products and fuel and utility services. An increase or decrease in the price of crude oil will likely result in a similar increase or decrease in prices for refined products; however, there may be a time lag in the realization, or no such realization, of the similar increase or decrease in prices for refined products. The effect of changes in crude oil prices on our refining margins therefore depends in part on how quickly and how fully refined product prices adjust to reflect these changes.
In addition, the nature of our business requires us to maintain substantial crude oil, feedstock and refined product inventories. Because crude oil, feedstock and refined products are commodities, we have no control over the changing market value of these inventories. Our crude oil, feedstock and refined product inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market value under the last-in-first-out (“LIFO”) inventory valuation methodology. If the market value of our crude oil, feedstock and refined product inventory declines to an amount less than our LIFO cost, we would record a write-down of inventory and a non-cash impact to cost of products and other. For example, during the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded an adjustment to value our inventories to the lower of cost or market which decreased income from operations and net income by $351.3 million and $259.9 million, respectively, reflecting the net change in the lower of cost or market (“LCM”) inventory reserve from $300.5 million at December 31, 2017 to $651.7 million at December 31, 2018.
Prices of crude oil, other feedstocks, blendstocks, and refined products depend on numerous factors beyond our control, including the supply of and demand for crude oil, other feedstocks, gasoline, diesel, ethanol, asphalt and other refined products. Such supply and demand are affected by a variety of economic, market, environmental and political conditions.
Our direct operating expense structure also impacts our profitability. Our major direct operating expenses include employee and contract labor, maintenance and energy. Our predominant variable direct operating cost is energy, which is comprised primarily of fuel and other utility services. The volatility in costs of fuel, principally natural gas, and other utility services, principally electricity, used by our refineries and other operations affect our operating costs. Fuel and utility prices have been, and will continue to be, affected by factors outside our control, such as supply and demand for fuel and utility services in both local and regional markets. Natural gas prices have historically been volatile and, typically, electricity prices fluctuate with natural gas prices. Future increases in fuel and utility prices may have a negative effect on our refining margins, profitability and cash flows.

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Our profitability is affected by crude oil differentials and related factors, which fluctuate substantially.
A significant portion of our profitability is derived from the ability to purchase and process crude oil feedstocks that historically have been less expensive than benchmark crude oils, such as the heavy, sour crude oils processed at our Delaware City, Paulsboro, Chalmette and Torrance refineries. For our Toledo refinery, aside from recent crude differential volatility, purchased crude prices have historically been slightly above the WTI benchmark, however, such crude slate typically results in favorable refinery production yield. For all locations, these crude oil differentials can vary significantly from quarter to quarter depending on overall economic conditions and trends and conditions within the markets for crude oil and refined products. Any change in these crude oil differentials may have an impact on our earnings. Our rail investment and strategy to acquire cost advantaged Mid-Continent and Canadian crude, which are priced based on WTI, could be adversely affected when the Dated Brent/WTI or related differentials narrow. A narrowing of the WTI/Dated Brent differential may result in our Toledo refinery losing a portion of its crude oil price advantage over certain of our competitors, which negatively impacts our profitability. In addition, efforts in Canada to control the imbalance between its production and capacity to export crude may continue to result in price volatility and the narrowing of the WTI/WCS differential, which is a proxy for the difference between light U.S. and heavy Canadian crude oil, and may reduce our refining margins and adversely affect our profitability and earnings. Divergent views have been expressed as to the expected magnitude of changes to these crude differentials in future periods. Any continued or further narrowing of these differentials could have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.
Additionally, governmental and regulatory actions, including continued resolutions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries to restrict crude oil production levels and executive actions by the current U.S. presidential administration to advance certain energy infrastructure projects such as the Keystone XL pipeline, may continue to impact crude oil prices and crude oil differentials. Any increase in crude oil prices or unfavorable movements in crude oil differentials due to such actions or changing regulatory environment may negatively impact our ability to acquire crude oil at economical prices and could have a material adverse effect on our business and profitability.
A significant interruption or casualty loss at any of our refineries and related assets could reduce our production, particularly if not fully covered by our insurance. Failure by one or more insurers to honor its coverage commitments for an insured event could materially and adversely affect our future cash flows, operating results and financial condition.
Our business currently consists of owning and operating five refineries and related assets. As a result, our operations could be subject to significant interruption if any of our refineries were to experience a major accident, be damaged by severe weather or other natural disaster, or otherwise be forced to shut down or curtail production due to unforeseen events, such as acts of God, nature, orders of governmental authorities, supply chain disruptions impacting our crude rail facilities or other logistical assets, power outages, acts of terrorism, fires, toxic emissions and maritime hazards. Any such shutdown or disruption would reduce the production from that refinery. There is also risk of mechanical failure and equipment shutdowns both in general and following unforeseen events. Further, in such situations, undamaged refinery processing units may be dependent on or interact with damaged sections of our refineries and, accordingly, are also subject to being shut down. In the event any of our refineries is forced to shut down for a significant period of time, it would have a material adverse effect on our earnings, our other results of operations and our financial condition as a whole.
As protection against these hazards, we maintain insurance coverage against some, but not all, such potential losses and liabilities. We may not be able to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we desire at reasonable rates. As a result of market conditions, premiums and deductibles for certain of our insurance policies may increase substantially. In some instances, certain insurance could become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. For example, coverage for hurricane damage can be limited, and coverage for terrorism risks can include broad exclusions. If we were to incur a significant liability for which we were not fully insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our financial position.

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Our insurance program includes a number of insurance carriers. Significant disruptions in financial markets could lead to a deterioration in the financial condition of many financial institutions, including insurance companies and, therefore, we may not be able to obtain the full amount of our insurance coverage for insured events.
Our refineries are subject to interruptions of supply and distribution as a result of our reliance on pipelines and railroads for transportation of crude oil and refined products.
Our Toledo, Chalmette and Torrance refineries receive a significant portion of their crude oil through pipelines. These pipelines include the Enbridge system, Capline and Mid-Valley pipelines for supplying crude to our Toledo refinery, the MOEM and CAM pipelines for supplying crude to our Chalmette refinery and the San Joaquin Pipeline, San Ardo and Coastal Pipeline systems for supplying crude to our Torrance refinery. Additionally, our Toledo, Chalmette and Torrance refineries deliver a significant portion of the refined products through pipelines. These pipelines include pipelines such as the Sunoco Logistics Partners L.P. and Buckeye Partners L.P. pipelines at Toledo, the Collins Pipeline at our Chalmette refinery and Jet Pipeline to the Los Angeles International Airport, the Product Pipeline to Vernon and the Product Pipeline to Atwood at our Torrance refinery. We could experience an interruption of supply or delivery, or an increased cost of receiving crude oil and delivering refined products to market, if the ability of these pipelines to transport crude oil or refined products is disrupted because of accidents, weather interruptions, governmental regulation, terrorism, other third-party action or casualty or other events.
The Delaware City rail unloading facilities and our recently acquired East Coast Storage Assets, allow our East Coast refineries to source WTI-based crudes from Western Canada and the Mid-Continent, which may provide significant cost advantages versus traditional Brent-based international crudes in certain market environments. Any disruptions or restrictions to our supply of crude by rail due to problems with third-party logistics infrastructure or operations or as a result of increased regulations, could increase our crude costs and negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, due to the common carrier regulatory obligation applicable to interstate oil pipelines, capacity allocation among shippers can become contentious in the event demand is in excess of capacity. Therefore, nominations by new shippers or increased nominations by existing shippers may reduce the capacity available to us. Any prolonged interruption in the operation or curtailment of available capacity of the pipelines that we rely upon for transportation of crude oil and refined products could have a further material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Regulation of emissions of greenhouse gases could force us to incur increased capital and operating costs and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Both houses of Congress have actively considered legislation to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”), such as carbon dioxide and methane, including proposals to: (i) establish a cap and trade system, (ii) create a federal renewable energy or “clean” energy standard requiring electric utilities to provide a certain percentage of power from such sources, and (iii) create enhanced incentives for use of renewable energy and increased efficiency in energy supply and use. In addition, EPA is taking steps to regulate GHGs under the existing federal Clean Air Act (the “CAA”). EPA has already adopted regulations limiting emissions of GHGs from motor vehicles, addressing the permitting of GHG emissions from stationary sources, and requiring the reporting of GHG emissions from specified large GHG emission sources, including refineries. These and similar regulations could require us to incur costs to monitor and report GHG emissions or reduce emissions of GHGs associated with our operations. In addition, various states, individually as well as in some cases on a regional basis, have taken steps to control GHG emissions, including adoption of GHG reporting requirements, cap and trade systems and renewable portfolio standards (such as AB32 regulations in California). Efforts have also been undertaken to delay, limit or prohibit EPA and possibly state action to regulate GHG emissions, and it is not possible at this time to predict the ultimate form, timing or extent of federal or state regulation. In addition, it is currently uncertain how the current presidential administration will address GHG emissions. In the event we do incur increased costs as a result of increased efforts to control GHG emissions, we may not be able to pass on any of these costs to our customers. Such requirements also could adversely affect demand for the refined petroleum products that we produce. Any increased costs or reduced demand could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operation.

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Requirements to reduce emissions could result in increased costs to operate and maintain our facilities as well as implement and manage new emission controls and programs put in place. For example, AB32 in California requires the state to reduce its GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Additionally, in September 2016, the state of California enacted Senate Bill 32 which further reduces greenhouse gas emissions targets to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030. Two regulations implemented to achieve these goals are Cap-and-Trade and the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (“LCFS”). In 2012, the California Air Resource Board (“CARB”) implemented Cap-and-Trade. This program currently places a cap on GHGs and we are required to acquire a sufficient number of credits to cover emissions from our refineries and our in-state sales of gasoline and diesel. In 2009, CARB adopted the LCFS, which requires a 10% reduction in the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel by 2020. Compliance is achieved through blending lower carbon intensity biofuels into gasoline and diesel or by purchasing credits. Compliance with each of these programs is facilitated through a market-based credit system. If sufficient credits are unavailable for purchase or we are unable to pass through costs to our customers, we have to pay a higher price for credits or if we are otherwise unable to meet our compliance obligations, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our hedging activities may limit our potential gains, exacerbate potential losses and involve other risks.
We may enter into commodity derivatives contracts to hedge our crude price risk or crack spread risk with respect to a portion of our expected gasoline and distillate production on a rolling basis or to hedge our exposure to the price of natural gas, which is a significant component of our refinery operating expenses. Consistent with that policy we may hedge some percentage of our future crude and natural gas supply. We may enter into hedging arrangements with the intent to secure a minimum fixed cash flow stream on the volume of products hedged during the hedge term and to protect against volatility in commodity prices. Our hedging arrangements may fail to fully achieve these objectives for a variety of reasons, including our failure to have adequate hedging arrangements, if any, in effect at any particular time and the failure of our hedging arrangements to produce the anticipated results. We may not be able to procure adequate hedging arrangements due to a variety of factors. Moreover, such transactions may limit our ability to benefit from favorable changes in crude oil, refined product and natural gas prices. In addition, our hedging activities may expose us to the risk of financial loss in certain circumstances, including instances in which:
the volumes of our actual use of crude oil or natural gas or production of the applicable refined products is less than the volumes subject to the hedging arrangement;
accidents, interruptions in feedstock transportation, inclement weather or other events cause unscheduled shutdowns or otherwise adversely affect our refineries, or those of our suppliers or customers;
changes in commodity prices have a material impact on collateral and margin requirements under our hedging arrangements, resulting in us being subject to margin calls;
the counterparties to our derivative contracts fail to perform under the contracts; or
a sudden, unexpected event materially impacts the commodity or crack spread subject to the hedging arrangement.
As a result, the effectiveness of our hedging strategy could have a material impact on our financial results. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.”
In addition, these hedging activities involve basis risk. Basis risk in a hedging arrangement occurs when the price of the commodity we hedge is more or less variable than the index upon which the hedged commodity is based, thereby making the hedge less effective. For example, a NYMEX index used for hedging certain volumes of our crude oil or refined products may have more or less variability than the actual cost or price we realize for such crude oil or refined products. We may not hedge all the basis risk inherent in our hedging arrangements and derivative contracts.

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We may have capital needs for which our internally generated cash flows and other sources of liquidity may not be adequate.
If we cannot generate sufficient cash flows or otherwise secure sufficient liquidity to support our short-term and long-term capital requirements, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations or our future debt obligations, comply with certain deadlines related to environmental regulations and standards, or pursue our business strategies, including acquisitions, in which case our operations may not perform as we currently expect. We have substantial short-term capital needs and may have substantial long term capital needs. Our short-term working capital needs are primarily related to financing certain of our crude oil and refined products inventory not covered by our various supply and Inventory Intermediation Agreements. Pursuant to the Inventory Intermediation Agreements, J. Aron purchases and holds title to certain of the intermediate and finished products (the “Products”) produced by the Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries (the “Refineries”) and delivered into the tanks at the refineries (or at other locations outside of the refineries as agreed upon by both parties). Furthermore, J. Aron agrees to sell the intermediate and finished products back to us as they are discharged out of the refineries’ tanks (or other locations outside of the refineries as agreed upon by both parties). We market and sell the finished products independently to third parties.
If we cannot adequately handle our crude oil and feedstock requirements or if we are required to obtain our crude oil supply at our other refineries without the benefit of the existing supply arrangements or the applicable counterparty defaults in its obligations, our crude oil pricing costs may increase as the number of days between when we pay for the crude oil and when the crude oil is delivered to us increases. Termination of our Inventory Intermediation Agreements with J. Aron would require us to finance our refined products inventory covered by the agreements at terms that may not be as favorable. Additionally, we are obligated to repurchase from J. Aron all volumes of products located at the refineries’ storage tanks (or at other locations outside of the refineries as agreed upon by both parties) upon termination of these agreements, which may have a material adverse impact on our working capital and financial condition. Further, if we are not able to market and sell our finished products to credit worthy customers, we may be subject to delays in the collection of our accounts receivable and exposure to additional credit risk. Such increased exposure could negatively impact our liquidity due to our increased working capital needs as a result of the increase in the amount of crude oil inventory and accounts receivable we would have to carry on our consolidated balance sheet. Our long-term needs for cash include those to support ongoing capital expenditures for equipment maintenance and upgrades during turnarounds at our refineries and to complete our routine and normally scheduled maintenance, regulatory and security expenditures.
In addition, from time to time, we are required to spend significant amounts for repairs when one or more processing units experiences temporary shutdowns. We continue to utilize significant capital to upgrade equipment, improve facilities, and reduce operational, safety and environmental risks. In connection with the Paulsboro and Torrance acquisitions, we assumed certain significant environmental obligations, and may similarly do so in future acquisitions. We will likely incur substantial compliance costs in connection with new or changing environmental, health and safety regulations. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition.” Our liquidity condition will affect our ability to satisfy any and all of these needs or obligations.
We may not be able to obtain funding on acceptable terms or at all because of volatility and uncertainty in the credit and capital markets. This may hinder or prevent us from meeting our future capital needs.
In the past, global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and may again be, subject to disruption and volatile due to a variety of factors, including uncertainty in the financial services sector, low consumer confidence, falling commodity prices, geopolitical issues and generally weak economic conditions. In addition, the fixed income markets have experienced periods of extreme volatility that have negatively impacted market liquidity conditions. As a result, the cost of raising money in the debt and equity capital markets has increased substantially at times while the availability of funds from those markets diminished significantly. In particular, as a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally, which may be subject to unforeseen disruptions, the cost of obtaining money from the credit markets may increase as many lenders and institutional investors increase interest rates, enact tighter lending standards, refuse to refinance existing debt on similar terms or at all and reduce or, in some cases, cease to provide funding to borrowers. Due to these factors, we cannot be

