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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 23, 2023.

Registration No. 333-262088

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 4

to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

TURO INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   7372   27-0729479

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

111 Sutter Street, Floor 12

San Francisco, California 94104

(415) 965-4525

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Andre Haddad

Chief Executive Officer

Turo Inc.

111 Sutter Street, Floor 12

San Francisco, California 94104

(415) 965-4525

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

Rachel Proffitt

Calise Y. Cheng

Natalie Y. Karam

Cooley LLP

3 Embarcadero Center, 20th Floor

San Francisco, California 94111

(415) 693-2000

 

Michelle Fang

Chief Legal Officer

Turo Inc.

111 Sutter Street, Floor 12

San Francisco, California 94104

(415) 965-4525

 

Sarah K. Solum

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer US LLP

855 Main Street

Redwood City, California 94063

(650) 618-9250

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement is declared effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box.  

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

    

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell and it does not seek and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion, dated                 , 2023

 

LOGO

 

 

Common stock

 

  

 

shares

 

This is an initial public offering of shares of common stock of Turo Inc. We are offering                  shares of our common stock. The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus are offering                  shares of our common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by the selling stockholders.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per share will be between $                 and $            . We have been approved to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TURO.”

Following this offering, our executive officers, directors, and stockholders holding more than 5% of our outstanding shares, together with their affiliates, will hold, in the aggregate, approximately             % of our outstanding capital stock (or                 % of our outstanding capital stock if the underwriters exercise their option in full to purchase additional shares of common stock).

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws, and as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See the section titled “Risk factors” beginning on page 25 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our common stock.

 

         
      

Price to public

    

Underwriting discounts

and commissions(1)

    

Proceeds to Turo

     Proceeds to
selling stockholders

Per share

     $                                  $                                                 $                                        $                                  

Total

     $                                   $                                                 $                                         $                                   

 

(1)  

See the section titled “Underwriters” for a description of the compensation payable to the underwriters.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to     % of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to eligible hosts and guests on our platform and certain individuals identified by our officers and directors. See the section titled “Underwriters — Directed share program” for additional information.

We have granted to the underwriters the option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to an additional                          shares of common stock from us on the same terms as set forth above.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock to purchasers on                     , 2023.

 

 

 

Morgan Stanley     J.P. Morgan      
Allen & Company     Citigroup      
TD Cowen               D.A. Davidson & Co.                 Wolfe | Nomura Alliance                  LionTree                                                
Loop Capital Markets   Ramirez & Co., Inc.     Siebert Williams Shank  

                                 , 2023.


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The worlds largest car sharing marketplace LOGO

 


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LOGO

Our host community Accelerating entrepreneurship with scalable business opportunities $2.1B+ host earnings since inception 300K+ active vehicles* 1,400+, makes and models 9,500+ cities * Active as of 12 months ended September 30, 2022. We count the number of active vehicles and active guests as vehicle listings and guests, respectively, with at least one trip in the trailing 12-month period.

 


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LOGO

Our guest community Elevating everyday necessity with extraordinary experiences 3.7B+ miles driven since inception 2.7M+ active guests* 80 net promoter score 110% YoY growth of active guests

 


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LOGO

Take a look under the hood TURO


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Table of contents

 

     Page  

Prospectus summary

     1  

Risk factors

     25  

Special note regarding forward-looking statements

     80  

Market, industry, and other data

     83  

Use of proceeds

     86  

Dividend policy

     87  

Capitalization

     88  

Dilution

     90  

Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations

     96  

Business

     136  

Management

     207  
 

 

 

Through and including                     , 2023 (the 25th day after the date of this prospectus), all dealers effecting transactions in these securities, whether or not participating in this offering, may be required to deliver a prospectus. This is in addition to a dealer’s obligation to deliver a prospectus when acting as an underwriter and with respect to an unsold allotment or subscription.

 

 

Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectuses we have prepared. Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor any of the underwriters take any responsibility for, or can provide any assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We, the selling stockholders, and the underwriters are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or of any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future growth prospects may have changed since that date.

For investors outside the United States: Neither we, the selling stockholders, nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside of the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of our common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.

 

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LOGO

Prospectus summary


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Prospectus summary

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the sections titled “Risk factors,” “Special note regarding forward-looking statements,” and “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations,” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “we,” “us,” “our,” “ours,” “our company,” and “Turo” refer to Turo Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Mission and vision

Our mission is to put the world’s 1.5 billion cars to better use. Our vision is that wherever you are, you can book the perfect vehicle for your next adventure from a trusted Turo host.

Overview

Turo is the world’s largest car sharing marketplace where guests can book any car they want, wherever they want it, from a vibrant community of trusted hosts. Whether they’re flying in from afar or looking for a car down the street, searching for a rugged truck or something smooth and swanky for a once-in-a-lifetime event, guests can take the wheel of the perfect car for any occasion, while hosts can take the wheel of their futures by sharing their underutilized personal vehicles or building an accessible, flexible, and scalable car sharing business from the ground up. Turo is home to a supportive and collaborative community that shares thousands of vehicles across the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. As of December 31, 2022, we had over 160,000 active hosts and 2.9 million active guests from around the world participating in our marketplace.

We are pioneering a new category of transportation, advancing the next era of personal mobility by connecting consumers with an unrivaled network of privately owned vehicles. Cars remain the preferred means of transportation for short-, medium-, and long-duration trips across a variety of use cases, but traditional mobility options do not provide adequate and efficient access for consumers to vehicles. The peer-to-peer car sharing opportunity Turo delivers to consumers provides a more convenient, economically efficient, and environmentally and socially responsible way to access an extraordinary selection of vehicles compared to traditional car ownership and car rental.

Our platform unlocks peer-to-peer car sharing through technology — a seamless, simple platform that connects hosts and guests and enables them to transact in a trusted, safe environment. With Turo, hosts can quickly list vehicles, adjust their availability, and dynamically modify prices to access the unique demand patterns in their market. Guests can search by location, type, price, use case, and many other categories to find the perfect vehicle for their needs. Our platform supports a variety of use cases — from the minivan for the family road trip, to the convertible for the long-awaited beach getaway, or a simple vehicle for escaping the city grind. Built-in messaging, payments, fraud detection, the proprietary Turo Risk Score, and host and guest protection plans are designed to deliver a safe transaction and experience for our community.

We have experienced rapid growth since our launch in 2010. Our business model has proven to be resilient throughout fluctuations in travel trends and economic climates as our marketplace dynamically adjusts to the needs of our hosts and guests. We have seen increased demand for bespoke and safe forms of transportation, as well as increased supply from hosts, showing that Turo can uniquely serve and elevate our entire community,

 

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both hosts and guests. We generated net revenue of $149.9 million in 2020, representing 6% growth from $141.7 million in 2019, and a net loss of $97.1 million during 2020, down from $98.6 million in 2019. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was due to a combination of the introduction of the Turo Risk Score in April 2020, a tool that dynamically adjusts the fees that we charge guests to complete a booking on our marketplace, as well as hosts increasing the prices for vehicles charged to guests. In 2021, we generated net revenue of $469.0 million, representing 213% growth from $149.9 million in 2020, and a net loss of $40.4 million, down from $97.1 million in 2020. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 was due to a combination of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, improved optimization of the Turo Risk Score, hosts increasing the prices for vehicles charged to guests, as well as a rental car supply shortage. In 2022, we generated net revenue of $746.6 million, representing 59% growth from $469.0 million in 2021, and a net income of $154.7 million, compared to a net loss of $40.4 million in 2021. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to an increase in total days booked by our guests on our platform (net of days canceled in that period), or Days, as a result of continued travel demand combined with an increase in our supply and new guests on the platform. We continue to improve the efficiency of our marketplace and generated adjusted EBITDA of $79.7 million, $81.1 million, $(38.1) million, and $(91.6) million in 2022, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. For additional information about adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure, and a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP, see the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations — Non-GAAP financial measures.”

In May 2022, we acquired OuiCar SAS, or OuiCar, a car sharing marketplace headquartered in France. Our key business metrics and the numbers of active guests, active hosts, active vehicle listings, cities, and makes and models available on our platform include the results of OuiCar from the acquisition date through December 31, 2022.

Industry background

We believe there are several seismic shifts in consumer behavior underway that are fueling our long-term opportunity.

Entrepreneurship is on the rise with a focus on utilizing idle assets and skills

Technology has created opportunities for entrepreneurial individuals to start their own businesses by monetizing their own skills, time, and existing assets. For example, vacation rental businesses exist in nearly every vacation market, with individuals sharing their homes and improving the utilization of these assets, while also generating a meaningful additional income stream. In addition, e-commerce platforms enable individuals to sell their one-of-a-kind creations and wares to buyers who value small-batch, small business-empowering product offerings. The adoption of flexible work arrangements and working from home is leading more and more individuals to start businesses and supplement their income by utilizing their skills and providing access to assets they already own.

On-demand, mobile-first services have changed consumer engagement

The proliferation of apps has led consumers to demand convenience and ease of use, with access to services whenever they want and wherever they are. From grocery and food delivery, to meeting with a doctor or healthcare provider remotely through digital channels, consumers increasingly place a premium not just on the ability for their needs to be met instantly, but also on the breadth and depth of choice available to them as part of these on-demand services. Successful modern businesses reach and engage consumers through mobile-first technologies, providing an on-demand, real-time, dynamic experience that adjusts to the consumer’s changing needs.

 

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Consumer preferences are shifting to unique experiences

While consumers are increasingly relying on mobile channels and expecting on-demand access, there is a concurrent trend in which consumers favor and seek unique, bespoke products and services. Many consumers favor the exclusive, hard-to-get items over the mass-produced, and choose affordable, customized experiences over commoditized or one-size-fits-most options. For consumers, the joy of discovery is dynamic, and the experiences they are looking for change day to day. This trend extends across many consumer-facing industries, from restaurants to e-commerce to travel. In each of these industries, the result has been new income-generating opportunities for those who can supply these unique products and services.

Cars are increasingly expensive underutilized assets

According to an article published in the Journal of Planning Education and Research, owning a car has been among the most powerful economic advantages a family in the United States can have. However, owning a car is expensive. A car’s value depreciates rapidly, and automobile insurance and maintenance are costly. Based on data from Kelley Blue Book, between 2016 and 2023, new car values increased 43%. In addition, consumers are increasingly aware that personally owned vehicles sit idle most of the time — 95% of the time, according to an MIT Senseable City Lab publication in August 2018 — and so today’s consumers are more open to alternative modes of transportation.

Mobility is changing as consumers today have more options

The ability to access services anywhere, anytime, through mobile devices and connectivity, has rapidly expanded the availability of mobility choices for consumers. This new world of mobility is the result of converging forces, defined by personal car ownership being replaced or complemented by services that provide access to transportation on demand. Shared mobility services have now become firmly integrated into urban transportation systems across the globe. Car sharing, scooter sharing, bike sharing, ride sharing/transportation network companies, or TNCs, and other systems now offer urban travelers access to transportation services that had long been only possible through personal vehicle ownership. These new services are helping to facilitate a shift towards mobility solutions that favor access over ownership and enable a paradigm where consumers have even more flexibility to choose how they want to move through the world and can even choose to forego car ownership completely.

Limitations of current mobility solutions

As consumer preferences shift towards on-demand access to mobility as a complement to car ownership, the limitations inherent in existing mobility solutions have become more apparent.

 

 

Ride sharing solutions serve limited use cases. Ride sharing solutions support limited use cases, largely centered around point-to-point mobility. Ride sharing at its core does not scale to accommodate travel behavior or requirements beyond commuting and intra-urban mobility. While an incredibly effective method for urban transportation, ride sharing is expensive, and therefore does not unlock travel-oriented use cases. The cost per mile for ride sharing services varies based on vehicle type and location. For example, in the Denver region, according to The Mountain-Plains Consortium, passenger cost per mile is on average $2.50 per mile with a median of $3.19 per mile after considering total fare, tolls, fees, gratuity, and travel distance. As such, ride sharing does not support exploration or other unique experiential needs of consumers and travelers.

 

 

Car rental services offer commoditized, cumbersome experiences. While car rental solutions provide more individual flexibility than ride sharing, the existing car rental industry does not adequately solve the ever-changing needs of the consumer. Car rental services do not provide a consumer-friendly approach —

 

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they’re frequently tethered to airports, long lines, and wait times, with generic and unpredictable inventory. For the urban options offered by car rental companies, the location and timing constraints can be significant limitations for customers. This lack of focus on, and care for, the customer is evidenced by their low net promoter scores — according to XM Institute’s annual net promoter score benchmark study, the car rental industry’s average customer net promoter score is 5 (out of a maximum of 100). By contrast, Turo’s net promoter score for the 12-month period ended December 31, 2022 was 80.

 

 

Personal car ownership is costly and inefficient. The costs associated with car ownership vary greatly based on the usage of the vehicle — according to the American Automobile Association, or AAA, for a medium-sized sedan that is driven 15,000 miles per year, the cost per mile was approximately $0.69 per mile in 2022. This includes all costs, such as license registration and taxes, insurance, maintenance, and financing. For vehicles that are driven fewer than 15,000 miles per year, such as luxury or specialty cars, this cost increases considerably. In addition to these fixed costs, traditional car ownership limits the use cases available to a household to those expressly serviced by their owned vehicle.

Turo — pioneering a new category of transportation

We have created the world’s largest car sharing marketplace. Our peer-to-peer platform connects hosts and guests through our marketplace and is designed to enable guests to book the perfect vehicle for any occasion from our trusted community of hosts. We are the leader in this new way to access vehicles, with over 160,000 active hosts and 320,000 active vehicle listings in over 11,000 cities as of December 31, 2022. We count the number of active hosts as hosts with at least one trip as a host in the trailing 12-month period, and the number of active vehicle listings as vehicle listings with at least one trip in the trailing 12-month period.

We strive to make it easy for our hosts to earn money from their vehicles and for guests to find the perfect vehicle for their next trip. Hosts are our asset owners and deliver differentiated experiences and hospitality to our guests. Our platform avoids the capital intensity and asset-based limitations of the rental car and fleet-based car sharing industries, while providing low-cost access for individual car owners to earn extra income by sharing their vehicles through our marketplace. As a result, our platform is dynamic, as hosts can change the availability, cost, or selection of vehicles to satisfy guest demand. Guests choose from an extraordinary selection of cars. Since the vehicle they choose is provided by a host, the guest can be confident that the specific car that they booked is the exact car they will drive off in, increasing guest satisfaction. Additionally, our hosts can offer various pick-up locations, as well as optional “Extras,” such as unlimited mileage, pre-paid refueling, bike and ski racks, camping equipment, and more to make the experience more convenient for the guest.

Guests book cars on our platform for a variety of use cases, and we open up new, longer duration forms of travel. We estimate that in 2022, approximately 35% of Days were part of bookings seven to 29 days in length, and approximately 6% of Days were part of bookings greater than or equal to 30 days in length, highlighting how our platform supports longer duration travel use cases.

Our hosts

As of December 31, 2022, over 160,000 active hosts use our platform to power over 320,000 active vehicle listings. Our platform is designed for entrepreneurs of all sizes, from individuals looking to offset the cost of car ownership, to professional hosts seizing the opportunity to build scalable, accessible, flexible businesses atop our platform. Our platform enables hosts to utilize their idle vehicles to generate income without being perpetually present in the vehicle to benefit from our platform. Our hosts generally fit into one of the three following categories:

 

 

Consumer hosts. Consumer hosts typically share one or two cars with the goal of offsetting car ownership costs. Hosting on our platform often enables consumer hosts to earn extra income to afford their dream car, or to monetize vehicles they already own.

 

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Small business hosts. Small business hosts typically share three to nine cars with the goal of generating secondary income to build wealth and pay for life’s expenses. They’re often car enthusiasts who love cars, and love to share cars with like-minded enthusiasts to be able to afford their dream cars themselves.

 

 

Professional hosts. Professional hosts typically share 10 or more cars, often as their primary income source, and may choose to invest in, and in many cases have invested in, resources like employees and parking to support their operations.

Many of our small business and professional hosts started their journey with us as consumer hosts and scaled their businesses as they saw success on our platform.

How our platform supports hosts

Our platform provides the software and services to help hosts of all sizes thrive, including easy-to-use desktop and mobile websites and native iOS and Android apps, insurance and protection, and safety and support. We continue to innovate and expand our platform capabilities to better help our hosts throughout the entire hosting lifecycle:

 

 

Onboarding and listing. Our platform is designed to make it simple and intuitive for a host to sign up, verify their account, and create an attractive listing. Insurance comes standard, and protection plans for hosts are bundled into the sign-up flow.

 

 

Listing management. We provide a suite of software products that enable hosts to easily and intuitively manage their listings, including an availability calendar and settings, messaging, pricing and trip settings, remote and in-person check-in and checkout options, earnings payments, and post-trip incidental payments.

 

 

Pricing optimization. Our technology platform enables analytics and data-driven decision making, empowering hosts to determine the optimal price for their cars. Our capabilities include dynamic options such as calendar-based pricing and automatic pricing, allowing hosts to improve their monetization.

 

 

Scaling. We provide hosts who are interested in scaling their Turo business with business management capabilities that enable them to grow, such as performance tracking analytics, training guides in the Host Tools hub, and earnings estimates via the Turo Carculator.

 

 

Insurance and protection. We make it simple for hosts to select protection plans, which creates peace of mind. All host plans automatically include protection against third-party liability and compensation for vehicle damage, whether as reimbursement for physical damage or physical damage insurance (depending on the jurisdiction), as well as roadside assistance.

 

 

Safety and support. We offer differentiated, timely support to our hosts, including trust and safety verification of guests, roadside assistance, assistance in the resolution of billing and payment disputes, and hospitality coaching.

 

In addition to the above platform capabilities, we reward our top performing hosts by including them in our Power Host program and/or awarding them an All-Star Host badge, which can include benefits such as boosted listing visibility, special access to host marketing promotions, account management, and priority support.

Benefits to hosts

 

 

Income generation. With over 2.9 million active guests on our platform as of December 31, 2022, we provide hosts with access to a highly engaged customer base. We count the number of active guests as

 

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guests with at least one trip as a guest in the trailing 12-month period. Hosts are empowered to transform their assets into earning engines, dramatically improving the economics of car ownership, without needing to spend hours behind the wheel in order to monetize their asset. Our platform supports a spectrum of hosts, from individuals to small business operators. Consumer hosts can offset the cost of ownership of their car, or even stretch and buy their dream car, while entrepreneurs can start their own businesses and share dozens of vehicles. Hosts of all sizes have earned more than $2.4 billion in the aggregate on our platform since inception.

 

 

Scalability and flexibility. Our hosts benefit from the ability to build, maintain, or grow a scalable, flexible business through increasing the utilization of their vehicles while maintaining full ownership. Hosts can choose how often to make their car available and at what price, and value the ability to earn income or offset the cost of car ownership around their personal needs and interests. Small business and professional hosts with multiple vehicles can choose the size of their portfolio, how much time they are ready to commit, and how much to reinvest their earnings in growing their business.

 

 

Ease of use. We make it easy for hosts to manage their entire business. Signing up and onboarding are simple on our platform. Once set up, hosts can easily access their Host Hub to manage all aspects of their experience. Our user interface is elegant and intuitive and is backed by our powerful technology infrastructure that enables access and functionality on the go.

 

 

Trust and safety. Our platform and community are built on trust and safety. Our robust platform facilitates secure transactions and interactions with guests. All trips on our platform include protection against third-party liability, providing hosts with peace of mind. In addition, guests are screened at checkout, and our proprietary Turo Risk Score has influenced fees charged to each trip in the United States since April 2020 in order to mitigate unsafe behavior. We also offer the ability for the community to provide ratings and reviews to increase the trust in using our platform.

 

 

Support. Hosts benefit from the variety of support services we offer. We provide hosts with the tools to grow on our platform, including advanced analytics and marketing and advertising support. Hosts value the support of the close-knit community of fellow hosts that we foster on our platform. We also offer customer support in the United Kingdom and France, 24/7 customer support in the United States, Canada, and Australia, and access to roadside assistance for hosts and their guests to ease the process when the unexpected happens. We continually invest in product innovation designed to deliver a seamless experience for hosts.

Our guests

Over 3.0 million guests booked over 19.1 million Days on our platform in 2022. We serve their unique needs across a broad spectrum of use cases, including:

 

 

Local getaways

 

 

Destination vacations

 

 

Business travel

 

 

International travel

 

 

Car replacement

 

 

Flexible month-to-month access

 

 

Hyperlocal, instant access

 

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Try-before-you-buy extended test drives

 

 

Dream drives in luxury, exotic, and classic cars

 

 

Upgraded trips with upscale cars

 

 

Outdoor adventures in camper and conversion vans

 

 

Moving and running errands in trucks and vans

How our platform supports guests

Our platform provides several capabilities designed to best serve our guests:

 

 

Inspiration and discovery. Many guests come to our platform to get inspired. We make it easy to search vehicles based on type, location, availability, ratings and reviews, and even use case, enabling guests to discover the perfect vehicle for any occasion.

 

 

Secure booking. Guests book and pay for trips directly through our platform. Our booking flow is simple and easy to navigate, providing guests with clarity and visibility into cost, Extras, and “rules of the road.” Guests are able to quickly upload their profile photo, driver’s license, phone number, and preferred payment method in a secure environment.

 

 

Trips. Guests can view their upcoming and past trips within our app and can extend a trip or even rebook a favorite vehicle based on past activity. Guests can also check in and out of their trips seamlessly in-app and, for many makes and models, can access and unlock the vehicle right from our app using Turo Go, a feature that leverages remote unlocking technology to enable contactless interactions. For hosts who are delivering their cars to their guests, they have the option to share their location with their guests via our app, so guests know in real time how far away their host is.

 

 

Messaging. Guests can securely and directly message their host within our app. Arranging pick-up, delivery, or other details within the app provides protection to both our guests and our hosts and creates a positive experience for both.

 

 

Support. We provide access to detailed frequently asked questions, or FAQs, as well as the ability to report damage or request roadside assistance, directly through our website or app. We also provide clear instructions on how to change or cancel a trip and arrange delivery, as well as other policies to enhance the guest experience.

Benefits to guests

 

 

Access and availability. Guests benefit from access to a vehicle when and where they want it, without the need for ownership. Our hosts offer vehicles in tens of thousands of locations across a broad geographic footprint, and guests have the option to have vehicles delivered to their doorstep. Without the traditional limitations of a physical retail or parking footprint, vehicles shared by hosts can be found broadly throughout the geographies in which Turo is available — nearly every block in some neighborhoods — corresponding to thousands of vehicle options that can be accessed wherever guests need them, including in remote destinations. On our platform, guests can access an extraordinary variety of makes and models, including unique vehicles found on no other platform.

 

 

Choice. Our hosts offer an extraordinary selection of vehicles for guests, with over 1,400 makes and models available on our platform as of December 31, 2022. The extensive selection of vehicles offered by

 

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our hosts far surpasses the selection offered by rental companies. With Turo, the car you book is the car you get, whereas with rental car companies, the car you get is often whatever car they have in stock within the category you selected when booking. We support a diversity of use cases, ranging from a truck to help on moving day, to a swanky exotic for a luxurious weekend away, to a classic cruiser for a picture-perfect road trip, or an economical commuter car to help you get where you’re going.

 

 

Trust and safety. Guests can rely on our trusted platform. We have a secure payments network and a robust technology suite to coordinate safe interactions with hosts. Insurance is included for all trips with hosts if an accident with a third party does occur.

 

 

Personal experience. For guests, booking with a host is engaging with a real individual, someone with a shared passion, hobby, or interest in the vehicles they offer. Hosts may offer local restaurant recommendations and must-see destinations to their guests, adding an extraordinary personal touch that is distinct from other transportation options that offer commodity vehicles owned by big corporations. This authentic, personal experience improves repeat usage and promotes evangelization of our community.

 

 

Seamless experience. Guests can access a hassle-free experience through our marketplace. Guests can book a vehicle, delivery, and Extras in minutes through the elegant user interface on our app or web platform. Search and discovery, booking, and payment are all easy to navigate on our platform. Our powerful app and technology platform drive the entire experience from booking to coordination to support.

Benefits to local communities and the environment

 

 

Economic activity. As members of their local communities, hosts increase their income and spending power from bookings generated on our platform. By empowering hosts and enabling guests to access vehicles in their local communities, we help to perpetuate cycles of community investment and growth. A 2021 study we commissioned by The Center for Growth and Opportunity at Utah State University that evaluated over 1.5 million transactions across eight states plus Washington, D.C. found that Turo is disproportionately used by guests from minority neighborhoods, which benefits those local communities.

 

 

Broad access. Our platform is accessible to a broad range of guests, including those who may have traditionally struggled to afford a vehicle. The availability of Turo reduces car ownership dependency for these guests, who are better served by access to short-term car sharing rather than by making costly monthly payments to own or lease vehicles. Hosts who want to own a car, but might not otherwise be able to afford one, can offset the costs of car ownership by sharing their vehicle with neighbors in, or travelers to, their community.

 

 

Environmental stewardship. We enable vehicle access on an as-needed basis to avoid the unnecessary environmental impact of every consumer striving to own a vehicle or multiple vehicles. In addition, on Earth Day 2021, we launched a carbon neutrality initiative to offset 100% of estimated carbon emissions generated by trips booked on the platform, as well as all emissions from our global office footprint. For every trip, we make an investment in projects addressing transportation and industrial emissions and agriculture forestry initiatives to reduce greenhouse gases worldwide. Also, by offering access to a selection of energy-efficient vehicles, we contribute to sustainable vehicle use in local communities and help drive the adoption of electric vehicles. As of December 31, 2022, electric vehicles represented 7% of Turo vehicle listings.

The Turo flywheel effect

Our platform benefits from the self-reinforcing value proposition between hosts and guests. Hosts are engaged with our brand and platform due to the unique income generation opportunity we provide, and they become increasingly engaged as they earn more. As existing hosts grow and new hosts join, our value proposition to guests strengthens as guests have access to a more unique selection of vehicles in more locations. The unique

 

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inventory of vehicles not available anywhere else, along with the seamless experience we offer guests, spurs organic, word-of-mouth growth, and repeat behavior. Growth in demand leads to greater income opportunities for our hosts, which further strengthens our host value proposition and, in turn, encourages existing hosts to grow and new hosts to join. As we scale and continue improving our offering, our guests book more trips which we leverage to generate data that powers our machine learning algorithms, such as data-driven pricing, search results ranking, and vehicle recommendations. These algorithms improve our host and guest experience and make our business more profitable, resulting in reinvestments to further improve user experience and propel growth.

Capitalizing on the shift in consumer travel and transportation preferences

We believe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain shortages accelerated the adoption of our platform and transition from other transportation services. We enable a variety of trip lengths and trip types, providing a platform customers can rely on for all types of transportation. Our marketplace has proved to be resilient and dynamic as consumer travel and transportation preferences have shifted to favor access to mobility solutions that meet their particular needs. According to research from Destination Analysts, two-thirds of U.S. residents took a road trip during the COVID-19 pandemic, taking 2.5 trips per person on average. The increase in car-based travel turbocharged our growth in awareness and market penetration. A large number of guests were introduced to Turo for the first time, and we believe many will become loyal return guests through their experience on our platform.

Liability protection included

We have pioneered the offering of protection plans for hosts and guests that are seamlessly integrated into the Turo experience. Protection plans provide hosts with peace of mind to offer their vehicles on our platform and allow their guests to drive with the confidence of knowing they have liability protection from third parties through products provided by insurance companies or companies that offer regulated financial risk products. We have made the ability to obtain protection easy, simple, and seamless for both hosts and guests. In the United States, Canada, France, and the United Kingdom, all trips provided by hosts are automatically insured by one of our third-party insurance providers. In Australia, all trips include protection from legal liability through a regulated financial risk product known as discretionary risk protection. We reimburse the host for eligible repairs up to the actual cash value of the car, or $200,000 (in the United States), whichever is the lesser amount, subject to the terms of each plan. Similarly, all guests in the United States automatically receive at least the state-required financial responsibility limits (sometimes called “state minimum insurance”) with trips booked with hosts, regardless of whether they select a protection plan or not. Where peer-to-peer car sharing statutes or permits require greater coverage limits, those are provided on trips as applicable.

Turo Risk Score

Every trip booked on our platform in the United States since April 2020 automatically generates a proprietary Turo Risk Score, which we use to promote responsibility and trust within our community. As of December 31, 2022, we have collected data from over 46 million Days, 13 million transactions, 4 billion miles driven, and over 10 years of claims data since inception to inform our proprietary Turo Risk Score algorithms and use more than 50 data inputs per transaction. We leverage insights from this data to control for fraud, manage risk, and customize marketplace fees. We believe this contributes to better access for all trips, expanding the economic opportunity for hosts, and garnering deeper loyalty from the members of our community. The more trips taken, the better we are able to refine our algorithms and continuously improve the accuracy of the Turo Risk Score to drive actionable insights that inform fees, inventory adjustments, trust and safety practices, and more.

 

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Large market opportunity

Transportation is one of the largest household expenses — in 2021, households in the United States alone spent almost $11,000 per year on their mobility needs, according to the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. We are the pioneer in peer-to-peer car sharing and we are helping to drive the global transition to a new world of mobility, which will make transportation more convenient, accessible, and economical. We have a substantial market opportunity in the growing car sharing economy. We view our revenue opportunity in terms of a serviceable addressable market, or SAM, which we believe we can address today, and a total addressable market, or TAM, which we believe we can address over the longer term. These market opportunity estimates are based on revenue potential and involve a number of estimates and assumptions, which are discussed in more detail below.

Serviceable Addressable Market (SAM)

We estimate our current SAM to be $124 billion, reflecting the revenue we could earn on our platform by monetizing the 862 billion miles from long-duration trips, which we define as trips of greater than 30 miles, in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia, which are the countries in which we operate on a peer-to-peer basis today. To calculate our SAM estimate, we apply the average percentage of our fees per trip to long-duration trip costs. We derive the long-duration trip costs by multiplying annual passenger vehicle miles traveled for long-duration trips by our estimated guest cost per allotted mile of $0.38, $0.30, $0.37, $0.37, and $0.37 for the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia, respectively, based on historical prices, fees, and fuel costs. We define allotted miles as the mileage included in a trip, rather than the miles actually driven. We derive the number of passenger vehicle miles in our SAM by available country-level estimates of passenger vehicle miles traveled per car, based on data included in reports issued in 2021 by the International Road Federation, Geneva Switzerland (©IRF, 2021 World Road Statistics). We estimate that guests traveled approximately 1.8 billion miles on our platform in 2022, implying a less than 1% penetration rate of our SAM.

Total Addressable Market (TAM)

We estimate our TAM to be $188 billion, using the same methodology as our SAM, including the potential opportunity from countries in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and South Africa as adjusted for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s estimates of purchasing power parity, which is a given country’s purchasing power relative to U.S. purchasing power and utilizes cost adjustments relative to the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia and exchange rates as of 2022. Over time, we believe that guests may increasingly use our peer-to-peer car sharing platform for trips greater than 30 miles as the cost of such trips, and ultimately the degree to which individuals choose to own their own vehicles, declines. As with SAM, we have excluded short-duration trips from our TAM to provide a more conservative view of our long-term opportunity. We estimate that our $188 billion TAM includes $96 billion in North America, $59 billion in Europe, and $33 billion in the rest of the world (which consists of selected countries in which we believe we have a medium- to long-term opportunity to onboard hosts).

