10-K 1 alks-20151231x10k.htm 10-K alks_Current folio_10K

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10‑K

 

 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                    to                         

 

Commission file number: 00135299

ALKERMES PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Ireland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

98‑1007018
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

Connaught House
1 Burlington Road
Dublin 4, Ireland
(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

 

+353‑1‑772‑8000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

 

Ordinary shares, $0.01 par value

NASDAQ Global Select Stock Market

Title of each class

Name of each exchange on which registered

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well‑known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‑T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files): Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S‑K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10‑K or any amendment to this Form 10‑K. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non‑accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non‑accelerated filer
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Act). Yes   No 

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s ordinary shares held by non‑affiliates of the registrant (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate) computed by reference to the price at which the ordinary shares was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $9,530,707,684.

As of February 12, 2016, 150,741,617 ordinary shares were issued and outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive proxy statement for our Annual General Meeting of Shareholders for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

 

 

 


 

ALKERMES PLC AND SUBSIDIARIES

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10‑K

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015

INDEX

 

 

 

 

 

PART I 

    

    

    

 

Item 1. 

 

Business

 

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors

 

31 

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

47 

Item 2. 

 

Properties

 

47 

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings

 

47 

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

48 

PART II 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

49 

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data

 

52 

Item 7. 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

54 

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

73 

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

74 

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures

 

75 

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures

 

75 

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information

 

76 

PART III 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

77 

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation

 

77 

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

77 

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

77 

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

77 

PART IV 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

78 

SIGNATURES 

 

79 

 

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE CONCERNING FORWARD‑LOOKING STATEMENTS

This document contains and incorporates by reference “forward‑looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. In some cases, these statements can be identified by the use of forward‑looking terminology such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “continue,” “believe,” “plan,” “estimate,” “intend,” or other similar words. These statements discuss future expectations, and contain projections of results of operations or of financial condition, or state trends and known uncertainties or other forward‑looking information. Forward‑looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K (“Annual Report”) include, without limitation, statements regarding:

 

·

our expectations regarding our financial performance, including revenues, expenses, gross margins, liquidity, capital expenditures and income taxes;

·

our expectations regarding our products, including the development, regulatory (including expectations about regulatory filing, regulatory approval and regulatory timelines), therapeutic and commercial scope and potential of such products and the costs and expenses related thereto;

·

our expectations regarding the initiation, timing and results of clinical trials of our products;

·

our expectations regarding the competitive landscape, and changes therein, related to our products, including our development programs, and our industry generally;

·

our expectations regarding the financial impact of currency exchange rate fluctuations and valuations;

·

our expectations regarding future amortization of intangible assets;

·

our expectations regarding our collaborations, licensing arrangements and other significant agreements with third parties relating to our products, including our development programs;

·

our expectations regarding the impact of adoption of new accounting pronouncements;

·

our expectations regarding near‑term changes in the nature of our market risk exposures or in management’s objectives and strategies with respect to managing such exposures;

·

our ability to comply with restrictive covenants of our indebtedness and our ability to fund our debt service obligations;

·

our expectations regarding future capital requirements and capital expenditures and our ability to finance our operations and capital requirements; and

·

other factors discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Actual results might differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward‑looking statements because these forward‑looking statements are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward‑looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report. All subsequent written and oral forward‑looking statements concerning the matters addressed in this Annual Report and attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. Except as required by applicable law or regulation, we do not undertake any obligation to update publicly or revise any forward‑looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks, assumptions and uncertainties, the forward‑looking events discussed in this Annual Report might not occur. For more information regarding the risks and uncertainties of our business, see “Item 1A—Risk Factors” in this Annual Report.

 

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this Annual Report concerning the disorders targeted by our products and the markets in which we operate is based on information from various sources (including, without limitation, industry publications, medical and clinical journals and studies, surveys and forecasts and our internal research), on assumptions that we have made, which we believe are reasonable, based on those data and other similar sources and on our knowledge of the markets for our products. Our internal research has not been verified by any independent source, and we have not independently verified any third‑party information. These projections, assumptions and estimates are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Item 1A—Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates included in this Annual Report.

 

NOTE REGARDING COMPANY AND PRODUCT REFERENCES

Use of the terms such as “us,” “we,” “our,” “Alkermes” or the “Company” in this Annual Report is meant to refer to Alkermes plc and its consolidated subsidiaries, except where the context makes clear that the time period being referenced is prior to September 16, 2011, in which case such terms shall refer to Alkermes, Inc. and its consolidated

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subsidiaries. Prior to September 16, 2011, Alkermes, Inc. was an independent pharmaceutical company incorporated in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Stock Market (the “NASDAQ”) under the symbol “ALKS.” Except as otherwise suggested by the context, (a) references to “products” or “our products” in this Annual Report include our marketed products, marketed products using our proprietary technologies, our product candidates and product candidates using our proprietary technologies, (b) references to the “biopharmaceutical industry” are used interchangeably with references to the “biotechnology and/or pharmaceutical industries” and (c) references to “licensees” are used interchangeably with references to “collaborative partners” and “partners.”

 

NOTE REGARDING TRADEMARKS

We are the owner of various U.S. federal trademark registrations (“®”) and other trademarks (“TM”), including ALKERMES®,  ARISTADA®, CODAS®, IPDAS®, LinkeRx®, MXDAS®, NanoCrystal®, SECA™, SODAS®, VERELAN® and VIVITROL®.

 

The following are trademarks of the respective companies listed: ABILIFY® and ABILIFY MAINTENA®—Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; AMPYRA®, FAMPYRA®—Acorda Therapeutics, Inc.; ANTABUSE®—Teva Women’s Health, Inc.; AUBAGIO® and LEMTRADA®—Sanofi Societe Anonyme France; AVONEX®, PLEGRIDY®, TECFIDERA®, and TYSABRI®—Biogen MA Inc.; BETASERON®—Bayer Pharma AG; BUNAVAILTM—BioDelivery Sciences; BYDUREON® and BYETTA®—Amylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC; CAMPRAL®—Merck Sante; COPAXONE®—Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; FOCALIN XR®, EXTAVIA®, GILENYA® and RITALIN LA®—Novartis AG; INVEGA® SUSTENNA®, RISPERDAL® CONSTA® INVEGA TRINZATM and XEPLION®—Johnson & Johnson (or its affiliates); NOVANTRONE® and REBIF®—Ares Trading S.A.; SUBOXONE® and SUBUTEX®—Indivior plc; TRICOR®—Fournier Industrie et Sante Corporation; VICTOZA®—Novo Nordisk A/S LLC; ZOHYDRO™—Zogenix, Inc.; ZUBSOLV®—Orexo US, Inc.; and TRULICITY®, ZYPREXA® and ZYPREXA® RELPREVV®—Eli Lilly and Company. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Annual Report are referred to without the ® andsymbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

 

NOTE REGARDING FISCAL YEAR

 

On May 21, 2013, our Audit and Risk Committee, with such authority delegated to it by our Board of Directors, approved a change to our fiscal year‑end from March 31 to December 31. This Annual Report reflects our financial results for the twelve-month period from January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. The period ended December 31, 2014 reflects our financial results for the twelve‑month period from January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014. The period ended December 31, 2013 reflects our financial results for the nine‑month period from April 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013.

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PART I

Item 1.Business

 

The following discussion contains forward‑looking statements. Actual results may differ significantly from those expressed or implied in the forward‑looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Concerning Forward‑Looking Statements” on pages 3 and 4 of this Annual Report. Factors that might cause future results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward‑looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in “Item 1A—Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

 

Overview

 

Alkermes plc is a fully integrated, global biopharmaceutical company that applies its scientific expertise and proprietary technologies to research, develop and commercialize, both with partners and on its own, pharmaceutical products that are designed to address unmet medical needs of patients in major therapeutic areas. We have a diversified portfolio of marketed drug products and a clinical pipeline of products that address central nervous system (“CNS”) disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, addiction and multiple sclerosis.

 

Products

 

Marketed Products

 

The key marketed products discussed below are expected to generate significant revenues for us. They possess long patent lives and, we believe, are singular or competitively advantaged products in their class. Refer to the “Patents and Proprietary Rights” section of this Annual Report for information with respect to the intellectual property protection for these marketed products. Summary information about these key marketed products is set forth in the table below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product

 

Indication(s)

 

Licensee

 

Territory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proprietary Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARISTADA

 

Schizophrenia

 

None

 

United States (“U.S.”)

VIVITROL

 

Alcohol dependence, Opioid dependence

 

None

 

Cilag GmbH International (“Cilag”)

 

U.S.

 

Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States (“CIS”)

Products Using Our Proprietary Technologies

 

 

 

 

RISPERDAL CONSTA

 

Schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder

 

Janssen Pharmaceutica Inc. ("Janssen, Inc.") and Janssen Pharmaceutica International, a division of Cilag International AG ("Janssen International")

 

Worldwide

INVEGA SUSTENNA / XEPLION & INVEGA TRINZA

 

Schizophrenia

 

Schizoaffective disorder

 

Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. (together with Janssen, Inc. Janssen International and their affiliates "Janssen")

 

U.S.

 

Rest of World (“ROW”)

AMPYRA / FAMPYRA

 

Treatment to improve walking in patients with multiple sclerosis (“MS”), as demonstrated by an increase in walking speed

 

Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. (“Acorda”)

 

Biogen International GmbH (“Biogen”), under sublicense from Acorda

 

U.S.

 

 

ROW

BYDUREON

 

Type 2 diabetes

 

AstraZeneca plc (“AstraZeneca”)

 

Worldwide

 

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Proprietary Products

 

We developed and commercialize in the U.S. products designed to address the unmet needs of patients suffering from addiction and schizophrenia.

 

ARISTADA

 

ARISTADA (aripiprazole lauroxil) is an extended-release injectable suspension for the treatment of schizophrenia, which was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), and commercially launched by us, in October 2015. ARISTADA is the first of our products to utilize our proprietary LinkeRx technology. ARISTADA is a prodrug; once in the body, ARISTADA is likely converted by enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, which is then hydrolyzed to aripiprazole. ARISTADA is the first atypical antipsychotic with once-monthly and six-week dosing options for delivering and maintaining therapeutic levels of medication in the body through an intramuscular injection.  ARISTADA possesses three dosing options (441 mg, 662 mg and 882 mg) packaged in a ready-to-use, pre-filled product format. We developed, manufacture and commercialize ARISTADA in the U.S.

 

What is schizophrenia?

 

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder. The disease is marked by positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and negative symptoms (depression, blunted emotions and social withdrawal), as well as by disorganized thinking. An estimated 2.4 million Americans over the age of 18 have schizophrenia in a given year, with men and women affected equally. Worldwide, it is estimated that one person in every 100 develops schizophrenia. Studies have demonstrated that as many as 75% of patients with schizophrenia have difficulty taking their oral medication on a regular basis, which can lead to worsening of symptoms.

 

VIVITROL

 

VIVITROL (naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension) is the only once‑monthly, non-addictive, injectable medication approved in the U.S., Russia and certain of the CIS for the treatment of alcohol dependence and for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence, following opioid detoxification. VIVITROL uses our polymer‑based microsphere injectable extended‑release technology to deliver and maintain therapeutic medication levels in the body through one injection every four weeks. We developed, manufacture and commercialize VIVITROL in the U.S., and Cilag commercializes VIVITROL in Russia and certain countries of the CIS.

 

What are opioid dependence and alcohol dependence?

 

Opioid dependence is a serious and chronic brain disease characterized by compulsive, prolonged self-administration of opioid substances that are not used for a medical purpose. According to the 2014 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an estimated 2.3 million people aged 18 or older were dependent on pain relievers or heroin in the U.S.

 

Alcohol dependence is a serious and chronic brain disease characterized by cravings for alcohol, loss of control over drinking, withdrawal symptoms and an increased tolerance for alcohol. Nearly 18 million people aged 18 or older in the U.S. are dependent on or abuse alcohol. Adherence to medication is particularly challenging with this patient population.

 

Products Using Our Proprietary Technologies

 

We have granted licenses under our proprietary technologies to enable third parties to develop, commercialize and, in some cases, manufacture products for which we receive royalties and/or manufacturing revenues. Such arrangements include the following:

 

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INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION, INVEGA TRINZA and RISPERDAL CONSTA

 

INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION (paliperidone palmitate) and INVEGA TRINZA (paliperidone palmitate) and RISPERDAL CONSTA (risperidone long‑acting injection) are long-acting atypical antipsychotics that incorporate our proprietary technologies and are owned and commercialized worldwide by Janssen.

 

INVEGA SUSTENNA is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of schizophrenia and for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder as either a monotherapy or adjunctive therapy. Paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable suspension is approved in the European Union ("EU") and other countries outside of the U.S. for the treatment of schizophrenia and is marketed and sold under the trade name XEPLION. INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION uses our nanoparticle injectable extended-release technology to increase the rate of dissolution and enable the formulation of an aqueous suspension for once-monthly intramuscular administration. INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION is manufactured by Janssen.

 

INVEGA TRINZA is an atypical antipsychotic injection for the treatment of schizophrenia used in people who have been treated with INVEGA SUSTENNA for at least four months. INVEGA TRINZA, the first schizophrenia treatment to be taken once every three months, became commercially available in the U.S. in June 2015. INVEGA TRINZA uses our proprietary technology and is manufactured by Janssen.

 

RISPERDAL CONSTA is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of schizophrenia and as both monotherapy and adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate in the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. RISPERDAL CONSTA is approved in numerous countries outside of the U.S. for the treatment of schizophrenia and the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. RISPERDAL CONSTA uses our polymer-based microsphere injectable extended-release technology to deliver and maintain therapeutic medication levels in the body through just one injection every two weeks. RISPERDAL CONSTA microspheres are exclusively manufactured by us.

 

Revenues from Janssen accounted for approximately 40%, 41% and 44% of our consolidated revenues for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the nine months ended December 31, 2013, respectively. See “Collaborative Arrangements” later in Part I of this Annual Report for information about our relationship with Janssen.

 

What is schizophrenia?

 

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder. The disease is marked by positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and negative symptoms (depression, blunted emotions and social withdrawal), as well as by disorganized thinking. An estimated 2.4 million Americans over the age of 18 have schizophrenia in a given year, with men and women affected equally. Worldwide, it is estimated that one person in every 100 develops schizophrenia. Studies have demonstrated that as many as 75% of patients with schizophrenia have difficulty taking their oral medication on a regular basis, which can lead to worsening of symptoms.

 

What is bipolar I disorder?

 

Bipolar  I disorder is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person’s mood, energy and ability to function. It is often characterized by debilitating mood swings, from extreme highs (mania) to extreme lows (depression). Bipolar I disorder is characterized based on the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without the occurrence of a major depressive episode. Bipolar disorder is believed to affect approximately 5.7 million American adults, or about 2.6% of the U.S. population aged 18 and older in a given year. The median age of onset for bipolar disorder is 25 years.

 

What is schizoaffective disorder?

 

Schizoaffective disorder is a condition in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations or other symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia, and mood disorder symptoms, such as mania or depression. Schizoaffective disorder is a serious mental illness that affects

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about one in 100 people.

 

AMPYRA/FAMPYRA

 

AMPYRA (dalfampridine)/FAMPYRA (fampridine), to our knowledge, is the first treatment approved in the U.S. and in over 50 countries across Europe, Asia and the Americas to improve walking in adults with MS who have walking disability, as demonstrated by an increase in walking speed. Extended-release dalfampridine tablets are marketed and sold by Acorda in the U.S. under the trade name AMPYRA and by Biogen outside the U.S. under the trade name FAMPYRA. In July 2011, the European Medicines Agency ("EMA") conditionally approved FAMPYRA in the EU for the improvement of walking in adults with MS. This authorization was renewed as of August 2015. AMPYRA and FAMPYRA incorporate our oral controlled-release technology. AMPYRA and FAMPYRA are manufactured by us.

 

What is multiple sclerosis?

 

MS is a chronic, usually progressive, disease in which the immune system attacks and degrades the function of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. These nerve fibers consist of long, thin fibers, or axons, surrounded by a myelin sheath, which facilitates the transmission of electrical impulses. In MS, the myelin sheath is damaged by the body’s own immune system, causing areas of myelin sheath loss, also known as demyelination. This damage, which can occur at multiple sites in the CNS, blocks or diminishes conduction of electrical impulses. People with MS may suffer impairments in any number of neurological functions. These impairments vary from individual to individual and over the course of time, depending on which parts of the brain and spinal cord are affected, and often include difficulty walking. Individuals vary in the severity of the impairments they suffer on a day‑to‑day basis, with impairments becoming better or worse depending on the activity of the disease on a given day.

 

BYDUREON

 

BYDUREON (exenatide extended-release for injectable suspension) is approved in the U.S. and the EU for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. From August 2012 until February 2014, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company ("Bristol-Myers") and AstraZeneca co-developed and marketed BYDUREON through their diabetes collaboration. In February 2014, AstraZeneca assumed sole responsibility for the development and commercialization of BYDUREON. BYDUREON, a once-weekly formulation of exenatide, the active ingredient in BYETTA, uses our polymer-based microsphere injectable extended-release technology. BYDUREON is manufactured by AstraZeneca.

 

BYDUREON Pen 2 mg, a pre‑filled, single‑use pen injector that contains the same formulation and dose as the original BYDUREON single‑dose tray, is available in the U.S., certain countries in the EU and Japan. 

 

What is type 2 diabetes?

 

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Diabetes can result in serious health complications, including cardiovascular, kidney and nerve disease. Diabetes is believed to affect nearly 26 million people in the U.S. and an estimated 382 million adults worldwide. Approximately 90‑95% of those affected have type 2 diabetes. An estimated 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Data indicate that weight loss (even a modest amount) supports patients in their efforts to achieve and sustain glycemic control.

 

Key Development Programs

 

Our research and development is focused on leveraging our formulation expertise and proprietary product platforms to develop novel, competitively advantaged medications designed to enhance patient outcomes in major CNS disorders, such as schizophrenia, addiction, depression and MS. As part of our ongoing research and development efforts, we have devoted, and will continue to devote, significant resources to conducting clinical studies to advance the development of new pharmaceutical products. The discussion below highlights our key current research and development programs. Drug development involves a high degree of risk and investment, and the status, timing and scope of our development programs are subject to change. Important factors that could adversely affect our drug development efforts are discussed in “Item 1A—Risk Factors.” Refer to the “Patents and Proprietary Rights” section of this Annual Report for information

8


 

with respect to the intellectual property protection for our product candidates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product Candidate

    

Target Indication(s)

    

Status

 

ALKS 5461

 

Major Depressive Disorder ("MDD")

 

Phase 3

 

ALKS 3831

 

Schizophrenia

 

Phase 3

 

ALKS 8700

 

MS

 

Phase 3

 

ALKS 6428

 

VIVITROL Seven-Day Taper Kit

 

Phase 3

 

Aripiprazole Lauroxil Two-Month Dose

 

Schizophrenia

 

Completed Phase 1

 

ALKS 7119

 

Various CNS diseases

 

Phase 1

 

RDB 1450

 

Cancer Immunotherapy

 

Pre-clinical

 

 

ALKS 5461

 

ALKS 5461 is a proprietary, oral investigational medicine in development for the treatment of MDD in patients who have an inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapies. ALKS 5461 is composed of samidorphan in combination with buprenorphine. Samidorphan, formerly referred to as ALKS 33, is a proprietary oral opioid modulator characterized by limited hepatic metabolism and durable pharmacologic activity in modulating brain opioid receptors. ALKS 5461 acts as a balanced neuromodulator in the brain and represents a new approach with a novel mechanism of action for treating MDD. In October 2013, the FDA granted Fast Track status for ALKS 5461 for the adjunctive treatment of MDD in patients with inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapies.

 

In January 2015, we announced topline results from FORWARD-1, one of a series of supportive clinical studies in the FORWARD phase 3 pivotal program designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of two titration schedules of ALKS 5461. Data from FORWARD-1 confirmed the safety and tolerability of ALKS 5461 in both titration schedules evaluated—one-week and two-week dose escalation schedules. These findings were consistent with the safety and tolerability profile seen in the phase 2 study of ALKS 5461 completed in 2013. In addition, the exploratory efficacy analyses showed that ALKS 5461 reduced depressive symptoms from baseline in patients who received either of the two titration schedules. These data supported the one-week titration schedule being utilized in the phase 3 efficacy studies in the FORWARD program. In December 2015, we also announced positive topline results from a human abuse potential study of ALKS 5461.