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certain that new debt or equity financing will be available on acceptable terms. If funding is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due. Moreover, without adequate funding, we may be unable to execute our growth strategy, complete future acquisitions, take advantage of other business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations.
Competition from companies who produce their own supply of feedstocks, have extensive retail outlets, make alternative fuels or have greater financial and other resources than we do could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our refining operations compete with domestic refiners and marketers in regions of the United States in which we operate, as well as with domestic refiners in other regions and foreign refiners that import products into the United States. In addition, we compete with other refiners, producers and marketers in other industries that supply their own renewable fuels or alternative forms of energy and fuels to satisfy the requirements of our industrial, commercial and individual consumers. Certain of our competitors have larger and more complex refineries, and may be able to realize lower per-barrel costs or higher margins per barrel of throughput. Several of our principal competitors are integrated national or international oil companies that are larger and have substantially greater resources than we do and access to proprietary sources of controlled crude oil production. Unlike these competitors, we obtain substantially all of our feedstocks from unaffiliated sources. We are not engaged in the petroleum exploration and production business and therefore do not produce any of our crude oil feedstocks. We do not have a retail business and therefore are dependent upon others for outlets for our refined products. Because of their integrated operations and larger capitalization, these companies may be more flexible in responding to volatile industry or market conditions, such as shortages of crude oil supply and other feedstocks or intense price fluctuations.
Newer or upgraded refineries will often be more efficient than our refineries, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage. We have taken significant measures to maintain our refineries including the installation of new equipment and redesigning older equipment to improve our operations. However, these actions involve significant uncertainties, since upgraded equipment may not perform at expected throughput levels, the yield and product quality of new equipment may differ from design specifications and modifications may be needed to correct equipment that does not perform as expected. Any of these risks associated with new equipment, redesigned older equipment or repaired equipment could lead to lower revenues or higher costs or otherwise have an adverse effect on future results of operations and financial condition. Over time, our refineries or certain refinery units may become obsolete, or be unable to compete, because of the construction of new, more efficient facilities by our competitors.
A portion of our workforce is unionized, and we may face labor disruptions that would interfere with our operations.
At Delaware City, Toledo, Chalmette and Torrance, most hourly employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement through the USW. The agreements with the USW covering the Delaware City refinery and Chalmette refinery are scheduled to expire in January 2022, the agreement with the USW covering Toledo is scheduled to expire in February 2022, the agreement with the USW covering certain Torrance Logistics employees is scheduled to expire in April 2021 and the agreements with the USW covering certain PBFX employees are scheduled to expire in April 2021 and February 2022. The agreements with the USW covering the represented employees at the Torrance refinery and Torrance logistics facilities expired in January 2019, with a tentative agreement in place that would extend the respective collective bargaining agreement expiration dates through January 2022 subject to an affirmative ratification vote and execution. Similarly, at the Paulsboro refinery, hourly employees are represented by the IOW under a contract scheduled to expire in March 2022. Future negotiations as our collective agreements expire may result in labor unrest for which a strike or work stoppage is possible. Strikes and/or work stoppages could negatively affect our operational and financial results and may increase operating expenses at the refineries.

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Any political instability, military strikes, sustained military campaigns, terrorist activity, or changes in foreign policy could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Any political instability, military strikes, sustained military campaigns, terrorist activity, or changes in foreign policy in areas or regions of the world where we acquire crude oil and other raw materials or sell our refined petroleum products may affect our business in unpredictable ways, including forcing us to increase security measures and causing disruptions of supplies and distribution markets. We may also be subject to United States trade and economic sanctions laws, which change frequently as a result of foreign policy developments, and which may necessitate changes to our crude oil acquisition activities. Further, like other industrial companies, our facilities may be the target of terrorist activities. Any act of war or terrorism that resulted in damage to any of our refineries or third-party facilities upon which we are dependent for our business operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Economic turmoil in the global financial system or an economic slowdown or recession in the future may have an adverse impact on the refining industry.
Our business and profitability are affected by the overall level of demand for our products, which in turn is affected by factors such as overall levels of economic activity and business and consumer confidence and spending. In the past, declines in global economic activity and consumer and business confidence and spending significantly reduced the level of demand for our products. In addition, macroeconomic trends, such as economic recession, inflation, unemployment and interest rates can affect the level of demand for our products. Reduced demand for our products may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, downturns in the economy impact the demand for refined fuels and, in turn, result in excess refining capacity. Refining margins are impacted by changes in domestic and global refining capacity, as increases in refining capacity can adversely impact refining margins, earnings and cash flows.
Our business is indirectly exposed to risks faced by our suppliers, customers and other business partners. The impact on these constituencies of the risks posed by economic turmoil in the global financial system could include interruptions or delays in the performance by counterparties to our contracts, reductions and delays in customer purchases, delays in or the inability of customers to obtain financing to purchase our products and the inability of customers to pay for our products. Any of these events may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We must make substantial capital expenditures on our operating facilities to maintain their reliability and efficiency. If we are unable to complete capital projects at their expected costs and/or in a timely manner, or if the market conditions assumed in our project economics deteriorate, our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Delays or cost increases related to capital spending programs involving engineering, procurement and construction of new facilities (or improvements and repairs to our existing facilities and equipment, including turnarounds) could adversely affect our ability to achieve targeted internal rates of return and operating results. Such delays or cost increases may arise as a result of unpredictable factors in the marketplace, many of which are beyond our control, including:
denial or delay in obtaining regulatory approvals and/or permits;
unplanned increases in the cost of construction materials or labor;
disruptions in transportation of modular components and/or construction materials;
severe adverse weather conditions, natural disasters or other events (such as equipment malfunctions, explosions, fires or spills) affecting our facilities, or those of vendors and suppliers;
shortages of sufficiently skilled labor, or labor disagreements resulting in unplanned work stoppages;
market-related increases in a project’s debt or equity financing costs; and/or
non-performance or force majeure by, or disputes with, vendors, suppliers, contractors or sub-contractors involved with a project.

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Our refineries contain many processing units, a number of which have been in operation for many years. Equipment, even if properly maintained, may require significant capital expenditures and expenses to keep it operating at optimum efficiency. One or more of the units may require unscheduled downtime for unanticipated maintenance or repairs that are more frequent than our scheduled turnarounds for such units. Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance could reduce our revenues during the period of time that the units are not operating.
Our forecasted internal rates of return are also based upon our projections of future market fundamentals, which are not within our control, including changes in general economic conditions, available alternative supply and customer demand. Any one or more of these factors could have a significant impact on our business. If we were unable to make up the delays associated with such factors or to recover the related costs, or if market conditions change, it could materially and adversely affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Acquisitions that we may undertake in the future involve a number of risks, any of which could cause us not to realize the anticipated benefits.
We may not be successful in acquiring additional assets, and any acquisitions that we do consummate may not produce the anticipated benefits or may have adverse effects on our business and operating results. We may selectively consider strategic acquisitions in the future within the refining and mid-stream sector based on performance through the cycle, advantageous access to crude oil supplies, attractive refined products market fundamentals and access to distribution and logistics infrastructure. Our ability to do so will be dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to identify acceptable acquisition candidates, consummate acquisitions on acceptable terms, successfully integrate acquired assets and obtain financing to fund acquisitions and to support our growth and many other factors beyond our control. Risks associated with acquisitions include those relating to the diversion of management time and attention from our existing business, liability for known or unknown environmental conditions or other contingent liabilities and greater than anticipated expenditures required for compliance with environmental, safety or other regulatory standards or for investments to improve operating results, and the incurrence of additional indebtedness to finance acquisitions or capital expenditures relating to acquired assets. We may also enter into transition services agreements in the future with sellers of any additional refineries we acquire. Such services may not be performed timely and effectively, and any significant disruption in such transition services or unanticipated costs related to such services could adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, it is likely that, when we acquire refineries, we will not have access to the type of historical financial information that we will require regarding the prior operation of the refineries. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to evaluate the probable impact of significant acquisitions on our financial performance until we have operated the acquired refineries for a substantial period of time.
Our business may suffer if any of our senior executives or other key employees discontinues employment with us. Furthermore, a shortage of skilled labor or disruptions in our labor force may make it difficult for us to maintain labor productivity.
Our future success depends to a large extent on the services of our senior executives and other key employees. Our business depends on our continuing ability to recruit, train and retain highly qualified employees in all areas of our operations, including engineering, accounting, business operations, finance and other key back-office and mid-office personnel. Furthermore, our operations require skilled and experienced employees with proficiency in multiple tasks. The competition for these employees is intense, and the loss of these executives or employees could harm our business. If any of these executives or other key personnel resigns or becomes unable to continue in his or her present role and is not adequately replaced, our business operations could be materially adversely affected.
Our commodity derivative activities could result in period-to-period earnings volatility.
We do not currently apply hedge accounting to any of our commodity derivative contracts and, as a result, unrealized gains and losses will be charged to our earnings based on the increase or decrease in the market value of such unsettled positions. These gains and losses may be reflected in our income statement in periods that differ from when the settlement of the underlying hedged items are reflected in our income statement. Such derivative

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gains or losses in earnings may produce significant period-to-period earnings volatility that is not necessarily reflective of our underlying operational performance.
Derivatives legislation, including compliance with the Dodd-Frank Act, could have an adverse effect on our business, including our ability to use derivatives contracts to reduce the effect of commodity price, interest rate and other risks associated with our business.
The United States Congress in 2010 passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) which, among other things, established federal oversight and regulation of the over-the-counter derivatives market and entities that participate in that market. In connection with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or the CFTC, has established rules to set position limits for certain futures and option contracts, and for swaps that are their economic equivalent, in the major energy markets. The legislation and related regulations require us to comply with margin requirements and with certain clearing and trade-execution requirements if we are in scope and do not otherwise satisfy certain specific exceptions. The legislation and related regulations could significantly increase the cost of regulatory compliance as well as derivatives contracts (including through requirements to post collateral), materially alter the terms of derivatives contracts, reduce the availability of derivatives to protect against risks we encounter and reduce our ability to monetize or restructure our existing derivatives contracts. If we fail to comply with applicable regulations or the costs of compliance becomes prohibitive, our results of operations may become more volatile and our cash flows may be less predictable, which could adversely affect our ability to plan for and fund capital expenditures. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on us, our financial condition and our results of operations.
We may incur significant liability under, or costs and capital expenditures to comply with, environmental and health and safety regulations, which are complex and change frequently.
Our operations are subject to federal, state and local laws regulating, among other things, the use and/or handling of petroleum and other regulated materials, the emission and discharge of materials into the environment, waste management, and remediation of discharges of petroleum and petroleum products, characteristics and composition of gasoline and distillates and other matters otherwise relating to the protection of the environment and the health and safety of the surrounding community. For example, the SCAQMD is currently considering further regulations on, or potentially banning the use of, modified hydrofluoric acid, also known as MHF, in Southern California. We utilize MHF as an alkylation catalyst in the manufacturing of gasoline at our Torrance refinery. If MHF usage is limited or restricted by the SCAQMD, our current Torrance refinery operations would be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. Our operations are also subject to extensive laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety.
We cannot predict what additional environmental, health and safety legislation or regulations may be adopted in the future, or how existing or future laws or regulations may be administered or interpreted with respect to our operations. Many of these laws and regulations have become increasingly stringent over time, and the cost of compliance with these requirements can be expected to increase over time.
Certain environmental laws impose strict, and in certain circumstances, joint and several, liability for costs of investigation and cleanup of spills, discharges or releases on owners and operators of, as well as persons who arrange for treatment or disposal of regulated materials at, contaminated sites. Under these laws, we may incur liability or be required to pay penalties for past contamination, and third parties may assert claims against us for damages allegedly arising out of any past or future contamination. The potential penalties and clean-up costs for past or future spills, discharges or releases, the failure of prior owners of our facilities to complete their clean-up obligations, the liability to third parties for damage to their property, or the need to address newly-discovered information or conditions that may require a response could be significant, and the payment of these amounts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

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Environmental clean-up and remediation costs of our sites and environmental litigation could decrease our net cash flow, reduce our results of operations and impair our financial condition.
We are subject to liability for the investigation and clean-up of environmental contamination at each of the properties that we own or operate and at off-site locations where we arrange for the treatment or disposal of regulated materials. We may become involved in litigation or other proceedings related to the foregoing. If we were to be held responsible for damages in any such litigation or proceedings, such costs may not be covered by insurance and may be material. Historical soil and groundwater contamination has been identified at our refineries. Currently, remediation projects for such contamination are underway in accordance with regulatory requirements at our refineries. In connection with the acquisitions of certain of our refineries and logistics assets, the prior owners have retained certain liabilities or indemnified us for certain liabilities, including those relating to pre-acquisition soil and groundwater conditions, and in some instances we have assumed certain liabilities and environmental obligations, including certain existing and potential remediation obligations. If the prior owners fail to satisfy their obligations for any reason, or if significant liabilities arise in the areas in which we assumed liability, we may become responsible for remediation expenses and other environmental liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. As a result, in addition to making capital expenditures or incurring other costs to comply with environmental laws, we also may be liable for significant environmental litigation or for investigation and remediation costs and other liabilities arising from the ownership or operation of these assets by prior owners, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Contractual Obligations and Commitments” and “Item 1. Business—Environmental, Health and Safety Matters.”
We may also face liability arising from current or future claims alleging personal injury or property damage due to exposure to chemicals or other regulated materials, such as asbestos, benzene, silica dust and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or from our facilities. We may also face liability for personal injury, property damage, natural resource damage or clean-up costs for the alleged migration of contamination from our properties. A significant increase in the number or success of these claims could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
Our operations could be disrupted if our critical information systems are hacked or fail, causing increased expenses and loss of sales.
Our business is highly dependent on financial, accounting and other data processing systems and other communications and information systems, including our enterprise resource planning tools. We process a large number of transactions on a daily basis and rely upon the proper functioning of computer systems. If a key system was hacked or otherwise interfered with by an unauthorized access, or was to fail or experience unscheduled downtime for any reason, even if only for a short period, our operations and financial results could be affected adversely. Our systems could be damaged or interrupted by a security breach, cyber-attack, human error, fraud, fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure or similar event. We have a formal disaster recovery plan in place, but this plan may not prevent delays or other complications that could arise from an information systems failure.
As the frequency of attempted cyber-attacks has increased in recent years, we have taken several actions to enhance our strategy to address and monitor cyber related risks. We have instituted a cybersecurity team that is dedicated and responsible for the design and execution of our cyber-risk management strategy. However, there can be no assurance that these efforts will be effective to prevent cyber attacks or other interruptions of, or damage to, our key systems, business or operations, or that our business interruption insurance will compensate us adequately for losses that may occur, which could materially, adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Product liability claims and litigation could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Product liability is a significant commercial risk. Substantial damage awards have been made in certain jurisdictions against manufacturers and resellers based upon claims for injuries and property damage caused by the use of or exposure to various products. Failure of our products to meet required specifications or claims that a product is inherently defective could result in product liability claims from our shippers and customers, and also arise from contaminated or off-specification product in commingled pipelines and storage tanks and/or defective fuels. Product liability claims against us could have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations.
Climate change could have a material adverse impact on our operations and adversely affect our facilities.
Some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods and other climatic events. We believe the issue of climate change will likely continue to receive scientific and political attention, with the potential for further laws and regulations that could materially adversely affect our ongoing operations.
In addition, as many of our facilities are located near coastal areas, rising sea levels may disrupt our ability to operate those facilities or transport crude oil and refined petroleum products. Extended periods of such disruption could have an adverse effect on our results of operation. We could also incur substantial costs to protect or repair these facilities.
Renewable fuels mandates may reduce demand for the refined fuels we produce, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. The market prices for RINs have been volatile and may harm our profitability.
Pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, EPA has issued Renewable Fuel Standards, or RFS, implementing mandates to blend renewable fuels into the petroleum fuels produced and sold in the United States. Under RFS, the volume of renewable fuels that obligated refineries must blend into their finished petroleum fuels increases annually over time until 2022. In addition, certain states have passed legislation that requires minimum biodiesel blending in finished distillates. On October 13, 2010, EPA raised the maximum amount of ethanol allowed under federal law from 10% to 15% for cars and light trucks manufactured since 2007. The maximum amount allowed under federal law currently remains at 10% ethanol for all other vehicles. Existing laws and regulations could change, and the minimum volumes of renewable fuels that must be blended with refined petroleum fuels may increase. Because we do not produce renewable fuels, increasing the volume of renewable fuels that must be blended into our products displaces an increasing volume of our refinery’s product pool, potentially resulting in lower earnings and profitability. In addition, in order to meet certain of these and future EPA requirements, we may be required to purchase RINs, which may have fluctuating costs. We incurred approximately $143.9 million in RINs costs during the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to $293.7 million and $347.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The fluctuations in our RINs costs are due primarily to volatility in prices for ethanol-linked RINs and increases in our production of on-road transportation fuels since 2012. Our RINs purchase obligation is dependent on our actual shipment of on-road transportation fuels domestically and the amount of blending achieved which can cause variability in our profitability.
Our pipelines are subject to federal and/or state regulations, which could reduce profitability and the amount of cash we generate.
Our transportation activities are subject to regulation by multiple governmental agencies. The regulatory burden on the industry increases the cost of doing business and affects profitability. Additional proposals and proceedings that affect the oil industry are regularly considered by Congress, the states, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the United States Department of Transportation, and the courts. We cannot predict when or whether any such proposals may become effective or what impact such proposals may have. Projected operating costs related to our pipelines reflect the recurring costs resulting from compliance with these regulations, and these