Our competitive strengths

 

 

Unique, exclusive inventory. As of December 31, 2022, the vast majority of the over 320,000 active vehicle listings on our platform are available only on our platform, up 67% year over year. The diversity, breadth, and depth of our platform make us highly differentiated from competing offerings.

 

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Marketplace density. Without the traditional limitations of a physical retail or parking footprint, vehicles shared by hosts can be found broadly throughout the geographies in which Turo is available, on nearly every block in some neighborhoods, corresponding to thousands of vehicle options.

 

 

Compelling value. We offer a better economic value than many other transportation solutions. For example, the cost per mile of owning a medium-sized sedan in the United States that is driven 15,000 miles per year was approximately $0.69 per mile in 2022, including fuel, license registration and taxes, insurance, maintenance, and financing costs, according to AAA. The same vehicle would cost guests only approximately $0.20 per mile on Turo, after including incidentals and fees but excluding sales tax, based on 2022 data.

 

 

Innovative, custom-built platform. We have purposely built our technology infrastructure and app to empower hosts and guests with specific features to directly address their needs. For hosts, our robust offering provides an entrepreneurial platform to build their businesses. Guests benefit from seamless apps to search, discover, book, and experience a vehicle when they need it.

 

 

Proprietary data and machine learning driven insights. Our proprietary data gleaned from well over a billion driving miles and millions of trips since inception allows us to develop and refine our proprietary Turo Risk Score, continuously improve our offering, provide personalization, and optimize the economics in an intelligent manner.

 

 

Engaged community and powerful brand. The uniqueness of our offering has created strong brand advocates who are loyal to our platform, drive word-of-mouth growth, and take repeat trips with increasing frequency. In 2022, approximately 79% of our site traffic was organic and approximately 48% of Days were generated from bookings by repeat guests.

 

 

Culture and team. We have a world-class team and culture aligned around our mission to put the world’s 1.5 billion cars to better use. For example, our CEO is one of our All-Star Hosts with a decade of activity on our platform. Our culture has received numerous recognitions externally and contributes to our ability to attract and retain premier talent across functions including product, engineering, marketing, sales, and government relations.

Our growth strategy

Key elements of our growth strategy include:

 

 

Innovate on our platform. We intend to continue to invest in our technology platform to make the complicated aspects of engaging with the marketplace dramatically easier. As we invest in our platform, we intend to make it easier for hosts to list their vehicles, automate pricing and onboarding workflows, and even provide assistance with vehicle management and suggested maintenance through our software.

 

 

Grow supply and unlock new use cases. We intend to invest in research and development to continue introducing new features and services for hosts that make it easier for them to grow their income and operate profitably on our platform. In addition, we plan to invest in sales and marketing to expand our supply globally and across more vehicle categories and use cases. Our long-term vision is to drive a profound behavior shift that moves all the underutilized vehicles out of their garages and onto our platform.

 

 

Grow and deepen guest engagement. We intend to invest in research and development to continue introducing new features and services for guests that make it easier and more convenient for them to book from the widest selection of vehicles. Our long-term vision is to become guests’ go-to platform to book the perfect vehicle for any occasion.

 

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Expand internationally. We plan to enter new international markets with the vision of being a truly global platform. Over time, we plan to enter new markets to deliver our value proposition to hosts and guests in more markets worldwide, and further develop the strength of an interconnected, global network.

 

 

Pursue additional strategic acquisitions and partnerships. We aim to pursue strategic acquisitions and partnerships to offer our hosts and guests services and features that we do not currently offer in-house. We intend to build on the strong relationships we have developed with many constituents in our ecosystem to expand our market opportunity, enhance our capabilities, and increase the value of our platform.

Risk factors summary

There are a number of risks that you should understand before making an investment decision regarding this offering. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk factors” following this prospectus summary. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, reputation, financial condition, or results of operations would likely be materially and adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. These risks include, but are not limited to:

 

 

If we fail to retain existing hosts and guests, increase existing host vehicle listings and guest bookings, or add new hosts and guests, or if hosts fail to provide high-quality, as-advertised vehicles and services, our business, results of operations, reputation, and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

 

 

Our financial results depend on many factors outside of our control, and are inherently complex and interrelated, and may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, as well as seasonally, which makes our future results difficult to predict.

 

 

Although we generated net income of $154.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, we have incurred net losses in all other years since our inception, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future. We incurred net losses of $40.4 million, $97.1 million, and $98.6 million in the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively; and as of December 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $299.6 million.

 

 

We may be found to be subject to liability for the activities of hosts, guests, or third parties, which could harm our reputation, increase our operating costs, and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

 

Our business is subject to substantial regulation and may be found to be subject to a multitude of potential additional legal and regulatory frameworks, including those related to insurance and taxation, that are constantly evolving, and any unfavorable changes or negative court interpretations of these regulations or frameworks, failure by us to comply, or incompatibility with these legal and regulatory requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.

 

 

The insurance coverage and other elements of protection plans afforded to hosts and guests, or our insurance coverage related to our operations-related risks, may be inadequate, either of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

 

The market in which we participate is highly competitive and continually and rapidly evolving, and we may be unable to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.

 

 

The market for online platforms for peer-to-peer car sharing is relatively new and rapidly evolving. If we fail to predict the manner in which our market develops, or if peer-to-peer car sharing does not achieve global acceptance, our business, results of operations, and prospects may be adversely affected.

 

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Any major disruption or failure of our information technology systems, or our failure to successfully implement new technology effectively, could adversely affect our business and results of operations or the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting.

 

 

The impact of adverse or changing economic conditions, including the resulting effects on consumer spending, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

 

Our business has experienced, and may in the future experience, an adverse impact from the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

 

Our workforce and operations have grown substantially since our inception, and we expect that they will continue to do so. If we are unable to effectively manage that growth, our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.

 

 

Breaches and other types of security incidents of our networks or systems, or those of our third-party service providers, could negatively impact our ability to conduct our business, our brand and reputation, and our ability to retain existing hosts and guests and attract new hosts and guests, and may cause us to incur significant liabilities and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Corporate information

We were incorporated as RelayRides, Inc. in Delaware in August 2009. In March 2016, we formally changed our name to Turo Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 111 Sutter Street, Floor 12, San Francisco, California 94104. Our telephone number is (415) 965-4525. Our website address is turo.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.

The Turo design logos, “Turo,” and our other registered or common law trademarks, service marks, or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of Turo Inc. Solely for convenience, our trademarks, tradenames, and service marks referred to in this prospectus appear without the ®, TM, and SM symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks, tradenames, and service marks. Other trade names, trademarks, and service marks used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

Implications of being an emerging growth company

As a company with less than $1.235 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012. An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

 

 

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended;

 

 

reduced obligations with respect to financial data, including presenting only two years of audited financial statements in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” disclosure;

 

 

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements, and registration statements;

 

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exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved; and

 

 

an exemption from compliance with the requirement of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding the communication of critical audit matters in the auditor’s report on the financial statements.

We may take advantage of these provisions until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common stock in this offering. However, if certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if (i) we become a “large accelerated filer,” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, with at least $700.0 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates as of the prior June 30; (ii) our total annual gross revenue exceeds $1.235 billion; or (iii) we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period.

We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and may elect to take advantage of other reduced reporting requirements in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our stockholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period to enable us to comply with certain new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.

For risks related to our status as an emerging growth company, see the section titled “Risk factors — Risks related to this offering and ownership of our common stock — We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.”

 

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The offering

 

Common stock offered by us

                        shares

 

Common stock offered by the selling stockholders

                        shares

 

Option to purchase additional shares of common stock offered by us

We have granted the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to                          additional shares from us.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                         shares (or                  shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of common stock in full)

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $                  million (or approximately $                  million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full), assuming an initial public offering price of $                  per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering.

 

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, complementary businesses, products, services, or technologies. See the section titled “Use of proceeds” for additional information.

 

Concentration of ownership

Following this offering, our executive officers, directors, and stockholders holding more than 5% of our outstanding shares, together with their affiliates, will hold, in the aggregate, approximately                 % of our outstanding capital stock (or                 % of our outstanding capital stock following this offering if the underwriters exercise their option in full to purchase additional shares of common stock). See the section titled “Principal and selling stockholders” for additional information.

 

Directed share program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to     % of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus for sale at the initial public offering price through a directed share program to:

 

   

Eligible hosts;

 

   

Eligible guests; and

 

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Certain individuals identified by our officers and directors.

 

 

Eligible hosts consist of hosts who have met the performance criteria to become All-Star Hosts, reside in the United States or United Kingdom, had, between                      and                     , completed a trip as a host, and as of                     , had at least 95% of rated trips earn five stars.

 

 

Eligible guests consist of guests who have met the criteria for our Insider Rewards program, reside in the United States, and had, between                      and                     , completed a trip as a guest.

The number of shares of our common stock available for sale to the general public will be reduced to the extent that these individuals purchase such reserved shares. Any reserved shares not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same basis as the other shares offered by this prospectus. See the section titled “Underwriters — Directed share program” for additional information.

 

Risk factors

See the section titled “Risk factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

New York Stock Exchange trading symbol

“TURO”

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 215,410,939 shares of our common stock (including shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of December 31, 2022, and excludes:

 

 

26,253,071 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.71 per share;

 

 

8,401,114 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions outstanding as of December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

1,040,291 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions granted after December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

up to $51.0 million of shares of our common stock issuable upon the exchange of securities issued in connection with our acquisition of OuiCar and outstanding as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

             shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2023 Plan, including              new shares plus the number of shares (not to exceed              shares) underlying outstanding stock awards granted under our 2010 Equity Incentive Plan or 2020 Equity Incentive Plan that expire, or are forfeited, canceled, withheld, or reacquired; and

 

 

                     shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering.

 

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Our 2023 Plan and ESPP provide for annual automatic increases in the number of shares reserved thereunder. See the section titled “Executive compensation — Employee benefit and stock plans” for additional information.

Unless otherwise indicated, the information in this prospectus assumes:

 

 

the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the adoption of our amended and restated bylaws, each of which will occur immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

 

the automatic conversion of 169,952,096 shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022 into 183,768,391 shares of our common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering;

 

 

the issuance of an aggregate of                     shares of common stock pursuant to a warrant held by IAC Inc., or the IAC Warrant, in connection with this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus; and

 

 

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to an additional                     shares of our common stock in this offering.

 

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Summary consolidated financial

and other data

The following tables summarize our consolidated financial and other data. The summary consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should read the following summary consolidated financial data together with the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary consolidated financial data in this section is not intended to replace our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes and are qualified in their entirety by our audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results in any future period.

 

    Year ended December 31,  
    2019     2020     2021     2022  
    (in thousands, except per share amounts)  

Consolidated statements of operations data:

       

Net revenue

  $ 141,689     $ 149,905     $ 469,047     $ 746,592  

Costs and expenses

       

Cost of net revenue(1)

    97,598       96,716       199,988       341,510  

Operations and support(1)

    15,400       13,082       33,546       64,286  

Product development(1)

    26,649       17,749       33,269       55,082  

Sales and marketing(1)

    57,845       20,037       52,713       111,297  

General and administrative(1)

    49,428       58,039       102,975       140,597  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

    246,920       205,623       422,491       712,772  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income from operations

    (105,231)       (55,718)       46,556       33,820  

Other income and (expense), net

       

Change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant

    5,181       (41,934)       (85,238)       50,724  

Other income and (expense), net

    1,538       655       (594)       5,883  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income and (expense), net

    6,719       (41,279)       (85,832)       56,607  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

(Loss) income before provision for income taxes

    (98,512)       (96,997)       (39,276)       90,427  

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

    47       86       1,106       (64,237)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income

  $ (98,559)     $ (97,083)     $ (40,382)     $ 154,664  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Add: net loss attributable to non-controlling interests

                      870  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income for Turo Inc.

    (98,559)       (97,083)       (40,382)       155,534  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Deemed dividend attributable to tender and repurchases of preferred stock

    (17,081)                   (653)  

Adjustments to redemption value for redeemable non-controlling interests

                      (22,197)  

Undistributed earnings attributable to participating securities

                      (119,184)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income attributable to Turo Inc. common stockholders(2)

  $ (115,640)     $ (97,083)     $ (40,382)     $ 13,500  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net (loss) income per share attributable to Turo Inc. common stockholders

       

Basic(2)

  $ (4.21)     $ (3.80)     $ (1.37)     $ 0.43  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted(2)

  $ (4.21)     $ (3.80)     $ (1.37)     $ (1.13)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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    Year ended December 31,  
    2019     2020     2021     2022  
    (in thousands, except per share
amounts)
 

Weighted-average number of shares outstanding attributable to Turo Inc. common stockholders:

       

Basic(2)

    27,452       25,555       29,380       31,265  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted(2)

    27,452       25,555       29,380       32,875  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Pro forma net (loss) income per share

       

Basic(3)

       
       

Diluted(3)

       
       

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net (loss) income per share

       

Basic (unaudited)(3)

       
       

Diluted (unaudited)(3)

       
       

 

 

 

 

(1)

Amounts include stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2019      2020      2021      2022  
                 
    

(in thousands)

 

Cost of net revenue

   $ 607      $ 204      $ 1,025      $ 590  

Operations and support

     92        142        110        188  

Product development

     3,140        2,281        4,779        4,942  

Sales and marketing

     669        827        983        988  

General and administrative

     4,126        5,219        7,495        11,905  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $         8,634      $         8,673      $         14,392      $         18,613  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(2)

See Notes 1 and 13 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate our basic and diluted net (loss) income per share and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

(3)

The pro forma net (loss) income per share, basic and diluted, and weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net (loss) income per share, basic and diluted reflects (a) the automatic conversion of an aggregate of 169,952,096 shares of our outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock into 183,768,391 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering and (b) the issuance of an aggregate of                    shares of common stock pursuant to the IAC Warrant in connection with this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.

 

     As of December 31, 2022  
     Actual      Pro forma(1)      Pro forma as
adjusted(2)(3)
 
             
     (in thousands)  

Consolidated balance sheet data:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 300,953      $        $    

Working capital(4)

     125,660        

Total assets

     763,156        

Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

     95,247        

Redeemable non-controlling interest

     33,857        

Redeemable convertible preferred stock

     471,264        

Additional paid-in capital

     61,723        

Accumulated deficit

     (299,586)        

Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity

     (238,198)        

 

(1)

The pro forma column in the balance sheet data above reflects (a) the automatic conversion of an aggregate of 169,952,096 shares of our outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock into 183,768,391 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (b) the issuance of an aggregate of                    shares of common stock pursuant to the IAC Warrant in connection with this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page

 

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of this prospectus, and (c) the filing and effectiveness of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation that will be in effect immediately prior to the completion of this offering.

(2)

The pro forma as adjusted column further reflects the receipt of $                million in net proceeds from our sale of                    shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering.

(3)

Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, would increase or decrease, as applicable, the amount of our pro forma as adjusted cash, working capital, total assets, and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by $                million, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. An increase or decrease of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us would increase or decrease, as applicable, the amount of our pro forma as adjusted cash, working capital, total assets, and total stockholders’ (deficit) equity by $                million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering.

(4)

Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.

Key business metrics

In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus, we use the following key business metrics to help us evaluate our business, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions. We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating these key metrics, which may hinder comparability with other companies that may calculate similarly titled metrics in a different way.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2019      2020      2021      2022  
                 
     (in millions, unless otherwise noted)  

Days(1)

     4,675        3,825        10,917        19,149  

Gross Booking Value

   $         351.6      $         335.9      $         1,256.4      $         2,061.0  

 

(1)

In thousands.

Days

We define Days as total days for a vehicle booked by our guests on our platform in a given period over the period of measurement, net of days canceled in that period. We believe Days is a key business metric to help investors and others understand and evaluate our results of operations in the same manner as our management team, as it represents a unit of transaction volume on our platform.

Gross Booking Value

We define Gross Booking Value, or GBV, as the total value of Days booked on our platform, including reimbursable expenses owed to the host by the guest, applicable pass through taxes, and other fees required to be remitted to local authorities, which are excluded from net revenue. GBV is driven by the number of Days and price per day or price per booking, as applicable. Revenue from bookings is recognized at the time of check-in for the reservation or over the duration of the trip; accordingly, GBV is a leading indicator of net revenue.

For additional information about our key business metrics, see the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations — Key business metrics.”

 

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Non-GAAP financial measures

In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we believe the following non-GAAP financial measures help us to evaluate our business, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions. We use the following non-GAAP financial measures, collectively, to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because they provide consistency and comparability with past financial performance and assist in comparisons with other companies, some of which use similar non-GAAP financial measures to supplement their GAAP results. The non-GAAP financial measures are presented for supplemental informational purposes only, should not be considered as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from similarly titled non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies. Because of these limitations, we consider, and you should consider, our non-GAAP financial measures alongside other financial performance measures presented in accordance with GAAP. A reconciliation of each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP is provided below. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures contained below and in the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations — Non-GAAP financial measures.”

The following table summarizes our non-GAAP financial measures, along with the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for each period presented below.

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2019      2020      2021      2022  
     (in thousands, except percentages)  

Gross profit

   $ 44,091      $ 53,189      $ 269,059      $         405,082  

Contribution (loss) profit

   $ (27,094)      $ 17,282      $ 176,188      $ 216,006  

Gross margin

     31.1%        35.5%        57.4%        54.3%  

Contribution margin

     (19.1)%        11.5%        37.6%        28.9%  

Net (loss) income

   $         (98,559)      $         (97,083)      $         (40,382)      $ 154,664  

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ (91,621)      $ (38,050)      $ 81,135      $ 79,663  

Contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin

We define contribution profit (loss) as our gross profit less our (a) operations and support (excluding stock-based compensation expense), (b) sales and marketing expense attributable to customer acquisition, including media spend, sales, headcount costs (excluding stock-based compensation expense), and marketing promotions, and (c) chargebacks, bad debt expense, and trust and safety verifications included in general and administrative expense, plus (i) stock-based compensation expense included in cost of net revenue, and (ii) amortization of internal-use software included in cost of net revenue. We define contribution margin as contribution profit (loss) as a percentage of net revenue for the same period. We use contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin as indicators of the economic impact of a new booking on our platform as it captures the direct expenses attributable to a new booking on our platform and the cost it takes to generate revenue. While certain contribution profit (loss) adjustments may not be non-recurring, non-cash, non-operating, or unusual, contribution profit (loss) is a metric our management and board of directors find useful, and we believe investors may find useful, in understanding the costs most directly associated with revenue-generating activities.

Contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin are non-GAAP financial measures with certain limitations regarding their usefulness, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and are not meant as substitutes

 

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for gross profit and gross margin, which are measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. For purposes of the non-GAAP financial measures, gross profit is defined as net revenue minus cost of revenue, each of which is presented on the consolidated statements of operations. Our definitions of contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin may differ from the definitions used by other companies in our industry and therefore, comparability may be limited. In addition, other companies may not publish these or other similar metrics. Further, our definition of contribution profit (loss) does not include the impact of certain expenses that are reflected in our consolidated statements of operations. Thus, our contribution profit (loss) should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, or in isolation from, gross profit prepared in accordance with GAAP. The following tables present reconciliations of gross profit to contribution (loss) profit and gross margin to contribution margin for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
           2019                  2020                  2021                  2022        
     (in thousands, except percentages)  

Gross profit

   $         44,091      $         53,189      $     269,059      $     405,082  

Add: Stock-based compensation included in cost of net revenue

     607        205        1,025        590  

Add: Depreciation and amortization included in cost of net revenue

     1,320        2,610        3,895        5,969  

Less: Operations and support

     15,308        12,941        33,436        64,098  

Less: Customer acquisition costs

     48,238        14,222        44,502        95,248  

Less: Verification costs

     4,552        4,136        9,593        13,888  

Less: Chargebacks and bad debt expense

     5,014        7,423        10,260        22,401  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Contribution (loss) profit

   $ (27,094)      $ 17,282      $ 176,188      $ 216,006  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Gross margin

     31.1%        35.5%        57.4%        54.3%  

Contribution margin

     (19.1)%        11.5%        37.6%        28.9%  

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents our net income or loss adjusted for (i) provision for income taxes; (ii) other income and expense, net; (iii) depreciation and amortization; (iv) stock-based compensation expense; (v) impairment charges; (vi) certain legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserves; and (vii) change in fair value of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability. We use adjusted EBITDA in conjunction with net income or loss, its corresponding GAAP measure, as a performance measure that we use to assess our operating performance and operating leverage in our business. We also measure our adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenue on a trailing 12-month basis in order to provide a longer-term view and account for seasonal fluctuations in our net revenue and associated profitability. The above items are excluded from our adjusted EBITDA measure because these items are non-cash in nature, or because the amount and timing of these items is unpredictable, or not driven by core results of operations, thereby rendering comparisons with prior periods and competitors less meaningful. We believe adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our results of operations, as well as provides a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our business performance. Moreover, we have included adjusted EBITDA in this prospectus because it is a key measurement used by our management internally to make operating decisions, including those related to analyzing operating expenses, evaluating performance, and performing strategic planning and annual budgeting.

 

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Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as a financial measure, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. These limitations include the following:

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect other income and (expense), net, which includes interest income on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, net of interest expense and gains and losses on foreign currency transactions and balances;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain recurring, non-cash charges, such as depreciation of property and equipment and amortization of intangible assets, and although these are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and adjusted EBITDA does not reflect all cash requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect impairment charges, which primarily include lease and other asset impairments;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserve changes and settlements that may reduce cash available to us; and

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability.

The following is a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to the most comparable GAAP measure, net loss:

 

    Year ended December 31,  
    2019     2020     2021     2022  
                 
    (in thousands)  

Net (loss) income

  $         (98,559)     $         (97,083)     $         (40,382)     $         154,664  

Add (deduct):

       

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

    47       86       1,106       (64,237)  

Other (income) and expense, net

    (1,538)       (655)       594       (5,883)  

Depreciation and amortization

    1,551       3,023       4,188       9,143  

Stock-based compensation expense

    8,634       8,673       14,392       18,613  

Impairment charges

    539       1,816       48        

Legal, regulatory, and indirect tax
reserves

    2,886       4,156       15,951       18,087  

Change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

    (5,181)       41,934       85,238       (50,724)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ (91,621)     $ (38,050)     $ 81,135     $ 79,663  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

For additional information about these non-GAAP financial measures and reconciliations of the non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures stated in accordance with GAAP, see the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations — Non-GAAP financial measures.”

 

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LOGO

Risk factors


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Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including the section titled “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that affect us. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risks related to our business and industry

If we fail to retain existing hosts and guests, increase existing host vehicle listings and guest bookings, or add new hosts and guests, or if hosts fail to provide high-quality, as-advertised vehicles and services, our business, results of operations, reputation, and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

Our business depends on hosts establishing and maintaining their vehicle listings on our platform and engaging in practices that encourage guests to book those vehicles, including increasing the number of days that are available to book, providing timely responses to inquiries from guests, honoring reservations, and offering a variety of desirable, well-maintained, and differentiated vehicles at competitive prices and with the convenience that meet and exceed the expectations of guests. These practices are outside of our direct control. If not enough hosts establish or maintain a sufficient number of attractive listings for readily available vehicles, the number of trips booked declines for a particular period, the price charged by hosts fails to optimize revenue yield, the quality, maintenance, cleanliness, or safety of the vehicles our hosts list declines, or there is a mismatch between the location of inventory and where consumers want to book vehicles, our revenue would decline and our business, results of operations, reputation, and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected. In addition, hosts may be unable to list their vehicles or required to temporarily or permanently remove their vehicles from our platform due to safety recalls by manufacturers or delays in repair or maintenance, including as a result of the recent global semiconductor chip shortage.

Hosts manage, maintain, and control their vehicles and typically market them on our platform with no obligation to make them available to guests for specified dates and with no obligation to accept trip bookings from prospective guests. We have had hosts who chose to list their vehicles on our platform in one period and ceased to offer these vehicles in subsequent periods for a variety of reasons. For example, hosts may be concerned that the increased usage of their vehicles may negatively impact the resale value of their vehicles due to increased mileage, potential guest damage or lack of care to the standard of the host, or excessive wear and tear. In addition, a host’s active vehicle listings and earning potential depend on a number of factors, such as vehicle availability, demand in the host’s area, and economic conditions, including rising interest rates, limited availability of credit, economic uncertainty, and inflation. While we plan to continue to invest in our host community and in tools to assist hosts, these investments may not be successful in growing the number of hosts and listings on our platform. For example, our pricing engine, which enables hosts to estimate a fair price for their vehicle that maximizes their earnings potential while also retaining the ability to set their own price, may not be accurate, or hosts may be unsatisfied with such tools. In addition, hosts may not establish or maintain listings if we cannot attract prospective guests to our platform and generate trip bookings from a large number of guests or if there is over-saturation of hosts in a particular area that causes downward pressure on the prices hosts are able to charge. We have in some markets experienced, and expect to continue to experience, host supply constraints. If we are unable to retain existing hosts or add new hosts, or if hosts decide to remove vehicle listings from our platform and instead list their vehicles with a competitor, we may be unable to offer a sufficient supply and variety of vehicles to attract guests to use our platform.

 

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In addition, our business depends on guests booking trips on our platform. If we fail to retain existing guests because they elect to use a competitor’s platform or decide not to share their car, or if we are unable to sustain growth in the value of guest bookings or attract new guests to our platform, our business, results of operations, reputation, and financial condition would be adversely affected. A decrease in the number of guests or reduction in the value of trips booked on our platform may also result in host attrition if hosts are unable to realize sufficient value from bookings of their vehicles through our platform. Maintaining a balance between supply and demand between hosts and guests in any given area at any given time and our ability to execute operationally may be more important to service quality than the absolute size of our platform.

Moreover, as the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in certain geographies subsides, we have experienced an increase in the number of guests booking trips on our platform, and an improvement in the risk profile of the trips booked, which may not continue in the future, particularly as we experience fluctuations in the use of our platform since the emergence of variants of concern, including the Delta and Omicron variants that emerged in the second half of 2021, and we may experience a decrease in growth rate in future periods after the effects of the pandemic diminish. If we experience reductions in the number of hosts, vehicles listed on our platform, or guests using our platform or increases in expenses to us from trips, or if our hosts are unable or unwilling to return to the same rate of listings in the near to immediate term, our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be adversely affected.

Our financial results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year over year, which makes our future results difficult to predict.

Our quarterly and annual financial results have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future. In addition, our limited operating history and current scale of our business make it difficult to forecast our future results. You should not rely upon our past quarterly or annual financial results as indicators of future performance, including the impact of the current pricing environment on our growth and profitability. You should take into account the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in rapidly evolving markets. Our financial results in any given quarter can be influenced by numerous factors, many of which are unpredictable or are outside of our control, including:

 

 

our ability to generate significant revenue from new offerings, or revisions to existing offerings, in which we have invested significant time and resources;

 

 

changes in the prices hosts charge, which we do not control;

 

 

our ability to maintain or grow our number of hosts and guests, and provide our hosts and guests with the experience or service they expect from us;

 

 

adverse shifts in the distribution of the risk profiles of hosts, guests, vehicles, or trips, leading to increased costs for us and eroding satisfaction and retention of hosts and guests, as well as potential injury to our brand or public perception;

 

 

our ability to secure, maintain, expand, and enhance our partnerships and relationships with third parties, including with insurance and risk protection providers, vehicle manufacturers, technology providers, marketing partners, and online travel search engines;

 

 

our ability to secure, maintain, and enhance economically advantageous agreements with airports and other governmental or quasi-governmental entities;

 

 

the success of our geographic expansions;

 

 

the development and introduction of new offerings or promotions by our competitors;

 

 

increases in, and adverse timing of, operating expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;

 

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costs related to the acquisition of businesses, talent, technologies, or intellectual property, including potentially significant amortization costs and possible write-downs;

 

 

failures or breaches of security or privacy, and the costs associated with remediating any such failures or breaches, or the costs of compliance with quickly evolving security and privacy laws, as well as any injury to our brand or reputational capital due to such failures or breaches;

 

 

litigation costs and adverse litigation outcomes such as detrimental judgments, settlements, or other court orders;

 

 

changes in the legislative or regulatory environment or enforcement by any one or more government regulators, including fines, orders, or consent decrees and lobbying-related costs;

 

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates and changes in the proportion of our revenue and expenses denominated in foreign currencies;

 

 

general economic conditions in either domestic or international markets;

 

 

the extent to which use of our platform is affected by spyware, viruses, malware, phishing, spam emails, denial of service attacks, data theft, computer intrusions, ransomware attacks, account takeovers, and similar events; and

 

 

reduced travel and increased cancellations, as well as changes in consumer preferences for vehicle travel, due to events beyond our control such as health concerns, including the COVID-19 pandemic, other epidemics and pandemics, wars, terrorist attacks, regional hostilities, or the impact of climate change on travel, including fires, floods, severe weather, and other natural disasters, and the impact of climate change on seasonal destinations.

In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant fluctuations in our quarterly financial results. Initially, we experienced a period of decreased use of our platform due to shelter-in-place orders and the uncertainty resulting from the pandemic, which adversely impacted our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows in the first half of 2020. In response to these impacts, we implemented certain temporary cost-cutting measures in March 2020, such as decreased marketing-related spend, layoffs, furloughs, and salary reductions. We also discontinued our operations in Germany, in part, as a cost-cutting measure in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As shelter-in-place orders started to be lifted in the second half of 2020, we began experiencing use of our platform above pre-COVID-19 levels. The conditions related to and arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have incentivized additional individuals to seek entrepreneurial forms of primary and supplementary income, which we believe has led to increases in both the total number of hosts listing vehicles on our platform and the number of small business hosts sharing three or more vehicles on our platform. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed consumer behaviors by elevating the desire for private transportation options instead of public or shared transportation options. In the first half of 2021, we continued to experience use of our platform above pre-COVID-19 levels arising from consumers’ return to recreational and professional travel and rental car companies’ inability to meet consumer demand in many markets. Rental car companies reduced their fleet sizes in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic and were unable to quickly rebuild their fleets due to constraints in automobile manufacturing capacity. In light of these conditions, more consumers turned to peer-to-peer car sharing for their vehicle needs.

Beginning in July 2021, variants of COVID-19, including the Delta and Omicron variants, emerged, causing a surge in COVID-19 cases globally and resulting in fluctuations in the use of our platform. As the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, which may not continue in the future, particularly in light of continued and emerging variants of concern and the impacts on our business, results of operations, and financial condition, we have experienced an increase in the number of guests booking trips on our platform, an improvement in the risk

 

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profile of the trips booked, and an increase in pricing. The combination of circumstances that have accelerated the growth and anticipated profitability of our business stemming from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are not expected to continue in the future, and we may experience a decrease in growth rate in future periods after the effects of the pandemic diminish, including as a result of reversing many of the cost-cutting measures we employed.

We have a history of net losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.

