10-K 1 f10k2013_genieenergy.htm ANNUAL REPORT f10k2013_genieenergy.htm


UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
x Annual report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013, or
 
o Transition report pursuant to section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
Commission File Number: 1-35327
 
Genie Energy Ltd.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
     
Delaware
 
45-2069276
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation
or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
550 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code)
 
(973) 438-3500
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class B common stock, par value $.01 per share
Series 2012-A Preferred stock, par value $.01 per share
 
New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes o    No x
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes o    No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x   No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes x    No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
   
Large accelerated filer  o
Accelerated filer  x
Non-accelerated filer  o
Smaller reporting company  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes o    No x
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price on June 28, 2013 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) of the Class B common stock of $9.15 per share, as reported on the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $145 million.
 
As of March 10, 2014, the registrant had outstanding 19,765,182 shares of Class B common stock and 1,574,326 shares of Class A common stock. Excluded from these numbers are 58,978 shares of Class B common stock held in treasury by Genie Energy Ltd.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
The definitive proxy statement relating to the registrant’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be held May 7, 2014, is incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K to the extent described therein.
 


 
 

 
 
Index
 
Genie Energy Ltd.
 
Annual Report on Form 10-K
 
Part I
 
    1  
           
    1  
    11  
    17  
    17  
    18  
    18  
           
Part II
 
    18  
           
    18  
    20  
    20  
    42  
    43  
    43  
    43  
    45  
           
Part III
      45  
           
    45  
    45  
    45  
    45  
    45  
           
Part IV
 
    46  
           
    46  
           
 
    48  
 
 
 

 
 
Part I
 
As used in this Annual Report, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “the Company,” “Genie,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Genie Energy Ltd., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries, collectively.
 
 
OVERVIEW
 
Genie Energy, Ltd., a Delaware corporation, owns 99.3% of its subsidiary, Genie Energy International Corporation, or GEIC, which owns 100% of IDT Energy and 92% of Genie Oil and Gas, Inc., or GOGAS. IDT Energy has outstanding deferred stock units granted to directors and employees that represent an interest of 2.5% of the equity of IDT Energy. Our principal businesses consist of:
 
•  
IDT Energy, a retail energy provider, or REP, supplying electricity and natural gas to residential and small business customers in the Northeastern United States; and
 
•  
Genie Oil and Gas, which is pioneering technologies to produce clean and affordable transportation fuels from the world's abundant oil shale and other fuel resources, which consists of: (1) American Shale Oil Corporation, or AMSO, which holds and manages a 48.2% interest in American Shale Oil, L.L.C., or AMSO, LLC, our oil shale project in Colorado; (2) an 87.7% interest in Israel Energy Initiatives, Ltd., or IEI, our oil shale project in Israel; (3) an 87.1% interest in Afek Oil & Gas Ltd., or Afek, our conventional oil and gas exploration project in the southern portion of the Golan Heights in Northern Israel; and (4) an 89.1% interest in Genie Mongolia, Inc., our oil shale exploration project in Central Mongolia.
 
We have two reportable business segments: IDT Energy and Genie Oil and Gas. Our reportable segments are distinguished by types of service, customers and methods used to provide their services. Financial information by segment and geographic areas is presented under the heading “Business Segment Information” in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report.
 
Our main offices are located at 550 Broad Street, Newark, New Jersey 07102. The telephone number at our headquarters is (973) 438-3500 and our web site is www.genie.com.
 
We make available free of charge through the investor relations page of our web site (http://genie.com/investors/sec-filings/) our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to these reports, and all beneficial ownership reports on Forms 3, 4 and 5 filed by directors, officers and beneficial owners of more than 10% of our equity as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for all of our employees, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer. Copies of our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics are available on our web site.
 
Our web site and the information contained therein or incorporated therein are not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
KEY EVENTS IN OUR HISTORY
 
Genie was incorporated in January 2011. References to us in the following discussion are made on a consolidated basis as if we existed and owned IDT Energy and Genie Oil and Gas in all periods discussed.
 
In November 2004, IDT launched IDT Energy in New York State. IDT Energy currently operates in eight utility markets in New York, six utility territories in New Jersey, eight utility territories in Pennsylvania, four utility territories in Maryland, and, more recently, in Washington D.C. and one utility market in Illinois. IDT Energy is evaluating opportunities in additional states, including Massachusetts and Connecticut.
 
In March 2008, we formed Israel Energy Initiatives, Ltd., which was awarded an exclusive Shale Oil Exploration and Production License in July 2008 by the Government of Israel.
 
In April 2008, IDT acquired E.G.L. Oil Shale, L.L.C., which was subsequently renamed American Shale Oil, LLC.
 
In March 2009, a subsidiary of TOTAL S.A., the world’s fifth largest integrated oil and gas company, acquired a 50% interest in AMSO, LLC in exchange for cash paid to us of $3.2 million and Total’s commitment to fund the majority of AMSO, LLC’s research, development and demonstration expenditures as well as certain other funding commitments.
 
In April 2013, the Government of Israel finalized the award to our subsidiary, Afek, of an exclusive three year petroleum exploration license covering 396.5 square kilometers in the southern portion of the Golan Heights in Northern Israel.
 
In April 2013, Genie Mongolia and the Petroleum Authority of Mongolia entered into an exclusive oil shale development agreement to explore and evaluate the commercial potential of oil shale resources in a 34,470 square kilometer area in Central Mongolia.
 
 
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Spin-Off from IDT Corporation
 
We were formerly a subsidiary of IDT Corporation, or IDT. On October 28, 2011, we were spun-off by IDT and became an independent public company through a pro rata distribution of our common stock to IDT’s stockholders, which we refer to as the Spin-Off. As a result of the Spin-Off, each of IDT’s stockholders received: (i) one share of our Class A common stock for every share of IDT’s Class A common stock held of record on October 21, 2011, or the Record Date, and (ii) one share of our Class B common stock for every share of IDT’s Class B common stock held of record on the Record Date.
 
Prior to the Spin-Off, IDT made a capital contribution of $82.2 million to us.
 
Exchange Offer and Issuance of Preferred Stock
 
On August 2, 2012, we initiated an offer to exchange up to 8.75 million outstanding shares of our Class B common stock for the same number of shares of a new series of preferred stock. On October 17, 2012, we issued 1,604,591 shares of our newly designated Series 2012-A Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, in exchange for an equal number of shares of Class B common stock tendered in the exchange offer.
 
On November 26, 2012, we commenced an offer to exchange up to 7,145,409 outstanding shares of our Class B Common Stock for the same number of shares of Series 2012-A Preferred Stock. This was a renewal of the prior offer described in the preceding paragraph and on March 11, 2013, we issued 313,376 shares of our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock in exchange for an equal number of shares of Class B common stock tendered in the exchange offer.
 
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
 
Diversegy
 
On December 5, 2013, IDT Energy acquired Dallas-based Diversegy, LLC, or Diversegy, a retail energy advisory and brokerage company that serves commercial and industrial customers, and its network marketing channel, Epiq Energy, LLC, or Epiq, that provides independent representatives with the opportunity to build sales organizations and to profit from both residential and commercial energy. Diversegy connects large commercial and industrial customers with its portfolio of competitive energy products provided by some of the industry’s leading energy suppliers. Diversegy evaluates alternative supply sources based on its customers’ usage patterns and risk profiles in order provide options that benefit their bottom lines. Epiq Energy offers its direct marketing representatives the opportunity to earn commissions on energy supply based on the consumption of the customers they bring into the program.
 
Dividends
 
The aggregate dividends declared in the year ended December 31, 2012 on our common stock were $3.1 million. No dividends were declared or paid on our common stock in the year ended December 31, 2013. The aggregate dividends paid in the year ended December 31, 2013 on our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock (“Preferred Stock”) was $1.1 million, as follows:
 
•  
On February 15, 2013, we paid a pro-rated Base Dividend of $0.1317 per share on our Preferred Stock for the fourth quarter of 2012 to stockholders of record at the close of business on February 5, 2013 of our Preferred Stock.
 
•  
On May 15, 2013, we paid a quarterly Base Dividend of $0.1594 per share on the Preferred Stock for the first a quarter of 2013 to stockholders of record at the close of business on May 8, 2013 of our Preferred Stock.
 
•  
On August 15, 2013, we paid a quarterly Base Dividend of $0.1594 per share on the Preferred Stock for the second quarter of 2013 to stockholders of record at the close of business on August 7, 2013 of our Preferred Stock.
 
•  
On November 15, 2013, we paid a quarterly Base Dividend of $0.1594 per share on the Preferred Stock for the third quarter of 2013 to stockholders of record at the close of business on November 4, 2013 of our Preferred Stock.
 
On February 14, 2014, we paid a Base Dividend of $0.1594 per share on the Preferred Stock for the fourth quarter of 2013. The aggregate amount paid was $0.3 million. In connection with the completion of the exchange offer and issuance of the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock, we have suspended payment of dividends on our Class A and Class B common stock for the foreseeable future.
 
IDT Energy
 
In November 2004, IDT launched a REP business, IDT Energy, which has since experienced significant growth. IDT Energy resells natural gas and electricity to residential and small business customers in eight utility markets in New York, six utility territories in New Jersey, eight utility territories in Pennsylvania, four utility territories in Maryland and, more recently, in Washington D.C. and one utility market in Illinois.
 
 
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IDT Energy’s business, particularly its sales of natural gas, is a seasonal business. Approximately 49% of IDT Energy’s natural gas revenues in the year ended December 31, 2013 was generated during the three months ended March 31, 2013, when the demand for heating was highest as compared to 47% in the same period in the year ended December 31, 2012. The demand for electricity is not as seasonal as natural gas, but is higher during IDT Energy’s third quarter when air conditioning usage peaks. Revenues from sales of electricity in the three months ended September 30, 2013 represented approximately 31% of total revenues from electricity sales in the year ended December 31, 2013 as compared to 34% of total revenues from electricity sales in the same period in the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
In the year ended December 31, 2013, IDT Energy generated revenues of $279 million comprised of $217 million from sales of electricity and $62 million from sales of natural gas, as compared with revenues of $229.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. IDT Energy’s revenues represent 100% of our total consolidated revenues since our inception. In addition in the year ended December 31, 2013, IDT Energy had operating income of $26 million, as compared with operating income of $25.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Customers
 
IDT Energy’s services are made available to customers under its standard terms and conditions, offering primarily a variable rate via automatically renewing or month-to-month agreements, which enable it to recover its costs for electricity and natural gas through adjustments to the rates charged to its customers. The frequency and degree of these adjustments are determined by IDT Energy, and are not restricted by regulation. While IDT Energy’s contract rates are not regulated, they are governed by its terms and conditions, which are accepted by all customers. IDT Energy is required to comply with various reporting requirements in order to maintain eligibility to operate as a REP. Certain jurisdictions require IDT Energy to publish its customer offers with the applicable regulatory commission, and, or in the public domain, generally a website established for such purpose. The electricity and natural gas IDT Energy sells are metered and delivered to IDT Energy customers by the local utilities. As such, IDT Energy does not have a maintenance or service staff for customer locations. These utilities also provide billing and collection services for the majority of IDT Energy’s customers on its behalf. For a small number of direct bill customers, IDT Energy performs its own billing and collection. Additionally, IDT Energy’s receivables are generally purchased by the utilities in whose areas IDT Energy operates for a percentage of their face value (as of December 31, 2013, approximately 98.5%) in exchange for the utility receiving a first priority lien in the customer receivable without recourse against IDT Energy.
 
IDT Energy markets its energy services primarily through direct marketing methods, including door-to-door sales, outbound telemarketing, direct mail and internet signup. As of December 31, 2013, IDT Energy serviced 427,000 meters (282,000 electric and 145,000 natural gas), as compared to 502,000 meters (331,000 electric and 171,000 natural gas) as of December 31, 2012. In the territories that IDT Energy has operated for at least a year, IDT Energy has captured between 4% and 11% of the migrated share.
 
IDT Energy’s strategy is to acquire profitable customers in low-risk markets, specifically where the utilities have adopted a portfolio of REP-friendly, regulatory-driven programs. Key among these programs is purchase of receivables, or POR programs where utilities are contractually obligated to purchase customer receivables at a pre-determined fixed discount. Under POR programs, utilities offer consolidated billing, where the utilities have the responsibility of billing the individual customer and the subsequent collections of the remittances. Additionally, we target markets in which we can procure energy in an efficient and transparent manner. We seek to purchase wholesale energy where there is a real time market that reflects a fair price for the commodity for all participants. This, coupled with IDT Energy’s strategy to primarily sell a variable-rate product, allows IDT Energy to reflect a true market cost base and opportunistically vary its rates to its customers taking into account its competitors who are purchasing their commodity at longer intervals.
 
Utilities in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Washington, D.C. and Maryland offer POR programs without recourse that permit customers with past-due balances to remain in the POR and consolidated bill programs. However, utilities in New Jersey generally do not permit customers with past-due balances beyond 120 days, to enroll in their POR programs, or remain in their POR programs, which means that after a certain amount of time (determined based on the specific commodity), IDT Energy becomes responsible for the billing and collection of the commodity portion of the future invoices for its delinquent customers. IDT Energy may switch the customer back to the utility at its choosing; the process can typically be accomplished before IDT Energy needs to send an invoice, however it can take one to two billing cycles to complete.
 
IDT Energy also regularly monitors other deregulated or deregulating markets to determine if they are appropriate for entry, and may initiate the licensing process in a selected region should deregulated conditions develop favorably.
 
Acquisition and Management of Gas and Electric Supply
 
Since 2009, IDT Energy has been party to a Preferred Supplier Agreement with BP Energy Company, or BP, pursuant to which BP is IDT Energy’s preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. The agreement allows for purchases of electricity and natural gas for customers in areas where the utilities have POR programs. Under the arrangement, IDT Energy purchases electricity and natural gas at market rate plus a fee. IDT Energy’s obligations to BP are secured by a first security interest in deposits or receivables from utilities in connection with their purchase of IDT Energy’s customer’s receivables under the applicable POR program, and in any cash deposits or letters of credit posted in connection with any collateral accounts with BP. The agreement with BP has been amended to cover the territories in which we operate. The agreement will terminate on June 30, 2015 unless extended by the parties. IDT Energy’s ability to purchase electricity and natural gas under this agreement is subject to satisfaction of certain conditions including the maintenance of certain covenants.
 
 
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IDT Energy is required to meet certain minimum green energy supply criteria in some of the markets in which it operates. IDT Energy has met those thresholds by acquiring renewable energy certificates (REC’s). In addition, IDT Energy offers green or other renewable energy products to its customers in several territories. IDT Energy acquires green renewable energy conversion rights or attributes and REC’s to satisfy the load requirements for these customers.
 
As a REP, IDT Energy does not own electrical power generation, transmission, or distribution facilities, or natural gas production, pipeline or distribution facilities. Besides BP, IDT Energy currently contracts with Dominion Transmission, Inc., National Fuel Supply, Williams Gas Pipeline and Texas Eastern Transmission and others for natural gas pipeline, storage and transportation services, and utilizes the New York Independent System Operator, Inc., or NYISO, and PJM Interconnection, LLC, or PJM, for electric transmission and distribution. NYISO operates the high-voltage electric transmission network in New York State, and administers and monitors New York’s wholesale electricity markets. PJM is a regional transmission organization that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of thirteen states (including New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland) and the District of Columbia.
 
For risk management purposes, IDT Energy utilizes forward physical delivery contracts for a portion of its purchases of electricity and natural gas, which are defined as commodity derivative contracts. In addition, IDT Energy enters into put and call options as hedges against unfavorable fluctuations in market prices of electricity and natural gas.
 
The NYISO and PJM perform real-time load balancing for each of the electrical power grids in which IDT Energy operates. Similarly, load balancing is performed by the utilities or local distribution company, or LDC, for each of the natural gas markets in which IDT Energy operates. Load balancing ensures that the amount of electricity and natural gas that IDT Energy purchases is equal to the amount necessary to service its customers’ demands at any specific point in time. IDT Energy is charged or credited for balancing the electricity and natural gas purchased and sold for its account by its suppliers and the LDCs. IDT Energy manages the differences between the actual electricity and natural gas demands of its customers and its bulk or block purchases by buying and selling in the spot market, and through monthly cash settlements and/or adjustments to future deliveries in accordance with the load balancing performed by utilities, LDCs, NYISO and PJM.
 
Diversegy
 
Diversegy, which we acquired in December 2013, operates as an energy broker and advisor to industrial, commercial and municipal customers across deregulated energy markets throughout the United States. Commercial and industrial end-use customers of all types and size have the ability to leverage Diversegy’s expertise and purchasing power as they evaluate their electricity and natural gas procurement plans.
 
Epiq, which we also acquired in December 2013, has built and operates a network marketing platform that sells services for many REPs in several states. Epiq offers an innovative direct sales opportunity to individuals who are seeking to profit from the deregulation of energy in the United Sates, focusing on residential and small to medium-sized businesses. Epiq’s sales channel has the potential to reach customers our traditional sales channels of door-door marketing and outbound telemarketing has difficulty in reaching. Over the course of Fiscal 2014, we expect Epiq to have active independent representatives in most states where we operate, with an early focus on Illinois.
 
Our Diversegy and Epiq operations will allow us to enter more markets around the country as we are not limited to only the markets we operate as a REP, and therefore not responsible for assuming the risk associated with procuring and managing the commodity.

Competition
 
IDT Energy competes with the local utility companies in the areas where it provides service, including certain retail subsidiaries of the utilities. Some utilities have affiliated companies that are REPs, and compete in the same markets that IDT Energy operates. IDT Energy also competes with several large vertically integrated energy companies as well as many independent REPs. Some of these competitors or potential competitors are larger and better capitalized than IDT Energy. The competition with the utilities and REPs exposes IDT Energy to the risk of losing customers, especially since IDTE’s residential customers generally do not sign term contracts. Additionally, as our experience has shown, utilities don’t change their sell rates offered to customers immediately. There is a time lag before utilities increase prices to reflect their increased costs and market prices for commodities. In times of high commodity prices, REPs like IDT Energy that offer a variable rate product, and reflect real-time commodity costs, can suffer from being compared to the utilities rate, which is not wholly reflective of real-time market conditions. Conversely, in a downward moving commodity cost environment, REPs like IDTE benefit from the lag that utilities experience in reducing their sell rate to reflect the lower cost base in the commodity markets, as their customers will benefit from the falling costs closer to real time.
 
As the provider of a fully variable rate product, the amount we charge to our customers changes with our costs for the underlying commodity. During times of rising costs, the number of complaints made to our call center or to the state regulators may increase. We proactively seek to address customer concerns through rebates, other programs and by providing accurate information, as well as communications with regulators.
 