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costs may increase due to future acquisitions, changes in regulation, changes in use, or discovery of existing but unknown compliance issues.
We are subject to strict laws and regulations regarding employee and process safety, and failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and profitability.
We are subject to the requirements of the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, or OSHA, and comparable state statutes that regulate the protection of the health and safety of workers. In addition, OSHA requires that we maintain information about hazardous materials used or produced in our operations and that we provide this information to employees, state and local governmental authorities, and local residents. Failure to comply with OSHA requirements, including general industry standards, process safety standards and control of occupational exposure to regulated substances, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and the cash flows of the business if we are subjected to significant fines or compliance costs.
Compliance with and changes in tax laws could adversely affect our performance.
We are subject to extensive tax liabilities, including federal, state, local and foreign taxes such as income, excise, sales/use, payroll, franchise, property, gross receipts, withholding and ad valorem taxes. New tax laws and regulations and changes in existing tax laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed that could result in increased expenditures for tax liabilities in the future. These liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authorities, which could increase our tax liabilities. Subsequent changes to our tax liabilities as a result of these audits may also subject us to interest and penalties. There can be no certainty that our federal, state, local or foreign taxes could be passed on to our customers.
Furthermore, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) that was enacted on December 22, 2017 made significant permanent and temporary amendments to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, including a reduction in corporate income taxes, elimination of the corporate minimum tax, the immediate expensing of certain capital investments, allowing for an indefinite carryforward of tax net operating losses incurred in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 and fundamentally changing the taxation of multinational entities. Additionally, the TCJA potentially limits the amount of interest expense currently deductible, provides for a transition tax for previously unrepatriated foreign earnings, provides for current taxation of certain foreign income, a minimum tax on low-taxed foreign earnings, and new measures to deter base erosion. Certain of the amendments included in the TCJA and the regulations promulgated thereunder may adversely affect our business, result of operations and financial condition.
Changes in accounting standards issued by the FASB could have a material effect on our balance sheet, revenue and result of operations, and could require a significant expenditure of time, attention and resources, especially by senior management.
Our accounting and financial reporting policies conform to GAAP, which are periodically revised and/or expanded. The application of accounting principles is also subject to varying interpretations over time. Accordingly, we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards or comply with revised interpretations that are issued from time to time by various parties, including accounting standard setters and those who interpret the standards, such as the FASB and the SEC and our independent registered public accounting firm. Such new financial accounting standards may result in significant changes that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flow and results of operations.
Refer to “Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of new accounting standards, including the implementation status and potential impact to our consolidated financial statements.

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Changes in our credit profile could adversely affect our business.

Changes in our credit profile could affect the way crude oil suppliers view our ability to make payments and induce them to shorten the payment terms for our purchases or require us to post security or letters of credit prior to payment. Due to the large dollar amounts and volume of our crude oil and other feedstock purchases, any imposition by our suppliers of more burdensome payment terms on us may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our ability to make payments to our suppliers. This, in turn, could cause us to be unable to operate one or more of our refineries at full capacity.
Changes in laws or standards affecting the transportation of North American crude oil by rail could significantly impact our operations, and as a result cause our costs to increase.
Investigations into past rail accidents involving the transport of crude oil have prompted government agencies and other interested parties to call for increased regulation of the transport of crude oil by rail including in the areas of crude oil constituents, rail car design, routing of trains and other matters. Regulation governing shipments of petroleum crude oil by rail requires shippers to properly test and classify petroleum crude oil and further requires shippers to treat Class 3 petroleum crude oil transported by rail in tank cars as a Packing Group I or II hazardous material only, which creates further classification and testing requirements, along with more severe penalties for violations. The DOT issued additional rules and regulations that require rail carriers to provide certain notifications to State agencies along routes utilized by trains over a certain length carrying crude oil, enhance safety training standards under the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, require each railroad or contractor to develop and submit a training program to perform regular oversight and annual written reviews and establish enhanced tank car standards and operational controls for high-hazard flammable trains. These rules and any further changes in law, regulations or industry standards that require us to reduce the volatile or flammable constituents in crude oil that is transported by rail, alter the design or standards for rail cars we use, change the routing or scheduling of trains carrying crude oil, or any other changes that detrimentally affect the economics of delivering North American crude oil by rail to our, or subsequently to third-party, refineries, could increase our costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and our ability to service our indebtedness.
We could incur substantial costs or disruptions in our business if we cannot obtain or maintain necessary permits and authorizations or otherwise comply with health, safety, environmental and other laws and regulations.
Our operations require numerous permits and authorizations under various laws and regulations. These authorizations and permits are subject to revocation, renewal or modification and can require operational changes to limit impacts or potential impacts on the environment and/or health and safety. A violation of authorization or permit conditions or other legal or regulatory requirements could result in substantial fines, criminal sanctions, permit revocations, injunctions, and/or facility shutdowns. In addition, major modifications of our operations could require modifications to our existing permits or upgrades to our existing pollution control equipment. Any or all of these matters could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
We may incur significant liability under, or costs and capital expenditures to comply with, environmental and health and safety regulations, which are complex and change frequently.
Our operations are subject to federal, state and local laws regulating, among other things, the handling of petroleum and other regulated materials, the emission and discharge of materials into the environment, waste management, and remediation of discharges of petroleum and petroleum products, characteristics and composition of gasoline and distillates and other matters otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. Our operations are also subject to extensive laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety.
We cannot predict what additional environmental, health and safety legislation or regulations may be adopted in the future, or how existing or future laws or regulations may be administered or interpreted with respect to our operations. Many of these laws and regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, and the cost of compliance with these requirements can be expected to increase over time.

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Certain environmental laws impose strict, and in certain circumstances joint and several liability for, costs of investigation and cleanup of such spills, discharges or releases on owners and operators of, as well as persons who arrange for treatment or disposal of regulated materials at contaminated sites. Under these laws, we may incur liability or be required to pay penalties for past contamination, and third parties may assert claims against us for damages allegedly arising out of any past or future contamination. The potential penalties and clean-up costs for past or future releases or spills, the failure of prior owners of our facilities to complete their clean-up obligations, the liability to third parties for damage to their property, or the need to address newly-discovered information or conditions that may require a response could be significant, and the payment of these amounts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our indebtedness.
Our indebtedness may significantly affect our financial flexibility in the future. As of December 31, 2018, we have total debt of $1,974.7 million, excluding deferred debt issuance costs of $41.0 million and our PBF LLC Affiliate note payable with PBF Energy that eliminates in consolidation at the PBF Energy level, and we could incur an additional $1,420.1 million under our credit facilities. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future. Our strategy includes executing future refinery and logistics acquisitions. Any significant acquisition would likely require us to incur additional indebtedness in order to finance all or a portion of such acquisition. The level of our indebtedness has several important consequences for our future operations, including that:
a portion of our cash flow from operations will be dedicated to the payment of principal of, and interest on, our indebtedness and will not be available for other purposes;
under certain circumstances, covenants contained in our existing debt arrangements limit our ability to borrow additional funds, dispose of assets and make certain investments;
in certain circumstances these covenants also require us to meet or maintain certain financial tests, which may affect our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in our industry, such as being able to take advantage of acquisition opportunities when they arise;
our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, general corporate and other purposes may be limited; and
we may be at a competitive disadvantage to those of our competitors that are less leveraged; and we may be more vulnerable to adverse economic and industry conditions.
Our indebtedness increases the risk that we may default on our debt obligations, certain of which contain cross-default and/or cross-acceleration provisions. Our, and our subsidiaries’, ability to meet future principal obligations will be dependent upon our future performance, which in turn will be subject to general economic conditions, industry cycles and financial, business and other factors affecting our operations, many of which are beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to repay our indebtedness. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations, we may be required to sell assets, to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or to obtain additional financing. Refinancing may not be possible and additional financing may not be available on commercially acceptable terms, or at all.
Despite our level of indebtedness, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantially more debt, which could exacerbate the risks described above.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future including additional secured or unsecured debt. Although our debt instruments and financing arrangements contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and the indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. To the extent new debt is added to our currently anticipated debt levels, the leverage risks described above would increase. Also, these restrictions do not prevent us from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness.

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Restrictive covenants in our debt instruments may limit our ability to undertake certain types of transactions.
Various covenants in our debt instruments and other financing arrangements may restrict our and our subsidiaries’ financial flexibility in a number of ways. Our indebtedness subjects us to financial and other restrictive covenants, including restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness, place liens upon assets, pay dividends or make certain other restricted payments and investments, consummate certain asset sales or asset swaps, conduct businesses other than our current businesses, or sell, assign, transfer, lease, convey or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. Some of these debt instruments also require our subsidiaries to satisfy or maintain certain financial tests in certain circumstances. Our subsidiaries’ ability to meet these financial tests can be affected by events beyond our control and they may not meet such tests.
Provisions in our indentures could discourage an acquisition of us by a third-party.
Certain provisions of our indentures could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third-party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a “change in control” as described in the indentures governing the Senior Notes and PBFX Senior Notes (both of which are defined below), holders of our notes could require us to repurchase all outstanding notes at 101% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, at the date of repurchase.
Our future credit ratings could adversely affect the cost of our borrowing as well as our ability to obtain credit in the future.
Our Senior Notes (as defined below) are rated BB by Standard & Poor’s Rating Services and B1 by Moody’s Investors Service. Any adverse effect on our credit rating may increase our cost of borrowing or hinder our ability to raise financing in the capital markets, which would impair our ability to grow our business and make cash distributions to our shareholders.
Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure and PBF Energy Class A Common Stock
PBF Energy is the managing member of PBF LLC and its only material asset is its interest in PBF LLC. Accordingly, PBF Energy depends upon distributions from PBF LLC and its subsidiaries to pay its taxes, meet its other obligations and/or pay dividends in the future.
PBF Energy is a holding company and all of its operations are conducted through subsidiaries of PBF LLC. PBF Energy has no independent means of generating revenue and no material assets other than its ownership interest in PBF LLC. We depend on the earnings and cash flow of our subsidiaries to meet our obligations, including our indebtedness, tax liabilities and obligations to make payments under a tax receivable agreement entered into with PBF LLC Series A and PBF LLC Series B unitholders (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”). If we do not receive such cash distributions, dividends or other payments from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to meet our obligations and/or pay dividends.
PBF Energy, as the sole managing partner of PBF LLC, may cause PBF LLC to make distributions to its members in an amount sufficient to enable PBF Energy to cover all applicable taxes at assumed tax rates, to make payments owed by PBF Energy under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and to pay other obligations and dividends, if any, declared by PBF Energy. To the extent we need funds and any of our subsidiaries is restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of our financing or other contractual arrangements, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, such restrictions could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.
The new PBF Holding asset-based revolving credit agreement (the “Revolving Credit Facility”), the PBF Holding 7.00% senior notes due 2023 (the “2023 Senior Notes”), the PBF Holding 7.25% senior notes due 2025 (the “2025 Senior Notes”, and together with the 2023 Senior Notes, the “Senior Notes”), and certain of our other outstanding debt arrangements include a restricted payment covenant, which restricts the ability of PBF Holding to make distributions to us, and we anticipate our future debt will contain a similar restriction. PBFX’s five-year, $500.0 million amended and restated revolving credit facility (the “PBFX Revolving Credit Facility”) and PBFX’s

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indenture governing its PBFX 2023 Senior Notes (as defined in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis) also contain covenants that limit or restrict PBFX’s ability and the ability of its restricted subsidiaries to make distributions and other restricted payments and restrict PBFX’s ability to incur liens and enter into burdensome agreements. In addition, there may be restrictions on payments by our subsidiaries under applicable laws, including laws that require companies to maintain minimum amounts of capital and to make payments to stockholders only from profits. For example, PBF Holding is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of the limited liability company (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets, and PBFX is subject to a similar prohibition. As a result, we may be unable to obtain that cash to satisfy our obligations and make payments to PBF Energy stockholders, if any.
The rights of other members of PBF LLC may conflict with the interests of PBF Energy Class A common stockholders.
The interests of the other members of PBF LLC, which include current and former directors and officers, may not in all cases be aligned with PBF Energy Class A common stockholders’ interests. For example, these members may have different tax positions which could influence their positions, including regarding whether and when we dispose of assets and whether and when we incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, especially in light of the existence of the Tax Receivable Agreement. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration these tax or other considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to PBF Energy Class A common stockholders or us. See “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions—IPO Related Agreements” in our 2019 Proxy Statement.
Under the Tax Receivable Agreement, PBF Energy is required to pay the former and current holders of PBF LLC Series A Units and PBF LLC Series B Units for certain realized or assumed tax benefits PBF Energy may claim arising in connection with prior offerings and future exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units for shares of its Class A Common Stock and related transactions. The indentures governing the Senior Notes allow PBF LLC, under certain circumstances, to make distributions sufficient for PBF Energy to pay its obligation under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and such amounts are expected to be substantial.
PBF Energy is party to a Tax Receivable Agreement that provides for the payment from time to time by PBF Energy to the current and former holders of PBF LLC Series A Units and PBF LLC Series B Units of 85% of the benefits, if any, that PBF Energy is deemed to realize as a result of (i) the increases in tax basis resulting from its acquisitions of PBF LLC Series A Units, including such acquisitions in connection with its prior offerings or in the future and (ii) certain other tax benefits related to its entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. See “Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.”
We expect that the payments that PBF Energy may make under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be substantial. As of December 31, 2018, PBF Energy has recognized a liability for the Tax Receivable Agreement of $373.5 million reflecting PBF Energy’s estimate of the undiscounted amounts that it expects to pay under the agreement due to exchanges that occurred prior to that date, and to range over the next five years from approximately $15.0 million to $65.0 million per year and decline thereafter. Future payments by PBF Energy in respect of subsequent exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units would be in addition to these amounts and are expected to be material as well. If PBF Energy does not have taxable income, PBF Energy generally is not required (absent a change of control or circumstances requiring an early termination payment) to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for that taxable year because no benefit will have been actually realized. However, any tax benefits that do not result in realized benefits in a given tax year will likely generate tax attributes that may be utilized to generate benefits in previous or future tax years. The utilization of such tax attributes will result in payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. The foregoing numbers are merely estimates based on assumptions that are subject to change due to various factors, including, among other factors, the timing of exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units for shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock as contemplated by the Tax Receivable Agreement, the price of PBF Energy Class A common stock at the time of such exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, and the amount and timing of PBF Energy’s income. The actual payments under the