We have a history of net losses. We incurred net losses of $98.6 million, $97.1 million, and $40.4 million in the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. While we generated net income of $154.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, we do not expect to continue to generate net income on a consistent basis in future periods. We expect our operating expenses to increase substantially in the foreseeable future as we implement initiatives designed to grow our business, including but not limited to acquiring new hosts and guests, growing partnerships and relationships with third parties, including with insurance providers, vehicle manufacturers, and online travel search engines, developing new or enhanced offerings, hiring additional employees, expanding internationally, and expanding our infrastructure. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently, or at all, to offset these higher expenses. Growth of our revenue may slow or revenue may decline for a number of possible reasons, including a decrease in our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests, failure to provide our hosts and guests with the experience or service they expect from us, failure to engage or capitalize on the value of partners, increasing competition, decreasing growth of our overall market, and an inability to quickly introduce new offerings that are favorably received by hosts and guests. If we are unable to generate adequate revenue growth and manage our expenses, we may continue to incur significant losses in the future and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.

We may be found to be subject to liability for the activities of hosts and guests, which could harm our reputation, increase our operating costs, and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We may be found to be subject to liability for the activities of hosts and guests on our platform. For example, we have in the past received, and expect to continue to receive, complaints from hosts regarding damage to, or loss, theft, or impounding of, their vehicles and requests for damage reimbursement, and from guests regarding quality or serviceability of the vehicles, other safety and security issues, and actual or perceived discrimination in connection with hosts declining trips and requests for reimbursement of their trip fees, as well as actual or threatened legal action against us if no reimbursement or perceived incomplete reimbursement is made. In addition, some of our hosts may list or have listed vehicles on our platform in violation of their lease or financing agreements or personal automobile insurance policies, or in violation of applicable legal restrictions on subleasing. Hosts have in the past, and may in the future, deliver vehicles on private or governmental property without the authorization of the property owner. In the absence of a court order or contractual obligation, Turo does not verify that a pick-up or delivery location is authorized by a property owner. We do not screen vehicles for compliance with safety standards or whether they are legally registered to be driven on public roads, and it is possible that some of our hosts may list or have listed vehicles on our platform that fail to meet basic safety or legal requirements for a vehicle. Even if we detect and ban such vehicles or hosts from our platform, we may fail to detect if the host re-lists the vehicle or rejoins our platform. Our trust and safety checks and qualification procedures may not be capable of identifying all quality and safety issues, including safety recalls, and our systems are not designed to identify legal, quality, and safety issues that may occur after initial sign-up. Consequently, we could be and have been subject to liabilities incurred from local or state regulators and courts regarding the activities of hosts and guests on our platform or related legal, safety, and security issues.

We and our hosts and guests may further be subject to claims of liability based on traffic or motor vehicle violations or accidents, fatalities, injuries, property damage, or other similar incidents that are caused during or

 

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after a reservation booked on our platform, including by unauthorized drivers. These incidents may subject us to liability, which would increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Even if these claims do not result in liability to us or our users, we could incur significant costs in investigating and defending against them, and such claims, if made public, could deter hosts or guests from continuing to use our platform. If we are found to be subject to liability or claims of liability relating to the acts of hosts or guests, or for failure to pay fees, fines, or taxes owed by them, we may be subject to negative publicity or other reputational harm, even if we are not found to be subject to such liability, and incur additional expenses, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

The market in which we participate is highly competitive and continually and rapidly evolving, and we may be unable to compete successfully with our current or future competitors.

The market in which we participate is highly competitive and contains a significant diversity, number, and variety of types and sizes of competitors. All of the offerings that we provide may also be provided in part or in combination by other companies that currently, or may in the future, compete with us, including in the peer-to-peer car sharing, fleet-based car sharing, ride sharing/transportation network companies, or TNCs, and rental car sectors, as well as players currently outside those sectors. Our current or new competitors may adopt certain aspects of our business model, which could reduce our ability to differentiate our services. Increased competition could result in a reduction in our revenue and in the number of hosts and guests on our platform, or the loss of market share.

We compete to attract and retain hosts who share their vehicles on our marketplace, as hosts have other options should they choose to generate income from car sharing, may not be aware of peer-to-peer car sharing, its benefits, or the economic opportunities it provides, or may not be motivated to monetize their vehicles. We compete for motivated hosts based on many factors, including the amount of income they generate, the ease of use of our platform, the marketplace fees we charge, host protection plans, and the strength of our brand.

We compete to attract and retain guests, as guests have a range of options to find and book vehicles. We compete for guests based on many factors, including the unique selection and availability of vehicles, the value and all-in cost of our offerings relative to other options, the convenience and locations of accessing our vehicles, our brand, the ease of use of our platform, the trust and safety our platform offers, and customer support.

We also compete generally with car ownership, car leasing, car subscription services, and a variety of transportation options that are focused on long-duration and long-distance trips, including public transit, railways, and airlines. While some customers may choose TNCs, taxis, or hourly rentals in lieu of peer-to-peer car sharing, these modes of transportation are better suited for short-term, short-duration trips. Our primary competitors are in the long-distance and long-duration automobile transportation space, including:

 

 

Peer-to-peer car sharing competitors, such as Getaround, Inc., or Getaround, and ANIHI Newco, LLC (doing business as Avail) in the United States, Hiyacar Limited and Getaround in the United Kingdom and in France, and Car Next Door Australia Pty Ltd. (doing business as Uber Carshare) in Australia; and

 

 

Car rental companies, such as Avis Budget Group, Inc., which operates Avis and Budget; Hertz Global Holdings, Inc., which operates Hertz, Dollar, and Thrifty; Enterprise Holdings, Inc., which operates Enterprise Rent-A-Car, National Car Rental, and Alamo Rent A Car; Fox Rent A Car; HyreCar Inc.; Silvercar, Inc.; Sixt Rent A Car, LLC; and rental options available through TNCs such as Uber Technologies, Inc. and Lyft, Inc. Some of these companies also offer, either directly or through subsidiaries, hourly or fleet-based car sharing solutions such as Zipcar, Inc., and Enterprise CarShare, AAA’s fleet-based car sharing solution Gig Car Share (operated by A3 Mobility LLC) in the United States, Communauto in Canada, and Virtuo Technologies Limited and Enterprise Car Club in the United Kingdom.

Some of our current or potential competitors, including the traditional car rental companies, are larger and have more resources than we do. Many of our competitors offer discounted services, incentives, or alternative

 

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pricing models or focus on a particular geographic location or market segment. Our competitors may also make acquisitions or establish cooperative or other strategic relationships among themselves or with other complementary companies. Many of our current and potential competitors enjoy substantial competitive advantages, such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, more well-established regulatory environments and permitting regimes, larger marketing and lobbying or campaign contribution budgets, and preferential treatment by credit card insurance policies or personal insurance policies that may provide coverage to renters, which are not equally available to customers of peer-to-peer car sharing, as well as substantially greater financial, technical, and other resources. In addition, our current or potential competitors may have access to larger host or guest bases. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, or customer requirements. Further, because of these advantages, existing and potential hosts and guests might accept our competitors’ offerings, even if they may be inferior to ours.

As we and our competitors introduce new offerings and as existing offerings evolve, we expect to become subject to additional competition. In addition, our competitors may adopt certain of our platform features or may adopt innovations that hosts and guests value more highly than ours, which would render our platform less attractive and reduce our ability to differentiate our platform. Increased competition could result in, among other things, reductions of the revenue we generate from the use of our platform, the number of hosts and guests, the frequency of use of our platform, and our margins.

For all of these reasons, we may not be able to compete successfully. If we lose existing hosts or guests, fail to attract or retain new hosts or guests, fail to provide our hosts and guests with the experience or service they expect from us, or are forced to make pricing concessions as a result of increased competition, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be adversely affected.

The market for online platforms for peer-to-peer car sharing is relatively new and rapidly evolving. If we fail to predict the manner in which our market develops, or if peer-to-peer car sharing does not achieve global acceptance, our business, results of operations, and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

The market for online car sharing platforms to connect guests with hosts is relatively new and unproven with little data or research available regarding the market and industry. It is uncertain whether this market will continue to develop or if our services will achieve and sustain a level of demand and market acceptance sufficient for us to generate meaningful revenue, net income, and free cash flow growth. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on the willingness of hosts to use an online platform for connecting with guests. Further, some hosts may be reluctant or unwilling to use an online platform for connecting with guests because of concerns regarding the cost structure, supply of available guests, tax or regulatory implications, data privacy and security concerns, adequacy of insurance coverage, compliance with restrictive provisions in lease or financing agreements, or possible damage to their vehicles or other property. Hosts may also be reluctant or unwilling to provide personally identifiable information, including their Social Security number or similar governmental identifying information, vehicle registration, and Vehicle Identification Number.

If hosts do not recognize the benefits of connecting with guests using our platform, then our market may not develop as we expect, or it may develop more slowly than we expect, either of which would significantly harm our business and results of operations.

In addition, our success will depend on guests’ use of our platform to book vehicles, which will depend on their willingness to use our platform and their belief in the integrity of our products and services. Guests may be reluctant or unwilling to use a platform and provide personally identifiable information, including credit card information and driver’s license details, or submit to background, credit, or other checks, which would significantly harm our business and results of operations. Guests may have concerns regarding the cost structure, data privacy and security (including payment security) concerns, or adequacy of insurance coverage. Further, guests may be reluctant to book vehicles containing telematics or monitoring devices accessible by hosts, Turo, or both, or to use our platform at all due to the perception of the use of such devices.

 

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In addition, since we operate in an unproven and understudied market, we have limited insight into trends that may develop in the market and affect our business. We may make errors in predicting and reacting to other relevant business trends, which could harm our business. This uncertainty is exacerbated by the current system of regulations that govern the peer-to-peer car sharing market, which may not directly or appropriately address the new business models in the industry. These laws and regulations may be interpreted in a way that is unfavorable to our business or that may result in higher compliance or advocacy costs than we have planned for.

Further, while peer-to-peer car sharing has grown in popularity, it may not achieve global acceptance, particularly in regions where peer-to-peer car sharing may not be deemed attractive to hosts and guests due to cultural considerations. The attractiveness of our platform for hosts and guests is impacted by a number of factors, including the willingness of consumer hosts to offer their vehicles on our platform, the willingness of guests to book trips on our platform in lieu of more traditional options, such as car rentals, or other alternatives, such as fleet-based car sharing and ride sharing, our ability to continue to extend our operating model internationally and offer localized services that are desirable to our hosts and guests, and our ability to offer cost-effective alternatives compared to traditional car rentals or other alternatives, such as fleet-based car sharing and ride sharing. Further, both hosts and guests may be reluctant or unwilling to use our platform because of concerns regarding their safety or the quality of the vehicles they book.

This uncertainty surrounding acceptance of peer-to-peer car sharing is exacerbated by the legacy system of laws and regulations that govern car sharing and car rentals, which generally did not anticipate the peer-to-peer car sharing industry, and may be interpreted negatively to limit, prohibit, or economically negate the value offered by peer-to-peer car sharing. If peer-to-peer car sharing does not achieve global acceptance, our growth could be limited, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and prospects.

The impact of adverse or changing economic conditions, including the resulting effects on consumer spending, may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business depends on the overall demand for vehicle bookings. Any significant weakening of the economy in the United States, Canada, Australia, or Europe or of the global economy, including more limited availability of credit, economic uncertainty, inflation, financial turmoil affecting the banking system or financial markets, bank failures, liquidity issues at financial institutions, increased unemployment rates, restrictions and reduction in domestic or international travel, fluctuations in the price or availability of gasoline, and other adverse economic or market conditions may adversely impact our business and operating results. Global economic and political events or uncertainty, such as the military conflict involving Russia and Ukraine and economic sanctions imposed on Russia, may cause some of our current or potential hosts and guests to curtail their use of our platform. In addition, travel has been disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and may further be disproportionately impacted by a macroeconomic downturn. In response to such downturns, including after the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy subside, hosts and guests may not use or spend on our platform at rates we expect, thus further reducing demand for vehicle bookings. These adverse conditions have in the past resulted, and could in the future result, in reductions in consumer spending, slower adoption of new technologies, and increased competition. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or any subsequent recovery generally. In addition, increases in the price of gasoline or overall inflation may cause guests to decrease their travel or choose alternative or lower cost methods of transportation than our offering. Similarly, increasing awareness around the impact of travel on climate change may adversely impact the travel and hospitality industries and demand for our platform and services. If the conditions in the general economy significantly deviate from present levels and continue to deteriorate, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

 

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We experience seasonal fluctuations in our business and financial results, which could cause our common stock price to fluctuate, make it difficult to forecast our future results, and make our results of operations and financial condition particularly susceptible to the effects of fluctuations during our peak periods.

Our overall business is seasonal, reflecting typical travel behavior patterns over the course of the calendar year. In addition, each city and region where we operate has unique seasonality, events, and weather that can increase or decrease demand for our offering. Certain holidays can also have an impact on demand on the holiday itself or during the preceding and subsequent weekends. Typically, our second and third quarters experience higher revenue as this is the peak travel season in North America, the United Kingdom, and France. Our Gross Booking Value, or GBV, typically follows the seasonality patterns of revenue. We recognize revenue when the trip occurs, and as a result, our net revenue, contribution profit (loss), which we define as our gross profit plus (i) stock-based compensation expense included in cost of net revenue, and (ii) amortization of internal-use software included in cost of net revenue, less (a) sales and marketing expense attributable to customer acquisition, including media spend, sales headcount costs (excluding stock-based compensation expense), and marketing promotions, and (b) chargebacks, bad debt expense, and trust and safety verifications included in general and administrative expense, and adjusted EBITDA, which we define as net income or loss adjusted for (i) provision for income taxes; (ii) other income and (expense), net; (iii) depreciation and amortization; (iv) stock-based compensation expense; (v) impairment charges; (vi) certain legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserves; and (vii) change in fair value of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability, tend to be highest in the third and fourth quarters of the year. Our customer support costs also increase in the second and third quarters as we increase our staffing to handle increased activity on our platform in those periods.

In 2020, 2021, and 2022, we saw the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting macroeconomic effects, including on the travel and rental car industries, overwhelm the historical seasonality pattern in our Days, GBV, contribution profit (loss), contribution margin, and adjusted EBITDA as a result of shelter-in-place orders and changing travel preferences. We expect this impact on typical seasonality to continue as long as COVID-19 continues to impact travel restrictions and customer preferences and makeup globally. Our rapid growth and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have made, and may continue to make, seasonal fluctuations difficult to predict. As our business matures, other seasonal trends may develop, or these existing seasonal trends may become more extreme. As such, we may not accurately forecast our results of operations. However, we base our spending and investment plans on forecasts and estimates, and we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough if our revenue is less than expected, causing our results of operations to fail to meet our expectations or the expectations of investors. In addition, any circumstance or occurrence that disrupts use of our platform during the peak season, especially in North America, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia, could have a disproportionately adverse impact on our results of operations or financial condition.

Our workforce and operations have grown substantially since our inception, and we expect that they will continue to do so. If we are unable to effectively manage that growth, our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.

Since our inception, we have experienced rapid growth. For example, the number of our full-time employees has increased from 143 as of December 31, 2016, to 814 as of December 31, 2022. We are committed to expanding our global operations. This expansion increases the complexity of our business and places significant strain on our management, personnel, operations, systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. We may not be able to manage growth effectively, which could damage our reputation, limit our growth, increase our costs, and negatively affect our results of operations. In addition, as our operations have expanded, our headcount has increased significantly over time, and we have increased reliance on third-party providers, which introduces additional complexities, including increasingly complex and expanding reporting structures. Our business is becoming increasingly complex, and this complexity and our rapid growth have demanded, and will continue to demand, substantial resources and attention from our management.

 

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We expect to continue to increase headcount and to hire more specialized personnel in the future as we grow our business. We will need to continue to hire, train, integrate, and manage additional qualified website developers, software engineers, account services personnel, government relations, legal and compliance personnel, and sales and marketing staff, and improve and maintain our technology to properly manage our growth. The San Francisco Bay Area continues to be a challenging recruiting market; overall, certain key roles and skillsets have been difficult to fill due to a competitive market and limited candidate pool, including but not limited to engineers, product managers, and design professionals. If our new hires do not perform as expected or take longer than expected to ramp up, if we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, integrating, and managing these new employees, or if we are not successful in retaining our existing employees, our business may be harmed.

Further, to accommodate our expected growth, we must improve and maintain our platform, technology, systems, and network infrastructure. Failure to effectively upgrade our technology or network infrastructure to support the expected increased traffic on our platform could result in unanticipated system disruptions, slow response times, or poor experiences for hosts and guests. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel and to support financial reporting requirements, we will need to improve our transaction processing and reporting, operational and financial systems, procedures, and controls. These improvements will be particularly challenging if we acquire new operations with different systems. Our current and planned personnel, systems, procedures, and controls may not be adequate to support our future operations. If we are unable to expand our operations and hire additional qualified personnel in an efficient manner, it could adversely affect customer satisfaction and cause our expenses to grow disproportionately relative to our revenue, and our financial performance and future prospects will be adversely affected.

Host, guest, or third-party actions that are criminal, violent, inappropriate, dangerous, or fraudulent may undermine the trust and safety or perception of trust and safety of our marketplace and our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We have no control over or ability to predict the actions of our hosts, guests, and other third parties, such as additional passengers in, or drivers of, vehicles booked on our platform, and therefore we cannot guarantee the safety of our hosts, guests, and such third parties. From time to time, we are subject to legal proceedings, including personal injury suits, claims, arbitrations, administrative proceedings, and government investigations or enforcement actions in the ordinary course of business. The actions of hosts, guests, and other third parties may result in fatalities, injuries, other bodily harm, assault, fraud, invasion of privacy, property damage, theft, including cases in which we are unable to recover the vehicle, discrimination, harassment, and libel, among other negative impacts, which could create potential legal or other substantial liabilities for us, hosts, or guests. For example, hosts may incur and have incurred liability due to the unlawful actions of their guests or other third parties guests present in the vehicle, such as traffic violations or other legal violations and guests may incur and have incurred liability due to the unlawful actions of their hosts, such as vehicle or registration violations. In addition, there have been rare instances where guests were pulled over or detained by police because the vehicles they were driving had been reported as stolen by the vehicle owner, sometimes in error, or where law enforcement did not properly remove stolen vehicle notifications. Depending on the circumstances, hosts or guests may also attempt to assert that we should be liable for unlawful actions stemming from the use of vehicles available on our platform. Such liabilities could materially and adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Moreover, we cannot conclusively verify the identity of all guests, nor do we verify or screen third parties who may be present during a trip using a vehicle booked through our platform. Our trust and safety processes focus primarily on guests to reduce the risk of vehicle theft and motor vehicle accidents. While we do some limited screening of hosts at sign up, our efforts to date have focused primarily on screening guests. Our identity verification processes rely on, among other things, information provided by users at sign up and booking, and our ability to validate that information and the effectiveness of third-party service providers that support our verification processes may be limited. In addition, we do not currently, and may not in the future, require users

 

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to re-verify their identity following their successful completion of the initial verification process or require guests to provide documentation of or any updates regarding their driving record or license status. Certain verification processes, including legacy verification processes on which we previously relied, may be less reliable than others. We conduct certain trust and safety screening processes to flag and investigate suspicious activities and in an attempt to prevent guests with certain criminal backgrounds from accessing our services. These processes are beneficial but not exhaustive and have limitations due to a variety of factors, including laws and regulations that prohibit or limit our ability to conduct effective background checks in some jurisdictions, the unavailability of information, and the inability of our systems to detect all suspicious activity or human or technical error or delay in addressing suspicious activity. In addition, there may be times when someone is misidentified as a person with a criminal background, when in fact they are not. There can be no assurances that these measures will significantly reduce criminal or fraudulent activity on our platform. In addition, such checks may not identify instances of identity fraud where a guest books a vehicle under another person’s identity for criminal or other unlawful purposes. The background checks and other screening processes we rely on, among other things, information provided by users, our ability to validate that information, the accuracy, completeness, and availability of the underlying information relating to criminal records, the digitization of certain records, the evolving regulatory landscape in this area such as personal data protection and privacy laws, and the effectiveness of third-party service providers that may fail to conduct such background checks adequately or disclose information that could be relevant to a determination of eligibility, and we do not run criminal background checks and other screening processes on additional parties who may be present in a vehicle reserved through our platform. If unexpected and more burdensome laws and regulations regarding identity verification or screening are introduced, including with respect to screenings of restricted parties, we would have to implement new screening and verification policies, tools, and procedures, and we could face increased costs. As a result, we may have to increase the costs of our services for hosts and guests, which may make our services less attractive to our existing or potential future customers. In addition, while there are laws in certain jurisdictions that regulate the use of criminal background checks in the employment setting and other consumer use cases, it is unclear if those laws apply to our industry. Given this ambiguity, it is possible we are not now, or may not be in the future, compliant with those laws. Further, the use of criminal background checks or credit checks in our marketplace may open us up to allegations of discrimination. Therefore, we may be subject to negative publicity and incur additional expenses, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In addition, we have not in the past, and may not in the future, undertake to independently verify the safety, suitability, quality, and compliance with our policies or standards of our hosts’ vehicles. We have created policies and standards to respond to issues reported with listings, but certain listings may pose heightened safety risks to individual users because those issues have not been reported to us or because our customer support team has not taken the requisite action based on our policies. We rely, at least in part, on reports of issues from hosts and guests to investigate and enforce many of our policies and standards. In addition, our policies may not contemplate certain safety risks posed by listings or consumer hosts or guests or may not sufficiently address those risks.

If hosts, guests, or other third parties engage in misconduct or actions that are criminal, violent, fraudulent, negligent, or inappropriate, or if they use our platform as a conduit for criminal activity, consumers may not consider our platform and the vehicles listed on our platform as safe, and we may receive negative media coverage, or be subject to involvement in a government investigation concerning such activity, which could adversely impact our brand and reputation, cause hosts and guests not to use our platforms at the rates we expect, and lower the adoption rate of our platform. While we recognize that we need to continue to build trust and invest in innovations that will support trust when it comes to our policies, tools, and procedures to protect hosts and guests, we may not be successful in doing so. Similarly, vehicle listings that are inaccurate, of a lower-than-expected quality, or that do not comply with our policies may harm guests and public perception of the quality and safety of vehicle listings on our platform and materially adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

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Because we recognize revenue at the time of check-in for the reservation or over trip duration instead of upon booking, upticks or downturns in bookings are not immediately reflected in our results of operations.

We recognize revenue related to our marketplace fees at the time of check-in for the reservation, and we recognize protection plan services fees over the duration of the trip. The effect of significant upticks or downturns in trip bookings in a particular quarter may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods because of this timing in revenue recognition. We issue refunds to guests as part of our customer support activities in the form of cash or travel credits to be applied to future trip bookings, which we account for as consideration paid to a guest and which results in a reduction to revenue.

If we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our business, financial condition, reputation, and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Maintaining and enhancing our brand identity are critical to our ability to attract new hosts and guests to our platform, preserve our existing community of hosts and guests, and engage positively with third parties, including governmental and regulatory authorities. The successful promotion of our brand will depend largely on our ability to execute on our offering and marketing and public relations efforts. Maintaining and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments, and these investments may not be successful. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, results of operations, and financial condition will be adversely affected. In addition, we may partner with third parties for marketing or promotional opportunities, and we cannot control the actions of any of our partners. A development that affects the reputation or brand of one of our partners may also have an impact on our business or our brand. We anticipate that as our market becomes increasingly competitive, maintaining and enhancing our brand may become increasingly difficult and expensive. If we do not successfully maintain and enhance our brand, we could lose booking volume, which could, in turn, cause hosts to cease offering their vehicles on our platform. Our brand promotion activities may not be successful or may not yield revenue sufficient to offset their cost, which could adversely affect our reputation and business.

We have been, and may in the future be, the subject of media coverage, including on blogs and online forums. Unfavorable publicity, other campaigns or publications encouraging users to cease use of our platform or consumer perception of our platform, practices, or offerings, or our business relationships, which has occurred in the past, could adversely affect our reputation, resulting in difficulties in recruiting, decreased revenue, a negative impact on the number of hosts who list their vehicles and the number of potential guests, and may complicate relationships with third-party business partners and governmental and regulatory authorities. For example, the traffic accidents caused by or involving cars listed on our platform could have a negative impact on the number of potential hosts who use our platform. In addition, any incident involving the personal safety or security of our hosts or guests, whether actual or rumored to have occurred, could create a negative public perception of our platform, which would adversely impact our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests. As a result, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, we rely on hosts and guests to provide reliable and trustworthy ratings and reviews that our hosts or guests can rely upon when making decisions about trip bookings to accept or trips to book, as applicable. We also monitor the ratings on our website and review system to enforce quality standards and build trust among members of our community. Our hosts and guests may be less likely to rely on ratings and reviews if they believe that our review system is not trustworthy. We have procedures in place to combat fraud or abuse of our review system, but we cannot guarantee that these procedures are or will be effective. Further, hosts and guests can leave reviews on third-party websites which we do not have the ability to monitor. In addition, if hosts and guests do not leave reliable ratings and reviews, hosts or guests who rely on such ratings and reviews may have negative experiences, which would cause a decrease in customer satisfaction. Unreliable ratings and reviews could also make it more difficult for us to enforce quality standards, which could reduce trust within our community. Any of these effects could damage our brand and reputation and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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Any failure to offer high-quality support may harm our relationships with hosts and guests and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests is dependent in part on our ability to provide high-quality support and services. Hosts and guests depend on our support organization to resolve any issues relating to our platform or their experience listing or booking vehicles through our platform and during and after their trips. We primarily rely on third parties to provide many of our support services, and our ability to provide effective support is substantially dependent on our ability to attract and retain third-party service providers, and their employees, who need to be not only qualified to support users of our platform but also well versed in the relevant aspects of our platform. As we continue to grow our business and improve our offerings, we will face challenges related to providing high-quality support services at scale. In addition, as we continue to grow our international business and the number of international users on our platform generally, our support organization will face additional challenges, including those associated with delivering support in languages other than English and French, where applicable. Any failure to maintain high-quality support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, could harm our reputation and adversely affect our ability to scale our platform and business, our financial condition, and results of operations.

Moreover, customer complaints or negative publicity about our company, our services, or our business activities could severely diminish consumer confidence in and use of our platform. Measures we may take to combat risks of quality issues, safety issues, and breaches of privacy and security, such as removing low-rated vehicle listings from our platform or otherwise enforcing violations of our terms of service, can damage our relations with our hosts. Similarly, our trust and safety efforts to reduce the risk of vehicle loss or theft can damage our relations with our guests. These measures heighten the need for prompt and accurate customer service to resolve irregularities and disputes. Satisfaction with our process for physical damage reimbursement and offerings and implementation of protection plans can also impact both host and guest satisfaction. Effective customer service requires significant personnel expense, and this expense, if not managed properly, could significantly impact our profitability. Failure to manage or train our customer service representatives properly could compromise our ability to handle customer complaints effectively. If we do not handle these complaints effectively, our reputation may be harmed, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If we are unable to introduce new or upgraded services or features that hosts or guests recognize as valuable, we may fail to drive additional users to our platform or retain existing users on our platform. Our efforts to develop new and upgraded offerings could require us to incur significant costs.

In order to continue to attract and retain hosts and guests on our platform and to encourage hosts to list additional vehicles on our platform, we will need to continue to invest in the development of new offerings that add value for hosts and guests and differentiate us from our competitors. The success of new offerings depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction, and market acceptance of the offering and investment in new technologies. If hosts and guests do not recognize the value of our new offerings, they may choose not to utilize our platform.

Any new offerings have a high degree of risk, as they may involve unproven businesses with which we have limited or no prior development or operating experience. Developing and delivering these new or upgraded offerings may increase our expenses, as this process can be costly, and we may experience difficulties in developing and delivering such new or upgraded offerings. Moreover, we cannot assure you that any such new or upgraded product, service, or feature will work as intended, that consumer demand will exist or be sustained at the levels that we anticipate, or that any of these offerings will gain sufficient market acceptance to generate sufficient revenue to offset associated expenses or liabilities. In addition, successfully launching, marketing, and selling a new offering will require the use of our marketing or sales resources. It is also possible that offerings developed by others will render our offerings noncompetitive or obsolete. Further, these efforts could distract management from current operations and divert capital and other resources from our more established

 

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offerings. Even if we are successful in developing new offerings, regulatory authorities may subject us or our hosts and guests to new rules, taxes, or restrictions or more aggressively enforce existing rules, taxes, or restrictions, that could increase our expenses or prevent us from successfully commercializing such new products, services, and features. If we are unable to continue to develop new or upgraded products, services, or features, we may fail to grow and our business, results of operations, and financial condition would be materially adversely affected.

We rely on traffic to our platform to grow revenue, and if we are unable to drive traffic cost-effectively, it would materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Promoting awareness of our platform is important to our ability to drive traffic to our platform and grow our business. Our marketing efforts currently include, or have historically included, referrals, affiliate programs, partnerships, display advertising, television, billboards, radio, video, direct mail, social media, email, podcasts, classified advertisement websites, mobile “push” communications, online travel agency and travel metasearch engine advertisements, and search engine marketing. Our marketing initiatives may become increasingly expensive, and generating a meaningful return on these initiatives may be difficult. Even if we successfully increase revenue as a result of our paid marketing efforts, it may not offset the additional marketing expenses we incur. If our marketing efforts to help grow our business are not effective, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be adversely affected.

In addition, driving traffic to our platform depends, in part, on our ability to attract consumers through unpaid placement within search results on search engines like Google. The number of consumers we attract to our platform from search engines is due in large part to how and where our website or app ranks in unpaid search results. These rankings can be affected by a number of factors, many of which are not under our direct control and may change frequently. For example, a search engine may change its ranking algorithms, methodologies, or design layouts. As a result, links to our website or app may not be prominent enough to drive traffic to our website or app, and we may not know how or otherwise be in a position to influence the results. In some instances, search engine companies may change these rankings in a way that promotes their own competing products or services or the products or services of one or more of our competitors. Search engines may also expand or add new paid advertising placements for keywords that would reduce our market visibility to prospective hosts and guests. Our website has experienced fluctuations in search result rankings in the past, and we anticipate similar fluctuations in the future. Any reduction in the number of consumers directed to our platform from search engines could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Moreover, as guests increase their booking activity across multiple car sharing platforms, or compare offerings across platforms, our marketing efficiency and effectiveness may be adversely impacted. In response, we may increase our sales and marketing expenditures in the future, which may not be offset by additional revenue, and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We rely on our proprietary risk scoring model to determine trip fees for each booking in the United States. If our risk scoring model is unable to permit us to effectively generate accurate trip fees for each trip, it may adversely impact our operating results, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We rely on our internally developed proprietary machine learning algorithms, which incorporate data from third-party sources as well as our own data, to improve our offering, offer personalization, and optimize the economics of trip bookings on our platform in an intelligent manner, including through our proprietary Turo Risk Score for trips in the United States. The Turo Risk Score capability, built on machine learning algorithms, enables us to implement real-time, risk-based trip fees. The Turo Risk Score takes a broad view of risk to account for an array of undesirable outcomes. The Turo Risk Score is not used in the pricing of protection plans.