 
4

 
 
There are many licensed REPs in each of the markets in which we operate. In each major utility service territory there are several REPs serving residential natural gas customers and residential electric customers. While it is unclear whether there will be new entrants in these markets, IDT Energy believes REP competition in the residential market (which represents the principal market focus for IDT Energy) is not as intense as in the commercial and industrial markets because the majority of REPs, unlike IDT Energy, have focused their activities on the commercial and industrial markets, which are comprised of larger customers who prefer to enter into longer term contracts with fixed rates.
 
Increasing our market share depends in part on our ability to persuade customers to switch to IDT Energy’s service. Local utilities have certain advantages such as name recognition, financial strength and long-standing relationships with customers. Persuading potential customers to switch to a new supplier of such an important service is challenging. If IDT Energy is not successful in convincing customers to switch, our REP business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected.
 
Regulation
 
IDT Energy currently operates in eight utility territories in New York, six utility territories in New Jersey, eight utility territories in Pennsylvania, four utility territories in Maryland, one in Washington D.C. and one in Illinois. IDT Energy recently received regulatory approvals to enter nine new utility territories in Pennsylvania and one new territory covering Maryland and Washington D.C. The State of New York, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the State of New Jersey, the State of Maryland, the State of Illinois, the District of Columbia, the federal government, and related public service/utility commissions, among others, establish the rules and regulations for our REP operations. Like all REPs, IDT Energy is affected by the actions of governmental agencies, mostly on the state level by the respective state Public Service/Utility Commissions, and other organizations (such as NYISO and PJM) and indirectly the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or FERC. Regulations applicable to electricity and natural gas have undergone substantial change over the past several years as a result of restructuring initiatives at both the state and federal levels. IDT Energy may be subject to new laws, orders or regulations or the revision or interpretation of existing laws, orders or regulations. Further, if IDT Energy enters territories outside of the utility regions within which it currently operates in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Illinois and Washington DC, or territories outside of these states, it would need to be licensed and would be subject to the rules and regulations of such states or municipalities and respective utilities.
 
Diversegy is licensed to serve as a broker of electricity in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of Columbia, Illinois and Ohio and as a gas broker in New Jersey, Maryland and Ohio. Epiq is licensed as an electricity broker in Illinois and Ohio and a gas broker in Ohio. Epiq has license applications currently pending in several additional states. Both Diversegy and Epiq serve as brokers in other states that do not require licenses.
 
Employees
 
As of March 1, 2014, IDT Energy employed 103 full time employees, 58 of whom are located in the Jamestown, New York office, of which approximately 80% are affiliated with the customer care center and 26 of whom are located in our Texas office.
 
Genie Oil and Gas, Inc.
 
Genie Oil and Gas, which is pioneering technologies to produce clean and affordable transportation fuels from the world’s abundant oil shale and other fuel resources, consists of (1) AMSO, which holds and manages a 48.2% interest in AMSO, LLC, our oil shale project in Colorado, and (2) an 87.7% interest in IEI, our oil shale project in Israel, (3) an 87.1% interest in Afek, our conventional oil and gas exploration project in the southern portion of the Golan Heights IN Northern Israel, and (4) a 89.1% interest in Genie Mongolia, Inc., our oil shale exploration project in Central Mongolia.
 
Oil shale is an organic-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be extracted. However, extracting oil and gas from oil shale is more complex than conventional oil and gas recovery and is more expensive. Rather than pumping it directly out of the ground in the form of liquid oil, the oil shale can be mined and then heated to a high temperature through a process called surface retorting, with the resultant liquid separated and collected. An alternative which AMSO, LLC and others are researching and developing is in-situ retorting, which involves heating the oil shale to a temperature of approximately 660°F while it is still underground, and then pumping the resulting liquid and/or gases to the surface. In-situ retorting is considered to be less environmentally invasive than surface retorting and can offer significant economic advantages.
 
American Shale Oil Corporation
 
American Shale Oil Corporation, or AMSO, was formed as a subsidiary of ours in February 2008. AMSO’s initial entry into the oil shale business occurred in April 2008, when AMSO acquired a 75% equity interest in E.G.L. Oil Shale, L.L.C. (which was subsequently renamed American Shale Oil, LLC) in exchange for cash of $2.5 million and certain commitments for future funding of AMSO, LLC’s operations. In a separate transaction in April 2008, IDT acquired an additional 14.9% equity interest in AMSO, LLC in exchange for cash of $3.0 million, bringing our and IDT’s total interest in AMSO, LLC to approximately 90%. In March 2009, a subsidiary of TOTAL S.A., or Total, the world’s fifth largest integrated oil and gas company, acquired a 50% interest in AMSO, LLC in exchange for cash paid to us of $3.2 million and Total’s commitment to fund the majority of AMSO, LLC’s research, development and demonstration, or RD&D, expenditures as well as certain other funding commitments. Immediately prior to this transaction, all owners (including IDT’s 14.9% direct equity interest) other than AMSO exchanged their ownership interest for a proportionate share of a 1% override on AMSO, LLC’s future revenue. IDT assigned the cash proceeds of its override interest to the IDT U.S. Oil Shale Charitable Distribution Trust, subject to certain remainder interests retained by Genie. After the consummation of the Total transaction, AMSO owned 50% of AMSO, LLC.
 
 
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AMSO is operating the project during the RD&D phase and Total will provide a majority of the funding during this phase of the project, and technical and financial assistance throughout the RD&D and commercial stages of the project. Total will lead the planning of the commercial development and will assume management responsibilities during the subsequent commercial phase.
 
AMSO agreed to fund AMSO, LLC’s expenditures as follows: 20% of the initial $50 million of expenditures, 35% of the next $50 million in approved expenditures and 50% of approved expenditures in excess of $100 million. AMSO also agreed to fund 40% of the costs of the one-time payment for conversion of AMSO, LLC’s RD&D Lease to a commercial lease, in the event AMSO, LLC’s application for conversion is approved. The remaining amounts are to be funded by Total. As of December 31, 2013, the cumulative contributions of AMSO and Total to AMSO, LLC were $69.6 million.
 
AMSO has the right to decide at each capital call whether or not to fund AMSO, LLC, subject to certain consequences for a failure to fund depending on the stage of the project. AMSO did not fund the capital call for the first quarter of 2014, and in January 2014, Total funded AMSO’s share, which was $0.9 million. Because of AMSO’s decision not to fund its share, AMSO’s ownership interest in AMSO, LLC was reduced to 48.16% and Total’s ownership interest increased to 51.84%. In addition, AMSO’s share of future funding of AMSO, LLC up to a cumulative $100 million was reduced to 33.7% and Total’s share increased to 66.3%. AMSO’s share of AMSO, LLC’s approved budget for the year ending December 31, 2014 was $3.2 million. AMSO is evaluating its options with respect to funding AMSO, LLC during 2014, and funding of less than its full share would result in further dilution of its interest in AMSO, LLC.
 
According to reports from the United States Department of Energy, or DOE, oil shale resources in the United States are estimated at over 2 trillion barrels, and based on management estimates, could potentially supply the U.S.’s demand for liquid fuel over the next 100 years. The majority of those deposits are found in the Green River Formation of Colorado (Piceance Creek Basin), Utah (Uinta Basin) and Wyoming (Green River and Washakie Basins). In March 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, or USGS, reported that the total “in-place” oil in the Colorado’s Piceance Basin is approximately 1.525 trillion barrels. The majority of those deposits are found in the Green River Formation of Colorado (Piceance Creek Basin), Utah (Uinta Basin) and Wyoming (Green River and Washakie Basins). Colorado’s Piceance Basin, where AMSO, LLC’s RD&D Lease is located as described below, contains some of the richest oil shale resources in the world (as reported by DOE and USGS sources).
 
In 2005, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, or BLM, began implementation of the Energy Policy Act passed by Congress, seeking proposals from the private sector to develop the oil shale resources in economically and environmentally responsible ways. In June 2005, nominations were solicited and twenty proposals were submitted, including the proposal of E.G.L. Resources, Inc., or EGL Resources. The proposals, which included technical operational plans, were evaluated by an inter-disciplinary team including representatives from the affected states, as well as the DOE and the Department of Defense. A central feature of EGL Resource’s proposal was the then patent pending in-situ oil shale extraction process, Conduction, Convection, Reflux, or CCR, currently AMSO, LLC’s U.S. Patent 7,743,826. Further, proposals were subjected to environmental analysis under the terms of the National Environmental Policy Act and brought before public meetings in Colorado and Utah. The BLM issued a Finding of No Significant Impact for EGL Resources’ proposed plan of operations; and effective January 1, 2007, EGL Resources received a lease for research, development and demonstration, or RD&D Lease, in western Colorado, which it assigned to its affiliate, E.G.L. Oil Shale, L.L.C. (“EGL”). Out of twenty applications for RD&D Leases submitted, three companies were awarded leases in Colorado to test in-situ technologies (Shell, Chevron and EGL), and one company in Utah (OSEC) was awarded a lease for testing above ground retorting processes. In April 2008, EGL was acquired by AMSO and IDT and subsequently renamed American Shale Oil, LLC.
 
The RD&D Lease awarded by the BLM to EGL Resources and acquired by AMSO, LLC covers an area of 160 acres. The lease runs for a ten-year period beginning on January 1, 2007, and is subject to an extension of up to five years if AMSO, LLC can demonstrate that a process leading to the production of commercial quantities of shale oil is diligently being pursued. If AMSO, LLC can demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of its technology, it will have the opportunity to submit a one-time payment pursuant to the applicable regulations and convert its RD&D Lease to a commercial lease on 5,120 acres which overlap and are contiguous with the 160 acres covered by its RD&D Lease. AMSO, LLC’s initial plan is to target the illite-rich mining interval where the “illite” rich oil shale is located. As technologies are developed to facilitate environmentally sound extraction processes from additional areas of the oil shale formation, we would expect to pursue the remaining reserves within our commercial lease.
 
 
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AMSO, LLC is utilizing a team of experienced experts in various fields to conduct research, development and demonstration activities. The team has conducted considerable site characterization, which includes exploration and ground water monitoring wells, coring, logging, and other analysis to further explore, understand and characterize the oil shale resources in its RD&D Lease area. During the third quarter of fiscal 2011, AMSO, LLC continued advanced stage construction work on the surface oil and gas processing facilities while drilling pilot wells for its pilot test in Colorado. The pilot test is intended to confirm the accuracy of several of the key underlying assumptions of AMSO, LLC’s proposed in-situ heating and retorting process. In January 2012, AMSO, LLC conducted a fully integrated commissioning test of the above and below ground facilities to determine their readiness for pilot test operations. The underground electric heater did not perform to specifications during the commissioning test. As a result, the manufacturers of the heater undertook extensive modifications and improvements. There were additional problems during a second commissioning test in December 2012. AMSO, LLC conducted a thorough readiness review and additional integrated testing, as well as acquiring additional equipment spares prior to beginning steady state pilot test operations. The preparations were completed and in early March 2013 AMSO, LLC initiated start-up of the oil shale pilot test. After approximately two weeks of operation, the down-hole electric heater failed. Pilot operations were too short to allow conclusions to be drawn about the ultimate viability of AMSO, LLC’s technical approach. AMSO, LLC subsequently decided not to attempt to re-engineer the current down-hole electrical heating system. Instead, it has initiated a comprehensive review of alternative heating system solutions. AMSO, LLC intends to qualify, design, engineer, build and thoroughly test the heating solution offering the best prospects for reliable pilot test operations. A key objective of the development process is to significantly de-risk the pilot operations before heater installation. In addition, this alternative heating system qualification process may result in development of a solution applicable to subsequent phases of the research, development and demonstration project’s operations. It is expected that the heater development process will continue into, and possibly through, 2014. Additionally, during the third quarter of 2013, AMSO, LLC launched a series of diagnostic tests to analyze the status of its pilot test's down-hole heating and production well system. AMSO, LLC is seeking to ascertain how the limited pilot test operations conducted in 2012 and 2013, including down-hole heating, have impacted the well system's condition and whether modifications to the pilot test’s operational plans will be required. Equipment modifications and technical issues are common in projects of the complexity and scope of the AMSO, LLC pilot test, particularly given the extent to which new concepts and applications have been incorporated into the pilot test’s design. Upon successful completion of the pilot test, AMSO, LLC will evaluate the appropriate timing to submit an application to convert its research, development and demonstration lease into a commercial lease. AMSO, LLC also expects to design and implement a larger scale demonstration project to further test its process and operations under commercial conditions, and assess scalability to commercial production levels.
 
Under current regulations, in order for the RD&D Lease to be converted into a commercial lease, AMSO, LLC will have to demonstrate the production of shale oil in commercial quantities, which is defined to mean production of shale oil where there is a reasonable expectation that the expanded operation would provide a positive return after all costs of production have been met, including the amortized costs of the capital investment. The BLM must also determine, following an analysis based on the National Environmental Policy Act, that commercial scale operations can be conducted without unacceptable environmental consequences, and the BLM will have a fair amount of discretion in making this determination.  In order to convert the RD&D Lease to a commercial lease AMSO, LLC will also have to (a) demonstrate that it consulted with state and local officials to develop a plan for mitigating the socioeconomic impacts of commercial development on communities and infrastructure; (b) submit a nonrecurring conversion payment, which pursuant to applicable rules and regulations, will be equivalent to the greater of $1,000 per acre or the Fair Market Value (to be determined) of the commercial lease; (c) provide adequate bonding; and (d) conduct commercial operations in accordance with all applicable laws, rules, regulations or stipulations provided for. Further, in determining whether to convert the RD&D Lease into a commercial lease, the BLM will also analyze the commercial viability of shale oil production, which will depend on the market price of competing products at such time. Environmental challenges, however, have led the BLM to indicate that it intends to issue new regulations, which could affect the commercial royalty rates and potentially the conversion criteria, thereby making conversion to a commercial lease commercially unfeasible or impracticable.
 
Through the development of its technology and implementation of its plan of operations, AMSO, LLC hopes to provide a significant domestic supply of liquid fuels at a competitive price and with acceptable environmental impacts. AMSO, LLC believes that its technical and operating approaches could minimize the potential for adverse environmental impacts. AMSO, LLC’s patented CCR heating process and well layout plan have been, and continue to be, designed to maximize energy efficiency and minimize the number of wells needed and the impact on the surface of the lease area. By targeting the deep illite-rich oil shale under the known aquifers, AMSO, LLC expects to maintain the geologic barriers between retorts and protected water sources, and to minimize the amount of clean water needed for its operations. AMSO, LLC is also working diligently to meet emission standards, reduce carbon dioxide generation through thermal efficiency, and develop methods to sequester carbon dioxide generated during heating operations.
 
AMSO, LLC’s operating office is in Rifle, Colorado. AMSO, LLC is supported by AMSO and Genie professionals based in Newark, New Jersey. AMSO, LLC rents approximately 2,450 square feet of office space and 2,000 square feet of warehouse space in Rifle under operating leases with flexible terms and conditions.
 
AMSO, LLC incurred $8.6 million, $8.6 million, $9.2 million and $25.4 million for research and development in the years ended December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012, the five months ended December 31, 2011, and the year ended July 31, 2011, respectively.
 
 
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Israel Energy Initiatives, Ltd.
 
Israel Energy Initiatives, Ltd., or IEI, an Israeli company formed in March 2008, holds an exclusive Shale Oil Exploration and Production License awarded in July 2008 by the Government of Israel. The license covers approximately 238 square kilometers in the south of the Shfela region in central Israel. Under the terms of the license, IEI is to conduct a geological appraisal study across the license area, characterize the resource and select a location for a pilot plant in which it will demonstrate its in-situ technology. The initial term of the license was for three years until July 2011. The license has been extended until July 2014, and it may be further extended for one year through July 2015. According to Israeli law, as long as a license holder operates in compliance with a pre-approved plan, the State of Israel must grant an extension of the initial license term. IEI has discussed with the Ministry of Energy and Water regarding securing its rights beyond July 2015 and expects a satisfactory resolution of this matter. However, there is no guarantee the license will be extended, that a new license would be granted or that the license will not be successfully challenged by environmental or other opposition groups.
 
Assuming IEI successfully demonstrates a commercially viable and environmentally acceptable technology, IEI intends to apply for a long-term commercial lease from the Israeli government to build and operate a commercial project. Further, under the Israeli Petroleum Law, long-term leases are typically for a term of 30 years, with a possible extension for an additional 20 years.
 
In June 2013, IEI submitted its application for the construction and operation of its oil shale pilot test facility to the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee. IEI was asked to provide supplements to the environmental impact assessment. The revised application was submitted on November 3, 2013. On March 17, 2014, IEI was advised that the initial review process of the application conducted by the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee was concluded, and the application process was proceeding to the next stage, a review of the environmental documents by the Ministry of Environment. The permit evaluation process is expected to take at least nine months from acceptance of a completed proposal by the Planning Committee and potentially significantly longer. During 2013, as per the required permitting process, IEI continued laboratory work, engineering work and associated preparation of the environmental permit applications related to the planned pilot.
 
IEI believes that Israel presents a unique opportunity for the development of a commercial scale oil shale industry. The country is almost entirely dependent on imported oil for its transportation needs, and energy security is therefore a significant strategic issue, as well as a material burden on the Israeli economy. Compared with other oil shale resources worldwide, IEI believes that the Shfela basin resource is thick, shallow and dry. Short distances in Israel significantly reduce infrastructure and operating costs. Israel has existing complex refining capacity, as well as an existing pipeline infrastructure. IEI believes that environmental concerns are materially mitigated by the fact that the local aquifer is geologically confined and located well below the target oil shale layer and thus is highly unlikely to be contaminated in the proposed process being developed. Further, IEI believes that no direct competition currently exists in Israel for the production of oil from shale.
 
IEI began its resource appraisal study in the third quarter of calendar 2009, and completed the field work included in its study in late calendar 2011. The resource appraisal was comprised primarily of a drilling operation conducted in the license area. The resource appraisal plan included drilling and coring several wells to depths of approximately 600 meters, as well as well logging, analysis of core materials and other geochemical tests, water monitoring and hydrology tests, laboratory analyses of samples and other laboratory experiments. To date, the results from the appraisal process, both from field tests and laboratory experiments, confirm IEI’s expectations as to the attractiveness of the oil shale resource in the license area from the standpoint of richness, thickness and hydrology. IEI is continuing permitting and other preparatory work required prior to construction of a pilot plant and operation of a pilot test. The pilot test will provide a basis for determining the technical, environmental and economic viability of IEI’s proposed process for extracting oil from the oil shale resource. IEI expects to begin construction of the pilot test in late 2014, barring further permitting, regulatory or litigation driven delays. IEI has not yet obtained all necessary permits for the pilot test. We expect continued, significant increases in the expenses reflecting the costs of facility construction, drilling and operations of the IEI pilot test, as well as additional staffing to support engineering and scientific operations and business development activities. We expect IEI’s pilot test to require approximately $30 million of investment over three years.
 