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Tax Receivable Agreement could differ materially. It is possible that future transactions or events could increase or decrease the actual tax benefits realized and the corresponding Tax Receivable Agreement payments. There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if, as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise, (i) the payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement exceed the actual benefits PBF Energy realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement, and/or (ii) distributions to PBF Energy by PBF LLC are not sufficient to permit PBF Energy, after it has paid its taxes and other obligations, to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. The payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement are not conditioned upon any recipient’s continued ownership of us.
In certain cases, payments by PBF Energy under the Tax Receivable Agreement may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits it realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement. These provisions may deter a change in control of the Company.
The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that upon certain changes of control, or if, at any time, PBF Energy elects an early termination of the Tax Receivable Agreement, PBF Energy’s (or its successor’s) obligations with respect to exchanged or acquired PBF LLC Series A Units (whether exchanged or acquired before or after such transaction) would be based on certain assumptions, including (i) that PBF Energy would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the deductions arising from the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits related to entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement and (ii) that the subsidiaries of PBF LLC will sell certain nonamortizable assets (and realize certain related tax benefits) no later than a specified date. Moreover, in each of these instances, PBF Energy would be required to make an immediate payment equal to the present value (at a discount rate equal to LIBOR plus 100 basis points) of the anticipated future tax benefits (based on the foregoing assumptions). Accordingly, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement may be made years in advance of the actual realization, if any, of the anticipated future tax benefits and may be significantly greater than the actual benefits PBF Energy realizes in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement. Assuming that the market value of a share of PBF Energy Class A common stock equals $32.67 per share (the closing price on December 31, 2018) and that LIBOR were to be 1.85%, we estimate that, as of December 31, 2018 the aggregate amount of these accelerated payments would have been approximately $327.7 million if triggered immediately on such date. In these situations, PBF Energy’s obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity. PBF Energy may not be able to finance its obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement and its existing indebtedness may limit its subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions to PBF Energy to pay these obligations. These provisions may deter a potential sale of our Company to a third-party and may otherwise make it less likely that a third-party would enter into a change of control transaction with us.
Moreover, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that PBF Energy determines in accordance with the Tax Receivable Agreement. PBF Energy will not be reimbursed for any payments previously made under the Tax Receivable Agreement if the Internal Revenue Service subsequently disallows part or all of the tax benefits that gave rise to such prior payments. As a result, in certain circumstances, payments could be made under the Tax Receivable Agreement that are significantly in excess of the benefits that PBF Energy actually realized in respect of (i) the increases in tax basis resulting from our purchases or exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units and (ii) certain other tax benefits related to PBF Energy entering into the Tax Receivable Agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
PBF Energy cannot assure you that it will continue to declare dividends or have the available cash to make dividend payments.
Although PBF Energy currently intends to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends on its Class A common stock, the declaration, amount and payment of any dividends will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors. PBF Energy is not obligated under any applicable laws, its governing documents or any contractual agreements with its existing and prior owners or otherwise to declare or pay any dividends or other distributions (other than the obligations of PBF LLC to make tax distributions to its members). Our board of directors may take into account, among other things, general economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, plans for expansion, including acquisitions, tax, legal, regulatory and contractual restrictions and implications, including under our subsidiaries’ outstanding debt

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documents, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant in determining whether to declare or pay any dividend. Because PBF Energy is a holding company with no material assets (other than the equity interests of its direct subsidiary), its cash flow and ability to pay dividends is dependent upon the financial results and cash flows of its indirect subsidiaries PBF Holding and PBFX and their respective operating subsidiaries and the distribution or other payment of cash to it in the form of dividends or otherwise. The direct and indirect subsidiaries of PBF Energy are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation to make any funds available to it other than in the case of certain intercompany transactions. As a result, if PBF Energy does not declare or pay dividends you may not receive any return on an investment in PBF Energy Class A common stock unless you sell PBF Energy Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
Anti-takeover and certain other provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may discourage or delay a change in control.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions which could make it more difficult for stockholders to effect certain corporate actions. Among other things, these provisions:
authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent;
restrict certain business combinations with stockholders who obtain beneficial ownership of a certain percentage of our outstanding common stock;
provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or the board of directors, and establish advance notice procedures for the nomination of candidates for election as directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings; and
provide that our stockholders may only amend our bylaws with the approval of 75% or more of all of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote.
These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions of Delaware law may have the effect of delaying or deterring a change of control of our company. Certain provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire. These provisions could limit the price that certain investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock.
The market price of PBF Energy Class A common stock may be volatile, which could cause the value of your investment to decline.
The market price of PBF Energy Class A common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations due to a number of factors including: 
variations in actual or anticipated operating results or dividends, if any, to stockholders;
changes in, or failure to meet, earnings estimates of securities analysts;
market conditions in the oil refining industry and volatility in commodity prices;
the impact of disruptions to crude or feedstock supply to any of our refineries, including disruptions due to problems with third-party logistics infrastructure;
litigation and government investigations;
the timing and announcement of any potential acquisitions and subsequent impact of any future acquisitions on our capital structure, financial condition or results of operations;
changes or proposed changes in laws or regulations or differing interpretations or enforcement thereof;
general economic and stock market conditions; and
the availability for sale, or sales by PBF Energy or its senior management, of a significant number of shares of its Class A common stock in the public market.

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In addition, the stock markets generally may experience significant volatility, often unrelated to the operating performance of the individual companies whose securities are publicly-traded. These and other factors may cause the market price of PBF Energy Class A common stock to decrease significantly, which in turn would adversely affect the value of your investment.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders have often instituted class action securities litigation against those companies. Such litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could significantly harm our profitability and reputation.
Risks Related to Our Ownership of PBFX
We depend upon PBFX for a substantial portion of our refineries’ logistics needs and have obligations for minimum volume commitments in our commercial agreements with PBFX.
We depend on PBFX to receive, handle, store and transfer crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas for us from our operations and sources located throughout the United States and Canada in support of certain of our refineries under long-term, fee-based commercial agreements with our subsidiaries. These commercial agreements have an initial term ranging from one to fifteen years and generally include minimum quarterly commitments and inflation escalators. If we fail to meet the minimum commitments during any calendar quarter, we will be required to make a shortfall payment quarterly to PBFX equal to the volume of the shortfall multiplied by the applicable fee.
PBFX’s operations are subject to all of the risks and operational hazards inherent in receiving, handling, storing and transferring crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas, including: damages to its facilities, related equipment and surrounding properties caused by floods, fires, severe weather, explosions and other natural disasters and acts of terrorism; mechanical or structural failures at PBFX’s facilities or at third-party facilities on which its operations are dependent; curtailments of operations relative to severe seasonal weather; inadvertent damage to our facilities from construction, farm and utility equipment; and other hazards. Any of these events or factors could result in severe damage or destruction to PBFX’s assets or the temporary or permanent shut-down of PBFX’s facilities. If PBFX is unable to serve our logistics needs, our ability to operate our refineries and receive crude oil and distribute products could be adversely impacted, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, as of December 31, 2018, PBF LLC owns 19,953,631 common units representing 44.0% limited partner interest in PBFX. The inability of PBFX to continue operations, perform under its commercial arrangements with our subsidiaries or the occurrence of any of these risks or operational hazards, could also adversely impact the value of our investment in PBFX and, because PBFX is a consolidated entity, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
PBF Energy will be required to pay taxes on its share of taxable income from PBF LLC and its other subsidiary flow-through entities (including PBFX), regardless of the amount of cash distributions PBF Energy receives from PBF LLC.
The holders of limited liability company interests in PBF LLC, including PBF Energy, generally have to include for purposes of calculating their U.S. federal, state and local income taxes their share of any taxable income of PBF LLC, regardless of whether such holders receive cash distributions from PBF LLC. PBF Energy ultimately may not receive cash distributions from PBF LLC equal to its share of the taxable income of PBF LLC or even equal to the actual tax due with respect to that income. For example, PBF LLC is required to include in taxable income PBF LLC’s allocable share of PBFX’s taxable income and gains (such share to be determined pursuant to the partnership agreement of PBFX), regardless of the amount of cash distributions received by PBF LLC from PBFX, and such taxable income and gains will flow-through to PBF Energy to the extent of its allocable share of the taxable income of PBF LLC. As a result, at certain times, the amount of cash otherwise ultimately available

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to PBF Energy on account of its indirect interest in PBFX may not be sufficient for PBF Energy to pay the amount of taxes it will owe on account of its indirect interests in PBFX.
If PBFX was to be treated as a corporation, rather than as a partnership, for U.S. federal income tax purposes or if PBFX was otherwise subject to entity-level taxation, PBFX’s cash available for distribution to its unitholders, including to us, would be reduced, likely causing a substantial reduction in the value of units, including the units held by us.
The present U.S. federal income tax treatment of publicly-traded partnerships, including PBFX, or an investment in its common units may be modified by administrative, legislative or judicial interpretation at any time. For example, from time to time the U.S. Congress considers substantive changes to the existing federal income tax laws that would affect publicly-traded partnerships. Any modification to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations thereof may or may not be applied retroactively and could make it more difficult or impossible for PBFX to meet the exception to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We are unable to predict whether any of these changes, or other proposals, will ultimately be enacted. Any such changes could negatively impact the value of an investment in PBFX common units.
If PBFX were treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it would pay U.S. federal income tax on income at the corporate tax rate, which is currently a maximum of 21% under the TCJA, and would likely be liable for state income tax at varying rates. Distributions to PBFX unitholders would generally be taxed again as corporate distributions, and no income, gains, losses, deductions or credits would flow through to PBFX unitholders. Because taxes would be imposed upon PBFX as a corporation, the cash available for distribution to PBFX unitholders would be substantially reduced. Therefore, PBFX’s treatment as a corporation would result in a material reduction in the anticipated cash flow and after-tax return to PBFX unitholders, likely causing a substantial reduction in the value of the units.
All of the executive officers and a majority of the directors of PBF GP are also current or former officers or directors of PBF Energy. Conflicts of interest could arise as a result of this arrangement.
PBF Energy indirectly owns and controls PBF GP, and appoints all of its officers and directors. All of the executive officers and a majority of the directors of PBF GP are also current or former officers or directors of PBF Energy. These individuals will devote significant time to the business of PBFX. Although the directors and officers of PBF GP have a fiduciary duty to manage PBF GP in a manner that is beneficial to PBF Energy, as directors and officers of PBF GP they also have certain duties to PBFX and its unitholders. Conflicts of interest may arise between PBF Energy and its affiliates, including PBF GP, on the one hand, and PBFX and its unitholders, on the other hand. In resolving these conflicts of interest, PBF GP may favor its own interests and the interests of PBFX over the interests of PBF Energy. In certain circumstances, PBF GP may refer any conflicts of interest or potential conflicts of interest between PBFX, on the one hand, and PBF Energy, on the other hand, to its conflicts committee (which must consist entirely of independent directors) for resolution, which conflicts committee must act in the best interests of the public unitholders of PBFX. As a result, PBF GP may manage the business of PBFX in a way that may differ from the best interests of PBF Energy or its stockholders.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
See “Item 1. Business”.


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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
On July 24, 2013, DNREC issued a Notice of Administrative Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order to Delaware City Refining for alleged air emission violations that occurred during the re-start of the refinery in 2011 and subsequent to the re-start. The penalty assessment seeks $460,200 in penalties and $69,030 in cost recovery for DNREC’s expenses associated with investigation of the incidents. We dispute the amount of the penalty assessment and allegations made in the order, and are in discussions with DNREC to resolve the assessment. It is possible that DNREC will assess a penalty in this matter but any such amount is not expected to be material to us.
At the time we acquired the Chalmette refinery it was subject to the Order issued by LDEQ covering deviations from 2009 and 2010. Chalmette Refining and LDEQ subsequently entered into a dispute resolution agreement to negotiate the resolution of deviations on or before December 31, 2014. On May 18, 2018 the Order was settled by LDEQ and the Chalmette refinery for an administrative penalty of $741,000, of which $100,000 has been paid in cash and the remainder has been spent on beneficial environmental projects.
On April 7, 2015, DNREC issued a NOV (W-15-SWD-01) alleging violations of the Delaware City refinery’s NPDES discharge permit during the period between December 12, 2014 through January 4, 2015. On March 5, 2018, a settlement agreement was finalized resolving the alleged violations contained in the April 7, 2015 Notice of Violation, as well as additional alleged violations occurring during the period between January 2014 through January 2018. Pursuant to this settlement agreement, the Delaware City refinery was either going to pay a penalty of $30,000 and fund an approved Environmental Improvement Project (“EIP”) in the amount of $88,000, or pay a penalty in the amount of $118,000. A cost recovery payment of $7,433 will be assessed in either case. The Delaware City refinery has elected to pay the $30,000 penalty and fund the EIP in the amount of $88,000. The Delaware City refinery has paid the penalty and the cost recovery payment and will fund the approved EIP as soon as the project scope is finalized.
The Delaware City refinery appealed a Notice of Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order issued in March 2017, including a $150,000 fine, alleging violation of a 2013 Secretary’s Order authorizing crude oil shipment by barge. DNREC determined that the Delaware City refinery had violated the order by failing to make timely and full disclosure to DNREC about the nature and extent of those shipments, and had misrepresented the number of shipments that went to other facilities. The Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order conclude that the 2013 Secretary’s Order was violated by the refinery by shipping crude oil from the Delaware City terminal to three locations other than the Paulsboro refinery, on 15 days in 2014, making a total of 17 separate barge shipments containing approximately 35.7 million gallons of crude oil in total. On April 28, 2017, the Delaware City refinery appealed the Notice of Penalty Assessment and Secretary’s Order. On March 5, 2018, Notice of Penalty Assessment was settled by DNREC, the Delaware Attorney General and Delaware City refinery for $100,000. The Delaware City refinery made no admissions with respect to the alleged violations and agreed to request a Coastal Zone Act status decision prior to making crude oil shipments to destinations other than Paulsboro. The Delaware City refinery has paid the penalty. The Coastal Zone Act status decision request was submitted to DNREC and the outstanding appeal was withdrawn as required under the settlement agreement.

51



On December 28, 2016, DNREC issued the Ethanol Permit to DCR allowing the utilization of existing tanks and existing marine loading equipment at their existing facilities to enable denatured ethanol to be loaded from storage tanks to marine vessels and shipped to offsite facilities. On January 13, 2017, the issuance of the Ethanol Permit was appealed by two environmental groups. On February 27, 2017, the Coastal Zone Board held a public hearing and dismissed the appeal, determining that the appellants did not have standing. The appellants filed an appeal of the Coastal Zone Board’s decision with the Superior Court on March 30, 2017. On January 19, 2018, the Superior Court rendered an Opinion regarding the decision of the Coastal Zone Board to dismiss the appeal of the Ethanol Permit for the ethanol project. The judge determined that the record created by the Coastal Zone Board was insufficient for the Superior Court to make a decision, and therefore remanded the case back to the Coastal Zone Board to address the deficiency in the record. Specifically, the Superior Court directed the Coastal Zone Board to address any evidence concerning whether the appellants’ claimed injuries would be affected by the increased quantity of ethanol shipments. On remand, the Coastal Zone Board met on January 28, 2019 and reversed its previous decision on standing, ruling that the appellants have standing to appeal the issuance of the Ethanol Permit. DCR is currently evaluating its appeal options.
At the time we acquired the Toledo refinery, EPA had initiated an investigation into the compliance of the refinery with EPA standards governing flaring pursuant to Section 114 of the Clean Air Act.  On February 1, 2013, EPA issued an Amended NOV, and on September 20, 2013, EPA issued a NOV and Finding of Violation to Toledo refinery, alleging certain violations of the Clean Air Act at its Plant 4 and Plant 9 flares since the acquisition of the refinery on March 1, 2011. Toledo refinery and EPA subsequently entered into tolling agreements pending settlement discussions.  Although the resolution has not been finalized, the civil administrative penalty is anticipated to be approximately $645,000 including supplemental environmental projects. To the extent the administrative penalty exceeds such amount, it is not expected to be material to us.
In connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we assumed certain pre-existing environmental liabilities related to certain environmental remediation obligations to address existing soil and groundwater contamination and monitoring activities, which reflect the estimated cost of the remediation obligations. In addition, in connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we purchased a ten year, $100.0 million environmental insurance policy to insure against unknown environmental liabilities. Furthermore, in connection with the acquisition, we assumed responsibility for certain specified environmental matters that occurred prior to our ownership of the refinery and logistics assets, including specified incidents and/or NOVs issued by regulatory agencies in various years before our ownership, including the SCAQMD and Cal/OSHA. In connection with the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets, we agreed to take responsibility for NOV No. P63405 that ExxonMobil had received from the SCAQMD for Title V deviations that are alleged to have occurred in 2015. On August 14, 2018, we received a letter from SCAQMD offering to settle this NOV for $515,250. We are currently in communication with SCAQMD to resolve this NOV.
Subsequent to the acquisition, further NOVs were issued by the SCAQMD, Cal/OSHA, the City of Torrance, the City of Torrance Fire Department, and the Los Angeles County Sanitation District related to alleged operational violations, emission discharges and/or flaring incidents at the refinery and the logistics assets both before and after our acquisition. EPA in November 2016 conducted a RMP inspection following the acquisition related to Torrance operations and issued preliminary findings in March 2017 concerning RMP potential operational violations. The Company is currently in communication with EPA to resolve the RMP preliminary findings. EPA and DTSC in December 2016 conducted a RCRA inspection following the acquisition related to Torrance operations and also issued in March 2017 preliminary findings concerning RCRA potential operational violations. In April 2017, EPA referred the RCRA preliminary findings to DTSC for final resolution. On March 1, 2018, we received a notice of intent to sue from Environmental Integrity Project, on behalf of Environment California, under RCRA with respect to the alleged RCRA violations from December 2016 EPA’s and DTSC’s inspection. On March 2, 2018, DTSC issued an order to correct alleged RCRA violations relating to the accumulation of oil bearing materials in roll off bins during 2016 and 2017. On June 14, 2018, the Torrance refinery and DTSC reached settlement regarding the oil bearing materials in the form of a stipulation and order, wherein the Torrance refinery agreed that it would recycle or properly dispose of the oil bearing materials by the end of 2018 and pay an administrative penalty of $150,000. The Torrance refinery has complied with these requirements. Following this settlement, in June 2018,