 

In January 2016, we announced the topline results of FORWARD-3 and FORWARD-4, two phase 3 clinical studies of ALKS 5461 in MDD. Neither of the two studies met the prespecified primary efficacy endpoint, which compared ALKS 5461 to placebo on the change from baseline on the Montgomery—Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (“MADRS”).

 

FORWARD-4 tested two dose levels of ALKS 5461 (2mg/2mg and 0.5mg/0.5mg) compared to placebo. There was a clear trend toward efficacy with the 2mg/2mg dose of ALKS 5461 on the primary endpoint, and post hoc analyses achieved statistical significance for the entire 2mg/2mg dose group on the MADRS endpoint. Based on these analyses, we believe that FORWARD-4 provides supportive evidence of the efficacy of ALKS 5461 in the treatment of MDD. FORWARD-3 tested ALKS 5461 (2mg/2mg) compared to placebo. Placebo response was greater than that observed in FORWARD-4 and no treatment effect of ALKS 5461 was observed.

 

FORWARD-5, the third pivotal efficacy study in the FORWARD program, is ongoing, testing two dose levels of ALKS 5461 (2mg/2mg and 1mg/1mg). FORWARD-5 shares common design features with FORWARD-4. Knowledge gained from FORWARD-3 and FORWARD-4 will be used to inform FORWARD-5.

 

In the case of a clear positive outcome for FORWARD-5, we will consult with the FDA to determine whether the evidence provided by it and the previously completed successful, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, together with supportive evidence from FORWARD-4, collectively could provide substantial evidence of efficacy for ALKS 5461 for the adjunctive treatment of MDD.

 

ALKS 3831

 

ALKS 3831 is a novel, proprietary oral investigational medicine designed as a broad-spectrum antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. ALKS 3831 is composed of samidorphan in combination with the established antipsychotic drug olanzapine, which is generally available under the name ZYPREXA. ALKS 3831 is designed to

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provide the strong efficacy of olanzapine and a differentiated safety profile with favorable weight and metabolic properties and to have utility in the treatment of schizophrenia in patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

 

In January 2015, we announced data from the first phase of a randomized, dose ranging, six-month phase 2 study of ALKS 3831 designed to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of ALKS 3831 in the treatment of schizophrenia and its attenuation of weight gain, compared to olanzapine. ALKS 3831 met the primary endpoint of the study, demonstrating equivalence to olanzapine in reduction from baseline in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (“PANSS”) total scores at week 12. Results showed that ALKS 3831 also met the secondary endpoint of demonstrating a lower mean percent weight gain compared to olanzapine at week 12 in the full study population, and a lower mean percent weight gain compared to olanzapine at week 12 in a pre-specified subset of patients who gained weight during the one-week olanzapine lead-in.

 

In April 2015, we announced data from the completed, six-month, randomized, dose-ranging phase 2 study of ALKS 3831. Patients who received ALKS 3831 during the first phase of the study, which lasted for three months, continued to receive the same dose of ALKS 3831, and patients who had received olanzapine during the first phase were switched to ALKS 3831. Data from the completed study supported and extended the initial positive results showing ALKS 3831’s favorable efficacy and mean weight gain profile and demonstrated for the first time that switching patients from olanzapine to ALKS 3831 resulted in a cessation of mean weight gain.

 

In December 2015, we announced the commencement of ENLIGHTEN-1, the first of two planned phase 3 studies from the ENLIGHTEN pivotal program for ALKS 3831. ENLIGHTEN-1 is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 3 study to evaluate the antipsychotic efficacy of ALKS 3831 compared to placebo over four weeks in patients experiencing acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. In February 2016, we announced the initiation of ENLIGHTEN-2, a phase 3 study assessing weight gain with ALKS 3831 compared to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia over a six month period. The ENLIGHTEN pivotal program will also include supportive studies to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile of ALKS 3831, as well as long-term safety. We expect to use safety and efficacy data from the ENLIGHTEN pivotal program to serve as the basis for a NDA to be submitted to the FDA, pending study results.

 

ALKS 8700

 

ALKS 8700 is an oral, novel and proprietary monomethyl fumarate ("MMF") molecule in development for the treatment of MS. ALKS 8700 is designed to rapidly and efficiently convert to MMF in the body and to offer differentiated features as compared to the currently marketed dimethyl fumarate, TECFIDERA. In May 2015, we presented positive results from a phase 1, randomized, double-blind clinical study of ALKS 8700, designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and single-dose pharmacokinetics of several oral formulations of ALKS 8700 compared to both placebo and active control groups. Data from the study showed that ALKS 8700 provided MMF exposures comparable to TECFIDERA, with less variability and favorable gastrointestinal tolerability. The most common adverse events were flushing and gastrointestinal-related.

 

Following a meeting with the FDA, we announced in October 2015 our plans to file a 505(b)(2) NDA using pharmacokinetic bridging data from studies comparing ALKS 8700 and TECFIDERA and a two-year, multicenter, open-label study designed to assess the safety of ALKS 8700, which we initiated in December 2015. Additionally, we plan to initiate a randomized, head-to-head phase 3 study of the gastrointestinal tolerability of ALKS 8700 compared to TECFIDERA in mid-2016.

 

In October 2015, we also announced data from a randomized, double-blind phase 1 comparative pharmacokinetic study evaluating plasma MMF levels achieved by the administration of single doses of ALKS 8700 and TECFIDERA. Initial data from this study showed that ALKS 8700 met the pharmacokinetic criteria for bioequivalence to TECFIDERA. The most common adverse events for ALKS 8700 in the study were flushing, dizziness and constipation. Based on these results, we have selected the ALKS 8700 dose to be used in the registration program. We will need to conduct additional preclinical studies and pharmacokinetic studies to further support pharmacokinetic comparability to TECFIDERA. We expect to complete ALKS 8700 registrational studies and file the NDA in 2018.

 

ALKS 6428

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ALKS 6428 is an oral formulation of naltrexone designed to help physicians transition patients from physical dependence on opioids to antagonist therapy. This transition process includes doses of naltrexone in conjunction with buprenorphine during a seven-day treatment period. Upon successful completion of the transition process, physicians would then be able to administer VIVITROL. In September 2015, we initiated a phase 3 study evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of ALKS 6428 in patients with opioid dependence.

 

Aripiprazole Lauroxil Two-Month Dose

 

Aripiprazole lauroxil is an injectable atypical antipsychotic, available as ARISTADA with once-monthly and six-week dosing options for the treatment of schizophrenia, in development with a two-month dosing interval. In February 2016, we announced positive topline results from  a randomized, open-label, pharmacokinetic study evaluating a two-month dosing interval of aripiprazole lauroxil extended-release injectable suspension for the treatment of schizophrenia. Based on these phase 1 results, we plan to submit a supplemental New Drug Application (“NDA”) to the FDA in the second half of 2016.

 

ALKS 7119

 

ALKS 7119 is a novel, proprietary investigational medicine that has a multivalent mechanism of action that acts on key receptors in the brain involved in several CNS diseases, including agitation in Alzheimer’s disease, MDD and others. In January 2016, we announced the initiation of a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of single ascending doses of ALKS 7119 in healthy subjects. Results from this phase 1 study are expected in the second half of 2016.

 

RDB 1450

 

RDB 1450, formerly referred to as RDB 1419, is our selective effector cell activator (“SECA”) that is designed to harness a patient’s immune system to preferentially activate and increase the number of tumor killing immune cells. SECA proteins selectively target immune cells to avoid expansion of immune regulatory cells which interfere with the anti-tumor response. SECA molecules are engineered using our proprietary fusion protein technology platform to modulate the natural mechanism of action of a biologic product. Based on feedback from the FDA, we now plan to file an Investigational New Drug application with the FDA in the first quarter of 2016 and begin phase 1 clinical trials in the second quarter of 2016.

 

Product Candidates  Using our Proprietary Technologies

 

Acorda

 

In December 2014, Acorda announced the initiation of a phase 3 clinical trial of dalfampridine extended release tablets for the treatment of post‑stroke walking deficits. It expects this multicenter, double‑blind, randomized trial to enroll approximately 540 participants who have experienced an ischemic stroke at least six months prior to enrollment.

 

Janssen

 

In August 2015, Janssen announced that it submitted an Extension Marketing Authorization Application to the EMA for the three-month formulation of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia.

 

AstraZeneca

 

AstraZeneca is developing line extensions for BYDUREON for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including weekly suspension formulations using our proprietary technology for extended‑release microspheres. 

 

Our Research and Development Expenditures

 

Please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for our research and development (“R&D”) expenditures for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the nine months ended December 31, 2013.

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Collaborative Arrangements

 

We have entered into several collaborative arrangements to develop and commercialize products and, in so doing, to access technological, financial, marketing, manufacturing and other resources. Refer to the “Patents and Proprietary Rights” section of this Annual Report for information with respect to the intellectual property protection for these products.

 

Janssen

 

INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA

 

Under our license agreement with Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., we granted Janssen a worldwide exclusive license under our NanoCrystal technology to develop, commercialize and manufacture INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA and related products.

 

Under our license agreement, we received milestone payments upon the achievement of certain development goals from Janssen; there are no further milestones to be earned under this agreement. We receive tiered royalty payments between 5% and 9% of INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA net sales in each country where the license is in effect, with the exact royalty percentage determined based on worldwide net sales. The tiered royalty payments consist of a patent royalty and a know‑how royalty, both of which are determined on a county‑by‑country basis. The patent royalty, which equals 1.5% of net sales, is payable until the expiration of the last of the patents claiming the product in such country. The know‑how royalty is a tiered royalty of 3.5%, 5.5% and 7.5% on aggregate worldwide net sales of below $250 million, between $250 million and $500 million, and greater than $500 million, respectively. The know‑how royalty is payable for the later of 15 years from first commercial sale of a product in each individual country or March 31, 2019,  subject in each case to the expiry of the license agreement. These royalty payments may be reduced in any country based on patent litigation or on competing products achieving certain minimum sales thresholds. The license agreement expires upon the later of (i) March 31, 2019 or (ii) the expiration of the last of the patents subject to the agreement. After expiration, Janssen retains a non‑exclusive, royalty‑free license to develop, manufacture and commercialize the products.

 

Janssen may terminate the license agreement in whole or in part upon three months’ notice to us. We and Janssen have the right to terminate the agreement upon a material breach of the other party, which is not cured within a certain time period, or upon the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency.

 

RISPERDAL CONSTA

 

Under a product development agreement, we collaborated with Janssen on the development of RISPERDAL CONSTA. Under the development agreement, Janssen provided funding to us for the development of RISPERDAL CONSTA, and Janssen is responsible for securing all necessary regulatory approvals for the product.

 

Under license agreements, we granted Janssen and an affiliate of Janssen exclusive worldwide licenses to use and sell RISPERDAL CONSTA. Under our license agreements with Janssen, we receive royalty payments equal to 2.5% of Janssen’s net sales of RISPERDAL CONSTA in each country where the license is in effect based on the quarter when the product is sold by Janssen. This royalty may be reduced in any country based on lack of patent coverage and significant competition from generic versions of the product. Janssen can terminate the license agreements upon 30 days’ prior written notice to us. Either party may terminate the license agreements by written notice following a breach which continues for 90 days after the delivery of written notice thereof or upon the other party’s insolvency. The licenses granted to Janssen expire on a country‑by‑country basis upon the later of (i) the expiration of the last patent claiming the product in such country or (ii) 15 years after the date of the first commercial sale of the product in such country, provided that in no event will the license granted to Janssen expire later than the twentieth anniversary of the first commercial sale of the product in such country, with the exception of certain countries where the fifteen‑year limitation shall pertain regardless. After expiration, Janssen retains a non‑exclusive, royalty‑free license to manufacture, use and sell RISPERDAL CONSTA.

 

We exclusively manufacture RISPERDAL CONSTA for commercial sale. Under our manufacturing and supply agreement with Janssen, we record manufacturing revenues when product is shipped to Janssen, based on a

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percentage of Janssen’s net unit sales price for RISPERDAL CONSTA for the calendar year. This percentage is determined based on Janssen’s unit demand for the calendar year and varies based on the volume of units shipped, with a minimum manufacturing fee of 7.5%. The manufacturing and supply agreement terminates on expiration of the license agreements. In addition, either party may terminate the manufacturing and supply agreement upon a material breach by the other party, which is not resolved within 60 days after receipt of a written notice specifying the material breach or upon written notice in the event of the other party’s insolvency or bankruptcy. Janssen may terminate the agreement upon six months’ written notice to us. In the event that Janssen terminates the manufacturing and supply agreement without terminating the license agreements, the royalty rate payable to us on Janssen’s net sales of RISPERDAL CONSTA would increase from 2.5% to 5.0%.

 

Acorda

 

Under an amended and restated license agreement, we granted Acorda an exclusive worldwide license to use and sell and, solely in accordance with our supply agreement, to make or have made, AMPYRA/FAMPYRA. We receive certain commercial and development milestone payments, license revenues and a royalty of approximately 10% based on net sales of AMPYRA/FAMPYRA by Acorda and its sub‑licensee, Biogen. This royalty payment may be reduced in any country based on lack of patent coverage, competing products achieving certain minimum sales thresholds, and whether we manufacture the product.

 

In June 2009, we entered into an amendment of the amended and restated license agreement and the supply agreement with Acorda and, pursuant to such amendment, consented to the sublicense by Acorda to Biogen of Acorda’s rights to use and sell FAMPYRA in certain territories outside of the U.S. (to the extent that such rights were to be sublicensed to Biogen pursuant to its separate collaboration and license agreement with Acorda). Under this amendment, we agreed to modify certain terms and conditions of the amended and restated license agreement and the supply agreement with Acorda to reflect the sublicense by Acorda to Biogen.

 

Acorda has the right to terminate the amended and restated license agreement upon 90 days’ written notice. We have the right to terminate the amended and restated license agreement for countries in which Acorda fails to launch a product within a specified time after obtaining the necessary regulatory approval or fails to file regulatory approvals within a commercially reasonable time after completion of, and receipt of positive data from, all preclinical and clinical studies required for filing a marketing authorization application. Either party has the right to terminate the amended and restated license agreement by written notice following a material breach of the other party, which is not cured within a certain time period, or upon the other party’s entry into bankruptcy or dissolution proceedings. If we terminate Acorda’s license in any country, we are entitled to a license from Acorda of its patent rights and know‑how relating to the product as well as the related data, information and regulatory files, and to market the product in the applicable country, subject to an initial payment equal to Acorda’s cost of developing such data, information and regulatory files and to ongoing royalty payments to Acorda. Subject to the termination of the amended and restated license agreement, licenses granted under the license agreement terminate on a country‑by‑country basis on the later of (i) September 26, 2018 or (ii) the expiration of the last to expire of our patents or the existence of a threshold level of competition in the marketplace.

 

Under our commercial manufacturing supply agreement with Acorda, we manufacture and supply AMPYRA/FAMPYRA for Acorda (and its sub‑licensee). Under the terms of the agreement, Acorda may obtain up to 25% of its total annual requirements of product from a second‑source manufacturer. We receive manufacturing royalties equal to 8% of net selling price for all product manufactured by us and a compensating payment for product manufactured and supplied by a third party. We may terminate the commercial manufacturing supply agreement upon 12 months’ prior written notice to Acorda, and either party may terminate the commercial manufacturing supply agreement following a material and uncured breach of the commercial manufacturing supply agreement or amended and restated license agreement or the entry into bankruptcy or dissolution proceedings by the other party. In addition, subject to early termination of the commercial manufacturing supply agreement noted above, the commercial manufacturing supply agreement terminates upon the expiry or termination of the amended and restated license agreement.

 

We are entitled to receive the following milestone payments under our amended and restated license agreement with Acorda for each of the third and fourth new indications of the product developed thereunder:

 

·

initiation of a phase 3 clinical trial: $1.0 million;

·

acceptance of an NDA by the FDA: $1.0 million;

·

approval of the NDA by the FDA: $1.5 million; and

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·

the first commercial sale: $1.5 million.

 

In January 2011, we entered into a development and supplemental agreement to our amended and restated license agreement and commercial manufacturing supply agreement with Acorda. Under the terms of this agreement, we granted Acorda the right, either with us or with a third party, in each case in accordance with certain terms and conditions, to develop new formulations of dalfampridine or other aminopyridines. Under the terms of the agreement, Acorda has the right to select either a formulation developed by us or by a third party for commercialization. We are entitled to development fees we incur in developing formulations under the development and supplemental agreement and, if Acorda selects and commercializes any such formulation, to milestone payments (for new indications if not previously paid), license revenues and royalties in accordance with our amended and restated license agreement for the product, and either manufacturing fees as a percentage of net selling price for product manufactured by us or compensating fees for product manufactured by third parties. If, under the development and supplemental agreement, Acorda selects a formulation not developed by us, then we will be entitled to various compensation payments and have the first option to manufacture such third‑party formulation. The development and supplemental agreement expires upon the expiry or termination of the amended and restated license agreement and may be earlier terminated by either party following an uncured breach of the agreement by the other party.

 

Acorda’s financial obligations under this development and supplemental agreement continue for a minimum of ten years from the first commercial sale of such new formulation, and may extend for a longer period of time, depending on the intellectual property rights protecting the formulation, regulatory exclusivity and/or the absence of significant market competition. These financial obligations survive termination of the agreement.

 

AstraZeneca

 

In May 2000, we entered into a development and license agreement with Amylin Pharmaceuticals, LLC (“Amylin”) for the development of exendin products falling within the scope of our patents, including the once‑weekly formulation of exenatide marketed as BYDUREON. In August 2012, Bristol‑Myers acquired Amylin. From August 2012 through January 2014, Bristol‑Myers and AstraZeneca jointly developed and commercialized Amylin’s exendin products, including BYDUREON, through their diabetes collaboration. In April 2013, Bristol‑Myers completed its assumption of all global commercialization responsibility related to the marketing of BYDUREON from Amylin’s former collaborative partner, Eli Lilly & Company (“Lilly”). In February 2014, AstraZeneca acquired sole ownership of the intellectual property and global rights related to BYDUREON and Amylin’s other exendin products, including Amylin’s rights and obligations under our development and license agreement.

 

Pursuant to the development and license agreement, AstraZeneca has an exclusive, worldwide license to our polymer‑based microsphere technology for the development and commercialization of injectable extended‑release formulations of exendins and other related compounds. We receive funding for research and development and will also receive royalty payments based on future product sales. Upon the achievement of certain development and commercialization goals, we received milestone payments consisting of cash and warrants for Amylin common stock; there are no further milestones to be earned under the agreement. In October 2005 and in July 2006, we amended the development and license agreement. Under the amended development and license agreement (i) we are responsible for formulation and are principally responsible for non‑clinical development of any products that may be developed pursuant to the agreement and for manufacturing these products for use in early‑phase clinical trials, and (ii) we transferred certain of our technology related to the manufacture of BYDUREON to Amylin and agreed to the manufacture of BYDUREON by Amylin. Under our amended development and license agreement, AstraZeneca is responsible for conducting clinical trials, securing regulatory approvals and commercializing exenatide products, including BYDUREON, on a worldwide basis.

 

Until December 31, 2021, we will receive royalties equal to 8% of net sales from the first 40 million units of BYDUREON sold in any particular calendar year and 5.5% of net sales from units sold beyond the first 40 million units for that calendar year. Thereafter, during the term of the development and license agreement, we will receive royalties equal to 5.5% of net sales of products sold. We were entitled to, and received, milestone payments related to the first commercial sale of BYDUREON in the EU and the first commercial sale of BYDUREON in the U.S.