If we rely on a model that fails to effectively take into account appropriate variables, including failing to learn from data quickly enough, we may generate trip fees that do not optimize the economics of trip bookings on our platform

 

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either by setting fees too low for riskier trips or setting fees to a degree that discourages guests from completing valuable trip bookings. In addition, the Turo Risk Score was introduced in the United States in April 2020, and the information and data collected since that time may not be representative of future risk, particularly with respect to business trends experienced during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to potentially setting fees too low or too high. We have since rolled out the Turo Risk Score in the testing phase in Canada and the United Kingdom. Moreover, there are fewer third-party sources that provide data used to build our pricing model for our markets outside the United States, and if any such sources of U.S. or international data provide inaccurate information or limit our use of such source, in part or entirely, including by raising the price to use such third-party data, our model may suffer and become less accurate. The application of certain laws, including consumer protection and fee transparency laws, in jurisdictions in which we operate may increase the scrutiny or limit the effectiveness of the Turo Risk Score. As a result, our results of operations, business, results of operations, and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Even though our machine learning algorithms do not collect, analyze, or utilize attributes such as race or ethnicity, including in the calculation of the Turo Risk Score, if consumers believe we are discriminating on the basis of race or ethnicity, or we rely on third-party data sources that have been influenced by institutional or systemic racism, it may subject us to liability and adversely impact our brand and resulting business, operations, and financial condition.

We have a limited operating history in an evolving industry, which makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects and may increase the risk of your investment.

Since our inception in 2009, our business model has not been fully proven. As a result, we have only a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and our future prospects. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including, in our case:

 

 

achieving market acceptance of our existing and future offerings;

 

 

challenges in accurate financial planning and forecasting;

 

 

the impact of the current pricing environment on our growth and profitability;

 

 

attracting and retaining hosts and guests;

 

 

competing against companies with greater financial resources;

 

 

increasing expenses as we continue to grow our business;

 

 

risk of litigation losses or regulatory enforcement actions;

 

 

successfully expanding our business in existing markets and entering into new markets and geographies;

 

 

maintaining and enhancing the value of our reputation and brand;

 

 

anticipating and responding to macroeconomic changes and changes in the markets in which we operate;

 

 

avoiding interruptions or disruptions in our service;

 

 

developing a scalable, high-performance technology infrastructure that can efficiently and reliably handle increased usage, as well as the deployment of new features and services;

 

 

securing our platform against technological threats;

 

 

hiring, integrating, and retaining talented technology, sales and marketing, customer service, and other personnel;

 

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effectively managing rapid growth in our personnel and operations; and

 

 

maintaining and growing our partnerships and relationships with third parties, including with insurance providers, vehicle manufacturers, and online search engines.

We cannot assure you that we will be successful in addressing these and other challenges we may face in the future and if we do not manage these risks successfully, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected. You should consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we may encounter as an early-stage company. Further, we may not be able to maintain our current rate of growth often characteristic of early-stage companies, and there is no assurance that our rate of growth will continue. We may not achieve sufficient revenue to achieve or maintain positive cash flow from operations or profitability in any given period.

We could face liability for information on or accessible through our platform.

We could face claims relating to information that is published or made available through our platform. Our platform allows hosts and guests to receive certain information about one another. Although this information is provided by third parties, claims of breaches of privacy or violation of consumer protection laws, as well as claims of harassment or criminal activities by participants in our marketplace, may be made against us for information distributed through our platform. Our potential liability for information on our platform or distributed by us to others and for the activities of hosts and guests could require us to implement additional measures to reduce our exposure to such liability, which may require us to expend substantial resources and limit the attractiveness of our platform to users. Our insurance policies may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed and may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed.

If we are unable to adapt to changes in technology, our business could be harmed.

Because current and potential hosts and guests can access our website and platform on a variety of devices, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our service to keep pace with changes in mobile devices, native apps, and other internet-related hardware, software, communication, browser technologies, and industry standards. There may be other technologies in the future that are not foreseen today that may transform our processes and services and may need to be adopted in order to remain competitive and responsive to host and guest expectations. Our future success will also depend on our ability to integrate new or emerging payment methods into our platform to offer alternative payment solutions to consumers, particularly if we expand into markets where usage of credit and debit cards is not ubiquitous and/or e-commerce is largely carried out through mobile devices. We may not be successful in either developing these modifications and enhancements or in timely bringing them to market. Further, uncertainties about the timing and nature of new devices and other network platforms or technologies, or modifications to existing devices, platforms, or technologies, could increase our research and development expenses more than we have currently planned. Any failure of our platform to operate effectively with future technologies could result in decreased customer satisfaction and harm our business.

Our long-term success depends, in part, on our ability to expand our operations outside of the United States and, as a result, our business is susceptible to risks associated with international operations.

A small but important portion of our revenue comes from trips booked outside of the United States. We have offices and a small number of employees outside the United States to support our international operations. We have limited experience in operating in foreign jurisdictions and plan to make significant investments to build our international operations. In addition, we recently acquired OuiCar in France and launched operations in Australia. We plan to continue our efforts to expand globally, including potential additional acquisitions of international businesses and establishment of foreign offices in jurisdictions where we do not currently operate. Managing a global organization is difficult, time consuming, and expensive, and any international expansion

 

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efforts that we may undertake may not be successful. In addition, conducting international operations subjects us to risks that we generally do not face in the United States. These risks include:

 

 

the cost and resources required to localize our services, which requires the translation of our website and platform into foreign languages, use of foreign currencies and payment methods, and adaptation for local practice, regulatory, motor vehicle, taxation, and insurance requirements;

 

 

unexpected and more restrictive laws and regulations, including those laws and regulations governing internet activities, peer-to-peer car sharing platforms, leasing or renting cars, licensing and usage of vehicles, employment, tax, licensing and permitting, identify verification and screening, email and text messaging, collection and use of personal information, consumer protection and fee transparency, privacy and data protection, payment processing, availability of criminal background check services, auto insurance scores, or other third-party data sources of the type available in the United States for trust and safety screening purposes, and other activities important to our online business practices;

 

 

competition with companies that understand the local market better than we do or that have preexisting relationships with potential hosts and guests in those markets;

 

 

lack of relationships with law enforcement, or availability of third-party criminal investigators, used by us in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia to help with the recovery of missing vehicles;

 

 

legal uncertainty regarding our liability for the actions of hosts and guests, including uncertainty resulting from unique local laws or a lack of clear precedent of applicable law;

 

 

lack of familiarity with and the burden of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, legal standards, and legal, regulatory, insurance requirements, and consumer protection laws, which may change or be interpreted in unexpected ways;

 

 

difficulties in managing and staffing international operations, including as a result of our foreign employees being members of labor unions or work councils or subject to collective bargaining agreements and having less centralized oversight and training;

 

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

 

 

higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud;

 

 

regulations governing the control of local currencies and impacting the ability to collect and remit funds to hosts in those currencies;

 

 

potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax systems and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;

 

 

increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities and difficulties of implementing and maintaining adequate internal controls;

 

 

political, social, and economic instability abroad, terrorist attacks, and security concerns in general;

 

 

breakdowns in infrastructure, utilities, and other services;

 

 

exposure to a business culture in which improper business practices may be prevalent;

 

 

compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Anti-Bribery Convention, and similar laws in other jurisdictions;

 

 

reduced or varied protection of intellectual property rights in some countries; and

 

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the other risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus.

Operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. We cannot assure you that our international expansion efforts will be successful. Further, the investment and additional resources required to establish operations and manage growth in other countries may not produce desired levels of revenue or profitability. Operating or other issues in one or more foreign jurisdictions may have an adverse impact on the business as a whole.

We may be unable to integrate acquired businesses and technologies successfully or to achieve the expected benefits of such acquisitions. We may acquire or invest in additional companies, which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, and consume resources that are necessary to sustain our business.

Our business strategy may, from time to time, include acquiring other complementary products, technologies, or businesses. For example, in May 2022, we acquired OuiCar in France. An acquisition, investment, or business relationship may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In particular, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of the acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of the acquired companies choose not to work for us, if an acquired company’s software is not easily adapted to work with ours, or if we have difficulty retaining the customers of any acquired business due to changes in management, product offering, or otherwise. Integration of a business outside of the United States may pose additional challenges given the risks associated with international operations as discussed above. Acquisitions may also disrupt our business, divert our resources, and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our business. Moreover, the anticipated benefits or synergies of any acquisition, investment, or business relationship may not be realized or we may fail to identify problems, liabilities, or other shortcomings or challenges and be exposed to unknown liabilities. For example, in July 2017, we acquired Croove GmbH (subsequently rebranded as Turo Germany), which operated peer-to-peer car sharing services in Germany, and in March 2020, we discontinued our operations in Germany, in part, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in additional businesses, products, technologies, or other assets. We may also enter into relationships with other businesses to expand our products and services or our ability to provide our products and services in foreign jurisdictions, which could involve preferred or exclusive licenses, additional channels of distribution, discount pricing, or investments in other companies. Negotiating these transactions can be time consuming, difficult, and expensive, and our ability to close these transactions may often be subject to approvals that are beyond our control. Consequently, these transactions, even if undertaken and announced, may not close. Further, for one or more of these transactions, we may:

 

 

issue additional equity securities that would dilute our stockholders;

 

 

use cash that we may need in the future to operate our business;

 

 

incur debt on terms unfavorable to us or that we are unable to repay;

 

 

incur large charges or substantial liabilities;

 

 

be subject to ongoing obligations of the acquired company that are difficult or time-consuming to satisfy;

 

 

encounter difficulties retaining and integrating key employees of the acquired company, or integrating diverse software code bases, controls, or business cultures; and

 

 

become subject to adverse tax consequences, substantial depreciation, or deferred compensation charges.

Any of these risks, or other risks related to such acquisitions, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

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Our business depends on attracting and retaining capable management and operating personnel.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain high-quality management and operating personnel. In particular, we are highly dependent on Andre Haddad, our Chief Executive Officer, who has been instrumental in devising and leading our strategies for growth. His in-depth knowledge of, and deep relationships with, the participants in our industry are extremely valuable to us. Our business also requires skilled technical, marketing, and design personnel, who are in high demand and are often subject to competing offers.

Competition for qualified employees is intense in our industry. Our employees, including members of our management team, could leave our company with little or no prior notice and would be free to work for a competitor. The loss of even a few qualified employees, or an inability to attract, retain, and motivate additional highly skilled employees required for the planned expansion of our business could harm our operating results and impair our ability to grow.

We also do not maintain “key person” life insurance on any of our employees. The departure of one or more of our senior management team members or other key employees could be disruptive to our business until we are able to hire qualified successors.

To attract and retain key personnel, we use various measures, including an equity incentive program for key executive officers and other employees. These measures may not be enough to attract and retain the personnel we require to operate and grow our business effectively.

We track certain operational metrics, which are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and real or perceived inaccuracies in such metrics may harm our reputation and materially adversely affect our stock price, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We track certain operational metrics, including key business metrics such as Days and GBV, which may differ from estimates or similar metrics published by third parties due to differences in sources, methodologies, or the assumptions on which we rely. Our internal systems and tools, including third-party software, are subject to a number of limitations, and our methodologies for tracking these metrics may change over time, which could result in unexpected changes to our metrics, including the metrics we publicly disclose. If the internal systems and tools we use to track these metrics undercount or overcount performance or contain algorithmic or other technical errors, the data we report may not be accurate. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates of our metrics for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our platform is used across large populations globally.

Limitations or errors with respect to how we measure data or with respect to the data that we measure may affect our understanding of certain details of our business, which could affect our long-term strategies and short-term activities. If our operational metrics are not accurate representations of our business, or if investors do not perceive these metrics to be accurate, or if we discover material inaccuracies with respect to these figures, our reputation may be significantly harmed, our stock price could decline, we may be subject to stockholder litigation, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If we cannot maintain and cultivate our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, passion, and focus on execution that we believe contribute to our success, and our business could be harmed.

We believe that our corporate culture has been vital to our success, including in attracting, developing, motivating, and retaining personnel. As we continue to grow and face industry challenges, including additional regulatory, compliance, and governance requirements, it may become more challenging to maintain that culture. In addition, we plan to expand our international operations into other countries in the future, which may impact

 

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our culture as we seek to find, hire, and integrate additional employees while maintaining our corporate culture. If we are unable to maintain and cultivate our corporate culture, we could lose key employees, innovation, teamwork, passion, and focus on execution, and as a result, our business could be harmed.

Our revolving credit facility contains financial covenants and other restrictions on our actions that may limit our operational flexibility or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations.

The terms of our revolving credit facility include a number of covenants that limit our ability and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, grant liens, merge or consolidate with other companies or sell substantially all of our assets, pay dividends, make redemptions and repurchases of stock, make investments, loans and acquisitions, or engage in transactions with affiliates, as well as a $25 million minimum liquidity requirement. The terms of our revolving credit facility may restrict our current and future operations and could adversely affect our ability to finance our future operations or capital needs. In addition, complying with these covenants may make it more difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy, including potential acquisitions, and compete against companies which are not subject to such restrictions.

A failure by us to comply with the covenants or payment requirements specified in our credit agreement could result in an event of default under the agreement, which would give the lenders the right to terminate their commitments to provide additional loans under our revolving credit facility and to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable. If the debt under our revolving credit facility were to be accelerated, we may not have sufficient cash or be able to borrow sufficient funds to refinance the debt or sell sufficient assets to repay the debt, which could immediately adversely affect our business, cash flows, results of operations, and financial condition. Even if we were able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms or on terms that are acceptable to us.

We may require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital may not be available on favorable or acceptable terms, if at all.

We have funded our operations since inception primarily through issuances of equity and convertible debt securities and revenue generated from our platform. We cannot be certain when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fully fund our ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new products and services or enhance our existing products and services, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. We have always been committed to expanding the number of geographic areas in which our services are offered, and we may make future commitments of capital resources. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could be adversely affected by significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any additional debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited. In particular, the recent macroeconomic downturn, bank failures, and other liquidity issues at financial institutions have caused disruption in the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide, which may reduce our ability to access capital and negatively affect our liquidity in the future. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, our ability to develop our platform, support our business growth, and respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business may be adversely affected.

 

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We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.

Because we conduct a growing portion of our business outside the United States, we face exposure to adverse movements in currency exchange rates. A decline in the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies would increase our non-U.S. revenue, when translated into U.S. dollars. Conversely, if the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to foreign currencies, our revenue from our foreign operations would be adversely affected. Our operating results could be negatively impacted, depending on the amount of expense denominated in foreign currencies. As exchange rates vary, revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses, and other operating results, when translated, may differ materially. In addition, our revenue and operating results are subject to fluctuation if our mix of U.S. and foreign currency denominated transactions and expenses changes in the future. We may enter into hedging arrangements in order to manage foreign currency translation, but such activity may not completely eliminate fluctuations in our results of operations.

We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by natural disasters, the physical effects of climate change, and other catastrophic events, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and by man-made problems such as acts of war and terrorism, that could disrupt our business operations and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by significant natural disasters, the physical effects of climate change, or other catastrophic events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, earthquakes, blizzards, tsunamis, hurricanes, droughts, fires, or floods, or other catastrophic events, such as terrorism, the military conflict involving Russia and Ukraine and economic sanctions imposed on Russia, extended outages of critical utilities, power loss, telecommunications failure, or any critical resource shortages affecting us, our third-party providers, guests, or hosts. In the event of a natural disaster or other catastrophic event, we and our third-party providers may be unable to continue operations, may endure system interruptions, and vehicles booked on our platform may experience additional damage, any of which could result in reputational harm, delays in development of our platform, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security, and loss of critical data, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We currently do not have a comprehensive disaster recovery plan in place. Natural disasters, including hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, as well as other catastrophic events, such as outbreaks of H1N1 influenza (swine flu), avian flu, COVID-19, and other pandemics and epidemics, have significantly disrupted business operations and normal transportation patterns and levels. To the extent climate change causes changes in weather patterns, our coastal destinations could experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea-levels causing damage to our hosts’ vehicles and result in a reduced number of listings in these areas. Moreover, our corporate headquarters is located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity, and we may be subject to shortages of water, electric power, and natural gas from time to time and potentially subject to catastrophic fires. To the extent we maintain insurance against natural disasters, it may not be adequate to cover our losses in any particular case. In addition, natural disasters and other catastrophic events could affect our partners’ ability to perform services for users on a timely basis. In the event any such partners’ information technology systems or service abilities are hindered by any of the events discussed above, our ability to provide services to hosts and guests may be impaired. Further, if a natural disaster or other catastrophic event occurs in a region from which we derive a significant portion of our revenue, users in that region may delay or forego use of our platform or other services, which may adversely impact our business, including potentially increasing our losses due to damaged vehicles in the region for which we may be deemed responsible. In addition, acts of terrorism, civil disorder, or military conflict could cause disruptions in our business or the business and activity of our partners, hosts, guests, or the economy as a whole. These disruptions may be more severe than in the case of natural disasters. All of the aforementioned risks may be augmented if our or our partners’ business continuity and disaster recovery plans prove to be inadequate. To the extent that any of the above results in delays or reductions in marketplace availability, activities, or other services, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be adversely affected.

 

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Our business has experienced, and may in the future experience, an adverse impact from the COVID-19 pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted our business and has resulted in reductions in demand for our offerings to varying degrees throughout the pandemic. If guests reduce their spending on and use of our platform due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as has occasionally occurred with increases in temporary restrictions or prevalence of variants, we may experience a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot reasonably be predicted with confidence at this time, including the duration, spread, and severity of the pandemic; subsequent waves of infection or variant strains; the timing, availability, and effectiveness of vaccines as well as vaccination rates among the population; future government responses to the pandemic; potential restrictions on our business and the business of our hosts; the impact of the pandemic on the United States and global economics and demand for our offering; how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions resume; and the reaction of hosts and guests to these developments. The potential impacts of such developments include, but are not limited to:

 

 

reduced guest spend on our services through our platform, resulting in lower revenue;

 

 

increased costs or reduced revenue as a result of marketing and promotional efforts to reach and support those affected by the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

 

more frequent declines of guest payment methods or guest-issued chargebacks, which may negatively impact our cash flows and may result in higher credit card processing fees or restrictions by issuers;

 

 

adverse shifts in the distribution of the risk profiles of hosts, guests, vehicles, or trips, leading to increased costs for us;

 

 

increases in the frequency and severity of collisions and similar incidents due to riskier driving during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased costs, as well as reduced ability to collect payments for costs associated with these incidents;

 

 

increases in costs and duration of repair for damage to hosts’ vehicles, owing to increased use of expensive manufacturing parts and electronic components, as well as supply chain slowdowns and similar economic dislocation;

 

 

hosts choosing to delay or forgo maintenance to their vehicles due to economic considerations, resulting in increased potential liability and costs;

 

 

the diversion of resources and attention of our management and workforce away from important ongoing initiatives, including the introduction of new, or modifications to existing, offerings, as well as long-term strategic investments and business objectives;

 

 

impacts on important third-party service providers may cause delays in important functions of our platform or cause a decline in quality of service, negatively affect our reputation or user activity on our platform, or increase our operating costs;

 

 

reduced ability to attract, train, integrate, and retain highly skilled personnel;

 

 

difficulty in business planning and forecasting due to significant uncertainty of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of our business and on our hosts and guests;

 

 

significant disruption of global financial markets and companies in the peer-to-peer car sharing industry specifically, which may impact our ability to access capital now or in the future or make capital available only on terms less favorable to us;

 

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reduced spend by guests located in areas or regions more affected by the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

 

reduced local, regional, or international travel, including government travel bans and restrictions;

 

 

de-globalization, which may result in hosts and guests being less willing to connect with foreign hosts and guests; and

 

 

potential legal claims by hosts, guests, or their immediate family of exposure to COVID-19 as a result of using our marketplace.

Many of these risk factors are unpredictable and outside of our control, and any of these factors could amplify the other risks and uncertainties described elsewhere herein. It is uncertain what impact that the various legislative and other government responses being undertaken in the United States and other countries in which our hosts and guests are located will have on the economy, our industry, our partners, our hosts, our guests, and our company. The COVID-19 pandemic has to varying degrees adversely affected our near-term financial results and may adversely impact our long-term financial results. For example, in response to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, we took certain temporary cost-cutting measures, including layoffs, furloughs, and salary reductions, and we discontinued our German business beginning in March 2020, in part, as a cost-cutting measure in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. If we take similar measures in the future in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience adverse effects on employee morale, our culture, and our ability to attract and retain employees.

We have also implemented measures to protect the health of our workforce, including temporarily allowing all employees to work remotely in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic and requiring compliance with applicable shelter-in-place orders. In October 2021, we reopened our offices and required all employees to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and to transition back to the office on a hybrid basis. As a result of the emergence of the Omicron variant in December 2021, we temporarily returned to remote working. In February 2022, we reopened our offices on a hybrid basis and are allowing more flexibility for remote work. In February 2023, we sunset our COVID-19 vaccine requirement. Our remote work, hybrid transition, and other policies may negatively impact workforce productivity and may cause disruptions to our business. There can be no assurance that these measures will be or have been effective, however, or that we can adopt them without adversely affecting our business operations. In addition, there can be no guarantee that our remote work and return-to-office measures will reduce the risk of our workforce falling ill as a result of coming into the office or traveling for work. In addition, we may have difficulty retaining employees who have a different personal risk assessment or would prefer additional flexibility. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of the macroeconomic downturn that has occurred as a result and is likely to continue in the future.

Risks related to our legal and regulatory environment

Our business is subject to substantial regulation and may be found to be subject to a multitude of potential additional legal and regulatory frameworks, including those related to insurance and taxation, that are constantly evolving, and any unfavorable changes or negative court interpretations of these regulations or frameworks, failure by us to comply, or incompatibility with these and other legal and regulatory requirements could have an adverse effect on our business.

We and our marketplace participants are subject to a wide variety of foreign and domestic laws and regulations. The application to our business of existing laws and regulations, such as those related to car rental or peer-to-peer car sharing, insurance, and taxes, can be unclear and continues to evolve, and there can be no assurances that such regulations, laws, and taxes will not be, or continue not to be, applicable to us, our hosts, or guests, or that the related consequences arising out of such regulations, laws, and taxes will not have a significant adverse effect on our business. It is possible that a regulatory body, court, or permitting body could find us responsible for the compliance obligations or failures not only of ourselves, but also those of our hosts

 

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or guests. We have in the past received communications from local, domestic, and foreign governments and agencies regarding taxes and insurance or lawsuits or cease and desist demands from airports regarding permitting and fees and the application of other regulations and laws and how they believe they relate to our business or the business of our hosts.

For example, we have in the past been, and may continue to be, subject to lawsuits brought by, or on behalf of, government entities such as municipalities and/or airport authorities that regulate and/or operate airports, or by government officials such as city attorneys, county counsel, district attorneys, or state attorneys general. These government entities and officials have alleged that our hosts’ provision and guests’ use of delivery services on airport property, and our alleged enabling or advertising of those activities, violates various laws and regulations and otherwise gives rise to liability. Among other legal claims, these entities and officials have alleged violation of laws and regulations regarding commercial activity on airport property generally or car rental or other ground transportation services specifically, violation of laws governing unfair or deceptive competition or trade practices, trespass, aiding and abetting trespass, and unjust enrichment. These entities have sought monetary relief, such as penalties, fines, damages, restitution, and disgorgement, orders requiring us to obtain certain operating permits in connection with hosts’ and guests’ activities on airport property, and/or orders enjoining hosts’ and guests’ activities at airports and our alleged enabling or advertising of those activities.

For example, in June 2019, the Massachusetts Port Authority, or Massport, filed a complaint against us, and one or more of our hosts, in the Superior Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts alleging that our services at Boston Logan International Airport, or BOS, constitute a violation of state regulations prohibiting unauthorized commercial activity on airport property, trespass, aiding and abetting trespass, unjust enrichment, and violation of the Massachusetts Consumer Protection Law, as well as a claim seeking a declaratory judgment that we are operating an unauthorized car rental business at BOS and thereby trespassing and aiding and abetting host and guest trespasses. Massport sought declaratory and injunctive relief, as well as damages. We filed counterclaims against Massport seeking declarations that we are immune from liability under the federal Communications Decency Act, that we are not a rental car company, that Massport’s proposed permitting charges violate the U.S. Constitution’s Dormant Commerce Clause and Equal Protection Clause and the Massachusetts Constitution’s Equal Protection Clause, and that Massport lacks legislative authority to assess these charges against us. In January 2020, the court entered a preliminary injunction against us, which took effect in April 2020. Following our interlocutory appeal, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in April 2021 to affirm the entry of a preliminary injunction, although modifying the injunction’s scope. We and Massport reached a settlement in principle to resolve the litigation in December 2021, which was finalized in September 2022. The agreement includes a go-forward car sharing permit at BOS and an immaterial monetary payment. The lawsuit has been dismissed.

In addition, we have been subject to similar litigation with respect to hosts’ provision and guests’ use of delivery services, and our alleged enabling or advertising of those activities, at San Francisco International Airport, or SFO, Los Angeles International Airport, or LAX, and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, or DFW.

In January 2018, the People of the State of California, acting by and through the City Attorney of San Francisco, brought a lawsuit against us in the Superior Court of California for the County of San Francisco, alleging that hosts offer vehicles for delivery at SFO while we do not hold a rental car permit and alleging that we violate California’s Unfair Competition Law, or UCL. The plaintiffs seek injunctive relief and penalties of up to $2,500 per alleged violation, among other relief. We filed a cross-complaint against the City and County of San Francisco seeking declarations that we are not a rental car company and that the charges and conditions associated with SFO’s rental car permit cannot lawfully be imposed on us. We are also seeking injunctive relief, including precluding San Francisco from compelling us to apply for a rental car company permit. In April 2020, the Superior Court granted the plaintiffs’ motions for partial summary adjudication on certain of our cross-claims and affirmative defenses. Specifically, the Superior Court granted summary adjudication on our cross-claim for declaratory relief that Turo cannot be legally classified as a rental car company under California law, holding that we could lawfully be classified as a rental car company under relevant California statutory law because Turo is “in the business of renting passenger vehicles to the public.” The Superior Court nonetheless

 

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recognized that this cross-claim presented a novel, consequential question of statutory interpretation on which reasonable jurists could differ, and therefore certified the issue for interlocutory review under Code of Civil Procedure section 166.1. The Superior Court further held that SFO’s permitting charges are not unlawful taxes under Article XIII C of the California Constitution, reasoning that the challenged permitting charges are not taxes requiring voter approval under Proposition 26. Finally, the Superior Court held that SFO’s permitting charges, as applied to us, do not establish a Dormant Commerce Clause violation or an Equal Protection Clause violation under the U.S. or California Constitutions.

We filed a petition for writ of mandate in the California Court of Appeal, seeking interlocutory review on the issue of whether we can be classified as a rental car company within the meaning of relevant California statutory law. The Court of Appeal denied our petition. In June 2021, we filed a petition for review in the California Supreme Court. On September 1, 2021, the California Supreme Court granted our petition for review and transferred the matter to the Court of Appeal with directions to vacate its order denying our petition for writ of mandate and to issue an order directing the superior court to show cause why the relief sought in the petition should not be granted. In conformity with the Supreme Court’s order, on September 9, 2021, the Court of Appeal vacated its earlier order denying our petition for writ of mandate, issued an order to show cause, and set a schedule for further briefing. The Court of Appeal heard oral arguments on June 22, 2022, and on June 28, 2022 issued a ruling, reversing the lower court and holding that we cannot be classified as a rental car company within the meaning of relevant California statutory law. San Francisco did not file a petition for review with the California Supreme Court by the deadline to do so. The litigation has been stayed until April 30, 2023 to facilitate settlement discussions.

In July 2018, we initiated a similar lawsuit against the City of Los Angeles in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, alleging that LAX’s purported requirement that we obtain a rental car company permit in order for hosts to deliver cars to LAX is unlawful and seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. Los Angeles filed counterclaims against us, and one or more of our hosts, alleging violations of municipal law and airport regulations prohibiting unauthorized commercial activity on airport property, trespass, aiding and abetting trespass, unjust enrichment, and violation of the UCL. Los Angeles sought declaratory relief, a permanent injunction, damages, civil penalties of up to $2,500 for each violation under the UCL, and attorneys’ fees and costs, among other relief. In June 2020, the District Court entered a preliminary injunction against us, which took effect in August 2020. In March 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit vacated the preliminary injunction and remanded the case back to the District Court. In February 2022, we and the City of Los Angeles reached a settlement in principle to resolve all claims, which was finalized in October 2022. The agreement includes a go-forward car sharing permit at LAX and an immaterial monetary payment. The lawsuit has been dismissed.

In October 2021, the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Board, or the DFW Board, filed a complaint against us in Texas state court, Fort Worth Division. The DFW Board alleges that Turo user vehicle handoffs at DFW violate the DFW Board Code of Rules & Regulations, or the Airport Code, and specifically the provision governing commercial activity on airport property. The DFW Board filed an amended complaint in June 2022 naming five Turo hosts as defendants. The DFW Board pleads four causes of action: enforcement of the Airport Code provision governing commercial activity and a permanent injunction enjoining us from unpermitted commercial activity at the airport; declaratory relief that, among other things, the commercial activity provision is enforceable against us, we can be required to have our users’ vehicle handoffs take place at the rental car company facility, and the DFW Board can enforce state and municipal rental car taxes against us; unjust enrichment in restitution for all disgorgement of profits obtained from alleged violations; and a demand for accounting. The DFW Board seeks declaratory and injunctive relief, an order for an accounting, attorneys’ fees, and costs, and monetary relief. We filed counterclaims against DFW seeking declarations that (1) we are immune from liability under the federal Communications Decency Act, (2) DFW’s proposed permitting fees and taxes violate the U.S. Constitution’s dormant commerce clause, (3) DFW’s proposed permit violates our rights to equal protection under the U.S. and Texas Constitutions, (4) we do not have the authority to collect and remit rental car company taxes under Texas Tax Code Chapter 152, (5) we are a marketplace provider under Texas Tax Code Chapter 151 and subject only to the provisions under that Chapter, (6) we do not have the authority to collect and remit rental car company taxes under certain local and municipal laws, and (7) DFW’s proposed

 

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permitting charges are unreasonable under Texas Transportation Code Section 22.021(b). The parties are engaged in discovery, with summary judgment briefing due on or before June 28, 2023 and trial set for the week of September 18, 2023.

We have also settled similar litigation in connection with user activities, and our alleged enabling or advertising of those activities, at Tampa International Airport, Nashville International Airport, and Asheville Regional Airport.

