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YY INC. INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 20-F



(Mark One)    

o

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR 12(G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013.

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

o

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from                        to                        
Commission file number: 001-35729



YY INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



N/A
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Building 3-08, Yangcheng Creative Industry Zone
No. 309 Huangpu Avenue Middle
Tianhe District
Guangzhou 510655
The People's Republic of China
(Address of principal executive offices)
Eric He
Chief Financial Officer
Tel: +86 (20) 2916-2288
E-mail: eric@yy.com
Fax: +86 (20) 2916-2080
Building 3-08, Yangcheng Creative Industry Zone
No. 309 Huangpu Avenue Middle
Tianhe District
Guangzhou 510655
The People's Republic of China
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share   The NASDAQ Stock Market*
*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The NASDAQ Stock Market of the American depositary shares ("ADSs"). Currently, one ADS represents 20 Class A common shares.



Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None
(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None
(Title of Class)



         Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 622,658,738 Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, and 485,831,386 Class B common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, were outstanding as of December 31, 2013.


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         Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ý    No o

         If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of "accelerated filer and large accelerated filer" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

    Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer ý   Non-accelerated filer o    

         Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP ý   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board o   Other o

         If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 o    Item 18 o

         If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

         (APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

         Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes o    No o

   


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

        

 
   
  Page
 

INTRODUCTION

  1
 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

  1
 

PART I

  2
 

ITEM 1.

 

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

  2
 

ITEM 2.

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

  2
 

ITEM 3.

 

KEY INFORMATION

  3
 

ITEM 4.

 

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

  53
 

ITEM 4A.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

  84
 

ITEM 5.

 

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

  84
 

ITEM 6.

 

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

  117
 

ITEM 7.

 

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

  131
 

ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

  136
 

ITEM 9.

 

THE OFFER AND LISTING

  137
 

ITEM 10.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

  139
 

ITEM 11.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

  152
 

ITEM 12.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

  153
 

PART II

  155
 

ITEM 13.

 

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

  155
 

ITEM 14.

 

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

  155
 

ITEM 15.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

  155
 

ITEM 16.

 

[RESERVED]

  156
 

ITEM 16A.

 

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

  156
 

ITEM 16B.

 

CODE OF ETHICS

  156
 

ITEM 16C.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

  156
 

ITEM 16D.

 

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT
COMMITTEES

  157
 

ITEM 16E.

 

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND
AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

  157
 

ITEM 16F.

 

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

  157
 

ITEM 16G.

 

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

  157
 

ITEM 16H.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

  157
 

PART III

  157
 

ITEM 17.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  157
 

ITEM 18.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  157
 

ITEM 19.

 

EXHIBITS

  158

Exhibit 8.1

 

List of Subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities

Exhibit 12.1

 

Certification by the Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Exhibit 12.2

 

Certification by the Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 302 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

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Exhibit 13.1

 

Certification by the Principal Executive Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Exhibit 13.2

 

Certification by the Principal Financial Officer Pursuant to Section 906 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Exhibit 15.1

 

Consent of Conyers Dill & Pearman

Exhibit 15.2

 

Consent of Fangda Partners

Exhibit 15.3

 

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

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INTRODUCTION

        Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

    "we," "us," "our company" and "our" refer to YY Inc., a Cayman Islands company, and its subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities, as the context may require;

    "active user" for any period means a registered user account that has logged onto our platform at least once during such relevant period;

    "concurrent users" for any point in time means the total number of YY users that are simultaneously logged onto our platform at such point in time;

    "paying user" for any period means a registered user account that has purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platform at least once during the relevant period. A paying user is not necessarily a unique user, however, as a unique user may set up multiple paying user accounts on our platform; thus, the number of paying users referred to in this annual report may be higher than the number of unique users who are purchasing virtual items or other products and services;

    "registered user account" means a user account that has downloaded, registered and logged onto our platform at least once since registration. We calculate registered user accounts as the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto our platform at least once after registration. Each individual user may have more than one registered user account, and consequently, the number of registered user accounts we present in this annual report may overstate the number of unique individuals who are our registered users; and

    "unique visitor" to Duowan.com means a visitor to Duowan.com from a specific IP address. No subsequent visits from the same IP address during a relevant period are added to our total unique visitors count for that period. An individual who accesses Duowan.com from more than one IP address is counted as a unique visitor for each IP address he or she uses.


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made under the "safe harbor" provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

        You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as "may," "will," "expect," "is expected to," "anticipate," "aim," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "believe," "is/are likely to" or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

    our growth strategies;

    our ability to retain and increase our user base and expand our product and service offerings;

    our ability to monetize our platform;

    our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

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    competition from companies in a number of industries, including internet companies that provide online voice and video communications services and social networking companies;

    expected changes in our revenues and certain cost or expense items;

    general economic and business condition in China and elsewhere; and

    assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

        You should thoroughly read this annual report and the documents that we refer to herein with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and/or worse than what we expect. Other sections of this annual report, including the Risk Factors and Operating and Financial Review and Prospects sections, discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

        You should not rely upon forward-looking statements we make as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.


PART I

ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

        Not applicable.

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ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION

A. Selected Financial Data

        The following table presents the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the three years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2012 and 2013 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page F-1. Our selected consolidated statements of operation data for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2010 and our consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report. Our selected consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP. Our historical results for any period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period. You should read the following selected financial information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and the information under "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" included elsewhere in this annual report.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2009   2010   2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (All amounts in thousands, except share, ADS, per share and per ADS data)
 

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

                                     

Internet value-added service

                                     

—Online music and entertainment

            52,854     286,446     852,885     140,887  

—Online games

    12,976     86,316     165,933     332,287     602,111     99,462  

—Others

    853     1,282     13,589     83,655     205,212     33,899  

Online advertising

    18,881     40,740     87,279     117,643     163,260     26,969  
                           

Total net revenues

    32,710     128,338     319,655     820,031     1,823,468     301,217  
                           

Cost of revenues(1)

    (28,849 )   (110,062 )   (182,699 )   (416,133 )   (881,999 )   (145,696 )
                           

Gross profit

    3,861     18,276     136,956     403,898     941,469     155,521  
                           

Operating expenses:(1)

                                     

Research and development expenses

    (12,597 )   (49,219 )   (106,804 )   (176,725 )   (267,005 )   (44,106 )

Sales and marketing expenses

    (4,951 )   (12,363 )   (13,381 )   (16,954 )   (24,955 )   (4,122 )

General and administrative expenses

    (32,878 )   (192,222 )   (118,241 )   (109,788 )   (200,554 )   (33,129 )
                           

Total operating expenses

    (50,426 )   (253,804 )   (238,426 )   (303,467 )   (492,514 )   (81,357 )
                           

Operating (loss) income

    (46,565 )   (235,528 )   (99,488 )   102,896     476,033     78,637  
                           

(Loss) income before income tax expenses

    (46,534 )   (236,023 )   (80,455 )   118,061     565,809     93,467  
                           

Net (loss) income attributable to YY Inc. 

    (47,116 )   (238,857 )   (83,156 )   89,177     477,727     78,917  
                           

Amortization of beneficial conversion feature

    (237 )                    

(Accretion) decretion to convertible redeemable preferred shares redemption value

    (283,179 )   (1,808,853 )   (223,663 )   1,293,875          

Allocation of net income to participating preferred shareholders

                (478,754 )        
                           

Net (loss) income attributable to common shareholders

    (330,727 )   (2,047,710 )   (306,819 )   904,298     477,727     78,917  
                           
                           

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  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2009   2010   2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (All amounts in thousands, except share, ADS, per share and per ADS data)
 

Weighted average number of ADS used in calculating net (loss) income per ADS:

                                     

Basic

    20,380,666     20,315,234     24,294,192     30,235,191     56,123,784     56,123,784  

Diluted

    20,380,666     20,315,234     24,294,192     49,623,442     59,056,065     59,056,065  

Net (loss) income per ADS(2):

                                     

Basic

    (16.2 )   (100.80 )   (12.63 )   29.91     8.51     1.41  

Diluted

    (16.2 )   (100.80 )   (12.63 )   1.80     8.09     1.34  

Weighted average number of common shares used in calculating net (loss) income per common share:

                                     

Basic

    407,613,328     406,304,672     485,883,845     604,703,810     1,122,475,688     1,122,475,688  

Diluted

    407,613,328     406,304,672     485,883,845     992,468,836     1,181,121,297     1,181,121,297  

Net (loss) income per common share(2)

                                     

Basic

    (0.81 )   (5.04 )   (0.63 )   1.50     0.43     0.07  

Diluted

    (0.81 )   (5.04 )   (0.63 )   0.09     0.40     0.07  

(1)
Share-based compensation was allocated in cost of revenues and operating expenses as follows:

   
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
   
  2009   2010   2011   2012   2013  
   
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
   
  (in thousands)
 
 

Cost of revenues

    5,269     31,709     15,449     8,407     9,860     1,629  
 

Research and development expenses

    2,475     21,627     31,672     35,441     39,587     6,539  
 

Sales and marketing expenses

    194     1,499     1,336     884     1,318     218  
 

General and administrative expenses

    28,544     182,101     86,544     55,619     66,331     10,957  
                             
 
 

Total

    36,482     236,936     135,001     100,351     117,096     19,343  
                             
 
(2)
Each ADS represents 20 Class A common shares.

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2009   2010   2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  RMB
  US$
 
 
  (in thousands)
 

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

                                     

Cash and cash equivalents

    106,427     83,683     128,891     504,702     729,598     120,521  

Short-term deposits

            472,655     897,698     1,432,863     236,692  

Total assets

    131,003     158,767     745,426     1,696,189     2,597,947     429,150  

Total current liabilities

    52,757     253,001     125,737     366,417     701,313     115,848  

Total mezzanine equity

    448,418     2,257,271     2,480,934              

Class A common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 10,000,000,000 shares authorized, 179,400,000 and 622,658,738 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2012 and 2013, respectively)

                11     38     6  

Class B common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized, 907,833,224 and 485,831,386 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2012 and 2013, respectively)

    14     32     37     60     34     6  

Accumulated deficits

    (370,045 )   (2,350,448 )   (2,433,604 )   (1,311,767 )   (874,697 )   (144,490 )

Total shareholders' (deficits) equity

    (370,172 )   (2,351,505 )   (1,861,693 )   1,323,285     1,887,209     311,745  

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Exchange Rate Information

        Our business is primarily conducted in China and most of our revenues are denominated in RMB. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from RMB to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to RMB in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB6.0537 to US$1.00, the exchange rate on December 31, 2013 as set forth in the H.10 statistical release published by the Federal Reserve Board. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign currency and through restrictions on foreign exchange activities. On March 7, 2014, the exchange rate, as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board, was RMB6.1258 to US$1.00.

        The following table sets forth information concerning exchange rates between the RMB and the U.S. dollar for the periods indicated. These rates are provided solely for your convenience and are not necessarily the exchange rates that we used in this annual report or will use in the preparation of our other periodic reports or any other information to be provided to you.

 
  Noon Buying Rate  
Period
  Period End   Average(1)   Low   High  
 
  (RMB per US$1.00)
 

2009

    6.8259     6.8294     6.8470     6.8176  

2010

    6.6000     6.7696     6.8330     6.6000  

2011

    6.2939     6.3849     6.6364     6.2939  

2012

    6.2301     6.2990     6.3879     6.2221  

2013

    6.0537     6.1412     6.2438     6.0537  

September

    6.1200     6.1198     6.1213     6.1178  

October

    6.0943     6.1032     6.1209     6.0815  

November

    6.0922     6.0929     6.0993     6.0903  

December

    6.0537     6.0738     6.0927     6.0537  

2014

                         

January

    6.0590     6.0509     6.0600     6.0402  

February

    6.1448     6.0816     6.1448     6.0591  

March (through March 7, 2014)

    6.1258     6.1322     6.1460     6.1183  

(1)
Annual averages are calculated from month-end rates. Monthly averages are calculated using the average of the daily rates during the relevant period.

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

        Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

        Not applicable.

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D. Risk Factors

        An investment in our capital stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this annual report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our capital stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our business is based on a relatively new business model that may not be successful.

        Many of the elements of our business are unique, evolving and relatively unproven. The markets for our technology, especially our voice- and video-based technology, and products and services are relatively new and rapidly developing and are subject to significant challenges. Our business plan relies heavily upon increased revenues from internet value-added services, or IVAS, as well as our ability to successfully monetize our user base and products and services, and we may not succeed in any of these respects.

        Some of our current monetization methods are in a relatively preliminary stage. If we fail to properly manage the supply and timing of our in-game virtual items and the appropriate price points for these products and services, our users may be less likely to purchase in-game virtual items from us. For non-game virtual items, we consider industry standards and expected user demand in determining how to most effectively optimize virtual item merchandizing. Furthermore, as the online music and entertainment industry in China is relatively young and untested, there are few proven methods of projecting user demand or available industry standards on which we can rely. We cannot assure you that our attempts to monetize our user base and products and services will be successful, profitable or widely accepted and therefore the future revenue and income potential of our business are difficult to evaluate.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies, in which case our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        We have experienced a period of significant rapid growth and expansion that has placed, and continues to place, significant strain on our management and resources. We cannot assure you that this level of significant growth will be sustainable or achieved at all in the future. We believe that our continued growth will depend on our ability to develop new sources of revenue, increase monetization, attract new users, retain and expand paying users, encourage additional purchases by our paying users, continue developing innovative technologies in response to user demand, increase brand awareness through marketing and promotional activities, react to changes in user access to and use of the internet, expand into new market segments, integrate new devices, platforms and operating systems, attract new advertisers and retain existing advertisers and take advantage of any growth in the relevant markets. We cannot assure you that we will achieve any of the above.

        To manage our growth and attain and maintain profitability, we anticipate that we will need to implement a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, including the improvement of our accounting and other internal management systems. We will also need to further expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with users, third party game developers, advertisers and strategic partners. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require substantial management efforts and skills and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our growth or implement our future business strategies effectively, and failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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We have experienced net losses in the past, and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries in China with limited operating histories may be exposed to or encounter, including possible volatility in the trading prices of our ADSs.

        We had a net loss of RMB83.2 million in 2011, and a net income of RMB89.2 million and RMB477.7 million (US$78.9 million) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our net losses and income reflect the aggregate impact of non-cash items relating to share-based compensation, amortization of intangible assets and depreciation. In addition to the aggregate impact of these non-cash items, our results of operations for these periods were affected by costs and expenses required to build, operate and expand our platform, grow our user base, develop products and services, license third party products and services and make strategic investments. We expect that we will continue to incur costs and expenses such as research and development costs to launch new services and increasing bandwidth costs to support our video function, grow our user and advertiser base and generally expand our business operations. We have become profitable since 2012, and may not generate sufficient revenues to offset such costs to achieve or sustain profitability in the future. In addition, we expect to invest heavily in our operations to support our anticipated future growth and to meet our expanded reporting and compliance obligations as a public company.

        Our profitability is also affected by other factors beyond our control. The continued success of our platform depends on our ability to identify which IVAS will appeal to our user base and to obtain them on commercially acceptable terms. Our ability to finance our planned expansion also depends in part on our ability to convert active users into paying users and increase the average revenue per paying user, or ARPU, and successfully compete in a very competitive market.

        We have a limited operating history. We introduced YY Client in July 2008 and have experienced a high growth rate since then. As a result, our historical results of operations may not provide a meaningful basis for evaluating our business, financial performance and future prospects. We may not be able to achieve similar growth rates in future periods. Accordingly, you should not rely on our results of operations for any prior periods as an indication of our future performance. We may again incur net losses in the future and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries in China with limited operating histories such as ours may be exposed to or encounter, including risks associated with being a public company with business operations located mainly in China. See "—Risks Related to Our ADSs—The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors."

We have and expect to become more dependent on revenues from IVAS. If our IVAS revenues decline in the future, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        A majority of our revenues have shifted to IVAS from online advertising due to the increasing popularity of online music and entertainment and an increase in the number of online game virtual items a user may purchase. We therefore have and expect to become more dependent on revenues from IVAS. Any decline in IVAS revenues may materially and adversely affect our results of operations. See "—The revenue model for each of our online music and entertainment and our membership program is relatively new and may not remain effective, which may affect our ability to retain existing users and attract new users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations" and "—The revenue model we adopt for online games may not remain effective, causing us to lose game players, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations."

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The revenue model for each of our online music and entertainment and our membership program is relatively new and may not remain effective, which may affect our ability to retain existing users and attract new users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We operate an online music and entertainment platform using a virtual items-based revenue model whereby users can listen to music and access other forms of entertainment for free, and have the option of purchasing in-channel virtual items. We have generated, and expect to continue to generate, a substantial majority of our online and entertainment revenues using this revenue model. Online music and entertainment has begun to contribute an increasingly larger portion of our total net revenues. In 2013, online music and entertainment contributed 46.8% of our total net revenues.

        We may not be able to continue successfully implementing the virtual items-based revenue model for online music and entertainment, as popular performers may leave our platform and we may be unable to attract new talent that can attract users or cause such users to increase the amount of time spent engaging and money spent on purchasing in-channel virtual items on our platform.

        Furthermore, under our current arrangements with certain popular performers and channel owners, we share with them a portion of the revenues we derive from the sales of in-channel virtual items on our online music and entertainment platform. In the future, the amount we pay to these performers and channel owners may increase or we may fail to reach mutually acceptable terms with these performers or channel owners, which may adversely affect our revenues or cause performers and channel owners to leave our platform. In addition, we are currently a pioneer in offering an online concert platform to music performers and YY users. However, if our users decide to access online music and entertainment content provided by our current or future competitors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        In our membership program, users pay a flat monthly subscription fee in order to become members, and in exchange, we give them access to various privileges and enhanced features on our channels, including additional video usage, priority entrance to certain live performances, and exclusive rights to access VIP avatars, VIP ring-tones, VIP fonts and VIP emoticons. However, we may not be able to further build or maintain our membership base in the future for various reasons—for example, if we fail to continue to provide innovative products and services that are attractive to members, we may not be able to retain them and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The revenue model we adopt for online games may not remain effective, causing us to lose game players, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We currently operate substantially all of our online games on YY using the virtual items-based revenue model, whereby players can play games for free, but have the option of purchasing in-game virtual items and in-game accessories. We have generated, and expect to continue to generate, a substantial majority of our online game revenues using this revenue model. However, we may not be able to continue successfully implementing the virtual items-based revenue model as we may not be able to develop or obtain the rights to host online games that attract game players or cause such game players to increase the amount of time spent playing and the amount of money spent on purchasing in-game virtual items. The sale of virtual items requires us to closely track game players' tastes and preferences and in-game consumption patterns. If we fail to offer popular virtual items, we may not be able to effectively convert our game player base into paying users or encourage existing paying users to spend more on YY.

        In addition, PRC regulators have been implementing regulations designed to reduce the amount of time that youths in China spend playing online games. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System." A revenue model that does not charge for playing time may be viewed by the PRC regulators as inconsistent with this goal. If we were to start charging for playing time, we may lose game players

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who may choose to play online games from other providers and on other platforms or choose to engage in other alternative forms of entertainment, including traditional offline personal computers, or PCs, or video games.

        We cannot assure you that the revenue model that we have adopted for any of our online games will continue to be suitable, or that we will not in the future need to change our revenue model or introduce a new revenue model. We may change the revenue model for some of our online games if we believe the existing models are not generating adequate revenues. A change in revenue model could result in various adverse consequences, including disruptions of our online game operations, criticism from game players who have invested time and money in a game, a decrease in the number of our game players and a decrease in the revenues we generate from our online games. Therefore, such a change in revenue model may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of popular online games. If we cannot continue to offer these popular games for any reason, if we are unable to successfully source new online games, if the terms of the revenue-sharing arrangements become less favorable, or if the number of our paying users for online games declines or ceases to grow for any reason, our revenues from online games may decrease, and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of popular online games on YY, primarily through selling of game tokens to users for their purchase of in-game virtual items. For example, DDTank, one of our most popular online games, contributed 46.5%, 15.7% and 8.2% of our online game revenues in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. A majority of our popular online games are created by third party game developers under revenue-sharing arrangements that typically last one to two years, and which typically provide for automatic extension or renewal. If we fail to maintain or renew these contracts on acceptable terms or at all, we may be unable to continue offering these popular online games, and our operating results will be adversely affected. In addition, if our users decide to access these games through our competitors, or if they prefer other online games hosted by our competitors, our operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

        Our revenues from online games accounted for 51.9%, 40.5% and 33.0% of our total net revenues in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. We believe that most online games have a limited commercial lifespan. For instance, we believe that DDTank, launched in March 2009, is in a relatively mature stage of its commercial lifespan, and that the revenues we derive from it may decrease in the future. As a result, we must continually source new online games that appeal to our game players. We had previously developed some of our online games internally but source our new online games primarily through revenue-sharing arrangements with third party game developers. We must maintain good relationships with our third party game developers to have access to new popular games with reasonable revenue-sharing terms. Under our current revenue-sharing arrangements, we retain a majority of the gross revenues generated from each particular game. In the future, we may not be able to achieve similarly attractive revenue-sharing terms, which may adversely affect our net revenues. Additionally, we depend upon these third party game developers to provide the technical support necessary to operate their online games on our platform and to develop updates and expansion packs to sustain player interest in a game. Most of our third party game developers have limited operating histories and financial resources, and the contracts we enter into with them do not clearly provide for remedies to us in the event they fail to deliver the games as scheduled.

        If we are not successful in sourcing and providing popular new online games, our revenues from online games under revenue-sharing arrangements and in-game virtual items may decrease. If this were to happen, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We generate a portion of our revenues from online advertising. If we fail to attract more advertisers to our platform or if advertisers are less willing to advertise with us, our revenues, profitability and prospects may be adversely affected.

        In 2011, 2012 and 2013, online advertising accounted for 27.3%, 14.3% and 9.0%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Although we have become less dependent upon online advertising revenues due to a shift in the majority of our revenues from online advertising to IVAS, our profitability and prospects still partly depend on the continuous development of the online advertising industry in China and advertisers' allocation of budgets to internet advertising. In addition, companies that decide to advertise online may utilize more established methods or channels for online advertising, such as more established Chinese internet portals or search engines, over advertising on our platform. If the online advertising market size does not increase from current levels, or if we are unable to capture and retain a sufficient share of that market, our ability to maintain or increase our current level of online advertising revenues and our profitability and prospects could be adversely affected. These risks may affect our revenues because we intend to offer new and different forms of online advertising in addition to online game-related advertising on Duowan.com from which we have historically derived the majority of our revenues.

        We offer advertising services substantially through contracts entered into with third party advertising agencies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to retain existing direct advertisers or advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and advertising agencies. Since our arrangements with third party advertising agencies typically involve one-year framework agreements, these advertising arrangements may be easily amended or terminated without incurring liabilities. Failure to retain existing advertisers and advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and direct advertising agencies may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have granted employee stock options and other share-based awards in the past and will continue to do so in the future. We recognize share-based compensation expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP, which have had and may continue to have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

        We have granted share-based compensation awards, including share options, restricted shares and restricted share units, to various employees, key personnel and other non-employees to incentivize performance and align their interests with ours. Under our 2009 employee equity incentive scheme, or the 2009 Scheme, we are authorized to grant options or restricted shares to purchase a maximum of 120,020,001 common shares. Under our 2011 share incentive plan, or the 2011 Plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted shares or restricted share units to purchase a maximum of 43,000,000 common shares, plus an annual increase of 20,000,000 common shares on the first day of each fiscal year, beginning from 2013, or such smaller number of Class A common shares as determined by our board of directors. As of February 28, 2014, options to purchase 13,222,005 common shares, 32,775,503 restricted shares and 48,863,978 restricted share units were outstanding under the 2009 Scheme and the 2011 Plan. As a result of these grants and potential future grants, we had incurred in the past and expect to continue to incur significant share-based compensation expenses in the future. The amount of these expenses is based on the fair value of the share-based awards. We account for compensation costs for certain share-based compensation awards granted in the past using a graded-vesting method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP. The expenses associated with share-based compensation materially increased our net losses or reduced our net income in the past, and may reduce our net income in the future. In addition, any additional securities issued under share-based compensation schemes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs. However, if we limit the scope of the share-based compensation schemes, we may not be able to attract or retain key personnel who expect to be compensated by options, restricted shares or restricted share units.

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The rate at which we gain registered user accounts may decline, the number of active users we have may fluctuate and we may fail to attract more paying users, which may materially and adversely affect our revenues growth, results of operations and financial condition.

        We had 266.2 million, 457.0 million and 700.0 million registered user accounts as of December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The number of registered user accounts increased by 190.8 million, representing a 71.7% increase from December 31, 2011 to December 31, 2012 and further increased by 243.0 million, representing a 53.2% increase from December 31, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Although we experienced a larger increase of 243.0 million in registered user accounts for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to the 190.8 million in registered user accounts for the year ended December 31, 2012 or to the 141.5 million increase for the year ended December 31, 2011, the rate at which we gained registered user accounts declined from 113.5% for the year ended December 31, 2011 to 71.7% for the year ended December 31, 2012, and further decreased to 53.2% for the year ended December 31, 2013. We believe that the growth rate declined as our total registered user account base continued to grow.

        The number of our average monthly active users increased by 34.3% to 69.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2012 and by 32.4% to 92.3 million for the three months ended December 31, 2013. However, the rate at which we gained monthly active users declined. We believe that the decline in growth rate was because we had a larger number of average monthly active users while we continued to attract similar levels of new monthly active users during such periods.

        However, we may fail to attract new registered user accounts at a similar rate in the future and the number of our monthly active users may substantially fluctuate from time to time. If we are unable to attract new registered users and retain them as active users and convert non-paying active users into paying users, our revenues may fail to grow and our results of operations and financial condition may suffer.

We may not be able to keep our users highly engaged, which may reduce our monetization opportunities and materially and adversely affect our revenues, profitability and prospects.

        Our success depends on our ability to maintain and grow our user base and keep our users highly engaged. In order to attract and retain users and remain competitive, we must continue to innovate our products and services, implement new technologies and functionalities and improve the features of our platform in order to entice users to use our products and services more frequently and for longer durations.

        The internet industry is characterized by constant changes, including rapid technological evolution, continual shifts in customer demands, frequent introductions of new products and services and constant emergence of new industry standards and practices. Thus our success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to these changes on a cost-effective and timely basis; failure to do so may cause our user base to shrink and user engagement level to decline and our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. For example, our plan to more fully extend online video-enabled services across our real-time interactive social platform and retain the ability to offer high quality delivery of voice and video data may cause us to incur significant additional costs and may not succeed.

        Because of the viral nature of online social interactions, users may leave us for competitors' platforms more quickly than in other online sectors. A decrease in the number of active YY users may reduce the diversity and vibrancy of our platform's online social ecosystem and affect our user-generated channels, which may in turn reduce our monetization opportunities and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We cannot assure you that our platform will continue to be sufficiently popular with our users to offset the costs incurred to operate and expand it. User satisfaction is particularly difficult to predict as internet users in China may not be familiar with the concept of a real-time interactive social platform such as ours which provides real-time voice, text and video online. We have historically relied on word

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of mouth referrals to increase user awareness of our products and services and to expand our user base. If we decide to engage in more conventional advertising or marketing campaigns, our sales and marketing expenses will increase, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Failure to maintain or grow our user base in a cost-effective manner, or at all, and keep our users highly engaged would materially and negatively affect our results of operations.

We face competition in several major aspects of our business. If we fail to compete effectively, we may lose users and advertisers which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        We face competition in several major aspects of our business, particularly from companies that provide social networking, internet communication services and online games. Some of our competitors may have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do, and in turn may have an advantage in attracting and retaining users and advertisers. In addition, competitors in some areas of our business may have significantly larger user bases and more established brand names than we do and may be able to more effectively leverage their user bases and brand names to provide integrated social networking, internet communication, online games and other products and services, and thereby increase their respective market shares.

        We may face potential competition from global online social networking service providers that seek to enter the China market, whether independently or through the formation of alliances with, or acquisition of, PRC domestic internet companies. In relation to voice-enabled technology, several internet voice communication service providers in China, including iSpeak, Tencent's QQtalk and Dudu, and leading international internet voice communication service providers, such as Skype, are expanding in the China market, and some other leading Chinese internet companies have announced the launch of internet voice communication services. Competition in the online game media market in China and the overseas markets is also intense. Duowan.com's primary competitor is 17173.com. Our competitors also include other major platforms that host online games, such as QQ and Qihoo 360. In addition, we compete with other internet companies that provide voice and video services to Chinese internet users.

        If we are not able to effectively compete in any of our lines of business, our overall user base and level of user engagement may decrease, which could reduce our paying users or make us less attractive to advertisers. We may be required to spend additional resources to further increase our brand recognition and promote our products and services, and such additional spending could adversely affect our profitability. Furthermore, if we are involved in disputes with any of our competitors that result in negative publicity to us, such disputes, regardless of their veracity or outcome, may harm our reputation or brand image and in turn lead to reduced number of users and advertisers. Any legal proceedings or measures we take in response to such disputes may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations and divert our management's attention.

        Our competitors may unilaterally decide to adopt a wide range of measures targeted at us, including possibly designing their products to negatively impact our operations, such as sending virus-like programs to attack elements of our platform. Some competitors may also make their applications incompatible with ours, effectively requiring users to either stop using our competitors' products or uninstall our products, leading to a reduction in our number of users. For example, in a widely publicized dispute between two of the largest companies providing user-end software in China, one of the companies announced that it would disable its own software on computers that had installed its rival's products. As a result, a significant number of users stopped using products from either or both of these companies. Due to the large number of internet users that were affected, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China, or the MIIT, ordered the parties to ensure the compatibility of the relevant products. Similar events may occur in the future between our competitors and us, which may reduce our market share, negatively affect our brand and reputation, and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Spammers and malicious applications may affect user experience, which could reduce our ability to attract users and advertisers and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Spammers may use YY to send targeted and untargeted spam messages to users, which may affect user experience. As a result, our users may use our products and services less or stop using them altogether. In spamming activities, spammers typically create multiple user accounts for the purpose of sending spam messages. Although we attempt to identify and delete accounts created for spamming purposes, we may not be able to effectively eliminate all spam messages from our platform in a timely fashion. Any spamming activities could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We use third party services and technologies in connection with our business, and any disruption to the provision of these services and technologies to us could result in adverse publicity and a slowdown in the growth of our users, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Our business depends upon services provided by, and relationships with, third parties. A significant portion of our IVAS revenues is generated from online music and entertainment and online games. If we are unable to retain or attract popular talents such as performers, channel managers and hosts for online music and entertainment channels or if these talents cannot draw fans or participants, our results of operations may be adversely affected. Also, if channel owners are unable to reach or maintain mutually satisfactory cooperation arrangements with the performers on their channels, we may lose popular performers and our business and operations may be adversely affected. Furthermore, if we are unable to obtain or retain rights to host popular online games or popular in-game virtual items, or if we are required to share a bigger portion of our revenues with third party game developers, we could be required to devote greater resources and time to obtain hosting rights for new games and applications from other parties, and our results of operations may be impacted. In addition, some third party software we use in our operations are currently publicly available without charge. If the owner of any such software decides to charge users or no longer makes the software publicly available, we may need to incur significant cost to license the software, find replacement software or develop it on our own. If we are unable to find or develop replacement software at a reasonable cost, or at all, our business and operations may be adversely affected.

        Some of the games offered on our platform run on a complex network of servers located in and maintained by third party data centers throughout China and our overall network relies on broadband connections provided by third party operators. We expect this dependence on third parties to continue. The networks maintained and services provided by such third parties are vulnerable to damage or interruption, which could impact our results of operations. See "—System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected."

        Furthermore, we generate substantially all of our online advertising revenues through agreements entered into with various third party advertising agencies that represent advertisers. We do not have long-term cooperation agreements or exclusive arrangements with these agencies and they may elect to direct business opportunities to other advertising service providers. If we fail to retain and enhance our business relationships with these third party advertising agencies, we may suffer from a loss of advertisers and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        In addition, we sell a significant portion of our products and services through third party online payment systems. If any of these third party online payment systems suffer from security breaches, users may lose confidence in such payment systems and refrain from purchasing our virtual items

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online, in which case our results of operations would be negatively impacted. See "—The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations."

        We exercise no control over the third parties with whom we have business arrangements. If such third parties increase their prices, fail to provide their services effectively, terminate their service or agreements or discontinue their relationships with us, we could suffer service interruptions, reduced revenues or increased costs, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        Although we seek to reduce the possibility of disruptions or other outages, our services may be disrupted by problems with our own technology and system, such as malfunctions in our software or other facilities and network overload. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from telecommunication failures, power loss, computer attacks or viruses, earthquakes, floods, fires, terrorist attacks and similar events. We have experienced system failures, including a partial system outage in 2009 caused by hackers hired by a competing business intending to maliciously overwhelm and clog our servers and our routing system. Those responsible were subsequently found guilty and penalized by the PRC courts and we have subsequently updated our system to make it more difficult for similar attacks to succeed in the future, but we cannot assure you that there will be no similar failures in the future. Parts of our system are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. Despite any precaution we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems at our hosting facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our products and services. Any interruption in the ability of our users to use our products and services could reduce our future revenues, harm our future profits, subject us to regulatory scrutiny and lead users to seek alternative forms of online social interactions.