52



DTSC referred the remaining alleged RCRA violations from EPA’s and DTSC’s December 2016 inspection to the California Attorney General for final resolution. The Torrance refinery and the California Attorney General are in discussions to resolve these alleged remaining RCRA violations. Other than the $150,000 DTSC administrative penalty, no other settlement or penalty demands have been received to date with respect to any of the other NOVs, preliminary findings, or order that are in excess of $100,000. As the ultimate outcomes are uncertain, we cannot currently estimate the final amount or timing of their resolution but any such amount is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows, individually or in the aggregate.
On September 2, 2011, prior to our ownership of the Chalmette refinery, the plaintiff in Vincent Caruso, et al. v. Chalmette Refining, L.L.C., filed an action on behalf of himself and potentially several thousand other Louisiana residents who live or own property in St. Bernard Parish and Orleans Parish and whose property was allegedly contaminated and who allegedly suffered any property damages and clean-up costs as a result of an emission of spent catalyst from the Chalmette refinery on September 6, 2010. Plaintiffs claim to have suffered injuries, symptoms, and property damage as a result of the release, although the trial court has limited recovery to property damages and clean-up expenses. Plaintiffs seek to recover unspecified damages, interest and costs. In 2016, there was a mini-trial for four plaintiffs for property damage relating to home and vehicle cleaning and the trial court rendered judgment awarding damages related to the cost for home cleaning and vehicle cleaning to the four plaintiffs. The trial court found Chalmette Refining and co-defendant Eaton Corporation (“Eaton”), to be solidarily liable for the damages. Chalmette Refining and Eaton filed an appeal in August 2016 of the judgment on the mini-trial and on June 28, 2017, the appellate court unanimously reversed the judgment awarding damages to the plaintiffs, and plaintiffs request for rehearing was later denied. The parties reached a comprehensive settlement of this matter on December 3, 2018, which received final court approval on January 17, 2019. We presently believe this matter will not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On December 5, 1990, prior to our ownership of the Chalmette refinery, the plaintiff in Adam Thomas, et al. v. Exxon Mobil Corporation and Chalmette Refining, L.L.C., filed an action on behalf of himself and potentially thousands of other individuals in St. Bernard Parish and Orleans Parish who were allegedly exposed to hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide as a result of more than 100 separate flaring events that occurred between 1989 and 2007. This litigation is proceeding as a mass action with individually named plaintiffs as a result of a 2008 trial court decision, affirmed by the court of appeals, that denied class certification. The plaintiffs claim to have suffered physical injuries, property damage, and other damages as a result of the releases. Plaintiffs seek to recover unspecified compensatory and punitive damages, interest, and costs. Although no trial date has been set by the state trial court, the parties are preparing for a mini-trial of up to 10 plaintiffs, relating to 5 separate flaring events that occurred between 2002 and 2007. Because of the number of potential claimants is unknown and the differing events underlying the claims, the potential amount of the claims is not determinable. It is possible that an adverse outcome may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
On February 17, 2017, in Arnold Goldstein, et al. v. Exxon Mobil Corporation, et al., we and PBF Energy Company LLC, and our subsidiaries, PBF Energy Western Region LLC and Torrance Refining Company LLC and the manager of our Torrance refinery along with Exxon Mobil Corporation were named as defendants in a class action and representative action complaint filed on behalf of Arnold Goldstein, John Covas, Gisela Janette La Bella and others similarly situated. The complaint was filed in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Los Angeles and alleges negligence, strict liability, ultrahazardous activity, a continuing private nuisance, a permanent private nuisance, a continuing public nuisance, a permanent public nuisance and trespass resulting from the February 18, 2015 electrostatic precipitator (“ESP”) explosion at the Torrance refinery which was then owned and operated by ExxonMobil. The operation of the Torrance refinery by the PBF entities subsequent to our acquisition in July 2016 is also referenced in the complaint. To the extent that plaintiffs’ claims relate to the ESP explosion, Exxon has retained responsibility for any liabilities that would arise from the lawsuit pursuant to the agreement relating to the acquisition of the Torrance refinery. On July 2, 2018, the Court granted leave to plaintiffs’ to file a Second Amended Complaint alleging groundwater contamination. With the filing of the Second Amended Complaint, Plaintiffs’ added an additional plaintiff. As this matter is in the class certification phase, we cannot currently estimate the amount or the timing of its resolution. We presently believe the outcome will not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

53



On September 18, 2018, in Michelle Kendig and Jim Kendig, et al. v. ExxonMobil Oil Corporation, et al., PBF Energy Limited and Torrance Refining Company LLC along with ExxonMobil Oil Corporation and ExxonMobil Pipeline Company were named as defendants in a class action and representative action complaint filed on behalf of Michelle Kendig, Jim Kendig and others similarly situated. The complaint was filed in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Los Angeles and alleges failure to authorize and permit uninterrupted rest and meal periods, failure to furnish accurate wage statements, violation of the Private Attorneys General Act and violation of the California Unfair Business and Competition Law. Plaintiffs seek to recover unspecified economic damages, statutory damages, civil penalties provided by statute, disgorgement of profits, injunctive relief, declaratory relief, interest, attorney’s fees and costs. To the extent that plaintiffs’ claims accrued prior to July 1, 2016, ExxonMobil has retained responsibility for any liabilities that would arise from the lawsuit pursuant to the agreement relating to the acquisition of the Torrance refinery and logistics assets. On October 26, 2018, the matter was removed to the Federal Court, California Central District. As this matter is in the class certification phase, we cannot currently estimate the amount or the timing of its resolution. We presently believe the outcome will not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On September 7, 2018, in Jeprece Roussell, et al. v. PBF Consultants, LLC, et al., the Plaintiff filed an action in the 19th Judicial District Court for the Parish of East Baton Rouge, alleges numerous causes of action, including wrongful death, premises liability, negligence, and gross negligence against PBF Holding Company LLC, PBFX Operating Company LLC, Chalmette Refining, L.L.C., two individual employees of the Chalmette Refinery (“the PBF Defendants”), two entities, PBF Consultants, LLC and PBF Investments, LLC that are Louisiana companies that are not associated with our companies, as well as Clean Harbors, Inc. and Clean Harbors Environmental Services, Inc. (collectively, “Clean Harbors”), Mr. Roussell’s employer. Mr. Roussell was fatally injured on March 31, 2018 while performing clay removal work activities inside a clay treating vessel located at the Chalmette Refinery. Plaintiff seeks unspecified compensatory damages for pain and suffering, past and future mental anguish, impairment, past and future economic loss, attorney’s fees and court costs. The PBF Defendants have issued a tender of defense and indemnity to Clean Harbors and its insurer pursuant to indemnity obligations contained in the associated services agreement. On September 25, 2018, the PBF Defendants filed an Answer in the state court action denying the allegations. On October 10, 2018, the PBF Defendants filed to remove the case to the United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana. On November 9, 2018, Plaintiff filed a motion to remand the matter back to state court and the PBF Defendants filed a response on November 30, 2018. On December 21, 2018, Plaintiff filed a motion for leave to file a reply memorandum and the reply memorandum was filed December 27, 2018. As this matter was recently filed, we cannot currently estimate the amount or the timing of its resolution. We presently believe the outcome will not have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We are subject to obligations to purchase RINs. On February 15, 2017, we received notification that EPA records indicated that PBF Holding used potentially invalid RINs that were in fact verified under EPA’s RIN Quality Assurance Program (“QAP”) by an independent auditor as QAP A RINs. Under the regulations use of potentially invalid QAP A RINs provided the user with an affirmative defense from civil penalties provided certain conditions are met. We have asserted the affirmative defense and if accepted by EPA will not be required to replace these RINs and will not be subject to civil penalties under the program. It is reasonably possible that EPA will not accept our defense and may assess penalties in these matters but any such amount is not expected to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

54



CERCLA, also known as “Superfund,” imposes liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons who are considered to be responsible for the release of a “hazardous substance” into the environment. These persons include the current or former owner or operator of the disposal site or sites where the release occurred and companies that disposed of or arranged for the disposal of the hazardous substances. Under CERCLA, such persons may be subject to joint and several liability for investigation and the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. As discussed more fully above, certain of our sites are subject to these laws and we may be held liable for investigation and remediation costs or claims for natural resource damages. It is not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by hazardous substances or other pollutants released into the environment. Analogous state laws impose similar responsibilities and liabilities on responsible parties. In our current normal operations, we have generated waste, some of which falls within the statutory definition of a “hazardous substance” and some of which may have been disposed of at sites that may require cleanup under Superfund.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
None.


55



PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
PBF Energy Class A common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “PBF.” PBF Energy Class B common stock is not publicly-traded.
As of February 19, 2019 there were 173 holders of record of PBF Energy Class A common stock and 20 holders of record of PBF Energy Class B common stock.
Dividend and Distribution Policy
Subject to the following paragraphs, PBF Energy currently intends to continue to pay quarterly cash dividends of approximately $0.30 per share on its Class A common stock. The declaration, amount and payment of this and any other future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of PBF Energy’s board of directors.
PBF Energy is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership interests of PBF LLC. In order for PBF Energy to pay any dividends, it needs to cause PBF LLC to make distributions to it and the holders of PBF LLC Series A Units, and PBF LLC needs to cause PBF Holding and/or PBFX to make distributions to it, in at least an amount sufficient to cover cash dividends, if any, declared by PBF Energy. Each of PBF Holding and PBFX is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of the limited liability company (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. As a result, PBF LLC may be unable to obtain cash from PBF Holding and/or PBFX to satisfy its obligations and make distributions to PBF Energy for dividends, if any, to PBF Energy’s stockholders. If PBF LLC makes such distributions to PBF Energy, the holders of PBF LLC Series A Units will also be entitled to receive pro rata distributions.
The ability of PBF Holding to pay dividends and make distributions to PBF LLC is, and in the future may be, limited by covenants in its Revolving Credit Facility, the Senior Notes (each as defined in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”) and other debt instruments. Subject to certain exceptions, the Revolving Credit Facility and the indentures governing the Senior Notes prohibit PBF Holding from making distributions to PBF LLC if certain defaults exist. In addition, both the indentures and the Revolving Credit Facility contain additional restrictions limiting PBF Holding’s ability to make distributions to PBF LLC.
PBFX intends to make a minimum quarterly distribution to the holders of its common units, including PBF LLC, of at least $0.30 per unit, or $1.20 per unit on an annualized basis, to the extent PBFX has sufficient cash from operations after the establishment of cash reserves and the payment of costs and expenses, including reimbursements of expenses to PBFX’s general partner. However, there is no guarantee that PBFX will pay the minimum quarterly distribution or any amount on the units we own in any quarter. Even if PBFX’s cash distribution policy is not modified or revoked, the amount of distributions paid under the policy and the decision to make any distribution is determined by its general partner, taking into consideration the terms of PBFX’s partnership agreement and debt facilities.

56



PBF Holding made $52.6 million in distributions to PBF LLC during the year ended December 31, 2018. PBF LLC used $141.3 million, which included $39.5 million distributed from PBF Holding, to make four separate non-tax distributions of $0.30 per unit ($1.20 per unit in total) to its members, of which $139.3 million was distributed to PBF Energy and the balance was distributed to PBF LLC’s other members. PBF Energy used this $139.3 million to pay four separate equivalent cash dividends of $0.30 per share of its Class A common stock on March 14, 2018, May 30, 2018, August 30, 2018 and November 30, 2018. There were no tax distributions to PBF LLC members in 2018. In addition, PBFX made aggregate quarterly distributions of $100.1 million ($1.97 per unit) during the year ended December 31, 2018 to holders of its common units, of which $50.6 million was paid to PBF LLC including payments related to IDRs.
Prior to the IDR Restructuring, PBF LLC owned all of the IDRs of PBFX. The IDRs entitled PBF LLC to receive increasing percentages, up to a maximum of 50.0%, of the cash PBFX distributed from operating surplus in excess of $0.345 per unit per quarter. The maximum distribution of 50.0% included distributions paid to PBF LLC on its partnership interest. The maximum distribution of 50.0% did not include any distributions that PBF LLC previously received on common units that it owns. PBFX made IDR payments of $12.7 million and $7.6 million to PBF LLC based on its distributions for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Subsequent to the closing of the IDR Restructuring, the IDRs will be canceled, no distributions will be made to PBF LLC with respect to IDRs and the newly issued common units will be entitled to normal distributions.
PBF LLC expects to continue to make tax distributions to its members in accordance with its amended and restated limited liability company agreement.

57



Stock Performance Graph
In accordance with SEC rules, the information contained in the Stock Performance Graph below shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material,” or to be “filed” with the SEC, or subject to the SEC’s Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided under Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that we specifically request that the information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
This performance graph and the related textual information are based on historical data and are not indicative of future performance. The following line graph compares the cumulative total return on an investment in our common stock against the cumulative total return of the S&P 500 Composite Index and an index of peer companies (that we selected) for the periods commencing December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018. Our peer group consists of the following companies that are engaged in refining operations in the U.S.: CVR Energy Inc., Delek US Holdings Inc., HollyFrontier Corp, Marathon Petroleum Corp, Phillips 66 and Valero Energy Corp.
a5yeargraphv2.gif
 
12/31/2013
 
12/31/2014
 
12/31/2015
 
12/31/2016
 
12/31/2017
 
12/31/2018
PBF Energy Inc. Class A Common Stock
$
100.00

 
$
88.58

 
$
127.21

 
$
101.07

 
$
134.99

 
$
128.32

S&P 500
100.00

 
113.69

 
115.26

 
129.05

 
157.22

 
150.33

Peer Group
100.00

 
96.28

 
118.80

 
121.27

 
161.06

 
143.37


58



Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities—Exchange of PBF LLC Series A Units for PBF Energy Class A Common Stock
In the fourth quarter of 2018, there were no exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units for shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock in transactions exempt from registration under Section 4(2) of the Securities Act. No exchanges were made by any of our directors or executive officers.
Share Repurchase Program
Our Board of Directors previously authorized the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of PBF Energy Class A common stock (as amended from time to time, the “Repurchase Program”), which expired on September 30, 2018 and was not renewed. These repurchases were made from time to time through various methods, including open market transactions, block trades, accelerated share repurchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise, certain of which might have been effected through Rule 10b5-1 and Rule 10b-18 plans. The timing and number of shares repurchased depended on a variety of factors, including price, capital availability, legal requirements and economic and market conditions. We were not obligated to purchase any shares under the Repurchase Program, and repurchases could be suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice.
There were no repurchases of PBF Energy Class A Common Stock during the fourth quarter of 2018. For the period of time from the inception of the Repurchase Program through its expiration date, we purchased 6,050,717 shares for $150.8 million.