While we have sought appellate review of certain negative rulings in connection with these lawsuits, there is no guarantee that we will ultimately be successful or that additional avenues for appeal would be available or advisable. In addition to significant legal fees, litigation losses could result in significant monetary liabilities and orders that could prohibit hosts’ provision and guests’ use of delivery services on airport property and our enabling or advertising of those delivery services, or could otherwise hurt our value proposition for hosts and guests using airport delivery and pickup by requiring us to enter into an airport operating permit with unfavorable terms. Moreover, some of our highest revenue trips originate at airports. If airports or airport regulatory authorities, including the Federal Aviation Administration, continue to impose restrictions on hosts’ ability to provide delivery services at airports, including by requiring permitting or imposing fees, or otherwise burden, restrict, or limit hosts’ activities at airports, it may adversely affect hosts’ ability or desire to provide vehicle delivery at airports, which has and could continue to result in a reduction in trip bookings and adversely affect our business. For the 12 months ended December 31, 2022, approximately 63% of GBV was collected from guests for trips that originated from non-airport locations and approximately 37% of GBV was collected from guests for trips that originated at airport locations. The rental car industry has disclosed that it has lobbied the federal government to pass legislation that would prohibit airports that receive federal funding from permitting peer-to-peer car sharing on any terms other than those granted to rental car companies. Any requirements that force hosts to operate similarly or identically to rental car companies may also negatively impact our value proposition and harm our brand and reputation. If an airport or airport regulatory authority were to prohibit hosts’ operations at an airport entirely, or impose prohibitively onerous requirements on hosts, it could significantly disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business.

In addition, we will also be subject to new laws and regulations directly applicable to our activities. There have in the past been, there are currently, and there may in the future be, many legislative proposals regarding issues that could impact our business before the United States Congress, various state legislative bodies, and various local, municipal, and foreign regulatory entities. Some of our competitors have engaged, and will likely continue to engage, or additional third parties may in the future engage, in various lobbying and political efforts to impose stricter laws and regulations on our business which, if enacted, could make compliance difficult, costly, and even impossible for us. It is not possible to predict whether or when such legislation or regulation may be adopted, and certain proposals, if adopted, could significantly harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations through limitations on how we operate our business and could decrease both host and guest usage of our platform. Any existing or new legislation applicable to us could expose us to substantial liability, including significant expenses necessary to comply with such laws and regulations, and dampen growth and usage of our platform. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations often are uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry that we are helping to pioneer, such as the uncertain applicability of rental car laws to our industry, which we oppose and do not think is appropriate, but is lobbied for by entrenched incumbents in the industry we are disrupting and others such as taxing and airport authorities. If one or more regulatory agencies or court rulings determine that we are a rental car company, we, or our hosts, may be unwilling or unable to comply with the various rental car laws and regulations, which vary from state to state and locality to locality, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our platform is accessible in markets around the world, each of which has its own legal, regulatory, insurance, consumer protection, and taxation requirements. Since we began our operations in 2010, there have been, and continue to be, regulatory developments that affect our ability to provide services and operate our business, including those related to the regulatory and legislative framework for peer-to-peer car sharing. For example, the laws of some states limit the protections afforded to car owners who engage in personal vehicle sharing, or

 

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may preclude guests who book vehicles through peer-to-peer car sharing platforms from using those vehicles in connection with commercial activity. It is uncertain if we, and/or any of our hosts in such states, are currently in compliance, or will in the future be in compliance, with such laws or what the consequences might be for lack of compliance. If we and/or hosts are found to be in violation of any such laws, it could limit hosts’ ability to use our platform, restrict our growth, and have a negative impact on our brand and reputation. In addition, insurance laws in the State of New York previously prohibited the use of insurance policies like those we seek and have had issued to us in order to cover our hosts and guests without an explicit statutory exemption, which prevented us from operating the full scope of our business in the State of New York. In December 2021, the Governor of the State of New York signed a new bill into law, which authorizes peer-to-peer car sharing in the State of New York. Following the effective date of the law, we launched peer-to-peer car sharing in the State of New York on June 27, 2022. States may also enact laws and regulations related to insurance requirements that increase our compliance costs and may adversely affect our profitability and financial results. For instance, recently enacted legislation in the States of New York and Hawaii have substantially increased our compliance costs in those states. Moreover, some states, airports, or municipalities may regard us and/or some or all of our hosts as a car rental company, and therefore may require compliance with car rental regulations, fees, and/or taxes. These regulations may require a thorough permitting process, which may be further limited with a cap on the aggregate number of vehicles any one host can deliver to the airport, or may be withheld altogether. It is also unclear whether, or if, laws that prohibit rental car companies from using telematics or monitoring devices in certain circumstances would apply to our Turo Go service or to hosts who choose to install telematics or monitoring devices in their vehicles or who purchase vehicles that come standard with telematics or monitoring functionality. These and other similar developments could reduce the number of vehicles available on our platform, the number of pickup locations for vehicles booked on our platform, or otherwise harm the convenience or value proposition for guests who want to use peer-to-peer car sharing at airports, which could harm our business and results of operations. In addition, some states and foreign jurisdictions have not adopted any laws, rules, or regulations which govern peer-to-peer car sharing specifically and some foreign jurisdictions may outlaw it altogether. This uncertainty and fragmented regulatory environment create significant complexities for our business and operating model.

Further, each region in which we operate has different regulations with respect to licensing and other requirements for the provision of our services. If a governmental entity sought to apply applicable regulations in a manner that would limit or curtail our ability or willingness to provide our services in that particular region, there can be no assurance that we would be successful in defending against the application of these laws and regulations. Further, if we were required to comply with regulations and government requests that negatively impact our relations with hosts and guests, our business, operations, and financial results could be adversely impacted. As a result of regulations in certain markets, we are unable to make our service available in certain jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial results should we desire to enter those markets in the future.

Compliance with laws and regulations of different jurisdictions imposing different standards and requirements is burdensome, costly, and time-consuming. Our platform is accessed by hosts and guests in multiple states and foreign jurisdictions. Our business efficiencies and economies of scale depend on generally uniform treatment of our business model across all jurisdictions in which we operate. Compliance requirements that vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and from municipality to municipality, impose an added cost to our business and increased liability for compliance deficiencies. In addition, laws or regulations that could harm our business could be adopted, or reinterpreted in a manner that affects our activities, by the U.S. government, state, local, or municipal governments, airports, and regulatory agencies or by foreign governments or agencies, including but not limited to the regulation of personal and consumer information and financial or other licensing requirements. Violations or new interpretations of these laws or regulations may result in penalties, negatively impact our operations, and damage our reputation and business.

Further, our platform is subject to differing — and sometimes conflicting — laws, rules, and regulations in the numerous states and jurisdictions in which we operate. Some laws impose limitations on our hosts’ ability to grow their business on our platform or could impose liability on our hosts or us. In the United States, many state

 

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and local laws, rules, and regulations impose or seek to impose legal restrictions and other requirements on operating our business, including airport permitting, insurance, licensure, screening, and other requirements. For example, zoning laws or homeowner’s association restrictions and the like could impact the ability of hosts to operate from, or park their vehicles in, desirable locations such as at or near their homes. If such affected hosts are unwilling or unable to comply with such zoning laws, we may fail to attract or retain hosts on our platform. In addition, because global laws and regulations continue to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that we and our hosts may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law or regulation.

In addition, new, changed, modified, or newly interpreted or applied tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, ordinances, or permitting fees could increase our hosts’ and our compliance, operating, and other costs, which could deter hosts from listing their vehicles on our platform and negatively affect our available network of vehicles or may make the pricing of trips less attractive to our guests who might choose other forms of transportation options available to them. Also, laws and regulations that may not be directly applicable to us, but would directly apply to hosts, may still result in potential costs and liabilities to us. Any or all of these events could adversely impact our business and financial performance.

Moreover, we are subject to regulations and laws specifically governing the internet, e-commerce, and electronic devices. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, accessibility, user generated content, copyrights, distribution, mobile communications, location services, electronic device certification, electronic waste, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, web services, the provision of online payment services, unencumbered internet access to our services, the design and operation of websites, and the characteristics and quality of products and services. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership and libel apply to the internet, e-commerce, digital content, and web services. Jurisdictions may regulate peer-to-peer or consumer-to-consumer online businesses, including certain aspects of our platform. Unfavorable regulations and laws could diminish the demand for our products and services and increase our cost of doing business.

Laws, regulations, and orders enacted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic may also affect our business in ways that we did not anticipate, and existing laws and regulations may be interpreted and enforced differently than they have in the past in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These laws may change rapidly, and compliance may be costly to us. For example, the shelter-in-place orders or similar measures enacted in many jurisdictions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may result in a loss of productivity of our workforce and our ability to effectively market to new hosts and guests, among other things.

Additionally, the U.S. Congress and other legislative and regulatory authorities in the United States and internationally have considered, and will likely continue to consider, numerous measures related to climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Should rules establishing limitations on greenhouse gas emissions become effective, demand for our services could decline, and our business could be adversely affected.

We are subject to stringent and changing laws, regulations, and standards, and contractual obligations related to privacy and data security. The actual or perceived failure to comply with applicable data protection, privacy, and security laws, regulations, standards, and other requirements could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to numerous foreign and domestic laws, regulations, and standards regarding privacy and data security that govern the personal information and other data we may collect, store, use, or process. The regulatory framework for privacy issues is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Many government bodies and agencies have adopted, or are considering adopting, laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage, destruction, disclosure, and other processing of personal information, including personal data breach notification requirements. We are also required to comply with laws, rules, and regulations relating to data security. Interpretation of these laws, rules and regulations in applicable jurisdictions is subject to change and cannot be fully determined at this time.

 

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Privacy has become a significant issue in the United States. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA also provides for civil penalties for violations and contains a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase litigation involving misuse of personal information of California residents. The CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. In addition, the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or CPRA, which amends the CCPA and goes into effect on January 1, 2023, is expected to, among other things, give California residents the additional ability to limit the use of their personal information, further restrict the use of cross-contextual or behavioral advertising, establish restrictions on the retention of personal information, expand the types of data breaches subject to the CCPA’s private right of action, provide for increased penalties for CPRA violations concerning California residents under the age of 16, and establish a new California Privacy Protection Agency to implement and enforce the new law. Some observers have noted that the CCPA/CPRA could mark the beginning of a trend of states adopting more stringent privacy laws in the United States, which could further increase our compliance costs, potential liability, and adversely affect our business. For example, Virginia recently passed the Consumer Data Protection Act, Colorado recently passed the Colorado Privacy Act, Connecticut passed the Connecticut Personal Data Privacy and Online Monitoring Act, and Utah passed the Utah Consumer Privacy Act, all of which differ from the CPRA and will go into effect in 2023, and similar laws are being considered in other states and at the federal level. The enactment of such laws could have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging and expose us to additional liability as we expand our operations. We are currently working to meet System and Organization Controls 2® (SOC2) standards but have not fully satisfied its requirements.

The global data protection landscape is also rapidly evolving, and we expect there will continue to be new and proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security. We cannot yet determine the impact that such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. For example, in May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, went into effect in the European Union. The GDPR imposes stringent data protection requirements and has increased compliance burdens on us, including by mandating burdensome documentation requirements and granting certain rights to individuals to control how we collect, use, disclose, retain, and process their personal data. The GDPR also provides for more robust regulatory enforcement and greater penalties for noncompliance than previous data protection laws, including fines of up to 20 million or 4% of global annual revenue of any noncompliant company for the preceding financial year, whichever is greater. Violations of the GDPR can result in prohibitions on data processing, other corrective action, and class action litigation. GDPR litigation risk may increase due to a recent decision by the EU’s highest court finding that a consumer protection association may bring representative actions alleging GDPR violations, even without a mandate to do so from any specific individuals and whether or not their data protection rights have been violated.

European data protection laws, including the GDPR, also generally prohibit the transfer of personal information from Europe to the United States and most other countries unless the parties to the transfer have implemented specific safeguards to protect the transferred personal information. The Court of Justice of the European Union, or CJEU, recently raised questions about whether the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses, or SCCs, one of the primary mechanisms used by U.S. companies to import personal information from Europe, complies with the GDPR. While the CJEU upheld the validity of SCCs, the CJEU ruled that the underlying data transfers must be assessed on a case-by-case basis by the data controller to determine whether the personal information will be adequately protected. Additionally, the European Commission recently adopted new SCCs that will replace the SCCs adopted under the Data Protection Directive. This means we will need to update our contracts that involve the transfer of personal data outside of the European Economic Area, or EEA, to the new SCCs. Further, the French data protection authority has indicated in a recent ruling that the use of Google Analytics by European website operators involves the unlawful transfer of personal data to the United States, which may impact other business tools that we use. As supervisory authorities issue further guidance on personal data export mechanisms, including on the new SCCs, and/or start taking enforcement action, our compliance costs could increase, we may be subject to complaints and/or regulatory

 

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investigations or fines, and/or if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, this could negatively impact our business.

Further, the United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union, often referred to as Brexit, has created uncertainty about the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom, including with respect to whether laws or regulations will apply to us consistent with the GDPR in the future and how data transfers to and from the United Kingdom will be regulated. Following December 31, 2020, and the expiry of transitional arrangements between the United Kingdom and European Union, the data protection obligations of the GDPR continue to apply to U.K.-related processing of personal data in substantially unvaried form under the so-called “U.K. GDPR” (i.e., the GDPR as it continues to form part of U.K. law by virtue of section 3 of the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018, as amended). However, going forward, there is increasing risk for divergence in application, interpretation, and enforcement of the data protection laws as between the United Kingdom and EEA. Further, the relationship between the United Kingdom and the EEA in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains uncertain, including with respect to regulation of data transfers between EU member states and the United Kingdom. On June 28, 2021, the European Commission issued an adequacy decision under the GDPR which allows transfers (other than those carried out for the purposes of United Kingdom immigration control) of personal data from the EEA to the United Kingdom to continue without restriction for a period of four years ending June 27, 2025. After that period, the adequacy decision may be renewed, but only if the United Kingdom continues to ensure an adequate level of data protection. During these four years, the European Commission will continue to monitor the legal situation in the United Kingdom and could intervene at any point if the United Kingdom deviates from the level of data protection in place at the time of issuance of the adequacy decision. If the adequacy decision is withdrawn or not renewed, transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United Kingdom will require a valid “transfer mechanism,” and we may be required to implement new processes and put new agreements in place, such as SCCs, to enable transfers of personal data from the EEA to the United Kingdom to continue.

In addition, EU laws (and member states’ implementations of them) also regulate the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the context of electronic communications. These rules are currently under review, and the EU Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications, or the ePrivacy Regulation, is likely to be adopted in the near future and would replace the existing Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive 2002/58/EC on Privacy and Electronic Communications, otherwise known as ePrivacy Directive. The ePrivacy Regulation would impose new obligations regarding the collection and use of data in the context of electronic communications, particularly with respect to online tracking technologies and direct marketing.

We expect that there will continue to be new or amended laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection, and information security proposed and enacted in various foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. For example, in Canada, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, or PIPEDA, and various provincial laws require that companies give detailed privacy notices to consumers, obtain consent to use personal information, with limited exceptions, allow individuals to access and correct their personal information, and report certain data breaches. In addition, Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation, or CASL, prohibits email marketing without the recipient’s consent, with limited exceptions. Failure to comply with PIPEDA, CASL, or provincial privacy or data protection laws could result in significant fines and penalties or possible damage awards. For example, penalties for non-compliance with CASL are up to CAD $10 million per violation.

Compliance with these and any other applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations is a rigorous, costly, and time-intensive process, and we may be required to put in place additional mechanisms or change or reduce our services or activities to ensure compliance with the new data protection rules. Any failure or perceived failure by us or third parties working on our behalf to comply with applicable laws and regulations, any privacy and data security obligations pursuant to contract, our stated privacy or security policies, or obligations to hosts, guests, or other third parties may result in governmental enforcement actions (including fines, penalties, judgments, settlements, imprisonment of company officials, and public censure), civil claims, litigation, damage to our brand and reputation, and loss of goodwill (in relation to both existing and prospective

 

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hosts and guests), any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Adverse litigation judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved could expose us to monetary damages or other monetary payments or limit our ability to operate our business.

We have in the past been, and may in the future become, involved in private actions, collective actions, investigations, and various other legal proceedings by hosts, guests, third parties involved in accidents with cars listed on our platform, suppliers, competitors, government agencies, airports, or others. Our automobile liability insurance providers arrange for the legal representation of us, hosts, guests, and authorized additional drivers for accidents that occur during a trip booked on our platform. Sometimes, non-approved drivers are named as defendants, in which case no defense or indemnification is available, or we and our community are named as defendants in cases where there was no authorized trip. While there has never been a settlement or judgment against us, or, to the best of our knowledge, our hosts, above our policy limits, it is possible there could be such a result in the future, in which case, we or the applicable host may be required to bear the excess costs, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In the ordinary course of our business, various parties have from time to time claimed, and may claim in the future, that we are liable for damages related to accidents or other incidents involving hosts, guests, or additional drivers using or who have used services offered on our platform, as well as from third parties. We are currently named as a defendant in a number of matters related to automobile accidents or other incidents involving guests, hosts, and additional drivers on our platform, other passengers, and third parties. In many of these matters, we believe we have meritorious defenses, dispute the allegations of wrongdoing, and intend to defend ourselves vigorously. We do not believe that any individual legal proceeding of this type that is currently pending or threatened legal proceeding that has arisen from these accidents or incidents is likely to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations; however, results of litigation and claims are inherently unpredictable and legal proceedings related to such accidents or incidents, in the aggregate, could have a material impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs individually and in the aggregate, diversion of management resources, and other factors.

We have also been subject to purported class action lawsuits regarding local consumer protection laws in Montreal and domestic litigation involving consumers who purchased a protection plan.

In November 2016, a putative class action was filed against us in the State of California on behalf of consumers who purchased a protection plan. The court twice denied plaintiffs’ motion for class certification. Plaintiffs were given leave to move for class certification a third time, which just one of the plaintiffs filed in December 2021 and then withdrew in January 2022, so that only one plaintiff’s individual claims remained. In October 2022, we reached and finalized a settlement agreement with the one remaining plaintiff, and the lawsuit was dismissed.

In 2018, a lawsuit was filed against us and our former insurance carrier, Nautilus Insurance Company, or Nautilus, in the Superior Court of New Jersey, Middlesex County, by two former users. The plaintiffs alleged claims for violation of the New Jersey Consumer Fraud Act, unconscionable commercial practices, and false advertising against Turo in connection with Nautilus’s denial of a liability insurance claim related to a Turo trip. We agreed to a settlement with the plaintiffs in December 2022.

In November 2019, a putative class action was filed against us in the Superior Court, Quebec, District of Montreal, alleging violations of local consumer protection laws. The suit sought injunctive relief and damages on behalf of the purported class. We and the purported class agreed to a class-wide settlement agreement, which was approved by the Court in April 2022. The case remains open pending final implementation of the settlement terms.

 

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In September 2020, two individuals filed a putative class action on behalf of all consumers in the State of Washington who purchased a protection plan. In October 2020, the complaint was amended to drop one of the two plaintiffs. The remaining plaintiff alleged that we acted as an insurer in Washington without authorization and seeks damages under Washington’s Consumer Protection Act and the Uniform Declaratory Judgment Act. We removed the case from state court to federal court. We also moved to dismiss the complaint and/or to compel arbitration. In July 2021, the court ruled that lead plaintiff Helen Cattaneo lacks Article III standing to assert her claims against us in federal court and remanded the case back to King County Superior Court for further proceedings. In October 2021, the litigation was amicably resolved.

The results of any such litigation, investigations, and other legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and expensive. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, damage our reputation, require significant amounts of management time, and divert significant resources. If any of these legal proceedings are determined adversely to us, or we enter into a settlement arrangement, we could be exposed to monetary damages or limits on our ability to operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs individually and in the aggregate, diversion of management resources, and other factors.

We are subject to payments-related risks.

We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit and debit cards. As we offer new payment options to hosts and guests, we may be subject to additional regulations, compliance requirements, and fraud. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower profitability.

We rely on third-party payment processors to process payments, refunds, and reimbursements made generally by guests and payments made to hosts. Under our commercial agreements with these third parties, they may terminate the relationships with us. If one of these third parties terminates its relationship with us or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we could incur substantial delays and expense in finding and integrating an alternative payment service provider to process payments from hosts and guests, and the quality and reliability of any such alternative payment service provider may not be comparable. Further, the software and services provided by these third parties may not meet our expectations, may contain errors or vulnerabilities, and could be compromised or experience outages. Additionally, payment processing software is complex and involves automated processes implemented by us and third parties that we engage that can be misinterpreted or susceptible to errors. These risks have caused us, and may in the future cause us, to lose our ability to accept and account for online payments or other payment transactions, make timely payments to hosts, or result in over- or underpayments to hosts, any of which could disrupt our business for an extended period of time, make our platform less convenient and attractive to users, expose user information to unauthorized disclosures and abuse, and adversely affect our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests, or materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, ability to forecast accurately, and results of operations.

If we are unable to maintain our chargeback or refund rates at levels that credit and debit card issuers and payment processors deem acceptable, these entities may increase fees for chargeback transactions or for many or all categories of transactions, may increase the rates of declining transactions, or they may terminate their relationship with us. Any increases in fees could adversely affect our operating results, particularly if we elect not to raise the prices for transactions on our platform to offset the increase. The termination of our ability to process payments on any major credit or debit card or through certain online payment service providers or payment processors could significantly impair our ability to operate our business.

We may also be subject to or voluntarily comply with a number of other laws and regulations relating to money laundering, money transmission, international money transfers, privacy and information security, and electronic fund transfers. If we are found to be in violation of such applicable laws or regulations, we could be subject to

 

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civil and criminal penalties or forced to cease our payments processing services or otherwise make changes to our business practices.

Loss or material modification of our credit or debit card acceptance privileges would have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, and results of operations.

Substantially all of our transactions are paid for by credit or debit card, or collectively, payment cards, because it simplifies and expedites the payment process and is typically a secure form of payment. The loss of our payment card acceptance privileges would significantly limit the number of reservations accepted and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The card networks, such as Visa, MasterCard, and American Express, have adopted rules and regulations that apply to all merchants who process and accept payment cards, including the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI DSS. While we are not required to be PCI DSS compliant because we do not keep full credit card information for our guests, we engage with a third party to assess our compliance with the PCI DSS on a periodic basis and make necessary improvements to our internal controls. If we fail to comply with the rules and regulations adopted by the card networks that are applicable to us, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. Such failure to comply may subject us to fines, penalties, damages, and civil liability and could eventually prevent us from processing or accepting payment cards. Further, there is no guarantee that, even if we comply with the rules and regulations adopted by the card networks that are applicable to us, we will be able to maintain our compliance. We also cannot guarantee that such compliance will prevent illegal or improper use of our payments systems or the theft, loss, or misuse of the payment card data of hosts or guests. These types of illegal activities may increase in the event of a macroeconomic downturn, as bad actors may seek to take increasing advantage of us, hosts, or guests. The loss of payment card acceptance privileges, or the significant modification of the terms under which we obtain payment card acceptance privileges, would have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, and operating results.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and economic sanctions laws and regulations, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, U.S. domestic bribery laws, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws in the United States and other countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and generally prohibit companies, their employees, and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We may in the future have operations in and deal with countries that pose a high-risk of corruption. As we expand our operations and business internationally, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to promote our services and to obtain any necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. In addition, we or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.

While we have taken certain precautions and continue to enhance our policies and procedures relating to anti-bribery and anti-corruption compliance, our employees and agents may take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Violations of anti-corruption laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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We are also subject to economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls and governmental authorities in other countries in which we conduct activities. Such regulations prohibit the provision of most products and services to embargoed jurisdictions and sanctioned parties without the required governmental authorizations. Changes in our services or future changes in sanctions regulations may create delays in the introduction of our services in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the provision of our services to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in economic sanctions or related legislation or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our services by, or in our decreased ability to provide our services to, existing or potential end-customers worldwide. We have taken certain precautions to reduce the risk of our services from being provided in violation of sanctions laws and are in the process of evaluating our policies and procedures in order to make further improvements to our sanctions compliance program. As we grow and expand, both domestically and internationally, and as our risk profile increases, we may need to update or enhance our sanctions compliance policies and procedures. Violations of sanctions regulations can result in significant fines or penalties and possible incarceration for responsible employees and managers.

Risks related to insurance and protection

The insurance coverage, discretionary risk protection, and other elements of protection plans afforded to hosts and guests may be inadequate, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In order to offset our potential losses related to vehicular accidents and to give hosts and guests peace-of-mind to use our platform, protection plans are available to hosts and guests through our platform. The protection plans typically contain some combination of insurance and/or non-insurance elements. One such non-insurance element is physical damage reimbursement for damage or loss of a host’s vehicle in the United States and another is the financial risk protection product in Australia that comprises the entire protection plan for hosts and guests. In the United States, third-party automobile liability insurance is provided to Turo by Travelers Excess and Surplus Lines Company. In Canada, insurance is provided by Economical Insurance Company, or one or more of its subsidiaries, for the provinces of Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec and Insurance Corporation of British Columbia for the province of British Columbia. In the United Kingdom, insurance is provided by Aioi Nissay Dowa Insurance UK Ltd., via our broker Aon UK Ltd. Both Aon and Aioi Nissay Dowa are authorized and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. In France, insurance is provided by AXA France IARD. In Australia, the discretionary risk protection product, which is not insurance, is provided by Turo Travels Mutual Limited, a non-profit company formed to operate a discretionary mutual fund to provide protection to Turo hosts and guests offering vehicles and taking trips in Australia. These insurance and risk protection providers have in the past, and may in the future, impose restrictions on coverage, including with respect to makes and models of vehicles or the age of guests, which has resulted, and may in the future result, in us refusing certain vehicle listings or trip bookings, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

This insurance and protection may not provide coverage for certain types of claims, including those relating to contagious diseases such as COVID-19, under- or uninsured coverage, or medical payments or first-party payments for injuries to guests and their passengers, defective host vehicles and certain other claims, including vehicle accidents involving unauthorized drivers or guests who were visibly intoxicated during pickup, or criminal activity conducted with vehicles booked on our platform. In addition, it is difficult to predict the cost of damage that may be sustained in any vehicle accidents or other situations that are covered by the protection plans, including any trends with respect to riskier driving and increased damages claims. As a result of any of these factors, the insurance we maintain, the funds we anticipate having to expend for physical damage reimbursement, and the financial exposure limitation available to our hosts and guests may be insufficient to fully cover the costs associated with accidents or vehicle damage. Hosts’ personal existing insurance coverage is not generally expected to cover damage from guests booking their vehicles on our platform. Hosts may fail to

 

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appreciate the differences between their personal insurance coverage and the protection plans afforded through our platform. Guests may fail to appreciate the differences between their personal insurance coverage and the protection plans afforded through our platform. Guests may also fail to understand whether their personal automobile insurance, or policies of insurance offered by credit card providers, would cover them in the event of an accident or physical damage during a peer-to-peer car sharing reservation, even if those policies might otherwise cover them during a rental car reservation. If hosts or guests are not satisfied with their protection plans or their experience with the physical damage process for reimbursement for hosts or financial exposure limitation for guests, or if our competitors offer better protection plans, hosts may not list their vehicles on our platform or may fail to maintain their existing listings, or guests may choose other alternatives, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We rely on third-party insurance policies to insure our operations-related risks. If our insurance coverage is insufficient for the needs of our business or our insurance providers are unable to meet their obligations, we may not be able to mitigate the risks facing our business, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We procure third-party insurance policies to cover various operations-related risks, including automobile liability, employment practices liability, workers’ compensation, cybersecurity and data breaches, crime, directors’ and officers’ liability, and general business liability. For certain types of operations-related risks or future risks related to our new and evolving services, we may not be able to, or may choose not to, acquire insurance. In addition, we may not obtain enough insurance to adequately mitigate such operations-related risks or risks related to our new and evolving services, and we may have to pay high premiums, self-insured retentions, or deductibles for the coverage we do obtain. In addition, if any of our insurance providers becomes insolvent, it would be unable to pay any operations-related claims that we make.

Insurance providers have increased premiums and deductibles for many businesses and may do so in the future. As a result, our insurance and claims expense could increase, or we may decide to increase our deductibles or self-insured retentions when our policies are renewed or replaced. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected if the cost per claim, premiums, or the number of claims significantly exceeds our historical experience or coverage limits, we experience claims in excess of our coverage limits, our insurance providers fail to pay on our insurance claims, we experience claims for which coverage is not provided, or the number of claims under our deductibles or self-insured retentions differs from historical averages.

Insurance and protection claims reserves and accruals may be inadequate and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Insurance and protection claims costs cannot be fully predicted, and reserves for expected costs within our deductible retention or under our contractual reimbursement contracts as part of a protection plan may be inadequate for losses. Claims frequency may change, the severity of the claims may be different than expected, and changes in our ability to collect amounts due from guests or insurance companies via subrogation may lead to adverse development of claim reserves or shortfalls in accrued amounts, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to laws and regulations relating to insurance, and we may become involved in challenges by or disputes with insurance regulators.

Our wholly owned subsidiary, Turo Insurance Agency, LLC, or TIA, is a licensed insurance producer, resident in Arizona. TIA is also licensed as a non-resident insurance producer, sometimes referred to as a broker, in several states, and as such is subject to the laws and regulations of each of those states. Insurance regulators have broad authority to restrict or revoke licenses of insurance producers who are found to be in violation of any

 

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applicable laws and regulations, and any such restriction or revocation may have an adverse effect on our business in the affected state, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, insurance regulators in different states have in the past, and may in the future, reject our, or TIA’s, position regarding which aspects of the protection plans are insurance or not, whether we, or TIA, need to be licensed to adjust claims, or whether a producer’s license is, or is not, necessary in connection with the insurance that is included for all hosts and their guests. Different regulations exist in each jurisdiction involving providing insurance, adjusting claims, and/or producing or brokering insurance, each of which has its own set of regulations, which may result in a complicated patchwork of requirements in the various states and foreign jurisdictions in which trips take place. From time to time, we may become involved in challenges by, or disputes with, insurance regulators. For example, insurance regulators in Maryland, New York, Washington, and Hawaii have instituted various enforcement actions and administrative proceedings against us. In December 2018, we entered into a consent order with the Maryland Insurance Administration as a final resolution to an investigation initiated in 2017. Under the consent order, we maintained that we had not violated any law, but agreed to form TIA and agreed to pay an administrative penalty. In 2014, we entered into a consent order with the New York Department of Financial Services, or NYDFS, following an investigation that was made public in March 2013. NYDFS concluded that making insurance available through our platform was a violation of New York law and we were adjusting claims without a license. Under the consent order, we agreed to pay a civil penalty and to suspend our business operations in the State of New York until we received NYDFS’ prior approval. In December 2021, the Governor of the State of New York signed a new bill into law, portions of which went into effect on June 20, 2022 and the remainder on September 1, 2022, and authorizes group insurance policies for peer-to-peer car sharing in the State of New York. In April 2021, following an investigation by the Washington State Office of the Insurance Commissioner, we entered into a consent order levying a fine (OIC Order No. 20-0664) and requiring producer licensure and certain business practice changes. In November 2014, the Hawaii Insurance Division, or the Division, issued a notice of intent to impose fines and cease and desist against us. We and the Division reached a settlement in the matter. Under the settlement agreement, we maintained that we had not violated any law, but agreed that we or our affiliate will seek a license as a surplus lines producer in the State of Hawaii and agreed to pay an administrative penalty.

In addition, to the extent any of our employees sell, solicit, or negotiate insurance, they must be licensed insurance producers, and must fulfill annual continuing education requirements. In certain states in which we operate, insurance claims adjusters may also be required to be licensed and fulfill annual continuing education requirements. If we are not able to comply with applicable requirements, our business may be harmed.