        Our servers that process user payments experience some downtime on a regular basis, which may negatively affect our brand and user perception of the reliability of our systems. Any scheduled or unscheduled interruption in the ability of users to use our payment systems could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues.

        Almost all internet access in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the control and supervision of the MIIT, and we use a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. Internet data centers in China are generally owned by telecommunication service providers with their own broadband networks and are leased to various customers through third party agents. These third party agents negotiate the terms of the leases, enter into lease agreements with end customers, handle customer interactions and manage the data centers on behalf of the data center owners. In the past, we signed data center lease agreements with multiple third party agents. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to purchase more bandwidth and upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our websites and increasing user levels on our platform overall. We cannot assure you that the telecommunications providers whose networks we lease or the third party agents that operate our data centers would be able to accommodate all of our requests for more bandwidth or upgraded infrastructure or network, or that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in our internet usage.

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        Our users may use our products or services for critical transactions and communications, especially business communications. As a result, any system failures could result in damage to such users' businesses. These users could seek significant compensation from us for their losses. Even if unsuccessful, this type of claim likely would be time consuming and costly for us to address.

        We have limited control over the prices of the services provided by telecommunication service providers and may have limited access to alternative networks or services. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to our platform, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers' decisions on the amount spent on advertising with us.

        We do not operate our platform on a real-name basis and therefore we cannot and do not track the number of unique paying users. Instead, we track the number of registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors. We calculate certain operating metrics in the following ways: (a) the number of registered user accounts is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto our platform at least once after registration, (b) the number of active users is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have signed onto our platform at least once during the relevant period, (c) the number of paying users is the cumulative number of registered user accounts that have purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platform at least once during the relevant period, and (d) the number of unique visitors is the number of visits to Duowan.com from specific IP addresses for the relevant period, with each IP address counting as a separate unique visitor. The actual number of unique individual users, however, is likely to be lower than that of registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors, potentially significantly, for three primary reasons. First, each individual user may register more than once and therefore have more than one account, and sign onto each of these accounts during a given period. For example, a user may (a) create separate accounts for community and personal use and log onto each account at different times for different activities or (b) if he or she lost his or her original username or password, he or she can simply register again and create an additional account. Second, we experience irregular registration activities such as the creation of a significant number of improper user accounts by a limited number of individuals, which may be in violation of our policies, including for the purpose of clogging our network or posting spam to our channels. We believe that some of these accounts may also be created for specific purposes such as to increase the number of votes for certain performers in various contests, but the number of registered user accounts, paying users and active users do not exclude user accounts created for such purposes. We have limited ability to validate or confirm the accuracy of information provided during the user registration process to ascertain whether a new user account created was actually created by an existing user who is registering duplicative accounts. Third, each individual user may access Duowan.com from more than one IP address; although subsequent visits from the same IP address do not add to our total unique visitors count, each new IP address used by an individual would be counted as a different unique visitor to Duowan.com. For example, a user would be counted as a unique visitor three times if he or she accessed Duowan.com from the user's home computer, office computer and mobile phone. Thus, the respective number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users and unique visitors may overstate the number of unique individuals who register on our platform, sign onto our platform, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platform and access Duowan.com, respectively which may lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric.

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        In addition, we may be unable to track whether we are successfully converting registered users or active users into paying users since we do not track the number of unique individuals or operate our platform on a real-name basis. If the growth in the number of our registered user accounts, active users, paying users or unique visitors is lower than the actual growth in the number of unique individual registered, active or paying users or unique visitors, our user engagement level, sales of IVAS and our business may not grow as quickly as we expect, and advertisers may reduce the amount spent on advertising with us, which may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, such overstatement may cause inaccurate evaluation of our business operations by our management and by investors, which may also materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to successfully capture and retain the growing number of users that access internet services through mobile devices or successfully monetize Mobile YY, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        YY is now available to users from PCs as well as mobile devices. An increasing number of users are accessing our platform through Mobile YY. For example, the number of downloads that Mobile YY had each month increased from 3.3 million in January 2013 to 5.2 million in December 2013, and the number of downloads that Mobile YY had as of December 31, 2013 was 79.7 million. Mobile YY does not require users to log in to their user accounts to use its general features of listening to different types of performances, but requires users to log in to their user accounts to access features that involve active user participation, including chatting and sending virtual flowers to performers free of charge. An important element of our strategy is to continue to further develop enhanced features for Mobile YY to capture a greater share of the growing number of users that access internet services such as ours through mobile devices.

        As new laptops, mobile devices and operating systems are continually being released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing versions of our products and services for use on these devices and operating systems, and we may need to devote significant resources to create, support and maintain these services. Devices providing access to our products and services are not manufactured and sold by us, and we cannot assure you that the companies manufacturing or selling these devices would always ensure that their devices perform reliably and are maximally compatible with our systems. Any faulty connection between these devices and our products and services may result in consumer dissatisfaction with us, which could damage our brand and have a material and adverse effect on our financial results. In addition, the lower resolution, functionality and memory associated with some mobile devices make the use of our products and services through such devices more difficult and the versions of our products and services we develop for these devices may fail to attract users. Manufacturers or distributors may establish unique technical standards for their devices and, as a result, Mobile YY may not work or be viewable on these devices. Furthermore, new social platforms or services may emerge which are specifically created to function on mobile operating systems, as compared to our platform that was originally designed to be accessed from PCs, and such new entrants may operate more effectively on mobile devices than Mobile YY does.

        Although we have only recently begun to monetize Mobile YY, if we are unable to attract and retain the increasing number of Mobile YY users, or if we are slower than our competitors in developing attractive services adaptable for mobile devices, we may fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market or may lose existing users. In addition, even if we are able to retain the increasing number of Mobile YY users, we may not be able to successfully monetize them in the future. For example, because of the inherent limitations of mobile devices, such as a smaller display screen space as compared to PCs, we may not be able to provide as many kinds of virtual items on Mobile YY as we can on YY Client, which may limit the monetization potential of Mobile YY. In addition, for the benefit of user experience, we do not currently intend to monetize Mobile YY by placing advertisements on Mobile YY. We believe that advertising on Mobile YY may

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clutter the user interface and distract users from their in-channel activities. This restriction on advertisements may also limit Mobile YY's ability to generate revenues. Any of the above may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Growth in the use of Mobile YY, where our ability to monetize is unproven, as a substitute for the use of YY platform on PCs may negatively affect our revenues and financial results.

        Although we believe users are unlikely to entirely migrate to Mobile YY and cease to use YY through PCs, and that most of our Mobile YY users also access our YY platform through PCs, we cannot assure you that the increasing usage of Mobile YY will not cause Mobile YY users to cease accessing the YY platform from PCs. Although we have started generating revenues from Mobile YY in the third quarter of 2013, we plan to further monetize it by selling virtual items on Mobile YY in the future, and we cannot ensure that such plans will be commercially successful when we launch them. If we are unable to successfully monetize Mobile YY, and if a significant number of users migrate to Mobile YY as a substitute for accessing the YY platform through PCs, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be negatively affected.

Concerns about collection and use of personal data could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our products and services, which could lead to lower advertising revenues or lower IVAS revenues.

        Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use or disclosure of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and operating results. We apply strict management and protection for any information provided by users and, under our privacy policy, without our users' prior consent, we will not provide any of our users' personal information to any unrelated third party. While we strive to comply with our privacy guidelines as well as all applicable data protection laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against us by government entities or others, and could damage our reputation. User and regulatory attitudes towards privacy are evolving, and future regulatory or user concerns about the extent to which personal information is used or shared with advertisers or others may adversely affect our ability to share certain data with advertisers, which may limit certain methods of targeted advertising. Concerns about the security of personal data could also lead to a decline in general internet usage, which could lead to lower registered, active or paying user numbers on our platform. For example, if the PRC government authorities require real-name registration for YY Client users, the growth of our user numbers may slow and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies." A significant reduction in registered, active or paying user numbers could lead to lower advertising revenues or lower IVAS revenues, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

        Currently, we sell all of our IVAS to our users through third party online payment systems. In the year ended December 31, 2013, 91.0% of our total net revenues were derived from IVAS. We expect that an increasing amount of our sales will be conducted over the internet as a result of the growing use of online payment systems. In all these online payment transactions, secured transmission of confidential information such as customers' credit card numbers and personal information over public networks is essential to maintain consumer confidence.

        We do not have control over the security measures of our third party online payment vendors, and security breaches of the online payment systems that we use could expose us to litigation and possible liability for failing to secure confidential customer information and could, among other things, damage

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our reputation and the perceived security of all of the online payment systems that we use. If a well-publicized internet or mobile network security breach were to occur, users concerned about the security of their online financial transactions may become reluctant to purchase our virtual items even if the publicized breach did not involve payment systems or methods used by us. In addition, there may be billing software errors that would damage customer confidence in these online payment systems. If any of the above were to occur and damage our reputation or the perceived security of the online payment systems we use, we may lose paying users and users may be discouraged from purchasing our IVAS, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.

        In addition, there are currently only a limited number of third party online payment systems in China. If any of these major payment systems decides to significantly increase the percentage they charge us for using their payment systems for our virtual items and other services, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our core values of focusing on user experience and satisfaction first and acting for the long-term may conflict with the short-term operating results of our business, and also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties.

        One of our core values is to focus on user experience and satisfaction, which we believe is essential to our success and serves the best, long-term interests of our company and our shareholders. Therefore, we have made, and may make in the future, significant investments or changes in strategy that we think will benefit our users, even if our decision negatively impacts our operating results in the short-term. For example, in order to provide users of YY Client with uninterrupted entertainment options, we do not place significant advertising on YY Client. While this decision adversely affects our operating results in the short-term, we believe it enables us to provide higher quality user experience on YY Client, which will help us expand and maintain our current large user base and create better monetizing potential in the long-term. In addition, this philosophy of putting our users first may also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties, and may not result in the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case the success of our business and operating results could be harmed.

Trademarks registered, internet search engine keywords purchased and domain names registered by third parties that are similar to our trademarks, brands or websites could cause confusion to our users, divert online customers away from our products and services or harm our reputation.

        Competitors and other third parties may purchase (a) trademarks that are similar to our trademarks and (b) keywords that are confusingly similar to our brands or websites in internet search engine advertising programs and in the header and text of the resulting sponsored links or advertisements in order to divert potential customers from us to their websites. Preventing such unauthorized use is inherently difficult. If we are unable to prevent such unauthorized use, competitors and other third parties may continue to drive potential online customers away from our platform to competing, irrelevant or potentially offensive platforms, which could harm our reputation and cause us to lose revenue.

We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our platform, or distributed to our users, and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform.

        Our real-time interactive social platform enables users to exchange information, generate content, advertise products and services, conduct business and engage in various other online activities. However, our platform does not require real-name registration by our users and because a majority of the communications on our platform is conducted in real time, we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by users before they are posted. Therefore, it is possible that users may engage in illegal, obscene or incendiary conversations or

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activities, including the publishing of inappropriate or illegal content, that may be deemed unlawful under PRC laws and regulations on our platform. If any content on our platform is deemed illegal, obscene or incendiary, or if appropriate licenses and third party consents have not been obtained, claims may be brought against us for defamation, libel, negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement, other unlawful activities or other theories and claims based on the nature and content of the information delivered on or otherwise accessed through our platforms. For example, we have occasionally received fines for certain inappropriate materials placed by third parties on our platform, and may be subject to similar fines and penalties in the future. We also may face liability for copyright or trademark infringement, fraud, and other claims based on the nature and content of the materials that are delivered, shared or otherwise accessed through or published on our platform. Defending any such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources. In addition, if they find that we have not adequately managed the content on our platform, PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Information Security and Censorship" and "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights."

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.

        Third party owners or right holders of technology patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and website content may assert intellectual property infringement or other claims against us. In addition, content generated through our platform, including real-time content, may also potentially cause disputes regarding content ownership or intellectual property. For example, we could face copyright infringement claims with respect to songs performed live, recorded or made accessible on our music and entertainment platform. We generated approximately 34.9% and 46.8% of our total net revenues in 2012 and 2013, respectively, from online music and entertainment.

        The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights in internet-related industries, particularly in China, are uncertain and still evolving. As we face increasing competition and as litigation becomes a more common way to resolve disputes in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, online service providers which provide storage space for users to upload works or links to other services or content could be held liable for copyright infringement under various circumstances, including situations where an online service provider knows or should reasonably have known that the relevant content uploaded or linked to on its platform infringes the copyrights of others and the provider realizes economic benefits from such infringement activities. The "knows or should reasonably have known" element would be fulfilled under some statutorily specified circumstances. For example, online service providers are subject to liability if they fail to take necessary measures, such as deletion, blocking or disconnection, after receiving notification from the legal right holders. In particular, there have been cases in China in which the courts have found an online service provider to be liable for the copyrighted content posted by users which were accessible and stored on such provider's servers. On the other hand, to our knowledge, there is currently no precedent or settled court practice which provides clear guidance as to whether a real-time online platform such as YY would be held liable for the unauthorized posting or live performances of copyrighted content by our users. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights."

        We have implemented procedures to reduce the likelihood that we may use, develop or make available any content or applications without the proper licenses or necessary third party consents; such procedures include requiring performers, channel owners and users to acknowledge and agree that they would not perform or upload copyrighted content without proper authorization and that they will

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indemnify us for any relevant copyright infringement claims. However, these procedures may not be effective in preventing unauthorized posting or use of copyrighted content on our platform or the infringement of other third party rights. Specifically, such acknowledgments and agreements by performers, channel owners and users are not enforceable against third parties who may nevertheless file claims of copyright infringement against us. Furthermore, individual performers or channel owners who generate content that may infringe on copyrights of third parties on our platform may not be easily traceable, if at all, by a plaintiff who may then choose to file a claim against us, and these individual performers and channel owners may not have resources to fully indemnify us, if at all, for any such claims. In addition, we have entered into revenue-sharing arrangements in the form of direct or indirect employment agreements with some of the popular singers, performers or channel owners on our platform, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts will not view these singers, performers or channel owners as our employees or agents, deem us to have control over their activities on our platform and the content they upload or otherwise make available on our platform, determine that we have knowingly uploaded such infringing content on our platform and hold us directly liable for their infringement activities on our platform. Separately, as our business expands, the cost of carrying out these procedures and obtaining authorization and licenses for the growing content on our platform may increase, which may potentially have material and adverse effects on our results of operations.

        Although we have not been subject to claims or lawsuits outside China, we cannot assure you that we will not become subject to intellectual property laws in other jurisdictions, such as the United States, by virtue of our ADSs being listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, the ability of users to access our platform in the United States and other jurisdictions, the performance of songs and other content which are subject to copyright and other intellectual property laws of countries outside China, including the United States, the ownership of our ADSs by investors in the United States and other jurisdictions, or the extraterritorial application of foreign law by foreign courts or otherwise. In addition, as a publicly listed company, we may be exposed to increased risk of litigation.

        If an infringement claim brought against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdiction is successful, we may be required to pay substantial statutory penalties or other damages and fines, remove relevant content from our platform or enter into license agreements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Litigation or other claims against us also subject us to adverse publicity which could harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract and retain users, including channel owners, singers and other performers, which could materially and adversely affect the popularity of our platform and therefore, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully halt the operations of platforms that aggregate our data as well as data from other companies, including social networks, or "copycat" platforms that have misappropriated our data in the past or may misappropriate our data in the future. Those platforms may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects on our business operations.

        From time to time, third parties have misappropriated our data through scraping our platform, robots or other means and aggregated this data on their platforms with data from other companies. In addition, "copycat" platforms or client applications have misappropriated data on our platform, implanted Trojan viruses in user PCs to steal user data from YY Client and attempted to imitate our brand or the functionality of our platform. When we became aware of such platforms, we employed technological and legal measures in an attempt to halt their operations. However, we may not be able to detect all such platforms in a timely manner and, even if we could, technological and legal measures may be insufficient to stop their operations. In those cases, our available remedies may not be adequate to protect us against such platforms. Regardless of whether we can successfully enforce our rights against these platforms, any measures that we may take could require significant financial or other

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resources from us. Those platforms may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects to our business operations.

We may not be able to prevent others from unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

        We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. As of December 31, 2013, we had registered 73 domain names, including YY.com, Duowan.com, 100.com and Chinaduo.com, 70 software copyrights, 6 patents and 147 trademarks and service marks in China. In addition, as of December 31, 2013, we had filed 136 patent applications covering certain of our proprietary technologies and 78 trademark applications in China.

        It is often difficult to create and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Patents, trademarks and service marks may also be invalidated, circumvented, or challenged. Trade secrets are difficult to protect, and our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become known or be independently discovered by others. Confidentiality agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Even where adequate, relevant laws exist in China, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of such laws, or to obtain enforcement of a court judgment or an arbitration award delivered in another jurisdiction, and accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or enforce agreements in China. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our technologies. Given the potential cost, effort, risks and downsides of obtaining patent protection, in some cases we have not and do not plan to apply for patents or other forms of formal intellectual property protection for certain key technologies. If some of these technologies are later proven to be important to our business and are used by third parties without our authorization, especially for commercial purposes, our business and competitive position may be harmed.

As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

        In China, the valid period of utility model patent right or design patent right is ten years and is not extendable. Currently, we have patent applications pending in China, but we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. The rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages. Further, the claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others will bar us from licensing and from exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

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If we fail to maintain and enhance our brands, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

        We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brands is of significant importance to the success of our business. Well-recognized brands are important to increasing the number of users and the level of engagement of our users and enhancing our attractiveness to advertisers. Since we operate in a highly competitive market, brand maintenance and enhancement directly affect our ability to maintain our market position.

        Although we have developed YY mostly through word of mouth referrals, as we expand, we may conduct various marketing and brand promotion activities using various methods to continue promoting our brands. We cannot assure you, however, that these activities will be successful or that we will be able to achieve the brand promotion effect we expect. In addition, any negative publicity in relation to our products or services, regardless of its veracity, could harm our brands and reputation.

        We have sometimes received, and expect to continue to receive, complaints from users regarding the quality of the products and services we offer. Negative publicity or public complaints by users may harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract new users and retain existing users. If our users' complaints are not addressed to their satisfaction, our reputation and our market position could be significantly harmed, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

        Our future success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, our executive officers and key employees hold the equity interests in Beijing Tuda Science and Technology Company Limited, or Beijing Tuda, and Guangzhou Huaduo Network Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. In particular, Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our director and chairman of our technology committee, and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, own 97.7%, 1.5% and 0.8% of Beijing Tuda's equity interests, respectively. Messrs. Li, Zhao and Cao and Beijing Tuda also own approximately 0.5%, 0.04%, 0.02% and 99.0% of Guangzhou Huaduo's equity interests, respectively, with the remaining 0.44% owned by Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman. If any of these executive officers and key employees terminates their services with us, we have the contractual right to appoint designees to hold the PRC consolidated affiliated entities' equity interests. However, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, as advised by our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, certain provisions under the non-compete agreement may not be deemed valid or enforceable under PRC laws. If any dispute arises between our executive officers and key employees and us, we cannot assure you that we would be able to enforce these non-compete agreements in China, where these executive officers reside, in light of uncertainties with China's legal system. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us."

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If we are unable to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

        Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly management, technical and marketing personnel with expertise in the internet industry; inability to do so may materially and adversely affect our business. Since the internet industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. As our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and hence our results of operations.

Our results of operations are subject to substantial quarterly and annual fluctuations due to seasonality.

        We experience seasonality in our business, reflecting seasonal fluctuations in internet usage. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. For example, online user numbers tend to be lower during school holidays and certain parts of the school year, and advertising revenues tend to be lower during the Chinese New Year season, which negatively affects our cash flow for those periods. We may also experience a reduction in active users in the third quarter of each year because a significant portion of our users are students, and as the new school year begins, student access to computers and the internet are affected. Internet usage and the rate of internet growth may also be expected to decline during the summer school holidays as some students lose regular internet access. Furthermore, the number of paying users of our online music and entertainment platform correlates with the marketing campaigns and promotional activities we conduct which coincide with popular western or Chinese festivals celebrated by young Chinese people, many of which are in the fourth quarter and ending with the Chinese New Year holidays which typically fall in the first quarter.

        As a result, our operating results in future quarters or years may fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. In such event, the trading price of our ADSs would likely be materially and adversely affected. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Seasonality" for additional details regarding the effects of seasonality on our cash flow, operating performance and financial results.

Our business is sensitive to global economic conditions. A severe or prolonged downturn in the global or Chinese economy could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        The global financial markets have experienced significant disruptions since 2008 and the United States, Europe and other economies went into recession. The recovery from the lows of 2008 and 2009 was uneven and is facing new challenges, including the escalation of the European sovereign debt crisis since 2011 and the slowdown of the Chinese economy in 2012. It is unclear whether the European sovereign debt crisis will be contained and whether the Chinese economy will resume its high growth rate. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world's leading economies, including China's. There have also been concerns over unrest in the Middle East and Africa, which have resulted in volatility in oil and other markets, and over the possibility of a war involving Iran. There have also been concerns about the economic effect of the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear crisis in Japan and tensions in the relationship between China and Japan. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions. Online music and entertainment, along with the online gaming and online advertising industries, which account for a significant portion of our revenues, may be affected by economic downturns. During a prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy, there may be a reduced amount of online advertising, our products and services may be viewed as discretionary by our users, who may choose to discontinue or reduce spending on such

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products and services during an economic downturn, and our ability to retain existing users and increase new users will be adversely affected. Thus, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be affected by the macroeconomic environment in China.

        Any prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy may have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

Future strategic alliances or acquisitions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

        We may enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

        In addition, although we have no current acquisition plans, if appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. Future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own would require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. In addition to possible shareholders' approval, we may also have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud, and investor confidence in our company and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

        The SEC, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, adopted rules requiring most public companies to include a management report on such company's internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management's assessment of the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting. In addition, when a company meets the SEC's criteria, an independent registered public accounting firm must report on the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting.

        Our management and independent registered public accounting firm have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013 was effective. However, we cannot assure you that in the future our management or our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify material weaknesses during the Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act audit process or for other reasons. In addition, because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As a result, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or should we be unable to prevent or detect material misstatements due to error or fraud on a timely basis, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business, results

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of operations and negatively impact the market price of our ADSs, and harm our reputation. Furthermore, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur considerable costs and to use significant management time and the other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Some of our users may make sales or purchases through unauthorized third party platforms of virtual items we offer for free on our platform, which may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and exert downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

        We, from time to time, offer virtual items free of charge to attract users or encourage user participation in channels. Some of our users may sell or purchase such free virtual items through unauthorized third party sellers in exchange for real currency. For example, fans of a performer may pay other users to send flowers or gifts the latter have accumulated on our platform to the performer, in order to show support and raise the popularity ranking of the performer of their choice. These unauthorized transactions are usually arranged on third party platforms which we do not and are unable to track or monitor. Accordingly, these unauthorized purchases and sales from third party sellers may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and may impede our revenue and profit growth by, among other things, reducing the revenues we could have generated and exerting downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

We have limited business insurance coverage, so that any uninsured occurrence of business disruption may result in substantial costs to us and the diversion of our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

        Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies do in more developed economies. We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured occurrence may disrupt our business operations, require us to incur substantial costs and divert our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry

If the PRC government finds that the structure we have adopted for our business operations does not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these laws or regulations or interpretations of existing laws or regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, including the shutting down of our platform and our business operations.

        Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses is subject to significant restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government regulates internet access, the distribution of online information and the conduct of online commerce through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. These laws and regulations also limit foreign ownership in PRC companies that provide internet information distribution services. Specifically, foreign ownership in an internet information provider or other value-added telecommunication service providers may not exceed 50%. In addition, according to the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Investment in the Cultural Industry promulgated by the Ministry of Culture, or the MOC, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT, the General Administration of Press and Publication, or the GAPP, currently known as the State Administration of Press Publication, Radio, Film and Television after combination of SARFT and GAPP, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, in June 2005, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in or operating, among others, any internet cultural operating entities and from engaging in the business of transmitting audio-visual programs through information networks.

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        We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai Information Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, or Beijing Huanju Shidai and Zhuhai Huanju Shidai Information Technology Company Limited, or Zhuhai Huanju Shidai, are each considered a wholly foreign owned enterprise. We conduct our operations in China primarily through a series of contractual arrangements entered into among our PRC subsidiary, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, and Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda's shareholders. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and consolidate each of their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party—Contractual Arrangements with Beijing Tuda."

        On September 28, 2009, the GAPP, the National Copyright Administration and the National Office of Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications, jointly issued a Notice on Further Strengthening the Administration of Pre-examination and Approval of Online Games and the Examination and Approval of Imported Online Games, or Circular 13. Circular 13 restates that foreign investors are not permitted to invest in online game-operating businesses in China via wholly owned, equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture investments and expressly prohibits foreign investors from gaining control over or participating in domestic online game operators through indirect ways such as establishing other joint venture companies or entering into contractual or technical arrangements such as the variable interest entity structural arrangements we adopted. We are not aware of any companies that have adopted a corporate structure that is the same as or similar to ours having been penalized or terminated under Circular 13 since the effective date of the circular. Furthermore, we are advised by our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, that the enforcement of Circular 13 is still subject to substantial uncertainty, including possible subsequent joint actions by relevant authorities in charge, such as the MOC. The Regulation on Three Provisions stipulates that the MOC is authorized to regulate the online game industry, while the GAPP is authorized to approve the publication of online games before their launch on the internet. The Interpretation on Three Provisions further provides that once an online game is launched on the internet, it will be completely under the regulation of the MOC, and that if an online game is launched on the internet without obtaining prior approval from the GAPP, the MOC, instead of the GAPP, is directly responsible for investigating the game. In the event that we, our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of the prohibition under Circular 13, the GAPP, in conjunction with the relevant regulatory authorities in charge, may impose applicable penalties, which in the most serious cases may include suspension or revocation of relevant licenses and registrations. In addition, various media sources have recently reported that the CSRC prepared a report proposing pre-approval by a competent central government authority of offshore listings by China-based companies with variable interest entity structures, such as ours, that operate in industry sectors subject to foreign investment restrictions. However, it is unclear whether the CSRC officially issued or submitted such a report to a higher level government authority or what any such report provides, or whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or what they would provide.

        Based on understanding of current PRC laws, rules and regulations of our PRC legal counsel, Fangda Partners, our current ownership structure for our business operations, the ownership structure of our PRC subsidiaries and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, as described in this annual report on Form 20-F, are in compliance with existing PRC laws, rules and regulations. However, we were further advised by Fangda Partners that there is substantial uncertainty regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations and these laws or regulations or interpretations of these laws or regulations may change in the future. Furthermore, the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and

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regulations. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel.

        If our ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, revoking or suspending the business licenses or operating licenses of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, shutting down our servers or blocking our platform, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to discontinue our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from our initial public offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or our right to receive their economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate such entities. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities contributed substantially all of our consolidated net revenues in the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013.

We rely on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders for the operation of our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership. If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our rights, which may be time-consuming, unpredictable, expensive and damaging to our operations and reputation.

        Because of PRC restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses in China, we depend on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities in which we have no ownership interest to conduct our business. These contractual arrangements are intended to provide us with effective control over these entities and allow us to obtain economic benefits from them. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are owned directly by certain of our directors, key executive officers and employees, namely Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao. For additional details on these ownership interests, see "—Risks Related to Our Business—Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services" and "Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company." However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control as direct ownership. For example, each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to operate our business in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. If we were the controlling shareholder of these PRC consolidated affiliated entities with direct ownership, we would be able to exercise our rights as shareholders to effect changes to their board of directors, which in turn could implement changes at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, as a legal matter, if our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including contract remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. In particular, the contractual arrangements provide that any dispute arising from these arrangements will be submitted to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission for arbitration in Beijing, the ruling of which will be final and binding. The legal framework and system in China, particularly those relating to arbitration proceedings, is not as developed as other jurisdictions such as the United States. As a result, significant uncertainties relating

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to the enforcement of legal rights through arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings remain in China, which could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements and exert effective control over our consolidated affiliated entities. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, our business and operations could be severely disrupted, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and damage our reputation. See "—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us."

Our existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders, which may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their securities.

        As of February 28, 2014, our management group, including Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, director and chairman of our technology committee, Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, and Mr. Rongjie Dong, the general manager of games department and their respective affiliates, beneficially own an aggregate of 38.4% of our outstanding shares and 79.2% of the total voting power. Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao, Cao and Beijing Tuda together hold 100% of the equity interest in Guangzhou Huaduo and Messrs. Li, Zhao and Cao together hold 100% of the equity interest in Beijing Tuda. Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda are our variable interest entities. Our management group has substantial influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of any contemplated sale of our company and may reduce the price of our ADSs. In addition, Messrs. Li, Zhao, Dong and Cao could violate the terms of their non-compete or employment agreements with us or their legal duties by diverting business opportunities from us, resulting in our loss of corporate opportunities. These actions may take place even if they are opposed by our other shareholders. Additionally, Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder, chairman and shareholder who owns 17.6% of our outstanding shares, is in the business of making investments in internet companies in China. Mr. Lei currently holds direct and indirect interests in our direct competitor, iSpeak, and other entities which may have businesses that compete with us. iSpeak is owned by Mr. Lei in part through Kingsoft Corporation Limited, or Kingsoft, which is engaged in the research, development operation and distribution of online games, mobile games, casual game services and internet software. He may, in the future, acquire additional interests in businesses that directly or indirectly compete with some of our lines of business or that are our suppliers or customers. Furthermore, Mr. Lei, whether through Kingsoft or otherwise, may pursue acquisitions or make further investments in our industries which may conflict with our interests. Although we adopted a code of business conduct and ethics to help restrict conflicts of interest involving directors and officers, any violation of this code by our existing officers or directors such as Mr. Lei may materially and adversely affect our business operations. For more information regarding the beneficial ownership of our company by our principal shareholders, see "Item 6. Directors, Senior management and Employees—E. Share Ownership."

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities that are important to the operation of our business if such entities go bankrupt or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

        As part of our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, such entities hold certain assets, such as patents for the proprietary technology that are essential to the operations of our platform and important to the operation of our

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business. If either Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the unrelated third party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and our PRC variable interest entities' shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

        Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreements between Beijing Huanju Shidai, our wholly owned subsidiary in China, and the shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, our variable interest entities, or VIEs, each shareholders of each variable interest entities agrees to pledge its equity interests in the VIE to our subsidiary to secure the relevant VIE's performance of their obligations under the relevant contractual arrangements. The equity interest pledges of shareholders of VIEs under these equity pledge agreements have been registered with the relevant local branch of the SAIC. In addition, in the registration forms of the local branch of State Administration for Industry and Commerce for the pledges over the equity interests under the equity interest pledge agreements, the aggregate amount of registered equity interests pledged to Beijing Huanju Shidai represents 100% of the registered capital of Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda. The equity interest pledge agreements with each of the VIEs' shareholders provide that the pledged equity interest shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of that VIE. However, it is possible that a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity interest pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which takes last priority among creditors.

Our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities may result in adverse tax consequences to us.

        As a result of our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, we are effectively subject to PRC turnover tax on revenues generated by our subsidiaries from our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. Such tax generally includes either the PRC business tax at a rate of 5% or the PRC value added tax ("VAT") at a rate of 6%, along with related surcharges. The applicable turnover tax is determined by the nature of the transaction generating the revenues subject to taxation. The PRC enterprise income tax law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its affiliates or related parties to the relevant tax authorities. These transactions may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year during which the transactions are conducted. We may be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities were to determine that the contracts between us and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities were not on an arm's length basis and therefore constitute a favorable transfer pricing arrangements. If this occurs, the PRC tax authorities could request that either of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities adjust its taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such a pricing adjustment could adversely affect us by reducing expense deductions recorded by either PRC consolidated affiliated entities and thereby increasing these entities' tax liabilities, which could subject these entities to late payment fees and other penalties for the underpayment of taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our

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PRC consolidated affiliated entities' tax liabilities increase or if it becomes subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

        The internet industry in China is highly regulated. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation." Guangzhou Huaduo, as our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, is required to obtain and maintain applicable licenses or approvals from different regulatory authorities in order to provide its current services. For example, an internet information service provider shall obtain an operating license, or the ICP License, from MIIT or its local counterparts before engaging in any commercial internet information services. An online game operator must also obtain an Internet Culture Operation License from the MOC and an Internet Publishing License from the GAPP to distribute online games, in addition to filing its online games with the GAPP and the MOC. An educational website operator shall obtain approvals from the local education authorities. Prior to July 2010, specific approvals on online bulletin board services were also required for the provision of BBS services. Guangzhou Huaduo has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet and mobile network information services, which is being updated for the increase in registered capital and provision of educational information services, an Internet Culture Operation License for online games and music products, and an Internet Publishing License for publication of online games and mobile phone games. In addition, Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs under the business classification of converging and play-on-demand service for certain kinds of internet audio-visual programs—literary, artistic and entertaining—as prescribed in the newly issued provisional categories and we are in the process of renewing this license. On October 8, 2011, Guangzhou Huaduo was granted a License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, covering the production, reproduction and publication of broadcasting plays, TV dramas, cartoons (excluding production), special subjects, special columns (excluding current political news category) and entertainment programs. On January 17, 2013 and January 16, 2014, we were granted permission by relevant authorities to provide online education content on edu.YY.com and 100.com, respectively, and we are in the process of expanding Guangzhou Huaduo's registered business scope correspondingly. These licenses or permits are essential to the operation of our business and are generally subject to annual government review. However, we cannot assure you that we can successfully renew these licenses annually or that these licenses are sufficient to conduct all of our present or future business.