IEI operates out of IDT’s offices in Jerusalem and a field office and warehouse near the city of Beit Shemesh. In addition, IEI built and operates a research laboratory located on the campus of Ben Gurion University in Be’er Sheva.
 
IEI incurred $3.7 million, $7.2 million, $2.4 million, and $7.8 million for research and development in the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, the five months ended December 31, 2011, and the year ended July 31, 2011, respectively.
 
Afek Oil and Gas Ltd.
 
In April 2013, the Government of Israel finalized the award to Afek of an exclusive three year petroleum exploration license covering 396.5 square kilometers in the southern portion of the Golan Heights. Afek has retained seasoned oil and gas exploration professionals and has contracted with internationally recognized vendors to provide the services required for its exploration project. In 2013, Afek completed preliminary geophysical work including electromagnetic and gravimetric surveys and reprocessing of the 2D seismic data to characterize the subsurface prior to drilling exploration wells. Afek subsequently began the analysis of the acquired data internally and with outside oil exploration experts. In addition, Afek submitted a permit application to conduct a ten-well exploration drilling program to further characterize the resource in its license area. The exploration drilling program is scheduled to begin as early as the beginning of the second half of 2014 pending permitting. As of March 1, Afek’s drilling permit application received approval from the Planning and Construction Committee, North District to proceed with the next phase of the permit review process, which includes a 60-day public comment stage.
 
 
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We incurred research and development expenses of $4.2 million for Afek in the year ended December 31, 2013.
 
Genie Mongolia
 
In April 2013, Genie Mongolia and the Petroleum Authority of Mongolia entered into an exclusive oil shale development agreement to explore and evaluate the commercial potential of oil shale resources in a 34,470 square kilometer area in Central Mongolia. The five year agreement allows Genie Mongolia to explore, identify and characterize the oil shale resource in the exclusive survey area and to conduct a pilot test using in-situ technology on appropriate oil shale deposits. To date, Genie Mongolia is the only recipient of an exclusive oil shale survey contract in Mongolia. During 2013, Genie Mongolia conducted initial surface and subsurface exploration work and is currently working to continue to characterize the geology in the licensed area. In parallel, Genie Mongolia is also working with regulators in Mongolia to secure commercial rights to any appropriate deposits on the licensed area after a successful exploration work and pilot test are concluded.
 
We incurred research and development expenses of $3.4 million and $2.1 million for Genie Mongolia in the years ended December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2012, respectively.
 
Other Projects
 
The Company evaluates additional potential exploration and development projects for oil shale and other conventional and unconventional energy resources in other locations. The energy development prospects vary in potential size, applied technology and potential time to commercial production. The prospects we evaluate or pursue are in various stages of development and it is unclear when or if they will be developed or commercialized or prove to be profitable. However, if one or more of these prospects were to be successfully commercialized, they could be significant in terms of their potential impact on our operations and financial condition, and could materially affect our financial results, future prospects and valuation.
 
Financing
 
The Company is considering sales of equity interests in the various GOGAS projects or in GOGAS to provide the necessary financing for such activities.
 
Competition
 
If Genie Oil and Gas is successful developing and producing commercial quantities of oil and gas from oil shale and other conventional and unconventional resources in an environmentally acceptable manner and receives all the necessary regulatory approvals, then, in the commercial production phases of operations, it will likely face competition from conventional and unconventional oil producers, other fossil fuels and other alternative energy providers in marketing and selling refined products and natural gas. Many of the potential competitors, including national oil companies, are larger and have substantially greater resources to be able to withstand the volatility of the oil and gas market (i.e. price, availability, refining capacity, etc.).
 
Regulation
 
AMSO, LLC was granted an RD&D Lease by the BLM for 10 years beginning on January 1, 2007 with up to a 5-year extension upon demonstration that a process leading up to the production of commercial quantities of shale oil is diligently pursued. Throughout the term of the RD&D Lease, AMSO, LLC will execute various activities and milestones within the technical phases of its research and development plan with the aim of ultimately converting its RD&D Lease to a long term commercial lease.
 
In order to execute these activities and milestones, AMSO, LLC must obtain the necessary permitting and comply with the various rules, regulations, and policies spanning multiple regulatory bodies and governmental agencies at various levels. In connection with the site characterization phase (which AMSO, LLC completed) and the pilot phase (which is ongoing), AMSO, LLC has been working to ensure compliance with rules, regulations, and policies of the BLM and the Department of Environmental Protection at the federal level, with the Colorado Division of Reclamation and Mining Service and the Air Pollution Control Division and the Water Control Division of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment at the state level, and with Rio Blanco County at the county level. In accordance with the technical and regulatory requirements of the RD&D Lease, in May 2009, AMSO, LLC submitted its in-situ Plan of Development to the BLM. In September 2009, the BLM approved AMSO, LLC’s Plan of Development, allowing AMSO, LLC to proceed with implementation, subject to compliance with Colorado’s permitting requirements (which AMSO, LLC has satisfied). AMSO, LLC continues to refine its Plan of Development in conjunction with its ongoing operations, and the BLM has approved such modifications.
 
Although AMSO, LLC has diligently worked to satisfy the regulatory requirements and challenges necessary for implementing the site characterization and initial pilot phase of the project, it is difficult at this time to predict all of the compliance requirements that may be necessary throughout the life of the project.
 
IEI holds an exclusive Shale Oil Exploration and Production License that was extended until July 2013. While IEI expects the license to be further extended in one year increments until July 2015 (the maximum term of a license under Israeli Law is seven years), IEI has applied to the Ministry of Energy and Water in a request to secure its rights over the license period beyond the seven year limit set forth in the Petroleum Law, citing past precedents and the Force Majure doctrine in Israeli Law. Based on third party analysis and initial feedback from the Ministry, we estimate that this issue will be satisfactorily resolved. However, there is no guarantee the license will be extended as described above or that a new license would be granted. The license is subject to certain conditions and milestones and the failure to achieve those milestones may result in the termination, revocation, suspension or limitation of the license.
 
 
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In order to execute its plan of operation, IEI must obtain and comply with a large number of permits and authorizations from various government agencies, local authorities and other regulators and interested parties in Israel, such as the District Planning Committee, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Israel Defense Forces and many others. IEI believes it has met all such requirements to date and will continue to do so in the future, but the regulatory process may considerably delay our operations. To date, IEI’s plans have faced considerable opposition from environmental and local groups, and two separate proceedings have been brought before the Supreme Court of Israel in unsuccessful attempts to stop the project.
 
In order to execute its long term commercial plan, IEI must obtain a Lease under the Petroleum Law. A lease is granted for an initial period of up to 30 years, with possible extension for an additional 20 years. Such a lease can be granted if a “Discovery” under the Law is declared by the Petroleum Commissioner during the license period. However, we are unaware of any clear guidelines, criteria or precedent of how that term applies to oil shale.
 
Afek holds an exclusive exploration license in the Golan Heights. Afek also submitted permit applications to conduct a ten-well exploration drilling program. In January 13, 2014, the first hearing of Afek’s application was conducted, and permission was granted to move forward to the next stage in the permitting process – the public notice and public comments period. The international community considers the Golan Heights an internationally disputed territory, and therefore political risk may affect our ability to execute our plan of operations. This may influence local decision makers, as well as service providers necessary to our operations.
 
According to the Mongolian constitution, all minerals and other natural resources in the ground are owned by the Mongolian state. A mining license holder does not own the minerals, but is entitled to extract and sell the minerals located within the land area covered by the license on and subject to the terms of the laws. Since commercial oil shale operations are very new in Mongolia and no specific law regulates such business, there is an ambiguity about which law should govern. With the purpose of clarifying the ambiguity related to oil shale operations, a bill is currently being discussed by the relevant parliament committees and is expecting approval during 2014.
 
While a comprehensive environmental regulatory regime exists in Mongolia, historical enforcement of environmental obligations has not been adequate. Nevertheless, Genie Mongolia will need to comply with the Mongolian environmental laws, as the law imposes sanctions for non-compliance with environmental obligations and legal requirements, including potential termination or suspension of activities, confiscation of any income arising from such activities, monetary fines and revocation of a mining license. The Criminal Law specifies some criminal charges (heavier monetary fines or imprisonment) for severe environmental violations that result in significant damage to human health, property or flora and fauna.
 
Finally, in order to engage in mining operations, mining license holders must enter into either a “land possession” or “land use” agreement with the governing authorities of local soums and obtain a land certificate. A standard land possession or land use contract indicates the terms of the miner's land use, amount of annual land fees (fixed per hectare as defined by the Government) and duties and entitlements of the contracting parties, namely the soum governor and the mining company.
 
Intellectual Property
 
We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain name registrations and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property rights and our brand names. All of our employees sign confidentiality agreements. These agreements provide that the employee may not use or disclose our confidential information except as expressly permitted in connection with the performance of his or her duties for us, or in other limited circumstances. These agreements also state that, to the extent rights in any invention conceived of by the employee while employed by us do not vest in the Company automatically by operation of law, the employee is required to assign his or her rights to us.
 
In connection with its RD&D process and related technologies, some patents are registered in the name of AMSO, LLC and some patents are registered in the name of Genie IP BV., a Dutch subsidiary of the Company. AMSO, LLC owns four patents issued in the United States, seven patents issued abroad, two of which are jointly owned with Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (“LLNS”), as well as several pending applications, both in the United States and abroad. The issued or allowed patents include: patent No. 7,743,826 (US), which expires April 16, 2028; patent No. 7,921,907 (US), which expires January 19, 2027; patent No. 8,162,043 (US), which expires January 19, 2027, patent No. 8,464,792 (US), which expires July 27, 2031; patent registration No. 3668 (Mongolia) which expires December 25, 2032; patent registration No. 32691 (Morocco), granted jointly to AMSO, LLC and LLNS on October 1, 2011, which expires September 30, 2029; patent registration No. 3565  (Mongolia), granted jointly to AMSO, LLC and LLNS on April 13, 2012 which expires March 29, 2031; patent No. 508 (Madagascar), granted on December 2, 2011, which expires November 2, 2029; patent registration No. 3590 (Mongolia), granted on April 13, 2012, which expires April 22, 2031; patent No. 32765 (Morocco), granted on November 1, 2011, which expires November 2, 2029,;and patent registration No. 2,741,861 (Canada), granted on August 27, 2013, which expires November 2, 2029. Genie IP B.V. owns Mongolian utility models 2050, 2052, 2053, 2054, 2055, and 2067 which all expire on January 23, 2019. The patents and utility models are directed to in-situ methods and systems for the extraction of oil from shale, integral to our technical and operational plans, as well as carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits and down-hole heater technologies. AMSO has also been granted three trademarks in the United States in connection with its operations.
 
 
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Genie IP B.V. has seven published international Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications, three published Israeli patent applications and additional unpublished patent applications. Some of these patent applications relate to methods and apparatus for oil extraction from shale, some of these patent applications relate to downstream processing of oil extracted from shale, and some of these patent applications relate to techniques for locating and extracting unconventional naturally-occurring oil from a tight formation.
 
Employees
 
AMSO (including AMSO, LLC) employs 16 full-time employees, including a secondee assigned by Total, while IEI employs approximately 20 full-time employees, Afek employs 3 full-time employees and Genie Mongolia employs 14 employees. AMSO, IEI, Afek and Genie Mongolia also retain the services of a number of professional consultants, including geologists, hydrologists, drilling and completions engineers, process engineers, environmental experts, permitting consultants, energy experts, legal, and land designation and acquisition consultants.
 
Industry Segments and Geographic Areas
 
For disclosure regarding our industry segments and geographic areas, please see Note 16 to our Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report.
 
 
RISK FACTORS
 
Our business, operating results or financial condition could be materially adversely affected by any of the following risks as well as the other risks highlighted elsewhere in this document, particularly the discussions about regulation, competition and intellectual property. The trading price of our Class B common stock and Series 2012-A Preferred Stock could decline due to any of these risks.
 
Risks Related to IDT Energy
 
The REP business is highly competitive, and we may be forced to cut prices or incur additional costs.
 
IDT Energy faces substantial competition both from the traditional incumbent utilities as well as from other REPs, including REP affiliates of the incumbent utilities in specific territories. As a result, we may be forced to reduce prices, incur increased costs or lose market share and cannot always pass along increases in commodity costs to customers. We compete on the basis of provision of services, customer service and price. Present or future competitors may have greater financial, technical or other resources which could put us at a disadvantage. Additionally, our experience has shown that utilities don’t change their sell rates offered to customers immediately in response to increased prices for the underlying commodities. There is a time lag before utilities increase prices to reflect their increased costs and market prices for commodities. In times of high commodity prices, REPs like IDT Energy that offer a variable rate product can suffer from being compared to utilities less variable rate.
 
IDT Energy’s growth depends on its ability to enter new markets.
 
New markets for our business are determined based on many factors, which include the regulatory environment, as well as IDT Energy’s ability to procure energy in an efficient and transparent manner. We seek to purchase wholesale energy where there is a real time market that reflects a fair price for the commodity for all participants. Once new markets are determined to be suitable for IDT Energy, we will expend substantial efforts to obtain necessary licenses and will incur significant customer acquisition costs and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in new markets. Furthermore, there are regulatory differences between the markets that we currently operate in and new markets, including, but not limited to, exposure to credit risk, additional churn caused by tariff requirements, rate-setting requirements and incremental billing costs. In 2013, we faced challenges and delays in licensing for new territories, particularly in Pennsylvania. A failure to identify, become licensed in, and enter new territories may have a material negative impact on our growth, financial condition and results of operations
 
Unfair business practices or other activities of REPs may adversely affect us.
 
Competitors in the highly competitive REP market engage in unfair business practices to sign up new customers. Competitors engaging in unfair business practices create an unfavorable impression about our industry on consumers or with regulators or political bodies. Such unfair practices by other companies can adversely affect our ability to grow or maintain our customer base. The successes, failures or other activities of various REPs within the markets that we serve may impact how we are perceived in the market.
 
Demand for REP services and consumption by customers are significantly related to weather conditions.
 
Typically, colder winters and hotter summers create higher demand and consumption for natural gas and electricity, respectively. Milder than normal winters and/or summers may reduce the demand for our energy services, thus negatively impacting our financial results.
 
 
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Our current strategy is based on current regulatory conditions and assumptions, which could change or prove to be incorrect.
 
Regulation over the electricity and natural gas markets has been in flux at the state and federal levels. In particular, any changes adopted by the FERC, or changes in state or federal laws or regulations (including greenhouse gas laws) may affect the prices at which IDT Energy purchases electricity or natural gas for its customers. While we endeavor to pass along increases in energy costs to our customers pursuant to our variable rate customer offerings, we may not always be able to do so due to competitive market forces and the risk of losing our customer base. In addition, potential regulatory changes may impact our ability to use our established sales and marketing channels. Any changes in these factors, or any significant changes in industry development, could have an adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and growth or threaten the viability of our current business model.
 
Regulatory conditions can affect the amount of taxes and fees we need to pay and our pricing advantages.
 
We are subject to audits in various jurisdictions for various taxes, including income tax, utility excise tax and sales and use tax. Aggressive stances taken recently by regulators increase the likelihood of our having to pay additional taxes and fees in connection with these audits. In the future, we may seek to pass such charges along to our customers, which could have an adverse impact on our pricing advantages.
 
Commodity price volatility could have an adverse effect on our cost of revenues and our results of operations.
 
Volatility in the markets for certain commodities can have an adverse impact on our costs for the purchase of the electricity and natural gas that IDT Energy sells to its customers. We may not always choose to pass along increases in costs to our customers to protect overall customer satisfaction. This would have an adverse impact on our margins and results of operations. Alternatively, volatility in pricing for IDT Energy's electricity and natural gas related to the cost of the underlying commodities can lead to increased customer churn. In times of high commodity costs, our variable pricing model and commodity purchasing approach can lead to competitive disadvantages as we must pass along all or some portion of our increased costs to our customers.
 
We face risks that are beyond our control due to our reliance on third parties and our general reliance on the electrical power and transmission infrastructure within the United States.
 
Our ability to provide energy delivery and commodity services depends on the operations and facilities of third parties, including, among others, BP, NYISO and PJM. Our reliance on the electrical power generation and transmission infrastructure within the United States makes us vulnerable to large-scale power blackouts. The loss of use or destruction of third party facilities that are used to generate or transmit electricity due to extreme weather conditions, breakdowns, war, acts of terrorism or other occurrences could greatly reduce our potential earnings and cash flows.
 
The REP business, including our relationship with our suppliers, is dependent on access to capital and liquidity.
 
Our business involves entering into contracts to purchase large quantities of electricity and natural gas. Because of seasonal fluctuations, we are generally required to purchase electricity or natural gas in advance and finance that purchase until we can recover such amounts from revenues. IDT Energy has a Preferred Supplier Agreement with BP pursuant to which BP is our preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. In addition to other advantages of this agreement, we are no longer required to post security with most suppliers other than BP. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain the required covenants, that BP will be able to maintain their required credit rating, or that the agreement will be renewed upon its expiration in June 2015. In addition, the security requirements outside of the BP agreement may increase as we enter other markets. Difficulty in obtaining adequate credit and liquidity on commercially reasonable terms may adversely affect our business, prospects and financial conditions.
 
A revision to certain utility best practices and programs in which we participate and with which we comply could disrupt our operations and adversely affect our results and operations.
 
Certain retail access “best practices” and programs proposed and/or required by state regulators have been implemented by utilities in most of the service territories in which we operate. One such practice is participation in purchase of receivables, or POR, programs under which certain utilities purchase customer receivables for approximately 98.5% of their face value in exchange for a first priority lien in the customer receivables without recourse against a REP. This program is a key to our control of bad debt risk in our REP business in New York and a similar program is important to us in Pennsylvania. On February 25, 2014, the New York Public Service Commission issued an order calling for numerous modifications to the Uniform Business Practices (UBP), the set of rules that govern the retail energy industry in New York. These modifications include some changes to the POR program. The details of the changes and the manner of their implementation will be the subject of an upcoming collaborative meeting between the utilities and the REPs. We may need to adjust our current strategy regarding customer acquisition and our focus on the growth of our customer base. We would also need to adjust our current business plan to reduce our exposure to existing customers who may pose a bad debt risk. Any failure to properly respond to changing conditions could adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
 
In addition, on June 23, 2008, NYPSC issued its Order Establishing Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard, or EEPS, and Approving Programs setting a goal of gradually reducing electricity usage by 15% statewide by 2015 and requiring the utilities to file energy efficiency programs consistent with the policies and cost/benefit factors adopted by the NYPSC. Since 2009, the NYPSC has approved 90 electric and natural gas energy efficiency programs to implement the EEPS policy. We cannot predict the impact of the EEPS on the electricity usage of our customers. There could be an adverse effect on the result of operations of our REP business if the EEPS results in a reduction in the aggregate amount of customer demand.
 