In the future we may need to change the structure of our protection plans for insurance regulatory reasons. For instance, the State of Washington has required us to have a policy of insurance backing the physical damage component of the protection plan. Departments of Insurance in other states have examined this issue and determined a policy of insurance is not required to back the physical damage component of the protection plan.

The McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945 clarified that states regulate insurance. As a result, each state has its own body of law and regulatory authority with respect to insurance. These rules are subject to change as state legislatures and regulatory agencies update their laws and regulations to address real and perceived issues and concerns. These laws and regulations are also subject to interpretation by courts. Insurance regulatory authorities have broad administrative powers to regulate all aspects of what may be deemed the offering of insurance, including the power to levy fines and monetary penalties, and restrict or revoke licenses for those found to be in violation of applicable laws and regulations. We cannot predict precisely whether or when regulatory inquiries or actions may be taken that could adversely affect us. Interpretations of regulations by regulators may change and statutes, regulations, and interpretations may be applied with retroactive effect. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners and the National Council of Insurance Legislators are the principal organizations tasked with establishing standards and best practices across the various states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories, and from time to time promulgate model rules and regulations that often are the basis for insurance rules and regulations adopted by such jurisdictions. We cannot predict precisely whether or when regulatory actions may be taken that could adversely affect us or the operations of

 

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our regulated insurance subsidiary. Interpretations of regulations by regulators may change, and statutes, regulations, and interpretations may be applied with retroactive effect, particularly in areas such as accounting or reserve requirements.

Further, under the Statutory Conditions of a Canadian automobile insurance policy, hosts are required to disclose to their personal insurance providers that they are using their vehicle(s) for peer-to-peer car sharing, and if they fail to make such disclosure, their insurance provider may cancel the policy for misrepresentation. A policy cancellation under this circumstance may place hosts in a high-risk category and complicate securing further insurance. While our platform discloses this requirement to hosts in Canada, we cannot be sure that all hosts in Canada are in compliance with this Statutory Condition, and any failure to comply with it or other similar requirements in other jurisdictions in which we may do business in the future may result in negative effects for our hosts, which could cause harm to our brand, reputation, and business.

If we are not able to maintain our relationship with our insurance providers around the world, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

The third parties that provide insurance coverage or liability protection to us and hosts and guests do not have an obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Most of our insurance policies and discretionary risk arrangements are for one-year terms. We may not be able to renew our agreements on the same or better terms. If we are unable to renew our current agreements on commercially reasonable terms or if any of our agreements are prematurely terminated, the cost of insurance coverage or legal liability protection may increase substantially and coverage options available to hosts or guests may decrease substantially or be eliminated entirely, which could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests, or operate the business at all in the relevant jurisdiction. Moreover, if the providers of insurance or liability protection were to increase the cost of their services, we may have to increase the costs of our services for hosts and guests, which may make our services less attractive to our existing or potential hosts and guests. Any increase in costs for services for hosts or guests may only partially offset the total cost of such increases to us, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Risks related to taxes

We could be required to collect additional sales taxes or be subject to other indirect tax liabilities in various jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

The application of indirect taxes, such as sales and use tax, value-added tax, goods and services tax, business tax, and gross receipts tax, to our business is a complex and evolving issue. Many of the statutes and regulations that impose these taxes were established before the adoption and growth of the internet and e-commerce. Significant judgment is required to evaluate applicable tax obligations, and, as a result, amounts recorded could be subject to adjustments. A number of jurisdictions have proposed or implemented new tax laws or interpreted the applicability of existing laws to businesses like ours. Laws and regulations relating to taxes as applied to our platform, and to our hosts and guests, vary greatly among jurisdictions, and it is difficult or impossible to predict how such laws and regulations will be applied. States, localities, the U.S. federal government, and tax authorities in other jurisdictions may seek to impose additional reporting, recordkeeping, and/or indirect tax collection obligations on marketplaces, including in jurisdictions where we do not have a physical presence. Most U.S. state jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring online marketplaces to collect and remit sales taxes on sales by their third-party sellers. New legislation could require us to incur substantial costs, including costs associated with tax calculation, collection, and remittance, and audit requirements, and could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We may also be subject to additional tax liabilities and related interest and penalties due to changes in indirect and non-income based taxes resulting from changes in U.S. federal, state, local, or international tax laws, administrative interpretations, decisions, policies, and positions, results of tax examinations, settlements, or judicial decisions, changes in accounting principles and

 

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changes to the business operations, as well as evaluation of new information that results in a change to a tax position taken in prior periods. Further, the U.S. Supreme Court held in South Dakota v. Wayfair that a U.S. state may require an online retailer to collect sales tax imposed by the state for online sales, even if the retailer has no physical presence in that state, thus permitting a wider enforcement of such sales tax collection requirements. A successful assertion by one or more tax authorities requiring us to collect taxes in jurisdictions in which we do not currently do so or to collect additional taxes in a jurisdiction in which we currently collect taxes, could result in substantial tax liabilities, including taxes on past sales, as well as penalties and interest, and additional administrative expenses, which could materially harm our business. We are under audit by various state tax authorities with regard to sales tax and other indirect tax matters primarily arising from disputes about the tax treatment of transactions performed between hosts and guests on our platform. We establish reserves for indirect tax matters when we determine that the likelihood of a loss is probable, and the loss is reasonably estimable. Accordingly, we have established a reserve for potential issues related to indirect taxes in the amount of $18.9 million as of December 31, 2022 which represents our management’s best estimates of our potential liability and includes potential interest and penalties totaling $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. However, upon examination or audit, such reserves may be insufficient, and our financial condition could be harmed.

New or revised taxes would likely increase the price paid by guests and the cost of doing business for our hosts, discourage hosts and guests from using our platform, and lead to a decline in revenue, and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. If we are required to disclose personal data pursuant to demands from government agencies for tax reporting purposes, our hosts, guests, and regulators could perceive such disclosure as a failure by us to comply with privacy and data protection policies, notices, and laws and commence proceedings or actions against us. If we do not provide the requested information to government agencies due to a disagreement on the interpretation of the law, we are likely to face enforcement action, engage in litigation, face increased regulatory scrutiny, and experience an adverse impact in our relationships with governments. Any of these events could adversely affect our brand, reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In addition, various states and other local jurisdictions assess car rental taxes on transactions that are deemed to be car rental transactions. We do not believe we are a car rental company, nor do we believe that current marketplace facilitator laws generally establish an obligation on us to collect and remit these taxes. Accordingly, we do not bill or collect these taxes and have only recorded minimal related reserves. We intend to maintain and defend this position vigorously, but there is no guarantee that an adverse outcome, should these transactions be challenged, would not have a material impact on our financial position, cash flows, and results of operations.

We devote significant resources, including management time, to the application and interpretation of laws and working with various jurisdictions to clarify whether taxes are applicable and the amount of taxes that apply. The application of indirect taxes to our hosts, guests, and our platform significantly increases our operational expenses as we build the infrastructure and tools to capture data and to report, collect, and remit taxes. Even if we are able to build the required infrastructure and tools, we may not be able to complete them in a timely fashion, in particular given the speed at which regulations and their interpretations can change, which could harm our relationship with governments and our reputation, and result in enforcement actions and litigation. The lack of uniformity in the laws and regulations relating to indirect taxes as applied to our platform and to our hosts and guests further increases the operational and financial complexity of our systems and processes, and introduces potential for errors or incorrect tax calculations, all of which are costly to our business and results of operations. Certain regulations may be so complex as to make it infeasible for us to be fully compliant. As our business operations expand or change, including as a result of introducing new or enhanced offerings, tiers or features, or due to acquisitions, the application of indirect taxes to our business and to our hosts and guests will further change and evolve, and could further increase our liability for taxes, discourage hosts and guests from using our platform, and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

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Our ability to use our net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2022, we had federal and state NOL carryforwards of approximately $46.3 million and $109.4 million, respectively. The entire $46.3 million of federal NOLs may be carried forward indefinitely but is limited to 80% of taxable income. In addition, as of December 31, 2022, we had federal and state research and development, or R&D, tax credits, excluding uncertain tax position reserves, of approximately $2.5 million and $5.2 million, respectively, available to offset our future taxable income, if any. If not utilized, the federal R&D tax credits will begin to expire in 2041. California state R&D tax credits may be carried forward indefinitely.

It is uncertain whether various states will conform to federal tax laws. For state income tax purposes, there may be periods during which the use of net operating loss carryforwards is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.

In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in its equity ownership over a three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards, R&D credits, and other tax attributes to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. The completion of this offering, together with private placements and other transactions that have occurred since our inception, may trigger such ownership changes pursuant to Section 382 of the Code. We may experience ownership changes as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control. If an ownership change occurs and our ability to use our NOL carryforwards or R&D credits is materially limited, it would harm our future results of operations by effectively increasing our future tax obligations.

Changes in global tax laws could increase our worldwide tax rate and could have an adverse effect on our business, cash flow, results of operations, or financial conditions.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. Our effective tax rate could be adversely affected due to several factors, including but not limited to:

 

 

changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory rates;

 

 

changes in the U.S. or foreign tax laws, tax treaties, and regulations or the interpretations of them;

 

 

changes to our assessment about our ability to realize our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic and political environments in which we do business;

 

 

the outcome of current and future tax audits, examinations, or administrative appeals; and

 

 

limitations or adverse findings regarding our ability to do business in some jurisdictions.

As we expand the scale of our international business activities, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of such activities may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In addition, new income or other tax laws or regulations could be enacted at any time, which could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance. For example, France and the United Kingdom, among others, have each proposed or enacted taxes applicable to digital services, which includes business activities on digital platforms and would likely apply to our business. Further, existing tax laws and regulations could be interpreted, modified, or applied adversely to us. For example, the Biden administration and Congress have proposed various U.S. federal tax law changes, which if enacted could have a material impact on our business operations and financial performance. In addition, it is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to federal tax laws. Future tax reform legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets and could increase our future U.S. tax expense.

 

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Risks related to our information technology and intellectual property

Any major disruption or failure of our information technology systems, or our failure to successfully implement new technology effectively, could adversely affect our business and results of operations or the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting.

We rely on various information technology systems, owned by us and third parties, to manage our operations. Over the last several years, we have been and continue to implement modifications and upgrades to our systems, including making changes to legacy systems, replacing legacy systems with successor systems with new functionality, and acquiring new systems with new functionality. For example, over the next several years, we plan to implement a new enterprise resource planning system across the company. These activities subject us to inherent costs and risks associated with replacing and upgrading these systems, including impairment of our ability to fulfill trip bookings, maintain books and records, potential disruption of our internal control structure, substantial capital expenditures, additional administration and operating expenses, retention of sufficiently skilled personnel to implement and operate the new systems, demands on management time, and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to new or upgraded systems or of integrating new or upgraded systems into our current systems. Our system implementations may not result in productivity improvements at a level that outweighs the costs of implementation, or at all. In addition, the difficulties with implementing new or upgraded technology systems may cause disruptions in our business operations and have an adverse effect on our business and operations, if not anticipated and appropriately mitigated.

Breaches and other types of security incidents of our networks or systems, or those of our third-party service providers, could negatively impact our ability to conduct our business, our brand and reputation, and our ability to retain existing hosts and guests and attract new hosts and guests, and may cause us to incur significant liabilities and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

In the regular course of our business, we collect, use, store, transmit, and process data and information about hosts, guests, employees, and others, some of which may be sensitive, personal, or confidential. Any actual or perceived unauthorized access to or use of such data and information, or breach of our security measures or those of our third-party service providers could adversely affect our business, operations, and future prospects. If a third party or employee circumvents any security measures or those of our third-party service providers, they may access, misappropriate, delete, alter, publish, or modify this information, which could cause interruptions in our business and operations, fraud or loss to third parties, regulatory enforcement actions, litigation, indemnity obligations, competitive harm, and other possible liabilities, as well as negative publicity. Widespread negative publicity may also result from real, threatened, or perceived security compromises (or lack of adequate security measures) our industry, competitors, hosts, and guests. Concerns regarding privacy and data security could cause some hosts and guests to stop using our services, and for employees to be less satisfied with their employment with us and potentially leave the company or institute claims against us. This discontinuance in use and the potential failure to acquire new hosts and guests, or personnel issues could substantially harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, and future prospects.

Our internal computer systems, cloud-based computing services, and those of our current and any future third-party service providers are vulnerable to interruption and intrusion. Cyberattacks and other malicious internet-based activity, such as insider threats, computer malware, hacking, and phishing attempts continue to increase. From time to time, we have experienced security incidents or attempted attacks, and in some instances individuals have had their personal information compromised. We have not experienced a security incident of the materiality or significance to require a regulatory notification. We conduct thorough investigations when such incidents and/or attempted attacks occur and have, in each instance, complied with applicable law and provided individual notice when required. In addition to traditional computer “hackers” who may use malicious code (such as viruses, worms, and ransomware), social engineering, cyber extortion, and personnel theft or misuse. We may also be the subject of denial of service attacks, server malfunction, software or hardware failures, loss of data or other computer assets, adware, or other similar issues. Threat actors, nation states, and

 

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nation state-supported actors engage in cyberattacks, including for geopolitical reasons, continued opportunistic monetary reasons, and in connection with military conflicts and operations. During times of war and other major conflicts, we and our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to these attacks, including cyberattacks that could materially disrupt our systems, operations, and supply chain. While we have security measures in place to protect customer information and prevent data loss, service interruption, and other security breaches, we cannot guarantee that our, or our third-party service providers’ security measures will be sufficient to protect against unauthorized access to, or other compromise of, personal information, confidential information, or proprietary information or of disruptions or damage to our systems. The techniques used to sabotage or to obtain unauthorized access to our platform, systems, networks, and/or physical facilities in which data is stored or through which data is transmitted change frequently, and we may be unable to anticipate such techniques or implement adequate preventative measures or stop security breaches that may arise from such techniques. As a result, our safeguards and preventive measures may not be adequate to prevent current or future cyberattacks and security incidents, including security breaches that may remain undetected for extended periods of time, which can substantially increase the potential for a material and adverse impact resulting from the breach.

We are required to comply with laws, rules, industry standards, and regulations that require us to maintain the security of personal information. We may also have contractual and other legal obligations to notify relevant stakeholders of security breaches. Failure to prevent or mitigate cyberattacks could result and has in the past resulted in unauthorized access to such data, including personal information. Most jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities, and others of security breaches involving certain types of data. In addition, our agreements with certain partners may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such disclosures are and could be costly, could lead to negative publicity, may cause hosts and guests to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures and not use our services, and require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to and/or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. In addition, the costs to respond to a cybersecurity event or to mitigate any identified security vulnerabilities could be significant, including costs for remediating the effects of such an event, paying a ransom, restoring data from backups, and conducting data analysis to determine what data may have been affected by the breach. In addition, our efforts to contain or remediate a security breach or any system vulnerability may be unsuccessful, and efforts and any related failures to contain or remediate any breach or vulnerabilities could result in interruptions, delays, loss in customer trust, harm to our reputation, and increases to our insurance premiums.

We may not have adequate insurance coverage for security incidents or breaches, including fines, judgments, settlements, penalties, costs, attorney fees, and other impacts that arise out of incidents or breaches. Although we maintain cyber liability insurance, we cannot assure you that such insurance coverage will adequately cover liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage, or results in changes to our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements), could have an adverse effect on our business. Our risks are likely to increase as we continue to expand, grow our customer base, and process, store, and transmit increasingly large amounts of confidential, proprietary, and sensitive data.

The successful operation of our business depends upon the performance and reliability of internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control.

Our business depends on the performance and reliability of internet, mobile, and other infrastructures that are not under our control. We may operate in jurisdictions with limited internet connectivity, particularly as we expand internationally. Internet access and access to a mobile device are frequently provided by companies with significant market power that could take actions that degrade, disrupt, or increase the cost of users’ ability to access our platform. In addition, the internet infrastructure that we and users of our platform rely on in any particular geographic area may be unable to support the demands placed upon it. Any such failure in internet

 

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or mobile device or computer accessibility, even for a short period of time, could interfere with the speed and availability of our platform. If our platform is unavailable when users attempt to access it, or if our platform does not load as quickly as users expect, hosts and guests may not return to our platform as often in the future, or at all, and may use our competitors’ products or offerings more often. In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by national telecommunications operators. If mobile internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, consumer traffic may decrease, which may in turn cause our revenue to significantly decrease.

We rely on mobile operating systems and app marketplaces to make our app available to hosts and guests, and if we do not effectively operate with or receive favorable placements within such app marketplaces and maintain high user reviews, our usage or brand recognition could decline and our business, financial results, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We depend in part on mobile operating systems, such as Android and iOS, and their respective app marketplaces, to make our app available to hosts and guests who utilize our platform. Any changes in such systems and app marketplaces that degrade the functionality of our app or give preferential treatment to our competitors’ apps could adversely affect our platform’s usage on mobile devices and adversely affect our user ratings and reviews in app marketplaces. If such mobile operating systems or app marketplaces limit or prohibit us from making our app available to hosts and guests, make changes that degrade the functionality of our app, slow the rollout of our app on their app marketplaces, increase the cost of using our app, impose terms of use unsatisfactory to us, require users to opt in to enable marketing or advertising features, or modify their search or ratings algorithms in ways that are detrimental to us, or if our competitors’ placement in such mobile operating systems’ app marketplace is more prominent than the placement of our app, our user growth could slow. Any of the foregoing risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As new mobile devices and mobile platforms are released, there is no guarantee that app marketplaces will continue to list our app or that certain mobile devices will continue to support our platform or effectively roll out updates to our app. In addition, in order to deliver a high-quality app, we need to ensure that our platform is designed to work effectively with a range of mobile technologies, systems, networks, and standards. We may not be successful in developing or maintaining relationships with key participants in the mobile industry that enhance users’ experience. If hosts or guests who utilize our platform encounter any difficulty accessing or using our app on their mobile devices or if we are unable to adapt to changes in popular mobile operating systems, our user growth and user engagement would be adversely affected.

We currently rely, and may in the future rely, on a small number of third-party service providers to host and deliver a significant portion of our offering, and any interruptions or delays in services from these third parties could impair the delivery of our services and adversely affect our business.

We use third-party cloud computing services, including Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform, located in the United States and abroad. Our providers’ facilities may be subject to break-ins, sabotage, acts of vandalism, acts of terrorism, and other misconduct. Similarly, their cloud services, and therefore our own cloud infrastructure, may be subject to computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access or other hacks, breaches, ransomware, or similar threats. These providers are also vulnerable to damage, or interruption from extended outages of critical utilities, power loss, telecommunications failures, fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, blizzards, tsunamis, typhoons, tornadoes, droughts, and similar events. We currently do not have a comprehensive disaster recovery plan or cyber incident response plan in place nor do our systems provide complete redundancy of data storage or processing. As a result, the occurrence of any of these events, a decision by our third-party service providers to shut down or cease providing us their cloud computing services without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems could result in loss of data as well as a significant interruption in our services and harm to our reputation and brand. In addition, our third-party cloud computing services agreements are of limited durations, and our third-party data cloud computing service providers have

 

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no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew our agreements with these service providers on commercially reasonable terms, we may experience delays in the provision of our services until an agreement with another service provider can be arranged. Some of our third-party service providers may currently be experiencing delays, disruptions, or closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may result in disruptions to the services they provide to us and our users.

In addition, we rely upon certain third parties to provide software for our platform. For example, we use Google Maps for the mapping function used to locate vehicles available for booking in a specified geographic area, which is critical to the functionality of our platform. Accordingly, we do not control all mapping functions employed by our platform or guests using our platform, and it is possible that such mapping functions may not be reliable. Further, if Google Maps increases the cost to us of using their mapping service, we may not be able to continue to use such service on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or it could otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We also rely upon certain third parties to provide roadside assistance to guests. Accordingly, we do not control the quality or provision of such services to guests. Such third parties may fail to provide high-quality roadside assistance, or we may be unable to renew our agreements with these service providers on commercially reasonable terms, either of which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

From time to time, we may have disputes with certain of our third-party software providers. If, in connection with such a dispute, a software provider terminates its relationship with us or otherwise limits the provision of their software, data, or services to us, the availability or usage of our platform could be disrupted. If the third parties we rely upon cease to provide access to the third-party software, data, or services that we use, whether in connection with disputes or otherwise, do not provide access to such software, data, or services on terms that we believe to be attractive or reasonable, or do not provide us with the most current version of such software, data, or services, we may be required to seek comparable software, data, or services from other sources, which may be more expensive or inferior, or may not be available at all, any of which would adversely affect our business.

Moreover, we currently offer, and may in the future expand, certain additional offerings that rely on third-party software, hardware, data, or services. For example, vehicles booked through our Turo Go offering can be unlocked remotely through a guest’s cellular or Bluetooth connection, which requires integration with third-party software and/or hardware. If such remote unlock technology does not work as desired, has connectivity issues, is exploited, or malfunctions, guests may experience delays or an inability to access the vehicles booked on our platform, or unauthorized persons could access our hosts’ vehicles. We are also in the process of rolling out automated identification verification of guests upon pickup of vehicles booked on our platform, which relies on third-party software and services. If such identification verification software and/or services do not work as expected, unauthorized individuals may gain access to hosts’ vehicles, which may impact the decision of hosts to use our platform, and also affect the financial exposure we have for damage to the host’s vehicle or liability to third parties for bodily injury or property damage. If any such third-party service providers decide to limit or prohibit our ability to integrate such technologies into our platform or increase the price such that we can no longer use the technology, we may experience disruptions in service, harm to our brand and reputation, and adverse effects on our business.

Our platform is highly complex, and any undetected errors could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our platform is a complex system composed of many interoperating components and software. Our business is dependent upon our ability to prevent system interruption on our platform. Our software, including open source software that is incorporated into our code, may now or in the future contain undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities. Some errors in our software code have not been and may not be discovered until after the code has been released. We have, from time to time, found defects or errors in our system and software limitations

 

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that have resulted in, and may discover additional issues in the future that could result in, platform unavailability or system disruption. Any errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities discovered in our code or systems released to production or found in third-party software, including open source software, that is incorporated into our code, any misconfigurations of our systems, or any unintended interactions between systems could result in poor system performance, an interruption in the availability of our platform, incorrect payments, negative publicity, damage to our reputation, loss of existing and potential hosts and guests, loss of revenue, liability for damages, a failure to comply with certain legal or tax reporting obligations, and regulatory inquiries or other proceedings, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights and proprietary information could diminish our brand and other intangible assets.

We believe that our intellectual property is an essential asset of our business and that our domain names, our proprietary software code, and our technology infrastructure currently give us a competitive advantage in the market for platforms that connect hosts with guests. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, our brand and reputation could be harmed, hosts and guests could devalue the utility of our platform, and our ability to compete effectively would be impaired.

To establish and protect our intellectual property rights, we rely, or may in the future rely, on a combination of copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other intellectual property laws, domain name registrations, user policies, and other contractual provisions and restrictions. However, the steps we have taken and plan to take may be inadequate to deter infringement, misappropriation, dilution, or other violations of our intellectual property rights. We do not have any issued patents, and there can be no assurance that our pending patent application will result in an issued patent, or that if issued, it would be of sufficient scope to provide meaningful protection or a competitive advantage. Additionally, while we rely on trademark registrations and common law trademark rights and have registered, or have applied to register, select marks in the United States and other jurisdictions around the world, we have not registered all of our trademarks and cannot guarantee that any of our applications will be approved. Our trademarks or other intellectual property rights may be challenged or circumvented by others or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. We also enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, service providers, and business partners and seek to control access to and distribution of our proprietary information in a commercially prudent manner. However, no assurance can be given that these steps will be effective in controlling access to our proprietary information or the distribution, use, misuse, misappropriation, reverse engineering, or disclosure of our proprietary information. These agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. Moreover, policing unauthorized use of our technologies, trade secrets, and intellectual property may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. The efforts we have taken to protect our intellectual property may not be sufficient or effective, and it may be possible for other parties to copy or otherwise obtain and use the content of our website or our platform without authorization or independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our platform capabilities. We may be unable to prevent competitors from acquiring domain names or trademarks that are similar to, infringe upon, or diminish the value of our trademarks, domain names, service marks, and our other proprietary rights. If we do detect violations and decide to enforce our intellectual property rights, litigation may be necessary to enforce our rights, and any enforcement efforts we undertake could be time-consuming and expensive, could divert our management’s attention, and may result in a court determining that our intellectual property rights are unenforceable. Any failure to protect our intellectual property in a cost-effective and meaningful manner could have an adverse effect on our business and our ability to compete.

We may be subject to claims that we violated the intellectual property rights of others, which are extremely costly to defend and could require us to pay significant damages, limit our ability to operate, or both.

We have in the past received, and may in the future receive, notices that claim we have misappropriated or misused other parties’ intellectual property rights. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and

 

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commercialize our website and platform without infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. However, there may be intellectual property rights held by others, including issued or pending patents and trademarks, that cover significant aspects of our technologies, content, branding, or business methods, and we may not be aware that we are infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating such third-party intellectual property rights, and such third parties may bring claims alleging such infringement, misappropriation, or violation. Additionally, companies in the internet and technology industries, and other patent holders, including “non-practicing entities,” seeking to profit from royalties in connection with grants of licenses or seeking to obtain injunctions, own large numbers of patents and other intellectual property and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Any intellectual property claims against us, regardless of merit, could be time-consuming and expensive to settle or litigate and could divert our management’s attention and other resources. These claims could also subject us to significant liability for damages and could result in our having to stop using technology, content, branding, or business methods found to be in violation of another party’s rights. We might be required or may opt to seek a license for rights to intellectual property held by others, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if a license is available, we could be required to pay significant royalties, which would increase our operating expenses. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, content, branding, or business methods, which could require significant effort and expense and make us less competitive in the market for platforms that connect hosts with guests. If we cannot license or develop technology, content, branding, or business methods for any allegedly infringing aspect of our business, we may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results could harm our operating results.

Our use of open source software could adversely affect our ability to offer our services and subject us to possible litigation.

We use open source software in connection with the development of our website and platform. Open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses, which in some instances may subject us to certain unfavorable conditions, including requirements that we offer our products that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that we make publicly available the source code for any modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating, or using the open source software, or that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the particular open source license. From time to time, companies that use open source software have faced claims challenging the use of open source software or compliance with open source license terms. We could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming noncompliance with open source licensing terms. Some open source licenses require users who distribute or make available across a network software and services that include open source software to make available all or part of the source code of such software, which in some circumstances could include valuable proprietary code. While we monitor the use of open source software and try to ensure that none is used in a manner that would require us to disclose our proprietary source code or that would otherwise breach the terms of the open source license, such use could inadvertently occur. Furthermore, there is an increasing number of open-source software license types, almost none of which have been tested in a court of law, resulting in a dearth of guidance regarding the proper legal interpretation of such licenses. If we were to receive a claim of non-compliance with the terms of any of our open source licenses, we may be required to pay damages for breach of contract, publicly release certain portions of our proprietary source code, or expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software. In addition, the use of third-party open source software typically exposes us to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software because open-source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the functionality or origin of the software. Use of open source software may also present additional security risks because the public availability of such software may make it easier for hackers and other third parties to determine how to compromise our platform. Any of the foregoing could be harmful to our business, results of operations, or financial condition, and could help our competitors develop products and services that are similar to or better than ours.

 

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Risks related to this offering and ownership of our common stock

No public market for our common stock currently exists, and an active and liquid trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained following this offering.

Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. We have been approved to list our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TURO.” However, we cannot assure you that an active trading market for our common stock will develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that any market will be sustained. Accordingly, we cannot assure you of the liquidity of any trading market, your ability to sell your shares of our common stock when desired, or the price that you may obtain for your shares. Further, an inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock and may impair our ability to enter into strategic partnerships or acquire companies or technologies by using our common stock as consideration.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The initial public offering price of our common stock was determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters and does not purport to be indicative of prices at which our common stock will trade upon completion of this offering. The stock market in general, and the market for stocks of technology companies in particular, has been highly volatile. As a result, the market price of our common stock is likely to be volatile, and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease, which could be substantial, in the value of their common stock or the loss of their entire investment for a number of reasons, including reasons unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a broad and diverse range of factors, including those described elsewhere in this “Risk factors” section and this prospectus and the following:

 

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations;

 

 

our actual or anticipated operating performance and the operating performance of our competitors or companies perceived to be similar to us;

 

 

changes in the financial projections we provide to the public or our failure to meet these projections;

 

 

failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet the estimates or the expectations of investors;

 

 

additions or departures of board members, management, or key personnel;

 

 

rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;

 

 

announcements by us or our competitors of significant innovations, new products, services, features, integrations, capabilities, acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

 

 

changes in the anticipated future size or growth rate of our addressable markets;

 

 

the legal and regulatory landscape and changes in the application of existing laws or adoption of new laws that impact our business, hosts, and/or guests, including changes in short-term occupancy and tax laws;

 

 

legal and regulatory claims, litigation, or pre-litigation disputes and other proceedings;

 

 

health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, influenza, and other highly communicable diseases or viruses;

 

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other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events;

 

 

sales or expected sales of our common stock by us, our officers, directors, principal stockholders, and employees;

 

 

expiration of market standoff or lock-up agreements; and

 

 

general economic, industry, and market conditions, including inflation.

If the market price of our common stock after this offering does not exceed the initial public offering price, you will not realize any return on your investment in us and will lose some or all of your investment. In addition, stock markets with respect to newly public companies, particularly companies in the technology industry, have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the stock prices of these companies. Stock prices of many companies, including technology companies, have fluctuated in a manner often unrelated to the operating performance of those companies. Broad market and industry factors may affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the trading price for their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Following this offering, our principal stockholders will continue to have significant influence over all matters submitted to stockholders for approval, which could limit your ability to affect the outcome of key transactions, including a change of control. Further, many of our current directors were appointed by our principal stockholders.

Following the completion of this offering, our executive officers, directors, and greater than 5% stockholders, in the aggregate, will beneficially own approximately                % of our outstanding common stock (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares and no exercise of outstanding options or warrants), without giving effect to any purchases that any of these holders may make through our directed share program. Further, many of our current directors were appointed by our principal stockholders. As a result, such persons or their appointees to our board of directors, acting together, will have the ability to control or significantly influence all matters submitted to our board of directors or stockholders for approval, including the appointment of our management, the election and removal of directors, and the approval of any significant transaction, as well as our management and business affairs. In addition, if any of our executive officers, directors, and greater than 5% stockholders purchase shares in this offering, or if any of our other current investors purchase shares in this offering and become greater than 5% stockholders as a result, the ability of such persons, acting together, to control or significantly influence such matters will increase. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquiror from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our business, even if such a transaction would benefit other stockholders, and may affect the market price of our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying any dividends on our common stock and, consequently, our stockholders’ ability to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation of the value of our common stock.

You should not rely on an investment in our common stock to provide dividend income. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We expect to retain future earnings, if any, to maintain our existing operations and fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments. As a result, investors seeking cash dividends should not purchase our common stock.

 

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Future sales of our common stock by our existing stockholders in the public market, including when the lock-up or market standoff period ends, could cause our stock price to fall.