        As we further develop and expand our video capabilities and functions, we will need to obtain additional qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. In addition, with respect to specific services offered online, we or the service or content providers may be subject to additional separate qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. For financial-related content offered on our channels, we are tightening our internal review of the relevant qualifications of the content providers as instructed by the competent authorities, while complying with other statutory requirements. We cannot assure you that we or the service or content providers will be granted such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses in a timely manner or at all. Prior to the receipt of such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses, we may be deemed as being in violation of relevant laws or regulations and be subject to penalties.

        As the internet industry in China is still at a relatively early stage of development, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the authorities' attention. In the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities, considerable uncertainties still exist. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities' interpretation of these laws and

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regulations. In addition, we may be required to obtain additional license or approvals, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or approvals or make all the necessary filings in the future. If we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals or make the necessary filings, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, and if any such conflicts of interest are not resolved in our favor, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

        Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda are our variable interest entities. Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao, Jin Cao and Beijing Tuda, together hold 100% of the equity interest in Guangzhou Huaduo and Messrs. Li, Zhao and Cao together hold 100% of the equity interest in Beijing Tuda. The interests of Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao and Cao as the controlling shareholders of the VIEs may differ from the interests of our company as a whole, as what is in the best interests of our VIEs may not be in the best interests of our company. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao or Cao will act in the best interests of our company or that conflicts of interests will be resolved in our favor. In addition, Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao or Cao may breach or cause Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda and their respective subsidiaries to breach or refuse to renew the existing contractual arrangements with us. Currently, we do not have existing arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao or Cao may encounter in his capacity as a shareholder or director of our VIEs, on the one hand, and as a beneficial owner or director of our company, on the other hand; provided that we could, at all times, exercise our option under the exclusive option agreement with Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao and Cao to cause them to transfer all of their equity ownership in Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda to a PRC entity or individual designated by us, and this new shareholder of Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda could then appoint a new director of Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda to replace the existing directors. In addition, if such conflicts of interest arise, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our wholly owned PRC subsidiary, could also, in the capacity of Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao and Cao's attorney-in-fact as provided under the power of attorney, directly appoint a new director of Guangzhou Huaduo or Beijing Tuda to replace the existing directors. We rely on Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao and Cao to comply with the laws of China, which protect contracts and provide that directors and executive officers owe a duty of loyalty to our company and require them to avoid conflicts of interest and not to take advantage of their positions for personal gains. We also rely on Messrs. Li, Lei and Zhao to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that directors have a duty of care and a duty of loyalty to act honestly in good faith with a view to our best interests. However, the legal frameworks of China and the Cayman Islands do not provide guidance on resolving conflicts in the event of a conflict with another corporate governance regime. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and Messrs. Li, Lei, Zhao and Cao, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Implementation of the new labor laws and regulations in China may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

        Pursuant to the labor contract law that took effect in January 2008, its implementation rules that took effect in September 2008 and its amendment that took effect in July 2013, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees' probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. Due to the limited period of time since its effectiveness, and lack of detailed interpretative rules and uniform

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implementation practices and possible penalties, it is uncertain as to how they it will affect our current employment policies and practices. Our employment policies and practices may violate the labor contract law or its implementation rules, and we may thus be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. Compliance with the labor contract law and its implementation rules may increase our operating expenses, in particular our personnel expenses. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the labor contract law and its implementation rules may also limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. On October 28, 2010, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress promulgated the PRC Social Insurance Law, or the Social Insurance Law, which became effective on July 1, 2011. According to the Social Insurance Law, employees must participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance and the employers must, together with their employees or separately, pay the social insurance premiums for such employees.

        We expect our labor costs to increase due to the implementation of these new laws and regulations. As the interpretation and implementation of these new laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our employment practice will at all times be deemed in full compliance with labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. If we are deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        Further, labor disputes, work stoppages or slowdowns at our laboratories, patient service centers or any of our clients or suppliers could significantly disrupt our daily operation or our expansion plans and have a material adverse effect on our business.

Currently there is no law or regulation specifically governing virtual asset property rights and therefore it is not clear what liabilities, if any, online game operators may have for virtual assets.

        While playing online games or participating on YY Client activities, players acquire and accumulate some virtual assets, such as special equipment and other accessories. Such virtual assets can be important to online game players and have monetary value and, in some cases, are sold for actual money. In practice, virtual assets can be lost for various reasons, often through unauthorized use of the game account of one user by other users and occasionally through data loss caused by a delay of network service, a network crash or hacking activities. Currently, there is no PRC law or regulation specifically governing virtual asset property rights. As a result, there is uncertainty as to who the legal owner of virtual assets is, whether and how the ownership of virtual assets is protected by law, and whether an operator of online games such as us would have any liability to game players or other interested parties (whether in contract, tort or otherwise) for loss of such virtual assets. Based on recent PRC court judgments, the courts have typically held online game operators liable for losses of virtual assets by game players, and ordered online game operators to return the lost virtual items to game players or pay damages and losses. In case of a loss of virtual assets, we may be sued by our game players or users and held liable for damages, which may negatively affect our reputation and business, financial condition and results of operations.

Compliance with the laws or regulations governing virtual currency may result in us having to obtain additional approvals or licenses or change our current business model.

        The issuance and use of "virtual currency" in the PRC has been regulated since 2007 in response to the growth of the online game industry in China. In January 2007, the Ministry of Public Security, the MOC, the MIIT and the GAPP jointly issued a circular regarding online gambling which has implications for the use of virtual currency. To curtail online games that involve online gambling, as well as address concerns that virtual currency could be used for money laundering or illicit trade, the

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circular (a) prohibits online game operators from charging commissions in the form of virtual currency in relation to winning or losing of games; (b) requires online game operators to impose limits on use of virtual currency in guessing and betting games; (c) bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property; and (d) prohibits services that enable game players to transfer virtual currency to other players. On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued a notice regarding strengthening the administration of online game virtual currency, or the Virtual Currency Notice. The MOC issued the Provisional Administrative Measures of Online Games, or the Online Games Measures, in June 2010, which provides, among other things, that virtual currency issued by online game operators may be only used to exchange its own online game products and services and may not be used to pay for the products and services of other entities.

        We issue virtual currency and prepaid game tokens to game players on our platform for them to purchase various items to be used in online games and channels, including music channels. We are in the process of adjusting the content of our platform but we cannot assure you that our adjustments will be sufficient to comply with the Virtual Currency Notice. Moreover, although we believe we do not offer online game virtual currency transaction services, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours. For example, certain virtual items we issue to users based on in-game milestones they achieve or time spent playing games are transferable and exchangeable for our virtual currency or the other virtual items we issue to users. If the PRC regulatory authorities deem such transfer or exchange to be a virtual currency transaction, then in addition to being deemed to be engaging in the issuance of virtual currency, we may also be deemed to be providing transaction platform services that enable the trading of such virtual currency. Simultaneously engaging in both of these activities is prohibited under the Virtual Currency Notice. In that event, we may be required to cease either our virtual currency issuance activities or such deemed "transaction service" activities and may be subject to certain penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        In addition, the Virtual Currency Notice prohibits online game operators from setting game features that involve the direct payment of cash or virtual currency by players for the chance to win virtual items or virtual currency based on random selection through a lucky draw, wager or lottery. The notice also prohibits game operators from issuing currency to game players through means other than purchases with legal currency. It is unclear whether these restrictions would apply to certain aspects of our online games. Although we believe that we have rectified and ceased such prohibited activities and have taken adequate measures to prevent any of the above-mentioned prohibited activities, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours and deem such feature as prohibited by the Virtual Currency Notice, thereby subjecting us to penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. For example, we were previously fined by a local authority in Guangzhou found that our games contained lucky draws. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Non-compliance on the part of third parties with which we conduct business could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our number of users or the level of traffic to our YY platform.

        Our third party game developers or other business partners may be subject to regulatory penalties or punishments because of their regulatory compliance failures, which may disrupt our business. Although we conduct a rigid review of legal formalities and certifications before entering into contractual relationship with other businesses such as third party game developers and landlords, we cannot be certain whether such third party has or will infringe any third parties' legal rights or violate any regulatory requirements. We regularly identify irregularities or noncompliance in the business practices of any parties with whom we pursue existing or future cooperation and we cannot assure you that any of these irregularities will be corrected in a prompt and proper manner. The legal liabilities and regulatory actions on our commercial partners may affect our business activities and reputation and

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in turn, our results of operations. For example, according to PRC regulations, all lease agreements are required to be registered with the local housing authorities. We presently lease properties at approximately 10 different locations for daily operations and certain other properties serving as dormitories and canteens in China, and the landlords of some of these properties are still completing the registration of their ownership rights or the registration of our leases with the relevant authorities. Failure to complete these required registrations may expose our landlords, lessors and us to potential monetary fines. Some of our lessors have not provided us with appropriate title certificates, which may adversely affect the validity of the leases if the lessors do not have proper title. We cannot assure you that such certificates or registration will be obtained in a timely manner or at all, and in case of failures, we may be subject to monetary fines, have to relocate our offices and suffer economic losses.

        We allow providers of some online services, such as online education and financial services, to establish channels on our platform. The online service providers and the producers of content on our platform may be required to meet specific qualifying standards, evidenced by approvals, permits or certificates, and to comply with various requirements when conducting business. We cannot predict if any noncompliance on the part of such commercial partners may cause potential liabilities to us and in turn disrupt our operations.

Intensified government regulation of the internet industry in China could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our user level or the level of user traffic to our YY platform.

        The PRC government has, in recent years, intensified regulation on various aspects of the internet industry in China. For example, the PRC government recently adopted more stringent policies to monitor the online game industry due to adverse public reaction to perceived addiction to online games, particularly in children and minors. On April 15, 2007, eight PRC government authorities, including the GAPP, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Security and the MIIT issued a notice requiring all Chinese online game operators to adopt an "anti-fatigue system" in an effort to curb addiction to online games by minors. To help game operators identify which game players are minors, online game players in China are now required to register their names and identity card numbers before playing an online game, which information was to be submitted to and verified by the National Citizen Identity Information Center, a subordinate public institution of the Ministry of Public Security, as of October 1, 2011. These restrictions could limit our ability to increase our online game business among minors. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System." In order to comply with these anti-fatigue rules, we set up our system so that after three hours of playing our online games, minors only receive half of the virtual items or other in-game benefits they would otherwise earn, and after playing for more than five hours, receive no in-game benefits. Failure to implement these restrictions, if detected by the relevant government agencies, may result in fines and other penalties for us, including the shutting down of our online game operations and license revocation. Furthermore, if these restrictions were expanded to apply to adult game players in the future, our online game business could be materially and adversely affected.

        In addition, in February 2007, 14 PRC regulatory authorities jointly promulgated a circular to further strengthen the oversight of internet cafes, one of the primary venues from which our platform is accessed. In recent years, a large number of unlicensed internet cafes have been closed, and the PRC government has imposed higher capital and facility requirements for the establishment of internet cafes. Governmental authorities may from time to time impose stricter requirements on internet cafes, such as customer age limits and regulated hours of operation. Since a substantial portion of our users access our platform from internet cafes, any reduction in the number, or slowdown in the growth, of internet cafes in China, or any new regulatory restrictions on their operations, could limit our ability to maintain or increase our revenues.

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        More stringent governmental regulations such as the ones outlined above may discourage game players from playing our games and have a material effect on our business operations.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

        The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Each of our PRC subsidiaries, Beijing Huanju Shidai, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai and Zhuhai Huanju Shidai, is a foreign-invested enterprise and is subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign-invested enterprises as well as various Chinese laws and regulations generally applicable to companies incorporated in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

        From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until some time after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Changes in China's economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        Substantially all of our assets and almost all of our customers are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

        The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over the Chinese economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

        While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. The Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate increases, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which could in turn reduce the demand for our products and services and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies.

        The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainty. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violations of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC regulation of the internet business include, but are not limited to, the following:

    We only have contractual control over our platform. Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, owns our platform due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunication services in China, including internet content provision services. If Guangzhou Huaduo breaches its contractual arrangements with us and no longer remains under our control, this may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

    There are uncertainties relating to the regulation of the internet business in China, including evolving licensing practices and the requirement for real-name registrations. Permits, licenses or operations at some of our subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities levels may be subject to challenge, or we may fail to obtain permits or licenses that may be deemed necessary for our operations or we may not be able to obtain or renew certain permits or licenses. See "—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected" and "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation." In addition, although we currently have a real-name registration system in place for our online games in strict compliance with the relevant PRC regulations, we are currently not required by PRC law to ask users for their real name and personal information when they register for a YY user account. We cannot assure you that PRC regulators would not require us to implement compulsory real-name registration on our platform in the future. In late 2011, for example, the Beijing municipal government required microbloggers in China to implement real-name registration for all of their registered users. If we were required to implement real-name registration on YY, we may lose large numbers of registered user accounts for various reasons, because users may no longer maintain multiple accounts and users who dislike giving out their private information may cease to use our products and services altogether.

    The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, or the SCIO, the MIIT and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry. We are unable to determine what policies this new agency or any new agencies to be established in the future may have or how they may interpret existing laws, regulations and policies and how they may affect us. Further, new laws, regulations or policies may be promulgated or announced that will regulate internet activities, including online video and online advertising businesses. If these new laws, regulations or policies are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with

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      these new regulations after they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

        In July 2006, the MIIT issued the Notice of the Ministry of Information Industry on Intensifying the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services. This notice prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunication business operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunication business in China. According to this notice, either the holder of a value-added telecommunication business operating license or its shareholders must be the registered holders of the domain names and trademarks used by such license holders in their provision of value-added telecommunication services. The notice also requires each license holder to have the necessary facilities, including servers, for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. Currently, all contracts with telecommunication carriers and other service providers to host the servers used in our business were entered into by Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, and such arrangements are in compliance with this notice. Guangzhou Huaduo also owns the related domain names and trademarks, and holds the ICP License necessary to conduct our operations in China.

        In June 2010, the MOC promulgated the Provisional Administration Measures of Online Games, or the Online Games Measures, which became effective on August 1, 2010. The Online Games Measures provide that any entity engaging in online game operation activities shall obtain the Internet Culture Operation License and must meet certain requirements such as minimum registered capital. Online game developers are generally involved in the purchase of servers and bandwidth, the control and management of game data, the maintenance of game systems and certain other maintenance tasks in our operation of online games. The Guangzhou branch of the MOC has confirmed that such outsourcing and cooperation activities are not considered conducting online game operation activities, and that online game developers do not have to obtain the Internet Culture Operation License in accordance with the Online Games Measures. However, because of the limited time in which these measures have been in effect, there are still uncertainties on the MOC's interpretation and implementation of these measures. If the MOC determines in the future that such qualifications or requirements apply to the online game developers for their involvement in the online game operations, we may have to terminate our revenue-sharing arrangements with certain unqualified online game developers and may even be subject to various penalties, which may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

        The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. There are also risks that we may be found to violate the existing or future laws and regulations given the uncertainty and complexity of China's regulation of internet business.

Content posted or displayed on our platform may be found objectionable by PRC regulatory authorities and may subject us to penalties and other severe consequences.

        The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China or the public interest, or is obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Furthermore, internet content providers are also prohibited from displaying content that may be deemed by relevant government authorities as "socially destabilizing" or leaking "state secrets" of the PRC. Failure to comply with these requirements may

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result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, the closure of the concerned platforms and reputational harm. The operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to their platform. For a detailed discussion, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation."

        We allow visitors to our portal websites to upload written materials, images, pictures, and other content on the forums on our websites, and also allow users to share, link to and otherwise access audio, video, games and other content from third parties through our platform. For a description of how content can be accessed on or through our real-time interactive social platform, and what measures we take to lessen the likelihood that we will be held liable for the nature of such content, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Technology," "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property," and "—Risks Related to Our Business—We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms."

        Since our inception, we have worked closely with relevant government authorities to monitor the content on our platform and to make the utmost effort in complying with relevant laws and regulations. However, it may not be possible to determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as an internet operator, and if any of our internet content is deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions of our users or third party service providers on our platform or for content we distribute that is deemed inappropriate. For example, we have previously been subject to a few warnings and fines each of RMB40,000 or less for having inappropriate content on our platform. Although we corrected these non-compliances and undertook measures to prevent the recurrence of such instances, it may be difficult to determine the type of content or actions that may result in liability to us, and if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our business in China. Moreover, the costs of compliance with these regulations may continue to increase as a result of more content being uploaded or made available by an increasing number of users and third party partners and developers, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Although we have adopted internal procedures to monitor content uploaded to our website and to remove offending content once we become aware of any potential or alleged violation, we may not be able to identify all the content that may violate relevant laws and regulations or third party intellectual property rights and even if we manage to identify and remove offending content, we may still be held liable for such third-party content. Users may upload content or images containing copyright violations and other illegal content and we may be subject to claims or become involved in litigation proceedings. As a result, our reputation, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Advertisements shown on our platform may subject us to penalties and other administrative actions.

        Under PRC advertising laws and regulations, we are obligated to monitor the advertising content shown on our platform to ensure that such content is true and accurate and in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, where a special government review is required for specific types of advertisements prior to internet posting, such as advertisements relating to pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, agrochemicals and veterinary pharmaceuticals, we are obligated to confirm that such review has been performed and approval has been obtained. Violation of these laws and regulations may subject us to penalties, including fines, confiscation of our advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an announcement correcting the

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misleading information. In circumstances involving serious violations by us, PRC governmental authorities may force us to terminate our advertising operations or revoke our licenses.

        While we have made significant efforts to ensure that the advertisements shown on our platform are in full compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that all the content contained in such advertisements or offers is true and accurate as required by the advertising laws and regulations, especially given the uncertainty in the interpretation of these PRC laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of applicable PRC advertising laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties and our reputation may be harmed, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a PRC "resident enterprise," which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

        Under the PRC enterprise income tax law that became effective on January 1, 2008, an enterprise established outside the PRC with "de facto management bodies" within the PRC is considered a "resident enterprise" for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. On April 22, 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprise on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the "de facto management body" of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Further to SAT Circular 82, on August 3, 2011, the SAT recently issued the Administrative Measures of Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or SAT Bulletin 45, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82; the bulletin became effective on September 1, 2011. SAT Bulletin 45 clarified certain issues in the areas of resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities.

        According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be considered as a PRC tax resident enterprise by virtue of having its "de facto management body" in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders' meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) more than half of the enterprise's directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. SAT Bulletin 45 further clarifies the resident status determination, post-determination administration, as well as competent tax authorities. It also specifies that when provided with a copy of Chinese tax resident determination certificate from a resident Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise, the payer should not withhold 10% income tax when paying the Chinese-sourced dividends, interest, royalties, etc. to the Chinese controlled offshore incorporated enterprise.

        Although SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise group instead of those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determination criteria set forth therein may reflect SAT's general position on how the term "de facto management body" could be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, individuals or foreigners.

        We do not meet all of the conditions above; therefore, we believe that we should not be treated as a "resident enterprise" for PRC tax purposes even if the standards for "de facto management body"

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prescribed in the SAT Circular 82 are applicable to us. For example, our minutes and files of the resolutions of our board of directors and the resolutions of our shareholders are maintained outside the PRC. In addition, we are not aware of any offshore holding companies with a corporate structure similar to ours ever having been deemed to be a PRC "resident enterprise" by the PRC tax authorities.

        However, it is possible that the PRC tax authorities may take a different view. If the PRC tax authorities determine that our Cayman Islands holding company is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, then our world-wide income could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25%, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

        Although dividends paid by one PRC tax resident to another PRC tax resident should qualify as "tax-exempt income" under the enterprise income tax law, we cannot assure you that dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to our Cayman Islands holding company will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax on dividends, and the PRC tax authorities have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes.

        Foreign ADS holders may also be subject to PRC withholding tax on dividends payable by us and gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or common shares, if such income is sourced from within the PRC. Although our holding company is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, it remains unclear whether dividends received and gains realized by our foreign ADS holders will be regarded as income from sources within the PRC if we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax will reduce the returns on your investment in our ADSs.

        Finally, we face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences on private equity financing transactions, private share transfers and share exchange involving the transfer of shares in our company by non-resident investors. According to the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation on December 10, 2009, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2008, or SAT Circular 698, where a non-resident enterprise transfers the equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise indirectly through a disposition of equity interests in an overseas holding company, or an Indirect Transfer, and such overseas holding company is located in a tax jurisdiction that: (a) has an effective tax rate less than 12.5% or (b) does not tax foreign income of its residents, the a non-resident enterprise, as the seller, shall report such Indirect Transfer to the competent tax authority of the PRC resident enterprise within 30 days of execution of the equity transfer agreement for such Indirect Transfer. The PRC tax authority will examine the true nature of the Indirect Transfer, and if the tax authority considers that the foreign investor has adopted an abusive arrangement without reasonable commercial purposes and for the purpose of avoiding or reducing PRC tax, they will disregard the existence of the overseas holding company that is used for tax planning purposes and re-characterize the Indirect Transfer. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC withholding tax at the rate of up to 10%. SAT Circular 698 also points out that when a non-resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the competent tax authorities have the power to make a reasonable adjustment on the taxable income of the transaction.

If our preferential tax treatments are revoked, become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is successfully challenged by the PRC tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        The Chinese government has provided various tax incentives to our subsidiaries in China. These incentives include reduced enterprise income tax rates. For example, under the PRC Enterprise Income

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Tax Law, or the EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008, the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25%. However, Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity in the PRC, was recognized as a high and new technology enterprise, or HNTE, as of September 26, 2010 and, subject to the approval of and annual review by competent tax authorities in Guangdong, would be entitled to enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% for two years, from 2011 through 2012. Guangzhou Huaduo recorded losses in 2010 and has not benefited from such preferential tax rate. Guangzhou Huaduo has applied for and obtained the preferential tax treatment with Guangzhou State Tax Bureau, but the high and new technology enterprise qualification was only effective until September 26, 2013.

        In 2013, Guangzhou Huaduo applied to renew its qualification as a high and new technology enterprise. The review process has been completed and Guangdong Department of Science and Technology has announced that Guangzhou Huaduo continues to qualify as an HNTE. Therefore, Guangzhou Huaduo will be entitled to enjoy a preferential tax rate of 15% in place of the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25% from 2013 to 2015. In addition, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai has been recognized as a software enterprise since 2013, and are entitled to a two-year exemption from enterprise income tax followed by three years at 50% of the standard enterprise income tax rate starting from the first profit-making year. However, if Guangzhou Huaduo or Guangzhou Huanju Shidai fails to maintain its qualification for preferential tax treatments, its applicable enterprise income tax rate may increase to 25%, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Certain regulations in the PRC may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

        Six PRC regulatory agencies promulgated regulations effective on September 8, 2006, subsequently amended, that are commonly referred to as the M&A Rules. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—New M&A Regulations and Overseas Listings." The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a Chinese domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008, are triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on August 30, 2007 which became effective on August 1, 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds (for example, during the previous fiscal year, (i) the total global turnover of all operators participating in the transaction exceeds RMB10 billion (US$1.6 billion) and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million (US$65.1 million) within China, or (ii) the total turnover within China of all the operators participating in the concentration exceeded RMB2 billion (US$0.3 billion) and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million (US$65.1 million) within China) must be cleared by the MOFCOM before they can be completed. In addition, PRC national security review rules which became effective on September 1, 2011 require acquisitions by foreign investors of PRC companies engaged in military related or certain other industries that are crucial to national security be subject to security review before consummation of any such acquisition. We may expand our business in part by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

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PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law.

        The PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, promulgated regulations in October 2005 that require PRC citizens or residents to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas equity financing involving a roundtrip investment whereby the offshore entity acquires or controls onshore assets or equity interests held by the PRC citizens or residents. In addition, such PRC citizens or residents must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, mergers or divisions, long-term equity or debt investments, external guarantees, or other material events that do not involve roundtrip investments. Subsequent regulations further clarified that PRC subsidiaries of an offshore company governed by the SAFE regulations are required to coordinate and supervise the filing of SAFE registrations in a timely manner by the offshore holding company's shareholders who are PRC citizens or residents. If these shareholders fail to comply, the PRC subsidiaries are required to report to the local SAFE branches. If our shareholders who are PRC citizens or residents do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the SAFE registration and amendment requirements described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

        Our PRC resident shareholders, Messrs. David Xueling Li, Tony Bin Zhao, Jin Cao and Jun Lei, had registered with the local SAFE branch in relation to our existing private placement financings by the end of 2011 as required by the SAFE regulations, and are preparing to update their registrations reflecting shareholding changes in our company resulting from our initial public offering. Because of uncertainty over how the SAFE regulations will be interpreted and implemented and applied to us, we cannot predict how such SAFE regulations will affect our business operations. For example, our present and prospective PRC subsidiaries' ability to conduct foreign exchange activities, such as the remittance of dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, may be subject to compliance with the SAFE regulations by our PRC resident shareholders. In addition, in some cases, we may have little control over either our present or prospective direct or indirect PRC resident shareholders or the outcome of such registration procedures. A failure by our current or future PRC resident shareholders to comply with the SAFE regulations, including but not limited to any delay in subsequent filings, could subject us to fines or other legal sanctions, restrict our cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiary's ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

        As our PRC resident shareholders have not updated their registrations with the local SAFE branch, Zhuhai Huanju Shidai, which was established by NeoTasks Limited in November 2013 and has not conducted any business operation since incorporation, is still in the process of obtaining its foreign exchange registration certificate. As a result, NeoTasks Limited was unable to make its first installment capital contribution of RMB40,000,000 to Zhuhai Huanju Shidai by the statutory deadline for making such capital contribution. As a result, Zhuhai Huanju Shidai's Certificate of Approval for Establishment of Enterprises with Foreign Investment is automatically deemed to be invalid and NeoTasks Limited is required to deregister Zhuhai Huanju Shidai with the competent local SAIC branch, and to return Zhuhai Huanju Shidai's business license to the competent local branch of SAIC for cancellation. In addition, the competent local SAIC branch may also revoke Zhuhai Huanju Shidai's business license.

        On February 15, 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-

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Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Rules, which replaced the Application Procedures of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Ownership Plans or Stock Option Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies issued by SAFE on March 28, 2007. Under the Stock Option Rules and other relevant rules and regulations, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly-listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. Participants of a stock incentive plan who are PRC residents must retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plan on behalf of its participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options, the purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or interests and fund transfers. In addition, the PRC agent is required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agent or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. We and our PRC employees who have been granted stock options, restricted shares and restricted share units are subject to these regulations, and are preparing to complete such SAFE registrations. Failure of our PRC stock option holders, restricted shareholders or restricted share units holders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject these PRC residents to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limited our PRC subsidiaries' ability to distribute dividends to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business.

PRC regulation of direct investment and loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or limit us from using the proceeds of our initial public offering to make additional capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiaries.

        Any capital contributions or loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our PRC subsidiaries, including from the proceeds of our initial public offering, are subject to PRC regulations. For example, none of our loans to a PRC subsidiary can exceed the difference between its total amount of investment and its registered capital approved under relevant PRC laws, and the loans must be registered with the local branch of SAFE. Our capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries must be approved by the MOFCOM or its local counterpart. We cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval on a timely basis, or at all. If we fail to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval, our ability to make loans or equity contributions to our PRC subsidiaries may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our PRC subsidiaries' liquidity and their ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments.

Our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

        We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries as well as consulting and other fees paid to us by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities for our cash and financing requirements, such as the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs, and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory condition and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. As of December 31, 2013, appropriations to statutory reserves amounting to RMB41 million were made by one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities incur debt on their own

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behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

        In addition, the EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

        The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China's political and economic conditions and China's foreign exchange policies. The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People's Bank of China. The PRC government allowed the Renminbi to appreciate more than 20% against the U.S. dollar between July 2005 and July 2008. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the PRC government has allowed the Renminbi to appreciate slowly against the U.S. dollar again, though there have been periods when the U.S. dollar has appreciated against the Renminbi as well. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

        There remains significant international pressure on the Chinese government to adopt a flexible currency policy to allow the Renminbi to appreciate against the U.S. dollar. Significant revaluation of the Renminbi may have a material adverse effect on your investment. Substantially all of our revenues and costs are denominated in Renminbi. Any significant revaluation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into RMB for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our ADSs, and if we decide to convert RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or ADSs, strategic acquisitions or investments or other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

        Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. To date, we have not entered into any hedging transactions in an effort to reduce our exposure to foreign currency exchange risk. While we may decide to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

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Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

        The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior SAFE approval by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

Recently enacted regulations in the PRC may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions, adversely affecting our plans to expand our business or maintain our market share.

        Among other things, the M&A Rules established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008, are triggered.

        We may grow our business in part by directly acquiring complementary businesses in China. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

If the custodians or authorized users of controlling non-tangible assets of our company, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

        Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including contracts such as revenue-sharing contracts with online game developers which are important to our business, are executed using the chops or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant branch of the Administration of Industry and Commerce.

        Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities are members of our senior management team who have signed employment agreements with us or our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel in the legal or finance department of each of our subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities. Although we monitor such

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authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated affiliated entities, we or our PRC subsidiary and consolidated affiliated entity would need to pass a new shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative's fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

Our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is not permitted to be subject to inspection by Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and as such, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

        The independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with PCAOB, is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is currently not inspected by PCAOB. On May 24, 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations in the United States and China. PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

        Inspections of other firms that PCAOB has conducted outside of China have identified deficiencies in those firms' audit procedures and quality control procedures, and such deficiencies may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality.

        The inability of PCAOB to conduct inspections of independent registered public accounting firms operating in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor's audit procedures or quality control procedures, and to the extent that such inspections might have facilitated improvements in our auditor's audit procedures and quality control procedures, investors may be deprived of such benefits.

Proceedings instituted recently by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

        In December 2012, the SEC instituted administrative proceedings against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that these firms had violated U.S. securities laws and the SEC's rules and regulations thereunder by failing to provide to the SEC the firms' work papers related to their audits of certain PRC-based companies that are publicly traded in the United States and which are the subject of certain ongoing SEC investigations. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and suspending four of the five firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The

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decision is neither final nor legally effective unless and until reviewed and approved by the SEC. The accounting firms have the ability to appeal and the four firms which are subject to the six month suspension from practicing before the SEC have indicated that they will appeal. The sanction will not become effective until after a full appeal process is concluded and a final decision is issued by the SEC. The accounting firms can also further appeal the final decision of the SEC through the federal appellate courts. On May 24, 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations in the United States and China. However, it is not clear how these recent developments could affect the SEC's final decision in the case against the five accounting firms or any subsequent appeal to courts that the accounting firms may initiate. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the final outcome of the administrative proceedings and the potential consequences thereof.

        We were not and are not the subject of any SEC investigations nor are we involved in the proceedings brought by the SEC against the accounting firms. If the SEC is successful in the proceedings, it could result in the accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm losing temporarily or permanently, the ability to practice before the SEC. While we cannot predict the outcome of the SEC's proceedings, if the accounting firms including our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, temporarily or permanently, the ability to practice before the SEC, and we are unable to find timely another registered public accounting firm which can audit and issue a report on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined to not be in compliance with the requirements for financial statements of public companies registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our common stock from the NASDAQ Global Select Market or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our common stock in the United States.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

        The daily closing trading prices of our ADSs ranged from US$13.25 to US$54.98 in 2013. The trading price of our ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other similarly situated companies in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these Chinese companies' securities after their offerings, including companies in internet and social networking businesses, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting or other practices at other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in such practices. Furthermore, securities markets may from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to our operating performance, which may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs.

        In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be highly volatile due to specific factors, including the following:

    variations in our net revenues, earnings and cash flow;

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    announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, or joint ventures;

    announcements of new services and expansions by us or our competitors;

    changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

    changes in the number of our registered or active users;

    fluctuations in the number of paying users or other operating metrics;

    failure on our part to realize monetization opportunities as expected;

    additions or departures of key personnel;

    release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

    detrimental negative publicity about us, our competitors or our industry; and

    potential litigation or regulatory proceedings or changes.

        Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

        The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

        Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. Our ADSs are freely tradable by persons other than our affiliates without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. In addition, common shares subject to our outstanding share-based awards, including options, restricted shares and restricted share units, are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting agreements, Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act. We may also issue additional options in the future which may be exercised for additional common shares and additional restricted shares and restricted share units which may vest. As of February 28, 2014, we had 1,108,490,124 common shares outstanding. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs.

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We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes, which could subject United States investors in our ADSs or common shares to significant adverse United States income tax consequences.

        We will be classified as a "passive foreign investment company," or "PFIC" for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of "passive" income or (b) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets (as determined on the basis of fair market value) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income. Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes, not only because we exercise effective control over the operation of such entities but also because we are entitled to substantially all of their economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their operating results in our consolidated financial statements.