 
12

 
 
In New Jersey, customers who are delinquent in paying their invoices are no longer eligible to receive a consolidated utility invoice. A consolidated utility invoice is similar to a purchase of receivables program since the utility has the responsibility to bill the customer and collect the receivable. Instead, those customers are switched to a dual bill arrangement, whereby IDT Energy is responsible to bill and collect the commodity portion of the customers’ invoices. Once we invoice these customers under a dual bill arrangement, we have bad debt risk associated with that portion of our revenues. Economic conditions, the creditworthiness of our customers in New Jersey and our ability to collect from these customers, among other things, may impact our profitability.
 
The REP business depends on maintaining the licenses in the states we operate and any loss of those licenses would adversely affect our business, prospects and financial conditions.
 
IDT Energy requires licenses from public utility commissions and other regulatory organizations to operate its business. Those agencies may impose various requirements to obtain or maintain licenses. Further, certain non-governmental organizations have been focusing on the REP industry and the treatment of customers by certain REPs. Any negative publicity regarding the REP industry in general and IDT Energy in particular or any increase in customer complaints regarding IDT Energy could negatively affect our relationship with the various commissions and regulatory agencies and could negatively impact our ability to obtain new licenses to expand operations or maintain the licenses currently held. Any loss of our REP licenses would cause a negative impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.
 
The REP business depends on the continuing efforts of our management team and our personnel with strong industry or operational knowledge and our efforts may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
 
Our success depends on key members of our management team, the loss of whom could disrupt our business operation. Our business also requires a capable, well-trained workforce to operate effectively. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain our qualified personnel, the loss of whom may adversely affect our business, prospects and financial conditions.
 
We could be harmed by network disruptions, security breaches, or other significant disruptions or failures of our IT infrastructure and related systems.
 
To be successful, we need to continue to have available a high capacity, reliable and secure network. We face the risk, as does any company, of a security breach, whether through cyber-attack, malware, computer viruses, sabotage, or other significant disruption of our IT infrastructure and related systems. We face a risk of a security breach or disruption from unauthorized access to our proprietary or classified information on our systems. Certain of our personnel operate in jurisdictions that could be a target for cyber-attacks. The secure maintenance and transmission of our information is a critical element of our operations. Our information technology and other systems that maintain and transmit our information, or those of service providers or business partners, may be compromised by a malicious third party penetration of our network security, or that of a third party service provider or business partner, or impacted by advertent or inadvertent actions or inactions by our employees, or those of a third party service provider or business partner. As a result, our information may be lost, disclosed, accessed or taken without our consent.
 
Although we make significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of information and systems, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging, especially in light of the growing sophistication of cyber-attacks and intrusions. We may be unable to anticipate all potential types of attacks or intrusions or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures.
 
Network disruptions, security breaches and other significant failures of the above-described systems could (i) disrupt the proper functioning of these networks and systems, and therefore, our operations; (ii) result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of our proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information, including trade secrets, which others could use to compete against us or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes; (iii) require significant management attention or financial resources to remedy the damages that result or to change our systems; or (iv) result in a loss of business, damage our reputation or expose us to litigation. Any or all of which could have a negative impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
Our growth strategy depends, in part, on our acquiring complementary businesses and assets and expanding our existing operations, which we may be unable to do.
 
Our growth strategy is based, in part, on our ability to acquire businesses and assets that are complimentary to our existing operations. We may also seek to acquire other businesses. The success of this acquisition strategy will depend, in part, on our ability to accomplish the following:
 
•  
identify suitable businesses or assets to buy;
 
•  
complete the purchase of those businesses on terms acceptable to us;
 
•  
complete the acquisition in the time frame we expect;
 
•  
improve the results of operations of the businesses that we buy and successfully integrate their operations into our own; and
 
•  
avoid or overcome any concerns expressed by regulators, including antitrust concerns.
 
 
13

 
 
There can be no assurance that we will be successful in pursuing any or all of these steps. Our failure to implement our acquisition strategy could have an adverse effect on other aspects of our business strategy and our business in general. We may not be able to find appropriate acquisition candidates, acquire those candidates that we find or integrate acquired businesses effectively or profitably.
 
Risks Related to Genie Oil and Gas
 
We have no current production of oil and gas and we may never have any.
 
We do not have any current production of oil and gas. We cannot assure you that we will produce or market shale oil or gas at all or in commercially profitable quantities. Our ability to produce and market oil and gas may depend upon our ability to develop and operate our planned projects and facilities, which may be affected by events or conditions that impact the advancement, operation, cost or results of such projects or facilities, including:
 
•  
Energy commodity prices relative to production costs;
 
•  
The occurrence of unforeseen technical difficulties;
 
•  
The outcome of negotiations with potential partners, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies, suppliers, customers or others;
 
•  
Changes to existing legislation or regulation governing our current or planned operations;
 
•  
Our ability to obtain all the necessary permits to operate our facilities;
 
•  
Changes in operating conditions and costs, including costs of third-party equipment or services such as drilling and processing and access to power sources; and
 
•  
Security concerns or acts of terrorism that threaten or disrupt the safe operation of company facilities.

In-situ technology for the extraction of oil and gas from oil shale is in its early stages of development and has not been deployed commercially at large scale. AMSO, LLC, Genie Mongolia and IEI may not be able to develop environmentally acceptable and economically viable technology in connection therewith.
 
Our strategy is substantially predicated on the production and extraction of oil and gas from unconventional resources, defined as any resource other than the traditional oil well. Our initial activity is in the in-situ production of oil and gas from oil shale, which is typically more costly and is less established technically than traditional oil and gas production and therefore, incurs a higher degree of technology risk. The greater cost increases the risk that we will not be profitable given commodity price fluctuations, assuming we enter into commercial production.
 
Operating hazards and uninsured risks with respect to the oil and gas operations may have material adverse effects on our operations.
 
Our research, exploration and, if successful, development and production operations are subject to risks similar to those normally incident to the exploration for and the development and production of oil and gas, including blowouts, subsidence, uncontrollable flows of oil, gas or well fluids, fires, pollution and other environmental and operating risks. These hazards could result in substantial losses due to injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment, pollution and other environmental damage and suspension of operations. While as a matter of practice we have insurance against some or all of these risks, such insurance may not cover the particular hazard and may not be sufficient to cover all losses. The occurrence of a significant event adversely affecting any of our operations could have a material adverse effect on us, could materially affect our continued operations and could expose us to material liability.
 
Genie Oil and Gas’ dependence on contractors, equipment and professional services that have limited availability could result in increased costs and possibly material delays in their respective work schedules.
 
Due to the lack of available technical resources with in-situ hydrocarbon production experience, the costs for our operations may be more expensive than planned or there could be delays in our operating plans. We are also more likely to incur delays in our drilling and operating schedule and we may not be able to meet our required work schedule. Similarly, some of the professional personnel we need for our planned operations are not available in the locations in which we operate or are not available on short notice for work in such location, and, therefore, we may need to use overseas contractors for various projects. Any or all of the factors specified above may result in increased costs and delays in our work schedule.
 
Genie Oil and Gas will require substantial funds and will need to raise additional capital in the future.
 
We will need substantial funds to fully execute our research and development activities, and, if those activities are successful, we will need additional substantial funds to commence our anticipated commercial operations, if any. Failure to secure adequate funding could adversely affect our ability to advance our strategic plans as currently contemplated and require us to delay, scale back, or shut down our operations.
 
In January 2011, Total completed funding of its committed capital contributions to AMSO, LLC, and, accordingly, Total has the option to terminate its obligations to make additional capital contributions and withdraw as a member of AMSO, LLC. In the first quarter of 2014, AMSO did not fund the capital call, and in January 2014, Total actually funded AMSO’s share, which was $0.9 million and as a result, AMSO’s ownership interest in AMSO, LLC was reduced to 48.16% and Total’s ownership interest increased to 51.84%. However, if Total exercises its option and terminates its future funding, we will need to find other sources of funding or otherwise risk shutting down AMSO, LLC’s operations.
 
 
14

 
 
Genie Oil and Gas’ success depends on the continuing efforts of key personnel and certain strategic partners, and our efforts may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.
 
Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract and retain qualified technical personnel, particularly those with expertise in the oil and gas industry and with in-situ hydrocarbon projects. There is substantial competition for qualified technical personnel, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain our qualified technical personnel. Specifically, we heavily rely on the services of the members of the management and technical teams at AMSO, LLC and IEI, including Harold Vinegar, Ph.D. at IEI, Afek and Genie Mongolia and Alan Burnham, Ph.D. at AMSO, LLC, for their technical expertise, assistance in the development of our intellectual property and guidance on building out a pilot/commercial facility for potential commercial production. Specifically, Dr. Vinegar has a long-term employment agreement with us through 2017. In addition, AMSO, LLC is dependent on Total (as discussed more fully in Item 1 to Part I of this Annual Report) for technical expertise, financial support and guidance.
 
The unexpected loss of the services of one or more of these people and/or the technical expertise and support of certain partners, and the ability to find suitable replacements within a reasonable period of time thereafter, could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
 
There are uncertainties associated with AMSO, LLC’s lease, Genie’s IEI and Afek licenses and Genie Mongolia’s Joint Survey Agreement.
 
AMSO, LLC’s lease for research, development and demonstration, or RD&D Lease, runs for a 10-year period expiring at the end of 2016, with a possible extension of up to five years upon demonstration that a process leading up to the production of commercial quantities of shale oil is diligently being pursued. The terms of the RD&D Lease do not guarantee that the BLM will grant a commercial lease. Further, there is significant environmental opposition to the commercial production of shale oil. Under current regulation, there are numerous conditions and requirements, the evaluation of which is subject to considerable discretion by the BLM, that AMSO, LLC will have to satisfy in order to convert its RD&D Lease into a commercial lease prior to the expiration of the RD&D Lease term. These conditions, which are more fully discussed in Item 1to Part I of this Annual Report, require AMSO, LLC to demonstrate, among other things, an economically viable commercial production process which will likely depend upon the prices of competing products, including conventional oil. There can be no assurance that AMSO, LLC will satisfy all of these conditions and requirements. Additionally, there have been proposed changes to the regulations governing commercial leases such as the lease into which AMSO, LLC intends to convert its RD&D Lease. The BLM indicated that it intends to issue new commercial oil shale regulations, which could affect the commercial royalty rates and the conversion criteria. Although the conversion terms of AMSO, LLC’s RD&D Lease provide for applicability of the existing regulatory scheme, we cannot assure you that we will not be subjected to more restrictive or less favorable regulations.
 
IEI holds an exclusive Shale Oil Exploration and Production License that covers approximately 238 square kilometers in the south of the Shfela region in Israel. The license expires in July 2014. The initial term of the license was for three years until July 2011. The license has been extended, and it may be further extended in one year increments until July 2015 (the maximum term of a license under Israeli Law is seven years). Although the license may be further extended and IEI may also apply for a new license, there is no guarantee the license will be extended, that a new license would be granted or that the license will not be successfully challenged by environmental or other opposition groups. The license is subject to certain conditions and milestones and the failure to reach those milestones may result in the termination, revocation, suspension or limitation of the license. Our ability to construct the pilot plant is dependent on recently enacted permitting regulations, and there is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain the required permits under the new regulations in a timely manner or at all.
 
In April 2013, the Government of Israel finalized the award to Afek of an exclusive three year petroleum exploration license covering 396.5 square kilometers in the southern portion of the Golan Heights. Because of the dispute as to the status of the Golan Heights, operations under the license may initiate international criticism, sanctions and boycotts. The political uncertainties surrounding the Golan Heights may result in (i) questions regarding the validity of the license granted to Afek by the State of Israel,; (ii) disputed titles to any resources extracted; (iii) possible sanctions on Afek or Genie or restrictions on sale of any extracted resources; and (iv) possible negative publicity or other adverse public activities or perceptions of Afek and the Company. In addition, if the Golan Heights are returned to Syria by Israel, the continuation of Afek’s license would be in doubt.
 
In April 2013, Genie Mongolia and the Petroleum Authority of Mongolia entered into an exclusive oil shale development agreement to explore and evaluate the commercial potential of oil shale resources in a 34,470 square kilometer area in Central Mongolia. Genie Mongolia is in the process of negotiating terms with the government of Mongolia to obtain a contract to commercially produce oil and gas from oil, shale but there is no assurance that it will be successful in obtaining these on commercially reasonable terms.
 
 
15

 
 
Genie Oil and Gas is subject to regulatory, legal and political risks that may limit its operations.
 
Our operations and potential earnings may be affected from time to time in varying degree by regulatory, legal and political factors, including laws and regulations related to environmental or energy security matters, including those addressing alternative and renewable energy sources and the risks of global climate change. Such laws and regulations continue to increase in both number and complexity and affect our operations with respect to, among other things:
 
•  
The discharge of pollutants into the environment;
 
•  
The handling, use, storage, transportation, disposal and cleanup of hazardous materials and hazardous and nonhazardous wastes;
 
•  
The dismantlement, abandonment and restoration of our properties and facilities at the end of their useful lives;
 
•  
Restrictions on exploration and production;
 
•  
Loss of petroleum rights, including key leases, licenses or permits;
 
•  
Tax or royalty increases, including retroactive claims;
 
•  
Intellectual property challenges that would limit our ability to use our planned in-situ production technologies; and
 
•  
Political instability, war or other conflicts in areas where we operate.

For example, in March 2011, the Israeli Parliament passed a bill materially increasing the overall taxes, royalties and other fees due to the Israeli government from revenues derived by oil and natural gas producers. The Israeli Income Tax Ordinance was revised accordingly and the amount payable to the government from revenues derived by oil and natural gas producers increased from a maximum of 32% to 52%. This tax will only be imposed once a project has passed certain milestones set forth in the ordinance (when the profits derived from a certain field have reached 150% of the original investment in that field).
 
Emerging markets are subject to greater risks than more developed markets, including significant legal, economic and political risks.
 
Mongolia does not possess as sophisticated and efficient business, regulatory, power and transportation infrastructures as generally exist in more developed market economies. Particularly, the legal system of Mongolia is less developed than those of more established jurisdictions, which may result in risks such as: the lack of effective legal redress in the courts; a higher degree of discretion on the part of governmental authorities,;delays caused by the extensive bureaucracy; the lack of judicial or administrative guidance on interpreting applicable laws and regulations; inconsistencies or conflicts between and within various laws, regulations, decrees, orders and resolutions; and relative inexperience of the judiciary and courts in such matters. As a result, there may be ambiguities, inconsistencies and anomalies in the agreements, licenses and title documents through which Genie Mongolia holds its interests in Mongolia, or the underlying legislation upon which those interests are based. Many laws have been enacted, but in many instances they are neither understood nor enforced and may be applied in an inconsistent, arbitrary or unfair manner.
 
AMSO, LLC’s RD&D Lease is subject to other third party lease interests.
 
There are other mineral leases which are collocated with AMSO, LLC’s lease interests, including the territory designated for AMSO LLC’s commercial lease conversion. While some of these other leases are subject to special oil shale stipulations requiring the leaseholders to minimize potential impacts and prevent interference with oil shale development, others are not. Although AMSO, LLC works to coordinate drilling plans and operations with these collocated leaseholders to preserve the integrity of its resource and operations, we cannot guaranty that these collocated leases will not interfere with AMSO LLC’s operations.
 
Regulation of greenhouse gas emissions could increase Genie Oil and Gas’ operational costs, cause delays and/or restrict our operations.
 
The production and processing of oil shale will result in some emission of greenhouse gases. International agreements and national or regional legislation and regulatory measures to limit greenhouse emissions are currently in various phases of discussion or implementation. The Kyoto Protocol and other actual or pending federal, state and local regulations envision a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through market-based trading schemes. As a result of these and other potential environmental regulations, if our research and development activities are successful and we eventually begin commercial production, we can expect to incur additional capital, compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs. To the extent these costs are not ultimately reflected in the price of the products we sell, our operating results will be adversely affected.
 
The oil and gas industry is subject to the general inherent industry and economic risks.
 
The oil and gas business is fundamentally a commodity business. This means that potential future commercial operations and earnings may be significantly affected by changes in oil and gas prices and by changes in margins on gasoline, natural gas and other refined products.
 
We may be exposed to infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties, which, if determined adversely to us, could cause us to lose significant rights and pay significant damage awards.
 
Our success also depends largely on our ability to use and develop our technology and know-how without infringing on the intellectual property rights of third parties. The validity and scope of claims relating to our technology involve complex scientific, legal and factual questions and analysis. It is therefore difficult to accurately predict whether or not a third party will assert that we are infringing on its intellectual property or whether it would prevail. Although we are not currently aware of any infringement or of any parties pursuing or intending to pursue infringement claims against us, we cannot assure you that we will not be subject to such claims in the future. Also, in many jurisdictions, patent applications remain confidential and are not published for some period after filing. Thus, we may be unaware of other parties’ pending patent applications that relate to our processes. While at present we are unaware of competing patent applications, such applications could potentially surface.
 
 
16

 
 
The defense and prosecution of intellectual property suits, patent opposition proceedings and related legal and administrative proceedings can be both costly and time consuming and may significantly divert the efforts and resources of our technical and management personnel. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liability to third parties, require us to seek licenses from third parties, to pay ongoing royalties, to redesign our products, or subject us to injunctions prohibiting the manufacture and sale of our products or the use of our technologies.
 
Risk Related to Our Financial Condition and Reporting
 
We hold significant cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, certificates of deposit, and marketable securities that are subject to various market risks.
 
As of December 31, 2013, we had cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, certificates of deposit, and marketable securities of $93.8 million. As a result of various market risks, the value of these holdings could be materially and adversely affected.
 
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, and if we fail to remediate these material weaknesses and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements could be impaired and may lead investors and other users to lose confidence in our published financial data.
 
Maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to produce reliable financial statements. In evaluating the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2013, management identified material weaknesses in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Specifically, a material weakness regarding the effectiveness of management’s financial reporting close process controls at IDT Energy division, specifically those relating to the approval of journal entries and the adequate review of subsidiary financial statements and variance analysis has been identified and described in management’s assessment.
 
We are committed to taking steps to remediate the material weaknesses. We will work to continually improve our internal control process and will diligently review our financial reporting controls and procedures. 
 
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure
 
Holders of our Class B common stock and Series 2012-A Preferred Stock have significantly less voting power than holders of our Class A common stock.
 