59




ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables present selected historical consolidated financial data of PBF Energy and PBF LLC. The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018, have been derived from our audited financial statements, included in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The selected historical consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from the audited financial statements of PBF Energy and PBF LLC not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As a result of the Chalmette and Torrance acquisitions, the historical consolidated financial results of PBF Energy and PBF LLC only include the results of operations for the Chalmette and Torrance refineries from November 1, 2015 and July 1, 2016 forward, respectively.
The historical consolidated financial data and other statistical data presented below should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, included in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
The consolidated financial information may not be indicative of our future financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.



60



 
 
Year Ended December 31,
PBF Energy
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Revenues
 
$
27,186,093

 
$
21,786,637

 
$
15,920,424

 
$
13,123,929

 
$
19,828,155

Cost and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and other
 
24,503,393

 
18,863,621

 
13,598,341

 
11,481,614

 
18,471,203

Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below) (1)
 
1,720,959

 
1,684,435

 
1,422,751

 
902,808

 
881,046

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
359,126

 
277,992

 
216,341

 
187,729

 
166,799

Cost of sales
 
26,583,478

 
20,826,048

 
15,237,433

 
12,572,151

 
19,519,048

General and administrative expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below) (1)(2)
 
276,955

 
214,547

 
166,319

 
181,266

 
146,661

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
10,634

 
12,964

 
5,835

 
9,688

 
13,583

(Gain) loss on sale of asset
 
(43,094
)
 
1,458

 
11,374

 
(1,004
)
 
(895
)
Total cost and expenses
 
26,827,973

 
21,055,017

 
15,420,961

 
12,762,101

 
19,678,397

Income from operations
 
358,120

 
731,620

 
499,463

 
361,828

 
149,758

Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in Tax Receivable Agreement liability
 
13,893

 
250,922

 
12,908

 
18,150

 
2,990

Change in fair value of catalyst leases
 
5,587

 
(2,247
)
 
1,422

 
10,184

 
3,969

Debt extinguishment costs
 

 
(25,451
)
 

 

 

Interest expense, net
 
(169,911
)
 
(154,427
)
 
(150,045
)
 
(106,187
)
 
(98,764
)
Other non-service components of net periodic benefit cost (1)
 
1,109

 
(1,402
)
 
(580
)
 
(1,717
)
 
(2,094
)
Income before income taxes
 
208,798

 
799,015

 
363,168

 
282,258

 
55,859

Income tax expense (benefit)
 
33,507

 
315,584

 
137,650

 
86,725

 
(22,412
)
Net income
 
175,291

 
483,431

 
225,518

 
195,533

 
78,271

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
46,976

 
67,914

 
54,707

 
49,132

 
116,508

Net income (loss) attributable to PBF Energy Inc. stockholders
 
$
128,315

 
$
415,517

 
$
170,811

 
$
146,401

 
$
(38,237
)
Weighted-average shares of Class A common stock outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
115,190,262

 
109,779,407

 
98,334,302

 
88,106,999

 
74,464,494

Diluted
 
118,773,606

 
113,898,845

 
103,606,709

 
94,138,850

 
74,464,494

Net income (loss) available to Class A common stock per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
1.11

 
$
3.78

 
$
1.74

 
$
1.66

 
$
(0.51
)
Diluted
 
$
1.10

 
$
3.73

 
$
1.74

 
$
1.65

 
$
(0.51
)
Dividends per common share
 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

 
$
1.20

Balance sheet data (at end of period) :
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
8,005,415

 
$
8,117,993

 
$
7,621,927

 
$
6,105,124

 
$
5,164,008

Total debt (3)
 
1,974,726

 
2,226,109

 
2,180,700

 
1,881,637

 
1,260,349

Total equity
 
3,248,479

 
2,902,949

 
2,570,684

 
2,095,857

 
1,693,316

Other financial data :
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures (4)
 
$
733,887

 
$
727,035

 
$
1,612,871

 
$
981,080

 
$
631,332


61



 
 
Year Ended December 31,
PBF LLC
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(in thousands)
Revenues
 
$
27,186,093

 
$
21,786,637

 
$
15,920,424

 
$
13,123,929

 
$
19,828,155

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and other
 
24,503,393

 
18,863,621

 
13,598,341

 
11,481,614

 
18,471,203

Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below) (1)
 
1,720,959

 
1,684,435

 
1,422,751

 
902,808

 
881,046

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
359,126

 
277,992

 
216,341

 
187,729

 
166,799

Cost of sales
 
26,583,478

 
20,826,048

 
15,237,433

 
12,572,151

 
19,519,048

General and administrative expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below) (1)(2)
 
275,205

 
214,222

 
166,119

 
180,310

 
146,592

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
10,634

 
12,964

 
5,835

 
9,688

 
13,583

(Gain) loss on sale of assets
 
(43,094
)
 
1,458

 
11,374

 
(1,004
)
 
(895
)
Total cost and expenses
 
26,826,223

 
21,054,692

 
15,420,761

 
12,761,145

 
19,678,328

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from operations
 
359,870

 
731,945

 
499,663

 
362,784

 
149,827

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of catalyst leases
 
5,587

 
(2,247
)
 
1,422

 
10,184

 
3,969

Debt extinguishment costs
 

 
(25,451
)
 

 

 

Interest expense, net
 
(178,421
)
 
(162,383
)
 
(155,819
)
 
(109,411
)
 
(100,352
)
Other non-service components of net periodic benefit cost (1)
 
1,109

 
(1,402
)
 
(580
)
 
(1,717
)
 
(2,094
)
Income before income taxes
 
188,145

 
540,462

 
344,686

 
261,840

 
51,350

Income tax expense (benefit)
 
7,999

 
(10,783
)
 
23,689

 
648

 

Net income
 
180,146

 
551,245

 
320,997

 
261,192

 
51,350

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
42,308

 
51,168

 
40,109

 
34,880

 
14,740

Net income attributable to PBF Energy Company LLC
 
$
137,838

 
$
500,077

 
$
280,888

 
$
226,312

 
$
36,610

Balance sheet data (at end of period) :
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
 
$
7,953,036

 
$
8,038,985

 
$
7,133,492

 
$
5,501,167

 
$
4,525,920

Total debt (3)
 
2,300,808

 
2,518,953

 
2,370,793

 
2,096,261

 
1,370,103

Total equity
 
3,219,249

 
2,878,503

 
2,487,820

 
1,909,395

 
1,652,837

Other financial data :
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures (4)
 
$
733,887

 
$
727,035

 
$
1,612,871

 
$
981,080

 
$
631,332

——————————
(1)
Amounts disclosed include the retrospective adjustments recorded as part of the adoption of ASU 2017-07, “Compensation—Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost”. As part of the adoption of this ASU in 2018, other non-service components of the net periodic benefit cost are disclosed separately outside of income (loss) from operations with retrospective adjustments made to the amounts previously recorded within Operating expenses and General and administrative expenses for all periods presented. Refer to “Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
(2)
Includes acquisition related expenses consisting primarily of consulting and legal expenses related to completed and other pending and non-consummated acquisitions of $2.9 million, $1.0 million, $17.5 million and $5.8 million in 2018, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

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(3)
Total debt, excluding debt issuance costs, includes current maturities, note payable and our Delaware Economic Development Authority Loan (which was fully converted to a grant as of December 31, 2016). PBF LLC debt also includes an affiliate note payable to PBF Energy which eliminates in consolidation at the PBF Energy level.
(4)
Includes expenditures for acquisitions, construction in progress, property, plant and equipment (including railcar purchases), deferred turnaround costs and other assets, excluding the proceeds from sales of assets.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following review of our results of operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with “Item 1. Business”, “Item 1A. Risk Factors”, “Item 2. Properties”, “Item 6. Selected Financial Data,” and “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” respectively, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
CAUTIONARY STATEMENT FOR THE PURPOSE OF SAFE HARBOR PROVISIONS OF THE PRIVATE SECURITIES LITIGATION REFORM ACT OF 1995
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains certain “forward-looking statements,” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (“PSLRA”), of expected future developments that involve risks and uncertainties. You can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates” or similar expressions that relate to our strategy, plans or intentions. All statements we make relating to our estimated and projected earnings, margins, costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates and financial results or to our strategies, objectives, intentions, resources and expectations regarding future industry trends are forward-looking statements made under the safe harbor of the PSLRA except to the extent such statements relate to the operations of a partnership or limited liability company. In addition, we, through our senior management, from time to time make forward-looking public statements concerning our expected future operations and performance and other developments. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may change at any time, and, therefore, our actual results may differ materially from those that we expected. We derive many of our forward-looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and, of course, it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results.
Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, which we refer to as “cautionary statements,” are disclosed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All forward-looking information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements. Some of the factors that we believe could affect our results include:
supply, demand, prices and other market conditions for our products, including volatility in commodity prices;
 the effects of competition in our markets;
changes in currency exchange rates, interest rates and capital costs;
 adverse developments in our relationship with both our key employees and unionized employees;
our ability to operate our businesses efficiently, manage capital expenditures and costs (including general and administrative expenses) and generate earnings and cash flow;
our indebtedness;
our expectations and timing with respect to our acquisition activity and whether such acquisitions are accretive or dilutive to shareholders;
our expectations with respect to our capital improvement and turnaround projects;
our supply and inventory intermediation arrangements expose us to counterparty credit and performance risk;
termination of our Inventory Intermediation Agreements with J. Aron, which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, as we would be required to finance our intermediate and refined products inventory covered by the agreements. Additionally, we are obligated to repurchase from J. Aron certain intermediates and finished products located at the Paulsboro and Delaware City refineries’ storage tanks upon termination of these agreements;
restrictive covenants in our indebtedness that may adversely affect our operational flexibility;
payments by PBF Energy to the current and former holders of PBF LLC Series A Units and PBF LLC Series B Units under PBF Energy’s Tax Receivable Agreement for certain tax benefits we may claim;
our assumptions regarding payments arising under PBF Energy’s Tax Receivable Agreement and other arrangements relating to our organizational structure are subject to change due to various factors, including, among other factors, the timing of exchanges of PBF LLC Series A Units for shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock as contemplated

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by the Tax Receivable Agreement, the price of PBF Energy Class A common stock at the time of such exchanges, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, and the amount and timing of our income;
the impact of disruptions to crude or feedstock supply to any of our refineries, including disruptions due to problems at PBFX or with third-party logistics infrastructure or operations, including pipeline, marine and rail transportation;
the possibility that we might reduce or not make further dividend payments;
the inability of our subsidiaries to freely pay dividends or make distributions to us;
the impact of current and future laws, rulings and governmental regulations, including the implementation of rules and regulations regarding transportation of crude oil by rail;
the impact of the newly enacted federal income tax legislation on our business;
the effectiveness of our crude oil sourcing strategies, including our crude by rail strategy and related commitments;
adverse impact related to regulation by the federal government lifting the restrictions on exporting U.S. crude oil;
adverse impacts from changes in our regulatory environment, such as the effects of compliance with the California Global Warming Solutions Act (also referred to as “AB32”), or from actions taken by environmental interest groups;
market risks related to the volatility in the price of RINs required to comply with the Renewable Fuel Standards and GHG emission credits required to comply with various GHG emission programs, such as AB32;
our ability to successfully integrate recently completed acquisitions into our business and realize the benefits from such acquisitions;
liabilities arising from recent acquisitions that are unforeseen or exceed our expectations;
risk associated with the operation of PBFX as a separate, publicly-traded entity;
potential tax consequences related to our investment in PBFX; and
any decisions we continue to make with respect to our energy-related logistical assets that may be transferred to PBFX.
We caution you that the foregoing list of important factors may not contain all of the material factors that are important to you. In addition, in light of these risks and uncertainties, the matters referred to in the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not in fact occur. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on those statements.
Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, we do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing.
Executive Summary
Our business operations are conducted by PBF LLC and its subsidiaries. We were formed in March 2008 to pursue the acquisitions of crude oil refineries and downstream assets in North America. We currently own and operate five domestic oil refineries and related assets located in Delaware City, Delaware, Paulsboro, New Jersey, Toledo, Ohio, New Orleans, Louisiana and Torrance, California. Our refineries have a combined processing capacity, known as throughput, of approximately 900,000 bpd, and a weighted average Nelson Complexity Index of 12.2. We operate in two reportable business segments: Refining and Logistics. Our five oil refineries are all engaged in the refining of crude oil and other feedstocks into petroleum products, and are aggregated into the Refining segment. PBFX operates certain logistical assets such as crude oil and refined petroleum products terminals, pipelines, and storage facilities, which are aggregated into the Logistics segment.
Factors Affecting Comparability
Our results over the past three years have been affected by the following events, the understanding of which will aid in assessing the comparability of our period to period financial performance and financial condition.

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Early Return of Railcars
On September 30, 2018, we agreed to voluntarily return a portion of railcars under an operating lease in order to rationalize certain components of our railcar fleet based on prevailing market conditions in the crude oil by rail market. Under the terms of the lease amendment, we will pay agreed amounts in lieu of satisfaction of return conditions (the “early termination penalty”) and will pay a reduced rental fee over the remaining term of the lease. Certain of these railcars were idle as of September 30, 2018 and the remaining railcars were taken out of service during the fourth quarter of 2018 and subsequently fully returned to the lessor. As a result, we recognized an expense of $52.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 included within Cost of sales consisting of (i) a $40.3 million charge for the early termination penalty and (ii) a $12.0 million charge related to the remaining lease payments associated with the railcars identified within the amended lease, all of which were idled and out of service as of December 31, 2018.
Torrance Land Sale
On August 7, 2018, we closed on a third-party sale of a parcel of real property acquired as part of the Torrance Refinery, but not part of the refinery itself. The sale resulted in a gain of approximately $43.8 million included within (Gain) loss on sale of assets within the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
PBF Energy Inc. Public Offerings
As a result of the initial public offering and related reorganization transactions, PBF Energy became the sole managing member of PBF LLC with a controlling voting interest in PBF LLC and its subsidiaries. Effective with completion of the initial public offering, PBF Energy consolidates the financial results of PBF LLC and its subsidiaries and records a noncontrolling interest in its consolidated financial statements representing the economic interests of PBF LLC unitholders other than PBF Energy. Additionally, a series of secondary offerings were made subsequent to our IPO whereby funds affiliated with The Blackstone Group L.P. (“Blackstone”) and First Reserve Management L.P. (“First Reserve”) sold their interests in us. As a result of these secondary offerings, Blackstone and First Reserve no longer hold any PBF LLC Series A units.
On August 14, 2018, PBF Energy completed a public offering of an aggregate of 6,000,000 shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock for net proceeds of $287.3 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses (the “August 2018 Equity Offering”).
On December 19, 2016, PBF Energy completed a public offering of an aggregate of 10,000,000 shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock for net proceeds of $274.3 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses (the “December 2016 Equity Offering”).
As of December 31, 2018, including the offerings described above, PBF Energy owns 119,895,422 PBF LLC Series C Units and our current and former executive officers and directors and certain employees and others beneficially own 1,206,325 PBF LLC Series A Units, and the holders of our issued and outstanding shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock have 99.0% of the voting power in us and the members of PBF LLC other than PBF Energy through their holdings of Class B common stock have the remaining 1.0% of the voting power in us.
PBFX Equity Offerings
On July 30, 2018, PBFX closed on a common unit purchase agreement with certain funds managed by Tortoise Capital Advisors, L.L.C. providing for the issuance and sale in a registered direct offering (the “Registered Direct Offering”) of an aggregate of 1,775,750 common units for net proceeds of approximately $34.8 million.
On August 17, 2016, PBFX completed a public offering of an aggregate of 4,000,000 common units, and granted the underwriter an option to purchase an additional 600,000 common units, of which 375,000 units were subsequently purchased on September 14, 2016, for total net proceeds of $86.8 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.