        While we do not expect to be classified as a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2013, there is a risk that we will become a PFIC for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2014 and future taxable years because of our significant cash balances and because the value of our assets for purposes of the PFIC test will generally be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs and common shares. Accordingly, fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs and common shares may cause us to become a PFIC for the current taxable year or future taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC will also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets. Under circumstances where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes our risk of being classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. It is also possible that the Internal Revenue Service may challenge our classification or valuation of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, which may result in our company being or, becoming classified as, a PFIC for the current or future taxable years. The determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC will also depend, in part, upon the nature of our income and assets over time, which are subject to change from year to year. There can be no assurance our business plans will not change in a manner that will affect our PFIC status. Because there are uncertainties in the application of the relevant rules and PFIC status is a fact-intensive determination made on an annual basis, no assurance may be given With respect to our PFIC status for any taxable year.

        If we are classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. holder (as defined in "Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations") may incur significantly increased United States income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an "excess distribution" under the United States federal income tax rules. Further, if we are classified as a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. holder holds our ADSs or common shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. holder holds our ADSs or common shares. Each U.S. Holder is urged to consult its tax advisor concerning the United States federal income tax consequences of an investment in our ADSs or common shares if we are treated as a PFIC for our current taxable year ending 2014 or any future taxable year, including the possibility of making a "mark-to-market" election. For more information see "Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules."

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Our dual class common share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

        Our common shares are divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares are entitled to ten votes per share, voting together as one class on all matters requiring a shareholders' vote. Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B common shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity that is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B common shares will be automatically and immediately converted into an equal number of Class A common shares.

        Due to the disparate voting powers attached to these two classes of common shares, as of February 28, 2014, our management group, including Messrs. David Xueling Li, Jun Lei, Tony Bin Zhao, Jin Cao and Rongjie Dong and their respective affiliates, beneficially own an aggregate of 38.4% of our outstanding shares representing 79.2% of the total voting power and have considerable influence over all matters requiring a shareholders' vote, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or our assets. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our common shares and ADSs.

        Our articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our common shares, in the form of ADSs or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

        We are a company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law 2012 (as amended) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary

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responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, shareholders of a Cayman Islands company may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

        Unlike many jurisdictions in the United States, Cayman Islands law does not generally provide for shareholder appraisal rights on an approved arrangement and reconstruction of a company. This may make it more difficult for you to assess the value of any consideration you may receive in a merger or consolidation or to require that the offeror give you additional consideration if you believe the consideration offered is insufficient. Moreover, holders of our ADSs are not entitled to appraisal rights under Cayman Islands law. ADS holders that wish to exercise their appraisal or dissentient rights must convert their ADSs into our Class A common shares by surrendering their ADSs to the depositary and paying the ADS depositary fee.

        Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our existing articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

        As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

Judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable in our home jurisdiction.

        We are a Cayman Islands company and all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, a significant majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States and substantially all of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the United States federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

        There are uncertainties as to whether Cayman Islands courts would:

    recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws; and

    impose liabilities against us, in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws that are penal in nature.

        There is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will in certain circumstances recognize and enforce a non-penal judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits.

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The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to vote your Class A common shares.

        As a holder of our ADSs, you will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with these instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying shares unless you withdraw the shares from the depositary. Under our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required for convening a general meeting is at least ten clear days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the shares underlying your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no legal remedy if the shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

The depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders' meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

        Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs at shareholders' meetings unless:

    we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

    we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

    we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

    a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

    the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

        The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if you do not vote at shareholders' meetings, you cannot prevent our Class A common shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our common shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our common shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

        The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on Class A common shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For

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example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

        Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks that it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. As a result, you may be unable to transfer your ADSs when you wish to.

ITEM 4.    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A. History and Development of the Company

        We commenced operations in April 2005 with the establishment of Guangzhou Huaduo in China. Guangzhou Huaduo later became one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities through the contractual arrangements described below.

        We established Dokhi Investments Limited in the British Virgin Islands, or BVI, in July 2006 and changed its name to Duowan Limited in September 2006. In August 2006, we established Double Top Limited, which is wholly owned by Dokhi Investments Limited, in Hong Kong and changed its name to Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in September 2006. In April 2007, we established Guangzhou Duowan Information Technology Company Limited, or Guangzhou Duowan, which was wholly owned by Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited. Guangzhou Duowan entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo, through which Guangzhou Duowan exercised effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo.

        In November 2007, we established Duowan Entertainment Corp., or Duowan BVI, in the BVI. In March 2008, we established Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, or Beijing Huanju Shidai, which is wholly owned by Duowan BVI. Beijing Huanju Shidai purchased all the equity interests in Guangzhou Duowan from Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in August 2008, and entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders through which Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo. Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited was deregistered as a company and ceased to operate in May 2010.

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        In December 2008, Duowan BVI entered into an agreement with Morningside Technology Investments Limited and two individuals, through which Duowan BVI purchased all the equity interests in NeoTasks Inc. from Morningside Technology Investments Limited.

        In March 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into an agreement with NeoTasks New Age International Media Technology (Beijing) Company Limited, or NeoTasks Beijing, through which NeoTasks Beijing was merged into Beijing Huanju Shidai. After the merger and additional capital contribution, Beijing Huanju Shidai became 96.5% held by Duowan BVI, and 3.5% held by NeoTasks Limited (formerly known as Enlight Online Entertainment Limited), a Hong Kong company, which in turn was the shareholder of NeoTasks Beijing before the merger. NeoTasks Limited is 100% owned by NeoTasks Inc., a Cayman Islands company. In August 2009, Guangzhou Duowan was renamed Zhuhai Duowan Information Technology Company Limited.

        In December 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into a series of contractual agreements with Beijing Tuda and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Beijing Tuda, through which agreements Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Beijing Tuda.

        In December 2010, we established Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Company Limited, which is 100% directly owned by Duowan BVI.

        In October 2013, we established Guangzhou Juhui Information Technology Company Limited, which is 100% directly owned by Guangzhou Huaduo.

        In November 2013, we established Zhuhai Huanju Shidai, which is 100% directly owned by NeoTasks Limited.

        We currently own the domain names of YY.com, Duowan.com and 100.com. Our YY platform, including YY.com, is jointly operated by personnel from Guangzhou Huaduo and Zhuhai Duowan.

        Our current holding company, YY Inc., was incorporated in July 2011 as a limited liability company in the Cayman Islands. The corporate affairs of YY Inc. are governed by the memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law 2012 (as amended) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. Through a share exchange on September 6, 2011, the shareholders of Duowan BVI exchanged all of their outstanding common and preferred shares in Duowan BVI for common and preferred shares of YY Inc. on a pro rata basis. No additional consideration was paid in connection with the share exchange. As a result, Duowan BVI became a wholly owned subsidiary of YY Inc.

        YY Inc. completed an initial public offering of 7,800,000 ADSs, representing 156,000,000 Class A common shares, in November 2012. On November 21, 2012, our ADSs were listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol "YY." In December 2012, in connection with the initial public offering, we also completed the over-allotment offering of an additional 1,170,000 ADSs, representing 23,400,000 Class A common shares.

        Our principal executive offices are located at Building 3-08, Yangcheng Creative Industry Zone No. 309 Huangpu Avenue Middle, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510655, the People's Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +(86 20) 2916 2000. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Codan Trust Company (Cayman) Limited of Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman, KYI-1111, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., 400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor, New York, New York 10017.

        See "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures" for a discussion of our capital expenditures and divestitures.

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B. Business Overview

Overview

        YY is a revolutionary rich communication social platform. YY engages users in real-time online group activities through voice, video and text on PCs and mobile devices. YY also empowers users to create and organize groups of varying sizes to discover and participate in a wide range of activities, including online games, music activities, education, live game broadcasting and conference calls. YY attracted 51.9 million, 69.7 million and 92.3 million average monthly active users, respectively, in the three months ended December 2011, 2012 and 2013.

        Our platform consists of YY Client, Mobile YY, web-based YY and our YY.com, Duowan.com and 100.com portals. YY Client is software that provides real-time access to user-created online activity groups, which we refer to as channels. YY Client, introduced in July 2008, enables users to continually create new channels to engage in large-scale group activities on our platform, and is available to download for free. According to iResearch Consulting Group, a third party market research firm, YY Client has an 86.9% market share in terms of cumulative user time spent in the real-time online group voice communications market in China for the nine months ended September 30, 2013. Each active user spent an average of 53 hours per month on our platform in the three months ended December 31, 2013. To increase the accessibility and usage of YY Client, we introduced our mobile application, Mobile YY, in September 2010 and web-based YY in October 2012. As of December 31, 2013, Mobile YY had 79.7 million downloads. To accelerate monetization of our mobile platform, we introduced virtual item purchase functions on Mobile YY in October 2013. YY.com is our online portal and guide to channels, events and content available across our platform. We also operate Duowan.com, a leading game media website in China that provides access to and interactive resources for online games. Recently, we have expanded our original education business by launching a dedicated education platform, 100 Education, in February 2014. Through the education channels on YY Client and our portal 100.com, we provide students across China with opportunities to complete test-prep and other courses in a real-time, interactive environment, while we allow teachers to offer courses on our platform freely.

        Our operations rely on proprietary technology and industry know-how. YY is supported by our highly scalable infrastructure throughout China and our proprietary algorithms enabling low latency, low jitter and low loss rates in delivering voice and video data.

        While the basic use of our platform is currently free, we monetize our user base primarily through IVAS and online advertising. Currently, we primarily generate IVAS revenues through sales of virtual items and game tokens that our users may purchase on our platform for online music and entertainment and online games. We also generate IVAS revenues through YY membership and live game broadcasting. We primarily generate online advertising revenues from sales of various forms of advertising on Duowan.com and YY Client. As we further implement our mobile strategy, we have started generating revenues from Mobile YY in the third quarter of 2013. We believe that we will be able to capitalize on the large and highly engaged user base of our platform by exploring additional monetization opportunities and diversifying our revenue sources.

        Our total net revenues were RMB319.7 million, RMB820.0 million and RMB1,823.5 million (US$301.2 million) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. We had a net loss of RMB83.2 million in 2011 and had a net income of RMB89.2 million and RMB477.7 million (US$78.9 million) in 2012 and 2013, respectively.

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The YY Platform

YY Client

        Our core product, YY Client, enables users to engage in live interactions online, and we continue to develop and upgrade it to address evolving user needs. YY Client provides access to user-created online social activities groups, which we refer to as channels. YY Client is compatible with most internet-enabled systems, including PCs and mobile interfaces through Mobile YY. YY Client is widely accessible to most internet users in China because its voice-enabled features only require a minimal bandwidth of approximately 2 KB per second. YY Client is available to download for free from YY.com, Duowan.com and other internet software download centers.

        The first version of YY Client, launched in July 2008, had voice-enabled features that allowed online game players to communicate with large groups of fellow gamers on a real-time basis. Game players typically organize various guilds for players to discuss gaming strategies and communicate with each other in a team setting. Such online guilds, which can consist of up to thousands of players, built their own channels on YY Client to communicate with fellow guild members in real time when playing games online. Gradually, we further developed and tailored YY Client in response to the market need for a platform enabling large groups to gather, meet and socialize in real time online, and turned it into the rich communication social platform that it is today. We introduced live video-enabled channels beginning in late 2011 and have since expanded the use of our video features to include some of our most popular music and entertainment, game broadcasting and education channels, and plan to further expand the availability of video features over time. YY's registered user accounts had reached 700 million as of December 31, 2013. YY also had 51.9 million, 69.7 million and 92.3 million average monthly active users in the three months ended December 2011, 2012 and 2013.

        All of the basic social interface features enabled by our YY Client, such as the ability to engage in multi-party voice- and video-enabled communications, are currently available to our users free of charge. In addition, some IVAS are free to users up to a certain threshold. We currently earn revenues from YY Client through sales of IVAS paid through online third party payment systems.

Channels on YY Client—User-created and User-defined

        On YY Client, users can create individual channels for any live social gathering covering a broad range of interests and topics. YY Client enables users to create channels to cover new topics and interests, gain a fast growing audience base and emerge as the popular channels. Online music and entertainment, one of the most popular segments on our platform, began generating revenues from the sale of virtual items in March 2011.

        Currently, the most popular channel topics include the following:

    Music and Entertainment.  Users gather on YY channels to participate in a range of music and entertainment activities, such as singing, dancing and talk shows. Beginning in March 2011, we started offering various virtual items for sale in our online music and entertainment channels. We have expanded our virtual item offerings, and in turn, revenues, from online music and entertainment, and expect to continue to do so in the future.

    Games.  YY channels are a popular live online communication tool for several major types of online games, such as massive multiplayer online games, web games, first person shooter games and real-time strategy games. Game players gather on YY channels for in-game real-time exchanges and to share game-playing tips, discuss strategies, game walk-throughs and guides, and organize guild-related social events. We also have live game broadcasting channels on our platform.

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    Education.  Our users host and participate in live lectures or personal tutoring sessions on a range of subjects using a wide variety of teaching tools we provide, including video, PowerPoint, white board, screen shots and Q&A sessions. The most popular subjects include foreign language education, the PRC civil servant examination, and IT training. As of December 31, 2013, we had approximately 135,000 registered teachers on our platform.

    Finance.  Users interested in finance and investment can interact with other users, including financial experts on YY channels. YY channels allow users to discuss investment-related topics, including stock market trends and investment basics.

    Literature.  Users gather on YY channels to review and conduct live discussions on literature, particularly novels. Our popular literary channels include book clubs or fan clubs for famous writers. Users on YY channels also host live events such as book promotions and meet-the-author events.

    Conference Calls.  YY channels are often used as a convenient online gathering place for a wide range of uses. YY enables small and medium business as well as large corporations to conduct conference call easily, efficiently and economically on YY channels.

Organization and Management of Channels

        To help our users navigate and explore the channels on YY Client, we created online catalogs grouped by topics and common interests for users to browse. Within each group, the channels are then ranked by popularity. These online catalogs are also searchable by keywords, which makes it easier for users looking to explore social groups beyond their usual channels to find and join other channels that touch upon different interest areas.

        Each YY channel is set up by one user, who becomes the channel's owner. We provide management tools to each channel owner to tailor such channel to his or her own specific interests, establish housekeeping rules, manage hierarchies and manage daily operations of the channel. Channel owners are usually engaged in the active promotion of their channels, often recruiting like-minded users to help manage, monitor and maintain order within their channels.

        Each of our channels can support millions of people concurrently, and to date, the largest online event we hosted attracted approximately 1.4 million peak concurrent users in a single channel. We provide three basic management modes for channel owners to organize the live voice and video-communications within their channels: "queue," "chair" and "free" modes. Typically, channel owners and managers choose the type of management mode for their channels depending on the number of users in their channels and the specific needs of these channels. In queue mode, each user can sign in to line up to speak or broadcast, and can only be heard or seen when his or her turn comes "at the mic." This queue mode is a popular mode for karaoke channels, where users take turns performing live in front of other channel users. In chair mode, only the "chair," meaning the owners or other designated persons, are allowed to speak or broadcast video; the remaining users can listen, watch and respond through typing text on the screen. This mode is often used in channels set up by online game players' guilds, as some of these guilds have thousands of users taking orders from a few leaders, who can speak and direct their team's collective actions while the users are simultaneously signed on to play certain online games. In free mode, any user in the channel can conduct effective voice- and video-enabled communications at any time; this mode is often chosen by channels with a limited number of users, since too many people talking at once would make effective communication impossible. In addition, we provide channel owners and managers with a broad range of functions to tailor the channels to suit particular needs, such as granting certain privileges to a member who makes particular contributions to the channel or banning certain channel users for inappropriate behavior.

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        We work closely with channel owners and managers by considering and implementing some of their suggestions and feedback and providing them with the tools they require to manage and promote their channels. We also monitor channels for levels of user activity and periodically shut down inactive ones.

Game Center on YY Client

        The game center on YY Client currently primarily consists of a game lobby and VIP game access. The game lobby enables users to access various online games without downloading any additional client software. The VIP game access provide our users with access to new games being developed or tested by third party game developers, and afford game developers an opportunity to promote their games among our users as well as solicit user feedback on new games.

        We conduct market research regarding trends and demand for online games and various types of in-game virtual items, and often work with third party game developers to develop and offer a wide range of in-game virtual items. We intend to continue to source popular online games to users on YY Client.

Web-based YY

        We launched an extension of YY Client, web-based YY, in October 2012. Web-based YY enables users to conduct real-time interactions on the web without requiring any downloads or installations. Web-based YY optimizes YY technology for the web, transcending the limitations of operational systems and enabling real-time communications on the web by simply clicking on a link. To date, web-based YY has established stable, quality service, and we expect it to become a lively community of web-based real-time rich communications as it develops.

Online Portals

        YY.com is our community-driven portal site that offers visitors and users a centralized location to learn about, navigate and access the offerings on our broader platform. Through YY.com, our user community can download the latest versions of YY Client and Mobile YY applications to attend live group activities and access special-interest resources and entertainment such as online games, music and online education. YY.com offers a channel guide for users to identify channels that cater to their respective interests. YY.com enables performers to update schedules and information on upcoming live concert performances and other types of entertainment on YY channels and hosts numerous fan clubs for popular performers.

        Duowan.com is a dedicated game media website that provides comprehensive information on online games and other resources for users and online game players. Duowan.com provides comprehensive gaming resources such as updated news and announcements of gaming events and the launch or release of new games, and hosts a text-based discussion forum in which users can discuss their game-playing strategies and interact socially through postings. Duowan.com was launched in 2005 and had 9.9 million, 19.1 million and 37.0 million average daily unique visitors for the months of December 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.

        YY.com and Duowan.com both offer links to online games on YY Client.

        We launched 100.com in early 2014 as a dedicated web portal to our education platform, 100 Education. Our 100 Education platform provides a variety of exam preparation classes, such as TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) and IELTS (International English Language Testing System) preparation courses, to students. We allow teachers to offer courses on our 100 Education platform freely. We will also open an online enrollment channel, providing simplified access for our users to participate in the courses.

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Mobile Applications

        We develop mobile applications to capture a greater share of the growing number of users that access live online social platforms, internet communications and other internet services through mobile operating systems. While we continue to develop and upgrade our platform, a key focus of our research and development is on Mobile YY, a version of YY Client that can be accessed through mobile devices that we launched in September 2010. To accelerate monetization of our mobile platform, we introduced virtual item purchase functions on Mobile YY in October 2013. In addition, we do not currently intend to monetize Mobile YY by placing advertisements on Mobile YY, as we believe that advertising on Mobile YY may clutter the user interface and distract users from their in-channel activities. This restriction on advertisements may also limit Mobile YY's ability to generate revenues. See "Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—If we are unable to successfully capture and retain the growing number of users that access internet services through mobile devices or successfully monetize Mobile YY, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected."

        Mobile YY contains the basic functions and services offered on our regular YY Client, which enables our users to access a large selection of content on our platform and helps them keep in touch with their friends or online guilds and social groups when they do not have convenient PC access. The live broadcasting function of Mobile YY enables our users to broadcast videos on our platform anytime and anywhere through their mobile devices. Mobile YY also provides access to mobile games operated by us.

        We intend to explore more user-friendly, mobile-specific functions for our platform in the future.

Technology

        We believe we are an industry leader in providing large-scale quality multi-user voice- and video-enabled online services in China, and we intend to continue to update our technology to maintain this leadership position.

QoS for online multi-media communications

        Quality of Service, or QoS, assurance is a key element of any high quality delivery of voice and video data over the internet. For live voice- or video-enabled communications, any data packet loss and jitter, or delay in transmission, is often immediately noticeable to users. We devote significant resources to maintain and develop a creative combination of multiple voice- and voice-over internet protocol, or VOIP, quality assurance mechanisms to minimize data loss and jitter. The mechanisms we employ include but not limited to cloud-based intelligence routing, low-bitrate redundant solution, upstream-forward error correction and adaptive jitter. A special intelligent routing algorithm we designed automatically seeks optimal ways of delivering voice and video data across our cloud-based network, enabling us to provide better QoS even when the QoS levels are lower on certain routes.

        We employ computer programs and design and implement a standardized set of measurements to help monitor our service quality. Our system periodically collects, and our team of experts analyzes, data from each of our data centers to evaluate the voice- and video-quality for each user using a systematic standard. We have set up formal procedures to handle different levels of server breakdowns and network-related emergencies, and our team can remotely discover issues and access any server to promptly resolve issues.

Large, dedicated cloud-based network infrastructure

        Our team of experts developed a cloud-based network infrastructure specifically designed to handle multi-party voice- and video-enabled real-time online interactions. We own over 7,000 servers which are

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hosted in the data centers we lease from third parties throughout the country as of December 31, 2013. To deliver voice data, we require a limited bandwidth of approximately 2 KB per second, which is easily obtainable. Our cloud-based network infrastructure provides quality data delivery and allows multiple users to interact online from anywhere in China with ease and speed.

        Our system is designed for scalability and reliability to support growth in our user base. The number of our servers contributes significantly to our fast streaming speed and reliable services, and can be expanded with comparative ease, given the low cost of renting data centers to host additional servers in any high traffic regions in our network. We believe that our current network facilities and broadband capacity provide us with sufficient capacity to carry out our current operations, and can be expanded to meet additional capacity relatively quickly. The amount of bandwidth we lease is continually expanded to reflect increased peak concurrent user numbers.

Content management and monitoring

        YY Client, YY.com and Duowan.com all contain user-generated content, which we are required to monitor for compliance with PRC laws and regulations. A team within our data security department helps in enforcing our internal procedures to ensure that the content in our system are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. They are aided by a program designed to periodically sweep our platform and the data being conveyed in our system for sensitive key words or questionable materials. Content that contains certain keywords are automatically filtered by our program and cannot be successfully posted on our platform. Thus we are able to minimize offending materials on our platform and to remove such materials promptly after they are discovered. See "Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our platform, or distributed to our users, and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform."

Accumulated experience and data for a proprietary technology platform

        Significant time and efforts are required to build and operate an infrastructure such as ours. The technological difficulties which a platform that hosts 10,000 concurrent users faces differ greatly from the difficulties a platform with 100,000 and 1,000,000 concurrent users faces, including many issues to be considered when programming for the platform and planning the infrastructure. Since our launch, we have gradually developed an effective system to identify, study and resolve issues that we encounter every day. In addition, our team members have been trained over the years to anticipate and resolve any issues, having gained significant knowledge from building and maintaining our platform over time.

Technology team

        As of December 31, 2013, our dedicated technology team consisted of approximately 1,067 employees; the team is divided into three departments, serving (a) YY Client and cloud service, (b) online games and YY.com and (c) Duowan.com, respectively. Approximately 50 members of our technology team are dedicated to monitoring and maintaining our network infrastructure 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our technology team checks the voice and video data quality received by various users, the quality of user experience on our platform and the proper functioning of our server equipment in our network, as well as contacting internet data center hosts to fix any issues located through such checks. Having launched and developed our video-enabled technology on an increasing number of channels, our team expects to provide full voice- and video-enabled live social interactions in the future.

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Marketing and Sales

Viral and other marketing for our platform

        Historically, we have incurred minimal marketing expenses for our platform and have built a large community of users primarily through viral marketing, with word of mouth referrals and repeat user visits ultimately driven by user experience. While we have significantly benefited from the effects of powerful viral marketing, we recently initiated, and plan to continue, certain marketing activities designed to further promote our platform to a broader range of potential users.

Advertisers on our platform

        As of December 31, 2013, we had a dedicated sales and marketing force of 48 experienced professionals; approximately half of these professionals were in charge of serving advertisers and advertising agencies. Currently, a majority of our sales effort is devoted to maintaining and expanding the level of our advertising revenues from online games, since advertising revenues from online games contributed a substantial majority of our online advertising revenue. We expect our online advertising revenues as a percentage of our total net revenues to decrease in the future as we capitalize on increased monetization opportunities for YY Client and as IVAS revenues continue to increase. The compensation for our sales personnel includes basic monthly salaries and sales commissions based on the advertising revenues that they bring in.

Services for game developers

        We have entered into hosting agreements with a number of game developers. These agreements provide for a mutual exchange of resources between us and the game developers: we provide the communication platform for their games, and in exchange they promote our platform through their game interfaces.

Seasonality

        Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations. However, seasonal fluctuations have not posed material operational and financial challenges to us, as such periods tend to be brief and predictable.

Competition

        We face competition in several major aspects of our business, particularly from companies that provide online social networking, internet communication and online games. We also compete for online advertising revenues with other internet companies that sell online advertising services in China.

        Social connectivity and communications.    In relation to voice-enabled communication tools, there are several internet voice communication service providers in China, including iSpeak, Dudu and Tencent's QQtalk, and leading international internet voice communication service providers, such as Skype, that are expanding in the China market. In addition, some other leading Chinese internet companies have announced the launch of internet voice communication services. We compete with other internet companies that provide real-time voice and video services to Chinese internet users.

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        We may also face potential competition from global social networking service providers that seek to enter the China market, whether independently or through the formation of alliances with, or acquisition of, PRC domestic internet companies.

        Online game media and hosting.    We have various competitors in the online game media market in China. Duowan.com's primary competitor among game media websites is 17173.com. For game hosting, our competitors include other major internet companies that host games, such as Tencent, Qihoo 360 and other private companies.

Research and Development

        We believe that our ability to develop internet and mobile online applications and services tailored to respond to the needs of our user base has been a key factor for the success of our business.

        As of December 31, 2013, our research and development team consisted of 944 members. All of our service programs are designed and developed internally, including various interactive technologies. We expect to continue to develop all of our core technologies in-house.

        We currently focus our product development efforts on various areas, including (a) the continued improvement of our audio quality and video-enabled features on our real-time interactive social platform, (b) the ongoing improvement of general user experience on our platform by providing virtual items, additional games and online game add-ons as well as certain members-only special features, and (c) the continued development of Mobile YY. We plan to further invest in our voice and video technology and in developing Mobile YY.

Intellectual Property

        We regard our patents, trademarks, domain names, copyrights, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success. We seek to protect our intellectual property rights through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection laws in the PRC and other jurisdictions, as well as through confidentiality agreements and procedures with our employees, partners and others. The intellectual property rights we own include: (1) 6 patents relating to our proprietary technology; (2) 73 registered domain names, including YY.com, Duowan.com and Chinaduo.com; (3) registered copyrights to 70 software programs developed by us relating to various aspects of our operations, including voice software, games platform, general support and user management; and (4) 147 trademarks and service marks for our brands and logos in China, including YY and certain Chinese logos relating to Duowan and YY. As of December 31, 2013, we had filed 136 patent applications covering certain proprietary technologies and 78 trademark applications in China.

Legal Proceedings

        We have initiated a lawsuit against Beijing Wonderad Advertisement Co., Ltd., one of our advertisement agents, in Guangzhou in February 2014, claiming for the unpaid advertisement fee and liquidated damages for late payment in the aggregate amount of approximately RMB84 million. Apart from this lawsuit, we are currently not a party to, and are not aware of any threat of, any legal, arbitration or administrative proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, are likely to have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. From time to time, we have become, and may in the future become, a party to various legal or administrative proceedings or claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. Regardless of the outcome, legal or administrative proceedings or claims may have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management attention and other factors.

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PRC Regulation

        Certain areas related to the internet, such as telecommunications, internet information services, connections to the international information networks, internet information security and censorship and online game operations, are covered extensively by a number of existing laws and regulations issued by various PRC governmental authorities, including:

    the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT;

    the Ministry of Culture, or the MOC;

    the General Administration of Press and Publication, or the GAPP;

    the State Administration for Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT;

    the National Copyright Administration, or the NCA;

    the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, or the SAIC;

    the State Council Information Office, or the SCIO;

    the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM;

    the Bureau of Protection of State Secrets;

    the Ministry of Public Security; and

    the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or the SAFE.

        As the online social platform and online game industries are still at an early stage of development in China, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to require new licenses and permits in addition to those we currently have. There are substantial uncertainties on the interpretation and implementation of any current and future Chinese laws and regulations, including those applicable to the online social platform and online game industries. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us." This section sets forth the most important laws and regulations that govern our current business activities in China and that affect the dividends payment to our shareholders.

Regulation on Telecommunications Services and Foreign Ownership Restrictions

        The Telecommunications Regulations, which became effective on September 25, 2000, are the core regulations on telecommunications services in China. The Telecommunications Regulations set out basic guidelines on different types of telecommunications business activities, including the distinction between "basic telecommunications services" and "value-added telecommunications services." According to the Catalog of Telecommunications Business (2003 Amendment), implemented on April 1, 2003 and attached to the Telecommunications Regulations, internet information services are deemed a type of value-added telecommunications services. The Telecommunications Regulations require the operators of value-added telecommunications services to obtain value-added telecommunications business operation licenses from MIIT or its provincial delegates prior to the commencement of such services. Under these regulations, if the value-added telecommunications services offered include mobile network information services, the operation license for value-added telecommunications business must include the provision of such services in its covered scope. We currently, through Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity, hold an ICP license, a sub-category of the value-added telecommunications business operation license, covering the provision of internet and mobile network information services, issued by the Guangdong branch of the MIIT on February 10, 2012.

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        The Regulations for the Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, or the FITE Regulations, which took effect on January 1, 2002 and were amended on September 10, 2008, are the key regulations that regulate foreign direct investment in telecommunications companies in China. The FITE Regulations stipulate that the foreign investor of a telecommunications enterprise is prohibited from holding more than 50% of the equity interest in a foreign-invested enterprise that provides value-added telecommunications services, including online games and the provision of internet content. Moreover, such foreign investor shall demonstrate a good track record and experience in operating value-added telecommunications services when applying for the value-added telecommunications business operation license from the MIIT.

        On July 13, 2006, the MIIT issued the Circular on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services, or the MIIT Circular 2006, which requires that (a) foreign investors can only operate a telecommunications business in China through establishing a telecommunications enterprise with a valid telecommunications business operation license; (b) domestic license holders are prohibited from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunications business operation licenses to foreign investors in any form, or providing any resource, sites or facilities to foreign investors to facilitate the unlicensed operation of telecommunications business in China; (c) value-added telecommunications service providers or their shareholders must directly own the domain names and registered trademarks they use in their daily operations; (d) each value-added telecommunications service provider must have the necessary facilities for its approved business operations and maintain such facilities in the geographic regions covered by its license; and (e) all value-added telecommunications service providers should improve network and information security, enact relevant information safety administration regulations and set up emergency plans to ensure network and information safety. The provincial communications administration bureaus, as local authorities in charge of regulating telecommunications services, (a) are required to ensure that existing qualified value-added telecommunications service providers will conduct a self-assessment of their compliance with the MIIT Circular 2006 and submit status reports to the MIIT before November 1, 2006; and (b) may revoke the value-added telecommunications business operation licenses of those that fail to comply with the above requirements or fail to rectify such non-compliance within specified time limits. Due to the lack of any additional interpretation from the regulatory authorities, it remains unclear what impact MIIT Circular 2006 will have on us or the other PRC internet companies with similar corporate and contractual structures.

        To comply with such foreign ownership restrictions, we operate our online social platform and online game businesses in China through Guangzhou Huaduo, which is owned by several PRC citizens and Beijing Tuda. Beijing Tuda is owned by Messrs. David Xueling Li, Tony Bin Zhao and Jin Cao. Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda are both controlled by Beijing Huanju Shidai through a series of contractual arrangements. See "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party—Contractual Arrangements with Beijing Tuda." Moreover, Guangzhou Huaduo is the registered holder of a majority of the domain names, trademarks and facilities necessary for daily operations in compliance with the MIIT Circular 2006. Based on our PRC legal counsel Fangda Partners' understanding of the current PRC laws, rules and regulations, our corporate structure complies with all existing PRC laws and regulations. However, we were further advised by our PRC legal counsel that there are substantial uncertainties with respect to the interpretation and application of existing or future PRC laws and regulations and thus there is no assurance that Chinese governmental authorities would take a view consistent with the opinions of our PRC legal counsel.

Internet Information Services

        The Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services, or the ICP Measures, issued by the State Council on September 25, 2000 and amended on January 8, 2011, regulate the provision of internet information services. According to the ICP Measures, "internet information services" refer to

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services that provide internet information to online users, and are categorized as either commercial services or non-commercial services. Pursuant to the ICP Measures, internet information commercial service providers shall obtain an ICP license, from the relevant local authorities before engaging in the providing of any commercial internet information services in China. In addition, if the internet information services involve provision of news, publication, education, medicine, health, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment and other services that statutorily require approvals from other additional governmental authorities, such approvals must be obtained before applying for the ICP license. Guangzhou Huaduo presently holds the ICP license on internet and mobile network information services issued by the Guangdong branch of the MIIT on February 10, 2012.

        Besides, the ICP Measures and other relevant measures also ban the internet activities that constitute publication of any content that propagates obscenity, pornography, gambling and violence, incite the commission of crimes or infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of third parties, among others. If an internet information service provider detects information transmitted on their system that falls within the specifically prohibited scope, such provider must terminate such transmission, delete such information immediately, keep records and report to the governmental authorities in charge. Any provider's violation of these prescriptions will lead to the revocation of its ICP license and, in serious cases, the shutting down of its internet systems.