 

The development and license agreement expires on the later of (i) ten years from the first commercial sale of the last of the products covered by the development and license agreement, or (ii) the expiration or invalidation of all of our patents covering such product. Upon expiration, all licenses become non‑exclusive and royalty‑free. AstraZeneca may

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terminate the development and license agreement for any reason upon 180 days’ written notice to us. In addition, either party may terminate the development and license agreement upon a material default or breach by the other party that is not cured within 60 days after receipt of written notice specifying the default or breach. Alkermes may terminate the development and license agreement upon AstraZeneca’s insolvency or bankruptcy.

 

Other Arrangements

 

Civitas Therapeutics, Inc.

 

In December 2010, we entered into an asset purchase and license agreement and equity investment agreement with Civitas Therapeutics, Inc. (“Civitas”). Under the terms of these agreements, we sold, assigned and transferred to Civitas our right, title and interest in our pulmonary patent portfolio and certain of our pulmonary drug delivery equipment, instruments, contracts and technical and regulatory documentation and licensed certain related know‑how in exchange for 15% of the issued shares of the Series A Preferred Stock of Civitas and a royalty on future sales of any products developed using this pulmonary drug delivery technology. We also participated in certain subsequent rounds of financing. In connection with this transaction, Civitas also entered into an agreement to sublease our pulmonary manufacturing facility located in Chelsea, Massachusetts.

 

We may terminate the asset purchase and license agreement for default in the event Civitas does not meet certain minimum development performance obligations. Either party may terminate the asset purchase and license agreement upon a material default or breach by the other party that is not cured within 45 days after receipt of written notice specifying the default or breach. Either party may also terminate the asset purchase and license agreement upon written notice in the event of the other party’s insolvency or bankruptcy.

 

In October 2014, Civitas was acquired by Acorda for approximately $525.0 million, of which we received $29.6 million in exchange for our approximate 6% interest in Civitas. Also, in connection with Acorda’s purchase of Civitas, we sold certain of our pulmonary manufacturing equipment to Acorda in exchange for $30.0 million. In November 2015, we assigned the lease to our pulmonary manufacturing facility located in Chelsea, Massachusetts to Civitas and terminated the sublease with Civitas related to this facility.

 

Recro Pharma, Inc.

 

On April 10, 2015, we completed the sale of our manufacturing facility in Gainesville, GA, the manufacturing and royalty revenue associated with products manufactured at that facility, and global rights to IV/IM and parenteral forms of Meloxicam (the “Disposition” or “Gainesville Transaction”) to Recro Pharma, Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation listed on Nasdaq (“Recro”) and Recro Pharma LLC (the “Acquisition Sub” and together with Recro, the “Purchasers”) pursuant to a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) entered into on March 7, 2015 among us, Daravita Limited (an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company), and the Purchasers. 

 

In accordance with the terms of the Purchase Agreement, at the closing of the Disposition, the Purchasers made an initial cash payment to us of $50 million, a $4 million payment relating to the net working capital, and issued us a seven-year warrant to purchase an aggregate of 350,000 shares of Recro common stock at a per share exercise price equal to $19.46, two times the closing price of Recro’s common stock on the day prior to closing.  We are also eligible to receive low double digit royalties on net sales of IV/IM and parenteral forms of Meloxicam and up to $120 million in milestone payments upon the achievement of certain regulatory and sales milestones related to IV/IM and parenteral forms of Meloxicam.

 

Proprietary Product Platforms

 

Our proprietary product platforms, which include technologies owned and exclusively licensed to us, address several important development opportunities. We have used these technologies as platforms to establish drug development, clinical development and regulatory expertise.

 

Injectable Extended‑Release Microsphere Technology

 

Our injectable extended‑release microsphere technology allows us to encapsulate small‑molecule pharmaceuticals, peptides and proteins, in microspheres made of common medical polymers. The technology is

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designed to enable novel formulations of pharmaceuticals by providing controlled, extended release of drugs over time. Drug release from the microsphere is controlled by diffusion of the drug through the microsphere and by biodegradation of the polymer. These processes can be modulated through a number of formulation and fabrication variables, including drug substance and microsphere particle sizing and choice of polymers and excipients.

 

LinkeRx Technology

 

The long‑acting LinkeRx technology platform is designed to enable the creation of extended‑release injectable versions of antipsychotic therapies and may also be useful in other disease areas in which long action may provide therapeutic benefits. The technology uses proprietary linker‑tail chemistry to create new molecular entities derived from known agents.

 

NanoCrystal Technology

 

Our NanoCrystal technology is applicable to poorly water‑soluble compounds and involves formulating and stabilizing drugs into particles that are nanometers in size. A drug in NanoCrystal form can be incorporated into a range of common dosage forms and administration routes, including tablets, capsules, inhalation devices and sterile forms for injection, with the potential for enhanced oral bioavailability, increased therapeutic effectiveness, reduced/eliminated fed/fasted variability and sustained duration of intravenous/intramuscular release.

 

Oral Controlled Release Technology

 

Our oral controlled release (“OCR”) technologies are used to formulate, develop and manufacture oral dosage forms of pharmaceutical products that control the release characteristics of standard dosage forms. Our OCR platform includes technologies for tailored pharmacokinetic profiles including SODAS technology, CODAS technology, IPDAS technology and the MXDAS drug absorption system, each as described below:

 

·

SODAS Technology: SODAS (Spheroidal Oral Drug Absorption System) technology involves producing uniform spherical beads of 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter containing drug plus excipients and coated with product‑specific modified‑release polymers. Varying the nature and combination of polymers within a selectively permeable membrane enables varying degrees of modified release depending upon the required product profile.

 

·

CODAS Technology: CODAS (Chronotherapeutic Oral Drug Absorption System) technology enables the delayed onset of drug release incorporating the use of specific polymers, resulting in a drug release profile that more accurately complements circadian patterns.

 

·

IPDAS Technology: IPDAS (Intestinal Protective Drug Absorption System) technology conveys gastrointestinal protection by a wide dispersion of drug candidates in a controlled and gradual manner, through the use of numerous high‑density controlled‑release beads compressed into a tablet form. Release characteristics are modified by the application of polymers to the micro matrix and subsequent coatings, which form a rate‑limiting semi‑permeable membrane.

 

·

MXDAS Technology: MXDAS (Matrix Drug Absorption System) technology formulates the drug candidate in a hydrophilic matrix and incorporates one or more hydrophilic matrix‑forming polymers into a solid oral dosage form, which controls the release of drug through a process of diffusion and erosion in the gastrointestinal tract.

 

Manufacturing and Product Supply

 

We own and occupy  a R&D and manufacturing facility in Athlone, Ireland and a manufacturing facility in Wilmington, Ohio. We either purchase active drug product from third parties or receive it from our third‑party licensees to formulate product using our technologies. The manufacture of our products for clinical trials and commercial use is subject to Current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations and other regulatory agency regulations. Our manufacturing and development capabilities include formulation through process development, scale‑up and full‑scale commercial manufacturing and specialized capabilities for the development and manufacturing of controlled substances.

 

Although some materials for our products are currently available from a single source or a limited number of

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qualified sources, we attempt to acquire an adequate inventory of such materials, establish alternative sources and/or negotiate long‑term supply arrangements. We believe we do not have any significant issues in finding suppliers. However, we cannot be certain that we will continue to be able to obtain long‑term supplies of our manufacturing materials.

 

Our third‑party service providers involved in the manufacture of our products are subject to inspection by the FDA or comparable agencies in other jurisdictions. Any delay, interruption or other issues that arise in the acquisition of active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), manufacture, fill‑finish, packaging, or storage of our marketed products or product candidates, including as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to pass any regulatory agency inspection, could significantly impair our ability to sell our products or advance our development efforts, as the case may be. For information about risks relating to the manufacture of our marketed products and product candidates, see “Item 1A—Risk Factors” and specifically those sections entitled “—We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture and distribution of our products” and “—We are subject to risks related to the manufacture of our products.”  

 

Proprietary Products and Products using our Proprietary Technologies

 

We manufacture microspheres for RISPERDAL CONSTA and VIVITROL, polymer for BYDUREON, and ARISTADA in our Wilmington, Ohio facility. We are currently operating two RISPERDAL CONSTA lines, one VIVITROL line and one ARISTADA line at commercial scale. Janssen has granted us an option, exercisable upon 30 days’ advance written notice, to purchase the most recently constructed and validated RISPERDAL CONSTA manufacturing line at its then‑current net book value. We source our packaging operations for VIVITROL and ARISTADA to a third‑party contractor. Janssen is responsible for packaging operations for RISPERDAL CONSTA. Our Wilmington, Ohio facility has been inspected by U.S., European including the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, Chinese, Japanese, Brazilian and Saudi Arabian regulatory authorities for compliance with required cGMP standards for continued commercial manufacturing.

 

We manufacture AMPYRA/FAMPYRA and other products in our Athlone, Ireland facility. This facility has been inspected by U.S., Irish, Brazilian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Korean and Belarusian regulatory authorities for compliance with required cGMP standards for continued commercial manufacturing.

 

For more information about our manufacturing facilities, see “Item 2—Properties.”

 

Clinical Products 

 

We have established, and are operating, facilities with the capability to produce clinical supplies of injectable extended‑release products at our Wilmington, Ohio facility and NanoCrystal and OCR technology products at our Athlone, Ireland facility. We have also contracted with third‑party manufacturers to formulate certain products for clinical use. We require that our contract manufacturers adhere to cGMP in the manufacture of products for clinical use.

 

Research & Development

 

We devote significant resources to R&D programs. We focus our R&D efforts on finding novel therapeutics in areas of high unmet medical need. Our R&D efforts include, but are not limited to, areas such as pharmaceutical formulation, analytical chemistry, process development, engineering, scale‑up and drug optimization/delivery. Please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for our R&D expenditures for our years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the nine months ended December 31, 2013.

 

Permits and Regulatory Approvals

 

We hold various licenses in respect of our manufacturing activities conducted in Wilmington, Ohio and Athlone, Ireland. The primary licenses held in this regard are FDA Registrations of Drug Establishment; and Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of Justice (“DEA”). We also hold a Manufacturers Authorization (No. M1067), an Investigational Medicinal Products Manufacturers Authorization (No. IMP074) and Certificates of Good Manufacturing Practice Compliance of a Manufacturer (Ref. 2014/7828/IMP074 and 2014/7828/M1067) from the Health Products Regulatory Authority (“HPRA”) in respect of our Athlone, Ireland facility, and a number of Controlled

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Substance Licenses granted by the HPRA. Due to certain U.S. state law requirements, we also hold certain state licenses to cover distribution activities through certain states and not in respect of any manufacturing activities conducted in those states.

 

We do not generally act as the product authorization holder for products incorporating our drug delivery technologies that have been developed on behalf of a licensee. In such cases, our licensee usually holds the relevant authorization from the FDA or other national regulator, and we would support this authorization by furnishing a copy of the Drug Master File, or the chemistry, manufacturing and controls data to the relevant regulator to prove adequate manufacturing data in respect of the product. We would generally update this information annually with the relevant regulator. In other cases where we are developing proprietary products, such as VIVITROL and ARISTADA, we hold the appropriate regulatory documentation ourselves.

 

Marketing, Sales and Distribution

 

We are responsible for the marketing of VIVITROL and ARISTADA in the U.S. We focus our sales and marketing efforts on specialist physicians in private practice and in public treatment systems. We use customary pharmaceutical company practices to market our product and to educate physicians, such as sales representatives calling on individual physicians, advertisements, professional symposia, selling initiatives, public relations and other methods. We provide, or contract with third‑party vendors to provide, customer service and other related programs for our products, such as product‑specific websites, insurance research services and order, delivery and fulfillment services.

 

Our sales force for VIVITROL in the U.S. consists of approximately 70 individuals. VIVITROL is sold directly to pharmaceutical wholesalers, specialty pharmacies and a specialty distributor. Product sales of VIVITROL during the year ended December 31, 2015 to McKesson Corporation, CVS Caremark Corporation and Cardinal Health represented approximately 17%, 15% and 10%, respectively, of total VIVITROL sales.

 

Our sales force for ARISTADA in the U.S. consists of approximately 200 individuals. ARISTADA is primarily sold to pharmaceutical wholesalers.

 

ICS AmerisourceBergen, a division of AmerisourceBergen Corporation, provides warehousing, shipping and administrative services for VIVITROL and ARISTADA.

 

Under our license agreements with Janssen, AstraZeneca, Acorda and other licensees and sublicensees, these companies are responsible for the commercialization of any products developed thereunder if and when regulatory approval is obtained.

 

Competition

 

We face intense competition in the development, manufacture, marketing and commercialization of our products from many and varied sources, such as academic institutions, government agencies, research institutions and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, including other companies with similar technologies. Some of these competitors are also our licensees, who control the commercialization of products from which we receive manufacturing and royalty revenues. These competitors are working to develop and market other systems, products and other methods of preventing or reducing disease, and new small‑molecule and other classes of drugs that can be used with or without a drug delivery system.

 

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by intensive research, development and commercialization efforts and rapid and significant technological change. Many of our competitors are larger and have significantly greater financial and other resources than we do. We expect our competitors to develop new technologies, products and processes that may be more effective than those we develop. The development of technologically improved or different products or technologies may make our products or product platforms obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover expenses incurred in connection with their development or realize any revenues from any marketed product.

 

There are other companies developing extended‑release product platforms. In many cases, there are products on the market or in development that may be in direct competition with our products. In addition, we know of new chemical entities that are being developed that, if successful, could compete against our products. These chemical entities are being designed to work differently than our products and may turn out to be safer or to be more effective than our

18


 

products. Among the many experimental therapies being tested around the world, there may be some that we do not now know of that may compete with our proprietary product platforms or products. Our licensees could choose a competing technology to use with their drugs instead of one of our product platforms and could develop products that compete with our products.

 

With respect to our proprietary injectable product platform, we are aware that there are other companies developing extended‑release delivery systems for pharmaceutical products. In the treatment of schizophrenia, ARISTADA, INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA and RISPERDAL CONSTA compete with each other and a number of other injectable products including ZYPREXA RELPREVV ((olanzapine) For Extended Release Injectable Suspension), which is marketed and sold by Lilly; ABILIFY MAINTENA, (aripiprazole for extended release injectable suspension), a once‑monthly injectable formulation of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) developed by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (“Otsuka Pharm. Co.”); oral compounds currently on the market; and generic versions of branded oral and injectable products. In the treatment of bipolar disorder, RISPERDAL CONSTA competes with antipsychotics such as ABILIFY, LATUDA, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone and clozapine.

 

In the treatment of alcohol dependence, VIVITROL competes with CAMPRAL (acamprosate calcium) sold by Forest Laboratories and ANTABUSE sold by Odyssey Pharmaceuticals (“Odyssey”) as well as currently marketed drugs, including generic drugs, also formulated from naltrexone. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing products that have shown some promise in treating alcohol dependence that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with VIVITROL.

 

In the treatment of opioid dependence, VIVITROL competes with methadone, oral naltrexone, SUBOXONE (buprenorphine HCl/naloxone HCl dehydrate sublingual tablets), SUBOXONE (buprenorphine/naloxone) Sublingual Film, and SUBUTEX (buprenorphine HCl sublingual tablets), each of which is marketed and sold by Indivior plc, and BUNAVAIL buccal film (buprenorphine and naloxone) marketed by BioDelivery Sciences, and ZUBSOLV (buprenorphine and naloxone) marketed by Orexo US, Inc. It also competes with generic versions of SUBUTEX and SUBOXONE sublingual tablets. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing products  that have shown promise in treating opioid dependence that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with VIVITROL.

 

BYDUREON competes with established diabetes therapies for market share. Such competitive products include sulfonylureas, metformin, insulins, thiazolidinediones, glinides, dipeptidyl peptidase type IV inhibitors, insulin sensitizers, alpha‑glucosidase inhibitors and sodium‑glucose transporter‑2 inhibitors. BYDUREON also competes with other glucagon‑like peptide‑1 (“GLP‑1”) agonists, including VICTOZA (liraglutide (rDNA origin) injection), which is marketed and sold by Novo Nordisk A/S and TRULICITY ((dulaglutide) injection), which is marketed and sold by Lilly. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing product candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with BYDUREON.

 

While AMPYRA/FAMPYRA is the first product approved as a treatment to improve walking in patients with MS, there are a number of FDA‑approved therapies for MS disease management that seek to reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations or slow the accumulation of physical disability for people with certain types of MS. These products include AVONEX, TYSABRI, TECFIDERA, and PLEGRIDY from Biogen; BETASERON from Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; COPAXONE from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; REBIF and NOVANTRONE from EMD Serono, Inc.; GILENYA and EXTAVIA from Novartis AG; AUBAGIO and LEMTRADA from Sanofi‑Aventis and generic products.

 

With respect to our NanoCrystal technology, we are aware that other technology approaches similarly address poorly water‑soluble drugs. These approaches include nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, lipid‑based self‑emulsifying drug delivery systems, dendrimers and micelles, among others, any of which could limit the potential success and growth prospects of products incorporating our NanoCrystal technology. In addition, there are many competing technologies to our OCR technology, some of which are owned by large pharmaceutical companies with drug delivery divisions and other, smaller drug‑delivery‑specific companies.

 

Patents and Proprietary Rights

 

Our success will be dependent, in part, on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for our products, including those marketed and sold by our licensees, to maintain trade secret protection and to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. We have a proprietary portfolio of patent rights and exclusive licenses to patents

19


 

and patent applications. In addition, our licensees may own issued patents that cover certain of our products. We have filed numerous patent applications in the U.S. and in other countries directed to compositions of matter as well as processes of preparation and methods of use, including patent applications relating to each of our delivery technologies. As of December 31, 2015, we owned more than 200 issued U.S. patents. In the future, we plan to file additional patent applications in the U.S. and in other countries directed to new or improved products and processes, and we intend to vigorously defend our patent positions.

 

ARISTADA

 

We have several U.S. patents and patent applications, and a number of corresponding foreign counterparts, related to ARISTADA. Our principal U.S. patents and expiration dates are:

 

·

U.S. Patent No. 8,431,576, having claims to a class of compounds that includes aripiprazole lauroxil, expiring in 2030; 

·

U.S. Patent No. 8,796,276, having claims to methods of treating schizophrenia using a class of compounds that includes aripiprazole lauroxil, expiring in 2030;

·

U.S. Patent No. 9,034,867, having claims to pharmaceutical compositions, expiring in 2032; and

·

U.S. Patent No. 9,193,685, having claims to pharmaceutical compositions that confer long-term stability, expiring in 2033.

 

In addition to patent protection, in the U.S. ARISTADA is entitled to regulatory exclusivity afforded to new chemical entities until 2020.

 

VIVITROL, RISPERDAL CONSTA and BYDUREON

 

We have filed patent applications worldwide that cover our microsphere technology and have a significant number of patents and certain pending patent applications covering our microsphere technology, which, to some extent, cover VIVITROL, RISPERDAL CONSTA and BYDUREON. The latest of our patents covering VIVITROL, RISPERDAL CONSTA and BYDUREON expire in 2029, 2023 and 2025 in the U.S., respectively, and 2021, 2021 and 2024 in the EU, respectively, and we own 20, 7, and 10 Orange-Book listed U.S. patents covering VIVITROL, RISPERDAL CONSTA and BYDUREON, respectively.

 

INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA

 

Our NanoCrystal technology patent portfolio contains a number of patents granted throughout the world, including the U.S. and countries outside of the U.S. We also have a number of pending patent applications covering our NanoCrystal technology which, to some extent, cover INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA. The latest of the patents covering INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION expire in May 2019 in the U.S. and 2022 in the EU. The latest of the patents covering INVEGA TRINZA expire in November 2017 in the U.S. and 2022 in the EU. Additional pending applications may provide a longer period of patent coverage, if granted, and in certain countries, such as Australia and South Korea, patent coverage extends until 2023.

 

AMPYRA/FAMPYRA

 

Our OCR technology is protected by a patent estate including patents and patent applications filed worldwide. Some OCR patent families are product‑specific (including some which are owned by our licensees), whereas others cover generic delivery platforms (e.g. different release profiles, taste masking). AMPYRA/FAMPYRA incorporates our OCR technology, and the latest of the patents covering AMPYRA/FAMPYRA expires in May 2027 in the U.S. and April 2025 in the EU. For a discussion of legal proceedings related to the patents covering AMPYRA, see “Item 3—Legal Proceedings.”