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On April 5, 2016, PBFX completed a public offering of an aggregate of 2,875,000 common units, including 375,000 common units that were sold pursuant to the full exercise by the underwriter of its option to purchase additional common units, for net proceeds of $51.6 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses.
As a result of the PBFX equity offerings, as of December 31, 2018, PBF LLC held a 44.0% limited partner interest in PBFX and owned all of PBFX’s IDRs, with the remaining 56.0% limited partner interest owned by public common unitholders. Immediately following the closing of the IDR Restructuring, the IDRs will be canceled and PBF LLC will hold an approximately 54.1% limited partner interest in PBFX.
PBFX Assets and Transactions
PBFX’s assets consist of various logistics assets (as described in “Item 1. Business”). Apart from certain third-party acquisitions, PBFX’s revenue is derived from long-term, fee-based commercial agreements with subsidiaries of PBF Holding, which include minimum volume commitments, for receiving, handling, transferring and storing crude oil, refined products and natural gas. These transactions are eliminated by PBF Energy and PBF LLC in consolidation.
Since the inception of PBFX in 2014, PBF LLC and PBFX have entered into a series of drop-down transactions. Such transactions and third-party acquisitions made by PBFX occurring in the three years ended December 31, 2018 are discussed below.
On July 16, 2018, PBFX entered into an agreement with Crown Point to purchase its wholly-owned subsidiary, CPI Operations LLC for total consideration of approximately $127.0 million, including working capital and the Contingent Consideration (as defined in “Note 4 - Acquisitions” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements), comprised of an initial payment at closing of $75.0 million with a remaining $32.0 million balance being payable one year after closing. The East Coast Storage Assets Acquisition closed on October 1, 2018.
On July 16, 2018, PBFX entered into the Development Assets Contribution Agreements between PBFX and PBF LLC, pursuant to which PBFX acquired from PBF LLC all of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of the Development Assets. The acquisition of the Development Assets closed on July 31, 2018 for total consideration of $31.6 million consisting of 1,494,134 common units representing limited partner interests in PBFX, issued to PBF LLC (the “Development Assets Acquisition”).
On April 16, 2018, PBFX completed the purchase of Knoxville Terminals from Cummins Terminals, Inc. for total cash consideration of $58.0 million, excluding working capital adjustments (the “Knoxville Terminals Purchase”). The transaction was financed through a combination of cash on hand and borrowings under the PBFX Revolving Credit Facility.
On February 15, 2017, we entered into the Chalmette Storage Services Agreement under which PBFX, through PBFX Op Co, assumed construction of the Chalmette Storage Tank. The Chalmette Storage Tank commenced operations in November 2017 upon completion of construction.
On February 15, 2017, PBFX entered into the PNGPC Contribution Agreement between PBFX and PBF LLC, pursuant to which PBFX Op Co acquired from PBF LLC all of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of PNGPC. PNGPC owns and operates an existing interstate natural gas pipeline. In August 2017, PBFX Op Co completed the construction of a new pipeline which replaced the existing pipeline and commenced services.
On August 31, 2016, PBFX acquired from PBF LLC 50% of the issued and outstanding limited liability company interests of TVPC, whose assets consist of the Torrance Valley Pipeline.
On April 29, 2016, PBFX’s wholly-owned subsidiary, PBF Logistics Products Terminals LLC, completed the purchase of the four refined products terminals in the greater Philadelphia region (the “East Coast Terminals”) from an affiliate of Plains All American Pipeline, L.P.

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PBF Holding Revolving Credit Facility
On May 2, 2018, PBF Holding and certain of its wholly-owned subsidiaries, as borrowers or subsidiary guarantors, replaced our existing asset-based revolving credit agreement dated as of August 15, 2014 (the “August 2014 Revolving Credit Agreement”) with the Revolving Credit Facility. Among other things, the Revolving Credit Facility increased the maximum commitment available to PBF Holding from $2.6 billion to $3.4 billion, extended the maturity date to May 2023, and redefined certain components of the Borrowing Base, as defined in the agreement governing the Revolving Credit Facility (the “Revolving Credit Agreement”), to make more funding available for working capital and other general corporate purposes. In addition, an accordion feature allows for commitments of up to $3.5 billion. The commitment fees on the unused portion, the interest rate on advances and the fees for letters of credit are consistent with the August 2014 Revolving Credit Agreement and further described in “Note 9 - Credit Facility and Debt” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
There were no outstanding borrowings on the revolver as of December 31, 2018. At December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, there was $350.0 million outstanding under the August 2014 Revolving Credit Agreement, respectively.
PBFX Revolving Credit Facility
On July 30, 2018, PBFX entered into the PBFX Revolving Credit Facility with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders. The PBFX Revolving Credit Facility amended and restated the May 2014 PBFX Revolving Credit Facility. Among other things, the amended PBFX Revolving Credit Facility increased the maximum commitment available to PBFX from $360.0 million to $500.0 million and extended the maturity date to July 2023. PBFX has the ability to increase the maximum amount of the PBFX Revolving Credit Facility by an aggregate amount of up to $250.0 million to a total facility size of $750.0 million, subject to receiving increased commitments from the lenders or other financial institutions and satisfaction of certain conditions. The commitment fees on the unused portion, the interest rate on advances, and the fees for letters of credit are consistent with the May 2014 PBFX Revolving Credit Facility. The PBFX Revolving Credit Facility is guaranteed by a guaranty of collection from PBF LLC. During 2018, PBFX borrowed $126.3 million, net including borrowings for the Knoxville Terminals Purchase and the East Coast Storage Assets Acquisition.
The outstanding balance under the PBFX revolving credit facility was $156.0 million and $29.7 million as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
Senior Notes
On May 30, 2017, PBF Holding and PBF Finance issued $725.0 million, in aggregate, principal amount of the 2025 Senior Notes. We used the net proceeds of $711.6 million to fund the cash tender offer (the “Tender Offer”) for any and all of the outstanding 8.25% senior secured notes due 2020 (the “2020 Senior Secured Notes”), to pay the related redemption price and accrued and unpaid interest for any 2020 Senior Secured Notes that remained outstanding after the completion of the Tender Offer, and for general corporate purposes. As described in “Note 9 - Credit Facility and Debt” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, upon the satisfaction and discharge of the 2020 Senior Secured Notes in connection with the closing of the Tender Offer and the redemption, the 2023 Senior Notes became unsecured and certain covenants were modified, as provided for in the indenture governing the 2023 Senior Notes and related documents.
On October 6, 2017, PBFX issued $175.0 million in aggregate principal amount of 6.875% Senior Notes due 2023 (the “new PBFX 2023 Senior Notes” and, together with the initial PBFX 2023 Senior Notes, the “PBFX 2023 Senior Notes”). The new PBFX 2023 Senior Notes were issued at 102% of face value with an effective rate of 6.442% and were issued under the indenture governing the initial PBFX 2023 Senior Notes dated May 12, 2015. PBFX used the net proceeds from the offering of the new PBFX 2023 Senior Notes to repay a portion of the PBFX Revolving Credit Facility and for general capital purposes.

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PBF Rail Term Loan
On December 22, 2016, PBF Rail Logistics Company LLC (“PBF Rail”) entered into a $35.0 million term loan (the “PBF Rail Term Loan”) with a bank previously party to the Rail Facility. The PBF Rail Term Loan amortizes monthly over its five-year term and bears interest at the one month LIBOR plus the margin as defined in the agreement governing the PBF Rail Term Loan (the “Rail Credit Agreement”). As security for the PBF Rail Term Loan, PBF Rail pledged, among other things: (i) certain Eligible Railcars (ii) the Debt Service Reserve Account (as defined in the Rail Credit Agreement); and (iii) PBF Holding’s member interest in PBF Rail. Additionally, the Rail Credit Agreement contains customary terms, events of default and covenants for transactions of this nature. PBF Rail may at any time repay the PBF Rail Term Loan without penalty in the event that railcars collateralizing the loan are sold, scrapped or otherwise removed from the collateral pool.
The outstanding balance under the PBF Rail Term Loan was $21.6 million and $28.4 million as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
Torrance Acquisition
On July 1, 2016, we acquired from ExxonMobil and its subsidiary, Mobil Pacific Pipeline Company, the Torrance refinery and related logistics assets. The Torrance refinery, located on 750 acres in Torrance, California, is a high-conversion 155,000 bpd, delayed-coking refinery with a Nelson Complexity Index of 14.9. The facility is strategically positioned in Southern California with advantaged logistics connectivity that offers flexible raw material sourcing and product distribution opportunities primarily in the California, Las Vegas and Phoenix area markets. The Torrance Acquisition increased our total throughput capacity to approximately 900,000 bpd.
In addition to refining assets, the Torrance Acquisition included a number of high-quality logistics assets consisting of a sophisticated network of crude and products pipelines, product distribution terminals and refinery crude and product storage facilities. The most significant of the logistics assets is a 189-mile crude gathering and transportation system which delivers San Joaquin Valley crude oil directly from the field to the refinery. Additionally, included in the transaction were several pipelines which provide access to sources of crude oil including the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, as well as clean product outlets with a direct pipeline supplying jet fuel to the Los Angeles airport. The Torrance refinery also has crude and product storage facilities with approximately 8.6 million barrels of shell capacity.
The purchase price for the assets was approximately $521.4 million in cash after post-closing purchase price adjustments, plus working capital of $450.6 million. The final purchase price and fair value allocation were completed as of June 30, 2017. The transaction was financed through a combination of cash on hand, including proceeds from certain equity offerings, and borrowings under our August 2014 Revolving Credit Agreement.
Inventory Intermediation Agreements
On certain dates subsequent to the inception of the Inventory Intermediation Agreements, we and our subsidiaries, DCR and PRC, entered into amendments to the amended and restated inventory intermediation agreement (as amended, the “Inventory Intermediation Agreements”) with J. Aron pursuant to which certain terms of the inventory intermediation agreements were amended, including, among other things, pricing and an extension of the term. The most recent of these was on September 8, 2017 which extends the term of the Inventory Intermediation Agreement relating to DCR and PRC to July 1, 2019 and December 31, 2019, respectively, which terms may be further extended by mutual consent of the parties to July 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Pursuant to each Inventory Intermediation Agreement, J. Aron continues to purchase and hold title to the Products produced by the Refineries, and delivered into tanks at the Refineries. Furthermore, J. Aron agrees to sell the Products back to the Refineries as the Products are discharged out of the Refineries’ tanks. J. Aron has the right to store the Products purchased in tanks under the Inventory Intermediation Agreements and will retain these storage rights for the term of the agreements. PBF Holding continues to market and sell the Products independently to third parties.

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Renewable Fuels Standard
We are subject to obligations to purchase RINs required to comply with the Renewable Fuels Standard. Our overall RINs obligation is based on a percentage of domestic shipments of on-road fuels as established by EPA. To the degree we are unable to blend the required amount of biofuels to satisfy our RINs obligation, RINs must be purchased on the open market to avoid penalties and fines. We record our RINs obligation on a net basis in Accrued expenses when our RINs liability is greater than the amount of RINs earned and purchased in a given period and in Prepaid and other current assets when the amount of RINs earned and purchased is greater than the RINs liability. We incurred approximately $143.9 million in RINs costs during the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to $293.7 million and $347.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The fluctuations in RINs costs are due primarily to volatility in prices for ethanol-linked RINs and increases in our production of on-road transportation fuels since 2012. Our RINs purchase obligation is dependent on our actual shipment of on-road transportation fuels domestically and the amount of blending achieved.
Crude Oil Acquisition Agreements
We have a contract with Saudi Aramco pursuant to which we have been purchasing up to approximately 100,000 bpd of crude oil from Saudi Aramco that is processed at our Paulsboro refinery. In connection with the Chalmette Acquisition we entered into a contract with PDVSA for the supply of 40,000 to 60,000 bpd of crude oil that can be processed at any of our East or Gulf Coast refineries. We have not sourced crude oil under this agreement since the third quarter of 2017 as PDVSA has suspended deliveries due to the parties’ inability to agree to mutually acceptable payment terms. In connection with the closing of the Torrance Acquisition, we entered into a crude supply agreement with ExxonMobil for approximately 60,000 bpd of crude oil that can be processed at our Torrance refinery. We currently purchase all of our crude and feedstock needs independently from a variety of suppliers on the spot market or through term agreements for our Delaware City and Toledo refineries.
Tax Receivable Agreement
In connection with PBF Energy’s initial public offering, PBF Energy entered into a Tax Receivable Agreement pursuant to which PBF Energy is required to pay the members of PBF LLC, who exchange their units for PBF Energy Class A common stock or whose units PBF Energy purchases, approximately 85% of the cash savings in income taxes that PBF Energy realizes as a result of the increase in the tax basis of its interest in PBF LLC, including tax benefits attributable to payments made under the Tax Receivable Agreement. PBF Energy has recognized, as of December 31, 2018, a liability for the Tax Receivable Agreement of $373.5 million, reflecting its estimate of the undiscounted amounts that it expects to pay under the agreement due to exchanges including those in connection with its IPO and its secondary offerings. PBF Energy’s estimate of the Tax Receivable Agreement liability is based, in part, on forecasts of future taxable income over the anticipated life of its future business operations, assuming no material changes in the relevant tax law. Periodically, it may adjust the liability based, in part, on an updated estimate of the amounts that it expects to pay, using assumptions consistent with those used in its concurrent estimate of the deferred tax asset valuation allowance. For example, PBF Energy must adjust the estimated Tax Receivable Agreement liability each time it purchases PBF LLC Series A Units or upon an exchange of PBF LLC Series A Units for PBF Energy Class A common stock. These periodic adjustments to the tax receivable liability, if any, are recorded in general and administrative expense and may result in adjustments to its income tax expense and deferred tax assets and liabilities. As a result of the reduction of the corporate tax rate to 21% as part of the TCJA, the liability associated with the Tax Receivable Agreement was reduced. Accordingly, the deferred tax assets associated with the payments made or expected to be made were also reduced.
Share Repurchase Program
Our Board of Directors previously authorized the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of PBF Energy Class A common stock. On September 26, 2016, our Board of Directors approved a two year extension to the existing Repurchase Program. As a result of the extension, the Repurchase Program ran through September 30, 2018 but was not renewed further or thereafter. There were no repurchases of PBF Energy Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2018. For the period of time from the inception of the Repurchase Program through its expiration date, we purchased 6,050,717 shares of PBF Energy Class A common stock for $150.8 million through open market transactions.
These repurchases were made from time to time through various methods, including open market transactions, block trades, accelerated share repurchases, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise, certain of which might have been effected through Rule 10b5-1 and Rule 10b-18 plans. The timing and number of shares repurchased depended on a variety of factors, including price, capital availability, legal requirements and economic and market conditions. We were not obligated to purchase any shares under the Repurchase Program, and repurchases might have been suspended or discontinued at any time without prior notice.