Internet Publication and Cultural Products

        The Tentative Measures for Internet Publication Administration, or Internet Publication Measures, were jointly promulgated by the GAPP and the MIIT on June 27, 2002 and became effective on August 1, 2002. The Internet Publication Measures imposed a license requirement for any company that engages in internet publishing, which means any act by an internet information service provider to select, edit and process content or programs and to make such content or programs publicly available on the internet. The provision of online games is deemed an internet publication activity; therefore, an online game operator must (i) obtain an Internet Publishing License so that it can directly offer its online games to the public in the PRC, or (ii) publish its online games through a qualified press entity by entering into an entrustment agreement.

        The Rules for the Administration of Electronic Publication, or the Electronic Publication Rules, was issued by the GAPP on February 21, 2008 and became effective on April 15, 2008. Under the Electronic Publication Rules and other regulations issued by the GAPP, online games are classified as a kind of electronic publication, and publishing of online games is required to be conducted by licensed electronic publishing entities that have been issued standard publication codes. Pursuant to the Electronic Publication Rules, if a PRC company is contractually authorized to publish foreign electronic publications, it must obtain the approval of, and register the copyright license contract with, the GAPP.

        We, through Guangzhou Huaduo, obtained an Internet Publishing License for the publication of online games and mobile phone games on November 7, 2011. With the issued Internet Publishing License, we are in the process of applying for the GAPP's pre-approval for publishing online games. For more information on the pre-approval by the GAPP, see "—Regulation on Online Games and Foreign Ownership Restrictions."

Regulation on Online Games and Foreign Ownership Restrictions

        On June 3, 2010, the MOC promulgated the Provisional Administration Measures of Online Games, or the Online Game Measures, which came into effect on August 1, 2010. The Online Game Measures governs the research, development and operation of online games and the issuance and trading services of virtual currency. It specifies that the MOC is responsible for the censorship of imported online games and the filing of records of domestic online games. The procedures for the filing of records of domestic online games must be conducted with the MOC within 30 days after the

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commencement date of the online operation of such online games or the occurrence date of any material alteration of such online games.

        All operators of online games, issuers of virtual currencies and providers of virtual currency trading services, or Online Game Business Operators, are required to obtain Internet Culture Operation Licenses. An Internet Culture Operation License is valid for three years and in case of renewal, the renewal application should be submitted 30 days prior to the expiry date of such license. An Online Game Business Operator should request the valid identity certificate of game users for registration, and notify the public 60 days ahead of the termination of any online game operations or the transfer of online game operational rights. Online Game Business Operators are also prohibited from (a) setting compulsory matters in the online games without game users' consent; (b) advertising or promoting the online games that contain prohibited content, such as anything that compromise state security or divulges state secrets; and (c) inducing game users to input legal currencies or virtual currencies to gain online game products or services, by way of random draw or other incidental means. It also states that the state cultural administration authorities will formulate the compulsory clauses of a standard online game service agreement, which have been promulgated on July 29, 2010 and are required to be incorporated into the service agreement entered into between the Online Game Business Operators, with no conflicts with the rest of clauses in such service agreements. Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid Internet Culture Operation License that was last updated in December 2013.

        On July 11, 2008, the General Office of the State Council promulgated the Regulation on Main Functions, Internal Organization and Staffing of the GAPP, or the Regulation on Three Provisions. On September 7, 2009, the Central Organization Establishment Commission issued the corresponding interpretations, or the Interpretations on Three Provisions. The Regulation on Three Provisions and the Interpretation on Three Provisions granted the MOC overall jurisdiction to regulate the online gaming industry, and granted the GAPP the authority to issue approvals for the internet publication of online games. Specifically, (a) the MOC is empowered to administrate online games (other than the pre-examination and approval before internet publication of online games); (b) subject to the MOC's overall administration, GAPP is responsible for the pre-examination and approval of the internet publication of online games; and (c) once an online game is launched, the online game will be only administrated and regulated by the MOC. On November 7, 2011, Guangzhou Huaduo obtained an Internet Publishing License for the publication of online games and mobile phone games. The online games we currently offer are domestically produced games, and are published by third parties qualified to publish online games. Approximately 88% of the online games currently available on YY Client have been filed with the GAPP as electronic publications, and the others are still undergoing the filing process.

        On September 28, 2009, the GAPP, the NCA and the National Working Group to Eliminate Pornography and Illegal Publications jointly issued the Circular on Consistent Implementation of the Stipulation on the Three Determinations of the State Council and the Relevant Interpretations of the State Commission for Public Sector Reform and the Further Strengthening of the Pre-approval of Online Games and the Approval and Examination of Imported Online Games, or Circular 13. Circular 13 explicitly prohibits foreign investors from directly or indirectly engaging in online gaming business in China, including through variable interest entity structures, or VIE Structures. Foreign investors are not allowed to indirectly control or participate in PRC operating companies' online game operations, whether (a) by establishing other joint ventures, entering into contractual arrangements or providing technical support for such operating companies; or (b) in a disguised form such as by incorporating or directing user registration, user account management or game card consumption into online gaming platforms that are ultimately controlled or owned by foreign companies. Circular 13 reiterates that the GAPP is responsible for the examination and approval of the import and publication of online games and states that downloading from the internet is considered a publication activity, which is subject to approval from the GAPP. Violations of Circular 13 will result in severe penalties.

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For detailed analysis, see "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies."

Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System

        On April 15, 2007, in order to curb addictive online game-playing by minors, eight PRC government authorities, including the GAPP, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Security and the MIIT, jointly issued a circular requiring the implementation of an anti-fatigue compliance system and a real-name registration system by all PRC online game operators. Under the anti-fatigue compliance system, three hours or less of continuous playing by minors, defined as game players under 18 years of age, is considered to be "healthy", three to five hours is deemed "fatiguing", and five hours or more is deemed "unhealthy." Game operators are required to reduce the value of in-game benefits to a game player by half if it discovers that the amount of a time a game player spends online has reached the "fatiguing" level, and to zero in the case of the "unhealthy" level.

        To identify whether a game player is a minor and thus subject to the anti-fatigue compliance system, a real-name registration system should be adopted to require online game players to register their real identity information before playing online games. Pursuant to a notice issued by the relevant eight government authorities on August 3, 2011, online game operators must submit the identity information of game players to the National Citizen Identity Information Center, a subordinate public institution of the Ministry of Public Security, for verification as of October 1, 2011.

        We have developed and implemented an anti-fatigue and compulsory real-name registration system in all our online games, and will cooperate with the National Citizen Identity Information Center to launch the identity verification system upon the issuance of relevant implementing rules. For game players who do not provide verified identity information, we assume that they are minors under 18 years of age. In order to comply with the anti-fatigue rules, we set up our system so that after three hours of playing our online games, minors only receive half of the virtual items or other in-game benefits they would otherwise earn, and after playing for more than five hours, minors would receive no in-game benefits. These restrictions could limit our ability to increase our online games business among minors. Furthermore, if these restrictions were expanded to apply to adult game players in the future, our online games business could be materially and adversely affected. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—Intensified government regulation of the internet industry in China could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our user level or the level of user traffic to our YY platform.

Virtual Currency

        On January 25, 2007, the Ministry of Public Security, the MOC, the MIIT and the GAPP jointly issued a circular regarding online gambling which has implications for the issuance and use of virtual currency. To curtail online games that involve online gambling while addressing concerns that virtual currency might be used for money laundering or illicit trade, the circular (a) prohibits online game operators from charging commissions in the form of virtual currency in connection with winning or losing of games; (b) requires online game operators to impose limits on use of virtual currency in guessing and betting games; (c) bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property; and (d) prohibits services that enable game players to transfer virtual currency to other players. To comply with the relevant section of the circular that bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property, in relation to online music and entertainment, our virtual currency currently can only be used by users to exchange into virtual items to be used to show support for performers or gain access to privileges and special features in the channels which are services in nature instead of "real currency or property." Once the virtual currency is exchanged by users for virtual items or the relevant privileged services, the conversion transaction is completed and we immediately cancel the virtual item

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in our internal system. In the case of virtual items used as gifts to performers, we cancel the virtual items and record corresponding points for the benefit of the performers and the channel owners, which are then used as basis for the revenue-sharing calculation pursuant to arrangements among us, certain popular performers and channel owners.

        In February 2007, 14 PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued a circular to further strengthen the oversight of internet cafes and online games. In accordance with the circular, the People's Bank of China, or PBOC, has the authority to regulate virtual currency, including: (a) setting limits on the aggregate amount of virtual currency that can be issued by online game operators and the amount of virtual currency that can be purchased by an individual; (b) stipulating that virtual currency issued by online game operators can only be used for purchasing virtual products and services within the online games and not for purchasing tangible or physical products; (c) requiring that the price for redemption of virtual currency shall not exceed the respective original purchase price; and (d) banning the trading of virtual currency.

        On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued a notice to strengthen the administration of online game virtual currency. The Virtual Currency Notice requires businesses that (a) issue online game virtual currency (in the form of prepaid cards and/or pre-payment or prepaid card points), or (b) offer online game virtual currency transaction services to apply for approval from the MOC through its provincial branches within three months after the issuance of the notice. The Virtual Currency Notice prohibits businesses that issue online game virtual currency from providing services that would enable the trading of such virtual currency. Any business that fails to submit the requisite application will be subject to sanctions, including, without limitation, mandatory corrective measures and fines.

        Under the Virtual Currency Notice, an online game virtual currency transaction service provider means a business providing platform services relating to trading of online game virtual currency among game users. The Virtual Currency Notice further requires an online game virtual currency transaction service provider to comply with relevant e-commerce regulations issued by the MOFCOM. According to the Guiding Opinions on Online Trading (Interim) issued by the MOFCOM on March 6, 2007, online platform services are trading services provided to online buyers and sellers through a computer information system operated by the service provider.

        The Virtual Currency Notice regulates, among others, the amount of virtual currency a business can issue, the retention period of user records, the function of virtual currency and the return of unused virtual currency upon the termination of online services. It prohibits online game operators from distributing virtual items or virtual currency to players based on random selection through lucky draw, wager or lottery which involves cash or virtual currency directly paid by the players. The Virtual Currency Notice bans the issuance of virtual currency by game operators to game players through means other than purchases with legal currency. Any business that does not provide online game virtual currency transaction services is required to adopt technical measures to restrict the transfer of online game virtual currency among accounts of different game players.

        In addition, the Online Game Measures promulgated in June 2010 further provide that (i) virtual currency may only be used to purchase services and products provided by the online service provider that issues the currency; (ii) the purpose of issuing virtual currency shall not be malicious appropriation of the user's advance payment; (iii) the storage period of online gamers' purchase record shall not be shorter than 180 days; (iv) the types, price and total amount of virtual currency shall be filed with the cultural administration department at the provincial level. The Online Game Measures stipulate that virtual currency service providers may not provide virtual currency transaction services to minors or for online games that fail to obtain the necessary approval or filings, and that such providers should keep transaction records, accounting records and other relevant information for its users for at least 180 days.

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Online Music and Entertainment

        On November 20, 2006, the MOC issued Several Suggestions of the MOC on the Development and Administration of Internet Music, or the Suggestions, which became effective on the same date. The Suggestions, among other things, reiterate the requirement for an internet service provider to obtain an Internet Culture Operation License to carry out any business relating to internet music products. In addition, foreign investors are prohibited from operating internet culture businesses. However, the laws and regulations on internet music products are still evolving, and there have not been any provisions clarifying whether music products will be regulated by the Suggestions or how such regulation would be carried out.

        On August 18, 2009, the MOC promulgated the Notice on Strengthening and Improving the Content Review of Online Music, or the Online Music Notice. According to the Online Music Notice, only "internet culture operating entities" approved by the MOC may engage in the production, release, dissemination (including providing direct links to music products) and importation of online music products. The content of online music shall be reviewed by or filed with the MOC. Internet culture operating entities should establish a strict self-monitoring system of online music content and set up a special department in charge of such monitoring.

        Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid Internet Culture Operation License covering our provision of online music. More than 99% of the music offered on our websites is sung by grassroots performers along with recorded music. If any music provided through our platform is found to lack necessary filings and/or approvals, we could be requested to cease providing such music or be subject to claims from third parties or penalties from the MOC or its local branches. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected." Moreover, the unauthorized posting of online music on our platform by third parties may expose us to the risk of administrative penalties and intellectual property infringement lawsuits. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We may be held liable for information or content displayed on, retrieved from or linked to our platform, or distributed to our users, and PRC authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platform" and "PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights—Copyright Law."

        In 2011, the MOC greatly intensified its regulation of the provision of online music products. According to the series of Notices on Clearing Online Music Products that are in Violation of Relevant Regulations promulgated by the MOC since January 7, 2011, entities that provide any the following will be subject to relevant penalties or sanctions imposed by the MOC: (a) online music products or relevant services without obtaining corresponding qualifications, (b) imported online music products that have not passed the content review of the MOC or (c) domestically developed online music products that have not been filed with the MOC. Thus far, we believe that we have eliminated from our platform any online music products that may fall into the scope of those prohibited online music products thereunder.

Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs

        The Measures for the Administration of Publication of Audio-Visual Programs through Internet or Other Information Network, or the Audio-Visual Measures, promulgated by the SARFT on July 6, 2004 and put into effect on October 11, 2004, apply to the activities relating to the opening, broadcasting, integration, transmission or download of audio-visual programs using internet or other information network. Under the Audio-Visual Measures, to engage in the business of transmitting audio-visual programs, a license issued by SARFT is required. Foreign invested enterprises are not allowed to carry out such business.

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        On April 13, 2005, the State Council promulgated the Certain Decisions on the Entry of the Non-state-owned Capital into the Cultural Industry. On July 6, 2005, five PRC governmental authorities, including the MOC, the SARFT, the GAPP, the CSRC and the MOFCOM, jointly adopted the Several Opinions on Canvassing Foreign Investment into the Cultural Sector. According to these regulations, non-state-owned capital and foreign investors are not allowed to engage in the business of transmitting audio-visual programs through information networks.

        To further regulate the provision of audio-visual program services to the public via the internet, including through mobile networks, within the territory of the PRC, the SARFT and the MIIT jointly promulgated the Administrative Provisions on Internet Audio-Visual Program Service, or the Audio-Visual Program Provisions, on December 20, 2007, which came into effect on January 31, 2008. Providers of internet audio-visual program services are required to obtain a License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs issued by SARFT, or complete certain registration procedures with SARFT. In general, providers of internet audio-visual program services must be either state-owned or state-controlled entities, and the business to be carried out by such providers must satisfy the overall planning and guidance catalog for internet audio-visual program service determined by SARFT. In a press conference jointly held by SARFT and MIIT to answer questions relating to the Audio-Visual Program Provisions in February 2008, SARFT and MIIT clarified that providers of internet audio-visual program services who engaged in such services prior to the promulgation of the Audio-Visual Program Provisions are eligible to register their business and continue their operation of internet audio-visual program services so long as those providers did not violate the relevant laws and regulations in the past. On May 21, 2008, SARFT issued a Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Application and Approval of License for the Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs, which further sets out detailed provisions concerning the application and approval process regarding the License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs. The notice also states that providers of internet audio-visual program services that engaged in such services prior to the promulgation of the Audio-Visual Program Provisions are eligible to apply for the license so long as their violation of the laws and regulations is minor in scope and can be rectified in a timely manner and they have no records of violation during the last three months prior to the promulgation of the Audio-Visual Program Provisions. Further, on March 31, 2009, SARFT promulgated the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of the Content of Internet Audio-Visual Programs, which reiterates the pre-approval requirements for the audio-visual programs transmitted via the internet, including through mobile networks, where applicable, and prohibits certain types of internet audio-visual programs containing violence, pornography, gambling, terrorism, superstition or other similarly prohibited elements.

        On April 1, 2010, the SARFT issued the Internet Audio-visual Program Services Categories (Provisional), or the Provisional Categories, which classified internet audio-visual program services into four categories.

        Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs with the business classification of converging and play-on-demand service for certain kinds of audio-visual programs—literary, artistic and entertaining—as prescribed in the Provisional Categories and is in the process of reviewing this license.

Production of Radio and Television Programs

        On July 19, 2004, the SARFT issued the Regulations on the Administration of Production of Radio and Television Programs, or the Radio and TV Programs Regulations, which become effective on August 20, 2004. The Radio and TV Programs Regulations require any entities engaging in the production of radio and television programs to obtain a license for such businesses from the SARFT or its provincial branches. Entities with the License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs must conduct their business operations strictly in compliance with the approved scope of

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production and operations and these entities (except radio and TV stations) must not produce radio and TV programs regarding current political news or similar subjects.

        Guangzhou Huaduo holds an effective License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, issued on October 8, 2011, covering the production, reproduction and publication of broadcasting plays, TV dramas, cartoons (excluding production), special subjects, special columns (excluding current political news category) and entertainment programs.

Regulation on Internet Bulletin Board Services

        On November 6, 2000, the MIIT promulgated the Administrative Measures on Internet Bulletin Board Services, or BBS Measures, which required commercial internet information service providers which provide bulletin boards, discussion forums, chat rooms or similar services, or BBS services, to obtain specific approval from the competent telecommunications authorities. Commercial internet information service providers are also required to conspicuously display their ICP license numbers and the rules of the BBS and inform users of the possible legal liabilities and consequences for posting improper comments. Another notice issued by the MIIT in March 2001 further specified the qualifications and requirements for approval of BBS services and emphasized the principles of daily supervision on BBS services.

        The above-stated administrative approval or filing requirement for BBS was cancelled on July 4, 2010.

Online Education Services

        On July 5, 2000, the Ministry of Education promulgated the Measures for the Administration of Educational Websites and Online Schools. Accordingly, an entity that operates educational websites and online schools is required to obtain prior approval from the competent administrative educational authorities. Educational websites are defined as institutions which establish online information databases by collecting, editing and storing educational information or establish online platform and search tools for educational purposes, and which provide public educational information to website visitors or users through the internet or educational TV stations. These measures also include specific provisions regarding the qualifications and procedures for obtaining the approval for operating educational websites. We currently offer some education-related services on our platform and have obtained approval from relevant authorities to provide online education content on edu.YY.com and 100.com, on January 17, 2013 and January 16, 2014, respectively.

Regulation on Advertising Business and Conditions on Foreign Investment

        The SAIC is the primary governmental authority regulating advertising activities in China. Regulations that apply to advertising business primarily include:

    Advertisement Law of the People's Republic of China, promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on October 27, 1994 and effective since February 1, 1995;

    Administrative Regulations for Advertising, promulgated by the State Council on October 26, 1987 and effective since December 1, 1987; and

    Implementation Rules for the Administrative Regulations for Advertising, promulgated by the State Council on January 9, 1988 and amended on December 3, 1998, December 1, 2000 and November 30, 2004, respectively.

        According to the above regulations, companies that engage in advertising activities must each obtain, from the SAIC or its local branches, a business license which specifically includes operating an advertising business in its business scope. An enterprise engaging in advertising business within the

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specifications in its business scope does not need to apply for an advertising operation license, provided that such enterprise is not a radio station, television station, newspaper or magazine publisher or any other entity otherwise specified in the relevant laws or administrative regulations. Enterprises conducting advertising activities without such a license may be subject to penalties, including fines, confiscation of advertising income and orders to cease advertising operations. The business license of an advertising company is valid for the duration of its existence, unless the license is suspended or revoked due to a violation of any relevant laws or regulations.

        PRC advertising laws and regulations set certain content requirements for advertisements in China, including, among other things, prohibitions on false or misleading content, superlative wording, socially destabilizing content or content involving obscenities, superstition, violence, discrimination or infringement of the public interest. Advertisers, advertising agencies, and advertising distributors are required to ensure that the content of the advertisements they prepare or distribute is true and in complete compliance with applicable laws. In providing advertising services, advertising operators and advertising distributors must review the supporting documents provided by advertisers for advertisements and verify that the content of the advertisements complies with applicable PRC laws and regulations. Prior to distributing advertisements that are subject to government censorship and approval, advertising distributors are obligated to verify that such censorship has been performed and approval has been obtained. Violation of these regulations may result in penalties, including fines, confiscation of advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an advertisement correcting the misleading information. Where serious violations occur, the SAIC or its local branches may revoke such offenders' licenses or permits for their advertising business operations.

        Under the Administrative Regulations on Foreign-Invested Advertising Enterprises, promulgated in 2008, there is no longer any maximum foreign shareholding percentage restriction applicable to foreign-invested advertising enterprises. However, foreign investors are required to have at least three years prior experience of operating an advertising business outside of China as their main business before receiving approval to directly own a 100% interest in an advertising company in China. Foreign investors with at least two years prior experience of operating an advertising business outside China as their main business are allowed to establish a joint venture with domestic advertising enterprises to operate an advertising business in China.

Intellectual Property Rights

Software Registration

        The State Council and the NCA have promulgated various rules and regulations and rules relating to protection of software in China. According to these rules and regulations, software owners, licensees and transferees may register their rights in software with the SCB or its local branches and obtain software copyright registration certificates. Although such registration is not mandatory under PRC law, software owners, licensees and transferees are encouraged to go through the registration process and registered software rights may be entitled to better protections. For the number of software programs for which we had registered rights as of December 31, 2012, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property."

Patents

        The National People's Congress adopted the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China in 1984 and amended it in 1992, 2000 and 2008, respectively. A patentable invention, utility model or design must meet three conditions: novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability. Patents cannot be granted for scientific discoveries, rules and methods for intellectual activities, methods used to diagnose or treat diseases, animal and plant breeds or substances obtained by means of nuclear transformation. The

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Patent Office under the State Intellectual Property Office is responsible for receiving, examining and approving patent applications. A patent is valid for a twenty-year term for an invention and a ten-year term for a utility model or design, starting from the application date. Except under certain specific circumstances provided by law, any third party user must obtain consent or a proper license from the patent owner to use the patent, or else the use will constitute an infringement of the rights of the patent holder. For the number of patents we had and the number of patent applications we made as of December 31, 2012, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property."

Copyright Law

        The Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China, promulgated in 1990 and amended in 2001 and 2010, or the Copyright Law, and its related implementing regulations, promulgated in 2002 and amended in 2013, are the principal laws and regulations governing the copyright related matters. The amended Copyright law covers internet activities, products disseminated over the internet and software products, among the subjects entitled to copyright protections. Registration of copyright is voluntary, and is administrated by the China Copyright Protection Center.

        To further clarify some key internet copyright issues, on November 26, 2012, the PRC Supreme People's Court promulgated the Regulation on Several Issues Concerning Applicable Laws on Trial of Civil Disputes over the Infringement of Information Network Transmission Right, or the 2013 Regulation. The 2013 Regulation took effect on January 1, 2013, and replaced the Interpretations on Some Issues Concerning Applicable Laws for Trial of Disputes over Internet Copyright that was initially adopted in 2000 and subsequently amended in 2004 and 2006. Under the 2013 Regulation, where an internet information service provider work in cooperation with others to jointly provide works, performances, audio and video products of which the right holders have information network transmission right, such behavior will constitute joint infringement of third parties' information network transmission right, and the PRC court shall order such internet information service provider to assume join liability for such infringement. If an internet information service provider can prove that it has only provided network services through automatic access, automatic transmission, data storage space, search functions, links, document sharing technology, etc., and thereby argues that it has not been involved in any alleged joint infringement, the PRC court shall find in favor of such internet information service provider. If an internet information service provider fails to delete, block, disconnect or take other necessary measures, or if it provides technological support or other aid when it knows or should have known of the network user's infringement on the information network transmission right, the PRC court shall find that such aid constitutes contributory infringement. The PRC court shall determine whether an internet information service provider is liable for abetting or contributory infringement according to its findings on the degree of fault of the internet information service provider. The fault of the internet information service provider is determined according to various criteria, including situations where such provider knew or should have known of the network user's infringement against third party's information network transmission right. If an internet information service provider can prove it has adopted fairly reasonable and effective technological measures, and yet still finds it difficult to discover infringement against information network transmission conducted by the network user, the PRC court shall find such provider to be not at fault. Where an internet information service provider promotes popular video and films through setting up a list, directory, index, descriptive paragraph, briefing or other means of recommendation, and the public can download, browse or acquire them through other methods directly from the internet information service provider's webpage, the PRC court may find that such provider knew of the network user's infringement on the information network transmission right of others.

        Under the Copyright Law and its implementation rules, anyone infringing upon the copyrights of others is subject to various civil liabilities, which include stopping the infringement, eliminating the

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damages, apologizing to the copyright owners and compensating the copyright owners for such owners' actual and other losses resulting from such infringement. If the actual loss of the copyright owner is difficult to calculate, the income received by the offender as a result of the copyright infringement shall be deemed to be the actual loss; or if such income is in itself difficult to calculate, the relevant PRC court may decide the amount of the actual loss up to RMB500,000 for each infringement.

        To address the problem of copyright infringement related to content posted or transmitted on the internet, the PRC National Copyright Administration and MIIT jointly promulgated the Measures for Administrative Protection of Copyright Related to Internet on April 29, 2005. These measures, which became effective on May 30, 2005, apply to acts of automatically providing services such as uploading, storing, linking or searching works, audio or video products, or other contents through the internet based on the instructions of internet users who publish contents on the internet, or the Internet Content Providers, without editing, amending or selecting any stored or transmitted content. When imposing administrative penalties upon the act which infringes upon any users' right of communication through information networks, the Measures for Imposing Copyright Administrative Penalties, promulgated in 2009, shall be applied.

        Where a copyright holder finds that certain internet content infringes upon its copyright and sends a notice to the relevant internet information service operator, the relevant internet information service operator is required to (i) immediately take measures to remove the relevant contents, and (ii) retain all infringement notices for six months and to record the content, display time and IP addresses or the domain names related to the infringement for 60 days. After any content is removed by an internet information service operator according to the notice of a copyright holder, the content provider may deliver a counter-notice to both the internet information service operator and the copyright holder, stating that the removed content does not infringe upon the copyright of other parties. After the delivery of such counter-notice, the internet information service operator may immediately reinstate the removed contents and shall not bear administrative legal liability for such reinstatement.

        An internet information service operator may be subject to cease-and-desist orders and other administrative penalties such as confiscation of illegal income and fines, if it is clearly aware of a copyright infringement through the internet or, although not aware of such infringement, it fails to take measures to remove relevant content upon receipt of the copyright owner's notice of infringement and, as a result, damages public interests. Where there is no evidence to indicate that an internet information service operator is clearly aware of the existence of copyright infringement, or the internet information service operator has taken measures to remove relevant contents upon receipt of the copyright owner's notice, the internet information service provider shall not bear the relevant administrative legal liabilities.

        On May 18, 2006, the State Council issued the Protection of the Right of Communication through Information Network, which took effect on July 1, 2006 and amended on January 30, 2013. Under this regulation, an internet information service provider may be exempt from indemnification liabilities under the following circumstances:

    any internet information service provider that provides automatic internet access service upon instructions from its users or provides automatic transmission service for works, performances and audio-visual products provided by its users are not required to assume indemnification liabilities if (a) it has not chosen or altered the transmitted works, performance and audio-visual products and (b) it provides such works, performances and audio-visual products to the designated users and prevents any person other than such designated users from obtaining access.

    any internet information service provider that, for the sake of improving network transmission efficiency, automatically stores and provides to its own users the relevant works, performances and audio-visual products obtained from any other internet information service providers, are

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      not required to assume the indemnification liabilities if (a) it has not altered any of the works, performance or audio-visual products that are automatically stored; (b) it has not affected such original internet information service provider in holding the information about where the users obtain the relevant works, performance and audio-visual products; and (c) when the original internet information service provider revises, deletes or shields the works, performances and audio-visual products, it will automatically revise, delete or shield the same.

    any internet information service provider that provides its users with information memory space for such users to provide the works, performances and audio-visual products to the general public via an informational network are not required to assume the indemnification liabilities if (a) it clearly indicates that the information memory space is provided to the users and publicizes its own name, contact person and web address; (b) it has not altered the works, performance and audio-visual products that are provided by the users; (c) it is not aware of or has no reason to know that the works, performances and audio-visual products provided by the users infringe upon the copyrights of others; (d) it has not directly derived any economic benefit from the providing of the works, performances and audio-visual products by its users; and (e) after receiving a notice from the copyright holder, it promptly deletes the allegedly infringing works, performances and audio-visual products pursuant to the relevant regulation.

        Since 2005, the NCA, together with certain other PRC governmental authorities, have jointly launched annual campaigns specifically aimed to crack down on internet copyright infringement and piracy in China; these campaigns normally last for three to four months every year. According to the Notice of 2010 Campaign to Crack Down on Internet Infringement and Piracy promulgated by the NCA, the Ministry of Public Security and the MIIT on July 19, 2010, the 2010 campaign mainly targeted internet audio and video programs, literature websites, online games, animation, software and art works related to Shanghai World Expo and Guangzhou Asian Games. During the 2010 campaign, starting from late July to the end of October 2010, the local branches of NCA focused on popular movies and TV series, newly published books, online games and animation, music and software and various illegal activities, including, for example, illegal uploading or transmission of a thirty party's works without proper license or permission, sales of pirated audio-video and software through e-commerce platforms, providing search links, information storage, web hosting or internet access services for third parties engaging in copyright infringement or piracy of copyrighted works and the infringement by use of mobile media. In serious cases, the operating permits of the websites engaging illegal activities were revoked, and such websites were ordered to shut down.

        We have adopted measures to mitigate copyright infringement risks. For instance, we have established a routine reporting and registration system that is updated on a monthly basis, and we require performers, channel owners and users to acknowledge and agree that (a) they would not perform or upload copyrighted content without proper authorization and (b) that they will indemnify us for any relevant copyright infringement claims in relation to their activities on our platform.

        If, despite these precautions, such procedures fail to effectively prevent unauthorized posting or use of copyrighted content or the infringement of other third party rights on YY platform, and the PRC courts find that certain safe harbor exemptions under PRC laws are not applicable to us because, for instance, a court finds that we knew or should have known about such infringement or that we have directly derived economic benefits from allowing such infringement activities on our platform, we may be held jointly and severally liable with the performers, channel owners or other infringement parties in lawsuits initiated by the relevant third party copyright holders or authorized users. Moreover, we may be held directly liable for the infringement activities of such performers or channel owners on YY platform, if the PRC courts view them as our employees or agents, deem us to have control over their activities on our platform and the content they upload or otherwise make available on our platform, and determine that we have knowingly uploaded such infringing contents on our platform. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We may be subject to intellectual property

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infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms."

Domain Name

        In September 2002, the CNNIC issued the Implementing Rules for Domain Name Registration setting forth detailed rules for registration of domain names. On November 5, 2004, the MIIT promulgated the Measures for Administration of Domain Names for the Chinese Internet, or the Domain Name Measures. The Domain Name Measures regulate the registration of domain names, such as the first tier domain name ".cn." In February 2006, the CNNIC issued the Measures on Domain Name Dispute Resolution and relevant implementing rules, pursuant to which the CNNIC can authorize a domain name dispute resolution institution to decide disputes. For the number of domain names we registered as of December 31, 2012, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property."

Trademark

        The PRC Trademark Law, adopted in 1982 and amended in 1993 and 2001, with its implementation rules adopted in 2002, protects registered trademarks. The Trademark Office of the SAIC handles trademark registrations and grants a protection term of ten years to registered trademarks. Trademark license agreements must be filed with the Trademark Office for record. For the number of trademarks we had and trademark applications we had made as of December 31, 2013, see "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property."

Internet Infringement

        On December 26, 2009, the Standing Committee of National People's Congress promulgated the Tort Law of the People's Republic of China, or the Tort Law, which became effective on July 1, 2010. Under the Tort Law, an internet user or an internet service provider that infringes upon the civil rights or interests of others through using the internet assumes tort liability. If an internet user infringes upon the civil rights or interests of another through using the internet, the person being infringed upon has the right to notify and request the internet service provider whose internet services are facilitating the infringement to take necessary measures including the deletion, blocking or disconnection of an internet link. If, after being notified, the internet service provider fails to take necessary measures in a timely manner to end the infringement, it will be jointly and severally liable for any additional harm caused by its failure to act. According to the Tort Law, civil rights and interests include the personal rights and rights of property, such as the right to life, right to health, right to name, right to reputation, right to honor, right of portraiture, right of privacy, right of marital autonomy, right of guardianship, right to ownership, right to usufruct, right to security interests, copyright, patent right, exclusive right to use trademarks, right to discovery, right to equity interests and right of heritage, among others.

Regulation of Internet Content

        The PRC government has promulgated measures relating to internet content through a number of governmental agencies, including the MIIT, the MOC and the GAPP. These measures specifically prohibit internet activities, such as the operation of online games, that result in the publication of any content which is found to contain, among others, propagate obscenity, gambling or violence, instigate crimes, undermine public morality or the cultural traditions of the PRC, or compromise state security or secrets. If an ICP license holder violates these measures, its ICP license may be revoked and its websites may be shut down by the relevant government agencies.

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        Moreover, according to the Notice on the Work of Purification of Online Games jointly issued by the MOC, the MIIT and other governmental authorities in June 2005, online games in China are required to be registered and filed as software products in accordance with the Administrative Measures on Software Products, promulgated in 2000. In addition, pursuant to the Notice on Enhancing the Content Review Work of Online Game Products promulgated by the MOC in 2004, imported online games are subject to content review by the MOC prior to being offered to Chinese internet users.

Information Security and Censorship

        Internet content in China is regulated and restricted from a state security standpoint. The National People's Congress, China's national legislative body, enacted the Decisions on the Maintenance of Internet Security on December 28, 2000, that may subject persons to criminal liabilities in China for any attempt to: (i) gain improper entry to a computer or system of strategic importance; (ii) disseminate politically disruptive information; (iii) leak state secrets; (iv) spread false commercial information or (v) infringe upon intellectual property rights.