If our existing stockholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market after the lock-up, market standoff period, and other legal restrictions on resale discussed in this prospectus lapse, the trading price of our common stock could decline. In addition, the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares of our common stock intend to sell their shares could reduce the market price of our common stock.

Based upon the number of shares outstanding as of December 31, 2022, upon the completion of this offering, we will have outstanding a total of approximately                million shares of common stock (assuming no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares and no exercise of outstanding options or warrants). Of these shares, all of the shares of our common stock sold in this offering, plus any shares sold upon exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, will be freely tradable, without restriction, in the public market immediately following this offering.

In connection with this offering, subject to certain customary exceptions, we, all of our directors, executive officers, the selling stockholders, and certain other holders of our common stock have entered into, or will enter into, lock-up agreements with the underwriters. The lock-up agreements pertaining to this offering will expire     days from the date of this prospectus. After the lock-up agreements expire, as of December 31, 2022, up to approximately                million additional shares of our common stock will be eligible for sale in the public market. Of those additional shares, approximately                million shares are held by our directors, executive officers, and other affiliates and will be subject to Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may, however, in their sole discretion, permit our officers, directors, and the other stockholders who are subject to these lock-up agreements to sell shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements.

Our executive officers, directors, and certain holders of our capital stock and securities convertible into or exchangeable for our capital stock have entered into lock-up agreements with Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, on behalf of the underwriters, under which they have agreed, subject to specific exceptions including early release provisions, to certain restrictions on their ability to transfer any shares of our common stock or securities directly or indirectly convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for our common stock during the period ending on the date that is 180 days after the date of this prospectus. We refer to such period as the lock-up period. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may release certain stockholders from the lock-up agreements prior to the end of the lock-up period. See the section titled “Underwriters” for further information about these agreements, including the provisions related to early release and transfer conditions.

Several stockholders are subject to restrictions contained in a variety of market standoff agreements with us that include restrictions on the sale, short sale, loan, granting of any option to purchase, or other disposition of our securities, and in some cases other restrictions. The forms and specific restrictive provisions within these market standoff provisions vary significantly. For example, some of these market standoff agreements do not specifically restrict hedging transactions and others may be subject to different interpretations between us and stockholders as to whether they restrict hedging. Sales, short sales, or hedging transactions involving our securities, whether before or after this offering and whether or not we believe them to be prohibited, could adversely affect the price of our common stock. In addition, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC may waive the lock-up agreements entered into by certain of our stockholders with the underwriters before they expire.

We intend to file a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act covering all the shares of common stock subject to outstanding equity awards and shares reserved for issuance under our stock plans. That registration statement will become effective immediately on its filing, and shares covered by that registration statement will be eligible for sale in the public markets, subject to Rule 144 limitations applicable to

 

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affiliates and any lock-up and market standoff agreements described above. If these additional shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. For a detailed description of our outstanding equity securities, see the section titled “Capitalization.”

After this offering, the holders of up to 188,127,908 shares of our common stock, or approximately         % of our total outstanding common stock based upon the number of shares outstanding as of December 31, 2022, will be entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act, including requiring us to file registration statements with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, covering their shares or to include their shares in registrations statements that we may file ourselves, subject to vesting schedules and to the lock-up agreements and agreements with market standoff provisions described above. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares purchased by affiliates. Any sales or perceived potential sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material and adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of their shares.

Assuming that the initial public offering price of our common stock is $                per share (the midpoint of the estimated price range appearing on the cover page of this prospectus), the initial public offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will suffer an immediate dilution of $                in net tangible book value per share from the assumed initial public offering price, assuming an initial public offering price of our common stock of $                per share (the midpoint of the estimated price range appearing on the cover page of this prospectus). If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares, or if we issue any other securities or convertible debt in the future, investors will experience further dilution. For more information, including information as to how we compute net tangible book value per share, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Additional issuances of our capital stock could result in significant dilution to our stockholders.

We may issue our capital stock or securities convertible into our capital stock from time to time in connection with a financing, acquisition, investment, or otherwise. Additional issuances of our capital stock will result in dilution to existing holders of our capital stock. Also, to the extent outstanding options and warrants to purchase our capital stock are exercised, including the warrant held by IAC Inc., or the IAC Warrant, there will be further dilution. In addition, we rely on equity-based compensation as an important tool in recruiting and retaining employees. The amount of dilution due to equity-based compensation of our employees or other additional issuances could be substantial, depending upon the size of the issuance or exercise. Any such issuances could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

Our business and financial performance may differ from any projections that we disclose or any information that may be attributed to us by third parties.

From time to time, we may provide guidance via public disclosures regarding our projected business or financial performance. However, any such projections involve risks, assumptions, and uncertainties, and our actual results could differ materially from such projections. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified in this “Risk factors” section, some or all of which are not predictable or within our control. Other unknown or unpredictable factors also could adversely impact our performance, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any projections, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. In addition, various news sources, bloggers, Redditors, and other publishers often make statements regarding our historical or projected business or financial performance, and you should not rely on any such information even if it is attributed directly or indirectly to us.

 

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Our trading price and trading volume could decline if securities or industry analysts do not publish research about our business, or if they publish unfavorable research.

Equity research analysts do not currently provide coverage of our common stock, and we cannot assure you that any equity research analysts will adequately provide research coverage of our common stock after the listing of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange. A lack of adequate research coverage may harm the liquidity and trading price of our common stock. To the extent equity research analysts do provide research coverage of our common stock, we will not have any control over the content and opinions included in their reports. The trading price of our common stock could decline if one or more equity research analysts downgrade our stock or publish other unfavorable commentary or research. If one or more equity research analysts cease coverage of our company, or fail to regularly publish reports on us, the demand for our common stock could decrease, which in turn could cause our trading price or trading volume to decline.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. In addition, we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, services, or technologies. We have not yet determined the manner in which we will allocate the net proceeds we receive from this offering and as a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation and use of the net proceeds. See the section titled “Use of proceeds.”

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. Accordingly, investors will need to rely on our judgment with respect to the use of these proceeds. The failure by our management to allocate or use these funds effectively could harm our ability to continue maintaining and expanding our business. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds we receive from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that destroys value. Our ultimate use of the net proceeds from this offering may vary substantially from the currently intended use.

In making your investment decision, you should understand that we and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering.

You should carefully evaluate all of the information in this prospectus before investing in our common stock. We have in the past received, and may continue to receive, a high degree of media coverage, including coverage that is not directly attributable to statements made by our officers and employees, that incorrectly reports on statements made by our officers or employees or that is misleading as a result of omitting information provided by us, our officers, or our employees. We and the underwriters have not authorized any other party to provide you with information concerning us or this offering.

Certain provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law may prevent or hinder attempts by our stockholders to change our management or to acquire a controlling interest in us, and the trading price of our common stock may be lower as a result.

There are provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as they will be in effect immediately prior to the completion of this offering, that may make it difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change in control were considered favorable by our stockholders. These anti-takeover provisions include:

 

 

the ability of our board of directors to determine the number of directors and to fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;

 

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a provision requiring approval by holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding common stock to remove any of our directors;

 

 

a prohibition on cumulative voting for directors;

 

 

the requirement of approval by holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding common stock to amend some provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws;

 

 

authorization of the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;

 

 

an inability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders; and

 

 

a prohibition on stockholder actions by written consent, thereby requiring that all stockholder actions be taken at a meeting of our stockholders.

Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibit a person who owns 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a three-year period beginning on the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Any provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as will be in effect immediately prior to the completion of this offering, will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law:

 

 

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

 

any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty;

 

 

any action asserting a claim against us arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws, as will be in effect immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

 

any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal-affairs doctrine or otherwise related to our internal affairs.

This provision would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Further, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation will further provide that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, including all causes of action asserted against any defendant named in such complaint. For the avoidance of

 

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doubt, this provision is intended to benefit and may be enforced by us, our officers and directors, the underwriters for any offering giving rise to such complaint, and any other professional entity whose profession gives authority to a statement made by that person or entity and who has prepared or certified any part of the documents underlying the offering. While the Delaware courts have determined that such operations choice of forum provisions are facially valid and several state trial courts have enforced such provisions and required that suits asserting Securities Act claims be filed in federal court when a provision in the certificate of incorporation requires such filing, there is no guarantee that courts of appeal will affirm the enforceability of such provisions or that state trial courts hearing such suits de novo will continue to enforce such provisions and a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions.

These exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, all of which could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. If a court were to find either exclusive forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur further significant additional costs associated with litigating Securities Act claims in state court, or both state and federal court, which could seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act, and, for so long as we continue to qualify as an emerging growth company, we have the option to utilize certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, registration statements, and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (A) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (B) in which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.235 billion, or (C) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates as of the prior June 30th, and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates. While we have not made such an irrevocable election, we have not delayed the adoption of any applicable accounting standards. Further, we may take advantage of some of the other reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that will be available to us so long as we qualify as an emerging growth company.

 

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Among other things, this means that our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting so long as we qualify as an emerging growth company, which may increase the risk that weaknesses or deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting go undetected. Likewise, so long as we qualify as an emerging growth company, we may elect not to provide you with certain information, including certain financial information and certain information regarding compensation of our executive officers, that we would otherwise have been required to provide in filings we make with the SEC, which may make it more difficult for investors and securities analysts to evaluate our company. As a result, investor confidence in our company and the market price of our common stock may be adversely affected. Further, we cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention, and affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and qualified board members.

As a public company, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing standards of the New York Stock Exchange, and other applicable securities rules and regulations. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting, and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems, and resources. Further, several members of our management team do not have prior experience in running a public company. For example, the Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. As a result of the complexity involved in complying with the rules and regulations applicable to public companies, our management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Although we are in the process of hiring additional employees to assist us in complying with these requirements, we may need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our operating expenses. In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure create uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest substantial resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from business operations to compliance activities.

If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us, and our business may be harmed. We also expect that being a public company that is subject to these new rules and regulations will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly members who can serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

As a result of the disclosure obligations required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which may result in an increased risk of threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business, results of operations, and

 

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financial condition would be harmed, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, would divert the resources of our management and harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

As a public reporting company, we will be subject to rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange regarding our internal controls over financial reporting. We may not complete needed improvements to our internal controls over financial reporting in a timely manner, or these internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock and your investment.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become a public reporting company subject to the rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange. These rules and regulations will require, among other things, that we establish and periodically evaluate procedures with respect to our internal controls over financial reporting. Reporting obligations as a public company are likely to increase our costs and place a considerable strain on our financial and management systems, processes, and controls, as well as on our personnel. In addition, as a public company we will be required to document and test our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act so that our management can certify as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting by the time our annual report for the year ending December 31, 2024 is due and thereafter, which will require us to document and make significant changes to our internal controls over financial reporting. Likewise, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. If our management is unable to certify the effectiveness of our internal controls or if our independent registered public accounting firm cannot deliver a report attesting to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, or if we identify or fail to remediate any significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal controls such as those described more fully below, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny and a loss of public confidence, which could seriously harm our reputation and the market price of our common stock. In addition, if we do not maintain adequate financial and management personnel, processes, and controls, we may not be able to manage our business effectively or accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis, which could cause a decline in our common stock price and may seriously harm our business.

We have previously identified material weaknesses relating to lack of accounting resources and related internal controls. If our remediation efforts over any material weaknesses are not effective, or if we experience additional material weaknesses or otherwise fail to design and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately and effectively report our financial condition and results of operations in a timely manner or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us, subject us to litigation or significant financial or other penalties, and, as a result, affect the value of our common stock and our financial condition.

As a public company, we will be required to maintain internal control over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in those internal controls, subject to any exemptions that we avail ourselves to under the JOBS Act. For example, we will be required to perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We are in the process of designing, implementing, and testing internal control over financial reporting required to comply with this obligation.

In connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020, and 2021, we identified material weaknesses relating to a lack of accounting resources and related internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

 

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We did not design or maintain an effective control environment commensurate with our financial reporting requirements. We did not have the necessary business processes, systems, personnel, and related internal controls necessary to satisfy the accounting and financial reporting requirements of a public company. This contributed to the following material weaknesses:

 

 

We did not have adequate controls in place to prevent inappropriate segregation of duties in manual journal entries. Specifically, we did not design and maintain controls to ensure (i) the appropriate segregation of duties between the preparer and reviewer of journal entries in the preparation and review of journal entries and (ii) journal entries were reviewed at the appropriate level of precision, including a lack of evidence to support that a review had been performed.

 

 

We had limited financial accounting resources and lack of risk assessment procedures, which led to inadequate design of internal controls that resulted in a material weakness associated with accounting for certain routine and non-routine transactions, inclusive of instances where certain accounts were not appropriately or timely reconciled and errors existed in certain data sets used by management to reconcile accounts and the impact of certain complex transactions were not completely and appropriately reflected in our consolidated financial statements.

Each of the material weaknesses described above, if not remediated, could result in a misstatement of one or more account balances or disclosures that would result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected, and, accordingly, we and our independent public accounting firm determined that these control deficiencies constitute material weaknesses. We have concluded that these material weaknesses arose because, as a private company, we did not have the necessary business processes, systems, personnel, and related internal controls necessary to satisfy the accounting and financial reporting requirements of a public company.

We have taken measures to address these material weaknesses in our internal controls. During 2020, we completed our remediation efforts related to the inappropriate segregation of duties in manual journal entries control findings and have concluded that this material weakness no longer exists as of December 31, 2020. During 2022, we completed our remediation efforts related to limited financial accounting resources and lack of risk assessment procedures and have concluded that this material weakness no longer exists as of December 31, 2022. Specifically, we took the following actions:

 

 

We increased resources dedicated to our accounting, tax, finance, internal audit, and IT teams, including personnel with additional knowledge, experience, and training, to ensure we have adequate staff, to segregate key duties, and to comply with company policies and procedures.

 

 

We assessed our internal control environment and performed a comprehensive risk assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting.

 

 

We implemented and improved systems, policies, and procedures for key processes which impact financial reporting, as well as enhanced the design of certain existing review controls and implemented new review and process level controls.

 

 

We hired a third party to assist with the implementation of, and to review and provide feedback on, our remediation plan and advise us on best practices.

Our completion of the remediation of this material weakness does not provide assurance that the remediation or other controls will continue to operate effectively in the future.

We cannot assure you that the remediation measures we have taken to date, will be sufficient to avoid the identification of additional material weaknesses in the future. If we identify new material weaknesses in the future, there could continue to be a reasonable possibility that these control deficiencies or others could result in a material misstatement of our annual or interim consolidated financial statements that would not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

 

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The process of designing and implementing internal control over financial reporting required to comply with the disclosure and attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is time consuming, complicated, and costly. If during the evaluation and testing process we identify additional material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, our management may be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may conclude that there are material weaknesses with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or when required in the future, if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements regarding timely filing of periodic reports in addition to applicable stock exchange listing requirements, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected, and we could become subject to litigation or investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources. We cannot assure you that the measures we have taken to date, or any measures we may take in the future, will be sufficient to avoid potential future material weaknesses.

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

Upon completion of this offering, we will become subject to the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. We designed our disclosure controls and procedures to reasonably assure that information we must disclose in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management and recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well-conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. In addition, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more persons or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected.

Our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by changes in accounting principles.

The accounting for our business is subject to change based on the evolution of our business model, interpretations of relevant accounting principles, enforcement of existing or new regulations, and changes in policies, rules, regulations, and interpretations of accounting and financial reporting requirements of the SEC or other regulatory agencies. The adoption of a change in accounting principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported results of operations and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the adoption of such change. It is difficult to predict the impact of future changes to accounting principles and accounting policies over financial reporting, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and could require significant investment in systems and personnel.

 

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Special note regarding

forward-looking statements

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “toward,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

 

 

our ability to attract and retain hosts and guests;

 

 

our expectations regarding our financial performance, including net revenue, cost of net revenue, gross profit, or gross profit as a percentage of net revenue, contribution profit (loss), contribution margin, adjusted EBITDA, operating expenses, key metrics, and other results of operations, and our ability to achieve or maintain future profitability;

 

 

our expectations regarding future operating performance, including Days and Gross Booking Value;

 

 

the effects of seasonal trends on our results of operations;

 

 

the effects of COVID-19 or other public health crises on our business and results of operations, the travel and transportation industries, travel and transportation trends, and the global economy generally;

 

 

our ability to effectively manage our growth and expand our infrastructure and maintain our corporate culture;

 

 

our estimated market opportunity and anticipated economic, industry, and host, guest, and consumer trends, growth rates, and challenges in our business and the industries and markets in which we operate, including related to inflation and the rental car shortage;

 

 

our ability to gauge and adapt to industry trends and changing host, guest, and consumer preferences in products, features, use cases, and sustainability of such products offered on our platform;

 

 

anticipated technology trends and developments and our ability to address those trends and developments with our products and offerings;

 

 

the effects of increased competition in our markets and our ability to successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the markets in which we operate;

 

 

our ability to continue to grow across all major global markets and manage expansion into international markets;

 

 

our ability to identify and complete acquisitions, investments, or partnerships that complement and expand the functionality of our platform and products, features, and use cases;

 

 

the availability of capital to grow our business;

 

 

our ability to maintain and expand our relationships with strategic partners;

 

 

our ability to timely and effectively scale and adapt our products, features, and use cases;

 

 

our ability to innovate and enhance existing products, features, and use cases;

 

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our ability to develop new products, features, and use cases and bring them to market in a timely manner, and whether our hosts and guests and prospective hosts and guests will adopt these new products, features, and use cases;

 

 

our reliance on key personnel and our ability to attract, maintain, and retain management and skilled personnel;

 

 

the safety, affordability, and convenience of our platform and our offerings;

 

 

our ability to comply or remain in compliance with laws and regulations that currently apply or become applicable to our business in the United States and internationally and our expectations regarding various laws and restrictions that relate to our business;

 

 

our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us and the outcome of any legal or administrative proceedings;

 

 

our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our brand and intellectual property;

 

 

our expectations regarding our income tax liabilities;

 

 

our ability to prevent disturbance to our information technology systems;

 

 

the increased expenses associated with being a public company;

 

 

our ability to design, implement, and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting;

 

 

the future trading prices of our common stock; and

 

 

our anticipated use of the net proceeds from this offering.

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus.

You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors described in the sections titled “Prospectus summary — Risk factors summary,” “Risk factors,” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events, and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information,

 

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actual results, revised expectations, or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions, or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments.

 

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Market, industry, and other data

This prospectus contains statistical data, estimates, forecasts, and other information concerning our industry, including market size and growth of the market in which we participate, that are based on industry publications and reports. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates. We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the data contained in these industry publications and reports. The industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section titled “Risk factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in these publications and reports.

The sources of certain statistical data, estimates, and forecasts contained in this prospectus are the following independent industry sources:

 

 

American Automobile Association (AAA), Your Driving Costs, 2022.

 

 

AppFigures, App Teardown — Turo Wins the Car Rental Game, June 1, 2021.

 

 

AZ Central, Top Workplaces in Arizona, 2021.

 

 

AZ Central, Top Workplaces in Arizona, 2022.

 

 

Bay Area News Group, Bay Area Top Workplaces 2018, 2018.

 

 

Bay Area News Group, Bay Area Top Workplaces 2019, 2019.

 

 

Bay Area News Group, Bay Area Top Workplaces 2020, 2020.

 

 

Bay Area News Group, Bay Area Top Workplaces 2021, 2021.

 

 

Bay Area News Group, Bay Area Top Workplaces 2022, 2022.

 

 

Built In SF, Best Midsize Companies to Work 2022, 2022.

 

 

Destination Analysts, Update on American Travel in the Period of Coronavirus — Week of April 19th, April 18, 2021.

 

 

Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED), Motor Vehicle Loans Owned and Securitized, Outstanding, July 2022.

 

 

Fitch Solutions, Electric Vehicle Share in the US Reaches Record Levels in 2020, According to IHS Markit, February 19, 2021.

 

 

Glassdoor, Top CEOs 2019 — Top Small & Medium, 2019.

 

 

Glassdoor, Turo Reviews, November 22, 2021.

 

 

Great Place to Work, Best Workplaces for Parents 2022 — Small and Medium, 2022.

 

 

Great Place to Work and Fortune, Fortune Best Medium Workplaces 2022, 2022.

 

 

Great Place to Work and Fortune, Fortune Best Workplaces in Technology 2022 — Small and Medium, 2022.

 

 

Great Place to Work and Fortune, Fortune Best Workplaces in the Bay Area 2021 — Small and Medium, 2021.

 

 

Great Place to Work and Fortune, Fortune Best Workplaces in the Bay Area 2022 — Small and Medium, 2022.

 

 

International Air Transport Association, 2020 Worst Year in History for Air Travel Demand, February 3, 2021.

 

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International Road Federation, 2021 IRF World Road Statistics, 2021.

 

 

Fitch Solutions, Passenger Car Fleet, 2022.

 

 

Journal of Planning Education and Research, The Poverty of the Carless: Toward Universal Auto Access, February 2019.

 

 

Kelley Blue Book, Average New Car Price Falling; Incentives Making a Comeback, March 8, 2023.

 

 

Kelley Blue Book, New-Car Transaction Prices Rise Nearly 3 Percent in January 2016, According To Kelley Blue Book, February 2, 2016.

 

 

MIT Senseable City Lab (SCL), Singapore — MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), and Allianz, Unparking, August 2018.

 

 

The Mountain-Plains Consortium, Impacts of Ridesourcing on VMT, Parking Demand, Transportation Equity, and Travel Behavior, March 2019.

 

 

National Association of City Transportation Officials, Shared Micromobility in the U.S.: 2019, 2020.

 

 

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Prices and purchasing power parities (PPP), 2021.

 

 

Phoenix Business Journal, 2020 Best Places to Work, 2020.

 

 

Phoenix Business Journal, 2021 Best Places to Work, 2021.

 

 

Phoenix Business Journal, 2022 Best Places to Work, 2022.

 

 

San Francisco Business Times, Best Places to Work in the Bay Area (Midsize), April 20, 2018.

 

 

San Francisco Business Times, Best Places to Work in the Bay Area, Midsize Companies, April 19, 2019.

 

 

San Francisco Business Times, Best Places to Work in the Bay Area, Midsize Companies, May 7, 2021.

 

 

San Francisco Business Times, Best Places to Work in the Bay Area, Midsize Companies, May 5, 2022.

 

 

The Stevie Awards for Great Employers, Gold Stevie Award — Transportation, 2021.

 

 

The Stevie Awards for Great Employers, Gold Stevie Award — Transportation, 2022.

 

 

U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Household Spending on Transportation: Average Household Spending, 2021.

 

 

U.S. Department of Transportation, National Household Travel Survey, May 2017.

 

 

Wealthfront, 2021 Career-Launching Companies, 2021.

 

 

Wealthfront, 2022 Career-Launching Companies, 2022.

 

 

Wealthfront, Career Launching Companies List — 2018 Edition, 2018.

 

 

Wealthfront, Career Launching Companies List — 2019 Edition, 2019.

 

 

Wealthfront, Career Launching Companies List — 2020 Edition, 2020.

 

 

Wealthfront, Wealthfront’s Career Launching Companies List — 2017 Edition, 2017.

 

 

XM Institute, Economics of NPS in the Car Rental Industry, April 2022.

 

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Information in this prospectus on our position as the world’s largest car sharing marketplace and our unrivaled network and extraordinary selection is from independent market research carried out by Prescient & Strategic Intelligence (P&S Intelligence) in a report titled Global Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Carsharing Market, 2020. Our position as the world’s largest car sharing marketplace and our unrivaled network and extraordinary selection is based on a number of measures, including market share, the number of hosts, guests, and vehicle listings on our marketplace, and by geographic presence based on the number of cities in which our services are available.

In addition, statements in this prospectus referring to studies conducted by The Center for Growth and Opportunity at Utah State University, the Chaddick Institute for Metropolitan Development at DePaul University, and SCIMA LLC are from the following independent market research reports that we commissioned:

 

 

Chaddick Institute for Metropolitan Development at DePaul University, An Engine for Earning: Estimating the Financial Benefits of Peer-to-Peer Carsharing to Vehicle Hosts, April 25, 2019.

 

 

The Center for Growth and Opportunity at Utah State University, Who Pays When Car Sharing Is Taxed?, May 2021.

 

 

SCIMA LLC, Economic Opportunity: Estimating the Economic Benefits of Hosting with Turo, February 2022.

Certain monetary amounts, percentages, and other figures included elsewhere in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables or charts may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.

The cars and testimonials contained in this prospectus are from actual Turo cars, hosts, and guests. The hosts and guests featured in this prospectus have agreed to the use of their testimonials for marketing, advertising, and other purposes. Some of these hosts and guests were compensated nominal amounts for their time and effort associated with providing the testimonials and appearing in pictures or videos. The product screens presented in this prospectus are illustrative examples of actual product screens on our platform.

Throughout this prospectus, we use the terms “booking” and “trip” interchangeably.

 

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Use of proceeds

We estimate that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $                 million (or approximately $                 million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full) based on an assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share of common stock, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering.

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share of common stock would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $                 million, assuming the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $                 million, assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share of common stock remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility and create a public market for our common stock. We currently intend to use the net proceeds we receive from this offering for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures. We cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the remaining net proceeds to us from this offering. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for acquisitions of, or strategic investments in, complementary businesses, products, services, or technologies. We will have broad discretion over how we use the net proceeds from this offering. We intend to invest the net proceeds from the offering that are not used as described above in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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Dividend policy

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and any other factors our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, the terms of our revolving credit facility restrict our ability to pay dividends or make distributions, and we may enter into credit agreements or other borrowing arrangements in the future that may restrict our ability to declare or pay cash dividends or make distributions.

 

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Capitalization

The following table sets forth our cash and our capitalization as of December 31, 2022 as follows:

 

 

on an actual basis;

 

 

on a pro forma basis to reflect (i) the automatic conversion of 169,952,096 shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022 into 183,768,391 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (ii) the issuance of an aggregate of                         shares of common stock pursuant to the warrant held by IAC Inc. in connection with this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and (iii) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering; and

 

 

on a pro forma as adjusted basis to give effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth above and (ii) our issuance and sale of                              shares of common stock in this offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                  per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering.

The pro forma and pro forma as adjusted information below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the completion of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this information together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the sections titled “Summary consolidated financial and other data,” “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations,” and other financial information contained in this prospectus.

 

     As of December 31, 2022  
     Actual      Pro forma      Pro
forma as
adjusted(1)
 
             
     (in thousands, except share and per
share amounts)
 

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 300,953      $                        $                      
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

     95,247        

Redeemable non-controlling interest

     33,857        

Redeemable convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; 170,034,432 shares authorized, 169,952,096 shares issued and outstanding, actual; no shares authorized, issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

     471,264        

Stockholders’ (deficit) equity:

        

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; no shares authorized, issued, and outstanding, actual;             shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, pro forma and pro forma as adjusted

            

Common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 267,000,000 shares authorized, 31,642,548 shares issued and outstanding, actual;             shares authorized,                         shares issued and outstanding, pro forma;                         shares authorized,                         shares issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

     32        

Additional paid-in capital

     61,723        

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (367)        

Accumulated deficit

     (299,586)        
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity

     (238,198)        
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 362,170        
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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(1)

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $                per share of common stock, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity, and total capitalization by approximately $                            , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares offered by us at the assumed initial public offering price per share would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted amount of each of cash, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity, and total capitalization by approximately $                     , assuming the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share of common stock remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, our pro forma as adjusted cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders’ (deficit) equity, total capitalization, and shares of common stock issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2022 would be $                        , $                        , $                        , $                        , and                          shares, respectively.

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 215,410,939 shares of our common stock (including shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of December 31, 2022, and excludes:

 

 

26,253,071 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.71 per share;

 

 

8,401,114 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions outstanding as of December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

1,040,291 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions granted after December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

up to $51.0 million of shares of our common stock issuable upon the exchange of securities issued in connection with our acquisition of OuiCar and outstanding as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

                         shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2023 Plan, including                          new shares plus the number of shares (not to exceed                      shares) underlying outstanding stock awards granted under our 2010 Equity Incentive Plan or 2020 Equity Incentive Plan that expire, or are forfeited, canceled, withheld, or reacquired; and

 

 

                         shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering.

Our 2023 Plan and ESPP provide for annual automatic increases in the number of shares reserved thereunder. See the section titled “Executive compensation — Employee benefit and stock plans” for additional information.

 

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Dilution

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of common stock and the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) as of December 31, 2022 was $283.2 million or $(8.95) per share. Our historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less goodwill, intangibles, and deferred offering costs, total liabilities, redeemable non-controlling interests, and redeemable convertible preferred stock, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022.

Our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2022 was $                 million, or $                 per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less our deferred offering costs and total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022, after giving effect to (i) the automatic conversion of 169,952,096 shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022 into 183,768,391 shares of common stock immediately prior to the completion of this offering, (ii) the issuance of an aggregate of                             shares of common stock pursuant to the warrant held by IAC Inc. in connection with this offering, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and (iii) the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation immediately prior to the completion of this offering.

After giving further effect to the sale of                                shares of common stock that we are offering at an assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2022 would have been approximately $                 million, or approximately $                 per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma net tangible book value of $                 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $                 per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.

Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the initial public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution (without giving effect to any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares):

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share

     $                    
    

 

 

 

Historical net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of December 31, 2022

   $ (8.95  

Increase per share attributable to the pro forma adjustments described above

    
  

 

 

   

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2022

   $      

Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

    
  

 

 

   

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

    
    

 

 

 

Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering

     $    
    

 

 

 

The dilution information discussed above is illustrative only and may change based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering. Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this

 

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offering by approximately $                 per share, and increase (decrease) the dilution in the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors by approximately $                 per share, in each case, assuming that the number of shares of common stock offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Each increase (decrease) of 1.0 million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase (decrease) our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $                 per share and decrease (increase) the dilution to investors participating in this offering by approximately $                 per share, in each case assuming that the assumed initial public offering price remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $                 per share, the increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders would be $                 per share, and the dilution per share to new investors would be $                 per share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $                 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus.

The following table summarizes, on the pro forma as adjusted basis described above, as of December 31, 2022, the differences between the number of shares of common stock purchased from us by our existing stockholders and by new investors purchasing shares in this offering, the total consideration paid to us in cash and the average price per share paid by existing stockholders for shares of common stock issued prior to this offering, and the price to be paid by new investors for shares of common stock in this offering. The calculation below is based on the assumed initial public offering price of $                 per share, the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

     Shares purchased      Total
consideration
     Average
price

per
share
 
     Number      Percent      Amount      Percent  

Existing stockholders

    

        

               %      $                                  %      $                    

New investors

                                                                               
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

    

        

           100%      $                  100%      $            
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Sales by the selling stockholders in this offering will cause the number of shares held by existing stockholders to be reduced to                  shares, or     % of the total number of shares outstanding following the completion of this offering, and will increase the number of shares held by new investors to                  shares, or     % of the total number of shares outstanding following the completion of this offering.