Holders of our Class B common stock and Series 2012-A Preferred Stock are entitled to one-tenth of a vote per share on all matters on which our stockholders are entitled to vote, while holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to three votes per share. As a result, the ability of holders of our Class B common stock and Series 2012-A Preferred Stock to influence our management is limited.
 
Holders of our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock are entitled to an annual dividend and such payments may have a negative impact on the Company’s cash flow.
 
Holders of our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive an annual dividend, payable quarterly in cash. The payment of such dividend could have a negative impact on the Company’s cash flow and cash balances. If dividends on any shares of the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock are in arrears for six or more quarters, whether or not consecutive, holders of the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock shall have the right to elect two (2) additional directors to serve on our Board, and this could have a negative impact on the market price of our equity securities.
 
We are controlled by our principal stockholder, which limits the ability of other stockholders to affect our management.
 
Howard S. Jonas, our Chairman of the Board, has voting power over 4,454,502 shares of our common stock (which includes 1,574,326 shares of our Class A common stock, which are convertible into shares of our Class B common stock on a 1-for-1 basis, and 2,880,176 shares of our Class B common stock), representing approximately 73% of the combined voting power of our outstanding capital stock, as of March 17, 2014. Mr. Jonas is able to control matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of all of the directors and the approval of significant corporate matters, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. As a result, the ability of any of our other stockholders to influence our management is limited.
 
 
None.
 
 
Our headquarters are located at 550 Broad St., Newark, New Jersey. We lease approximately 3,500 square foot space in Newark, New Jersey.
 
 
17

 
 
IDT Energy’s Jamestown, New York offices are located at 20 West Third Street where we lease approximately 10,000 square feet of space. Diversegy’s and Epiq’s offices are located in Dallas, Texas where we lease approximately 5,000 square feet of space.
 
AMSO, LLC’s operating office is in Rifle, Colorado. AMSO, LLC is supported by AMSO and Genie professionals based in Newark, New Jersey. AMSO, LLC rents approximately 2,450 square feet of office space and 2,000 square feet of warehouse space in Rifle under operating leases with flexible terms and conditions.
 
IEI and Afek operate out of IDT Corporation’s offices in Jerusalem and a field office and a warehouse in the city of Beit Shemesh. In addition, IEI built and operates a research laboratory located on the campus of Ben Gurion University in Be’er Sheva and Afek rents office space in Katzrin, a city in the northern part of Afek’s license area and a warehouse in Bnei Yehuda, in the south part of the Golan.
 
Genie Mongolia operates from and rents approximately 1,400 square feet of office space in Ulaanbataar, Mongolia.
 
 
On March 13, 2014, named plaintiff Anthony Ferrare commenced a putative class-action lawsuit against IDT Energy, Inc. in the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.  The plaintiff filed the suit on behalf of himself and other former and current customers of IDT Energy in Pennsylvania, whom he contends were injured as a result of IDT Energy’s allegedly unlawful sales and marketing practices.  IDT Energy denies that there is any basis for the suit and any alleged wrongdoing and intends to vigorously defend the claim.
 
In addition to the above, we may from time to time be subject to legal proceedings that have arisen in the ordinary course of business. Although there can be no assurance in this regard, we do not expect any of those legal proceedings to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
 
 
Not applicable.
 
Part II
 
 
PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK
 
Our Class B common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “GNE”.
 
The table below sets forth the high and low sales prices for our Class B Common Stock as reported by the NYSE for the fiscal periods indicated which represents the only fiscal periods our Class B Common Stock has been trading on the NYSE.
 
   
High
   
Low
 
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
           
First Quarter
  $ 11.18     $ 7.87  
Second Quarter
  $ 9.73     $ 6.47  
Third Quarter
  $ 7.89     $ 6.76  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 7.57     $ 5.75  
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
               
First Quarter
  $ 9.31     $ 6.51  
Second Quarter
  $ 12.21     $ 8.50  
Third Quarter
  $ 11.79     $ 8.37  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 17.80     $ 8.51  

On March 12, 2014, there were 167 holders of record of our Class B common stock and 1 holder of record of our Class A common stock. All shares of Class A common stock are beneficially owned by Howard Jonas. These numbers do not include the number of persons whose shares are in nominee or in “street name” accounts through brokers. On March 14, 2014, the last sales price reported on the New York Stock Exchange for the Class B common stock was $11.12 per share.
 
PRICE RANGE OF PREFERRED STOCK
 
The Series 2012-A Preferred Stock is listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “GNEPRA”. Trading began on the NYSE on October 24, 2012.
 
The table below sets forth the high and low sales prices for our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock as reported by the NYSE for the fiscal periods indicated which represents the only fiscal periods our the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock has been trading on the NYSE.
 
   
High
   
Low
 
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2012
           
Fourth Quarter
  $ 8.24     $ 6.70  
                 
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2013
               
First Quarter
  $ 8.50     $ 6.60  
Second Quarter
  $ 8.49       7.58  
Third Quarter
  $ 8.26       7.57  
Fourth Quarter
  $ 8.49       7.90  
 
 
18

 
 
On March 12, 2014, there were 7 holders of record of our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock. These numbers do not include the number of persons whose shares are in nominee or in “street name” accounts through brokers. On March 14, 2014, the last sales price reported on the New York Stock Exchange for the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock was $8.17 per share. 
 
Additional information regarding dividends required by this item is incorporated by reference from the Management’s Discussion and Analysis section in Item 7 to Part II and Note 9 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 to Part II of this Annual Report.
 
The information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K will be contained in our Proxy Statement for our Annual Stockholders Meeting, which we will file with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2013, and which is incorporated by reference herein.
 
Performance Graph of Stock
 
The line graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class B common stock and our Series 2012-A Preferred Stock with the cumulative total return of the New York Stock Exchange Composite Index and the Standard & Poor’s Integrated Oil & Gas Index for the period beginning October 26, 2011 and ending December 31, 2013. The graph and table assume that $100 was invested on October 26, 2011 (the first day of trading for the Class B common stock) and on October 24, 2012 with respect to the Series 2012-A Preferred Stock (the first day of trading for the Series 2012-A Preferred stock) with the cumulative total return of the NYSE Composite Index and the S&P Integrated Oil & Gas Index, and that all dividends were reinvested. Cumulative total stockholder returns for our Class B common stock, Series 2012-A Preferred Stock, NYSE Composite Index and the S&P Integrated Oil & Gas Index are based on our fiscal year.
 
   
10/26/11
   
12/31/11
   
3/31/12
   
6/30/12
   
10/24/12
   
12/31/12
   
3/31/13
   
6/30/13
   
9/30/13
   
12/31/13
 
                                                             
Genie Energy Ltd. Class B
    100.00       92.79       113.52       91.86       81.55       84.52       110.24       108.93       116.66       121.55  
Genie Energy Ltd. Series 2012 - A Preferred
                                  100.00       93.75       107.61       110.44       113.18       116.96  
NYSE Composite
    100.00       110.77       122.34       117.23       124.79       128.48       139.46       141.31       149.27       162.24  
S&P Integrated Oil & Gas
    100.00       117.94       121.17       117.65       127.46       120.54       129.19       131.33       131.37       146.49  
 
 
 
19

 
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
The following table provides information with respect to purchases by us of our shares during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2013.
 
   
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
   
Average
Price per
Share
   
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as part of  Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
   
Maximum
Number of Shares
that May Yet
Be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs(1)
 
October 1 – 31, 2012
        $             7,000,000  
November 1 – 30, 2012
        $             7,000,000  
December 1 – 31, 2012
        $             7,000,000  
Total
        $                  

(1) 
Under our existing stock repurchase program, approved by our Board of Directors on March 11, 2013, we were authorized to repurchase up to an aggregate of 7 million shares of our Class B common stock.

 
The selected consolidated financial data presented below as of December 31, 2013, and for the year then ended, has been derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, which have been audited by BDO USA, LLP, independent registered public accounting firm. The selected consolidated financial data presented below as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, and for the year ended December 31, 2012 and the five months ended December 31, 2011 has been derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K, which have been audited by Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accounting firm. The selected consolidated financial data presented below as of July 31, 2011 and 2010, and for each of the fiscal years in the three-year period ended July 31, 2011 has been derived from our Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been audited by Zwick and Banyai, PLLC, independent registered public accounting firm. The selected consolidated financial data presented below for the five months ended December 31, 2010 is unaudited. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the Notes thereto and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
Year
ended
December 31,
2013
   
Year
ended
December 31,
2012
   
Five Months
ended
December 31,
2011
   
Fiscal year
ended
 July 31,
2011
   
Fiscal year
ended
July 31,
2010
   
Fiscal year
ended
July 31,
2009
   
Five Months
ended
December 31,
2010
(Unaudited)
 
STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS DATA:
                                         
Revenues
  $ 279,174     $ 229,459     $ 76,783     $ 196,018     $ 195,429     $ 261,954     $ 74,877  
Net (loss) income
    (5,341 )     (2,535 )     (268 )     (2,555 )     14,081       22,728       916  
(Loss) earnings per common share—basic
    (0.36 )     (0.17 )     0.04       0.08       0.72       1.12       0.09  
(Loss) earnings per common share—diluted
    (0.36 )     (0.17 )     0.04       0.07       0.65       1.02       0.08  
Cash dividend declared per common share
          0.133       0.05                          
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2013
   
December 31,
2012
   
December 31,
2011
   
July 31,
2011
   
July 31,
2010
 
BALANCE SHEET DATA:
                             
Total assets
  $ 158,843     $ 150,306     $ 150,194     $ 67,406     $ 56,998  

 
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including statements that contain the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “plans,” “intends” and similar words and phrases. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results projected in any forward-looking statement. In addition to the factors specifically noted in the forward-looking statements, other important factors, risks and uncertainties that could result in those differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed under Item 1A to Part I “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. The forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this Annual Report, and we assume no obligation to update the forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons why actual results could differ from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Investors should consult all of the information set forth in this report and the other information set forth from time to time in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including our reports on Forms 10-Q and 8-K.
 
 
20

 
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included in Item 8 of this Annual Report.
 
OVERVIEW
 
On January 30, 2012, our Board of Directors changed our fiscal year end from July 31 to December 31, in order to better align our financial reporting with our operational and budgeting cycle and with other industry participants.
 
We own 99.3% of our subsidiary, GEIC, which owns 100% of IDT Energy and 92% of GOGAS. IDT Energy has outstanding deferred stock units granted to directors and employees that represent an interest of 2.3% of the equity of IDT Energy. Our principal businesses consist of:
 
•  
IDT Energy, an REP supplying electricity and natural gas to residential and small business customers in the Northeastern United States; and
 
•  
Genie Oil and Gas, which is pioneering technologies to produce clean and affordable transportation fuels from the world's abundant oil shales and other fuel resources, which consists of (1) AMSO, which holds and manages a 48.16% interest in AMSO, LLC, our oil shale project in Colorado, (2) an 88.6% interest in IEI, our oil shale project in Israel, (3) an 89% interest in Afek, our conventional oil and gas exploration project in the southern portion of the Golan Heights, and (4) a 90% interest in Genie Mongolia, our oil shale exploration project in Central Mongolia.
 
Genie was incorporated in January 2011. References to us in the following discussion are made on a consolidated basis as if we existed and owned IDT Energy and Genie Oil and Gas and their respective subsidiaries in all periods discussed.
 
As part of our ongoing business development efforts, we continuously seek out new opportunities, which may include complementary operations or businesses that reflect horizontal or vertical expansion from our current operations. Some of these potential opportunities are considered briefly and others are examined in further depth. In particular, we seek out acquisitions to expand the geographic scope and size of our REP business, and additional energy exploration projects to diversify our GOGAS unit’s operations, among geographies, technologies and resources.
 
Spin-Off from IDT
 
We were formerly a subsidiary of IDT. On October 28, 2011, we were spun-off by IDT and became an independent public company through a pro rata distribution of our common stock to IDT’s stockholders. Prior to the Spin-Off, IDT made a capital contribution of $82.2 million to us. In addition, in connection with the capital contribution received from IDT, the amount due from IDT as of the date of the Spin-Off of $2.1 million was forgiven.
 
We entered into various agreements with IDT prior to the Spin-Off including a Separation and Distribution Agreement to effect the separation and provide a framework for our relationship with IDT after the Spin-Off, and a Transition Services Agreement, which provides for certain, services to be performed by us and IDT to facilitate our transition into a separate publicly-traded company. These agreements provide for, among other things, (1) the allocation between us and IDT of employee benefits, taxes and other liabilities and obligations attributable to periods prior to the Spin-Off, (2) transitional services to be provided by IDT relating to human resources and employee benefits administration, (3) the allocation of responsibilities relating to employee compensation and benefit plans and programs and other related matters, (4) finance, accounting, tax, internal audit, facilities, investor relations and legal services to be provided by IDT to us following the Spin-Off and (5) specified administrative services to be provided by us to certain of IDT’s foreign subsidiaries.
 
In addition, we entered into a Tax Separation Agreement with IDT, which sets forth the responsibilities of us and IDT with respect to, among other things, liabilities for federal, state, local and foreign taxes for periods before and including the Spin-Off, the preparation and filing of tax returns for such periods and disputes with taxing authorities regarding taxes for such periods.
 
IDT Energy
 
IDT Energy resells electricity and natural gas to residential and small business customers in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland, and more recently, in Washington, D.C. and certain utility markets in Illinois. IDT Energy’s revenues represented 100% of our consolidated revenues in the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, the year ended July 31, 2011, and the five months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.
 
IDT Energy’s direct cost of revenues consists primarily of gas and electricity purchased for resale. Since 2009, IDT Energy has been party to a Preferred Supplier Agreement with BP pursuant to which BP is IDT Energy’s preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. Under the arrangement, IDT Energy purchases electricity and natural gas at a market rate plus a fee. IDT Energy remits a monthly payment for its purchases and related fees. Any outstanding, unpaid balances accrue interest until paid. IDT Energy’s obligations to BP are secured by a first security interest in deposits or receivables from utilities in connection with their purchase of IDT Energy’s customers’ receivables, and in any cash deposits or letters of credit posted in connection with any collateral accounts with BP. The agreement’s termination date is June 30, 2015. IDT Energy’s ability to purchase electricity and natural gas under this agreement is subject to satisfaction of certain conditions including the maintenance of certain covenants.
 
 
21

 
 
As a REP, IDT Energy does not own electrical power generation, transmission, or distribution facilities, or natural gas production, pipeline or distribution facilities. Instead, IDT Energy contracts with various pipeline and distribution companies for natural gas pipeline, storage and transportation services, and utilizes NYISO and PJM for electric transmission and distribution. IDT Energy’s direct cost of revenues include scheduling costs, independent system operator (ISO) fees, pipeline costs and utility service charges for the purchase of these services. At December 31, 2013, IDT Energy was a member of ISO New England, although IDT Energy has not commenced operations in this territory yet. IDT Energy expects to commence operations in this territory in 2014.
 
For risk management purposes, IDT Energy utilizes forward and futures contracts, swaps as well as put and call options as hedges against unfavorable fluctuations in market prices of electricity and natural gas. The futures contracts, swaps and put and call options are recorded at fair value as a current asset or liability and any changes in fair value are recorded in direct cost of revenues. The impact of these contracts and options on direct cost of revenues is relatively small in comparison to IDT Energy’s purchases of gas and electricity for resale.
 
The NYISO and PJM perform real-time load balancing for each of the electrical power grids in which IDT Energy operates. Similarly, the utility or the LDC performs load balancing for each of the natural gas markets in which IDT Energy operates. Load balancing ensures that the amount of electricity and natural gas that IDT Energy purchases is equal to the amount necessary to service customers’ demands at any specific point in time. IDT Energy manages the differences between the actual electricity and natural gas demands of its customers and its bulk or block purchases by buying and selling in the spot market, and through monthly cash settlements and/or adjustments to futures deliveries in accordance with the load balancing performed by utilities, LDCs, NYISO and PJM. Suppliers and the LDC’s charge or credit IDT Energy for balancing the electricity and natural gas purchased and sold for its account.
 
The local utilities generally meter and deliver electricity and natural gas to IDT Energy’s customers. The local utilities provide billing and collection services on IDT Energy’s behalf for most of IDT Energy’s customers. IDT Energy receives the proceeds less the utility’s POR fees and in some cases less fees for billing and other ancillary services. The positive difference between the net sales price of electricity and natural gas sold to its customers and the sum of the cost of its electricity and natural gas supplies, transmission and ancillary services is IDT Energy’s gross profit margin.
 
Volatility in the electricity and natural gas markets affects the cost of the electricity and natural gas that IDT Energy sells to customers. IDT Energy may not always choose to pass along increases in costs to its customers for various reasons including competitive pressures and to protect overall customer satisfaction. This can adversely affect IDT Energy’s gross margins and results of operations. Alternatively, increases in IDT Energy's rates charged to customers may lead to increased customer churn.
 
IDT Energy’s selling expenses consist primarily of sales commissions paid to independent agents and marketing costs, which are the primary costs associated with the acquisition of customers. General and administrative expenses include compensation, benefits, utility fees for billing and collection, professional fees, rent and other administrative costs.
 
Seasonality and Weather
 
The weather and the seasons, among other things, affect IDT Energy’s revenues. Weather conditions can have a significant impact on the demand for natural gas and electricity used for heating and cooling. Typically, colder winters and hotter summers increase demand for natural gas and electricity, respectively. Milder winters and/or summers have the opposite effect. Natural gas revenues typically increase in the first quarter due to increased heating demands and electricity revenues typically increase in the third quarter due to increased air conditioning use. Approximately 49% and 47% of IDT Energy’s natural gas revenues were generated in the first quarter of 2013 and 2012, respectively, when demand for heating was highest. Although the demand for electricity is not as seasonal as natural gas, approximately 31% and 34% of IDT Energy’s electricity revenues were generated in the third quarter of 2013 and 2012, respectively.
 
Concentration of Customers and Associated Credit Risk
 
IDT Energy reduces its credit risk by participating in purchase of receivable programs for a majority of its receivables. In addition to providing billing and collection services, utility companies purchase IDT Energy’s receivables and assume all credit risk without recourse to IDT Energy. IDT Energy’s primary credit risk is therefore nonpayment by the utility companies. Certain of the utility companies represent significant portions of our consolidated revenues and consolidated gross trade accounts receivable balance and such concentrations increase our risk associated with nonpayment by those utility companies.
 