        In 1997, the Ministry of Public Security issued the Administration Measures on the Security Protection of Computer Information Network with Internationally Connections, which prohibit using the internet in ways which, among others, result in a leakage of state secrets or a spread of socially destabilizing content. The Ministry of Public Security has supervision and inspection powers in this regard, and relevant local security bureaus may also have jurisdiction. If an ICP license holder violates these measures, the PRC government may revoke its ICP license and shut down its websites.

        On December 28, 2012, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress reiterated relevant rules on the protection of internet information by issuing the Decision on Strengthening the Protection of Network Information, or the 2012 Decision. The 2012 Decision distinctly clarified certain relevant obligations of the internet information service provider. For example, the 2012 Decision specifies that the internet information service provider should take relevant technical measures and other necessary actions to prevent the leakage, damage or loss of each user's personal information collected in the internet information service provider's operation activities, and shall take remedial measures when the leakage, damage or loss of the citizen's personal information occurs or may possibly occur. Once it discovers any transmission or disclosure of information prohibited by the relevant laws and regulations, the internet information service provider shall stop transmission of such information, take measures such as elimination, keeping relevant record, and reporting to relevant authorities.

        To comply with the above laws and regulations, we have established an internet information security department to implement measures on information filtering. For example, we have adopted a voice monitor system, and installed on our platform various alerts on sensitive words or abnormal activities of users, channels or groups. We also have a dedicated team that maintains 24-hour surveillance on the information posted on our platform, with different categories for monitoring purposes, according to subject and content. We have also established and follow a strict review process and storage system of relevant records which, in combination with various information security measures, have effectively prevented the public dissemination of statutory prohibited information through our websites in the past. We intend to continue to further update our measurements and system and work closely with relevant authorities to avoid any violation of relevant laws and regulations in the future.

Privacy Protection

        PRC laws and regulations do not prohibit internet content providers from collecting and analyzing their users' personal information if appropriate authorizations are obtained. We require our users to accept a user agreement whereby they agree to provide certain personal information to us. PRC laws

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and regulations prohibit internet content providers from disclosing any information transmitted by users through their networks to any third parties without their authorization unless otherwise permitted by law. If an internet content provider violates these regulations, the MIIT or its local bureaus may impose penalties and the internet content provider may be liable for damages caused to its users.

Regulation of Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution

        Foreign Currency Exchange.    The core regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, as amended in August 2008, or the FEA Regulations. Under the FEA Regulations, the Renminbi is freely convertible for current account items, including the distribution of dividends, interest payments, trade- and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not for capital account items, such as direct investments, loans, repatriation of investments and investments in securities outside of China, unless the prior approval of the SAFE is obtained and prior registration with the SAFE is made. On August 29, 2008, SAFE promulgated Circular 142 to regulate the conversion of foreign currency into Renminbi by a foreign-invested enterprise by restricting the ways in which the converted Renminbi may be used. Circular 142 stipulates that the registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise that has been settled in Renminbi converted from foreign currencies may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable governmental authority and cannot be used for equity investments within the PRC. Meanwhile, the SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise settled in Renminbi converted from foreign currencies. The use of such Renminbi capital may not be changed without the SAFE's approval, and may not in any case be repayment of Renminbi loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. Violations of Circular 142 may lead to severe penalties including heavy fines. As a result, Circular 142 may significantly limit our ability to transfer the net proceeds from our initial public offering to our other PRC subsidiaries through Beijing Huanju Shidai, our wholly owned subsidiary in China, and thus may adversely affect our business expansion in China. We may not be able to convert the net proceeds into Renminbi to invest in or acquire any other PRC companies, or establish other VIEs in the PRC.

        Dividend Distribution.    The Foreign Investment Enterprise Law, promulgated in 1986 and amended in 2000, and the Administrative Rules under the Foreign Investment Enterprise Law, promulgated in 2001, are the key regulations governing distribution of dividends of foreign-invested enterprises.

        Under these regulations, a wholly foreign-invested enterprise in China, or a WFOE, may pay dividends only out of its accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a WFOE is required to allocate at least 10% of its accumulated profits each year, if any, to statutory reserve funds unless its reserves have reached 50% of the registered capital of the enterprises. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. The proportional ratio for withdrawal of rewards and welfare funds for employees shall be determined at the discretion of the WFOE. Profits of a WFOE shall not be distributed before the losses thereof before the previous accounting years have been made up. Any undistributed profit for the previous accounting years may be distributed together with the distributable profit for the current accounting year.

        Circular 75.    The SAFE issued Circular on Several Issues concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Residents to Engage in Financing and in Return Investments via Overseas Special Purpose Companies, or Circular No. 75, on October 21, 2005, which became effective on November 1, 2005. Under Circular 75, prior registration with the local SAFE branch is required for PRC residents to establish or to control an offshore company for the purposes of financing that offshore company with assets or equity interests in an onshore enterprise located in the PRC. An amendment to registration or filing with the local SAFE branch by such PRC resident is also required for the injection of equity interests or assets of an onshore enterprise in the offshore company or

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overseas funds raised by such offshore company, or any other material change involving a change in the capital of the offshore company.

        Circular 75 applies retroactively. PRC residents who have established or acquired control of offshore companies that have made onshore investments in the PRC in the past were required to complete the relevant registration procedures with the local SAFE branch by March 31, 2006. Under the relevant rules, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in Circular 75 may lead to restrictions being imposed on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the increase of its registered capital, the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliate and the capital inflow from the offshore entity, and may also subject relevant PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations. PRC residents who control our company from time to time are required to register with the SAFE in relation to their investments in us.

        We have completed the foreign exchange registration of PRC resident shareholders of Guangzhou Huaduo, as required by Circular 75, for our financings that were completed before the end of 2010. The Circular 75 registration in relation to the issuance of common shares to Tiger Global Six YY Holdings was completed on February 6, 2012.

        Stock Option Rules.    The Administration Measures on Individual Foreign Exchange Control were promulgated by the PBOC on December 25, 2006, and their Implementation Rules, issued by the SAFE on January 5, 2007, became effective on February 1, 2007. Under these regulations, all foreign exchange matters involved in employee stock ownership plans and stock option plans participated in by onshore individuals, among others, require approval from the SAFE or its authorized branch. Furthermore, the Notices on Issues concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Rules, were promulgated by SAFE on February 15, 2012, that replaced the Application Procedures of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Ownership Plans or Stock Option Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies issued by SAFE on March 28, 2007. Pursuant to the Stock Option Rules, PRC residents who are granted shares or stock options by companies listed on overseas stock exchanges based on the stock incentive plans are required to register with SAFE or its local branches, and PRC residents participating in the stock incentive plans of overseas listed companies shall retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly-listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plans on behalf of these participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options, purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or interests, and fund transfer. In addition, the PRC agents are required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agents or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. The PRC agents shall, on behalf of the PRC residents who have the right to exercise the employee share options, apply to SAFE or its local branches for an annual quota for the payment of foreign currencies in connection with the PRC residents' exercise of the employee share options. The foreign exchange proceeds received by the PRC residents from the sale of shares under the stock incentive plans granted and dividends distributed by the overseas listed companies must be remitted into the bank accounts in the PRC opened by the PRC agents before distribution to such PRC residents. In addition, the PRC agents shall file each quarter the form for record-filing of information of the Domestic Individuals Participating in the Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Listed Companies with SAFE or its local branches.

        We and our PRC citizen employees who have been granted share options, restricted shares or restricted share units, or PRC optionees, are subject to the Stock Option Rules. If we or our PRC optionees fail to comply with the Individual Foreign Exchange Rule and the Stock Option Rules, we

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and/or our PRC optionees may be subject to fines and other legal sanctions. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries' ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law."

        In addition, the State Administration for Taxation has issued circulars concerning employee share options, under which our employees working in the PRC who exercise share options will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or if we fail to withhold their income taxes as required by relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the PRC tax authorities or other PRC government authorities.

Regulation on Tax

PRC Enterprise Income Tax

        The PRC enterprise income tax is calculated based on the taxable income determined under the applicable EIT Law and its implementation rules. On March 16, 2007, the National People's Congress of China enacted the New EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008. On December 6, 2007, the State Council promulgated the implementation rules to the New EIT Law, which also became effective on January 1, 2008. The New EIT Law imposes a uniform enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all resident enterprises in China, including foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises, unless they qualify for certain exceptions, and terminates most of the tax exemptions, reductions and preferential treatment available under the previous tax laws and regulations. According to the New EIT Law and relevant regulations, subject to the approval of competent tax authorities, the income tax of an enterprise that has been determined to be a high and new technology enterprise shall be reduced to a preferential rate of 15%.

        Moreover, under the New EIT Law, enterprises organized under the laws of jurisdictions outside China with their "de facto management bodies" located within China may be considered PRC resident enterprises and are therefore subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their worldwide income.

        Although we do not believe that our company should be treated as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes, substantial uncertainty exists as to whether we will be deemed to be such by the relevant authorities. In the event that we are considered a PRC resident enterprise, we would be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our worldwide income. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a PRC "resident enterprise," which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment."

        In addition, although the New EIT Law provides that dividend income between "qualified resident enterprises" is exempted income, and the Implementation Rules refer to "qualified resident enterprises" as enterprises with "direct equity interest", it is unclear whether dividends we receive from our PRC subsidiaries are eligible for exemption.

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PRC Business Tax

        Pursuant to applicable PRC tax regulations, any entity or individual conducting business in the service industry is generally required to pay a business tax at the rate of 5% on the revenues generated from providing services prescribed in the aforesaid regulations, transferring intangible assets or selling immovable properties. However, if the services provided are related to technology development and transfer, such business tax may be exempted with approvals from the competent tax authorities. Before the VAT Pilot Program, revenues from online game operating business is subject to business tax at a rate of 3% and relevant surcharges based on 12% of the business tax paid.

Value Added Tax

        On January 1, 2012, the State Administration of Taxation officially launched a pilot value added tax ("VAT") reform program ("Pilot Program"), applicable to businesses in selected industries. Taxable income derived from the businesses in the Pilot Program is subject to VAT in lieu of business tax. The Pilot Program initially applied only to transportation industry and "modern service industries" ("Pilot Industries") in Shanghai in 2011 and expanded to eight trial regions (including Beijing and Guangdong province) and nationwide progressively from August to December 2012. The Pilot Industries in Shanghai included industries involving the leasing of tangible movable property, transportation services, research and development and technical services, information technology services, cultural and creative services, logistics and ancillary services, certification and consulting services. Revenues generated by advertising services, a type of "cultural and creative services", are subject to the VAT tax rate of 6%. According to official announcements made by competent authorities in Beijing and Guangdong province, Beijing launched the same Pilot Program on September 1, 2012, and Guangdong province launched it on November 1, 2012. In addition, the Supplementary Notice on Several Tax Policies in Relation to the Scope of VAT-able and Other Matters in the Transportation and Selected Modern Service Sectors under the VAT Reform Pilot Program, Caishui [2012] No. 86, or Circular 86, which was issued in December 2012, further defines the application scope of relevant industries and specifies that, starting from December 1, 2012, website operation services provided by website owners for non-self-owned online games are taxed as "Information System Services," and therefore would also be subject to the VAT tax rate as 6%. Going forward, in Guangdong province, we will pay the pilot VAT instead of business taxes for our advertising activities, operating services for online games not owned by us and for any other parts of our business that are deemed by the competent state tax authorities to be in the scope of the Pilot Industries.

Cultural Development Fee

        According to applicable PRC tax regulations or rules, advertising service providers are generally required to pay a cultural development fee at the rate of 3% on the revenues (a) which are generated from providing advertising services and (b) which are also subject to VAT after the VAT reform program.

Dividends Withholding Tax

        Under the Old EIT Law that was effective prior to January 1, 2008, dividends paid to foreign investors by foreign-invested enterprises, such as dividends paid to us by Beijing Huanju Shidai or Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, our PRC subsidiaries, were exempt from PRC withholding tax. We are a Cayman Islands holding company and substantially all of our income may come from dividends we receive from our subsidiaries located in the PRC. Pursuant to the New EIT Law and its implementation rules, dividends generated after January 1, 2008 and distributed to us by our PRC subsidiaries are subject to withholding tax at a rate of 10%.

        As uncertainties remain regarding the interpretation and implementation of the New EIT Law and its implementation rules, we cannot assure you that, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, any dividends to be distributed by us to our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders would not be subject

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to any PRC withholding tax. See "D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a PRC "resident enterprise," which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment."

Labor Laws and Social Insurance

        The principle laws that govern employment include:

    Labor Law of the People's Republic of China, promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on July 5, 1994, effective since January 1, 1995 and amended on August 27, 2009; and

    Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China, promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on June 29, 2007 and effective since January 1, 2008.

        According to the Labor Law and Labor Contract Law, employers must execute written labor contracts with full-time employees. All employers must compensate their employees with wages equal to at least the local minimum wage standards. All employers are required to establish a system for labor safety and sanitation, strictly comply with state rules and standards and provide employees with workplace safety training. Violations of the PRC Labor Contract Law and the PRC Labor Law may result in the imposition of fines and other administrative penalties. For serious violations, criminal liability may arise.

        In addition, employers in China are required to provide employees with welfare schemes covering pension insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance and housing funds.

        We have caused all of our full-time employees to enter into written labor contracts with us and have provided and currently provide our employees with the proper welfare and employment benefits.

New M&A Regulations and Overseas Listings

        On August 8, 2006, six PRC governmental agencies jointly promulgated the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the New M&A Rule, which became effective on September 8, 2006. The New M&A Rule requires offshore special purpose vehicles formed to pursue overseas listing of equity interests in PRC companies and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals to obtain the approval of the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle's securities on any stock exchange overseas.

        The application of the M&A Rules remains unclear. Based on the understanding on the current PRC laws, rules and regulations and the M&A Rules of our PRC Legal Counsel, Fangda Partners, prior approval from the CSRC is not required under the M&A Rules for the listing and trading of our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market because (a) our PRC subsidiaries, Beijing Huanju Shidai, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai and Zhuhai Huanju Shidai, are foreign-invested enterprises established by foreign enterprises, (b) we did not acquire any equity interest or assets of a PRC domestic company owned by PRC companies or individuals as defined under the M&A Rules, and (c) there is no provision that clearly classifies the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiary, Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders as a transaction regulated by the M&A Rules. However, as there has been no official interpretation or clarification of the M&A Rules, there is uncertainty as to how this regulation will be interpreted or implemented.

        Considering the uncertainties that exist with respect to the issuance of new laws, regulations or interpretation and implementing rules, the opinion of Fangda Partners, summarized above, is subject to change. If the CSRC or another PRC regulatory agency subsequently determines that prior CSRC approval was required, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies.

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C. Organizational Structure

        The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure:

GRAPHIC


(1)
Formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Company Limited.

(2)
Formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Company Limited.

(3)
Beijing Tuda is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chief executive officer and director, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, our director and chairman of our technology committee, and Mr. Jin Cao, the general manager of our website department, own 97.7%, 1.5% and 0.8% of Beijing Tuda's equity interests, respectively.

(4)
Guangzhou Huaduo is our PRC consolidated affiliated entity. Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder and chairman, Mr. David Xueling Li, Mr. Tony Bin Zhao, Mr. Jin Cao and Beijing Tuda own approximately 0.44%, 0.5%, 0.04%, 0.02% and 99.0% of Guangzhou Huaduo's equity interests, respectively.

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D. Property and Equipment

        Our principal executive offices are located on premises comprising approximately 10,300 square meters in Guangzhou, China. This facility currently accommodates our management headquarters, principal development, engineering, sales and marketing, human resources and administrative activities. The lease for this Guangzhou facility expires in 2015. We also have a branch office in Beijing focusing on research and development, a branch office in Zhuhai focusing on games related businesses, and a representative office in Shanghai that handles advertising-related matters. We lease these relatively small premises under lease agreements from unrelated third parties, and we plan to renew these leases from time to time as needed.

        Our servers are hosted in leased internet data centers in different geographic regions in China. The data centers in our network are owned and maintained for us by major domestic internet data center providers. We typically enter into leasing and hosting service agreements that are renewable annually.

        We believe that our existing facilities are sufficient for our current needs and we will obtain adequate facilities, principally through leasing, to accommodate our future expansion plans.

        See footnotes 9 and 10 to our financial statements for further information about our property and equipment and intangible assets.

ITEM 4A.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        None.

ITEM 5.    OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

        You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this annual report.

A. Operating Results

Overview

        We derive our revenues primarily from IVAS and online advertising. We derived 72.7%, 85.7% and 91.0% of our total net revenues from IVAS in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, with online advertising accounting for the remainder of our revenues. Revenues from IVAS are primarily generated through online music and entertainment, online games and other services on our platform. Online advertising revenues are primarily generated from sales of different forms of advertising on Duowan.com and YY Client. We expect to derive an increasing portion of our revenues from IVAS in the future. This trend may pose new challenges to us, including, for example, the need to develop more popular products and services in response to user demand and the need to recruit and retain talented personnel for technology and product development purposes. IVAS revenues depend on the growth of online music and entertainment, the popularity of the online games on our platform and the growth of other types of channels or activities for which IVAS are available.

        We began our operations in 2005 by launching Duowan.com, a popular online web portal hosting game media content. We have grown significantly in recent years, developing and introducing YY Client in 2008 and making YY Client available for mobile users through Mobile YY in September 2010. Our total net revenues increased from RMB319.7 million in 2011 to RMB820.0 million in 2012

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and to RMB1,823.5 million (US$301.2 million) in 2013. We had a net loss of RMB83.2 million in 2011, and in 2012 and 2013, we had a net income of RMB89.2 million and RMB477.7 million (US$78.9 million), respectively.

Discussion of Selected Statements of Operations Items

Revenues

        In the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we had derived our revenues from IVAS and online advertising. Our IVAS revenues are primarily comprised of revenues from the paying users of online music and entertainment, online games and, to a lesser degree, our membership subscriptions and live game broadcasting. Our online advertising revenues primarily consist of revenues from the sale of online advertising in various formats primarily on Duowan.com and YY Client. We expect that in the future, as is the case in 2013, an increasing portion of our revenues will be derived from non-game IVAS revenues, including revenues from in-channel virtual items sold on our platform, such as virtual flowers and gifts for use in various channels, as well as other online products and services.

        The following table sets forth the principal components of our total net revenues by amount and as a percentage of our total net revenues for the periods presented.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB   % of
total net
revenues
  RMB   % of
total net
revenues
  RMB   US$   % of
total net
revenues
 
 
  (in thousands, except for percentages)
 

Total net revenues:(1)

                                           

IVAS:

                                           

Online music and entertainment

    52,854     16.5     286,446     34.9     852,885     140,887     46.8  

Online games

    165,933     51.9     332,287     40.5     602,111     99,462     33.0  

Others

    13,589     4.3     83,655     10.2     205,212     33,899     11.2  

Online advertising

    87,279     27.3     117,643     14.4     163,260     26,969     9.0  

Total

    319,655     100.0     820,031     100.0     1,823,468     301,217     100.0  

(1)
Revenues are presented net of rebates and discounts.

        IVAS revenues.    We generate IVAS revenues from (i) the sales of in-channel virtual items used on our online music and entertainment channels, (ii) the sales of in-game virtual items used for games developed by us or by third parties under revenue-sharing arrangements on our platform and (iii) other revenues, including membership subscription fees and in-channel virtual items used for live game broadcasting. Users access channels and play online games free of charge, but are charged for purchases of virtual items.

        The most significant factors that directly affect our IVAS revenues include the increase in the number of our paying users and ARPU:

    The number of paying users.  We had approximately 1.4 million, 2.4 million and 3.2 million paying users in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. We calculate the number of paying users during a given period as the cumulative number of registered user accounts that have purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platform at least once during the relevant period. We were able to achieve an increase in the number of paying users primarily due to a higher conversion ratio of active users to paying users, and we expect that the number of our paying users will continue to grow in the future as we expand our services and products offerings and further monetize our existing platform.

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    ARPU.  Our ARPU for IVAS was approximately RMB164.3, RMB296.5 and RMB525.2 (US$86.8) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. ARPU is calculated by dividing our total revenues from IVAS during a given period by the number of paying users for that period. As we begin to generate revenues from an increasing variety of IVAS, our ARPU may fluctuate from period to period due to the mix of IVAS purchased by our paying users.

        Other significant factors that directly or indirectly affect our IVAS revenues include:

    our ability to increase our popularity by offering new and attractive products and services that allow us to monetize our platform;

    our ability to attract and retain a large and engaged user base; and

    our ability to attract and retain third party game developers and service providers as well as certain popular performers and channel owners.

        We expect that the portion of our revenues from IVAS derived from the sales of non-game virtual items and services will continue to increase as we capitalize on monetization opportunities. We create and offer to users virtual items that can be used on various channels. Users can purchase consumable virtual items from us to show support for their favorite performers or time-based virtual items that provide users with recognized status, such as priority speaking rights or special symbols on the music and entertainment channels. The percentage of our total net revenues attributable to virtual items sold on our online music and entertainment channels increased from 16.5% in 2011 to 34.9% in 2012 and further to 46.8% in 2013.

        The online games we currently offer are primarily web games that can be run from an internet browser and require an internet connection to play. We have historically derived a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of popular online games, primarily through selling in-game virtual items for these games. A majority of our popular online games are developed by third party game developers under revenue-sharing arrangements that typically last one to two years. We derive an increasingly lower percentage of our revenues from online games as a whole, as we expect to monetize other non-game aspects of the YY platform, such as online music and entertainment.

        Online advertising revenues.    We also offer a wide range of online advertising formats and solutions. We enter into advertising contracts with both advertisers and advertising agencies. In 2011, 2012 and 2013, a vast majority of our online advertising revenues were derived from pay-for-time arrangements under which we charge advertisers depending on the duration of display for an advertisement or a series of advertisements.

Cost of Revenues

        Cost of revenues consists primarily of (i) revenue sharing fees and content costs, (ii) bandwidth costs, (iii) salary and welfare, (iv) business tax and surcharges, (v) depreciation and amortization, (vi) payment handling costs and (vii) share-based compensation. We anticipate that revenue sharing fees and content costs paid to performers, channel owners and content providers will increasingly contribute to our cost of revenues. We expect that our cost of revenues will increase in absolute amount as we further grow our user base and expand our revenue-generating services.

        Revenue sharing fees and content costs.    Our revenue sharing fees and content costs paid to performers, channel owners and content providers increased from RMB6.8 million in 2011 to RMB109.3 million in 2012 and further increased to RMB444.1 million (US$73.4 million) in 2013. We also incurred a non-recurring cost in 2013 due to our partnership with Hunan Satellite Television Station in the 2013 Happy Boy Show, a popular entertainment show in China. We expect our revenue sharing fees and content costs to increase as we continue to expand our IVAS offerings.

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        Bandwidth costs.    Our bandwidth costs increased from RMB75.1 million in 2011, to RMB145.0 million in 2012 and further increased to RMB203.2 million (US$33.6 million) in 2013. We expect bandwidth costs to increase as our user base continues to expand and as online music and entertainment and other video-related services become more popular in the future.

        Salary and welfare.    Our salary and welfare costs increased from RMB33.4 million in 2011 to RMB50.0 million in 2012, and further increased to RMB88.5 million (US$14.6 million) in 2013. We expect our salary and welfare costs to increase as we continue to hire additional employees in line with the expansion of our business.

        Business tax and surcharges.    Our business tax and surcharges increased from RMB16.5 million in 2011 to RMB30.0 million in 2012, and further increased to RMB47.8 million (US$7.9 million) in 2013.

        Depreciation and amortization.    Our depreciation and amortization increased from RMB12.0 million in 2011 to RMB25.8 million in 2012, and further increased to RMB37.1 million (US$6.1 million) in 2013. We expect depreciation and amortization to increase as we continue to expand our operations and purchase servers and other equipment or intangibles directly related to the operating of our platform and business.

        Payment handling costs.    Our payment handling costs increased from RMB9.3 million in 2011 to RMB22.8 million in 2012, and further increased to RMB25.0 million (US$4.1 million) in 2013. We expect payment handling costs to increase as we continue to grow our paying users and expand our paid service offerings.

        Share-based compensation.    Our share-based compensation allocated to the cost of revenues decreased from RMB15.4 million in 2011 to RMB8.4 million in 2012 and then increased to RMB9.9 million (US$1.6 million) in 2013.

Operating Expenses

        Our operating expenses consist of (i) research and development expenses, (ii) sales and marketing expenses and (iii) general and administrative expenses. The following table sets forth the components of our operating expenses for the years indicated, both in absolute amounts and as percentages of our total net revenues. We expect our operating expenses to generally increase in absolute amount and decrease as percentage of total net revenues in the near future.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB   % of
total net
revenues
  RMB   % of
total net
revenues
  RMB   US$   % of
total net
revenues
 
 
  (in thousands, except for percentages)
 

Operating expenses:

                                           

Research and development expenses

    106,804     33.4     176,725     21.6     267,005     44,106     14.6  

Sales and marketing expenses

    13,381     4.2     16,954     2.1     24,955     4,122     1.4  

General and administrative expenses

    118,241     37.0     109,788     13.4     200,554     33,129     11.0  
                               

Total operating expenses

    238,426     74.6     303,467     37.1     492,514     81,357     27.0  
                               
                               

Research and Development Expenses

        Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits for research and development personnel and rental and depreciation of office premise and servers utilized by the research and development personnel. Research and development expenses generally increased in the past three years ended December 31, 2013, due to the need for additional research and development

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personnel to accommodate the rapid growth of our business. We expect our research and development expenses in absolute amount to increase as we intend to retain existing research and development personnel and also hire new ones to, among other things, develop new series of applications for our platform, improve technology infrastructure to further enhance user experience, and further develop enhanced features for Mobile YY to reach more users.

Sales and Marketing Expenses

        Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries, benefits and commissions for our sales and marketing personnel, share-based compensation expenses and advertising and promotion expenses. Our sales and marketing expenses generally increased over the past three years ended December 31, 2013, primarily reflecting increased promotional activities and increased commissions for our sales and marketing personnel as our advertising revenues increased. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute amount in the near term as we expect to increase our spending on promotional activities.

General and Administrative Expenses

        General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits, including share-based compensation for our general and administrative personnel, allowance for doubtful receivables, professional service fees, legal expenses and other administrative expenses. Our general and administrative expenses generally increased over the past three years ended December 31, 2013 as our business expanded, primarily due to the hiring of additional management and administrative staff and increase in share-based compensation expenses. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in the future as our business grows.

Share-based Compensation Expenses

        Our operating expenses include share-based compensation expenses as follows:

 
  For the Year Ended December 31  
 
  2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB   RMB   RMB   US$  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Research and development expenses

    31,672     35,441     39,587     6,539  

Sales and marketing expenses

    1,336     884     1,318     218  

General and administrative expenses

    86,544     55,619     66,331     10,957  
                   

Total

    119,552     91,944     107,236     17,714  
                   
                   

        We grant stock-based award such as, but not limited to, share options, restricted shares, restricted share units and warrants to eligible employees, officers, directors, and non-employee consultants. Awards granted to employees, officers, and directors are initially accounted for as equity-classified awards, which are measured at the grant date fair value of the award and are recognized using the graded vesting method, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period. Awards granted to non-employees are initially measured at fair value on the grant date and periodically re-measured thereafter until the earlier of the performance commitment date or the date the service is completed and recognized over the period in which the service is provided.

        As a result of repurchases of certain awards offered in 2009 and in 2011, certain initially equity-classified employee and non-employee awards have been reclassified as liability-classified awards, as these awards were deemed to have a substantive cash settlement feature. These awards are re-measured at the end of each reporting period until either the substantive cash settlement is terminated or the holder of the awards is exposed to the market value fluctuation of the underlying

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shares for a reasonable period of time (at least six months), or the awards are settled, cancelled or expire unexercised.

        On September 15, 2011, our board of directors resolved not to undertake any repurchases of vested or unvested share-based compensation awards, except under those conditions specified in the relevant award scheme and grant documents. Accordingly, the classification of the liability-classified awards was changed to being equity-classified, and the related liability was reclassified as additional paid-in capital on the modification date. After the awards were changed to equity-classified awards, they were measured based on the fair value of the awards on September 15, 2011, and the expenses to be recognized over the remaining requisite service period are calculated using the graded vesting attribution method.

Taxation

Cayman Islands

        According to our Cayman Islands counsel, Conyers Dill & Pearman (Cayman) Limited, Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciations and there is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, or after execution brought within the jurisdiction of, the Cayman Islands. There are no exchange control regulations or currency restrictions in the Cayman Islands.

        Pursuant to Section 6 of the Tax Concessions Law (1999 Revision) of the Cayman Islands, we have obtained an undertaking from the Governor-in-Cabinet:

(1)
that no law which is enacted in the Cayman Islands imposing any tax to be levied on profits or income or gains or appreciations shall apply to us or our operations; and

(2)
that the aforesaid tax or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax shall not be payable on our shares, debentures or other obligations.

        The undertaking is for a period of twenty years from August 2, 2011.

British Virgin Islands

        Duowan BVI is our wholly owned subsidiary.

        As Duowan BVI is a BVI business company subject to the provisions of the BVI Business Companies Act 2004 (as amended), it is exempt from all provisions of the Income Tax Act of the BVI (including with respect to all dividends, interests, rents, royalties, compensation and other amounts payable by Duowan BVI to persons who are not persons resident in the BVI).

        Capital gains realized with respect to any shares, debt obligations or other securities of a company by persons who are not persons resident in the BVI are also exempt from all provisions of the Income Tax Act of the BVI.

        No estate, inheritance, succession or gift tax, rate, duty, levy or other charge is payable by persons who are not persons resident in the BVI with respect to any shares, debt obligations or other securities of Duowan BVI, save for interest payable to or for the benefit of an individual resident in the European Union.

Hong Kong

        The Company's subsidiary registered in Hong Kong is subject to Hong Kong Profits Tax on the taxable income as reported in its respective statutory financial statements adjusted in accordance with relevant Hong Kong tax laws. The applicable tax rate is 16.5% in Hong Kong.

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PRC

        Current taxation primarily represented the provision for a state and local corporate income tax, or EIT, for subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities operating in the PRC. Prior to January 1, 2008, companies established in the PRC were generally subject to EIT at statutory rates of 30% and 3% respectively. On March 16, 2007, the PRC National People's Congress promulgated the New EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008. These subsidiaries and VIEs are subject to new EIT on their taxable income as reported in their respective statutory financial statements adjusted in accordance with the relevant tax laws and regulations in the PRC. All our PRC entities are subject to EIT at a rate of 25%, with the exception of any preferential treatments they may receive, such as the 15% preferential tax rate that Guangzhou Huaduo can enjoy for the periods reported as a result of its qualification as a high and new technology enterprise. Furthermore, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai has been qualified as a software enterprise since 2013, and is entitled to a two-year exemption from EIT followed by three years at 50% tax reduction starting from the first profit-making year.

        According to a policy promulgated by the state tax bureau of the PRC and effective from 2008 onwards, enterprises engaged in research and development activities are entitled to claim 150% of the research and development expenses so incurred in a year as tax deductible expenses in determining its tax assessable profits for that year, or Super Deduction. Guangzhou Huaduo and Zhuhai Duowan have claimed such Super Deduction for the periods reported. In addition, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai and Beijing Huanju Shidai started to claim such Super Deduction since 2013.

        In addition, according to the New EIT Law and its implementation rules, foreign enterprises, which have no establishment or place in the PRC but derive dividends, interest, rents, royalties and other income (including capital gains) from sources in the PRC is subject to PRC withholding tax, or WHT, at 10% (a further reduced WHT rate may be available according to the applicable double tax treaty or arrangement). The 10% WHT is applicable to any dividends to be distributed from our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities to us and our subsidiaries outside the PRC. We do not have any present plan to pay out the retained earnings in the PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. Accordingly, no such WHT has been accrued.

        Our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities are subject to business taxes or value added tax and related surcharges. On January 1, 2012, the State Administration of Taxation officially launched a pilot value added tax reform program, or Pilot Program, applicable to businesses in selected industries. Taxable income derived from the businesses in the Pilot Program is subject to value added tax in lieu of business tax. Prior to the Pilot Program, revenues from IVAS and advertising revenues were subject to business tax at rates of 3% and 5%, respectively. After the launch of Pilot Program, revenues from IVAS are subject to 3% business tax except that online game revenues are subject to 6% VAT, while advertising revenues are subject to 6% VAT. Surcharges are calculated based on 12% of the monthly business taxes and VAT payable for 2011, 2012 and 2013. Business taxes and related surcharges during 2011, 2012 and 2013 were RMB16.5 million, RMB30.0 million and RMB47.8 million (US$7.9 million), respectively.

        For more information on PRC tax regulations, see "PRC Regulation—Regulation on Tax."

Critical Accounting Policies

        We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect our reporting of, among other things, assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses. We regularly evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experiences and other factors that we believe to be relevant under the circumstances. Since our financial reporting process inherently relies on the use of estimates and assumptions, our actual results could differ from these estimates. This is especially true

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with some accounting policies that require higher degrees of judgment than others in their application. We consider the policies discussed below to be critical to an understanding of our audited consolidated financial statements because they involve the greatest reliance on our management's judgment.

Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue

        We generate revenues from IVAS and online advertising. Revenues from IVAS are generated based on the revenue-sharing with game developers for direct purchase and conversion of game tokens, sales of virtual items in online games, online music and entertainment and other channels, and membership subscription fees, as well as other IVAS. Online advertising revenues are primarily generated from sales of different forms of advertising on Duowan.com and YY Client. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, service has been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable and collection is reasonably assured. Revenue is deferred until these criteria are met as describe below.

IVAS

        We offer our IVAS on our platform, including online music and entertainment, online games and membership. Users can play online games and participate in our online music and entertainment through our platform free of charge, but they are charged when they purchase virtual items. In addition, users who subscribe to our membership program pay monthly fees in order to enjoy certain functions and privileges unavailable to other users. We operate a virtual currency system under which our users can directly purchase our virtual currency, game tokens and virtual items on our platform's online community channels or pay membership subscription fees via third-party payment systems, including payments using mobile phones and internet debit/credit card payments. Our virtual currency can be used to (a) convert into game tokens that can be used to purchase virtual items in online games, (b) purchase virtual items in channels on our platform, or (c) pay membership subscription fees. Virtual currency sold but not yet consumed by the users is recorded as "advances from users" and, upon being converted or used, is recognized as revenue according to the respective prescribed revenue recognition policies addressed below:

Online music and entertainment revenue

        We create and offer virtual items to be used by users on our online music and entertainment channels that we operate and maintain. The virtual items are offered free of charge or at different specified prices. Online music and entertainment revenue consists of sales of virtual items. Users purchase consumable virtual items from us and present them to performers to show support for their favorite performers or time-based virtual items which provide users with recognized status, such as priority speaking rights or special symbols on the music channels for a specific period of time. In order to attract user traffic, we share a portion of the revenues we derive from such in-channel virtual item sales on online music and entertainment channels with certain popular performers and channel owners, who have entered into revenue sharing arrangements with us. We account for such shared revenues as cost of revenues. Performers and channel owners who do not have such revenue sharing arrangements with us are not entitled to share any revenue derived from the virtual items sold. We do not recognize any revenue from offering free virtual items and do not share any revenue with performers or channel owners when free virtual items are presented to performers by our users. Accordingly, online music and entertainment revenue is recognized for the sale of virtual items sold in online music and entertainment channels immediately if the virtual item is a consumable or, in the case of time-based virtual items, recognized ratably over the period each virtual item is made available to the user, which does not exceed one year. We do not have further obligations to the user after the virtual items are consumed. Virtual items may be sold individually or bundled into one arrangement. When our users purchase multiple virtual items bundled within the same arrangement, we evaluate such arrangements

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under ASC 605-25 Multiple-Element Arrangements. We identify individual elements under the arrangement and determine if such elements meet the criteria to be accounted for as separate units of accounting. We allocate the arrangement consideration to separate units of accounting based on their relative selling price. The following hierarchy has been followed when determining the relative selling price for each element: (1) vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, (2) third party evidence, or TPE, and (3) best estimate of selling price, or BESP. Given that the VSOE of the selling price cannot be determined, we have adopted a policy to allocate the consideration of the whole arrangement to different virtual item elements based on the TPE of selling price or the BESP for each virtual item element. We determine the fair values of virtual items sold in a bundle based on similar products sold separately on the YY platform based on the TPE of selling price and determine the fair values of virtual items without similar products sold separately on the YY platform based on the BESP. The BESP is generally based on the selling prices of the various elements of a similar nature when they are sold to users on a stand-alone basis. The BESP may also be based on the estimated stand-alone pricing when the element has not previously been sold on a stand-alone basis. These estimates are generally determined based on pricing strategies, market factors and strategic objectives. We recognize revenue for each virtual item element in accordance with the applicable revenue recognition method.

Online game revenue

        Users play online games on our website free of charge, but they are charged for purchases of in-game virtual items including consumable and perpetual items, which can be utilized in the online games to enhance their game-playing experience. Currently, these online games on our platform that contribute to IVAS revenues are primarily web games. Consumable items represent virtual items that can be consumed by a specific user within a specified period of time. Perpetual items represent virtual items that are accessible to the user's account over the life of the online games.

        We recognize revenues when recognition criteria defined under U.S. GAAP are satisfied. For purposes of determining when the service has been provided, we have determined that there is an implied obligation from us to the paying user to continue providing access to the games such that the users can utilize the virtual items purchased by game tokens. Game players need to log on and access the games through our platform because their virtual currency, game tokens, virtual items, and game history are specific to our game accounts and are non-transferable to other platforms. To purchase in-game virtual items, our users can either charge their game accounts by purchasing game tokens, or virtual currency from our platform, which are convertible into game tokens based on a predetermined exchange rate agreed among us and the relevant game developers.

        The proceeds from the purchase of our virtual currency is recorded as an "advance from customers," representing prepayments received from users in the form of our virtual currency but not yet converted into game specific tokens. Upon the conversion into a game token from our virtual currency or upon the direct purchase of a game token, whichever is applicable, the proceeds will be shared between us and the relevant game developer based on a predetermined contractual ratio. Game tokens are non-refundable and non-exchangeable among different games. Our portion, net of the game developer's entitled consideration, is recorded as deferred revenue and amortized according to the prescribed revenue recognition policies described below. Users typically do not convert our virtual currency into game tokens or purchase game tokens unless they plan to purchase in-game virtual items shortly thereafter.

        We generate revenues from offering online games developed by both third parties and by ourselves. The majority of online game revenues have been derived from third party developed games.

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Third party developed games

        Pursuant to contracts signed between us and the respective game developers, revenues from the sale or conversion of game tokens to be used for the purchase of in-game virtual items derived from online games developed by third parties are shared between us and the game developers based on a pre-agreed ratio for each game. These revenue-sharing arrangements typically last for a range of one year to two years.

        The third party developed games under non-exclusive licensing contracts are maintained and updated by the game developers. We mainly engage in certain standard promotional activities that include providing access to the platform, announcing new games to users on the platform, and occasionally advertising on the YY platform. The determination of whether to record these revenues using gross or net method is based on an assessment of various factors. The primary factors are whether we act as the principal in offering services to the game players or as agent in the transaction, and the specific requirements of each contract. We determined that for third party developed games, the third party game developers are the principal given that the game developers design and develop the game services offered, have reasonable latitude to establish prices of game tokens, and are responsible for maintaining and upgrading the game content and virtual items. Accordingly, we record online game revenue, net of the pre-agreed portion of revenue attributable to the game developers.

        Given that third party developed games are managed and administered by the third party game developers, we do not have access to the data on the consumption details such as when a game token is spent on the virtual items or the types of virtual items (consumable or perpetual items) purchased by each individual game player. However, we maintain historical data on the timing of the conversion of our virtual currency into game-specific tokens and the amount of game tokens purchased. We believe that our performance for, and obligation to, the game developers correspond to the game developers' services to the users. We have adopted a policy to recognize revenues relating to game tokens for third party developed games over the estimated user relationship with us on a game-by-game basis, which are approximately one to six months for the periods presented. Future usage patterns may differ from historical usage patterns and therefore the estimated user relationship with us may change in the future.

        When we launch a new game, we estimate the user relationship based on other similar types of games in the market until the new game establishes its own history. We also consider the game's profile, attributes, target audience, and its appeal to players of different demographic groups in estimating the user relationship period.

        The consideration of user relationship with each online game is based on our best estimate that takes into account all known and relevant information at the time of assessment. We assess the estimated user relationships on a quarterly basis. Any adjustments arising from changes in user relationship as a result of new information will be accounted as a change in accounting estimate in accordance with ASC 250 Accounting Changes and Error Corrections.

Self-developed games

        Revenues derived from our self-developed games are recorded on a gross basis as we act as a principal to fulfill all obligations. We do not maintain information on consumption details of in-game virtual items, and only have limited information related to the frequency of log-ons for our two self-developed games. Given that certain historical data is not available, we use the user relationship of third party games with similar popularity, gaming experience and sales to determine the estimated period of the user relationship for our self-developed games.

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Other IVAS revenue

        Other IVAS revenue mainly represents revenue from membership subscription fees and revenue from the sale of other items on the YY platform. We launched our membership program where subscription members can have enhanced user privileges when using YY Client. The membership fee is collected up-front from each subscriber. The receipt of the revenue is initially recorded as deferred revenue, and revenue is recognized ratably over the period the subscription services are rendered. Unrecognized portion beyond 12 months from the balance sheet date is classified as long-term deferred revenue.

        Revenue from sales of virtual items in various channels is recognized on item basis, which is consistent with the revenue recognition policies in our online music and entertainment revenue stream.

Advertising revenues

        Advertising revenues are derived principally from advertising arrangements where the advertisers pay to place their advertisements on Duowan.com and YY Client in different formats over a particular period of time. Such formats generally include but are not limited to banners, text-links, videos, logos, and buttons. Advertisements on our platform are generally charged on the basis of duration, and advertising contracts are signed to establish the fixed price and the advertising services to be provided. Where collectability is reasonably assured, advertising revenues from advertising contracts are recognized ratably over the contract period of display.

        We enter into advertising contracts directly with advertisers or third party advertising agencies that represent advertisers. A typical contract term would range from one to three months. Both third party advertising agencies and direct advertisers are generally billed at the end of the display period and payments are due usually within six months.

        Where our customers purchase multiple advertising spaces with different display periods in the same contract, we allocate the total consideration to the various advertising elements based on relative selling price method and recognize revenue for the different elements over their respective display periods. We determine the fair values of different advertising elements based on our best estimate of selling prices of each advertisement within the contract, taking into consideration our standard price list and historical discounts granted. We recognize revenue on the elements delivered and defer the recognition of revenue for the fair value of the undelivered elements until the remaining obligations have been satisfied. Where all of the elements within an arrangement are delivered uniformly over the agreement period, the revenues are recognized on a straight line basis over the contract period.

Transactions with third party advertising agencies

        For contracts entered into with third party advertising agencies, the third party advertising agencies will in turn sell the advertising services to advertisers. Revenue is recognized ratably over the contractual period of display based on the following criteria:

    there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists—we enter into framework and execution agreements with the advertising agencies, specifying price, advertising content, format and timing;

    price is fixed or determinable—the price charged to the advertising agencies are specified in the agreements, including relevant discount and rebate rates;

    services are rendered—we recognize revenue ratably as the elements are delivered over the contract period of display; and

    collectability is reasonably assured—we assess the credit history of each advertising agency before entering into any framework and execution agreements. If the collectability from the

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      agencies is assessed is not reasonably assured, we recognize revenue only when the cash is received and all the other revenue criteria are met.

        We provide sales incentives in the forms of discounts and rebates to third party advertising agencies based on purchase volume. As the advertising agencies are viewed as the customers in these transactions, revenue is recognized based on the price charged to the agencies, net of sales incentives provided to the agencies. Sales incentives are estimated and recorded at the time of revenue recognition based on the contracted rebate rates and estimated sales volume based on historical experience.

Transactions with advertisers

        We also enter into advertisement contracts directly with advertisers. Under these contracts, similar to transactions with third party advertising agencies, we recognize revenue ratably as the elements are delivered over the contractual periods of display. The terms and conditions, including price, are fixed according to the relevant advertising contract. We also perform a credit assessment of all advertisers prior to entering into contracts. Revenue is recognized based on the amount charged to the advertisers, net of discounts.

Advances from customers and deferred revenue

        Advances from customers primarily consist of (i) prepayments from users in the form of our virtual currency that are not yet consumed or converted into game tokens, and upon the consumption or conversion, are recognized as revenue according to the prescribed revenue recognition policies described above, (ii) prepayments from sub-licensees for obtaining operation rights of certain online games over a period of time, and (iii) prepayments from advertising agencies and advertisers. Deferred revenue primarily consists of the unamortized revenue from game tokens, prepaid subscriptions under the membership program and unamortized revenue from virtual items in our online music and entertainment channels, where there is still an implied obligation to be provided by us which will be recognized as revenue when all of the revenue recognition criteria are met.

Accounts receivable, net

        Accounts receivable are presented net of allowance for doubtful accounts. We use specific identification in providing for bad debts when facts and circumstances indicate that collection is doubtful and a loss is probable and estimable. If the financial condition of its customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowance would be required.

        We review on a periodic basis for doubtful accounts based on historical experience and information available. Additionally, we make specific bad debt provisions based on (i) our specific assessment of the collectability of all significant accounts; and (ii) any specific knowledge we have acquired that might indicate that an account is uncollectible. The facts and circumstances of each account may require us to use substantial judgment in assessing its collectability.

Consolidation

        Our consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of our company, our subsidiaries, variable interest entities ("VIEs") and VIE's subsidiary for which we or our subsidiaries are the primary beneficiaries. All transactions and balances among our company, subsidiaries, VIEs and VIE's subsidiary have been eliminated upon consolidation.

        A subsidiary is an entity in which our company, directly or indirectly, controls more than one half of the voting power, has the power to appoint or remove the majority of the members of the board of

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directors or to cast a majority vote at each meeting of directors, or has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of the investee under a statute or agreement among the entity's shareholders or equity holders.

        A VIE is an entity in which our company, or one of our subsidiaries, through contractual agreements, bears the risks of, and enjoys the rewards normally associated with ownership of the entity, and therefore our company or one of our subsidiaries is the primary beneficiary of the entity. In determining whether our company or our subsidiaries are the primary beneficiary, we considered whether we have the power to direct activities that are significant to the VIE's economic performance, and also our obligation to absorb losses of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE.

        Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses is subject to significant restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. We conduct our operations in China primarily through a series of contractual arrangements entered into among Beijing Huanju Shidai, our PRC subsidiary, Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, as well as Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda's shareholders. Based on our evaluations of the relationships between us and Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo, the economic benefit flow of contractual arrangements made with them, as well as the controls conferred to us through these contractual arrangements enacted, we consider, through Beijing Huanju Shidai, we exercise effective control over Guangzhou Huaduo and Beijing Tuda, receive substantially all of their economic benefits and residual returns, and absorb substantially all the risks and expected losses from these two companies as if we were their sole shareholder. We also have an exclusive option to purchase all of the equity interests in each of Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo when and if PRC law permits so and also the exclusive right to require any nominee shareholder of Beijing Tuda or Guangzhou Huaduo to transfer its interest in them to any person designated by us. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see "Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party—Contractual Arrangements with Beijing Tuda." Based on our evaluation, we consider each of Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo to be our VIE. Beijing Huanju Shidai, our wholly owned subsidiary in China, is the primary beneficiary of our VIEs; therefore, we consolidate the results of Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo in our consolidated financial statements under U.S. GAAP.

        As advised by our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, the contractual arrangements among Beijing Huanju Shidai and Beijing Tuda and its shareholders and the contractual arrangements among Beijing Huanju Shidai and Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders, governed by PRC law, are valid, binding and enforceable, and do not violate PRC laws currently in effect. However, if such contracts are held to be unenforceable, or if there are changes in PRC laws and regulations that affect our ability to control Beijing Tuda and Guangzhou Huaduo, we may be precluded from consolidating these companies in the future.

Share-based compensation

        We awarded a number of share-based compensation to our employees and non-employees (such as consultants), which include share options, restricted shares and restricted share units granted to employees and non-employees, share-based awards granted to our chief executive officer and chairman and share-based awards granted in relation to our acquisition of NeoTasks Inc. The details of these share-based awards and the respective terms and conditions are described in "Share-based compensation" in Note 19 to our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, which are included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

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Share options

        Options were initially accounted for as equity-classified awards because there are no explicit repurchase rights specified in the award documents and the number of shares of our common shares issued under these awards are fixed and determined at the time of grants. All options to employees and non-employees are measured based on the grant date fair value of the award and recognized as compensation expense based on the graded-vesting method, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, with a corresponding impact reflected in additional paid-in capital. The options to non-employees are re-measured at each reporting date using the fair value as at each period end. The compensation expense is recognized using the graded-vesting method.

        Nevertheless, a number of our outstanding employee share-based awards relating to stock options granted to employees and non-employees, or the Pre-2009 Scheme Options, prior to the adoption of our 2009 Scheme had been subject to past practices of repurchases in conjunction with our preferred shares and common share issuance made to our shareholders and investors, details of which are described in "Share-based compensation" in Note 19 to our audited consolidated financial statements which are included elsewhere in this annual report.

        Upon the negotiation and occurrence of our repurchase of certain outstanding share-based awards in November 2009, the details of which are set out in "Share-based compensation" in Note 19 to our audited consolidated financial statements which are included elsewhere in this annual report, we considered it probable for holders of the Pre-2009 Scheme Options to develop an expectation that we might continue to repurchase their vested options in the future. As a result, such past practices result in a constructive obligation of ours. Such initially equity-classified awards were considered to have been tainted and they began to be reflected as a stock compensation liability on our consolidated balance sheets, commencing on the date when the definitive agreement on the repurchase was reached with the respective holders of the instruments in 2009. In the case of any future repurchases, the repurchase price of these awards would be determined by our board of directors with reference to valuation results regarding the fair value of our common shares prevailing at the time of repurchase and therefore it was not determinable until the date of repurchase.

        We continued to amortize share-based compensation expenses for those awards expected to vest on a graded-vesting basis over the requisite service period. We re-measured the fair value of the awards at the end of each reporting period until either the repurchase rights were exercised or the holders were exposed to the market value of the shares for a reasonable period of time of at least six months, or the awards were settled, cancelled or expire unexercised.

        On September 15, 2011, we determined not to undertake any repurchases of vested or unvested share-based compensation awards, except under those conditions specified in the relevant award scheme and grant documents. In addition, any proposed repurchase of vested or unvested share-based compensation awards should be approved by the majority votes of the board of directors. Our intention was specifically communicated to all employees. All employees with vested or unvested awards also confirmed their understanding and agreement through written confirmation. Accordingly, the classification of the liability-classified awards was changed to become equity-classified.

        We engaged an independent valuation firm to assist us in our determination of the fair value of our share options as of each grant date and each re-measurement date. However, our management is ultimately responsible for such determination.

        In determining the value of share options, we have used the binomial option pricing model to determine the fair value of equity-classified awards on grant dates and liability-classified awards on re-measurement dates. Under this option pricing model, certain assumptions are required. Changes in these assumptions could significantly affect the fair value of share options and hence the amount of compensation expense we recognized in our consolidated financial statements.

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        The key assumptions used in valuation of the options for re-measurement date fair values in 2011 are summarized in the following table:

 
  RMB  

Risk-free interest rate(1)

    3.34%-4.01%  

Exercise multiple(2) (times)

    2.2  

Expected term(3) (years)

    6-8  

Expected volatility(4)

    53.06%-55.34%  

Expected dividend yield(5)

     

(1)
The risk-free interest rate of periods within the contractual life of the share option is based on the China Government Bond yield as at the valuation dates.

(2)
The exercise-multiple is an assumption about early exercise behavior or patterns based on stock-price appreciation rather than the time that has elapsed since the grant date. It represents the expected ratio of stock price to exercise price at the time of exercise.

(3)
The expected term is the remaining contract life of the option.

(4)
Expected volatility is estimated based on the average of historical volatilities of the comparable companies in the same industry as at the valuation dates.

(5)
Neither Duowan BVI nor our company has a history or the expectation of paying dividends on its common shares. The expected dividend yield was estimated based on our expected dividend policy over the expected term of the option.

        Upon the completion of the initial public offering, the share options granted to a non-employee were remeasured at the stock price of our common share. All share options granted to the non-employee were exercised in 2013.

Share-based award for our acquisition of NeoTasks

        In December 2008, in connection with the acquisition of NeoTasks, we issued warrants to purchase 17,915,380 common shares and 8,957,690 common shares of our company to two founders of NeoTasks with a service condition of three years. In October 2009, our board approved the request of these warrant holders to exercise their warrants to acquire 26,873,070 restricted shares that were subject to a restricted share agreement with the same rights and vesting conditions as the original warrant grants.

        These share-based awards were initially accounted for as equity-classified awards because there are no explicit repurchase rights specified in the award documents and the number of shares of our common shares issued under these awards are fixed and determined at the time of grants.

        We recognize the value of the portion of the warrants/restricted shares that we ultimately expect to vest as expense over the requisite service periods in our consolidated statements of operations on a graded-vesting basis.

        However, a number of our outstanding warrants/restricted shares had been subject to practices of repurchases in conjunction with our preferred share and common share issuance made to our shareholders and investors, details of which are described in "Share-based compensation" in Note 19 to our audited consolidated financial statements which are included elsewhere in this annual report.

        Upon the negotiation and occurrence of the latest repurchase of outstanding share-based awards in 2009, we considered that it is probable that holders may develop an expectation that we might continue to repurchase their vested warrants in the future. As a result, such past practices result in a constructive obligation of ours. Such initially equity-classified awards were considered to have been tainted and they began to be reflected as a stock compensation liability on our consolidated balance sheet, commencing on the date when the definitive agreement on the First Repurchase was reached with the respective holders of the instruments.

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        We continued to amortize share-based compensation expense for those awards expected to vest on a graded-vesting basis over the requisite service period. We re-measured the fair value of the awards at the end of each reporting period until either the repurchase rights are exercised or the holders are exposed to the market value of the shares for a reasonable period of time (at least six months), or the awards are settled, cancelled or expire unexercised.

        The fair value of warrants/restricted shares was based on the fair value of our underlying common shares on the grant date and re-measurement date.

        The restricted shares granted to NeoTasks had been fully vested as of December 31, 2011.

Restricted shares

        Restricted shares issued to our employees are measured based on the grant date fair value of the award and recognized as compensation expense based on the graded-vesting method, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, with a corresponding impact reflected in additional paid-in capital. The fair value of restricted shares was based on the fair value of our underlying common shares on the grant date.

        We account for restricted shares issued to non-employees are measured at fair value at the date the services are completed. These awards are re-measured at each reporting date using the fair value as at each period end until the measurement date. The compensation expenses is recognized using the graded vesting method.

        We are required to estimate forfeiture at the time of grant and revise those estimated in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Historical data was used to estimate pre-vesting forfeitures and record share-based compensation expenses only for those awards that we expect to vest.

        The following table sets forth certain information regarding the restricted shares granted to our employees and non-employees at different dates.

Grant Date
  Restricted Shares
Granted
  Fair Value Per Common
Share as of the
Grant Date
  Type/Methodology
of Valuation
 
   
  (US$)
   

January 1, 2010

    23,686,542     0.1590   Retrospective/ GTM(1)

February 1, 2010

    4,257,335     0.1875   Retrospective/ GTM(1)

April 1, 2010

    2,000,000     0.2721   Retrospective/ GTM(1)

July 1, 2010

    20,060,000     0.4666   Retrospective/ GTM(1)

October 1, 2010

    500,000     0.6988   Retrospective/ GTM(1)

January 1, 2011

    10,846,800     0.9362   Retrospective/ Backsolve(2)

(1)
GTM denotes the guideline transaction method under the market approach based on the enterprise value to revenue multiples of our own equity transactions close to the valuation date.

(2)
Backsolve denotes the back solve method under the market approach based on our own equity transactions as of the valuation date.

Restricted share units

        Restricted share units issued to our employees are measured based on the grant date fair value of the award and recognized as compensation expense based on the graded-vesting method, net of estimated forfeitures, over the requisite service period, with a corresponding impact reflected in additional paid-in capital. The fair value of restricted shares was based on the fair value of our underlying common shares on the grant date.

        We are required to estimate forfeiture at the time of grant and to revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ with those estimates. Historical data was used to estimate

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pre-vesting forfeitures and record share-based compensation expenses only for those awards that we expect to vest.

        The following table sets forth certain information regarding the restricted share units granted to our employees in 2011, 2012 and 2013 with share and per share information.

Grant Date
  Restricted Shares
Units Granted
  Fair Value Per Common
Share as of the
Grant Date
  Type/Methodology
of Valuation
 
   
  (US$)
   

September 16, 2011

    9,097,000     1.0630   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

January 1, 2012

    1,668,000     1.0869   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

March 31, 2012

    6,597,921     1.1153   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

July 15, 2012

    533,000     1.1284   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

September 1, 2012

    6,151,300     1.1146   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

September 30, 2012

    650,000     1.1437   Contemporaneous/ DCF(1)

November 7, 2012

    195,000     0.5250   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

November 21, 2012

    2,500,000     0.5250   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

March 31, 2013

    1,009,000     0.8450   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

April 18, 2013

    43,489     0.7855   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

April 30, 2013

    26,943,500     0.8720   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

May 23, 2013

    120,000     1.2065   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

July 19, 2013

    1,802,000     1.8090   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

October 1, 2013

    50,000     2.4045   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

November 1, 2013

    48,000     2.4875   Contemporaneous/ Stock price(2)

(1)
DCF denotes the discounted cash flow method under the income approach which explicitly recognizes that the business enterprise value as of the valuation date is developed by discounting future net cash flow to the present value at a rate that reflects both the current return requirements of the market and the risks inherent in the specific investment.

(2)
Upon the completion of the initial public offering, the fair values of restricted share units are based on stock price of our company on grant dates. The fair values of restricted share units granted on November 7, 2012 are based on initial public offering price as the grant date is close to the initial public offering date.

Share-based awards granted to chief executive officer and chairman

        On February 23, 2010, Mr. David Xueling Li and Mr. Jun Lei, our co-founder, chairman and director, were granted 13,369,813 and 29,678,483 restricted shares, which vested immediately and over a four-year period (50% after the second anniversary and 25% each year thereafter), respectively. These restricted shares are subject to a performance condition which relates to the number of peak concurrent users on YY Client. Such performance condition was met as of December 31, 2010.

        We recognized these awards as employee share-based compensation Awards using fair value of the awards on the grant date. The compensation expense for the restricted shares held by Mr. David Xueling Li was fully recognized and the compensation expense for the restricted shares held by Mr. Jun Lei was recognized over the requisite service period using the graded vesting method. Upon the completion of the initial public offering, defined as an "Accelerated Event", the restricted shares granted to the Chairman was fully vested and all remaining compensation expenses were recognized immediately.

        The fair value of the share-based awards above was determined at the respective grant dates by us with the assistance of an independent valuation company.

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Common share value

        Given that we issued common shares and warrants to Tiger, an independent investor, in January 2011, we used the Backsolve Method based on our own share transactions to determine the fair value of our equity as of January 1, 2011. Among the valuation methodologies, the Backsolve Method is the most objective indicator of the enterprise value at the development stage like our company in January 2011. In view of the fast growing number of registered user accounts, with relatively fixed staff costs and network expenses, we judged it is reasonable to assume that our business enterprise value would increase in line with our growing revenue. For valuation dates in 2010, as there was no share transactions with investor in 2010, we could not adopt the Backsolve Method. Instead, we adopted the Guideline Transaction Method under the market approach and applied the implied business enterprise value to revenue multiples based on the increase in the business enterprise value between our series C financing in November 2009 and the warrants issued to Tiger in January 2011 over the increase in corresponding 12-month trailing revenues, to determine the fair value of our equity in 2010. The income approach—discounted cash flow method, or DCF—was also used in preparing a business enterprise value analysis of our company as of January 1, 2008, September 16, 2011, January 1, 2012, March 31, 2012, June 1, 2012, July 15, 2012, September 1, 2012 and September 30, 2012 and for the beneficial conversion feature assessments as of June 1, 2008, August 1, 2008 and November 1, 2009.

        The determination of the fair value of our common shares requires complex and subjective judgments to be made regarding our projected financial and operating results, our unique business risks, the liquidity of our shares and our operating history and prospects at the time of each grant. Had our management used different assumptions and estimates, the resulting fair value of our common shares and the resulting share-based compensation expenses could have been different.

        We believe that the determinations of the fair market value of our common shares were fair and reasonable at the times they were made. Our board of directors' methodologies, approaches and assumptions consistent with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Aid, Valuation of Private-Held-Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, or the AICPA Practice Aid.

        See "—Fair value of our common shares" for more details.

Acquisition

        We apply the purchase method of accounting to account for our acquisitions. We determine the acquisition date based on the date at which all required licenses are transferred to us and we obtained control of the acquiree.

        Purchase consideration generally consists of cash, contingent consideration and equity securities. In estimating the fair value of equity compensation, we consider both income and market approach and selected the methodology that is most indicative of our fair value in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. Under the market approach, we utilize publicly-traded comparable company information to determine the revenue and earnings multiples that are used to value our equity securities. Under the income approach, we determine the fair value of our equity securities based on the estimated future cash flow discounted by an estimated weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects the overall level of inherent risk and the rate of return an outside investor would expect to earn. We base the cash flow projections on forecasted cash flows derived from the most recent annual financial forecast using a terminal value based on the perpetuity growth model.

        The identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business acquisition are measured initially at the fair value at the acquisition date. The excess of the cost of acquisition over the fair value of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.

        We are responsible for determining the fair value of the equity issued, assets acquired, liabilities assumed and intangibles identified as of the relevant acquisition date. Post-acquisition expenses are charged to general and administrative expenses directly.

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Goodwill

        Goodwill represents the amount by which the cost of acquired net assets in a business acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net identifiable assets on the date of purchase. Goodwill is carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to the reporting units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arises for the purpose of impairment testing. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recorded to the extent that the carrying value of goodwill exceeds its fair value. We have determined that the reporting units for testing goodwill impairment are the operating segments that constitute a business for which discrete financial information is available and for which management regularly reviews the operating results. We currently have one reporting unit.

        Estimating fair value is performed by utilizing various valuation techniques, with the primary technique being the discounted cash flow method. There are inherent limitations in any estimation technique and a minor change in the assumption could result in a significant change in its estimate of fair value, thereby increasing or decreasing the amounts of our consolidated assets, shareholders' equity and net income or loss.

        We perform an impairment test on October 1 of each year or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable.

Intangible assets

        Intangible assets that are acquired in business acquisitions are recognized apart from goodwill if the intangible assets arise from contractual or other legal rights, or are separately identifiable if the intangible assets do not arise from contractual or other legal rights.

        The costs of determinable-lived intangible assets are amortized to expense over their estimated life and stated at cost (fair value at acquisition) less accumulated amortization. The value of indefinite-lived intangible assets is not amortized, but tested for impairment annually on October 1 of each year, or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. We reassess indefinite-lived intangible assets at each reporting period to determine whether events or circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life.

Impairment of investment, long-lived assets and intangible assets

        The carrying amounts of investment, long-lived assets and intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is evaluated by a comparison of the carrying amount of assets to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets. Such assets are considered to be impaired if the sum of the expected undiscounted cash flow is less than carrying amount of the assets. The impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amounts of the assets exceed the fair value of the assets. RMB1.9 million of impairment of investments was recognized for the years ended December 31, 2011, RMB0.6 million of impairment of intangible assets was recognized for the year ended December 31, 2012, and RMB0.9 million (US$0.15 million) of impairment of investments was recognized for the year ended Decemer 31, 2013.

Taxation and uncertain tax positions

        Current income tax is provided on the basis of income for financial reporting purposes, adjusted for income and expense items which are not assessable or deductible for income tax purposes. In accordance with the regulations of the relevant tax jurisdictions, deferred income taxes are accounted for using the liability approach which requires the recognition of income taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. Deferred income taxes are determined based on the differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are

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measured using the currently enacted tax rates and laws. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations in the period that includes the enactment date.

        We currently have deferred tax assets resulting from net operating loss carryforwards and deductible temporary differences, all of which are available to reduce future tax payable in our significant tax jurisdictions. The largest component of our deferred assets are the temporary differences generated by our PRC subsidiary and VIE due to recognition of the deferred revenue. In assessing whether such deferred tax assets can be realized in the future, we need to make judgments and estimates on the ability of each of our PRC subsidiary and VIE to generate taxable income in the future years. To the extent that we believe it is more likely than not that some portion or the entire amount of deferred tax assets will not be realized, we established a total valuation allowance to offset the deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, a total valuation allowance of RMB1.9 million, RMB4.2 million and RMB22.2 million (US$3.7 million), respectively, was recognized against deferred tax assets. If we subsequently determine that all or a portion of the temporary differences are more like than not to be realized, the valuation allowance will be released, which will result in a tax benefit in our consolidated statements of operations.

        We adopted the guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes on January 1, 2008. The guidance prescribes a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Guidance was also provided on derecognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods, and income tax disclosures. Significant judgment is required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining the relevant provision for income taxes. The adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2008 as a result of the implementation of the guidance was zero. The interest and penalties associated with tax positions for the years ended December 31, 2011 2012 and 2013 was zero. As of December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we had no significant unrecognized uncertain tax positions.