 

ALKS 5461, ALKS 3831 and ALKS 7119

 

We also have worldwide patent protection for our Key Development Programs. We own U.S. patents that cover a class of compounds that includes the opioid modulators in each of ALKS 5461, ALKS 3831 and ALKS 7119 and granted method of treatment claims that will cover ALKS 5461. Our principal U.S. patents and expiration dates for ALKS 5461, ALKS 3831, and ALKS 7119 are:

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U.S. Patent No.

 

Product Candidate(s) Covered

 

Expiration Date

7,956,187

 

ALKS 5461

ALKS 3831

ALKS 7119

 

2021

8,252,929

 

ALKS 5461

ALKS 3831

 

2021

7,262,298

 

ALKS 5461

ALKS 3831

 

2025

8,680,112

 

ALKS 5461

ALKS 3831

 

2029

9,119,848

 

ALKS 5461

ALKS 3831

 

2031

9,126,977

 

ALKS 3831

 

2031

8,778,960

 

ALKS 3831

 

2032

9,211,293

 

ALKS 5461

 

2032

8,822,488

 

ALKS 5461

 

2032

 

ALKS 8700

 

We have U.S. patents and patent applications, and a number of corresponding foreign counterparts, related to ALKS 8700. Our U.S. patents and expiration dates for ALKS 8700 are:

 

·

U.S. Patent No. 8,669,281, having claims to a composition of matter that covers ALKS 8700, expiring in 2033; and 

·

U.S. Patent No. 9,090,558, having claims to methods of treating MS, expiring in 2033.

 

We have exclusive rights through licensing agreements with third parties to issued U.S. patents, pending patent applications and corresponding patents or patent applications in countries outside the U.S, subject in certain instances to the rights of the U.S. government to use the technology covered by such patents and patent applications. Under certain licensing agreements, we are responsible for patent expenses, and we pay annual license fees and/or minimum annual royalties. In addition, under these licensing agreements, we are obligated to pay royalties on future sales of products, if any, covered by the licensed patents.

 

We know of several U.S. patents issued to other parties that may relate to our products. The manufacture, use, offer for sale, sale or import of some of our products might be found to infringe on the claims of these patents. A party might file an infringement action against us. The cost of defending such an action is likely to be high, and we might not receive a favorable ruling.

 

We also know of patent applications filed by other parties in the U.S. and various other countries that may relate to some of our products if issued in their present form. The patent laws of the U.S. and other countries are distinct, and decisions as to patenting, validity of patents and infringement of patents may be resolved differently in different countries. If patents are issued to any of these applicants, we or our licensees may not be able to manufacture, use, offer for sale, sell or import some of our products without first getting a license from the patent holder. The patent holder may not grant us a license on reasonable terms, or it may refuse to grant us a license at all. This could delay or prevent us from developing, manufacturing, selling or importing those of our products that would require the license.

 

We try to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the U.S. and in other countries related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business. Because the patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies involves complex legal and factual questions, enforceability of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. The ultimate degree of patent protection that will be afforded to products and processes, including ours, in the U.S. and in other important markets, remains uncertain and is dependent upon the scope of protection decided upon by the patent offices, courts and lawmakers in these countries. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide any protection against competitors. Our pending patent applications, those we may file in the future, or those we may license from third parties, may not result in patents being issued. If issued, they may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. Furthermore, others may independently develop similar technologies or duplicate any technology that we have developed outside the scope of our patents. The laws of certain countries do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the U.S.

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We also rely on trade secrets, know‑how and technology, which are not protected by patents, to maintain our competitive position. We try to protect this information by entering into confidentiality agreements with parties that have access to it, such as our corporate partners, collaborators, licensees, employees and consultants. Any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our confidential information or our competitors might learn of the information in some other way. If any trade secret, know‑how or other technology not protected by a patent were to be disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor, such event could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. For more information, see “Item 1A—Risk Factors.”

 

Our trademarks, including VIVITROL and ARISTADA, are important to us and are generally covered by trademark applications or registrations in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the patent or trademark offices of other countries. Products using our proprietary technologies also use trademarks that are owned by our licensees, such as the marks INVEGA SUSTENNA, INVEGA TRINZA and RISPERDAL CONSTA, which are registered trademarks of Johnson & Johnson, BYDUREON, which is a registered trademark of Amylin, and AMPYRA and FAMPYRA, which are registered trademarks of Acorda. Trademark protection varies in accordance with local law, and continues in some countries as long as the mark is used and in other countries as long as the mark is registered. Trademark registrations generally are for fixed but renewable terms.

 

Revenues and Assets by Region

 

For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the nine months ended December 31, 2013, our revenue and assets are presented below by geographic area:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

    

Nine

 

 

 

Year Ended

    

Year Ended

    

Months Ended

 

(In thousands)

 

December 31, 2015

 

December 31, 2014

 

December 31, 2013

 

Revenue by region:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

$

448,639

 

$

398,189

 

$

269,005

 

Ireland

 

 

3,902

 

 

7,691

 

 

5,722

 

Rest of world

 

 

175,794

 

 

212,909

 

 

158,184

 

Assets by region:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.

 

$

360,154

 

$

385,715

 

$

382,571

 

Ireland

 

 

394,281

 

 

490,577

 

 

187,023

 

Rest of world

 

 

527

 

 

501

 

 

544

 

Long-term assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S.:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intangible assets

 

$

 

$

 

$

 

Goodwill

 

 

 —

 

 

3,677

 

 

3,677

 

Other

 

 

294,158

 

 

226,479

 

 

222,818

 

Ireland:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intangible assets

 

$

379,186

 

$

479,412

 

$

537,565

 

Goodwill

 

 

92,873

 

 

90,535

 

 

89,063

 

Other

 

 

334,565

 

 

242,162

 

 

151,586

 

 

Regulatory

 

Regulation of Pharmaceutical Products

 

United States

 

Our current and contemplated activities, and the products and processes that result from such activities, are subject to substantial government regulation. Before new pharmaceutical products may be sold in the U.S., pre‑clinical studies and clinical trials of the products must be conducted and the results submitted to the FDA for approval. Clinical trial programs must determine an appropriate dose and regimen, establish substantial evidence of effectiveness and define the conditions for safe use. This is a high‑risk process that requires stepwise clinical studies in which the product candidate must successfully meet pre‑specified endpoints.

 

Pre‑Clinical Testing:  Before beginning testing of any compounds with potential therapeutic value in human subjects in the U.S., stringent government requirements for pre‑clinical data must be satisfied. Pre‑clinical testing includes both in vitro, or in an artificial environment outside of a living organism, and in vivo, or within a living

22


 

organism, laboratory evaluation and characterization of the safety and efficacy of a drug and its formulation.

 

Investigational New Drug (“IND”) Exemption:  Pre‑clinical testing results obtained from in vivo studies in several animal species, as well as from in vitro studies, are submitted to the FDA, as part of an IND, and are reviewed by the FDA prior to the commencement of human clinical trials. The pre‑clinical data must provide an adequate basis for evaluating both the safety and the scientific rationale for the initial clinical studies in human volunteers.

 

Clinical Trials:  Clinical trials involve the administration of the drug to healthy human volunteers or to patients under the supervision of a qualified investigator pursuant to an FDA‑reviewed protocol. Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, although the phases may overlap with one another and, depending upon the nature of the clinical program, a specific phase or phases may be skipped altogether. Clinical trials must be conducted under protocols that detail the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used to monitor safety, and the efficacy criteria, if any, to be evaluated. Each protocol must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.

 

·

Phase 1 clinical trials—test for safety, dose tolerability, absorption, bio‑distribution, metabolism, excretion and clinical pharmacology and, if possible, to gain early evidence regarding efficacy.

 

·

Phase 2 clinical trials—involve a relatively small sample of the actual intended patient population and seek to assess the efficacy of the drug for specific targeted indications, to determine dose‑response and the optimal dose range and to gather additional information relating to safety and potential adverse effects.

 

·

Phase 3 clinical trials—consist of expanded, large‑scale studies of patients with the target disease or disorder to obtain definitive statistical evidence of the efficacy and safety of the proposed product and dosing regimen.

 

In the U.S., the results of the pre‑clinical and clinical testing of a product candidate are then submitted to the FDA in the form of a Biologics License Application (“BLA”), or an NDA. The NDA or BLA also includes information pertaining to the preparation of the new drug, analytical methods, details of the manufacture of finished products and proposed product packaging and labeling. The submission of an application is not a guarantee that the FDA will find the application complete and accept it for filing. The FDA may refuse to file the application if it is not considered sufficiently complete to permit a review and will inform the applicant of the reason for the refusal. The applicant may then resubmit the application and include the supplemental information.

 

Once an NDA or BLA is accepted for filing, the FDA has 10 months, under its standard review process, within which to review the application (for some applications, the review process is longer than 10 months). For drugs that, if approved, would represent a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of serious conditions when compared to standard applications, the FDA may assign “priority review” designation and review the application within 6 months. The FDA has additional review pathways to expedite development and review of new drugs that are intended to treat serious or life‑threatening conditions and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs, including: “Fast Track,” “Breakthrough Therapy,” and “Accelerated Approval.”

 

For example, in October 2013, the FDA granted Fast Track status for ALKS 5461 for the adjunctive treatment of MDD in patients with inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapies. Fast Track is a process designed to expedite the review of such products by providing, among other things, more frequent meetings with the FDA to discuss the product’s development plan, more frequent written correspondence from the FDA about trial design, eligibility for accelerated approval, and rolling review, which allows submission of individually completed sections of a NDA or BLA for FDA review before the entire filing is completed. Fast Track status does not ensure that a product will be developed more quickly or receive FDA approval.

 

As part of its review, the FDA may refer the application to an advisory committee for independent advice on questions related to the development of the drug and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee; however, historically, it has typically followed such recommendations. The FDA may determine that a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”) is necessary to ensure that the benefits of a new product outweigh its risks. If required, a REMS may include various elements, such as publication of a medication guide, patient package insert, a communication plan to

23


 

educate health care providers of the drug’s risks, limitations on who may prescribe or dispense the drug, or other measures that the FDA deems necessary to assure the safe use of the drug.

 

In reviewing a BLA or NDA, the FDA may grant marketing approval, or issue a complete response letter to communicate to the applicant the reasons the application cannot be approved in the current form and provide input on the changes that must be made before an application can be approved. Even if such additional information and data are submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the BLA or NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. The receipt of regulatory approval often takes a number of years, involves the expenditure of substantial resources and depends on a number of factors, including the severity of the disease in question, the availability of alternative treatments, potential safety signals observed in pre‑clinical or clinical tests, and the risks and benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. It is impossible to predict with any certainty whether and when the FDA will grant marketing approval. Even if a product is approved, the approval may be subject to limitations based on the FDA’s interpretation of the data. For example, the FDA may require, as a condition of approval, restricted distribution and use, enhanced labeling, special packaging or labeling, expedited reporting of certain adverse events, pre‑approval of promotional materials or restrictions on direct‑to‑consumer advertising, any of which could negatively impact the commercial success of a drug. The FDA may require a sponsor to conduct additional post‑marketing studies as a condition of approval to provide data on safety and effectiveness. In addition, prior to commercialization, controlled substances are subject to review and potential scheduling by the DEA.

 

The FDA tracks information on side effects and adverse events reported during clinical studies and after marketing approval. Non‑compliance with safety reporting requirements may result in civil or criminal penalties. Side effects or adverse events that are identified during clinical trials can delay, impede or prevent marketing approval. Based on new safety information that emerges after approval, the FDA can mandate product labeling changes, impose a new REMS or the addition of elements to an existing REMS, require new post‑marketing studies (including additional clinical trials), or suspend or withdraw approval of the product.

 

If we seek to make certain types of changes to an approved product, such as adding a new indication, making certain manufacturing changes, or changing manufacturers or suppliers of certain ingredients or components, the FDA will need to review and approve such changes in advance. In the case of a new indication, we are required to demonstrate with additional clinical data that the product is safe and effective for the new intended use. Such regulatory reviews can result in denial or modification of the planned changes, or requirements to conduct additional tests or evaluations that can substantially delay or increase the cost of the planned changes.

 

In addition, the FDA regulates all advertising and promotional activities for products under its jurisdiction. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy that are approved by the FDA. However, physicians may prescribe legally available drugs for uses that are not described in the drug’s labeling. Such off‑label uses are common across certain medical specialties and often reflect a physician’s belief that the off‑label use is the best treatment for a particular patient. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments, but the FDA regulations do impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off‑label uses. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements may subject a company to adverse publicity, enforcement action by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Justice, corrective advertising and the full range of civil and criminal penalties available to the FDA and the U.S. Department of Justice.

 

Controlled Substances Act: The DEA regulates pharmaceutical products that are controlled substances. Controlled substances are those drugs that appear on one of the five schedules promulgated and administered by the DEA under the Controlled Substances Act (the “CSA”). The CSA governs, among other things, the inventory, distribution, recordkeeping, handling, security and disposal of controlled substances. Pharmaceutical products that act on the CNS are often evaluated for abuse potential; a product that is then classified as controlled substance must undergo scheduling by the DEA, which is a separate process that may delay the commercial launch of a pharmaceutical product even after FDA approval of the NDA. Companies with a scheduled pharmaceutical product are subject to periodic and ongoing inspections by the DEA and similar state drug enforcement authorities to assess ongoing compliance with the DEA’s regulations. Any failure to comply with these regulations could lead to a variety of sanctions, including the revocation, or a denial of renewal, of any DEA registration and injunctions, or civil or criminal penalties.

 

Outside the United States

 

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Our products are commercialized by our licensees in numerous jurisdictions outside the U.S. Most of these jurisdictions have product approval and post‑approval regulatory processes that are similar in principle to those in the U.S. In Europe, there are several tracks for marketing approval, depending on the type of product for which approval is sought. Under the centralized procedure, a company submits a single application to the EMA. The marketing application is similar to the NDA in the U.S. and is evaluated by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”), the expert scientific committee of the EMA. If the CHMP determines that the marketing application fulfills the requirements for quality, safety, and efficacy, it will submit a favorable opinion to the European Commission (“EC”). The CHMP opinion is not binding, but is typically adopted by the EC. A marketing application approved by the EC is valid in all member states.

 

In addition to the centralized procedure, Europe also has: (i) a nationalized procedure, which requires a separate application to, and approval determination by, each country; (ii) a decentralized procedure, whereby applicants submit identical applications to several countries and receive simultaneous approval; and (iii) a mutual recognition procedure, where applicants submit an application to one country for review and other countries may accept or reject the initial decision. Regardless of the approval process employed, various parties share responsibilities for the monitoring, detection and evaluation of adverse events post‑approval, including national authorities, the EMA, the EC and the marketing authorization holder.

 

Good Manufacturing Processes

 

The FDA, the EMA, the competent authorities of the EU Member States and other regulatory agencies regulate and inspect equipment, facilities and processes used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical and biologic products prior to approving a product. If, after receiving clearance from regulatory agencies, a company makes a material change in manufacturing equipment, location or process, additional regulatory review and approval may be required. Companies also must adhere to cGMP and product‑specific regulations enforced by the FDA following product approval. The FDA, the EMA and other regulatory agencies also conduct regular, periodic visits to re‑inspect equipment, facilities and processes following the initial approval of a product. If, as a result of these inspections, it is determined that our equipment, facilities or processes do not comply with applicable regulations and conditions of product approval, regulatory agencies may seek civil, criminal or administrative sanctions and/or remedies against us, including the suspension of our manufacturing operations.

 

Good Clinical Practices

 

The FDA, the EMA and other regulatory agencies promulgate regulations and standards, commonly referred to as Good Clinical Practices (“GCP”), for designing, conducting, monitoring, auditing and reporting the results of clinical trials to ensure that the data and results are accurate and that the trial participants are adequately protected. The FDA, the EMA and other regulatory agencies enforce GCP through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators, trial sites, contract research organizations (“CROs”) and institutional review boards. If our studies fail to comply with applicable GCP, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable, and relevant regulatory agencies may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. Noncompliance can also result in civil or criminal sanctions. We rely on third parties, including CROs, to carry out many of our clinical trial‑related activities. Failure of such third parties to comply with GCP can likewise result in rejection of our clinical trial data or other sanctions.

 

Hatch‑Waxman Act

 

Under the U.S. Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 (the “Hatch‑Waxman Act”), Congress created an abbreviated FDA review process for generic versions of pioneer, or brand‑name, drug products. The law also provides incentives by awarding, in certain circumstances, non‑patent related marketing exclusivities to pioneer drug manufacturers. Newly approved drug products and changes to the conditions of use of approved products may benefit from periods of non‑patent‑related marketing exclusivity in addition to any patent protection the drug product may have. The Hatch‑Waxman Act provides five years of new chemical entity (“NCE”) marketing exclusivity to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a product that contains an active ingredient, known as the active drug moiety, not found in any other approved product. The FDA is prohibited from accepting any abbreviated NDA (“ANDA”) for a generic drug or 505(b)(2) application for five years from the date of approval of the NCE, or four years in the case of an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application containing a patent challenge. A 505(b)(2) application is an NDA wherein the applicant relies, in part, on data and the FDA’s findings of safety and efficacy

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from studies not conducted by or for it and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference. This exclusivity will not prevent the submission or approval of a full NDA (e.g., under 505(b)(1)), as opposed to an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application, for any drug, including, for example, a drug with the same active ingredient, dosage form, route of administration, strength and conditions of use.

 

The Hatch‑Waxman Act also provides three years of exclusivity for applications containing the results of new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, essential to the FDA’s approval of new uses of approved products, such as new indications, dosage forms, strengths, or conditions of use. However, this exclusivity only protects against the approval of ANDAs and 505(b)(2) applications for the protected use and will not prohibit the FDA from accepting or approving ANDAs or 505(b)(2) applications for other products containing the same active ingredient.

 

The Hatch‑Waxman Act requires NDA applicants and NDA holders to provide certain information about patents related to the drug for listing in the FDA’s Approved Drugs Product List, commonly referred to as the Orange Book. ANDA and 505(b)(2) applicants must then certify regarding each of the patents listed with the FDA for the reference product. A certification that a listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the marketing of the applicant’s product is called a “Paragraph IV certification.” If the ANDA or 505(b)(2) applicant provides such a notification of patent invalidity or noninfringement, then the FDA may accept the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application four years after approval of the NDA for an NCE. If a Paragraph IV certification is filed and the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application has been accepted as a reviewable filing by the FDA, the ANDA or 505(b)(2) applicant must then, within 20 days, provide notice to the NDA holder and patent owner stating that the application has been submitted and providing the factual and legal basis for the applicant’s opinion that the patent is invalid or not infringed. The NDA holder or patent owner may file suit against the ANDA or 505(b)(2) applicant for patent infringement. If this is done within 45 days of receiving notice of the Paragraph IV certification, a one‑time, 30‑month stay of the FDA’s ability to approve the ANDA or 505(b)(2) application is triggered. The 30‑month stay begins at the end of the NDA holder’s data exclusivity period, or, if data exclusivity has expired, on the date that the patent holder is notified. The FDA may approve the proposed product before the expiration of the 30‑month stay if a court finds the patent invalid or not infringed, or if the court shortens the period because the parties have failed to cooperate in expediting the litigation.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

We are subject to various U.S. federal and state laws pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including anti‑kickback laws and false claims laws. Anti‑kickback laws make it illegal for a prescription drug manufacturer to solicit, offer, receive, or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Due to the broad scope of the U.S. statutory provisions, the general absence of guidance in the form of regulations, and few court decisions addressing industry practices, it is possible that our practices might be challenged under anti‑kickback or similar laws. False claims laws prohibit anyone from knowingly and willingly presenting, or causing to be presented, for payment to third‑party payers (including Medicare and Medicaid) claims for reimbursed drugs or services that are false or fraudulent, claims for items or services not provided as claimed or claims for medically unnecessary items or services. Activities relating to the sale and marketing of our products may be subject to scrutiny under these laws. Violations of fraud and abuse laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, as well as the possibility of exclusion from federal healthcare programs (including Medicare and Medicaid). In addition, federal and state authorities are paying increased attention to enforcement of these laws within the pharmaceutical industry and private individuals have been active in alleging violations of the laws and bringing suits on behalf of the government under the federal civil False Claims Act. If we were subject to allegations concerning, or were convicted of violating, these laws, our business could be harmed. See “Item 1A—Risk Factors” and specifically those sections entitled “—If we fail to comply with the extensive legal and regulatory requirements affecting the healthcare industry, we could face increased costs, penalties and a loss of business,” “—Revenues generated by sales of our products depend on the availability of reimbursement from third‑party payers, and a reduction in payment rate or reimbursement or an increase in our financial obligation to governmental payers could result in decreased sales of our products and decreased revenues” and “—The commercial use of our products may cause unintended side effects or adverse reactions, or incidents of misuse may occur, which could adversely affect our business and share price.”