 
22

 
 
The following table summarizes the percentage of consolidated revenues from customers by utility company that equal or exceed 10% of consolidated revenues in the period (no other single utility company accounted for more than 10% of consolidated revenues in any of the periods):
 
   
Year ended
December 31,
2013
   
 
 
Year ended
December 31,
2012
   
Five Months
 ended
December 31,
2011
   
Year ended
July 31,
2011
   
Five Months
ended
December 31,
2010
(Unaudited)
 
Con Edison
    25 %     34 %     52 %     47 %     55 %
West Penn Power
    11 %  
na
   
na
   
na
   
na
 
National Grid USA
    10 %  
na
      14 %     17 %     16 %
Penelec
    10 %  
na
   
na
   
na
   
na
 
National Grid dba Keyspan
 
na
   
na
   
na
      10 %  
na
 

na-less than 10% of consolidated revenue in the period

The following table summarizes the percentage of consolidated gross trade accounts receivable by utility company that equal or exceed 10% of consolidated gross trade accounts receivable at December 31, 2013 and 2012: 
 
December 31
 
2013
   
2012
 
Con Edison
    23 %     19 %
West Penn Power
    13 %  
na
 
Penelec
    12 %     10 %

na-less than 10% of consolidated gross trade accounts receivable at December 31, 2013 or 2012

Investment in American Shale Oil, LLC
 
AMSO, LLC holds an RD&D Lease awarded by the BLM that covers an area of 160 acres in western Colorado. The RD&D Lease runs for a ten-year period beginning on January 1, 2007, and is subject to an extension of up to five years if AMSO, LLC can demonstrate that a process leading to the production of commercial quantities of shale oil is diligently being pursued. If AMSO, LLC can demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of its technology, it will have the opportunity to submit a one-time payment pursuant to the applicable regulations and convert its RD&D Lease to a commercial lease on 5,120 acres, which overlap and are contiguous with the 160 acres covered by its RD&D Lease.
 
AMSO agreed to fund AMSO, LLC’s expenditures as follows: 20% of the initial $50 million of expenditures, 35% of the next $50 million in approved expenditures and 50% of approved expenditures in excess of $100 million. AMSO also agreed to fund 40% of the costs of the one-time payment for conversion of AMSO, LLC’s RD&D Lease to a commercial lease, in the event AMSO, LLC’s application for conversion is approved. The remaining amounts are to be funded by Total. As of December 31, 2013, the cumulative contributions of AMSO and Total to AMSO, LLC were $69.0 million. Through December 31, 2011, AMSO was allocated 20% of the net loss of AMSO, LLC. AMSO’s allocated share of the net loss of AMSO, LLC increased in December 2011 from 20% to 35%, per our agreement with Total. AMSO’s allocated share of the net loss of AMSO, LLC is included in “Equity in the net loss of AMSO, LLC” in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
 
AMSO has the right to decide whether or not to fund its shares of each capital call issued by AMSO, LLC. AMSO did not fund the capital call for the first quarter of 2014, and in January 2014, Total funded AMSO’s share, which was $0.9 million. Because of AMSO’s decision not to fund its share, AMSO’s ownership interest in AMSO, LLC was reduced to 48.16% and Total’s ownership interest increased to 51.84%. In addition, AMSO’s share of future funding of AMSO, LLC up to a cumulative $100 million was reduced to 33.7% and Total’s share increased to 66.3%. AMSO’s share of AMSO, LLC’s approved budget for the year ending December 31, 2014 was $3.2 million. AMSO is evaluating its options with respect to funding AMSO, LLC during 2014, and funding of less than its full share would result in further dilution of its interest in AMSO, LLC.
 
The agreements with Total provide for varying consequences for AMSO’s failure to fund its share at different stages of the project, including dilution of AMSO’s interest in AMSO, LLC or paying interest to Total for expenditures they fund on behalf of AMSO. Either Total or AMSO may terminate its obligations to make capital contributions and withdraw as a member of AMSO, LLC. Even if AMSO were to withdraw its interest in AMSO, LLC, it will remain liable for its share of expenditures for safety and environmental reclamation related to events occurring prior to its withdrawal.
 
We account for our ownership interest in AMSO, LLC using the equity method since we have the ability to exercise significant influence over its operating and financial matters, although we do not control AMSO, LLC. AMSO, LLC is a variable interest entity, however, we have determined that we are not the primary beneficiary.
 
Because of AMSO’s decision not to fund its share of AMSO, LLC’s expenditures, AMSO, LLC will allocate its net loss beginning January 2014 as follows. AMSO, LLC will allocate the first $2.6 million of losses to Total, then it will allocate any remaining losses proportionately such that AMSO and Total’s capital accounts as a percentage of AMSO, LLC’s total capital equals their ownership interests.
 
 
23

 
 
At December 31, 2013, our maximum exposure to additional loss because of our required investment in AMSO, LLC was $3.0 million, based on AMSO, LLC’s 2014 budget. Our maximum exposure to additional loss could increase based on the situations described above.
 
Israel Energy Initiatives, Ltd.
 
IEI holds an exclusive Shale Oil Exploration and Production License awarded in July 2008 by the Government of Israel. The license covers approximately 238 square kilometers in the south of the Shfela region in Central Israel. Under the terms of the license, IEI is to conduct a geological appraisal study across the license area, characterize the resource and select a location for a pilot plant in which it will demonstrate its in-situ technology. The initial term of the license was for three years until July 2011. The license has been extended until July 2014, and it may be further extended for one year through July 2015. IEI has discussed securing its rights beyond July 2015 with the Ministry of Energy and Water, and expects a satisfactory resolution of this matter. In June 2013, IEI submitted its application for the construction and operation of its oil shale pilot test facility to the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee. IEI was subsequently asked to provide supplements to the environmental impact assessment. The revised application was submitted on November 3, 2013. On March 17, 2014, IEI was advised that the initial review process of the application conducted by the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee was concluded, and the application process was proceeding to the next stage, a review of the environmental documents by the Ministry of Environment. The permit evaluation process is expected to take at least nine months from acceptance of a completed proposal by the Planning Committee and potentially significantly longer. We currently expect to use internal resources to finance the pilot test construction and operations. In addition, we are considering financing IEI’s operations through partnerships and/or sales of equity interests.
 
Afek Oil and Gas, Ltd.
 
In April 2013, the Government of Israel finalized the award to Afek of an exclusive three year petroleum exploration license covering 396.5 square kilometers in the southern portion of the Golan Heights. Afek has retained seasoned oil and gas exploration professionals and has contracted with internationally recognized vendors to provide the services required for its exploration program. In 2013, Afek completed preliminary geophysical work including electromagnetic survey and the reprocessing of 2D seismic data to characterize the subsurface prior to drilling exploration wells. Afek subsequently began the analysis of the acquired data internally and with outside exploration experts. In addition, Afek submitted a permit application to conduct a ten-well exploration drilling program. In January 2014, the first hearing of Afek’s application was conducted, and permission was granted to move forward to the next stage in the permitting process, which is a public notice and public comments period.
 
Genie Mongolia
 
In April 2013, Genie Mongolia and the Petroleum Authority of Mongolia entered into an exclusive oil shale development agreement to explore and evaluate the commercial potential of oil shale resources in a 34,470 square kilometer area in Central Mongolia. The five year agreement allows Genie Mongolia to explore, identify and characterize the oil shale resource in the exclusive survey area and to conduct a pilot test using in-situ technology on appropriate oil shale deposits. To date, Genie Mongolia is the only recipient of an exclusive oil shale survey contract in Mongolia. During 2013, Genie Mongolia conducted initial surface and subsurface exploration work and is currently working to continue to characterize the geology in the licensed area. In parallel, Genie Mongolia is also working with regulators in Mongolia to secure commercial rights to any appropriate deposits on the licensed area after a successful exploration work and pilot test are concluded.
 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
Our financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses as well as the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Critical accounting policies are those that require application of management’s most subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of matters that are inherently uncertain and may change in subsequent periods. Our critical accounting policies include those related to the allowance for doubtful accounts, goodwill and income taxes. Management bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. See Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report for a complete discussion of our significant accounting policies.
 
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses that result from the inability or unwillingness of our customers to make required payments. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.9 million and $0.1 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Our allowance is determined based on known troubled accounts, historical experience and other currently available evidence. Our estimates of recoverability of customer accounts may change due to new developments, changes in assumptions or changes in our strategy, which may impact our allowance for doubtful accounts balance. We continually assess the likelihood of potential amounts or ranges of recoverability and adjust our allowance accordingly, however, actual collections and write-offs of trade accounts receivables may materially differ from our estimates.
 
 
24

 
 
Goodwill
 
Our goodwill balance of $7.3 million and $3.7 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, was allocated to our IDT Energy segment. IDT Energy is the reporting unit for our goodwill impairment test. Goodwill is not amortized since it is deemed to have an indefinite life. It is reviewed annually (or more frequently under various conditions) for impairment using a fair value approach. The goodwill impairment assessment involves estimating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing it to its carrying amount, which is known as Step 1. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, Step 2 is performed to determine if an impairment of goodwill is required. We estimate the fair value of our reporting unit using discounted cash flow methodologies, as well as considering third party market value indicators. Goodwill impairment is measured by the excess of the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill over its implied fair value. We have the option to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is necessary to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. However, we may elect to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test even if no indications of a potential impairment exist.
 
IDT Energy’s estimated fair value substantially exceeded its carrying value in Step 1 of our annual impairment tests for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and the year ended July 31, 2011, therefore it was not necessary to perform Step 2 for these tests. In addition, we do not believe IDT Energy is currently at risk of failing Step 1. Calculating the fair value of the reporting unit, and allocating the estimated fair value to all of the tangible assets, intangible assets and liabilities, requires significant estimates and assumptions by management. Should our estimates or assumptions regarding the fair value of our reporting unit prove to be incorrect, we may be required to record impairments to our goodwill in future periods and such impairments could be material.
 
Income Taxes
 
Our current and deferred income taxes and associated valuation allowance are impacted by events and transactions arising in the normal course of business as well as in connection with special and non-routine items. Assessment of the appropriate amount and classification of income taxes is dependent on several factors, including estimates of the timing and realization of deferred income tax assets, the results of Internal Revenue Service audits of our federal income tax returns, and changes in tax laws or regulations.
 
The valuation allowance on our deferred income tax assets was $16.7 million and $11.9 million at December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Subsequent to the Spin-Off, we initiated a tax strategy that enables us to deduct losses from our foreign subsidiaries against our profitable U.S. operations. Because of this strategy, the decrease in pre-tax earnings of IDT Energy in 2012, and our current projections, we concluded that we no longer met the criteria of more likely than not in order to utilize our deferred federal income tax assets in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, in 2012, we recorded a valuation allowance against our deferred federal income tax assets.
 
We use a two-step approach for recognizing and measuring tax benefits taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. We determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that, a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. In evaluating whether a tax position has met the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, we presume that the appropriate taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information will examine the position. Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold are measured to determine the amount of tax benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements will generally result in one or more of the following: an increase in a liability for income taxes payable, a reduction of an income tax refund receivable, a reduction in a deferred tax asset, or an increase in a deferred tax liability. We review and adjust our liability for unrecognized tax benefits based on our best estimate and judgment given the facts, circumstances and information available at each reporting date. To the extent that the outcome of these tax positions is different from the amounts recorded, such differences may affect income tax expense and actual tax payments.
 
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
We evaluate the performance of our operating business segments based primarily on income (loss) from operations. Accordingly, the income and expense line items below income (loss) from operations are only included in our discussion of the consolidated results of operations.
 
 
25

 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2013 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2012
 
IDT Energy Segment
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
   
$
    %  
Revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 216.7     $ 174.3     $ 42.4       24.3 %
Natural gas
    62.5       55.2       7.3       13.3  
Total revenues
    279.2       229.5       49.7       21.7  
Direct cost of revenues
    213.4       159.9       53.5       33.5  
Gross profit
    65.8       69.6       (3.8 )     (5.5 )
Selling, general and administrative
    39.2       44.6       (5.4 )     (12. )
Bad debt
    0.8             0.8    
nm
 
Income from operations
  $ 25.8     $ 25.0     $ 0.8       2.9 %
 
nm – not meaningful

Revenues. IDT Energy’s electricity revenues increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 as a result of an increase in consumption, as well as an increase in the average rate charged to customers reflecting the higher per unit cost incurred. Electricity consumption increased 15.7% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012, and the average rate charged to customers for electricity increased 8.5% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in electricity consumption was primarily the result of an increase in average meters enrolled, which increased 8.0% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012, coupled with an increase in average consumption per meter, which increased 7.2% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in the average rate charged to customers for electricity was due to an increase in the underlying commodity cost. The increase in the average consumption per meter is attributable to the acquisition of relatively higher consuming meters in Pennsylvania and Maryland, as compared to the meters in our legacy customer base.
 
IDT Energy's natural gas revenues increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily due to unusually warm weather in the three months ended March 31, 2012, which reduced the demand for natural gas for heating. As measured by heating degree days, a measure of outside air temperature designed to reflect the energy required for heating, New York State and Pennsylvania were 25% colder in the three months ended March 31, 2013 than in the same period in 2012. The colder weather resulted in an increase of 1.8% in natural gas consumption in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012, and an increase of 11.7% in consumption per meter in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. In addition, natural gas revenues increased due to an 11.3% increase in the average rate charged to customers in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase in consumption was partially offset by an 8.9% decrease in average meters enrolled in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
IDT Energy’s customer base as measured by meters enrolled consisted of the following:
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2013
   
September 30,
2013
   
June 30,
2013
   
March 31,
2013
   
December 31,
2012
 
Meters at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    282       300       314       319       331  
Natural gas customers
    145       156       161       166       171  
Total meters
    427       456       475       485       502  

Gross meter acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2013 were 245,000 compared to 407,000 in the year ended December 31, 2012. The decrease in gross meter acquisitions primarily reflects a reduced rate of expansion into new territories in recent quarters. Net meters enrolled decreased by 75,000 or 14.9% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to an increase of 64,000 or 14.6% in the year ended December 31, 2012, as gross meter acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2013 were more than offset by customer churn. Average monthly churn decreased from 6.6% in the year ended December 31, 2012 to 6.3% in the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily due to the lower level of customer acquisitions in 2013, as newly acquired customers have higher churn rates than longer term customers. Increased competition in some of IDT Energy’s key utility markets also contributed to the level of customer churn.
 
IDT Energy has license applications pending to enter into additional territories, primarily gas and dual meter territories, in Pennsylvania, Maryland and the District of Columbia. Management continues to evaluate additional, deregulation-driven opportunities in other states, including Massachusetts and Connecticut. New customer acquisitions in the Commonwealth Edison territory in Illinois, and in Pepco in Washington, D.C., which IDT Energy entered during the second and fourth quarters of 2013, respectively, were not impactful. IDT Energy continues to test and evaluate these markets.
 
The average rates of annualized energy consumption, as measured by residential customer equivalents, or RCEs, are presented in the chart below. An RCE represents a natural gas customer with annual consumption of 100 mmbtu or an electricity customer with annual consumption of 10 MWh. Because different customers have different rates of energy consumption, RCEs are an industry standard metric for evaluating the consumption profile of a given retail customer base.
 
 
26

 
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31, 2013
   
September 30, 2013
   
June 30, 2013
   
March 31, 2013
   
December 31, 2012
 
RCEs at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    228       246       263       243       238  
Natural gas customers
    87       91       94       86       74  
Total RCEs
    315       337       357       329       312  

Direct Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin Percentage. IDT Energy’s direct cost of revenues and gross margin percentage were as follows:
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
   
$
    %  
Direct cost of revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 168.9     $ 119.0     $ 49.9       42.0 %
Natural gas
    44.5       40.9       3.6       8.8  
Total direct cost of revenues
  $ 213.4     $ 159.9     $ 53.5       33.5 %

Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
   
Change
 
Gross margin percentage:
                 
Electric
    22.1 %     31.8 %     (9.7 )%
Natural gas
    28.7       25.8       2.9  
Total gross margin percentage
    23.6 %     30.3 %     (6.8 )%

Direct cost of revenues for electricity increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily because the average unit cost of electricity increased 22.3% in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The cost of electricity increased in May and June 2013 compared to the same period in 2012, and the cost of electricity in New York State was unusually high in January and February 2013 compared to the same period in 2012. The 15.7% increase in electricity consumption in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 also contributed to the increase in direct cost of revenues for electricity.
 
Direct cost of revenues for natural gas increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 due to the 6.9% increase in the average unit cost of natural gas and a 1.8% increase in consumption.
 
Gross margin on electricity sales decreased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily due to the mix of meters enrolled and market conditions. The gross margin on electricity sales was also negatively impacted in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 by increased promotional activity implemented to mitigate churn and facilitate customer acquisition, and the effects of an internal pricing system issue during a portion of 2013 that constrained our ability to make timely adjustments to electric rates in some newer territories.
 
Gross margins on natural gas sales increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 because increased natural gas consumption due to the colder temperatures in the three months ended March 31, 2013 compared to the same period in 2012 enabled us to recover costs more effectively in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Looking ahead to the first quarter of 2014 (the quarter ending March 31, 2014), the unusually cold weather in January and February 2014 associated with this winter’s “polar vortex” drove unprecedented price spikes in both the electricity and natural gas wholesale markets where IDT Energy and other retail providers purchase their supply.  In some regions, wholesale prices increased briefly by factors of more than eight. To cushion the impact of these spikes on its customers, IDT Energy absorbed a portion of the cost of these increases and, in addition, has offered rebates to customers who have been particularly hard hit.  To date, the Company has committed to an aggregate of $2.0 million in rebates, and expects this total will increase.  As a result, IDT Energy anticipates a significant increase in the churn rate early next year and material, substantial reductions in gross profit, income from operations and net income in the first quarter of 2014 compared to the levels achieved in the same period of 2013.
 
Selling, General and Administrative. The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was primarily due to decreases in customer acquisition costs, payroll and bonuses, severance expense and stock-based compensation expense. Customer acquisition costs decreased an aggregate of $4.4 million primarily due to the significant decrease in the number of new customers acquired in 2013 compared to 2012. Payroll and bonuses and severance expense decreased $1.0 million and $0.4 million, respectively, in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012. The $0.2 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense was primarily due to reductions in expense from the November 2011 grants of restricted stock and stock options. The expense from these grants is recognized over the expected service period. In the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012, the decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses was partially offset by a $0.5 million increase in purchase of receivable fees, primarily because of the increase in IDT Energy’s revenues. As a percentage of IDT Energy’s total revenues, selling, general and administrative expenses decreased from 19.4% in the year ended December 31, 2012 to 14.1% in the year ended December 31, 2013 primarily because of the significant decrease in costs related to customer acquisitions as well as the increase in revenues.
 
 
27

 
 
Bad debt. IDT Energy’s bad debt expense in the year ended December 31, 2013 was $0.8 million compared to nil in the year ended December 31, 2012. Bad debt expense in 2013 related to an allowance for amounts due from a utility company that are under dispute. We will continue our efforts to collect these receivables, despite the uncertainty about the success of such collection efforts.
 