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Factors Affecting Operating Results
Overview
Our earnings and cash flows from operations are primarily affected by the relationship between refined product prices and the prices for crude oil and other feedstocks. The cost to acquire crude oil and other feedstocks and the price of refined petroleum products ultimately sold depends on numerous factors beyond our control, including the supply of, and demand for, crude oil, gasoline, diesel and other refined petroleum products, which, in turn, depend on, among other factors, changes in global and regional economies, weather conditions, global and regional political affairs, production levels, the availability of imports, the marketing of competitive fuels, pipeline capacity, prevailing exchange rates and the extent of government regulation. Our revenue and income from operations fluctuate significantly with movements in industry refined petroleum product prices, our materials cost fluctuate significantly with movements in crude oil prices and our other operating expenses fluctuate with movements in the price of energy to meet the power needs of our refineries. In addition, the effect of changes in crude oil prices on our operating results is influenced by how the prices of refined products adjust to reflect such changes.
Crude oil and other feedstock costs and the prices of refined petroleum products have historically been subject to wide fluctuation. Expansion and upgrading of existing facilities and installation of additional refinery distillation or conversion capacity, price volatility, governmental regulations, international political and economic developments and other factors beyond our control are likely to continue to play an important role in refining industry economics. These factors can impact, among other things, the level of inventories in the market, resulting in price volatility and a reduction or increase in product margins. Moreover, the industry typically experiences seasonal fluctuations in demand for refined petroleum products, such as for gasoline and diesel, during the summer driving season and for home heating oil during the winter.
Benchmark Refining Margins
In assessing our operating performance, we compare the refining margins (revenue less materials cost) of each of our refineries against a specific benchmark industry refining margin based on crack spreads. Benchmark refining margins take into account both crude and refined petroleum product prices. When these prices are combined in a formula they provide a single value—a gross margin per barrel—that, when multiplied by throughput, provides an approximation of the gross margin generated by refining activities.
The performance of our East Coast refineries generally follows the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Toledo refinery generally follows the WTI (Chicago) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Chalmette refinery generally follows the LLS (Gulf Coast) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Torrance refinery generally follows the ANS (West Coast) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin.
While the benchmark refinery margins presented below under “Results of Operations—Market Indicators” are representative of the results of our refineries, each refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis will differ from the benchmark due to a variety of factors affecting the performance of the relevant refinery to its corresponding benchmark. These factors include the refinery’s actual type of crude oil throughput, product yield differentials and any other factors not reflected in the benchmark refining margins, such as transportation costs, storage costs, credit fees, fuel consumed during production and any product premiums or discounts, as well as inventory fluctuations, timing of crude oil and other feedstock purchases, a rising or declining crude and product pricing environment and commodity price management activities. As discussed in more detail below, each of our refineries, depending on market conditions, has certain feedstock-cost and product-value advantages and disadvantages as compared to the refinery’s relevant benchmark.
Credit Risk Management
Credit risk refers to the risk that a counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss to us. Our exposure to credit risk is reflected in the carrying amount of the receivables that are presented in our consolidated balance sheet. To minimize credit risk, all customers are subject to extensive credit verification procedures and extensions of credit above defined thresholds are to be approved by the senior management. Our intention is to trade only with recognized creditworthy third parties. In addition, receivable balances are monitored on an ongoing basis. We also limit the risk of bad debts by obtaining security such as guarantees or letters of credit.

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Other Factors
We currently source our crude oil for our refineries on a global basis through a combination of market purchases and short-term purchase contracts, and through our crude oil supply agreements. We believe purchases based on market pricing has given us flexibility in obtaining crude oil at lower prices and on a more accurate “as needed” basis. Since our Paulsboro and Delaware City refineries access their crude slates from the Delaware River via ship or barge and through our rail facilities at Delaware City, these refineries have the flexibility to purchase crude oils from the Mid-Continent and Western Canada, as well as a number of different countries. We have not sourced crude oil under our crude supply arrangement with PDVSA since the third quarter of 2017 as PDVSA has suspended deliveries due to our inability to agree to mutually acceptable payment terms.
In the past several years, we expanded and upgraded the existing on-site railroad infrastructure at the Delaware City refinery. Currently, crude oil delivered by rail to this facility is consumed at our Delaware City and Paulsboro refineries. The Delaware City rail unloading facilities, and our recently acquired East Coast Storage Assets, allow our East Coast refineries to source WTI-based crude oils from Western Canada and the Mid-Continent, which we believe, at times, may provide cost advantages versus traditional Brent-based international crude oils. In support of this rail strategy, we have at times entered into agreements to lease or purchase crude railcars. Certain of these railcars were subsequently sold to a third-party, which has leased the railcars back to us for periods of between four and seven years. In subsequent periods, we have sold or returned railcars to optimize our railcar portfolio. As discussed in “Note 8 - Accrued expenses” of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, on September 30, 2018, we agreed to voluntarily return a portion of railcars under an operating lease in order to rationalize certain components of our railcar fleet based on prevailing market conditions in the crude oil by rail market. Under the terms of the lease amendment, we agreed to pay an early termination penalty and will pay a reduced rental fee over the remaining term of the lease. Our railcar fleet, at times, provides transportation flexibility within our crude oil sourcing strategy that allows our East Coast refineries to process cost advantaged crude from Canada and the Mid-Continent.
Our operating cost structure is also important to our profitability. Major operating costs include costs relating to employees and contract labor, energy, maintenance and environmental compliance, and emission control regulations, including the cost of RINs required for compliance with the Renewable Fuels Standard. The predominant variable cost is energy, in particular, the price of utilities, natural gas and electricity.
Our operating results are also affected by the reliability of our refinery operations. Unplanned downtime of our refinery assets generally results in lost margin opportunity and increased maintenance expense. The financial impact of planned downtime, such as major turnaround maintenance, is managed through a planning process that considers such things as the margin environment, the availability of resources to perform the needed maintenance and feed logistics, whereas unplanned downtime does not afford us this opportunity.
Refinery-Specific Information
The following section includes refinery-specific information related to our operations, crude oil differentials, ancillary costs, and local premiums and discounts.
Delaware City Refinery. The benchmark refining margin for the Delaware City refinery is calculated by assuming that two barrels of Dated Brent crude oil are converted into one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate this benchmark using the NYH market value of reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending (“RBOB”) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (“ULSD”) against the market value of Dated Brent and refer to the benchmark as the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Delaware City refinery has a product slate of approximately 55% gasoline, 32% distillate, 2% high-value petrochemicals, with the remaining portion of the product slate comprised of lower-value products (5% petroleum coke, 3% LPGs, 2% black oil and 1% other). For this reason, we believe the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 is an appropriate benchmark industry refining margin. The majority of Delaware City revenues are generated off NYH-based market prices.
The Delaware City refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis has historically differed from the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin due to the following factors:
the Delaware City refinery processes a slate of primarily medium and heavy sour crude oils, which has constituted approximately 55% to 65% of total throughput. The remaining throughput consists of sweet crude oil and other feedstocks and blendstocks. In addition, we have the capability to process a significant volume of light, sweet crude oil depending on market conditions. Our total throughput costs have historically priced at a discount to Dated Brent; and

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as a result of the heavy, sour crude slate processed at Delaware City, we produce lower value products including sulfur, carbon dioxide and petroleum coke. These products are priced at a significant discount to RBOB and ULSD.
Paulsboro Refinery. The benchmark refining margin for the Paulsboro refinery is calculated by assuming that two barrels of Dated Brent crude oil are converted into one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate this benchmark using the NYH market value of RBOB and ULSD diesel against the market value of Dated Brent and refer to the benchmark as the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Paulsboro refinery has a product slate of approximately 42% gasoline, 33% distillate and 4% high-value Group I lubricants, with the remaining portion of the product slate comprised of lower-value products (14% black oil, 3% petroleum coke, 2% LPGs and 2% other). For this reason, we believe the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 is an appropriate benchmark industry refining margin. The majority of Paulsboro revenues are generated off NYH-based market prices.
The Paulsboro refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis has historically differed from the Dated Brent (NYH) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin due to the following factors:
the Paulsboro refinery processes a slate of primarily medium and heavy sour crude oils, which has historically constituted approximately 75% to 85% of total throughput. The remaining throughput consists of sweet crude oil and other feedstocks and blendstocks;
as a result of the heavy, sour crude slate processed at Paulsboro, we produce lower value products including sulfur and petroleum coke. These products are priced at a significant discount to RBOB and ULSD; and
the Paulsboro refinery produces Group I lubricants which carry a premium sales price to RBOB and ULSD.
Toledo Refinery. The benchmark refining margin for the Toledo refinery is calculated by assuming that four barrels of WTI crude oil are converted into three barrels of gasoline, one-half barrel of ULSD and one-half barrel of jet fuel. We calculate this refining margin using the Chicago market values of conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (“CBOB”) and ULSD and the United States Gulf Coast value of jet fuel against the market value of WTI and refer to this benchmark as the WTI (Chicago) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Toledo refinery has a product slate of approximately 55% gasoline, 33% distillate, 5% high-value petrochemicals (including nonene, tetramer, benzene, xylene and toluene) with the remaining portion of the product slate comprised of lower-value products (4% LPGs and 3% other). For this reason, we believe the WTI (Chicago) 4-3-1 is an appropriate benchmark industry refining margin. The majority of Toledo revenues are generated off Chicago-based market prices.
The Toledo refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis has historically differed from the WTI (Chicago) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin due to the following factors:
the Toledo refinery processes a slate of domestic sweet and Canadian synthetic crude oil. Historically, Toledo’s blended average crude costs have differed from the market value of WTI crude oil;
the Toledo refinery configuration enables it to produce more barrels of product than throughput which generates a pricing benefit; and
the Toledo refinery generates a pricing benefit on some of its refined products, primarily its petrochemicals.
Chalmette Refinery. The benchmark refining margin for the Chalmette refinery is calculated by assuming two barrels of Light Louisiana Sweet (“LLS”) crude oil are converted into one barrel of gasoline and one barrel of diesel. We calculate this benchmark using the US Gulf Coast market value of 87 conventional gasoline and ULSD against the market value of LLS and refer to this benchmark as the LLS (Gulf Coast) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Chalmette refinery has a product slate of approximately 50% gasoline and 30% distillate, with the remaining portion of the product slate comprised of lower-value products (10% black oil, 4% petroleum coke, 3% LPGs and 3% other). For this reason, we believe the LLS (Gulf Coast) 2-1-1 is an appropriate benchmark industry refining margin. The majority of Chalmette revenues are generated off Gulf Coast-based market prices.
The Chalmette refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis has historically differed from the LLS (USGC) 2-1-1 benchmark refining margin due to the following factors:
the Chalmette refinery has generally processed a slate of primarily medium and heavy sour crude oils, which has historically constituted approximately 55% to 65% of total throughput. The remaining throughput consists of sweet crude oil and other feedstocks and blendstocks; and

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as a result of the heavy, sour crude slate processed at Chalmette, we produce lower-value products including sulfur and petroleum coke. These products are priced at a significant discount to 87 conventional gasoline and ULSD.
The PRL (pre-treater, reformer, light ends) project was completed in 2017 which has increased high-octane, ultra-low sulfur reformate and chemicals production. The new crude oil tank was also commissioned in 2017 and is allowing additional gasoline and diesel exports, reduced RINs compliance costs and lower crude ship demurrage costs.
Additionally, we are in the process of restarting our idled 12,000 barrel per day coker unit to increase the refinery’s long-term feedstock flexibility and to be better positioned to benefit from potential dislocations in the price for heavy and high-sulfur feedstocks. The unit is expected to be in service by the end of 2019 and will increase the refinery’s total coking capacity to approximately 42,000 barrels per day.
Torrance Refinery. The benchmark refining margin for the Torrance refinery is calculated by assuming that four barrels of Alaskan North Slope (“ANS”) crude oil are converted into three barrels of gasoline, one-half barrel of diesel and one-half barrel of jet fuel. We calculate this benchmark using the West Coast Los Angeles market value of California reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending (CARBOB), California Air Resources Board (CARB) diesel and jet fuel and refer to the benchmark as the ANS (WCLA) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin. Our Torrance refinery has a product slate of approximately 60% gasoline and 26% distillate with the remaining portion of the product slate comprised of lower-value products (9% petroleum coke, 2% LPG, 2% black oil and 1% other). For this reason, we believe the ANS (West Coast) 4-3-1 is an appropriate benchmark industry refining margin. The majority of Torrance revenues are generated off West Coast Los Angeles-based market prices.
The Torrance refinery’s realized gross margin on a per barrel basis has historically differed from the ANS (WCLA) 4-3-1 benchmark refining margin due to the following factors:
the Torrance refinery has generally processed a slate of primarily heavy sour crude oils, which has historically constituted approximately 80% to 90% of total throughput. The Torrance crude slate has the lowest API gravity (typically an American Petroleum Institute (“API”) gravity of less than 20 degrees) of all of our refineries. The remaining throughput consists of other feedstocks and blendstocks; and
as a result of the heavy, sour crude slate processed at Torrance, we produce lower-value products including petroleum coke and sulfur. These products are priced at a significant discount to gasoline and diesel.



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Results of Operations
The tables below reflect our consolidated financial and operating highlights for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 (amounts in thousands, except per share data). Differences between the results of operations of PBF Energy and PBF LLC primarily pertain to income tax expense, interest expense and non-controlling interest as shown below. Earnings per share information applies only to the financial results of PBF Energy. We operate in two reportable business segments: Refining and Logistics. Our oil refineries, excluding the assets owned by PBFX, are all engaged in the refining of crude oil and other feedstocks into petroleum products, and are aggregated into the Refining segment. PBFX is a publicly-traded MLP that operates certain logistical assets such as crude oil and refined petroleum products terminals, pipelines and storage facilities. PBFX’s operations are aggregated into the Logistics segment. We do not separately discuss our results by individual segments as, apart from PBFX’s third-party acquisitions, our Logistics segment did not have any significant third-party revenue and a significant portion of its operating results eliminate in consolidation.
PBF Energy
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenues
 
$
27,186,093

 
$
21,786,637

 
$
15,920,424

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and other
 
24,503,393

 
18,863,621

 
13,598,341

Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below)
 
1,720,959

 
1,684,435

 
1,422,751

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
359,126

 
277,992

 
216,341

Cost of sales
 
26,583,478

 
20,826,048

 
15,237,433

General and administrative expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below)
 
276,955

 
214,547

 
166,319

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
10,634

 
12,964

 
5,835

(Gain) loss on sale of assets
 
(43,094
)
 
1,458

 
11,374

Total cost and expenses
 
26,827,973

 
21,055,017

 
15,420,961

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from operations
 
358,120

 
731,620

 
499,463

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in Tax Receivable Agreement liability
 
13,893

 
250,922

 
12,908

Change in fair value of catalyst leases
 
5,587

 
(2,247
)
 
1,422

Debt extinguishment costs
 

 
(25,451
)
 

Interest expense, net
 
(169,911
)
 
(154,427
)
 
(150,045
)
Other non-service components of net periodic benefit cost
 
1,109

 
(1,402
)
 
(580
)
Income before income taxes
 
208,798

 
799,015

 
363,168

Income tax expense
 
33,507

 
315,584

 
137,650

Net income
 
175,291

 
483,431

 
225,518

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
46,976

 
67,914

 
54,707

Net income attributable to PBF Energy Inc. stockholders
 
$
128,315

 
$
415,517

 
$
170,811

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated gross margin
 
$
602,615

 
$
960,589

 
$
682,991

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross refining margin (1)
 
$
2,419,389

 
$
2,676,651

 
$
2,143,449

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income available to Class A common stock per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
1.11

 
$
3.78

 
$
1.74

Diluted
 
$
1.10

 
$
3.73

 
$
1.74

——————————
(1) See Non-GAAP Financial Measures below.

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PBF LLC
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Revenues
 
$
27,186,093

 
$
21,786,637

 
$
15,920,424

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products and other
 
24,503,393

 
18,863,621

 
13,598,341

Operating expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below)
 
1,720,959

 
1,684,435

 
1,422,751

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
359,126

 
277,992

 
216,341

Cost of sales
 
26,583,478

 
20,826,048

 
15,237,433

General and administrative expenses (excluding depreciation and amortization expense as reflected below)
 
275,205

 
214,222

 
166,119

Depreciation and amortization expense
 
10,634

 
12,964

 
5,835

(Gain) loss on sale of assets
 
(43,094
)
 
1,458

 
11,374

Total cost and expenses
 
26,826,223

 
21,054,692

 
15,420,761

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from operations
 
359,870

 
731,945

 
499,663

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in fair value of catalyst leases
 
5,587

 
(2,247
)
 
1,422

Debt extinguishment costs
 

 
(25,451
)
 

Interest expense, net
 
(178,421
)
 
(162,383
)
 
(155,819
)
Other non-service components of net periodic benefit cost
 
1,109

 
(1,402
)
 
(580
)
Income before income taxes
 
188,145

 
540,462

 
344,686

Income tax expense (benefit)
 
7,999

 
(10,783
)
 
23,689

Net income
 
180,146

 
551,245

 
320,997

Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
 
42,308

 
51,168

 
40,109

Net income attributable to PBF Energy Company LLC
 
$
137,838

 
$
500,077

 
$
280,888



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Operating Highlights
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Key Operating Information
 
 
 
 
 
 
Production (bpd in thousands)
 
854.5

 
802.9

 
734.3

Crude oil and feedstocks throughput (bpd in thousands)
 
849.7

 
807.4

 
727.7

Total crude oil and feedstocks throughput (millions of barrels)
 
310.0

 
294.7

 
266.4