 

Laws and regulations have been enacted by the federal government and various states to regulate the sales and

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marketing practices of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The laws and regulations generally limit financial interactions between manufacturers and healthcare providers or require disclosure to the government and public of such interactions. The laws include federal “sunshine” provisions enacted in 2010 as part of the comprehensive federal healthcare reform legislation; Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) issued a final rule with respect to such provisions in February 2013 and manufacturer reporting commenced in March 2014. The sunshine provisions apply to pharmaceutical manufacturers with products reimbursed under certain government programs and require those manufacturers to disclose annually to the federal government (for re‑disclosure to the public) certain payments made to, or at the request of, or on behalf of, physicians or to teaching hospitals. Certain state laws also require disclosure of pharmaceutical pricing information and marketing expenditures. Given the ambiguity found in many of these laws and their implementation, our reporting actions could be subject to the penalty provisions of the pertinent federal and state laws and regulations.

 

Pricing and Reimbursement

 

United States

 

In the U.S., sales of our products, including those sold by our licensees, and our ability to generate revenues on such sales are dependent, in significant part, on the availability and level of reimbursement from third‑party payers such as state and federal governments, including Medicare and Medicaid, managed care providers and private insurance plans. Third‑party payers are increasingly challenging the prices charged for medical products and examining the medical necessity and costeffectiveness of medical products, in addition to their safety and efficacy.

 

Medicaid is a joint federal and state program that is administered by the states for low‑income and disabled beneficiaries. Under the Medicaid rebate program, we are required to pay a rebate for each unit of product reimbursed by the state Medicaid programs. The amount of the rebate for each product is set by law as the greater of 23.1% of average manufacturer price (“AMP”) or the difference between AMP and the best price available from us to any commercial or non‑federal governmental customer. The rebate amount must be adjusted upward where the AMP for a product’s first full quarter of sales, when adjusted for increases in the Consumer Price Index—Urban, is less than the AMP for the current quarter, with this difference being the amount by which the rebate is adjusted upwards. The rebate amount is required to be recomputed each quarter based on our report of current AMP and best price for each of our products to the CMS. The terms of our participation in the rebate program imposes a requirement for us to report revisions to AMP or best price within a period not to exceed 12 quarters from the quarter in which the data was originally due. Any such revisions could have the impact of increasing or decreasing our rebate liability for prior quarters, depending on the direction of the revision. In addition, if we were found to have knowingly submitted false information to the government, the statute provides for civil monetary penalties per item of false information in addition to other penalties available to the government.

 

Medicare is a federal program that is administered by the federal government that covers individuals age 65 and over as well as those with certain disabilities. Medicare Part B pays physicians who administer our products under a payment methodology using average sales price (“ASP”) information. Manufacturers, including us, are required to provide ASP information to the CMS on a quarterly basis. This information is used to compute Medicare payment rates, with rates for Medicare Part B drugs outside the hospital outpatient setting and in the hospital outpatient setting consisting of ASP plus a specified percentage. These rates are adjusted periodically. If a manufacturer is found to have made a misrepresentation in the reporting of ASP, the statute provides for civil monetary penalties for each misrepresentation for each day in which the misrepresentation was applied.

 

Medicare Part D provides coverage to enrolled Medicare patients for self‑administered drugs (i.e. drugs that do not need to be injected or otherwise administered by a physician). Medicare Part D also covers the prescription drug benefit for dual eligible beneficiaries. Medicare Part D is administered by private prescription drug plans approved by the U.S. government and each drug plan establishes its own Medicare Part D formulary for prescription drug coverage and pricing, which the drug plan may modify from time‑to‑time. The prescription drug plans negotiate pricing with manufacturers and may condition formulary placement on the availability of manufacturer discounts. Except for dual eligible Medicare Part D beneficiaries who qualify for low income subsidies, manufacturers, including us, are required to provide a 50% discount on brand name prescription drugs utilized by Medicare Part D beneficiaries when those beneficiaries reach the coverage gap in their drug benefits.

 

The availability of federal funds to pay for our products under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and

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Medicare Part B requires that we extend discounts to certain purchasers under the Public Health Services (“PHS”) pharmaceutical pricing program. Purchasers eligible for discounts include a variety of community health clinics, other entities that receive health services grants from PHS, and hospitals that serve a disproportionate share of financially needy patients.

 

We also make our products available for purchase by authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule (“FSS”) of the General Services Administration pursuant to our FSS contract with the Department of Veterans Affairs. Under the Veterans Health Care Act of 1992 (the “VHC Act”), we are required to offer deeply discounted FSS contract pricing to four federal agencies: the Department of Veterans Affairs; the Department of Defense; the Coast Guard; and the PHS (including the Indian Health Service), in order for federal funding to be made available for reimbursement of any of our products by such federal agencies and certain federal grantees. Coverage under Medicaid, the Medicare Part B program and the PHS pharmaceutical pricing program is also conditioned upon FSS participation. FSS pricing is negotiated periodically with the Department of Veterans Affairs. FSS pricing is intended not to exceed the price that we charge our most‑favored non‑federal customer for a product. In addition, prices for drugs purchased by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense (including drugs purchased by military personnel and dependents through the TriCare retail pharmacy program), Coast Guard and PHS are subject to a cap on pricing equal to 76% of the non‑federal average manufacturer price (“non‑FAMP”). An additional discount applies if non‑FAMP increases more than inflation (measured by the Consumer Price Index—Urban). In addition, if we are found to have knowingly submitted false information to the government, the VHC Act provides for civil monetary penalties per false item of information in addition to other penalties available to the government.

 

In addition, on January 21, 2016, CMS released the final Medicaid covered outpatient drug regulation, which will be effective April 1, 2016. This regulation implements those changes made by the Affordable Care Act to the Medicaid drug rebate statute in 2010 and addresses a number of other issues with respect to the Medicaid program, including, but not limited to, the eligibility and calculation methodologies for AMP and best price, and the expansion of Medicaid rebate liability to include Medicaid managed care organizations.

 

The U.S. government regularly considers reforming healthcare coverage and lessening healthcare costs. Such reforms may include changes to the coverage and reimbursement of our products, which may have a significant impact on our business. In addition, emphasis on managed care in the U.S. has increased and we expect will continue to increase the pressure on drug pricing. Private insurers regularly seek to manage drug cost and utilization by implementing coverage and reimbursement limitations through means including, but not limited to, formularies, increased out‑of‑pocket obligations and various prior authorization requirements. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we have received regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

 

Outside the United States

 

Within the EU, products are paid for by a variety of payers, with governments being the primary source of payment. Governments may determine or influence reimbursement of products. Governments may also set prices or otherwise regulate pricing. Negotiating prices with governmental authorities can delay commercialization of products. Governments may use a variety of cost‑ containment measures to control the cost of products, including price cuts, mandatory rebates, value‑based pricing and reference pricing (i.e. referencing prices in other countries and using those reference prices to set a price). Recent budgetary pressures in many EU countries are causing governments to consider or implement various cost‑containment measures, such as price freezes, increased price cuts and rebates, and expanded generic substitution and patient cost‑sharing. If budget pressures continue, governments may implement additional cost‑containment measures.

 

Other Regulations

 

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), which prohibits U.S. corporations and their representatives from paying, offering to pay, promising, authorizing, or making payments of anything of value to any foreign government official, government staff member, political party, or political candidate in an attempt to obtain or retain business or to otherwise influence a person working in an official capacity. In many countries, the healthcare professionals with whom we regularly interact may meet the FCPA’s definition of a foreign government official. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and

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records that accurately and fairly reflect their transactions and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls.

 

UK Bribery Act: We are also subject to the UK Bribery Act, which proscribes giving and receiving bribes in the public and private sectors, bribing a foreign public official and failing to have adequate procedures to prevent employees and other agents from giving bribes. Foreign corporations that conduct business in the UK generally will be subject to the UK Bribery Act. Penalties under the UK Bribery Act include potentially unlimited fines for corporations and criminal sanctions for corporate officers under certain circumstances.

 

Environmental, Health and Safety Laws: Our operations are subject to complex and increasingly stringent environmental, health and safety laws and regulations in the countries where we operate and, in particular, where we have manufacturing facilities, namely the U.S. and Ireland. Environmental and health and safety authorities in the relevant jurisdictions, including the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the U.S. and the Environmental Protection Agency and the Health and Safety Authority in Ireland, administer laws which regulate, among other matters, the emission of pollutants into the air (including the workplace), the discharge of pollutants into bodies of water, the storage, use, handling and disposal of hazardous substances, the exposure of persons to hazardous substances, and the general health, safety and welfare of employees and members of the public. In certain cases, these laws and regulations may impose strict liability for pollution of the environment and contamination resulting from spills, disposals or other releases of hazardous substances or waste and/or any migration of such hazardous substances or waste. Costs, damages and/or fines may result from the presence, investigation and remediation of contamination at properties currently or formerly owned, leased or operated by us and/or off‑site locations, including where we have arranged for the disposal of hazardous substances or waste. In addition, we may be subject to third‑party claims, including for natural resource damages, personal injury and property damage, in connection with such contamination.

 

Other Laws: We are subject to a variety of financial disclosure, securities trading regulations and governmental regulations as an Irish-incorporated public company in the U.S., including laws relating to the oversight activities of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), the Irish Companies Act 2014, and the regulations of the NASDAQ, on which our shares are traded. We are also subject to various laws, regulations and recommendations relating to safe working conditions, laboratory practices, the experimental use of animals, and the purchase, storage, movement, import and export and use and disposal of hazardous or potentially hazardous substances used in connection with our research work.

 

Employees

 

As of February 12, 2016, we had approximately 1,500 full‑time employees. A significant number of our management and professional employees have prior experience with pharmaceutical, biotechnology or medical product companies. We believe that we have been successful in attracting skilled and experienced scientific and senior management personnel; however, competition for such personnel is intense. None of our employees is covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

 

Available Information

 

We were incorporated in Ireland on May 4, 2011 as a private limited company, under the name Antler Science Two Limited (registration number 498284). On July 25, 2011, Antler Science Two Limited was re‑registered as a public limited company under the name Antler Science Two plc.

 

On September 16, 2011, the business of Alkermes, Inc. and the drug technologies business (“EDT”) of Elan Corporation, plc (“Elan”) were combined under Alkermes plc (this combination is referred to as the “Business Combination,” the “acquisition of EDT” or the “EDT acquisition”). Our ordinary shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, where our trading symbol is “ALKS.” Headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, we have an R&D center in Waltham, Massachusetts; R&D and manufacturing facilities in Athlone, Ireland; and a manufacturing facility in Wilmington, Ohio.

 

Our principal executive offices are located at Connaught House, 1 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland. Our telephone number is +353‑1‑772‑8000 and our website address is www.alkermes.com. Information that is contained in, and can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this Annual Report. We

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make available free of charge through the Investors section of our website our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10‑Q, Current Reports on Form 8‑K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. We also make available on our website (i) the charters for the committees of our Board of Directors, including the Audit and Risk Committee, Compensation Committee, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, and (ii) our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing our directors, officers and employees. We intend to disclose on our website any amendments to, or waivers from, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that are required to be disclosed pursuant to the rules of the SEC. You may read and copy materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1‑800‑SEC‑0330. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

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Item 1A.   Risk Factors

Investing in our company involves a high degree of risk. In deciding whether to invest in our ordinary shares, you should consider carefully the risks described below in addition to the financial and other information contained in this Annual Report, including the matters addressed under the caption “Cautionary Note Concerning Forward-Looking Statements” above. If any events described by the following risks actually occur, they could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or operating results. This could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline, and could cause you to lose all or a part of your investment. Except as otherwise suggested by the context, references to “products” or “our products” include our marketed products, marketed products using our proprietary technologies, product candidates and product candidates using our proprietary technologies.

We rely heavily on our licensees in the commercialization and continued development of products from which we receive revenue; and if our licensees are not effective, our revenues could be materially adversely affected.

Our arrangements with licensees are critical to bringing our products to the market and successfully commercializing them. We rely on these parties in various respects, including providing funding for development programs and conducting pre-clinical testing and clinical trials with respect to new formulations or other development activities for our products; managing the regulatory approval process; and commercializing our products.

 

The revenues that we receive from manufacturing fees and royalties depend primarily upon the success of our licensees, and particularly Janssen, Acorda, Biogen, and AstraZeneca, in commercializing products from which we receive revenue. Janssen is responsible for the commercialization of RISPERDAL CONSTA, INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION, and INVEGA TRINZA, and VIVITROL in Russia and the CIS. Acorda and Biogen are responsible for commercializing AMPYRA/FAMPYRA. AstraZeneca is responsible for commercializing BYDUREON. We have no involvement in the commercialization efforts for such products. Our revenues may fall below our expectations, the expectations of our partners or those of investors, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the price of our ordinary shares. Such revenues will depend on numerous factors, many of which are outside our control.

 

Our licensees may also choose to use their own or other technology to develop an alternative product and withdraw their support of our product, or to compete with our jointly developed product. In addition, a proprietary product we have developed competes directly with products we developed with our licensees from which we receive revenue. Disputes may also arise between us and a licensee and may involve the ownership of technology developed under a  license or other issues arising out of collaborative agreements. Such a dispute could delay the related program or result in expensive arbitration or litigation, which may not be resolved in our favor.

 

In addition, most of our licensees can terminate their agreements with us without cause, and we cannot guarantee that any of these relationships will continue. Failure to make or maintain these arrangements or a delay in, or failure of, a licensee’s performance, or factors that may affect a partner’s sales, may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We receive substantial revenues from certain products.

We depend substantially upon continued sales of RISPERDAL CONSTA and INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION and INVEGA TRINZA by Janssen, and upon continued sales of AMPYRA/FAMPYRA by Acorda and its sublicensee, Biogen. Any significant negative developments relating to these products, or to our licensee relationships, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Our revenues may be lower than expected as a result of failure by the marketplace to accept our products or for other factors.

We cannot be assured that our products will be, or will continue to be, accepted in the U.S. or in any markets outside the U.S. or that sales of our products will not decline or cease in the future. A number of factors may cause revenues from sales of our products to grow at a slower than expected rate, or even to decrease or cease, including:

 

·

perception of physicians and other members of the healthcare community as to our products’ safety and efficacy relative to that of competing products;

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·

the cost-effectiveness of our products;

·

patient and physician satisfaction with our products;

·

the successful manufacture of our products on a timely basis;

·

the cost and availability of raw materials necessary for the manufacture of our products;

·

the size of the markets for our products;

·

reimbursement policies of government and third-party payers;

·

unfavorable publicity concerning our products, similar classes of drugs or the industry generally;

·

the introduction, availability and acceptance of competing treatments, including treatments marketed and sold by our licensees;

·

the reaction of companies that market competitive products;

·

adverse event information relating to our products or to similar classes of drugs;

·

changes to the product labels of our products, or of products within the same drug classes, to add significant warnings or restrictions on use;

·

our continued ability to access third parties to vial, package and/or distribute our products on acceptable terms;

·

the unfavorable outcome of litigation, including so-called “Paragraph IV” litigation and other patent litigation, related to any of our products;

·

regulatory developments related to the manufacture or continued use of our products, including the issuance of a REMS by the FDA;

·

the extent and effectiveness of the sales and marketing and distribution support our products receive, including from our licensees;

·

our licensees’ decisions as to the timing of product launches, pricing and discounting;

·

disputes with our licensees relating to the marketing and sale of products from which we receive revenue;

·

exchange rate valuations and fluctuations; and

·

any other material adverse developments with respect to the commercialization of our products.

 

Our revenues will also fluctuate from quarter to quarter based on a number of other factors, including the acceptance of our products in the marketplace, our licensees’ orders, the timing of shipments, and our ability to manufacture products successfully, including our yield and our production schedule. The unit costs to manufacture our products may be higher than anticipated if certain volume levels are not achieved. In addition, we may not be able to supply the products in a timely manner or at all.

We have limited experience in the commercialization of products.

VIVITROL is the first commercial product for which we have had sole responsibility for commercialization in the U.S., including sales, marketing, distribution and reimbursement-related activities. In October 2015, ARISTADA was approved by the FDA and commercially launched by us. ARISTADA is the second commercial product that we developed, manufacture, and are currently commercializing and is the newest entrant into a highly competitive marketplace for the treatment of schizophrenia.

 

We have limited commercialization experience. We may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel to serve in our sales and marketing organization, to develop an effective distribution network, to secure reimbursement for our products or to otherwise effectively support our commercialization activities. The cost of establishing and maintaining a sales and marketing organization may exceed its cost-effectiveness. If we fail to develop sales and marketing capabilities, if our sales efforts are not effective or if the costs of developing sales and marketing capabilities exceed their cost-effectiveness, we may not be able to successfully commercialize VIVITROL and ARISTADA and such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.  

We are subject to risks related to the manufacture of our products.

The manufacture of pharmaceutical products is a highly complex process in which a variety of difficulties may arise from time to time including, but not limited to, product loss due to material failure, equipment failure, vendor error, operator error, labor shortages, inability to obtain material, equipment or transportation, physical or electronic security breaches, natural disasters and many other factors. Problems with manufacturing processes could result in product defects or manufacturing failures, which could require us to delay shipment of products or recall products previously shipped, or could impair our ability to expand into new markets or supply products in existing markets. We may not be

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able to resolve any such problems in a timely fashion, if at all.

 

We rely solely on our manufacturing facility in Wilmington, Ohio for the manufacture of RISPERDAL CONSTA, VIVITROL, ARISTADA, polymer for BYDUREON and some of our product candidates. We rely on our manufacturing facility in Athlone, Ireland for the manufacture of AMPYRA/FAMPYRA and some of our other products using our NanoCrystal and OCR technologies.

 

Due to regulatory and technical requirements, we have limited ability to shift production among our facilities or to outsource any part of our manufacturing to third parties. If we cannot produce sufficient commercial quantities of our products to meet demand, there are currently very few, if any, third-party manufacturers capable of manufacturing our products as contract suppliers. We cannot be certain that we could reach agreement on reasonable terms, if at all, with those manufacturers. Even if we were to reach agreement, the transition of the manufacturing process to a third party to enable commercial supplies could take a significant amount of time and money, and may not be successful.

 

Our manufacturing facilities also require specialized personnel and are expensive to operate and maintain. Any delay in the regulatory approval or market launch of products, or suspension of the sale of our products, manufactured in our facilities, may cause operating losses as we continue to operate these facilities and retain specialized personnel. In addition, any interruption in manufacturing could result in delays in meeting contractual obligations and could damage our relationships with our licensees, including the loss of manufacturing and supply rights.

We rely on third parties to provide services in connection with the manufacture and distribution of our products.

We rely on third parties for the timely supply of specified raw materials, equipment, contract manufacturing, formulation or packaging services, storage and product distribution services, customer service activities and product returns processing. These third parties must comply with federal, state and local regulations applicable to their business, including FDA and, as applicable, DEA regulations. Although we actively manage these third-party relationships to ensure continuity, quality and compliance with regulations, some events beyond our control could result in the complete or partial failure of these goods and services. Any such failure could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

 

The manufacture of products and product components, including the procurement of bulk drug product, packaging, storage and distribution of our products, requires successful coordination among us and multiple third-party providers. For example, we are responsible for the entire supply chain for both ARISTADA and  VIVITROL, up to the sale of final product and including the sourcing of key raw materials and active pharmaceutical agents from third parties. We have limited experience in managing a complex product distribution network. Issues with our third-party providers, including our inability to coordinate these efforts, lack of capacity available at such third-party providers or any other problems with the operations of these third-party contractors, could require us to delay shipment of saleable products, recall products previously shipped or could impair our ability to supply products at all. This could increase our costs, cause us to lose revenue or market share and damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. 