Genie Oil and Gas Segment
 
Genie Oil and Gas does not currently generate any revenues, nor does it incur any direct cost of revenues.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31
 
2013
   
2012
   
$
   
%
 
General and administrative expenses
  $ 1.4     $ 1.4     $       (8.5 )%
Research and development
    11.4       9.4       2.0       21.6  
Equity in net loss of AMSO, LLC
    3.2       3.2             0.6  
Loss from operations
  $ 16.0     $ 14.0     $ 2.0       13.6 %
 
General and Administrative. General and administrative expense was substantially unchanged in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily because the increases in stock-based compensation expense were offset by a decrease in the payroll and other expenses as a result of shifting more resources to handle the increased research and development activities. Stock-based compensation expense increased $0.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily due to grants in 2013 of equity in GOGAS subsidiaries to certain of our officers and employees. Payroll and other expenses shifted to handle the research and development activities were $0.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012.
 
Research and Development. Research and development expense consists of the following:
 
(in millions)
           
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
 
IEI
  $ 3.7     $ 7.2  
Genie Mongolia
    3.4       2.1  
Afek
    4.2        
Other
    0.1       0.1  
Total research and development expenses
  $ 11.4     $ 9.4  

In June 2013, IEI submitted its permit application for the construction and operation of its oil shale pilot test facility to the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee. IEI was subsequently asked to provide supplements to the environmental impact assessment. The revised application was submitted on November 3, 2013. On March 17, 2014, IEI was advised that the initial review process of the application conducted by the Jerusalem District Building and Planning Committee was concluded, and the application process was proceeding to the next stage, a review of the environmental documents by the Ministry of Environment. The permit evaluation process is expected to take at least nine months from acceptance of a completed proposal by the Planning Committee and potentially significantly longer. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, as per required permitting process, IEI continued laboratory work, engineering work and associated preparation of environmental permit applications related to the planned pilot.
 
The increase in Genie Mongolia’s expenses in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 related to the joint geological survey with the Republic of Mongolia, which was executed in April 2013, to explore certain of that country’s oil shale deposits. Genie Mongolia has begun surface mapping and other geophysical evaluation work as well as drilling exploratory wells, and is working to secure permits for additional exploratory wells. The exploratory well program is intended to identify a site suitable for a pilot test and subsequent commercial operations. Subsequent commercial operations are contingent upon implementation of a regulatory framework by the government for the permitting and licensing of commercial oil shale operations.
 
After receiving the award of a 36-month petroleum exploration license in the Southern portion of the Golan Heights in April 2013, Afek has been preparing permit applications, contracting with international service providers to assist in exploration activities, and staffing up for operations. During 2013, Afek completed preliminary geophysical work including an electromagnetic survey and the reprocessing of 2D seismic data to characterize the subsurface prior to drilling exploration wells. Afek subsequently began the analysis of the acquired data. Partial and preliminary results are consistent with our view that there are high levels of resistivity pointing to what may be potentially attractive oil and gas resources in the license area. In addition, Afek submitted a permit application to conduct a ten-well exploration drilling program to further characterize the resource in its license area. The exploration drilling program is scheduled to begin as early as the first half of 2014 assuming the permit is received.
 
 
28

 
 
Equity in the Net Loss of AMSO, LLC. In early March 2013, AMSO, LLC initiated start-up of its oil shale pilot test. The pilot test is intended to confirm the accuracy of several of the key underlying assumptions of AMSO, LLC’s proposed in-situ heating and retorting process. After approximately two weeks of operation, the down-hole electric heater failed. Pilot operations were too short to allow conclusions to be drawn about the ultimate viability of AMSO, LLC’s technical approach. AMSO, LLC subsequently decided not to attempt to re-engineer the current downhole electrical heating system. Instead, it has initiated a comprehensive review of alternative heating system solutions. AMSO, LLC intends to qualify, design, engineer, build and thoroughly test the heating solution offering the best prospects for reliable pilot test operations. A key objective of the development process is to significantly de-risk the pilot operations before heater installation. In addition, this alternative heating system qualification process may result in development of a solution applicable to subsequent phases of the research, development and demonstration project’s operations. In 2013, AMSO, LLC launched a series of diagnostic tests to analyze the status of its pilot test's down-hole heating and production well system. AMSO, LLC is seeking to ascertain how the passage of time and limited pilot test operations conducted in 2012 and 2013, including down-hole heating, have impacted the well system's condition and whether modifications to the pilot test’s operational plans will be required. It is expected that the heater development process will continue through 2014. Equipment modifications and technical issues are common in projects of the complexity and scope of the AMSO, LLC pilot test, particularly given the extent to which new concepts and applications have been incorporated into the pilot test’s design. Upon successful completion of the pilot test, AMSO, LLC will evaluate the appropriate timing to submit an application to convert its research, development and demonstration lease into a commercial lease. AMSO, LLC also expects to design and implement a larger scale demonstration project to further test its process and operations under commercial conditions, and assess scalability to commercial production levels.
 
AMSO’s equity in the net loss of AMSO, LLC was substantially unchanged in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 because AMSO, LLC’s net loss was $9.1 million in the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012.
 
AMSO has the right to decide whether or not to fund its shares of each capital call issued by AMSO, LLC. AMSO did not fund the capital call for the first quarter of 2014, and in January 2014, Total funded AMSO’s share, which was $0.9 million. Because of AMSO’s decision not to fund its share of AMSO, LLC’s expenditures, AMSO, LLC will allocate its net loss beginning January 2014 as follows. AMSO, LLC will allocate the first $2.6 million of losses to Total, then it will allocate any remaining losses proportionately such that AMSO and Total’s capital accounts as a percentage of AMSO, LLC’s total capital equals their ownership interests.
 
Corporate
 
Corporate does not generate any revenues, nor does it incur any direct cost of revenues. Corporate costs include unallocated compensation, consulting fees, legal fees, business development expenses and other corporate-related general and administrative expenses.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
   
$
   
%
 
General and administrative expenses and loss from operations
  $ 9.1     $ 7.9     $ 1.2       15.6 %

The increase in general and administrative expenses in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was due primarily to increases in severance, stock-based compensation and charitable contributions, partially offset by decreases in payroll and related expenses. As a percentage of our consolidated revenues, Corporate general and administrative expenses increased from 3.4% in the year ended December 31, 2012 to 3.5% in the year ended December 31, 2013.
 
Consolidated
 
Selling, General and Administrative. Prior to the Spin-Off, IDT, our former parent company, charged us for certain transactions and allocated routine expenses based on company specific items. In addition, IDT controlled the flow of our treasury transactions. Following the Spin-off, IDT charges us for services it provides pursuant to the Transition Services Agreement. In the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, IDT charged us $3.3 million and $3.8 million, respectively, which was included in consolidated selling, general and administrative expense.
 
Stock-based compensation expense included in consolidated selling, general and administrative expenses was $4.2 million and $3.4 million in the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The increase is primarily due to expense from grants of equity interests in certain of our subsidiaries and grants of stock options, partially offset by a decrease in expense from grants of restricted stock. The expense from these grants is recognized over the expected service period.
 
On December 12, 2013, our Compensation Committee and our Board of Directors approved, subject to the approval of our stockholders, a compensation arrangement with Mr. Howard Jonas, the Chairman of our Board of Directors, upon his appointment as our Chief Executive Officer for a five-year term that commenced on January 1, 2014. The compensation arrangement included, among other things, the grant of options to purchase 3.0 million shares of our Class B Common Stock at an exercise price of $10.30 per share. The exercise price was equal to the fair market value of the shares on the date of the grant. The options vest in five equal annual installments commencing on December 15, 2014 and expire ten years from the grant date. The estimated total value of the options was $19.3 million, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The fair value of the options was estimated using a Black-Scholes valuation model.
 
At December 31, 2013, aggregate unrecognized compensation cost related to non-vested stock-based compensation (including the stock options described above) was $23.5 million. The unrecognized compensation cost is expected to be recognized as follows: $6.9 million in the year ending December 31, 2014, $4.9 million in the year ending December 31, 2015, $4.1 million in the year ending December 31, 2016, $3.9 million in the year ending December 31, 2017 and $3.9 million in the year ending December 31, 2018.
 
 
29

 
 
The following is a discussion of our consolidated income and expense line items below income from operations.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2013
   
2012
   
$
     
%
 
Income from operations
  $ 0.6     $ 3.0     $ (2.4 )     (79.5 )%
Interest income
    0.4       0.4             8.6  
Financing fees
    (3.2 )     (2.9 )     (0.3 )     (10.5 )
Other expense, net
    (0.3 )     (0.1 )     (0.2 )     (201.5 )
Provision for income taxes
    (2.8 )     (2.9 )     0.1       6.0  
Net loss
    (5.3 )     (2.5 )     (2.8 )     (110.6 )
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
    (0.6 )     (0.8 )     0.2       24.6  
Net loss attributable to Genie
  $ (5.9 )   $ (3.3 )   $ (2.6 )     (79.9 )%

Financing Fees. Financing fees are the volumetric fees charged by BP under the Preferred Supplier Agreement between IDT Energy and BP, pursuant to which BP is IDT Energy’s preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. Financing fees increased in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily because of the higher consumption by IDT Energy’s customers.
 
Other Expense, net. The increase in other expense, net in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was mainly due to a gain in 2012 from the sale of IDT Energy’s amount due from MF Global as well as an increase in foreign currency translation losses. On October 31, 2011, MF Global, our former clearing broker, filed for bankruptcy protection. On that date, IDT Energy held $1.65 million of cash on deposit with MF Global in support of hedging positions related to IDT Energy’s commodity supply. Assets held by MF Global were placed under the control of the court appointed bankruptcy trustee to be released as deemed appropriate. In November 2011, we transferred our hedging securities to an alternative clearing broker. In October 2011, we recognized a $0.45 million loss, relating to our cash deposit with MF Global, based on management’s best estimate of the unrecoverable amount. In November 2012, we received $0.6 million from a sale of the amount due from MF Global and recognized a gain of $0.3 million.
 
Provision for Income Taxes. The slight decrease in the provision for income taxes in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 was due to a significant decrease in our tax provision, partially offset by an increase in the tax provision of our consolidated variable interest entities. Citizen’s Choice Energy, LLC, or CCE, DAD Sales, LLC, or DAD, and Tari Corporation, or Tari are variable interest entities that are consolidated in our IDT Energy segment. We and CCE, DAD and Tari file separate tax returns since we do not have any ownership interest in CCE, DAD or Tari. The significant decrease in our tax provision was due to the establishment of a valuation allowance on our deferred income tax assets in a prior period, which was partially offset by an audit settlement. In 2013, we only recorded a state income tax expense on IDT Energy’s earnings. CCE, DAD and Tari recorded federal and state tax provisions in 2013 because their net operating losses have been utilized.
 
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests. The decrease in the net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in the year ended December 31, 2013 compared to the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily relates to changes in the net income attributable to noncontrolling interests of IDT Energy and Tari, partially offset by an increase in the net income attributable to noncontrolling interests of CCE and a decrease in the net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests of DAD. We do not have any ownership interest in CCE, DAD or Tari, therefore all net income or loss incurred by them has been attributed to noncontrolling interests. Tari’s net income in the year ended December 31, 2013 was $0.1 million compared to $0.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. Tari’s net income decreased primarily due to a decrease in its revenue, partially offset by a decrease in payroll expense. CCE’s net income in the year ended December 31, 2013 was $2.1 million compared to $1.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. CCE’s net income increased primarily due to a decrease in customer acquisition costs, partially offset by reduction in gross profit and an increase in management fees. DAD’s net loss in the year ended December 31, 2013 was $0.1 million compared to $0.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2012. DAD’s net loss decreased because DAD ceased to acquire customers for CCE in December 2012, and reduced its operations accordingly.
 
Year Ended December 31, 2012 compared to Year Ended December 31, 2011
 
The financial data for the year ended December 31, 2011 is unaudited. The financial data for the year ended December 31, 2011 is presented because it is the most appropriate period to compare with the year ended December 31, 2012 in order to discuss and analyze our operating trends and performance.
 
 
30

 
 
IDT Energy Segment
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
   
$
   
%
 
Revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 174.3     $ 134.3     $ 40.0       29.7 %
Natural gas
    55.2       63.6       (8.4 )     (13.2 )
Total revenues
    229.5       197.9       31.6       15.9  
Direct cost of revenues
    159.9       141.2       18.7       13.2  
Gross profit
    69.6       56.7       12.9       22.7  
Selling, general and administrative
    44.6       37.1       7.5       20.4  
Income from operations
  $ 25.0     $ 19.6     $ 5.4       27.2 %
 
Revenues. IDT Energy’s electricity revenues increased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 as a result of a significant increase in consumption, partially offset by a decrease in the average rate charged to customers. Electricity consumption increased 62.7% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011, and the average rate charged to customers for electricity decreased 20.2% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in electricity consumption was the result of an increase in meters enrolled, coupled with an increase in average consumption per meter. The decrease in the average rate charged to customers for electricity was primarily the result of a decrease in the underlying commodity cost. In the second quarter of 2012, IDT Energy entered an additional electric territory in Pennsylvania with an addressable market of approximately seven hundred thousand meters. In the third quarter of 2012, IDT Energy entered its fourth state, Maryland, and began marketing and enrolling customers in three electric utility territories in that state, as well as in one additional electric utility territory in Pennsylvania. In the aggregate, these new territories represent an addressable market of 1.9 million meters. In the fourth quarter of 2012, IDT Energy entered an additional Maryland electric utility territory that has an addressable market of approximately two hundred forty thousand meters.
 
 
31

 
 
IDT Energy's natural gas revenues decreased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 primarily due to unusually warm weather in the three months ended March 31, 2012, which reduced the demand for natural gas for heat. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in the average active meters during the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. As measured by heating degree days, a measure of outside air temperature designed to reflect the energy required for heating, New York State was 24% warmer in the three months ended March 31, 2012 compared to the same period in 2011. The unseasonably warm weather contributed to decreases in both the per unit rate charged and in consumption per meter. The per unit rate charged to customers decreased 12.9% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. Consumption per meter decreased 4.9% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The decline in demand for heat as well as increased domestic production of natural gas and relatively high storage gas inventories caused a decrease in the underlying natural gas cost, which allowed us to decrease the average rate charged to customers for natural gas. The decline in the average rate charged to customers for natural gas was also the result of discounts and promotional rates for new customers. The 0.4% decline in consumption in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 due to the unusually warm weather was partially offset by an increase in meters served. Although the natural gas meters enrolled at December 31, 2012 were less than the meters enrolled at December 31, 2011, the number of meters served per month was higher in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
IDT Energy’s customer base as measured by meters enrolled consisted of the following:
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2012
   
September 30,
2012
   
June 30,
2012
   
March 31,
2012
   
December 31,
2011
 
Meters at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    331       343       313       289       254  
Natural gas customers
    171       180       182       186       184  
Total meters
    502       523       495       475       438  

Gross meter acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2012 were 407,000 compared to 302,000 in the year ended December 31, 2011. Net meters enrolled increased by 64,000 or 14.6% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to an increase of 70,000 meters or 19.1% in the year ended December 31, 2011, as gross meter acquisitions were partially offset by higher rates of customer churn. Average monthly churn increased from 5.6% in the year ended December 31, 2011 to 6.6% in the year ended December 31, 2012, primarily because of the continued acceleration in customer acquisitions. Newly acquired customers have higher churn rates than longer term customers. Increased competition in some of IDT Energy’s key utility markets also contributed to higher rates of customer churn.
 
The average rates of annualized energy consumption, as measured by residential customer equivalents, or RCEs, are presented in the chart below. The 25.9% RCE increase at December 31, 2012 compared to December 31, 2011 reflects primarily the increase in electric meters enrolled as well as, to a lesser degree, a shift in IDT Energy’s electricity customer base to customers with higher consumption per meter. A significant portion of IDT Energy’s growth in RCEs was from recent expansion into electric-only utilities’ territories, with higher electric consumption per meter than IDT Energy’s legacy customer base. This increase was partially offset by decreases in natural gas RCEs primarily due to consumption declines associated with the warmer than normal weather over the measurement period and a decline in gas meters served.
 
 
32

 
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2012
   
September 30,
2012
   
June 30,
2012
   
March 31,
2012
   
December 31,
2011
 
RCEs at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    238       235       204       176       153  
Natural gas customers
    74       87       88       82       95  
Total RCEs
    312       322       292       258       248  

Direct Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin Percentage. IDT Energy’s direct cost of revenues and gross margin percentage were as follows:
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
   
$
   
%
 
Direct cost of revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 119.0     $ 89.0     $ 30.0       33.6 %
Natural gas
    40.9       52.2       (11.3 )     (21.6 )
Total direct cost of revenues
  $ 159.9     $ 141.2     $ 18.7       13.2 %

Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
   
Change
 
Gross margin percentage:
                 
Electric
    31.8 %     33.8 %     (2.0 )%
Natural gas
    25.8       17.9       7.9  
Total gross margin percentage
    30.3 %     28.7 %     1.6 %

Direct cost of revenues for electricity increased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 primarily because consumption increased 62.7% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. These increases were partially offset by decreases in the average unit cost of 17.8% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Direct cost of revenues for natural gas decreased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The decrease was primarily due to decline in the average unit cost of 21.3% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. Natural gas consumption decreased 0.4% in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Gross margin on electricity sales decreased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 primarily as a result of discounts and promotional rates we offered new customers. Gross margins on natural gas sales increased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 as the cost of the underlying commodity declined more sharply than we decreased the average rate charged to customers.
 
Selling, General and Administrative. The increase in selling, general and administrative expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011, was primarily due to an increase in customer acquisition costs. These costs increased an aggregate of $7.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. Customer acquisition costs increased primarily due to the significant increase in the number of new customers acquired as a result of the expansion into new territories. In addition, the increase in selling, general and administrative expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was the result of increases in payroll, severance and stock-based compensation expense, which increased an aggregate of $3.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase in stock-based compensation expense is primarily due to expense from the November 2011 grants of restricted stock and stock options, as well as from the March 2012 grants of equity interests in IDT Energy. The expense from these grants is recognized over the expected service period. Selling, general and administrative expense in the year ended December 31, 2011 included a $3.3 million charge for New York City gross receipts tax pertaining to liabilities incurred in prior periods, which reduced the increase in selling, general and administrative expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011. As a percentage of IDT Energy’s total revenues, selling, general and administrative expense increased from 18.7% in the year ended December 31, 2011 to 19.4% in the year ended December 31, 2012 primarily because of the significant increase in costs related to customer acquisitions.
 