Foreign currency

        We use Renminbi as our reporting currency. The functional currency of our company, incorporated in the Cayman Islands, and our subsidiaries incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and Hong Kong is U.S. dollars, while the functional currency of the other entities is Renminbi. In the consolidated financial statements, the financial information of our company and our subsidiaries which use U.S. dollars as their functional currency have been translated into Renminbi. Assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates on the balance sheet date, equity amounts are translated at historical exchange rates, and revenues, expenses, gains and losses are translated using the average rate for the year. Translation adjustments arising from these are reported as other comprehensive income or loss in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

        Foreign currency transactions denominated in currencies other than functional currency are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are re-measured at the applicable rates of exchange in effect at that date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from re-measurement at year-end are recognized in foreign currency exchange gains (losses), net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

Fair value of our common shares

        Prior to the completion of the initial public offering, in determining the fair values of our common shares as of each award grant date, three generally accepted approaches to value were considered: cost, market and income approaches. While useful for certain purposes, the cost approach is generally not

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considered applicable to the valuation of a company as a going concern, as it does not capture the future earning potential of the business. The comparability of the financial metrics of comparable companies in our industry and thus the relevance of the market approach based on guideline companies method were also considered low because our target market and stage of development were different from those of the publicly listed companies in the same industry. In view of the above, we determined that the income approach is the most appropriate method to derive the fair values of our common shares for valuation dates with no equity transaction close to the award grant date. In case we have own equity transactions close to the award grant date, guideline transaction method of the market approach or backsolve method were adopted. In addition, we took into consideration the guidance prescribed by the AICPA Practice Aid.

        Prior to the completion of the initial public offering, we are a private company with no quoted market prices for our common shares. We have therefore estimated, with assistance from an independent valuation firm, the fair value of our common shares at certain dates in 2010, 2011 and 2012 for the following purposes:

    (a)
    to determine the fair value of our common shares at the date of the grant and re-purchase date of a share-based compensation award as one of the inputs into determining the fair value of the award as of the grant date or the re-purchase date;

    (b)
    to determine the fair value of warrants issued to Tiger Global Six YY Holdings as of the issuance date and re-measurement date; and

    (c)
    to determine the fair value of our common shares at the date of the grant of restricted shares and restricted share units as one of the inputs into determining the fair value of the award as of the grant date.

        The following table sets forth the fair values of our common shares estimated from July 1, 2010 to September 30, 2012:

Date
  Fair Value of
Common Shares
(US$ per share)
  Type/Methodology
of Valuation
  Purpose of
Valuation
 
 
  (US$)
   
   
 

July 1, 2010

    0.4666   Retrospective/ GTM(1)     (a)  

October 1, 2010

    0.6988   Retrospective/ GTM(1)     (a)  

January 1, 2011

    0.9362   Retrospective/ Backsolve(2)     (b)  

May 1, 2011

    0.9952   Retrospective/ GTM(1)     (a)  

September 16, 2011

    1.0630   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

January 1, 2012

    1.0869   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

March 31, 2012

    1.1153   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

June 30, 2012

    1.1335   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

July 15, 2012

    1.1284   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

September 1, 2012

    1.1146   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

September 30, 2012

    1.1437   Contemporaneous/ DCF(3)     (c)  

(1)
GTM denotes guideline transaction method under market approach based on the enterprise value to revenue multiples of our own equity transactions close to the valuation date.

(2)
Backsolve denotes the back solve method under market approach based on our own equity transactions as of the valuation date.

(3)
DCF denotes the discounted cash flow method under the income approach which explicitly recognizes that the business enterprise value as of the valuation date is developed by discounting future net cash flow to the present value at a rate that reflects both the current return requirements of the market and the risks inherent in the specific investment.

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        When estimating the fair value of the common shares, our management considered a number of factors, including the result of an independent third party appraisal and the equity transactions conducted by our company, while taking into account standard valuation methods and the achievement of certain events. We adopted a retrospective valuation instead of a contemporaneous valuation for valuation dates prior to August 2011 with the assistance of an independent valuation company because, at that time, our financial and other resources were mainly focused on our research and development efforts.

        Due to the changing environment in which we are operating, a number of assumptions were established in deriving the fair value of our common shares. These assumptions include: there will be no major changes in the existing political, legal, fiscal and economic conditions in China; there will be no major changes in the current taxation law in China; exchange rates and interest rates will not differ materially from those presently prevailing; the availability of finance will not be a constraint on the future growth of our operations; we will retain and have competent management, key personnel, and technical staff to support our ongoing operations; and industry trends and market conditions for related industries will not deviate significantly from economic forecasts.

        Since our initial public offering, the fair value of our common shares is based on the closing prices of our publicly traded shares.

Equity value as of September 16, 2011, January 1, 2012, March 31, 2012, June 30, 2012 and
September 30, 2012

        Valuation of common equity as of September 16, 2011, January 1, 2012, March 31, 2012, June 30, 2012 and September 30, 2012 are based on the income approach—discounted cashflow analysis. The income approach involves applying appropriate discount rates to estimated cash flows that are subject to a number of assumptions. These assumptions include: (i) no material changes in the existing political, legal, fiscal and economic conditions in China; (ii) our ability to recruit and retain competent management, key personnel and technical staff to support our ongoing operations; (iii) exchange rates and interest rates will not differ materially from those presently prevailing; (iv) the availability of financing will not be a constraint on the future growth of our operation; and (v) industry trends and market conditions for related industries will not deviate significantly from economic forecasts. These assumptions are inherently uncertain and subjective.

        The risks associated with achieving an estimated cash flow were assessed in selecting the appropriate discount rates. The discount rates were based on the estimated market required rate of return for investing in our company, or weighted average cost of capital, or WACC, which was derived using the capital asset pricing model, a method that market participants commonly use to price securities. The change in WACC was the combined result of the changes in risk-free interest rate, industry-average correlative relative volatility coefficient beta, equity risk premium, size of our company, scale of our business and our ability in achieving forecast projections.

        A discount for lack of marketability, or DLOM, was also applied to reflect the fact there was no ready public market for our shares as we were a closely held private company. DLOM was quantified using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Under this option-pricing method, the cost of the put option, which can hedge the price change before the privately held shares can be sold, was considered as a basis to determine the DLOM. This option pricing method is one of the methods commonly used in estimating DLOM as it can take into consideration factors such as timing of a liquidity event (such as an initial public offering) and estimated volatility of equity securities. The farther the valuation date is from an expected liquidity event, the higher the put option value and thus the higher the implied DLOM. The lower the DLOM used for the valuation, the higher the determined fair value of the common shares.

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        The discount rates and DLOM used are provided as follows:

Valuation dates
  WACC   DLOM  

September 16, 2011

    16.5 %   15.0 %

January 1, 2012

    16.0 %   15.0 %

March 31, 2012

    16.0 %   15.0 %

June 30, 2012

    16.0 %   15.0 %

September 30, 2012

    18.0 %   10.0 %

Equity value as of January 1, 2011

        We issued common shares and warrants to Tiger, an independent investor, in January 2011. We adopted the Backsolve Method to determine the equity value of our company by matching the sum of fair value of common shares issued and warrants granted to Tiger with the consideration of US$50.0 million.

Equity value as of July 1, 2010, October 1, 2010 and May 1, 2011

        During the year 2010, we mainly focused on raising peak concurrent user levels and exploring new revenue sources related to YY such as virtual items sold in music channels created by YY users. Hence, we did not prepare financial projections. Since our operating costs such as staff costs and network expenses are relatively fixed in nature, we judged it reasonable to assume that our increase in business enterprise value was in a linear relationship with the increase in revenue. As such, a linear relationship of around 41 times, devised from the increase of business enterprise value between series C financing as of November 1, 2009 and the warrants issued to Tiger as of January 2011 over the increase of corresponding 12-month trailing revenues, was applied to the 12-month trailing revenue as of the valuation date to estimate the business enterprise value and hence equity value as of each valuation date stated in this section. We adopted the GTM for these valuation dates.

Allocation of equity value

        Our equity values determined at the respective valuation dates based on the above assumptions were allocated between the preferred shares and common shares using the option pricing model taking into account the guidance prescribed by the AICPA Practice Aid. We have taken into consideration estimates of the anticipated timing of a potential liquidity event, such as an initial public offering, and estimates of the volatility of our equity securities. The anticipated timing is based on the plans of our board and management. The estimated volatility was derived by referring to the average annualized standard deviation of the share prices of listed comparable companies for the historical period matching with the terms of the options. Estimating the volatility of the share price of a privately held company is complex because there is no readily available market for the shares. The volatility of our shares was estimated based on the historical volatility of the shares of comparable listed companies. Had we used different estimates of volatility, the allocations between preferred and common shares would have been different.

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Results of Operations

        The following table sets forth a summary of our consolidated results of operations for the years indicated. Our business has grown rapidly since our inception. Our limited operating history makes it difficult to predict future operating results. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of results of operations should not be relied upon as indicative of future performance.

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB   % of total net revenues   RMB   % of total net revenues   RMB   US$   % of total net revenues  

Total net revenues(1)

    319,655     100.0     820,031     100.0     1,823,468     301,217     100.0  

IVAS:

                                           

Online music and entertainment

    52,854     16.5     286,446     34.9     852,885     140,887     46.8  

Online games

    165,933     51.9     332,287     40.5     602,111     99,462     33.0  

Others

    13,589     4.3     83,655     10.2     205,212     33,899     11.2  

Online advertising

    87,279     27.3     117,643     14.3     163,260     26,969     9.0  
                               

Cost of revenues

    (182,699 )   (57.2 )   (416,133 )   (50.7 )   (881,999 )   (145,696 )   (48.4 )
                               

Gross profit

    136,956     42.8     403,898     49.3     941,469     155,521     51.6  
                               

Operating expenses

                                           

Research and development expenses

    (106,804 )   (33.4 )   (176,725 )   (21.6 )   (267,005 )   (44,106 )   (14.6 )

Sales and marketing expenses

    (13,381 )   (4.2 )   (16,954 )   (2.1 )   (24,955 )   (4,122 )   (1.4 )

General and administrative expenses

    (118,241 )   (37.0 )   (109,788 )   (13.4 )   (200,554 )   (33,129 )   (11.0 )
                               

Total operating expenses

    (238,426 )   (74.6 )   (303,467 )   (37.0 )   (492,514 )   (81,357 )   (27.0 )
                               

Other income

    1,982     0.6     2,465     0.3     27,078     4,473     1.5  
                               

Operating (loss) income

    (99,488 )   (31.1 )   102,896     12.5     476,033     78,637     26.1  
                               

Gain on disposal of an equity investment

            651     0.1              

Gain on disposal of a cost investment

            2,351     0.3              

Foreign currency exchange gains (losses) , net

    14,143     4.4     (4,153 )   (0.5 )   29,555     4,882     1.6  

Interest income

    4,890     1.5     16,316     2.0     60,221     9,948     3.3  
                               

(Loss) income before income tax expenses

    (80,455 )   (25.2 )   118,061     14.4     565,809     93,467     31.0  
                               

Income tax expenses

    (1,343 )   (0.4 )   (29,041 )   (3.5 )   (89,951 )   (14,859 )   (4.9 )
                               

(Loss) income before share of loss (income) in equity method investments, net of income taxes

    (81,798 )   (25.6 )   89,020     10.9     475,858     78,608     26.1  
                               

Share of (loss) income in equity method investment, net of income taxes

    (1,358 )   (0.4 )   157     0.0     1,869     309     0.1  
                               

Net (loss) income attributable to YY Inc. 

    (83,156 )   (26.0 )   89,177     10.9     477,727     78,917     26.2  
                               
                               

(1)
Net of rebates and discounts.

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Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012

        Net Revenues.    Our net revenues increased by 122.4% from RMB820.0 million in 2012 to RMB1,823.5 million (US$301.2 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to the increased contribution of revenues from online music and entertainment and increases in our online game revenues as well as other sources including our membership program and live game broadcasting, and to a lesser extent, an increase in our online advertising revenues.

        IVAS revenues.    Our IVAS revenues, which consisted of revenues from online music and entertainment, online games as well as other sources, increased by 136.4% from RMB702.4 million in 2012 to RMB1,660.2 million (US$274.2 million) in 2013. The overall increase primarily reflected an increase in the number of paying users and, to a lesser extent, an increase in ARPU. Our number of paying users increased from approximately 2.4 million in 2012 to 3.2 million in 2013. Our ARPU for IVAS increased from RMB296.5 in 2012 to RMB525.2 (US$86.8) in 2013. The increase in paying users and ARPU were primarily due to (a) our ability to offer new and attractive products and services that allow us to monetize our platform; (b) our ability to attract and retain a large and engaged user base through hosting an increasing number of events and activities; and (c) our ability to attract third party game developers and service providers as well as certain popular performers and channel owners.

        Revenues from online music and entertainment increased by 197.7% from RMB286.4 million for 2012 to RMB852.9 million (US$140.9 million) for 2013. In addition to the increase in the number of paying users and ARPU, the increase in revenues from online music and entertainment was also due to the increasing popularity of online music and entertainment. Our paying users for online music and entertainment increased from approximately 845,000 for 2012 to 1,748,000 for 2013. The increasing popularity of online music and entertainment is primarily due to the increased number of activities we hosted.

        Revenues from online games increased by 81.2% from RMB332.3 million in 2012 to RMB602.1 million (US$99.5 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in the attractiveness of our online game platform and the popularity of the online games we offer. Our paying users for online games increased from approximately 966,000 for 2012 to 1,308,000 for 2013. The number of online games we operated as of December 31, 2012 was 73 as compared to 126 as of December 31, 2013.

        Other IVAS revenues, which primarily consisted of revenues from membership subscription fees and live game broadcasting, increased by 145.3% from RMB83.7 million in 2012 to RMB205.2 million (US$33.9 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to an increase in the number of users who subscribed to our membership program and an increase in the popularity of live game broadcasting.

        Online advertising revenues.    Our online advertising revenues increased by 38.8% from RMB117.6 million in 2012 to RMB163.3 million (US$27.0 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to the increasing popularity of Duowan.com and YY Client.

        Cost of Revenues.    Our cost of revenues increased by 112.0% from RMB416.1 million in 2012 to RMB882.0 million (US$145.7 million) in 2013. The increase in our cost of revenues was due in large part to an increase in our revenue sharing fees and content costs, which consist of the payments to performers, channel owners and content providers, which amounted to RMB444.1 million (US$73.4 million) in 2013, representing a 306.4% increase from RMB109.3 million in 2012. This increase in revenue sharing fees and content costs was primarily due to higher levels of user engagement and spending. We also incurred a non-recurring cost in 2013 due to our partnership with Hunan Satellite Television Station in the 2013 Happy Boy Show. Bandwidth costs increased 40.1% from RMB145.0 million in 2012 to RMB203.2 million (US$33.6 million) in 2013 to support our growing business operations. In addition, salary and welfare costs increased 76.9% from RMB50.0 million in

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2012 to RMB88.5 million (US$14.6 million) in 2013, mainly due to our hiring of additional employees to serve our rapidly expanding user base.

        Operating Expenses.    Our operating expenses increased by 62.3% from RMB303.5 million in 2012 to RMB492.5 million (US$81.4 million) in 2013, primarily due to an increase in general and administrative expenses as well as research and development expenses, which was associated with the general growth of our business operations, our commitment to research and development and the advancements in our technology development.

        Research and development expenses.    Our research and development expenses increased by 51.1% from RMB176.7 million in 2012 to RMB267.0 million (US$44.1 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to an increase in salaries and other benefits for research and development personnel, which was in turn mainly driven by an increase in the number of our research and development staff, especially engineers, which accounts for approximately 53.9% of our total number of employees in 2013.

        Sales and marketing expenses.    Our sales and marketing expenses increased by 47.2% from RMB17.0 million in 2012 to RMB25.0 million (US$4.1 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to an increase in salaries and other benefits for sales and marketing personnel and an increase in our spending on promotional activities we hosted.

        General and administrative expenses.    Our general and administrative expenses increased by 82.7% from RMB109.8 million in 2012 to RMB200.6 million (US$33.1 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to an increase in salaries and other benefits for general and administrative personnel, which was in turn mainly driven by an increase in the number of our general and administrative staff. In addition, share-based compensation allocated to general and administrative expenses increased from RMB55.6 million in 2012 to RMB66.3 million (US$11.0 million) in 2013.

        Foreign Currency Exchange Gains (Losses).    We had net foreign currency exchange gains of RMB29.6 million (US$4.9 million) in 2013, compared to a net foreign currency exchange losses of RMB4.2 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to the fact that the proceeds from our initial public offering were converted from U.S. dollars into Renminbi in the fourth quarter of 2012 and appreciation of Renminbi against U.S. dollars.

        Interest Income.    Our interest income increased from RMB16.3 million in 2012 to RMB60.2 million (US$9.9 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to higher levels of cash on hand and short-term deposits, partly as a result of depositing cash generated from our operations, and a portion of the proceeds from our initial public offering in November 2012.

        Income Tax Expenses.    We recorded income tax expenses of RMB29.0 million in 2012 compared to RMB90.0 million (US$14.9 million) in 2013. This increase was primarily due to the higher income before income tax expenses recorded by certain of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities.

        Net Income.    As a result of the foregoing, we had a net income of RMB477.7 million (US$78.9 million) in 2013 as compared to a net income of RMB89.2 million in 2012.

Year Ended December 31, 2012 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2011

        Net Revenues.    Our net revenues increased by 156.5% from RMB319.7 million in 2011 to RMB820.0 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to increases in our online game revenues and the increased contribution of revenues from online music and entertainment, which was officially launched in March 2011 as well as other sources including our membership program, which was launched in October 2011, and to a lesser extent, an increase in our online advertising revenues.

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        IVAS revenues.    Our IVAS revenues, which consisted of revenues from online music and entertainment and online games as well as other sources, increased by 202.3% from RMB232.4 million in 2011 to RMB702.4 million in 2012. The overall increase primarily reflected an increase in the number of paying users and, to a lesser extent, an increase in ARPU. Our number of paying users increased from approximately 1.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 to 2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. This increase in paying users was attributable to (i) a significant increase in the number of average monthly active users from 51.9 million in the three months ended December 31, 2011 to 69.7 million in the three months ended December 31, 2012, (ii) an increase in the number of web games we operated and therefore the volume of new virtual items a user may purchase and (iii) the official launch and increasing popularity of online music and entertainment and the introduction of our membership program. Our ARPU for IVAS increased from RMB164.3 in 2011 to RMB296.5 for 2012.

        Revenues from online music and entertainment increased from RMB52.9 million for 2011 to RMB286.4 million for 2012. In addition to the increase in paying users and ARPU, the increase in revenues from online music and entertainment was also due to the increasing popularity of online music and entertainment since its official launch in March 2011. The increasing popularity of online music and entertainment is attributable to several factors: (a) in June 2011, we began paying certain popular performers and channel owners on online music and entertainment, which attracted more talented performers and channel owners to our platform and resulted in greater performer and channel owner participation on YY channels, which in turn led to higher attendance in YY channels, more loyal audiences and more paying users; (b) we have expanded the range of virtual item offerings on our online music and entertainment since its inception, and these virtual items now include flowers, glow sticks, beer and chocolate, and (c) we launched video functionalities in online music and entertainment channels in the first quarter of 2012, which helped further enhance the attractiveness of online music and entertainment to users. We believe that the combination of higher audience participation, a growing range of appealing virtual items offered and enhanced functionalities on online music and entertainment have all contributed to the increased revenues generated from the sale of virtual items on our online music and entertainment channels. Our paying users for online music and entertainment increased from approximately 405,000 for the year ended December 31, 2011 to 845,000 for the same period in 2012.

        Revenues from online games, all from web games, increased by 100.3% from RMB165.9 million in 2011 to RMB332.3 million in 2012. The number of online games we hosted increased from 45 as of December 31, 2011 to 73 as of December 31, 2012. Our paying users for online games increased from approximately 871,000 for the year ended December 31, 2011 to 966,000 for the year ended December 31, 2012.

        Other IVAS revenues, which primarily consisted of revenues from membership subscription fees and in-channel activities increased from RMB13.6 million in 2011 to RMB83.7 million in 2012. This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in the number of users who subscribed to our membership program and paid the monthly subscription fee; we had approximately 508,000 such members as of December 31, 2012.

        Online advertising revenues.    Our online advertising revenues increased by 34.7% from RMB87.3 million in 2011 to RMB117.6 million in 2012. This increase was primarily attributable to an increase in the average revenue per advertiser which increased from approximately RMB623,000 in 2011 to RMB871,000 in 2012. This increase was partly driven by (a) the increase in the number of our average daily unique visitors to Duowan.com from 9.9 million in December 2011 to 19.1 million in December 2012, making online advertising on Duowan.com more attractive to a larger number of online game developers as an effective way to market games to a larger audience, (b) an increase in the average prices for our advertising slots due to Duowan.com's increasing popularity, and (c) the effective efforts of our sales and marketing team in promoting advertising on Duowan.com.

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        Cost of Revenues.    Our cost of revenues increased by 127.8% from RMB182.7 million in 2011 to RMB416.1 million in 2012. The increase in our cost of revenues was due in large part to increases in bandwidth costs, which increased by 93.1% from RMB75.1 million in 2011 to RMB145.0 million in 2012 and an increase in our revenue sharing fees and content costs. The increase in bandwidth costs was primarily due to (i) an increase in the amount of bandwidth required since we provided video functionality to an increasing number of our channels in 2012 and (ii) an increase in the number of average monthly active users on our platform from approximately 51.9 million in the three months ended December 31, 2011 to 69.7 million in the three months ended December 31, 2012. Our revenue sharing fees and content costs, consisting of the payments to channel owners and performers in our online music and entertainment channels and those entitled to revenue sharing in various channels activities in YY platform, such as the channel owners in live game broadcasting, and content owners of products sold in YY platform, amounted to RMB109.3 million in 2012 as our IVAS revenues from the sale of virtual items on our online music and entertainment channels increased. In addition, salary and welfare costs increased from RMB33.4 million in 2011 to RMB50.0 million in 2012, mainly due to our hiring of additional employees to serve our rapidly expanding user base. Payment handling costs increased from RMB9.3 million in 2011 to RMB22.8 million in 2012, primarily because of the higher IVAS sales and an increase in the number of users paying through third party payment channels.

        Operating Expenses.    Our operating expenses increased by 27.3% from RMB238.4 million in 2011 to RMB303.5 million in 2012, primarily due to an increase in research and development expenses, which reflected the general growth of our business operations, partially offset by a decrease in share-based compensation expenses.

        Research and development expenses.    Our research and development expenses increased by 65.4% from RMB106.8 million in 2011 to RMB176.7 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to a significant increase in salaries and other benefits for research and development personnel, which was in turn mainly driven by an increase in our research and development staff, especially engineers, from 401 as of December 31, 2011 to 672 as of December 31, 2012. In addition, share-based compensation allocated to research and development expenses increased from RMB31.7 million in 2011 to RMB35.4 million in 2012.

        Sales and marketing expenses.    Our sales and marketing expenses increased by 26.9% from RMB13.4 million in 2011 to RMB17.0 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to the fact that we hosted a live celebration event on YY in July 2012 to celebrate the fourth anniversary of the launch of YY platform, leading to an increase in our sales and marketing expenses. Share-based compensation allocated to sales and marketing expenses decreased from RMB1.3 million in 2011 to RMB0.9 million in 2012.

        General and administrative expenses.    Our general and administrative expenses decreased by 7.1% from RMB118.2 million in 2011 to RMB109.8 million in 2012. This decrease was primarily due to a lower amount of share-based compensation expenses being allocated to general and administrative expenses from RMB86.5 million in 2011 to RMB55.6 million in 2012.

        Foreign Currency Exchange (Loss) Gains.    We had net foreign currency exchange loss of RMB4.2 million in 2012, compared to a net foreign currency exchange gain of RMB14.1 million in 2011. This decrease was primarily due to the fact that we converted our proceeds from our initial public offering from U.S. dollars into Renminbi and recognized an exchange loss.

        Interest Income.    Our interest income increased from RMB4.9 million in 2011 to RMB16.3 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to higher levels of cash on hand, partly as a result of depositing the proceeds from our initial public offering in November 2012 and issuance of common shares to Tiger Global Six YY Holdings into various bank accounts.

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        Income Tax Expenses.    We recorded income tax expenses of RMB1.3 million in 2011 compared to RMB29.0 million in 2012. This increase was primarily due to the higher revenues recorded by certain of our PRC subsidiaries.

        Net Income (Loss).    As a result of the foregoing, we had a net income of RMB89.2 million in 2012 as compared to a net loss of RMB83.2 million in 2011.

Inflation

        Since our inception, inflation in China has not materially impacted our results of operations. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the change of consumer price index in China was 5.4%, 2.6% and 2.6% in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Although we have not in the past been materially affected by inflation since our inception, we can provide no assurance that we will not be affected in the future by higher rates of inflation in China.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

        In February of 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-02, "Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income". The amendments in this ASU require an entity to provide information about amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by component. In addition, an entity is required to present, either on the face of the statement where net income is presented or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by the respective line items of net income, but only if the amount reclassified is required under U.S. GAAP to be reclassified to net income in its entirety in the same reporting period. For other amounts that are not required under U.S. GAAP to be reclassified in their entirety to net income (for example, where amounts are reclassified to inventory), an entity is required to cross-reference to other disclosures required under U.S. GAAP that provide additional detail about those amounts. For public entities, the amendments are effective with prospective application for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2012. We adopted this ASU beginning January 1, 2013 and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In March of 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-05, "Foreign Currency Matters (Topic 830), Parent's Accounting for the Cumulative Translation Adjustment upon Derecognition of Certain Subsidiaries or Groups of Assets within a Foreign Entity or of an Investment in a Foreign Entity." The amendments in this ASU clarify the applicable guidance for the de-recognition of all or a portion of a cumulative translation adjustment when an entity ceases to have a controlling financial interest in a subsidiary or group of assets that is a nonprofit activity or a business (other than a sale of in substance real estate or conveyance of oil and gas mineral rights) within a foreign entity or when other changes stipulated in the ASU occur and involve a foreign entity. The amendments are effective prospectively for fiscal years (and interim reporting periods within those years) beginning after December 15, 2013. The amendments should be applied prospectively to derecognition events occurring after the effective date. Prior periods should not be adjusted. Early adoption is permitted. If an entity elects to early adopt the amendments, it should apply them as of the beginning of the entity's fiscal year of adoption. The adoption of this ASU is not reasonably expected in the future to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

        In March of 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-11, "Income Taxes (Topic 740)—Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists". The amendments in the ASU clarify that an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, should be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss, similar tax loss, or tax credit carryforward, except as noted in the following sentence. To the extent a net operating loss, similar tax loss, or tax credit carryforward

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is not available at the reporting date under the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction to settle any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position or the tax law of the applicable jurisdiction does not require the entity to use, and the entity does not intend to use, the deferred tax asset for such a purpose, then under this exception the unrecognized tax benefit is to be presented in the financial statements as a liability and should not be combined with (netted with) the deferred tax asset(s). The assessment of whether a deferred tax asset is "available" is based on the unrecognized tax benefit and deferred tax asset amounts that exist at the reporting date and should be made presuming disallowance of the tax position at the reporting date. The amendments are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date. Retrospective application is permitted. The adoption of this ASU is not reasonably expected in the future to have a material impact on the our consolidated financial statements.

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Flows and Working Capital

        In recent years, we have financed our operations primarily through cash flows from operations and the proceeds from our initial public offering in November 2012. We expect to require cash to fund our ongoing operational needs, particularly our revenue sharing fees and content costs, salaries and benefits, bandwidth costs and potential acquisitions or strategic investments. We believe that our current cash and cash equivalents and the anticipated cash flow from operations will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital requirements and capital expenditures needs for the next 12 months. However, we may require additional cash resources due to changing business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to selectively pursue. If our existing cash resources are insufficient to meet our requirements, we may seek to sell equity or equity-linked securities, debt securities or borrow from banks.

        As of December 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013, we had RMB128.9 million, RMB504.7 million and RMB729.6 million (US$120.5 million), respectively, in cash and cash equivalents.

        The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the years indicated:

 
  For the Year Ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2012   2013  
 
  RMB   RMB   RMB   US$  
 
  (in thousands)
 

Net cash provided by operating activities

    99,817     356,852     891,173     147,211  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (528,357 )   (498,504 )   (659,603 )   (108,959 )

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

    477,882     522,740     (5,687 )   (939 )

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

    49,342     381,088     225,883     37,313  

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the year period

    83,683     128,891     504,702     83,371  

Effect of exchange rates change on cash and cash equivalents

    (4,134 )   (5,277 )   (987 )   (163 )

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the year period

    128,891     504,702     729,598     120,521  

Operating Activities

        Net cash used in or generated from operating activities consists primarily of our net loss or income mitigated by non-cash adjustments, such as share-based compensation, depreciation of property and equipment and deferred taxes, and adjusted by changes in operating assets and liabilities, such as accounts receivable and accrued liabilities, account payables and other payables.

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        Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to RMB891.2 million (US$147.2 million) for the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily resulting from RMB2,225.4 million (US$$367.6 million) of cash revenues we received from the sale of IVAS and advertisements, partially offset by our sales-related cash outflow of RMB665.1 million (US$109.9 million), which mainly consisted of the amounts due to third party game developers under revenue sharing arrangements, distributions under arrangements with certain performers and channel owners, payment collection costs and business taxes, our employee salaries and welfare payments of RMB317.6 million (US$52.5million), our payments for the lease of bandwidth of RMB197.5 million (US$32.6 million) and our general operating costs of RMB154.0 million (US$25.4 million).

        Net cash provided by operating activities amounted to RMB356.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2012, primarily resulting from RMB996.4 million of cash revenues we received from the sale of IVAS and advertisements, partially offset by our employee salaries and welfare payment of RMB244.3 million, our sales-related cash outflow of RMB169.7 million, which mainly consisted of the amounts due to third party game developers under revenue sharing arrangements, distributions under arrangements with certain popular performers and channel owners on our online music and entertainment, payment collection costs and business taxes, our payments for the lease of bandwidth of RMB135.4 million and our general operating costs of RMB90.1 million.

        Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2011 was RMB99.8 million, primarily resulting from RMB395.8 million of cash revenues we received from the sale of IVAS and advertisements, partially offset by our sales-related cash outflow of RMB81.9 million, which mainly consisted of the amounts due to third party game developers under revenue sharing arrangements, payment collection costs and business taxes, our employee salaries and welfare payment of RMB118.0 million, our payments for the lease of bandwidth of RMB71.4 million and our general operating costs of RMB24.7 million.

Investing Activities

        Net cash used in investing activities largely reflects placements of short-term deposits, purchases of property and equipment in connection with the expansion and upgrade of our technology infrastructure, our investments in certain companies and purchases of intangibles assets.

        Net cash used in investing activities amounted to RMB659.6 million (US$109.0 million) in the year ended December 31, 2013. Net cash used in investing activities primarily resulted from the placement of short-term deposits of RMB1,529.1 million (US$252.6 million), payments of RMB55.6 million (US$9.2 million) for the purchase of property and equipment, which mainly consisted of the purchase of servers, and cash paid for certain strategic investments of RMB58.1 million (US$9.6 million), partially offset by the maturity of short-term deposits in various banks in the amount of RMB996.0 million (US$164.5 million).

        Net cash used in investing activities amounted to RMB498.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. Net cash used in investing activities primarily resulted from the placement of short-term deposits of RMB1,040.3 million, consideration of RMB11.7 million paid in connection with an acquisition, and payments of RMB60.9 million for the purchase of property and equipment, which mainly consisted of the purchase of servers to serve our expanded user base and, to a lesser extent, the purchase of office furniture and other office set-up related costs, partially offset by the maturity of term deposits in various banks in the amount of RMB615.3 million.

        Net cash used in investing activities amounted to RMB528.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011. Net cash used in investing activities primarily resulted from the placement of short-term deposits of RMB872.4 million, payments of RMB47.0 million for the purchase of property and equipment, which mainly consisted of the purchase of servers to serve our expanded user base and, to a lesser extent, the purchase of office furniture and other office set-up related costs, and equity

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investments of RMB4.5 million associated with the purchase of a minority equity interest in Zhuhai JinShan KuaiKuai Technology Co., Ltd., a company which provides online game technological research services in China, and Shenzhen Yingpeng Information Technology Company Limited, a company which provides mobile internet related content in China, partly offset by the maturity of term deposits in various banks in the amount of RMB399.7 million.

Financing Activities

        Net cash used in financing activities was RMB5.7 million (US$0.9 million) in 2013, primarily attributable to a portion of the listing expenses of RMB5.8 million (US$0.9 million).

        Net cash provided by financing activities was RMB522.7 million in 2012, primarily attributable to the proceeds of RMB550.6 million from our initial public offering in November 2012, partially offset by a portion of the listing expenses of RMB 27.8 million.

        Net cash provided by financing activities was RMB477.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily attributable to proceeds from the issuance of common shares to Tiger Global Six YY Holdings, net of issuance costs, of RMB489.0 million, partially offset by our repurchase of share options in the amount of RMB11.1 million.

Capital Expenditures

        We made capital expenditures of RMB41.6 million, RMB79.4 million and RMB72.2 million (US$11.9 million) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our capital expenditures are primarily used to purchase computers, servers, office furniture, software, domain names and other assets. As we expand, we may move to larger offices and purchase additional office furniture and other equipment.

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc.

        In order to support the kind of multi-user, real-time online voice and video communications on a scale necessary for our platform, we build and develop our own network infrastructure. See "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Research and Development" for a description of the research and development aspect of our business and "Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property" for a description of the protection of our intellectual property.

        Research and development expenses consist primarily of salaries and benefits for research and development personnel and rental and depreciation of office premise and servers utilized by the research and development personnel. Research and development expenses generally increased in the past three years ended December 31, 2013, due to the need for additional research and development personnel to accommodate the rapid growth of our business. We expect our research and development expenses in absolute amount to increase as we intend to retain existing research and deve