 

Due to the unique nature of the production of our products, there are several single-source providers of our key raw materials. We endeavor to qualify and register new vendors and to develop contingency plans so that production is not impacted by issues associated with single-source providers. Nonetheless, our business could be materially and adversely affected by issues associated with single-source providers.

 

We are also dependent in certain cases on third parties to manufacture products. Where the manufacturing rights to the products in which our technologies are applied are granted to, or retained by, our third-party licensee (for example, in the cases of INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION, INVEGA TRINZA and BYDUREON) or approved sub-licensee, we have no control over the manufacturing, supply or distribution of the product. Supply or manufacturing issues encountered by such licensees or sublicenses could materially and adversely affect sales of products from which we receive revenue, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

If we or our third-party providers fail to meet the stringent requirements of governmental regulation in the manufacture of our products, we could incur substantial remedial costs and a reduction in sales and/or revenues.

We and our third-party providers are generally required to comply with cGMP regulations and other applicable

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foreign standards in the manufacture of our products. In addition, in the U.S., the DEA and state-level agencies heavily regulate the manufacturing, holding, processing, security, recordkeeping and distribution of substances, including controlled substances. Our products that are scheduled by the DEA as controlled substances make us subject to the DEA’s regulations. We are subject to unannounced inspections by the FDA, the DEA and comparable state and foreign agencies in other jurisdictions to confirm compliance with all applicable laws. Any changes of suppliers or modifications of methods of manufacturing require amending our application to the FDA or other regulatory agencies, and ultimate amendment acceptance by such agencies, prior to release of product to the applicable marketplace. Our inability or the inability of our third-party service providers to demonstrate ongoing cGMP or other regulatory compliance could require us to withdraw or recall products and interrupt commercial supply of our products. Any delay, interruption or other issues that may arise in the manufacture, formulation, packaging or storage of our products as a result of a failure of our facilities or the facilities or operations of third parties to pass any regulatory agency inspection could significantly impair our ability to develop and commercialize our products. This could increase our costs, cause us to lose revenue or market share and damage our reputation.

 

The FDA and various regulatory agencies outside the U.S. have inspected and approved our commercial manufacturing facilities. We cannot guarantee that the FDA or any other regulatory agencies will approve any other facility we or our suppliers may operate or, once approved, that any of these facilities will remain in compliance with cGMP and other regulations.  Any third party we use to manufacture bulk drug product must be licensed by the FDA and, for controlled substances, the DEA. Failure to gain or maintain regulatory compliance with the FDA or regulatory agencies could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Revenues generated by sales of our products depend on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payers, and a reduction in payment rate or reimbursement or an increase in our financial obligation to governmental payers could result in decreased sales of our products and decreased revenues.

In both U.S. and non-U.S. markets, sales of our products depend, in part, on the availability of reimbursement from third-party payers such as state and federal governments, including Medicare and Medicaid in the U.S. and similar programs in other countries, managed care providers and private insurance plans. Deterioration in the timeliness, certainty and amount of reimbursement for our products, including the existence of barriers to coverage of our products (such as prior authorization, criteria for use or other requirements), limitations by healthcare providers on how much, or under what circumstances, they will prescribe or administer our products or unwillingness by patients to pay any required co-payments, could reduce the use of, and revenues generated from, our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition, when a new product is approved, the availability of government and private reimbursement for that product is uncertain, as is the amount for which that product will be reimbursed. We cannot predict the availability or amount of reimbursement for our products.

 

In the U.S., federal and state legislatures, health agencies and third-party payers continue to focus on containing the cost of healthcare, including by comparing the effectiveness, benefits and costs of similar treatments. Any adverse findings for our products from such comparisons may reduce the extent of reimbursement for our products. Economic pressure on state budgets may result in states increasingly seeking to achieve budget savings through mechanisms that limit coverage or payment for drugs. State Medicaid programs are increasingly requesting manufacturers to pay supplemental rebates and requiring prior authorization by the state program for use of any drug. Managed care organizations continue to seek price discounts and, in some cases, to impose restrictions on the coverage of particular drugs. Government efforts to reduce Medicaid expenses may lead to increased use of managed care organizations by Medicaid programs. This may result in managed care organizations influencing prescription decisions for a larger segment of the population and a corresponding constraint on prices and reimbursement for our products.

 

The government-sponsored healthcare systems in Europe and many other countries are the primary payers for healthcare expenditures, including payment for drugs and biologics. We expect that countries may take actions to reduce expenditure on drugs and biologics, including mandatory price reductions, patient access restrictions, suspensions of price increases, increased mandatory discounts or rebates, preference for generic products, reduction in the amount of reimbursement and greater importation of drugs from lower-cost countries. These cost-control measures likely would reduce our revenues. In addition, certain countries set prices by reference to the prices in other countries where our products are marketed. Thus, the inability to secure adequate prices in a particular country may not only limit the marketing of products within that country, but may also adversely affect the ability to obtain acceptable prices in other markets.

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Patent protection for our products is important and uncertain.

The following factors are important to our success:

 

·

receiving and maintaining patent and/or trademark protection for our products, technologies and developing technologies, including those that are the subject of licenses with our licensees;

·

maintaining our trade secrets;

·

not infringing the proprietary rights of others; and

·

preventing others from infringing our proprietary rights.

 

Patent protection only provides rights of exclusivity for the term of the patent. We are able to protect our proprietary rights from unauthorized use by third parties only to the extent that our proprietary rights are covered by valid and enforceable patents or are effectively maintained as trade secrets. In this regard, we try to protect our proprietary position by filing patent applications in the U.S. and elsewhere related to our proprietary product inventions and improvements that are important to the development of our business. Our pending patent applications, together with those we may file in the future, or those we may license from third parties, may not result in patents being issued. Even if issued, such patents may not provide us with sufficient proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar technology. The development of new technologies or pharmaceutical products may take a number of years, and there can be no assurance that any patents which may be granted in respect of such technologies or products will not have expired or be due to expire or withstand challenge by the time such products are commercialized.

 

Although we believe that we make reasonable efforts to protect our intellectual property rights and to ensure that our proprietary technology does not infringe the rights of other parties, we cannot ascertain the existence of all potentially conflicting claims. Therefore, there is a risk that third parties may make claims of infringement against our products or technologies. We know of several patents issued in the U.S. to third parties that may relate to our products. We also know of patent applications filed by other parties in the U.S. and various countries outside the U.S. that may relate to some of our products if such patents are issued in their present form. If patents are issued that cover our products, we may not be able to manufacture, use, offer for sale, sell or import such products without first getting a license from the patent holder. The patent holder may not grant us a license on reasonable terms, or it may refuse to grant us a license at all. This could delay or prevent us from developing, manufacturing, selling or importing those of our products that would require the license. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to redesign affected products, enter into costly settlement or license agreements or pay costly damage awards, or face a temporary or permanent injunction prohibiting us from marketing or selling certain of our products. Even if we have an agreement to indemnify us against such costs, the indemnifying party may be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. If we cannot or do not license the infringed technology at all, license the technology on reasonable terms or substitute similar technology from another source, our revenue and earnings could be adversely impacted.

 

Because the patent positions of biopharmaceutical companies involve complex legal and factual questions, enforceability of patents cannot be predicted with certainty. The ultimate degree of patent protection that will be afforded to products and processes, including ours, in the U.S. and in other important markets, remains uncertain and is dependent upon the scope of protection decided upon by the patent offices, courts and lawmakers in these countries. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented. As more products are commercialized using our proprietary product platforms, or as any product achieves greater commercial success, our patents become more likely to be subject to challenge by potential competitors. The laws of certain countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the U.S. Thus, any patents that we own or license from others may not provide any protection against competitors. Furthermore, others may independently develop similar technologies outside the scope of our patent coverage.

 

We also rely on trade secrets, know-how and technology, which are not protected by patents, to maintain our competitive position. We try to protect this information by entering into confidentiality agreements with parties that have access to it, such as our licensees, licensees, employees and consultants. Any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our confidential information, or our competitors might learn of the information in some other way. To the extent that our employees, consultants or contractors use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions. If any trade secret, know-how or other technology not protected by a patent were to be disclosed to, or independently developed by, a competitor, such event could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

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Uncertainty over intellectual property in the pharmaceutical industry has been the source of litigation, which is inherently costly and unpredictable.

There is considerable uncertainty within the pharmaceutical industry about the validity, scope and enforceability of many issued patents in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. We cannot currently determine the ultimate scope and validity of patents which may be granted to third parties in the future or which patents might be asserted to be infringed by the manufacture, use or sale of our products.

 

In part as a result of this uncertainty, there has been, and we expect that there may continue to be, significant litigation in the pharmaceutical industry regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. A patent holder might file an infringement action against us claiming that the manufacture, use, offer for sale, sale or import of our products infringed one or more of its patents. We may have to enforce our intellectual property rights against third parties who infringe our patents and other intellectual property or challenge our patent or trademark applications (see “—We face claims against our intellectual property rights and competition from generic drug manufacturers.” for additional information regarding litigation with generic drug manufacturers).  We expect that litigation may be necessary in some instances to determine the validity and scope of certain of our proprietary rights. Competitors may sue us as a way of delaying the introduction of our products.

 

Litigation and administrative proceedings concerning patents and other intellectual property rights may be expensive, protracted with no certainty of success, and distracting to management.  Ultimately, the outcome of such litigation could adversely affect our business and the validity and scope of our patent or other proprietary rights or hinder our ability to manufacture and market our products.

Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our business and limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business.

Pursuant to an amended and restated credit agreement, dated as of September 25, 2012, as amended (the “Term Loan Facility”), we have approximately $375.0 million in original principal term loans, consisting of a $300.0 million, seven-year term loan with an interest rate at LIBOR plus 2.75% with a LIBOR floor of 0.75% (“Term Loan B-1”), and a $75.0 million, four-year term loan with an interest rate at LIBOR plus 2.75% with no LIBOR floor (“Term Loan B-2”).

 

Our existing indebtedness is secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of the combined company assets and properties of Alkermes plc and most of its subsidiaries, which serve as guarantors. The agreements governing the Term Loan Facility include a number of restrictive covenants that, among other things, subject to certain exceptions and baskets, impose operating and financial restrictions on us. Our level of indebtedness and the terms of these financing arrangements could adversely affect our business by, among other things:

 

·

requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other purposes, including business development efforts, research and development and capital expenditures;

·

limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors with less debt;

·

limiting our ability to take advantage of significant business opportunities, such as potential acquisition opportunities; and

·

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions.

 

Our failure to comply with these restrictions or to make these payments could lead to an event of default that could result in an acceleration of the indebtedness. Our future operating results may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with these covenants or to remedy any such default. In the event of an acceleration of this indebtedness, we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make any accelerated payments.

We rely on a limited number of pharmaceutical wholesalers to distribute our product.

As is typical in the pharmaceutical industry, we utilize pharmaceutical wholesalers in connection with the distribution of the products that we market and sell. A significant amount of our product is sold to end-users through the three largest wholesalers in the U.S. market, Cardinal Health Inc., AmerisourceBergen Corp., and McKesson Corp. If we are unable to maintain our business relationships with these major pharmaceutical wholesalers on commercially

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acceptable terms, if the buying patterns of these wholesalers fluctuate due to seasonality or if wholesaler buying decisions or other factors outside of our control change, such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Our business may suffer if we are unable to develop new products.

Our long-term viability and growth will depend upon the successful development of new products from our research and development activities and we expect the development of products for our own account to consume substantial resources.  Since we fund the development of our proprietary products, there is a risk that we may not be able to continue to fund all such development efforts to completion or to provide the support necessary to perform the clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals, obtain a final DEA scheduling designation (to the extent our products are controlled substances) or market any approved products on a worldwide basis.  If we are able to develop commercial products on our own, the risks associated with these programs may be greater than those associated with our programs with licensees.

 

If our delivery technologies or product development efforts fail to result in the successful development and commercialization of products, if our licensees decide not to pursue development and/or commercialization of our products or if new products do not perform as anticipated, such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. For factors that may affect the market acceptance of our products approved for sale (see “—We face claims against our intellectual property rights and competition from generic drug manufacturers.” for additional information relating to competition from generic drug manufacturers).

Clinical trials for our products are expensive, may take several years to complete, and their outcome is uncertain.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any products, we or our partners must demonstrate, through preclinical testing and clinical trials, that our products are safe and effective for use in humans. Conducting clinical trials is a lengthy, time-consuming and expensive process. We have incurred, and we will continue to incur, substantial expense for pre-clinical testing and clinical trials.

 

Our pre-clinical and clinical development efforts may not be successfully completed. Completion of clinical trials may take several years or more. The length of time can vary substantially with the type, complexity, novelty and intended use of the product. The commencement and rate of completion of clinical trials may be delayed by many factors, including:

 

·

the potential delay by a collaborative partner in beginning a clinical trial;

·

the failure of third-party CROs and other third-party service providers and independent clinical investigators to manage and conduct the trials, to perform their oversight of the trials or to meet expected deadlines;

·

the inability to recruit clinical trial participants at the expected rate;

·

the failure of clinical trials to demonstrate a product's safety or efficacy;

·

the inability to follow patients adequately after treatment;

·

unforeseen safety issues;

·

the inability to manufacture or obtain sufficient quantities of materials used for clinical trials; and

·

unforeseen governmental or regulatory issues, including those by the FDA, DEA and other regulatory agencies.

 

In addition, we are currently conducting and enrolling patients in clinical studies in a number of countries where our experience is more limited. For example, the phase 3 extension study of ALKS 5461 is being conducted in many countries around the world, including in Eastern Europe and Asia. We depend on independent clinical investigators, CROs and other third-party service providers and our collaborators in the conduct of clinical trials for our products and in the accurate reporting of results from such clinical trials. We rely heavily on these parties for successful execution of our clinical trials but do not control many aspects of their activities. For example, while the investigators are not our employees, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. Third parties may not complete activities on schedule or may not conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols.

 

The outcome of our clinical trials is uncertain.  The results from pre-clinical testing and early clinical trials often

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have not predicted results of later clinical trials. A number of products have shown promising results in early clinical trials but subsequently failed to establish sufficient safety and efficacy data to obtain necessary regulatory approvals.

 

If a product candidate fails to demonstrate safety and efficacy in clinical trials, or if third parties fail to conduct clinical trials in accordance with their obligations, the development, approval and commercialization of our products  may be delayed or prevented, and such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

 

The FDA or other regulatory agencies may not approve our products or may delay approval.

 

We must obtain government approvals before marketing or selling our products in the U.S. and in jurisdictions outside the U.S. The FDA, DEA (to the extent a product is a controlled substance), and comparable regulatory agencies in other countries, impose substantial and rigorous requirements for the development, production and commercial introduction of drug products. These include pre-clinical, laboratory and clinical testing procedures, sampling activities, clinical trials and other costly and time-consuming procedures.  Satisfaction of the requirements of the FDA and of other regulatory agencies typically takes a significant number of years and can vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product.

 

In addition, regulation is not static, and regulatory agencies, including the FDA, evolve in their staff, interpretations and practices and may impose more stringent requirements than currently in effect, which may adversely affect our planned drug development and/or our commercialization efforts. The approval procedure and the time required to obtain approval also varies among countries. Regulatory agencies may have varying interpretations of the same data, and approval by one regulatory agency does not ensure approval by regulatory agencies in other jurisdictions. In addition, the FDA or regulatory agencies outside the U.S. may choose not to communicate with or update us during clinical testing and regulatory review periods. The ultimate decision by the FDA or other regulatory agencies regarding drug approval may not be consistent with prior communications.

 

This product approval process can last many years, be very costly and still be unsuccessful. Regulatory approval by the FDA or regulatory agencies outside the U.S. can be delayed, limited or not granted at all for many reasons, including:

 

·

a product may not demonstrate safety and efficacy for each target indication in accordance with regulatory agency standards;

·

data from pre-clinical testing and clinical trials may be interpreted by the FDA or other regulatory agencies in different ways than we or our partners interpret it;

·

the FDA or other regulatory agencies might not approve our or our partners’ manufacturing processes or facilities;

·

the FDA or other regulatory agencies may not approve accelerated development timelines for our product;

·

the failure of our clinical investigational sites and the records kept at such sites, including the clinical trial data, to be in compliance with the FDA’s GCP, or EU legislation governing GCP, including the failure to pass FDA, EMA or EU Member State inspections of clinical trials;

·

the FDA or other regulatory agencies may change their approval policies or adopt new regulations;

·

adverse medical events during the trials could lead to requirements that trials be repeated or extended, or that a program be terminated or placed on clinical hold, even if other studies or trials relating to the program are successful; and

·

the FDA or other regulatory agencies may not agree with our or our partners’ regulatory approval strategies or components of our or our partners’ filings, such as clinical trial designs.

 

Failure to obtain regulatory approval for products will prevent their commercialization.  Any delay in obtaining regulatory approval for products could adversely affect our ability to successfully commercialize such products.  In addition, share prices have declined significantly in certain instances where companies have failed to obtain FDA approval of a product or where the timing of FDA approval is delayed.  If the FDA’s or any other regulatory agency’s response to any application for approval is delayed or not favorable for any of our products, our share price could decline significantly.

 

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The FDA or other regulatory agencies may impose limitations on any product approval.

 

Even if regulatory approval to market a drug product is granted by the FDA and other regulatory agencies, the approval may impose limitations on the indicated use for which the drug product may be marketed and additional post-approval requirements with which we would need to comply in order to maintain the approval of such products. Our business could be seriously harmed if we do not complete these post-approval requirements and the FDA, as a result, requires us to change sections of the label for our products.

 

Further, even if the FDA provides regulatory approval, controlled substances will not become commercially available until after the DEA provides its final schedule designation, which may take longer and may be more restrictive than we expect or change after its initial designation. We currently expect ALKS 5461 and ALKS 3831 to require such DEA final schedule designation prior to commercialization.  Restrictive designation could adversely affect our ability to commercialize such products and could adversely affect our business and share price.

 

Citizen Petitions and other actions filed with, or litigation against, the FDA or other regulatory agencies or litigation against Alkermes may negatively impact the approval of our products and our business.  

 

As described under Part I, Item 3—Legal Proceedings in this Annual Report, on July 13, 2015, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. (“Otsuka PD&C”) filed a Citizen Petition with the FDA which requested that the FDA refuse to approve the NDA for ARISTADA or delay approval of such NDA until the exclusivity rights covering long-acting aripiprazole expire in December 2017. The FDA approved ARISTADA on October 5, 2015 and, concurrent with such approval, denied Otsuka PD&C’s Citizen Petition. On October 15, 2015, Otsuka Pharm. Co., Otsuka PD&C, and Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. (collectively, “Otsuka”) filed an action for declaratory and injunctive relief against the FDA requesting, among other things, that the court vacate FDA’s approval of the ARISTADA NDA.  We have successfully intervened in, and received the court’s approval to become a party to, this action. The action is currently pending before the court; oral arguments were held on January 7, 2016.

 

If Otsuka’s action is successful, the Court could remand the ARISTADA NDA to the FDA for further action, vacate the FDA’s approval of the ARISTADA NDA, declare that Otsuka’s exclusivity rights preclude FDA from granting approval of the NDA for ARISTADA until December 2017, grant injunctive relief and require that we remove ARISTADA from the market, and/or require that the FDA impose limitations on the approval of the ARISTADA NDA. These outcomes and others could adversely affect our ability to generate revenues from the commercialization and sale of ARISTADA, and our share price.

 

In addition, in the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company's securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies. This type of litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management's attention and resources, which could harm our business.

 

If we fail to comply with the extensive legal and regulatory requirements affecting the healthcare industry, we could face increased costs, penalties and a loss of business.