 
33

 
 
Genie Oil and Gas Segment
 
Genie Oil and Gas did not generate any revenues, nor did it incur any direct cost of revenues, in the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
   
$
   
%
 
General and administrative expense
  $ 1.4     $ 1.2     $ 0.2       22.5 %
Research and development
    9.4       7.4       2.0       25.8  
Equity in net loss of AMSO, LLC
    3.2       5.7       (2.5 )     (44.1 )
Loss from operations
  $ 14.0     $ 14.3     $ (0.3 )     (2.1 )%

General and Administrative. General and administrative expense increased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 as an increase in stock-based compensation expense was partially offset by a decrease in costs associated with our global business development efforts.
 
Research and Development. Research and development expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 increased compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 primarily due to the increase in expenses in our global development efforts outside of AMSO and IEI. IEI’s research and development expense was $7.2 million in the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011. IEI began its resource appraisal study in the third quarter of calendar 2009, and completed the field work included in its study in late calendar year 2011. During the year ended December 31, 2012, IEI continued lab work, engineering work and associated preparation of environmental permit applications related to its the pilot permitting process.
 
Equity in the Net Loss of AMSO, LLC. In the year ended December 31, 2012, AMSO, LLC continued with late-stage preparations for its pilot test. AMSO’s equity in the net loss of AMSO, LLC decreased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 due to the decrease in AMSO, LLC’s net loss to $9.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2012 from $27.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, notwithstanding that, beginning in December 2011, AMSO’s share of the net loss of AMSO, LLC increased from 20% to 35%, in accordance with our agreement with Total. AMSO, LLC’s net loss decreased as the costs associated with the pilot test facility construction were substantially completed in the year ended December 31, 2011.
 
Corporate
 
Corporate does not generate any revenues, nor does it incur any direct cost of revenues. Corporate costs include unallocated compensation, consulting fees, legal fees, business development expenses and other corporate-related general and administrative expenses.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
   
$
   
%
 
General and administrative expense and loss from operations
  $ 7.9     $ 2.1     $ 5.8       269.3 %

The increase in general and administrative expense in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was due primarily to increases in payroll and related expense, legal and consulting fees and stock-based compensation, including costs related to being a separate public company, following our Spin-Off from IDT. The service agreements between IDT and us include services provided by IDT, such as transitional services relating to human resources and employee benefits administration, finance, accounting, tax, internal audit, facilities, investor relations and legal services, as well as specified administrative services to be provided by us to certain of IDT’s foreign subsidiaries. The costs we incurred as a separate public company and the charges for additional services provided by IDT were not included in our financial statements prior to the Spin-Off since they were not applicable for periods that we were not a separate public company.
 
Consolidated
 
Selling, General and Administrative. Until the Spin-Off, IDT, our former parent company, charged us for certain transactions and allocated routine expenses based on company specific items. In addition, IDT controlled the flow of our treasury transactions. Following the Spin-off, IDT charges us for services it provides pursuant to the Transition Services Agreement. In the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, IDT charged us $3.8 million and $5.4 million, respectively, which was included in consolidated selling, general and administrative expense.
 
Stock-based compensation expense included in consolidated selling, general and administrative expense was $3.4 million and $0.6 million in the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The increase was primarily due to expense from the November 2011 grants of restricted stock and stock options, as well as from the March 2012 grants of equity interests in certain of our subsidiaries. The expense from these grants is recognized over the expected service period.
 
 
34

 
 
The following is a discussion of our consolidated income and expense line items below income from operations.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2012
   
2011
     $     %  
Income from operations
  $ 3.0     $ 3.1     $ (0.1 )     (3.1 )%
Interest income
    0.4       0.1       0.3       392.7  
Financing fees
    (2.9 )     (2.2 )     (0.7 )     (33.7 )
Other expense, net
    (0.1 )     (1.4 )     1.3       89.9  
Provision for income taxes
    (2.9 )     (3.4 )     0.5       13.3  
Net (loss) income
    (2.5 )     (3.8 )     1.3       32.2  
Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
    (0.8 )     4.5       (5.3 )     (116.6 )
Net (loss) income attributable to Genie
  $ (3.3 )   $ 0.7     $ (4.0 )     (540.4 )%

Financing Fees. Financing fees are the volumetric fees charged by BP under the Preferred Supplier Agreement between IDT Energy and BP, pursuant to which BP is IDT Energy’s preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. Financing fees increased in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 primarily because of the higher consumption by IDT Energy’s customers.
 
Other Expense, net. The decrease in other expense, net in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was mainly due to a decrease in foreign currency translation losses as well as a gain from the sale of IDT Energy’s amount due from MF Global. On October 31, 2011, MF Global, our former clearing broker, filed for bankruptcy protection. On that date, IDT Energy held $1.65 million of cash on deposit with MF Global in support of hedging positions related to IDT Energy’s commodity supply. Assets held by MF Global were placed under the control of the court appointed bankruptcy trustee to be released as deemed appropriate. In November 2011, we transferred our hedging securities to an alternative clearing broker. In October 2011, we recognized a $0.45 million loss, relating to our cash deposit with MF Global, based on management’s best estimate of the unrecoverable amount. In November 2012, we received $0.6 million from a sale of the amount due from MF Global and recognized a gain of $0.3 million.
 
Provision for Income Taxes. The decrease in the provision for income taxes in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily due to an increase in benefits from income tax due to the increase in GOGAS and Corporate pre-tax losses, as well as the reversal of $2.5 million of accrued New York state income taxes as a result of a settlement of prior years’ income tax audits, partially offset by income tax expense from the recording of a valuation allowance of $5.5 million against deferred tax assets. Subsequent to the Spin-Off, we initiated a tax strategy that enables us to deduct losses from our foreign subsidiaries against our profitable U.S. operations. Because of this strategy, the decrease in pre-tax earnings of IDT Energy in 2012, and our projections, we concluded that we no longer met the criteria of more likely than not in order to utilize our deferred federal income tax assets in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, we recorded a valuation allowance against our deferred federal income tax assets. Prior to the Spin-Off, we were included in the consolidated federal income tax return of IDT. Our income taxes are presented for periods prior to the Spin-Off on a separate tax return basis. In the year ended December 31, 2011, IDT charged us $4.5 million for utilizing its net operating loss, which was included in “Provision for income taxes”.
 
Net (Income) Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests. The change in the net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily relates to 100% of the net income (loss) incurred by CCE, which is a variable interest entity that is consolidated in our IDT Energy segment. We do not have any ownership interest in CCE, therefore all net income or loss incurred by CCE has been attributed to noncontrolling interests. CCE’s net income in the year ended December 31, 2012 was $1.9 million, compared to net loss of $1.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2011. CCE’s customer base and revenues had grown significantly in the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the year ended December 31, 2011 since CCE commenced operations in the three months ended March 31, 2011.
 
Five Months Ended December 31, 2011 compared to Five Months Ended December 31, 2010
 
IDT Energy Segment
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
    $     %  
Revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 57.1     $ 53.0     $ 4.1       7.8 %
Natural gas
    19.7       21.8       (2.1 )     (10.1 )
Total revenues
    76.8       74.8       2.0       2.5  
Direct cost of revenues
    52.5       53.4       (0.9 )     (1.8 )
Gross profit
    24.3       21.4       2.9       13.3  
Selling, general and administrative
    15.4       9.7       5.7       58.5  
Income from operations
  $ 8.9     $ 11.7     $ (2.8 )     (24.1 )%

Revenues. IDT Energy’s electricity revenues increased in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 as a result of an increase in consumption, partially offset by decrease in the average rate charged to customers for electricity. Electric consumption increased 18.6%, and the average charged to customers for electricity decreased 9.2%. The increase in electric consumption was the result of an increase in meters served coupled with an increase in the consumption per meter. The decrease in the average rate charged to customers for electricity was primarily the result of a decrease in the underlying commodity cost.
 
 
35

 
 
IDT Energy's natural gas revenues decreased in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 primarily due to unusually warm weather in November and December 2011, which reduced the need for heat. As measured by heating degree days, New York State was 22% warmer in November and December 2011 than in the same period in 2010. The warm weather caused decreases in both the average rate charged to customers and in consumption, which decreased 7.1% and 3.3%, respectively. The decline in demand for heat as well as increased domestic production of natural gas caused a decrease in the underlying natural gas cost, which allowed us to decrease the average rate charged to customers for natural gas. The decline in the average rate charged to customers for natural gas was also the result of discounted promotional rates for new customers. The decline in consumption was partially offset by an increase in meters served.
 
IDT Energy’s customer base as measured by meters served consisted of the following:
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2011
   
September 30,
2011
   
June 30,
2011
   
March 31,
2011
   
December 31,
2010
 
Meters at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    254       247       224       210       208  
Natural gas customers
    184       183       172       167       160  
Total meters
    438       430       396       377       368  

Gross meter acquisitions in the five months ended December 31, 2011 were 157,000 compared to 75,000 in the same period in 2010, which represented increases in meters served of 38.6% and 20.3% in the five months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The new meter acquisitions in the five months ended December 31, 2011 were partially offset by customer churn, which resulted in a net increase of 7.9% in meters served or net gains of approximately 32,000 meters since July 31, 2011. The new meter acquisitions in the five months ended December 31, 2010 were more than offset by customer churn, which resulted in a net decrease of 0.6% in meters served or a net loss of approximately 2,000 meters since July 31, 2010. Average monthly churn increased from 4.7% in the five months ended December 31, 2010 to 6.4% in the five months ended December 31, 2011 in part due to the impact of the recent acceleration in customer acquisitions as new customers tend to churn at a higher initial rate than long-term customers.
 
The average rates of annualized energy consumption, as measured by residential customer equivalents, or RCEs, are presented in the chart below. The 17.8% RCE increase at December 31, 2011 compared to December 31, 2010 reflects primarily the increase in meters served as well as, to a lesser degree, a shift in IDT Energy’s customer base to customers with higher consumption per meter as a result of targeted customer acquisition programs.
 
(in thousands)
 
December 31,
2011
   
September 30,
2011
   
June 30,
2011
   
March 31,
2011
   
December 31,
2010
 
RCEs at end of quarter:
                             
Electric customers
    153       142       135       119       123  
Natural gas customers
    95       100       99       89       88  
Total RCEs
    248       242       234       208       211  

Direct Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin Percentage. IDT Energy’s direct cost of revenues and gross margin percentage were as follows:
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
        %  
Direct cost of revenues:
                         
Electric
  $ 35.4     $ 37.0     $ (1.6 )     (4.3 )%
Natural gas
    17.1       16.4       0.7       3.9  
Total direct cost of revenues
  $ 52.5     $ 53.4     $ (0.9 )     (1.8 )%

Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
   
Change
 
Gross margin percentage:
                 
Electric
    38.1 %     30.3 %     7.8 %
Natural gas
    12.9       24.7       (11.8 )
Total gross margin percentage
    31.7 %     28.7 %     3.0 %

Direct cost of revenues for electricity decreased 4.3% in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 as the 19.4% decrease in the average unit cost was partially offset by an increase of 18.6% in consumption. Direct cost of revenues for natural gas increased 3.9% in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 primarily due to the 7.5% increase in the average unit cost. The increase in the average unit cost of natural gas was due to increases in the per unit cost of pipeline, storage and transportation services in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 as a result of lower natural gas consumption. We purchase these services at the beginning of the heating season based on projected consumption, so the lower than expected natural gas consumption resulted in amortization of the amount purchased over a smaller number of units.
 
 
36

 
 
Gross margins on electricity sales increased as the cost of the underlying commodity declined more sharply than the decrease in the average rate charged to customers. Gross margins on natural gas sales declined due to increased pipeline, storage and transportation costs in selected territories that were not fully recovered through rate increases during the period.
 
Selling, General and Administrative. The increase in selling, general and administrative expense in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 was primarily due to increases in customer acquisition costs and marketing costs, which increased an aggregate of $3.5 million. Customer acquisition costs increased primarily due to the significant increase in the number of new customers acquired. Marketing costs increased as a result of the expansion into new territories. In addition, sales and use tax expense, which is included in selling, general and administrative expense, increased $0.9 million in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 primarily due to accruals related to ongoing tax audits. As a percentage of total IDT Energy revenues, selling, general and administrative expense increased from 13.0% in the five months ended December 31, 2010 to 20.1% in the five months ended December 31, 2011 primarily because of the significant increase in costs related to customer acquisitions mentioned above.
 
Genie Oil and Gas Segment
 
Genie Oil and Gas did not generate any revenues, nor did it incur any direct cost of revenues, in the five months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
    $     %  
General and administrative expense
  $ 0.8     $ 0.9     $ (0.1 )     (15.5 )%
Research and development
    2.6       3.0       (0.4 )     (13.0 )
Equity in net loss of AMSO, LLC
    2.1       1.7       0.4       26.4  
Loss from operations
  $ 5.5     $ 5.6     $ (0.1 )     (1.7 )%

General and Administrative. General and administrative expense in the five months ended December 31, 2011 decreased slightly compared to the same period in 2010 as increases in costs associated with our global business development efforts in 2011 were partially offset by a decrease in stock-based compensation expense.
 
Research and Development.  Research and development expense in the five months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 were primarily related to the operations of IEI in Israel. IEI completed the field work included in its resource appraisal study in late calendar year 2011.
 
Equity in the Net Loss of AMSO, LLC. AMSO’s equity in the net loss of AMSO, LLC increased in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 as a result of the increase in AMSO, LLC’s net loss to $9.4 million in the five months ended December 31, 2011 from $8.3 million in the five months ended December 31, 2010. AMSO, LLC’s net loss increased primarily as a result of the substantial increase in the costs associated with the pilot test. AMSO’s portion of the loss of AMSO, LLC increased in December 2011 from 20% to 35%, per our agreement with Total. In the five months ended December 31, 2011, AMSO, LLC continued with late-stage preparations for its pilot test and received all permits required to begin operations including well drilling and installation of down-hole instrumentation.
 
Corporate
 
Corporate does not generate any revenues, nor does it incur any direct cost of revenues. Corporate costs include unallocated compensation, consulting fees, legal fees, business development expenses and other corporate-related general and administrative expenses.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
    $     %  
General and administrative expense and loss from operations
  $ 1.7     $ 0.6     $ 1.1       177.9 %

The increase in general and administrative expense in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the same period in 2010 was due primarily to increases in compensation, consulting fees and stock-based compensation, including costs related to being a separate public company, following our Spin-Off from IDT.
 
Consolidated
 
Selling, General and Administrative. Until the Spin-Off, IDT, our former parent company, charged us for certain transactions and allocated routine expenses based on company specific items. In addition, IDT controlled the flow of our treasury transactions. Following the Spin-off, IDT charges us for services it provides pursuant to the Transition Services Agreement. In the five months ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, IDT charged us $2.6 million and $1.8 million, respectively, which was included in selling, general and administrative expense.
 
 
37

 
 
The following is a discussion of our consolidated income and expense line items below income from operations.
 
(in millions)
             
Change
 
Five Months ended December 31,
 
2011
   
2010
    $     %  
Income from operations
  $ 1.7     $ 5.6     $ (3.9 )     (68.9 )%
Interest income
          0.1       (0.1 )     (17.0 )
Financing fees
    (1.0 )     (0.9 )     (0.1 )     (13.7 )
Other (expense) income, net
    (0.4 )     0.3       (0.7 )     (233.8 )
Provision for income taxes
    (0.6 )     (4.2 )     3.6       85.3  
Net (loss) income
    (0.3 )     0.9       (1.2 )     (129.2 )
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
    1.1       0.8       0.3       36.8  
Net income attributable to Genie
  $ 0.8     $ 1.7     $ (0.9 )     (51.1 )%

Financing Fees. Financing fees are the volumetric fees charged by BP under the Preferred Supplier Agreement between IDT Energy and BP, pursuant to which BP is IDT Energy’s preferred provider of electricity and natural gas. Financing fees increased in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the five months ended December 31, 2010 primarily because of the higher consumption by IDT Energy’s electricity customers.
 
Other (Expense) Income, net.  Other expense, net in the five months ended December 31, 2011 consisted primarily of a $0.45 million expense related to the estimated loss resulting from the bankruptcy of MF Global and interest of $0.4 million on the sales tax expense recorded by IDT Energy related to audits of prior periods, partially offset by foreign currency translation gains. Other income, net in the five months ended December 31, 2010 was due primarily to foreign currency translation gains, partially offset by $0.3 million loss on GEIC stock option.
 
Provision for Income Taxes.  The provision for income taxes in the five months ended December 31, 2011 decreased compared to the similar period in 2010 due primarily to a decrease in pre-tax income. Prior to the Spin-Off, we were included in the consolidated federal income tax return of IDT. Our income taxes are presented for periods prior to the Spin-Off on a separate tax return basis.
 
Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests. The majority of the increase in the net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the similar period in 2010 relates to 100% of the net loss incurred by CCE and DAD, which are variable interest entities that are consolidated in our IDT Energy segment. CCE and DAD were not consolidated in our IDT Energy segment in the five months ended December 31, 2010. We do not have any ownership interest in CCE or DAD, therefore all net losses incurred by CCE and DAD have been attributed to noncontrolling interests. The aggregate net loss incurred by CCE and DAD in the five months ended December 31, 2011 of $0.7 million related primarily to sales commissions for customer acquisitions.
 
The remainder of the increase in the net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the five months ended December 31, 2011 compared to the similar period in 2010 was mostly due to increases in the net losses of AMSO and IEI, which are included in the Genie Oil and Gas segment discussed above, and in the noncontrolling interests’ share of a portion of these net losses. The noncontrolling interests’ share of AMSO and IEI losses increased as a result of the November 2010 sales of an aggregate 5.5% interest in GOGAS.
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
General
 
Historically, we have satisfied our cash requirements primarily through a combination of our existing cash and cash equivalents, IDT Energy’s cash flow from operating activities, and, prior to the Spin-Off, operational funding from IDT. We currently expect that our operations in the next twelve months and the $92.7 million balance of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash—short-term, and certificates of deposit that we held as of December 31, 2013 will be sufficient to meet our currently anticipated cash requirements for at least the year ending December 31, 2014.
 
As of December 31, 2013, we had working capital (current assets less current liabilities) of $105.8 million.
 
(in millions)
 
Year ended
December 31,
2013
   
Year ended
December 31,
2012
   
Five Months
ended
December 31,
2011
   
Year ended
July 31,
2011
   
Five Months
ended
December 31,
2010
(Unaudited)
 
Cash flows provided by (used in):
                             
Operating activities
  $ 1.2     $ (1.0 )   $ (2.4 )   $ 5.5     $ 0.1  
Investing activities
    3.8       (17.7 )     (2.6 )     (3.8 )     (2.6 )
Financing activities
    (0.9 )