 

Our activities, and the activities of our licensees and third-party providers, are subject to comprehensive government regulation. Government regulation by various national, state and local agencies, which includes detailed inspection of, and controls over, research and laboratory procedures, clinical investigations, product approvals and manufacturing, marketing and promotion, adverse event reporting, sampling, distribution, recordkeeping, storage, and disposal practices, and achieving compliance with these regulations, substantially increases the time, difficulty and costs incurred in obtaining and maintaining the approval to market newly developed and existing products. Government regulatory actions can result in delay in the release of products, seizure or recall of products, suspension or revocation of the authority necessary for their production and sale, and other civil or criminal sanctions, including fines and penalties. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies also have been the target of government lawsuits and investigations alleging violations of government regulation, including claims asserting submission of incorrect pricing information, impermissible off-label promotion of pharmaceutical products, payments intended to influence the referral of healthcare business, submission of false claims for government reimbursement, antitrust violations and violations related to environmental matters. In addition, we may be the subject of securities law claims and derivative actions.

 

While we have implemented numerous risk mitigation measures, we cannot guarantee that we, our employees, our licensees, our consultants or our contractors are, or will be, in compliance with all potentially applicable U.S. federal and

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state regulations and/or laws or all potentially applicable regulations and/or laws outside the U.S. and interpretations of the applicability of these laws to marketing practices. If we or our agents fail to comply with any of those regulations and/or laws, a range of actions could result, including the termination of clinical trials, the failure to approve a product, restrictions on our products or manufacturing processes, withdrawal of our products from the market, significant fines, exclusion from government healthcare programs or other sanctions or litigation.

 

Changes in laws affecting the healthcare industry could also adversely affect our revenues and profitability, including new laws, regulations or judicial decisions, or new interpretations of existing laws, regulations or decisions, related to patent protection and enforcement, healthcare availability, and product pricing and marketing. The enactment in the U.S. of healthcare reform, the promulgation of regulations, new legislation and legislation on comparative effectiveness research are examples of previously enacted and possible future changes in laws that could adversely affect our business.

We face competition in the biopharmaceutical industry.

We face intense competition in the development, manufacture, marketing and commercialization of our products from many and varied sources, such as academic institutions, government agencies, research institutions, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, including other companies with similar technologies, and manufacturers of generic drugs (see “—We face claims against our intellectual property rights and competition from generic drug manufacturers.” for additional information relating to competition from generic drug manufacturers). Some of these competitors are also our licensees, who control the commercialization of products from which we receive manufacturing and royalty revenues. These competitors are working to develop and market other systems, products, and other methods of preventing or reducing disease, and new small-molecule and other classes of drugs that can be used with or without a drug delivery system.

 

The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are characterized by intensive research, development and commercialization efforts and rapid and significant technological change. Many of our competitors are larger and have significantly greater financial and other resources than we do. We expect our competitors to develop new technologies, products and processes that may be more effective than those we develop. The development of technologically improved or different products or technologies may make our products or product platforms obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover expenses incurred in connection with their development or realize any revenues from any marketed product.

        There are other companies developing extended-release product platforms. In many cases, there are products on the market or in development that may be in direct competition with our products. In addition, we know of new chemical entities that are being developed that, if successful, could compete against our products. These chemical entities are being designed to work differently than our products and may turn out to be safer or to be more effective than our products. Among the many experimental therapies being tested around the world, there may be some that we do not now know of that may compete with our proprietary product platforms or products. Our licensees could choose a competing technology to use with their drugs instead of one of our product platforms and could develop products that compete with our products.

With respect to our proprietary injectable product platform, we are aware that there are other companies developing extended-release delivery systems for pharmaceutical products. In the treatment of schizophrenia, ARISTADA, RISPERDAL CONSTA and INVEGA SUSTENNA/XEPLION, and INVEGA TRINZA compete with each other and a number of other injectable products including ZYPREXA RELPREVV ((olanzapine) For Extended Release Injectable Suspension), which is marketed and sold by Lilly; ABILIFY MAINTENA (aripiprazole for extended release injectable suspension), a once-monthly injectable formulation of ABILIFY (aripiprazole) developed by Otsuka Pharm. Co.; oral compounds currently on the market; and generic versions of branded oral and injectable products. In the treatment of bipolar disorder, RISPERDAL CONSTA competes with antipsychotics such as ABILIFY, LATUDA, risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone and clozapine.

 

In the treatment of alcohol dependence, VIVITROL competes with CAMPRAL (acamprosate calcium) sold by Forest Laboratories and ANTABUSE sold by Odyssey as well as currently marketed drugs, including generic drugs, also formulated from naltrexone. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing products that have shown some promise in treating alcohol dependence that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with VIVITROL.

 

In the treatment of opioid dependence, VIVITROL competes with methadone, oral naltrexone, SUBOXONE

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(buprenorphine HCl/naloxone HCl dehydrate sublingual tablets), SUBOXONE (buprenorphine/naloxone) Sublingual Film, and SUBUTEX (buprenorphine HCl sublingual tablets), each of which is marketed and sold by Indivior plc, and BUNAVAIL buccal film (buprenorphine and naloxone) marketed by BioDelivery Sciences, and ZUBSOLV (buprenorphine and naloxone) marketed by Orexo US, Inc. It also competes with generic versions of SUBUTEX and SUBOXONE sublingual tablets. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing products that have shown promise in treating opioid dependence that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with VIVITROL.

 

BYDUREON competes with established therapies for market share. Such competitive products include sulfonylureas, metformin, insulins, thiazolidinediones, glinides, dipeptidyl peptidase type IV inhibitors, insulin sensitizers, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors. BYDUREON also competes with other glucagon-like peptide-1 (“GLP-1”) agonists, including VICTOZA (liraglutide (rDNA origin) injection), which is marketed and sold by Novo Nordisk A/S. Other pharmaceutical companies are developing product candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that, if approved by the FDA, would compete with BYDUREON.

 

While AMPYRA/FAMPYRA is the first product approved as a treatment to improve walking in patients with MS, there are a number of FDA-approved therapies for MS disease management that seek to reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations or slow the accumulation of physical disability for people with certain types of MS. These products include AVONEX, TYSABRI, TECFIDERA, and PLEGRIDY from Biogen; BETASERON from Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; COPAXONE from Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.; REBIF and NOVANTRONE from EMD Serono, Inc.; GILENYA and EXTAVIA from Novartis AG; AUBAGIO and LEMTRADA from Sanofi-Aventis, and generic products.

 

With respect to our NanoCrystal technology, we are aware that other technology approaches similarly address poorly water-soluble drugs. These approaches include nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems, dendrimers and micelles, among others, any of which could limit the potential success and growth prospects of products incorporating our NanoCrystal technology. In addition, there are many competing technologies to our OCR technology, some of which are owned by large pharmaceutical companies with drug delivery divisions and other, smaller drug-delivery-specific companies.

 

Our inability to compete successfully in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We face claims against our intellectual property rights and competition from generic drug manufacturers.

In the U.S., generic manufacturers of innovator drug products may file ANDAs and, in doing so, certify that their products do not infringe the innovator's patents and/or that the innovator's patents are invalid. This often results in litigation between the innovator and the ANDA applicant. This type of litigation is commonly known as “Paragraph IV” litigation in the U.S.

 

We have received notices of ANDA filings for AMPYRA asserting that a generic form of AMPYRA would not infringe AMPYRA’s Orange-Book listed patents and/or those patents are invalid.  We are currently engaged in Paragraph IV litigation disputing such claims, which is scheduled to go to trial in September 2016.  This litigation may be costly and time consuming. For a discussion of legal proceedings related to the patents covering AMPYRA, see “Item 3—Legal Proceedings.”

 

Although we intend to vigorously enforce our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that we will prevail in our defense of our patent rights. Our existing patents could be invalidated, found unenforceable or found not to cover generic forms of our products. If an ANDA filer were to receive FDA approval to sell a generic version of our products and/or prevail in any patent litigation, our products would become subject to increased competition and our revenue could be adversely affected.

The commercial use of our products may cause unintended side effects or adverse reactions, or incidents of misuse may occur, which could adversely affect our business and share price.

We cannot predict whether the commercial use of our products will produce undesirable or unintended side effects that have not been evident in the use of, or in clinical trials conducted for, such products to date.  The administration of drugs in humans carries the inherent risk of product liability claims whether or not the drugs are actually the cause of an

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injury. Our products may cause, or may appear to have caused, injury or dangerous drug interactions, and we may not learn about or understand those effects until the products have been administered to patients for a prolonged period of time. Additionally, incidents of product misuse may occur. These events, among others, could result in product recalls, product liability actions or withdrawals or additional regulatory controls (including additional regulatory scrutiny, REMS programs, and requirements for additional labeling), all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. In addition, the reporting of adverse safety events involving our products and public rumors about such events could cause our product sales or share price to decline or experience periods of volatility.

Our business involves environmental, health and safety risks.

Our business involves the controlled use of hazardous materials and chemicals and is subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and to periodic inspections for possible violations of these laws and regulations. Under certain of those laws and regulations, we could be liable for any contamination at our current or former properties or third-party waste disposal sites. In addition to significant remediation costs, contamination can give rise to third-party claims for fines, penalties, natural resource damages, personal injury and damage (including property damage). The costs of compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations are significant. Any violations, even if inadvertent or accidental, of current or future environmental, health or safety laws or regulations, the cost of compliance with any resulting order or fine and any liability imposed in connection with any contamination for which we may be responsible could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We may not become profitable on a sustained basis.

At December 31, 2015, our accumulated deficit was $739.5 million, which was primarily the result of net losses incurred from 1987, the year Alkermes, Inc., was founded, through December 31, 2015 as we invest in our R&D pipeline, partially offset by net income over certain of our recent fiscal periods. There can be no assurance we will achieve sustained profitability.

 

A major component of our revenue is dependent on our licensees’ and our ability to commercialize, and our and our partners’ ability to manufacture economically, our marketed products. In the fourth quarter of 2015, we completed the two-year restructuring plan of our Athlone, Ireland manufacturing facility, pursuant to which we terminated manufacturing services for certain products that were no longer expected to be economically practicable to produce.

 

Our ability to achieve sustained profitability in the future depends, in part, on our or our licensees’, as applicable, ability to:

 

·

successfully commercialize VIVITROL and ARISTADA in the U.S.;

·

obtain and maintain regulatory approval for products both in the U.S. and in other countries;

·

efficiently manufacture our products;

·

support the commercialization of products by our licensees;

·

enter into agreements to develop and commercialize our products;

·

develop, have manufactured or expand our capacity to manufacture and market our products;

·

obtain adequate reimbursement coverage for our products from insurance companies, government programs and other third-party payers;

·

obtain additional research and development funding for our proprietary products; and

·

achieve certain product development milestones.

 

In addition, the amount we spend will impact our profitability. Our spending will depend, in part, on:

 

·

the progress of our research and development programs for our products, including clinical trials;

·

the time and expense that will be required to pursue FDA and/or non-U.S. regulatory approvals for our products and whether such approvals are obtained;

·

the time that will be required for the DEA to provide its final scheduling designation for our products that are controlled substances;

·

the time and expense required to prosecute, enforce and/or challenge patent and other intellectual property

42


 

rights;

·

the cost of building, operating and maintaining manufacturing and research facilities;

·

the cost of third-party manufacture;

·

the number of products we pursue, particularly proprietary products;

·

how competing technological and market developments affect our products;

·

the cost of possible acquisitions of technologies, compounds, product rights or companies;

·

the cost of obtaining licenses to use technology owned by others for proprietary products and otherwise;

·

the costs of potential litigation; and

·

the costs associated with recruiting and compensating a highly skilled workforce in an environment where competition for such employees is intense.

 

We may not achieve all or any of these goals and, thus, we cannot provide assurances that we will ever be profitable on a sustained basis or achieve significant revenues. Even if we do achieve some or all of these goals, we may not achieve significant or sustained commercial success.

We may require additional funds to execute on our business strategy, and such funding may not be available on commercially favorable terms or at all, and may cause dilution to our existing shareholders.

We may require additional funds in the future to execute on our business strategy, and we may seek funds through various sources, including debt and equity offerings, corporate collaborations, bank borrowings, arrangements relating to assets, sale of royalty streams we receive on our products or other financing methods or structures. The source, timing and availability of any financings will depend on market conditions, interest rates and other factors. If we issue additional equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities to raise funds, our shareholders will suffer dilution of their investment, and it may adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares. In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors or lenders may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing shareholders. If we issue additional debt securities in the future, our existing debt service obligations will increase further. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash to meet these obligations and need to use existing cash or liquidate investments in order to fund our debt service obligations or to repay our debt, we may be forced to delay or terminate clinical trials or curtail operations. We cannot be certain, however, that additional financing will be available from any of these sources when needed or, if available, will be on acceptable terms, if at all, particularly if the credit and financial markets are constrained at the time we require funding. If we fail to obtain additional capital when we need it, we may not be able to execute our business strategy successfully and may have to give up rights to our product platforms, products or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. 

Adverse financial market conditions may exacerbate certain risks affecting our business.

As a result of adverse financial market conditions, organizations that reimburse for use of our products, such as government health administration authorities and private health insurers, may be unable to satisfy such obligations or may delay payment. In addition, federal and state health authorities may reduce reimbursements (including Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements in the U.S.) or payments, and private insurers may increase their scrutiny of claims. We are also dependent on the performance of our licensees, and we sell our products to our licensees through contracts that may not be secured by collateral or other security. Accordingly, we bear the risk if our partners are unable to pay amounts due to us thereunder. Due to volatility in the financial markets, there may be a disruption or delay in the performance of our third-party contractors, suppliers or licensees. If such third parties are unable to pay amounts owed to us or satisfy their commitments to us, or if there are reductions in the availability or extent of reimbursement available to us, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations would be adversely affected.

Currency exchange rates may affect revenues and expenses.

We conduct a large portion of our business in international markets. For example, we derive a majority of our RISPERDAL CONSTA revenues and all of our FAMPYRA and XEPLION revenues from sales in countries other than the U.S., and these sales are denominated in non-U.S. dollar (“USD”) currencies. We also incur substantial operating costs in Ireland and face exposure to changes in the exchange ratio of the USD and the Euro arising from expenses and payables at our Irish operations that are settled in Euro. The impact of changes in the exchange ratio of the USD and the Euro on our USD-denominated revenues earned in countries other than the U.S. is partially offset by the opposite impact of changes in the exchange ratio of the USD and the Euro on operating expenses and payables incurred at our Irish operations that are settled in Euro. Refer to “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk” for

43


 

additional information relating to our foreign currency exchange rate risk.

We may not be able to retain our key personnel.

Our success depends largely upon the continued service of our management and scientific staff and our ability to attract, retain and motivate highly skilled technical, scientific, manufacturing, management, regulatory compliance and selling and marketing personnel. The loss of key personnel or our inability to hire and retain personnel who have technical, scientific, manufacturing, management, regulatory compliance or commercial backgrounds could materially adversely affect our research and development efforts and our business.

Future transactions may harm our business or the market price of our ordinary shares.

We regularly review potential transactions related to technologies, products or product rights and businesses complementary to our business. These transactions could include:

 

·

mergers;

·

acquisitions;

·

strategic alliances;

·

licensing agreements; and

·

co-promotion agreements.

 

We may choose to enter into one or more of these transactions at any time, which may cause substantial fluctuations in the market price of our ordinary shares. Moreover, depending upon the nature of any transaction, we may experience a charge to earnings, which could also materially adversely affect our results of operations and could harm the market price of our ordinary shares.

 

If we are unable to successfully integrate the companies, businesses or properties that we acquire, such events could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. Merger and acquisition transactions involve various inherent risks, including:

 

·

uncertainties in assessing the value, strengths and potential profitability of, and identifying the extent of all weaknesses, risks, contingent and other liabilities of, the respective parties;

·

the potential loss of key customers, management and employees of an acquired business;

·

the consummation of financing transactions, acquisitions or dispositions and the related effects on our business;

·

the ability to achieve identified operating and financial synergies from an acquisition in the amounts and within the timeframe predicted;

·

problems that could arise from the integration of the respective businesses, including the application of internal control processes to the acquired business;

·

difficulties that could be encountered in managing international operations; and

·

unanticipated changes in business, industry, market or general economic conditions that differ from the assumptions underlying our rationale for pursuing the transaction.

 

Any one or more of these factors could cause us not to realize the benefits anticipated from a transaction. Moreover, any acquisition opportunities we pursue could materially affect our liquidity and capital resources and may require us to incur additional indebtedness, seek equity capital or both. Future acquisitions could also result in our assuming more long-term liabilities relative to the value of the acquired assets than we have assumed in our previous acquisitions.

If goodwill or other intangible assets become impaired, we could have to take significant charges against earnings.

At December 31, 2015, we have $379.2 million of amortizable intangible assets and $92.9 million of goodwill. Under accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”), we must assess, at least annually and potentially more frequently, whether the value of goodwill and other indefinite‑ lived intangible assets have been impaired. Amortizing intangible assets will be assessed for impairment in the event of an impairment indicator. Any reduction or impairment of the value of goodwill or other intangible assets will result in a charge against earnings, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and shareholders’ equity in future periods.

44


 

Our effective tax rate may increase.

As a global biopharmaceutical company, we are subject to taxation in a number of different jurisdictions. As a result, our effective tax rate is derived from a combination of applicable tax rates in the various places that we operate. In preparing our financial statements, we estimate the amount of tax that will become payable in each of these places. Our effective tax rate may fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the distribution of our profits or losses between the jurisdictions where we operate and differences in interpretation of tax laws. In addition, the tax laws of any jurisdiction in which we operate may change in the future, which could impact our effective tax rate. Tax authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate may audit us. If we are unsuccessful in defending any tax positions adopted in our submitted tax returns, we may be required to pay taxes for prior periods, interest, fines or penalties, and may be obligated to pay increased taxes in the future, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and growth prospects.

The Business Combination of Alkermes, Inc. and EDT may limit our ability to use our tax attributes to offset taxable income, if any, generated from such Business Combination.

For U.S. federal income tax purposes, a corporation is generally considered tax resident in the place of its incorporation. Because we are incorporated in Ireland, we should be deemed an Irish corporation under these general rules. However, Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) generally provides that a corporation organized outside the U.S. that acquires substantially all of the assets of a corporation organized in the U.S. will be treated as a U.S. corporation (and, therefore, a U.S. tax resident) for U.S. federal income tax purposes if shareholders of the acquired U.S. corporation own at least 80% (of either the voting power or the value) of the stock of the acquiring foreign corporation after the acquisition by reason of holding stock in the domestic corporation, and the “expanded affiliated group” (as defined in Section 7874) that includes the acquiring corporation does not have substantial business activities in the country in which it is organized.

 

In addition, Section 7874 provides that if a corporation organized outside the U.S. acquires substantially all of the assets of a corporation organized in the U.S., the taxable income of the U.S. corporation during the period beginning on the date the first assets are acquired as part of the acquisition, through the date which is ten years after the last date assets are acquired as part of the acquisition, shall be no less than the income or gain recognized by reason of the transfer during such period or by reason of a license of property by the expatriated entity after such acquisition to a foreign affiliate during such period, which is referred to as the “inversion gain,” if shareholders of the acquired U.S. corporation own at least 60% (of either the voting power or the value) of the stock of the acquiring foreign corporation after the acquisition by reason of holding stock in the domestic corporation, and the “expanded affiliated group” of the acquiring corporation does not have substantial business activities in the country in which it is organized. In connection with the Business Combination, Alkermes, Inc. transferred certain intellectual property to one of our Irish subsidiaries, and Alkermes, Inc. had sufficient net operating loss carryforwards available to substantially offset any taxable income generated from this transfer. If this rule was to apply to the Business Combination, among other things, Alkermes, Inc. would not have been able to use any of the approximately $274 million of U.S. Federal net operating loss (“NOL”) and $38 million of U.S. state NOL carryforwards that it had as of March 31, 2011 to offset any taxable income generated as part of the Business Combination or as a result of the transfer of intellectual property. We do not believe that either of these limitations should apply as a result of the Business Combination. However, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) could assert a contrary position, in which case we could become involved in tax controversy with the IRS regarding possible additional U.S. tax liability. If we were to be unsuccessful in resolving any such tax controversy in our favor, we could be liable for significantly greater U.S. federal and state income tax than we anticipate being liable for through the Business Combination, including as a result of the transfer of intellectual property, which would place further demands on our cash needs.

Our business could be negatively affected as a result of the actions of activist shareholders.

Proxy contests have been waged against many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries over the last few years. If faced with a proxy contest, we may not be able to respond successfully to the contest, which would be disruptive to our business. Even if we are successful, our business could be adversely affected by a proxy contest involving us because:

 

·

responding to proxy contests and other actions by activist shareholders can be costly and time-consuming, disrupting operations and diverting the attention of management and employees, and can lead to

45


 

uncertainty;

·

perceived uncertainties as to future direction may result in the loss of potential acquisitions, collaborations or in-licensing opportunities, and may make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel and business partners; and

·

if individuals are elected to our board of directors with a specific agenda, it may adversely affect our ability to effectively implement our strategic plan in a timely manner and create additional value for our shareholders.

 

These actions could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to experience periods of volatility.

If any of our licensees undergoes a change in control or in management, this may adversely affect revenues from our products.

Any change of control, or change in management, of our licensees may result in a reprioritization of our product within such licensee’s portfolio, or such licensee may fail to maintain the financial or other resources necessary to continue the development and/or commercialization of such product.

 

If any of our licensees undergoes a change of control and the acquirer either is unable to perform such licensee’s obligations under its agreements with us or has a product that competes with ours that such acquirer does not divest, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our suppliers and partners, as well as personally identifiable information of patients, clinical trial participants and employees. Similarly, our partners and third-party providers possess certain of our sensitive data. The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Certain types of information technology or infrastructure attacks or breaches may go undetected for a prolonged period of time. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information, including our data being breached at our partners or third-party providers, could result in legal claims or proceedings and liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, disrupt our operations, and damage our reputation which could adversely affect our business.

If we identify a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, our ability to meet our reporting obligations and the trading price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Accordingly, a material weakness increases the risk that the financial information we report contains material errors.

 

We regularly review and update our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies. In addition, we are required under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to report annually on our internal control over financial reporting. Any system of internal controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. If we, or our independent registered public accounting firm, determine that our internal controls over financial reporting are not effective, or we discover areas that need improvement in the future, these shortcomings could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results, and the price of our ordinary shares could be negatively affected.

 

If we cannot conclude that we have effective internal control over our financial reporting, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide an unqualified opinion regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could lead to a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares. Failure to comply with reporting requirements could also subject us to sanctions and/or investigations by the SEC, the NASDAQ or other regulatory authorities.

46


 

 

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

 

Item 2.  Properties

 

We lease approximately 14,600 square feet of corporate office space in Dublin, Ireland, which houses our corporate headquarters. This lease expires in 2022 and includes a tenant option to terminate in 2017. We lease approximately 175,000 square feet of space in Waltham, Massachusetts, which houses corporate offices, administrative areas and laboratories. This lease expires in 2021 and includes a tenant option to extend the term for up to two five‑year periods. We lease approximately 3,800 square feet of office space in Washington, DC. This lease expires in 2020.

 

We own a R&D and manufacturing facility in Athlone, Ireland (approximately 400,000 square feet) and a manufacturing facility in Wilmington, Ohio (approximately 280,000 square feet).

 

We believe that our current and planned facilities are adequate for our current and near‑term preclinical, clinical and commercial manufacturing requirements.

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

ARISTADA

 

On July 13, 2015, Otsuka PD&C filed a Citizen Petition with the FDA which requested that the FDA refuse to approve the NDA for ARISTADA or delay approval of such NDA until the exclusivity rights covering long-acting aripiprazole expire in December 2017. The FDA approved ARISTADA on October 5, 2015 and, concurrent with such approval, denied Otsuka PD&C’s Citizen Petition.

 

On October 15, 2015, Otsuka filed an action for declaratory and injunctive relief with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia (the “Court”) against Sylvia Mathews Burwell, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Dr. Stephen Ostroff, Acting Commissioner, FDA; and the FDA, requesting that (a) the Court expedite the legal proceedings; (b) the Court declare that the FDA’s denial of Otsuka’s claimed exclusivity rights and approval of the ARISTADA NDA were arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, and otherwise not in accordance with law; (c) the Court vacate FDA’s approval of the ARISTADA NDA and vacate any FDA decisions or actions underlying or supporting or predicated upon that approval; (d) the Court declare that Otsuka’s claimed exclusivity rights preclude FDA from granting approval of the Alkermes NDA until the expiration of such exclusivity rights in December 2017; and (e) the Court grant any and all other, further, and additional relief, including all necessary and appropriate protective preliminary, interim, or permanent relief, as the nature of the cause may require, including all necessary and appropriate declarations of rights and injunctive relief. We believe Otsuka’s action is without merit and will vigorously defend ARISTADA against such action. We successfully intervened in, and received the Court’s approval to become a party to, this action. The Court held a hearing on the case in January 2016. The action is currently pending before the Court. For information about risks relating to this action, see “Item 1A—Risk Factors” of this Annual Report and specifically the section entitled Citizen Petitions and other actions filed with, or litigation against, the FDA or other regulatory agencies or litigation against Alkermes may negatively impact the approval of our products and our business.”

 

 

AMPYRA

 

Ampyra ANDA Litigation

 

Ten separate Paragraph IV Certification Notices have been submitted to us and/or our partner Acorda from Accord Healthcare, Inc.; Actavis Laboratories FL, Inc. (“Actavis”); Alkem Laboratories Ltd.; Apotex, Inc.; Aurobindo Pharma Ltd. (“Aurobindo”); Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Mylan”); Par Pharmaceutical, Inc. (“Par”); Roxane Laboratories, Inc.; Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited and Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries Inc. (collectively, “Sun”); and Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc., advising that each of these companies had submitted an ANDA to the FDA seeking marketing approval for generic versions of Ampyra (dalfampridine) Extended Release Tablets, 10 mg.  The ANDA filers have challenged the validity of the Orange Book-listed patents for Ampyra, and they have also asserted that their generic

47


 

versions do not infringe certain claims of these patents.  In response, we and/or Acorda filed lawsuits against the ANDA filers in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware (the “Delaware Court”) asserting infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 5,540,938 (which we own), 8,007,826, 8,354,437, 8,440,703, and 8,663,685 (which are owned by Acorda).  Requested judicial remedies include recovery of litigation costs and injunctive relief. Lawsuits with eight of the ANDA filers have been consolidated into a single case. The Delaware Court has scheduled a Markman hearing on March 7, 2016, and has set a five-day bench trial starting on September 19, 2016. Mylan is challenging the jurisdiction of the Delaware Court with respect to the Delaware action. Due to Mylan’s motion to dismiss, we, together with Acorda, also filed another patent infringement suit against Mylan in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia asserting the same U.S. patents and requesting the same judicial relief as in the Delaware action. On January 4, 2016, the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals held oral arguments on Mylan’s appeal of the Delaware Court’s jurisdictional decision. All lawsuits were filed within 45 days from the date of receipt of each of the Paragraph IV Certification Notices.  As a result, a 30-month statutory stay of approval period applies to each of the ANDAs under the Hatch-Waxman Act.  The 30-month stay starts from January 22, 2015, which is the end of the new chemical entity exclusivity period for Ampyra.  This stay restricts the FDA from approving the ANDAs until July 2017 at the earliest, unless a Federal district court issues a decision adverse to all of the asserted Orange Book-listed patents prior to that date.

 

In the fourth quarter of 2015, we and/or Acorda entered into a settlement agreement with each of Actavis, Aurobindo, Par and Sun (collectively, the “Settling ANDA Filers”) to resolve the patent litigation that we and/or Acorda brought against the Settling ANDA Filers in the Delaware Court as described above. As a result of the settlement agreements, the Settling ANDA Filers will be permitted to market a generic version of Ampyra in the U.S. at a specified date in 2027, or potentially earlier under certain circumstances. The parties have submitted their respective settlement agreements to the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice, as required by federal law.  The settlements with the Settling ANDA Filers do not resolve pending patent litigation that we and Acorda brought against the other ANDA filers, as described in this Annual Report. 

 

We intend to vigorously enforce our intellectual property rights. For information about risks relating to the Ampyra Paragraph IV litigations and other proceedings see “Item 1A—Risk Factors” in this Annual Report and specifically the section entitled “We face claims against our intellectual property rights and competition from generic drug manufacturers.”

 

Ampyra IPR Proceedings

 

A hedge fund (acting with affiliated entities and individuals and proceeding under the name of the Coalition for Affordable Drugs) has filed inter partes review petitions with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, challenging U.S. Patent Nos. 8,007,826, 8,354,437, 8,440,703, and 8,663,685 (which are owned by Acorda). The challenged patents are four of the five Ampyra Orange-Book listed patents.  The 30-month statutory stay period based on patent infringement suits filed by us and Acorda against ANDA filers is not impacted by these filings, and remains in effect.

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.

 

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PART II

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Market and shareholder information

 

Our ordinary shares are traded on the NASDAQ under the symbol “ALKS.” Set forth below for the indicated periods are the high and low closing sales prices for our ordinary shares.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended

 

Year Ended

 

 

 

December 31, 2015

 

December 31, 2014

 

 

 

High

 

Low

 

High

 

Low

 

1st Quarter

    

$

73.64

    

$

58.24

    

$

53.82

    

$

40.07

 

2nd Quarter

 

 

67.00

 

 

55.37

 

 

50.94

 

 

41.10

 

3rd Quarter

 

 

72.79

 

 

55.08

 

 

51.75

 

 

41.54

 

4th Quarter

 

 

80.14

 

 

57.89

 

 

58.88

 

 

40.23

 

 

There were 170 shareholders of record for our ordinary shares on February 12, 2016. In addition, the last reported sale price of our ordinary shares as reported on the NASDAQ on February 12, 2016 was $32.45.

 

Dividends

 

No dividends have been paid on the ordinary shares to date, and we do not expect to pay cash dividends thereon in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all earnings, if any, to support our operations and our proprietary drug development programs. Any future determination as to the payment of dividends will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.

 

Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans

 

For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Part III, Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management,” which incorporates by reference to the Proxy Statement relating to our 2016 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders.

 

Repurchase of equity securities

 

On September 16, 2011, our board of directors authorized the continuation of the Alkermes, Inc. program to repurchase up to $215.0 million of our ordinary shares at the discretion of management from time to time in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. We did not purchase any shares under this program during the year ended December 31, 2015. As of December 31, 2015, we had purchased a total of 8,866,342 shares at a cost of $114.0 million. Our Term Loan Facility includes restrictive covenants that impose certain limitations on our ability to repurchase our ordinary shares.

 

Irish taxes applicable to U.S. holders

 

The following is a general summary of the main Irish tax considerations applicable to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our ordinary shares by U.S. holders. It is based on existing Irish law and practices in effect on January 31, 2016, and on discussions and correspondence with the Irish Revenue Commissioners. Legislative, administrative or judicial changes may modify the tax consequences described below.

 

The statements do not constitute tax advice and are intended only as a general guide. Furthermore, this information applies only to ordinary shares held as capital assets and does not apply to all categories of shareholders, such as dealers in securities, trustees, insurance companies, collective investment schemes and shareholders who acquire, or who are deemed to acquire their ordinary shares by virtue of an office or employment. This summary is not exhaustive and shareholders should consult their own tax advisers as to the tax consequences in Ireland, or other relevant jurisdictions where we operate, including the acquisition, ownership and disposition of ordinary shares.

 

 

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Withholding tax on dividends

 

While we have no current plans to pay dividends, dividends on our ordinary shares would generally be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax (“DWT”) at the standard rate of income tax, which is currently 20%, unless an exemption applies. Dividends on our ordinary shares that are owned by residents of the U.S. and held beneficially through the Depositary Trust Company (“DTC”) will not be subject to DWT provided that the address of the beneficial owner of the ordinary shares in the records of the broker is in the U.S.

 

Dividends on our ordinary shares that are owned by residents of the U.S. and held directly (outside of DTC) will not be subject to DWT provided that the shareholder has completed the appropriate Irish DWT form and this form remains valid. Such shareholders must provide the appropriate Irish DWT form to our transfer agent at least seven business days before the record date for the first dividend payment to which they are entitled.

 

If any shareholder who is resident in the U.S. receives a dividend subject to DWT, he or she should generally be able to make an application for a refund from the Irish Revenue Commissioners on the prescribed form.

 

Income tax on dividends

 

Irish income tax, if any, may arise in respect of dividends paid by us. However, a shareholder who is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland and who is entitled to an exemption from DWT, generally has no liability for Irish income tax or to the universal social charge on a dividend from us unless he or she holds his or her ordinary shares through a branch or agency in Ireland which carries out a trade on his or her behalf.

 

Irish tax on capital gains

 

A shareholder who is neither resident nor ordinarily resident in Ireland and does not hold our ordinary shares in connection with a trade or business carried on by such shareholder in Ireland through a branch or agency should not be within the charge to Irish tax on capital gains on a disposal of our ordinary shares.

 

Capital acquisitions tax

 

Irish capital acquisitions tax (“CAT”) is comprised principally of gift tax and inheritance tax. CAT could apply to a gift or inheritance of our ordinary shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our ordinary shares are regarded as property situated in Ireland as our share register must be held in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT.

 

CAT is levied at a rate of 33% above certain tax‑free thresholds. The appropriate tax‑free threshold is dependent upon (i) the relationship between the donor and the recipient, and (ii) the aggregation of the values of previous gifts and inheritances received by the recipient from persons within the same category of relationship for CAT purposes. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses are exempt from CAT. Our shareholders should consult their own tax advisers as to whether CAT is creditable or deductible in computing any domestic tax liabilities.

 

Stamp duty

 

Irish stamp duty, if any, may become payable in respect of ordinary share transfers. However, a transfer of our ordinary shares from a seller who holds shares through DTC to a buyer who holds the acquired shares through DTC will not be subject to Irish stamp duty. A transfer of our ordinary shares (i) by a seller who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC to any buyer, or (ii) by a seller who holds the ordinary shares through DTC to a buyer who holds the acquired ordinary shares outside of DTC, may be subject to Irish stamp duty, which is currently at the rate of 1% of the price paid or the market value of the ordinary shares acquired, if greater. The person accountable for payment of stamp duty is the buyer or, in the case of a transfer by way of a gift or for less than market value, all parties to the transfer.

 

A shareholder who holds ordinary shares outside of DTC may transfer those ordinary shares into DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book‑entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC, and in exactly the same proportions, as a result of the transfer and at the time of the transfer into DTC there is no sale of those book‑entry interests to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. Similarly, a shareholder who holds ordinary shares through DTC may transfer those

50


 

ordinary shares out of DTC without giving rise to Irish stamp duty provided that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the ordinary shares, and in exactly the same proportions, as a result of the transfer, and at the time of the transfer out of DTC there is no sale of those ordinary shares to a third party being contemplated by the shareholder. In order for the share registrar to be satisfied as to the application of this Irish stamp duty treatment where relevant, the shareholder must confirm to us that the shareholder would be the beneficial owner of the related book‑entry interest in those ordinary shares recorded in the systems of DTC, and in exactly the same proportions or vice‑versa, as a result of the transfer and there is no agreement for the sale of the related book‑entry interest or the ordinary shares or an interest in the ordinary shares, as the case may be, by the shareholder to a third party being contemplated.

 

Stock Performance Graph

 

The information contained in the performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, and such information shall not be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

 

The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our ordinary shares since March 31, 2011 through December 31, 2015 with the NASDAQ Composite Total Return Index and the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. As a result of a change in the total return data made available to us through our vendor provider, our performance graphs going forward will use the NASDAQ Composite Total Return Index in lieu of the NASDAQ US & Foreign Index. Please note that information for the NASDAQ US & Foreign Index is provided only from March 31, 2011 through December 31, 2013, the last day this data was made available by our third‑party index provider. The NASDAQ Biotechnology Index was not affected by this change. It is important to note that information set forth in the graph below with respect to the time period prior to September 16, 2011 refers to the common stock performance of Alkermes, Inc., while that information with respect to the time period after September 16, 2011 refers to the ordinary share performance of Alkermes plc. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on March 31, 2011 in our common stock and in each of the foregoing indices and further assumes reinvestment of any dividends. We did not declare or pay any dividends on our common stock or ordinary shares during the comparison period.

 

Picture 1

 

51


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended March 31,

 

December 31, 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

 

 

2011

 

2012

 

2013

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

Alkermes

    

100

    

143

    

183

    

314

    

452

    

613

 

NASDAQ Composite Total Return

 

100

 

112

 

120

 

155

 

178

 

191

 

NASDAQ Biotechnology Index

 

100

 

123

 

160

 

228

 

305

 

340

 

NASDAQ Stock Market (U.S. and Foreign) Index

 

100

 

112

 

120

 

158

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

 

The selected historical financial data set forth below at December 31, 2015 and 2014 and for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the nine months ended December 31, 2013 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The selected historical financial data set forth below at December 31, 2013, March 31, 2013 and March 31, 2012 and for the years ended March 31, 2013 and 2012 are derived from audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this Annual Report. The selected historical financial data for the period prior to September 16, 2011 is that of Alkermes, Inc., while the selected historical financial data for the period after September 16, 2011 is that of Alkermes plc. The Company has elected not to recast prior period amounts to conform to the change in its fiscal year.

 

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any future period.

52


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Months Ended

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31, 

 

December 31, 

 

Year Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

2013

 

2012(1)

 

 

 

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

    

 

    

 

REVENUES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manufacturing and royalty revenues

 

$

475,288

 

$

516,876

 

$

371,039

 

$

510,900

 

$

326,444

 

Product sales, net

 

 

149,028

 

 

94,160

 

 

57,215

 

 

58,107

 

 

41,184

 

Research and development revenue

 

 

4,019

 

 

7,753

 

 

4,657

 

 

6,541

 

 

22,349

 

Total revenues

 

 

628,335

 

 

618,789

 

 

432,911

 

 

575,548

 

 

389,977

 

EXPENSES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods manufactured and sold

 

 

138,989

 

 

175,832

 

 

134,306

 

 

170,466

 

 

127,578

 

Research and development

 

 

344,404

 

 

272,043

 

 

128,125

 

 

140,013

 

 

141,893

 

Selling, general and administrative(2)

 

 

311,558

 

 

199,905

 

 

116,558

 

 

125,758

 

 

137,632

 

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

 

 

57,685

 

 

58,153

 

 

38,428

 

 

41,852

 

 

25,355

 

Restructuring(3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12,300

 

 

 

Impairment of long-lived assets(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,346

 

 

45,800

 

Total expenses

 

 

852,636

 

 

705,933

 

 

417,417

 

 

493,735

 

 

478,258

 

OPERATING (LOSS) INCOME

 

 

(224,301)

 

 

(87,144)

 

 

15,494

 

 

81,813

 

 

(88,281)

 

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET(5)

 

 

296

 

 

73,115

 

 

(10,097)

 

 

(46,372)

 

 

(26,111)

 

(LOSS) INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES

 

 

(224,005)

 

 

(14,029)

 

 

5,397

 

 

35,441

 

 

(114,392)

 

PROVISION (BENEFIT) FOR INCOME TAXES

 

 

3,158

 

 

16,032

 

 

(12,252)

 

 

10,458

 

 

(714)

 

NET (LOSS) INCOME

 

$

(227,163)

 

$

(30,061)

 

$

17,649

 

$

24,983

 

$

(113,678)

 

(LOSS) EARNINGS PER COMMON SHARE:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BASIC

 

$

(1.52)

 

$

(0.21)

 

$

0.13

 

$

0.19

 

$

(0.99)

 

DILUTED

 

$

(1.52)

 

$

(0.21)

 

$

0.12

 

$

0.18

 

$

(0.99)

 

WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF COMMON SHARES OUTSTANDING:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BASIC

 

 

149,206

 

 

145,274

 

 

135,960

 

 

131,713

 

 

114,702

 

DILUTED

 

 

149,206

 

 

145,274

 

 

144,961

 

 

137,100

 

 

114,702

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash, cash equivalents and investments

 

$

798,849

 

$

801,646

 

$

449,995

 

$

304,179

 

$

246,138

 

Total assets(6)

 

 

1,855,744

 

 

1,919,058

 

 

1,574,848

 

 

1,467,121

 

 

1,425,786

 

Long-term debt(6)