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, our existing stockholders would own     % and the investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering would own     % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding immediately after completion of this offering.

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 215,410,939 shares of our common stock (including shares of our redeemable convertible preferred stock on an as-converted basis) outstanding as of December 31, 2022, and excludes:

 

 

26,253,071 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022, with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.71 per share;

 

 

8,401,114 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions outstanding as of December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

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1,040,291 restricted stock units covering shares of our common stock that are issuable upon satisfaction of service-based and liquidity-based vesting conditions granted after December 31, 2022, for which the liquidity-based vesting condition was not yet satisfied as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

up to $51.0 million of shares of our common stock issuable upon the exchange of securities issued in connection with our acquisition of OuiCar and outstanding as of December 31, 2022;

 

 

                 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2023 Plan, including                  new shares plus the number of shares (not to exceed                  shares) underlying outstanding stock awards granted under our 2010 Equity Incentive Plan or 2020 Equity Incentive Plan that expire, or are forfeited, canceled, withheld, or reacquired; and

 

 

                 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2023 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, which will become effective in connection with this offering.

Our 2023 Plan and ESPP provide for annual automatic increases in the number of shares reserved thereunder. See the section titled “Executive compensation — Employee benefit and stock plans” for additional information.

To the extent any outstanding options are exercised, or new stock options are issued, under our equity incentive plans, or we issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

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23M+ days $1M net revenue Per day $1M net revenue Per week $1M net revenue Per quarter $1M net revenue Per year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Cumulative days LOGO


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LOGO


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Turo over time 2010 Launched in Boston & San Francisco 2011 First trip completed 2012 Launched nationwide in US 2013 Launched Book instantly $1M net revenue per year 2014 Introduced delivery as a feature $1M net revenue per quarter 2015 Rebranded to Turo 2016 First international expansion to Canada 2017 Launched Power Host program $1M net revenue per week 2018 Expanded operations to the United Kingdom Launched Turo Go 2019 1M cumulative active guests 100K cumulative active hosts Launched All-Star Host Program 2020 Implemented Turo Risk Score-based pricing Created the Turo Seed Initiative 2021 2B+ miles driven Launched carbon neutrality initiative Turo returns to New York $1M net revenue per day

LOGO

Managements discussion and analysis of financial condition and result of operations


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Management’s discussion and

analysis of financial condition

and results of operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in the prospectus. The consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. In addition to our historical consolidated financial information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. Our actual results could differ materially from those described in or implied by these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

Overview

Turo is the world’s largest car sharing marketplace where guests can book any car they want, wherever they want it, from a vibrant community of trusted hosts. Whether they’re flying in from afar or looking for a car down the street, searching for a rugged truck or something smooth and swanky for a once-in-a-lifetime event, guests can take the wheel of the perfect car for any occasion, while hosts can take the wheel of their futures by sharing their underutilized personal vehicles or building an accessible, flexible, and scalable car sharing business from the ground up. Turo is home to a supportive and collaborative community that shares thousands of vehicles across the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, and Australia. As of December 31, 2022, we had over 160,000 active hosts and 2.9 million active guests from around the world participating in our marketplace.

We are pioneering a new category of transportation, advancing the next era of personal mobility by connecting consumers with an unrivaled network of privately owned vehicles. Cars remain the preferred means of transportation for short-, medium-, and long-duration trips across a variety of use cases, but traditional mobility options do not provide adequate and efficient access for consumers to vehicles. The peer-to-peer car sharing opportunity Turo delivers to consumers provides a more convenient, economically efficient, and environmentally and socially responsible way to access an extraordinary selection of vehicles compared to traditional car ownership and car rental.

Our platform unlocks peer-to-peer car sharing through technology — a seamless, simple platform that connects hosts and guests and enables them to transact in a trusted, safe environment. With Turo, hosts can quickly list vehicles, adjust their availability, and dynamically modify prices to access the unique demand patterns in their market. Guests can search by location, type, price, use case, and many other categories to find the perfect vehicle for their needs. Our platform supports a variety of use cases — from the minivan for the family road trip, to the convertible for the long-awaited beach getaway, or a simple vehicle for escaping the city grind. Built-in messaging, payments, fraud detection, the proprietary Turo Risk Score, and host and guest protection plans are designed to deliver a safe transaction and experience for our community.

We have experienced rapid growth since our launch in 2010. Our business model has proven to be resilient throughout fluctuations in travel trends and economic climates as our marketplace dynamically adjusts to the needs of our hosts and guests. We have seen increased demand for bespoke and safe forms of transportation, as well as increased supply from hosts, showing that Turo can uniquely serve and elevate our entire community, both hosts and guests. We generated net revenue of $149.9 million in 2020, representing 6% growth from $141.7 million in 2019, and a net loss of $97.1 million during 2020, down from $98.6 million in 2019. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020 was due to a combination of the introduction of the Turo Risk Score in April 2020, a tool that dynamically adjusts the fees that we charge guests to complete a booking on our marketplace, as well as hosts increasing the prices for vehicles charged to guests. In 2021, we generated net

 

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revenue of $469.0 million, representing 213% growth from $149.9 million in 2020, and a net loss of $40.4 million, down from $97.1 million in 2020. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021 was due to a combination of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, improved optimization of the Turo Risk Score, hosts increasing the prices for vehicles charged to guests, as well as a rental car supply shortage. In 2022, we generated net revenue of $746.6 million, representing 59% growth from $469.0 million in 2021, and a net income of $154.7 million, compared to a net loss of $40.4 million in 2021. The increase in net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to an increase in Days (as defined under “ — Key business metrics” below), as a result of continued travel demand combined with an increase in our supply and new guests on the platform. We continue to improve the efficiency of our marketplace and generated adjusted EBITDA of $79.7 million, $81.1 million, $(38.1) million, and $(91.6) million in 2022, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. For additional information about adjusted EBITDA, a non-GAAP financial measure, and a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP, see “ — Non-GAAP financial measures.”

Our business model

We operate a car sharing marketplace. We focus on creating a high-quality marketplace with a vast collection of unique listings to enable guests to book the car they want or need on demand, and empower hosts to generate income from their vehicles. This focus on creating positive host and guest engagement drives strong host cohort net revenue retention and attractive guest cohort contribution margins. We support a broad range of hosts, from those who want to offset the cost of car ownership by generating extra income from a single car to those who have multiple cars and operate their own small business on our platform or use our platform to support a larger business that is often a primary income source. We provide broad geographical coverage and differentiated offerings and have focused on adding new supply and building network density in our existing markets to capture additional market share over time. We have made significant investments in our platform and brand as we continue to drive the growth of our marketplace in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom and expand our marketplace to other geographies. In May 2022, we completed the acquisition of OuiCar, a car sharing marketplace headquartered in France, and in November 2022, we launched operations in Australia.

As of December 31, 2022, we had over 160,000 active hosts, 320,000 active vehicle listings, and 2.9 million active guests on our platform. We count the number of active hosts, active vehicle listings, and active guests as hosts, vehicle listings, and guests, respectively, with at least one trip as a host, vehicle listing, or guest, respectively, in the trailing 12-month period. For example, if a host, vehicle listing, or guest, respectively, has at least one trip that starts before or within the trailing 12-month period and ends within or after such 12-month period, we count such host, vehicle listing, or guest, respectively, as active. We measure these metrics on a trailing one-year basis given the episodic nature of travel and the booking patterns we have observed on our platform.

Our platform is designed for entrepreneurs of all sizes. We have three categories of hosts who utilize our platform and value-added services: consumer hosts, who typically share one or two cars with the goal of offsetting the cost of car ownership; small business hosts, who typically share three to nine cars with the goal of generating a secondary source of income; and professional hosts, who typically share 10 or more cars, often as their primary source of income or part of an existing business, and invest in building scalable, accessible, and flexible businesses atop our platform.

Our host acquisition strategy is focused on attracting, onboarding, and empowering hosts through sales, account management, incentives, and performance marketing. We have recently increased our focus on growing consumer hosts into small business and professional hosts in order to grow the supply of vehicles available to guests on our platform by, among other efforts, increasing host incentives to improve host net revenue retention. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 85% of our active hosts were consumer hosts who listed two or fewer vehicles. As hosts become more successful on our platform, we are able to improve retention and grow supply.

 

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We attract most of our hosts and guests organically, and we supplement organic growth with targeted marketing spend designed to deliver strong returns on investments. We believe that our unique inventory of vehicles, superior user experience, and strong brand affinity power word-of-mouth growth and repeat usage, reducing our reliance on paid marketing. Our guest acquisition strategy is focused on attracting high-intent visitors to our platform through direct traffic, search engine optimization, and performance marketing channels. As we continue to add more supply density and expand to non-U.S. geographies, we expect that will lead to increased bookings from repeat guests, increasing the overall efficiency of our marketplace. Importantly, in 2022, approximately 79% of our site traffic was organic and approximately 48% of Days were generated from bookings by repeat guests. Given the rapid growth we experienced in 2021 and 2022, we anticipate that the share of Days from bookings by repeat guests will increase in future periods.

We measure and compare the value of each booking by monitoring revenue and gross profit per Day. We generate revenue from fees charged to both hosts and guests to complete a booking on our marketplace, or Marketplace Fees, and for value-added services such as protection, or Value-Added Services Fees. These fees enable us to pay for the various services we provide to hosts and guests, such as customer support, marketing and advertising, trust and safety screenings, roadside assistance, payment processing, and reimbursement to hosts for physical damage to their vehicles. We believe our protection plans provide a compelling value proposition that facilitates activity on our marketplace. We are focused on creating a successful and positive host and guest experience — hosts and guests can choose the protection plan that’s right for them, and every booking with a host includes third-party liability insurance coverage for hosts and their guests from one of our top-tier insurance providers. Guest protection plans provide guests with choice and flexibility regarding the amount they pay out of their own pocket for damage costs in the event of an accident.

Trust and safety are key to the health of our community. To that end, we developed our Turo Risk Score, a proprietary algorithm that collects data on the large volume of trips, vehicles, and other activities of hosts and guests on our platform. We leverage insights from this data to control for fraud, manage risk, evaluate security deposit requirements, and mitigate unsafe behavior. We also use the Turo Risk Score to dynamically adjust the Marketplace Fees that we charge guests to complete a booking, as further described under “ — Anatomy of a booking” below. We believe this contributes to better access to and availability of our platform for guests, expands the economic opportunity for hosts, and garners deeper loyalty from our community, ultimately driving improved contribution margins for our business.

Unlike rental car and fleet-based car sharing providers, as a marketplace platform, we do not own the vehicles that are booked on our platform. As a result, our business model is asset-light and has lower working capital and cash needs compared to non-marketplace providers. Our operating expenses are largely driven by headcount. We also continue to invest in our marketing strategy to grow and retain both hosts and guests on our platform, and in product development to continuously improve and innovate on the experience and safety on our platform.

Anatomy of a booking

We generate revenue from fees charged to both hosts and guests. Fees consist of Marketplace Fees and Value-Added Services Fees, as further described below. The table below shows the components of an illustrative one-day booking.

 

 

Guests. For each booking on our platform, the amount we charge the guest consists of the vehicle price (as chosen by the host, who can choose to utilize our pricing tools), a Marketplace Fee, a Value-Added Services Fee, if any, and any applicable pass through taxes and other fees that are required to be remitted to state or local authorities, which are excluded from net revenue. Value-Added Services Fees consist primarily of charges for protection services, which we refer to as Protection Plan Services, as well as delivery and other optional Extras, such as prepaid refueling, bike and ski racks, and camping equipment (which, for simplicity’s sake, are not included in the illustrative example below). Marketplace Fees vary based on geography, the Turo Risk Score, which includes information submitted by guests about themselves and their desired reservation, and parameters set by the host, while fees charged for Protection Plan Services

 

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vary based on parameters set or offered by the host and the elections made by the guest, including the guest’s ability to limit their financial responsibility for damage caused to the host’s vehicle. Third-party liability insurance for the guest is included in every booking offered by a host.

 

 

Hosts. For each booking on our platform, we charge the host a Marketplace Fee based on a percentage of the vehicle price chosen by the host. In addition, hosts pay a Value-Added Services Fee for items such as reimbursement for physical damage to their vehicle. Third-party liability insurance for the host is included in every booking.

 

 

Turo. We retain a portion of the fees charged to guests, with amounts owed to hosts and local authorities distributed accordingly.

Gross Booking Value, or GBV, and net revenue in the table below exclude reductions in revenue resulting from incentive and refund payments made to hosts and guests. For illustration purposes, we included a common reimbursement line item for incidental charges (in this case, additional distance driven beyond the miles included), and sales tax (which we collect and remit to local authorities in certain jurisdictions).

 

Illustrative booking example

  

Guest:

  

Price for vehicle

   $ 100.00  

Plus: Marketplace Fees (impacted by Turo Risk Score)

     35.00  

Plus: Value-Added Services Fees (includes protection)

     30.00  

Plus: Host reimbursement (e.g., additional mileage reimbursement)

     5.00  

Plus: Taxes & fees (as applicable, pass through and remitted to local authorities)

     10.00  

Total collected from guest (GBV)

   $ 180.00  

 

Host:

  

Price for vehicle

   $ 100.00  

Less: Marketplace Fees

     7.50  

Less: Value-Added Services Fees (includes protection)

     7.50  

Plus: host reimbursement (e.g., additional mileage reimbursement)

     5.00  

Total paid to host

   $ 90.00  

Turo:

  

Marketplace Fees

   $ 42.50  

Plus: Value-Added Services Fees (includes protection)

   $ 37.50  

Net Revenue

   $ 80.00  

Key business metrics

In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the following key business metrics to help us evaluate our business, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions. We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating these key metrics, which may hinder comparability with other companies that may calculate similarly titled metrics in a different way.

 

     Year ended December 31,
             2019                    2020                    2021                     2022         
     (in millions, unless otherwise noted)
         

Days(1)

           4,675        3,825        10,917        19,149

Gross Booking Value

     $           351.6      $           335.9      $           1,256.4      $           2,061.0

 

(1)

In thousands.

 

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Days

Days (MM)

 

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1.2 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.0 1.4 3.1 3.0 3.4 4.3 4.9 5.0 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020 Q2 2020 Q3 2020 Q4 2020 Q1 2021 Q2 2021 Q3 2021 Q4 2021 Q1 2022 Q2 2022 Q3 2022

We define Days as total days for a vehicle booked by our guests on our platform in a given period over the period of measurement, net of days canceled in that period. We believe Days is a key business metric to help investors and others understand and evaluate our results of operations in the same manner as our management team, as it represents a unit of transaction volume on our platform. We intend to increase Days over time as we increase our supply of unique inventory, more guests use our platform, and we expand to new markets. We estimate that in 2022, approximately 6.8 million, or 35% of Days were part of bookings seven to 29 days in length, and approximately 1.1 million, or 6%, of Days were part of bookings greater than 30 days in length.

In 2020, our Days declined from prior levels as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the second quarter of 2020, our Days declined by 38% from the prior year period. Our business improved in the third and fourth quarters of 2020 as the markets in which we operate began to reopen their economies, resulting in Days declining by only 11% and 21% as compared to the same periods in 2019, respectively. In the fourth quarter of 2020, our Days declined from the prior quarter as a result of renewed stay-at-home orders and other state and local mandated restrictions in certain markets, including California and Hawaii.

In 2021, our business improved as COVID-19 vaccines became accessible, many travel restrictions lifted, and consumers became more comfortable traveling, compounded by a supply shortage in rental cars. In the first, second, third, and fourth quarters of 2021, our Days increased by 44%, 302%, 174%, and 250%, respectively, from the prior year period. During the first and second quarters of 2021, we saw a higher share of Days booked compared to trips occurring during the same quarter. In the third quarter of 2021, our Days declined slightly from the prior quarter as a result of the advanced bookings accumulated in the first and second quarters. Days increased in the fourth quarter of 2021 as a result of continued travel demand.

In 2022, our Days increased as a result of continued increase travel demand combined with an increase in our supply and new guests on the platform. In the first, second, third, and fourth quarters of 2022, our Days increased by 200%, 59%, 70%, and 44%, respectively, over the same quarters of 2021.

Subject to conditions affecting the travel and mobility market, we expect Days to grow to the extent we increase the number of new guests to our platform, increase the retention rate of existing guests, grow supply in our existing markets and enter new markets, and offer vehicles that can be used in a variety of use cases.

 

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Gross Booking Value

Gross Booking Value ($MM)

 

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$97.6 $95.8 $73.7 $59.9 $107.1 $95.2 $147.1 $388.6 $349.5 $371.2 $458.8 $564.6 $536.2 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020 Q2 2020 Q3 2020 Q4 2020 Q1 2021 Q2 2021 Q3 2021 Q4 2021 Q1 2022 Q2 2022 Q3 2022

We define Gross Booking Value, or GBV, as the total value of Days booked on our platform, including reimbursable expenses owed to the host by the guest, applicable pass through taxes, and other fees required to be remitted to local authorities, which are excluded from net revenue. GBV is driven by the number of Days and related pricing. Revenue from bookings is recognized at the time of check-in for the reservation or over the duration of the trip; accordingly, GBV is a leading indicator of revenue. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we saw a decrease in Days in 2020 as described above, as well as an increase in cancellations. GBV decreased by 34% in the second quarter of 2020 compared to the second quarter of 2019, and recovered in the third quarter of 2020 as certain regions reopened their economies and we benefited from an increase in car travel as a result of shifting consumer preference to car-based travel during the pandemic. At the same time, rental car companies that had reduced their fleet sizes during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic were unable to quickly rebuild their fleets due to constraints in automobile manufacturing capacity that we do not face as a marketplace platform. With the increase in demand for travel, compounded by the rental car supply shortage, we saw an increase in pricing, resulting in an increase in GBV by in each quarter of 2021 compared to the corresponding quarter of 2020. In 2022, we have continued to see an increase in GBV in each quarter compared to the same quarter in 2021, primarily due to the increased Days booked on our platform. As the rental car supply shortage has begun to ease, we observed decreases in pricing in each quarter in 2022 compared to the same quarter in 2021. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain shortages that inflated the prices on our platform in 2021 are not expected to continue in the future, and as a result, we may experience a decrease in our GBV growth rate in future periods.

Non-GAAP financial measures

In addition to our results determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, we believe the following non-GAAP financial measures help us to evaluate our business, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions. We use the following non-GAAP financial measures, collectively, to evaluate our ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because they provide consistency and comparability with past financial performance and assist in comparisons with other companies, some of which use similar non-GAAP financial measures to supplement their GAAP results. The non-GAAP financial measures are presented for supplemental informational purposes only, should not be considered as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from similarly titled non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies. Because of these limitations, we consider, and you should consider, our non-GAAP financial measures alongside other financial performance measures presented in accordance with GAAP. A reconciliation of each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP is provided below. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.

 

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The following table summarizes our non-GAAP financial measures, along with the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for each period presented below.

 

    Year ended December 31,  
    2019     2020     2021     2022  
    (in thousands, except percentages)  

Gross profit

  $ 44,091     $ 53,189     $         269,059     $         405,082  

Contribution (loss) profit

  $ (27,094   $ 17,282     $ 176,188     $ 216,006  

Gross margin

    31.1%       35.5%       57.4%       54.3%  

Contribution margin

    (19.1)%       11.5%       37.6%       28.9%  

Net (loss) income

  $ (98,559   $ (97,083   $ (40,382   $ 154,664  

Adjusted EBITDA

  $         (91,621)     $         (38,050   $ 81,135     $ 79,663  

Contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin

We define contribution profit (loss) as our gross profit less our (a) operations and support (excluding stock-based compensation expense), (b) sales and marketing expense attributable to customer acquisition, including media spend, sales, headcount costs (excluding stock-based compensation expense), and marketing promotions, and (c) chargebacks, bad debt expense, and trust and safety verifications included in general and administrative expense, plus (i) stock-based compensation expense included in cost of net revenue, and (ii) amortization of internal-use software included in cost of net revenue. We use contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin as indicators of the economic impact of a new booking on our platform as it captures the direct expenses attributable to a new booking on our platform and the cost it takes to generate revenue. While certain contribution profit (loss) adjustments may not be non-recurring, non-cash, non-operating, or unusual, contribution profit (loss) is a metric our management and board of directors find useful, and we believe investors may find useful, in understanding the costs most directly associated with revenue-generating activities.

Our contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin have improved as a result of the greater scale of our business, the introduction of our Turo Risk Score-based fee algorithms in April 2020, our success with organic host and guest acquisition, our ability to drive greater host and guest engagement, as well as improved loyalty and repeat usage of our platform. In the first, second, and third quarters of 2021, our contribution margin improved significantly compared to our historical levels. This performance primarily resulted from the higher revenue per day driven by the rental car supply shortage. As the rental car shortage continues to ease, revenue per day is not expected to remain elevated and may negatively impact our contribution margin in future periods. We will continue to invest in our host and guest acquisition strategy, which may adversely impact our contribution margin from period to period as we make these investments. During 2022, our contribution profit increased each quarter compared to the same quarter in 2021, primarily due to an increase in total Days booked by guests on our platform, however our contribution margin decreased due to a combination of decreasing prices and increased customer acquisition costs.

Contribution profit (loss) ($MM)

 

 

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Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4 2019 Q1 2020 Q2 2020 Q3 2020 Q4 2020 Q1 2021 Q2 2021 Q3 2021 Q4 2021 Q1 2022 Q2 2022 Q3 2022 Q4 2022 Contribution Profit ( (6.12) (11.36) (0.87) (8.74) (5.67) 0 .85 1 1.35 1 0.75 1 7.64 5 8.67 5 9.26 4 0.62 4 1.38 5 4.59 7 6.08 4 3.96% of Revenue (24%) (35%) (2%) (23%) (16%) 4% 23% 26% 31% 47% 39% 29% 29% 29% 34% 24%

Contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin are non-GAAP financial measures with certain limitations regarding their usefulness, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and are not meant as substitutes for

 

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gross profit and gross margin, which are measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. For purposes of the non-GAAP financial measures, gross profit is defined as net revenue minus cost of revenue, each of which is presented on the consolidated statements of operations. Our definitions of contribution profit (loss) and contribution margin may differ from the definitions used by other companies in our industry and therefore, comparability may be limited. In addition, other companies may not publish these or other similar metrics. Further, our definition of contribution profit (loss) does not include the impact of certain expenses that are reflected in our consolidated statements of operations. Thus, our contribution profit (loss) should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for or in isolation from, gross profit prepared in accordance with GAAP. The following tables present reconciliations of gross profit to contribution (loss) profit and gross margin to contribution margin for each of the periods indicated:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
          2019                2020                2021                2022       
     (in thousands, except percentages)  

Gross profit

   $ 44,091      $         53,189      $         269,059      $         405,082  

Add: Stock-based compensation included in cost of net revenue

     607        205        1,025        590  

Add: Depreciation and amortization included in cost of net revenue

     1,320        2,610        3,895        5,969  

Less: Operations and support

     15,308        12,941        33,436        64,098  

Less: Customer acquisition costs

     48,238        14,222        44,502        95,248  

Less: Verification costs

     4,552        4,136        9,593        13,888  

Less: Chargebacks and bad debt expense

     5,014        7,423        10,260        22,401  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Contribution (loss) profit

   $         (27,094)      $ 17,282      $ 176,188      $ 216,006  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Gross margin

     31.1%        35.5%        57.4%        54.3%  

Contribution margin

     (19.1)%        11.5%        37.6%        28.9%  

Adjusted EBITDA

Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that represents our net income or loss adjusted for (i) provision for income taxes; (ii) other income and (expense), net; (iii) depreciation and amortization; (iv) stock-based compensation expense; (v) impairment charges; (vi) certain legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserves; and (vii) change in fair value of our redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability. We use adjusted EBITDA in conjunction with net income or loss, its corresponding GAAP measure, as a performance measure that we use to assess our operating performance and operating leverage in our business. We also measure our adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenue on a trailing 12-month basis in order to provide a longer-term view and account for seasonal fluctuations in our net revenue and associated profitability. The above items are excluded from our adjusted EBITDA measure because these items are non-cash in nature, or because the amount and timing of these items is unpredictable, or they are not driven by core results of operations, thereby rendering comparisons with prior periods and competitors less meaningful. We believe adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our results of operations, as well as provides a useful measure for period-to-period comparisons of our business performance. Moreover, we have included adjusted EBITDA in this prospectus because it is a key measurement used by our management internally to make operating decisions, including those related to analyzing operating expenses, evaluating performance, and performing strategic planning and annual budgeting.

In 2019, net loss was $98.6 million and adjusted EBITDA was $(91.6) million as we continued to invest in the growth of our marketplace and offerings for both hosts and guests. In 2020, net loss was $97.1 million and adjusted EBITDA was $(38.1) million, reflecting our temporary cost-cutting initiatives in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to streamline our business, as well as the improvements and growth we saw as consumer preferences continued to shift to favor car-based travel. In 2021 and 2022, as a result of significant growth in Days and GBV, we have experienced favorable adjusted EBITDA compared to 2019 and 2020. In 2021, net loss was $40.4 million and adjusted EBITDA was $81.1 million; and in 2022, net income was $154.7 million and adjusted EBITDA

 

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was $79.7 million. We expect adjusted EBITDA to fluctuate in the near term as we continue to invest in our business, including reversing many of the cost-cutting initiatives we implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and improve over the long term as we achieve greater scale in our business and efficiencies in our operating expenses.

Adjusted EBITDA ($MM)

 

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% of net revenue ($20.4) ($27.2) ($17.8) ($26.2) ($24.7) ($11.1) $0.3 ($2.6) $0.2 $33.3 $36.2 $11.5 $14.2 $21.3 $40.9 $3.2 Q1 2019 (81.1%) Q2 2019 (84.0%) Q3 2019 (38.8%) Q4 2019 (68.4%) Q1 2020 (70.6%) Q2 2020 (46.4%) Q3 2020 (0.7%) Q4 2020 (6.2%) Q1 2021 (0.4%) Q2 2021 26.8% Q3 2021 24.1% Q4 2021 8.3% Q1 2022 9.9% Q2 2022 11.2% Q3 2022 18.1% Q4 2022 1.7%

Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as a financial measure, should be considered as supplemental in nature, and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. These limitations include the following:

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect other income and (expense), net, which includes interest income on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, net of interest expense, and gains and losses on foreign currency transactions and balances;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain recurring, non-cash charges, such as depreciation of property and equipment and amortization of intangible assets, and although these are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized may have to be replaced in the future, and adjusted EBITDA does not reflect all cash requirements for such replacements or for new capital expenditure requirements;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes stock-based compensation expense, which has been, and will continue to be for the foreseeable future, a significant recurring expense in our business and an important part of our compensation strategy;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect impairment charges, which primarily include lease and other asset impairments;

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserve changes and settlements that may reduce cash available to us; and

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA excludes change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability.

Because of these limitations, you should consider adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including net loss and our other GAAP results.

 

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The following is a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA to the most comparable GAAP measure, net loss:

 

    Year ended December 31,  
    2019     2020     2021               2022             
    (in thousands)  

Net (loss) income

  $ (98,559)     $ (97,083)     $     (40,382)     $ 154,664  

Add (deduct):

       

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

    47       86       1,106       (64,237

Other (income) and expense, net

    (1,538)       (655)       594       (5,883

Depreciation and amortization

    1,551       3,023       4,188       9,143  

Stock-based compensation

    8,634       8,673       14,392       18,613  

Impairment

    539       1,816       48        

Legal, regulatory, and indirect tax reserves

    2,886       4,156       15,951       18,087  

Change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

    (5,181)       41,934       85,238       (50,724)  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

  $     (91,621)     $     (38,050)     $ 81,135     $ 79,663  

Factors affecting our performance

We believe that the growth and future success of our business depends on many factors. While each of these factors presents significant opportunities for our business, they also pose important challenges that we must successfully address in order to sustain our growth, improve our results of operations, and maintain or increase profitability.

Ability to attract and retain hosts

We must maintain and grow a broad, unique selection of host-provided inventory on our platform to continue delivering compelling value and experiences for our guests. Our platform unlocks the potential for hosts to share their vehicles and earn income in a way that was previously not possible. Our ability to maintain and grow inventory depends on our ability to attract new hosts to the platform and help existing hosts grow their active vehicle listings and earnings potential. In addition, a host’s active vehicle listings and earning potential depend on a number of factors, such as vehicle availability, demand in the host’s area, and economic conditions, including rising interest rates, limited availability of credit, economic uncertainty, and inflation. For example, as interest rates rise, the cost to finance the purchase of a vehicle increases, which negatively impacts a host’s earnings potential. We enable hosts of all sizes to earn income by empowering them with the information and tools to share their vehicles, including scheduling, merchandising, integrated payments, community support, host protection programs, pricing recommendations, and reviews. Because of our business model, we succeed when our hosts succeed.

We attract new hosts through a mix of organic channels, sales outreach, and paid marketing initiatives. We are focused on retaining our hosts and increasing the net revenue they generate for us and as a result, their own earnings. We track our hosts’ success on our platform and the associated revenue that we earn from their activity. We define “Host Cohort” as the group of hosts who first became active on our platform in a given year, and then measure the revenue they generate over the subsequent one-year period and for each subsequent year, as compared to the first active year. For example, the 2018 Host Cohort includes hosts whose first trip started between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018. For a host in the 2018 Host Cohort whose first trip started on August 1, 2018, the first active year, or Year 1, is August 1, 2018 through July 31, 2019, and the subsequent one-year period, or Year 2, is August 1, 2019 through July 31, 2020. We then calculate the revenue associated with those hosts in each subsequent one-year period and compare against their first year.

The table below illustrates the revenue retention of each calendar year Host Cohort and demonstrates our ability to retain and improve our Host Cohorts over time. For example, our 2014 Host Cohort retained 74% of its

 

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Year 1 net revenue in Year 2, while our 2020 Host Cohort retained 78% of its Year 1 net revenue in Year 2. These improvements are a result of the continued investment in providing our hosts with the tools and technology they need to be successful. In addition, each of our Host Cohorts from 2014 to 2016 demonstrated improved retention relative to Year 1 in subsequent periods, prior to being impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Host net revenue retention curve

 

     Years from Host Cohort activation  
     Year 1      Year 2     Year 3     Year 4     Year 5  

2014 Host Cohort

     100%        74%       74%       78%       81%  

2015 Host Cohort

     100%        80%       86%       87%       74%

2016 Host Cohort

     100%        90%       90%       78%     91%  

2017 Host Cohort

     100%        88%       71%     77%       83%  

2018 Host Cohort

     100%        67%     63%       73%    

2019 Host Cohort

     100%        86%       85%      

2020 Host Cohort

     100%        78%        

2021 Host Cohort

     100%           

Host net revenue retention deteriorated across all applicable Host Cohorts in 2020 due to the decline in revenue resulting from COVID-19, as represented by the “*” in the chart above. For example, the host net revenue retention for the 2017 Host Cohort deteriorated from 88% in Year 2 to 71% in Year 3, primarily as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Subject to conditions affecting the travel and mobility market, we believe the historic strength of our host revenue retention should return as, and to the extent that, the travel industry recovers and the economy recovers.

Ability to attract and retain guests while improving their gross profit retention

In order to grow our business, we must attract and retain guests and drive their profitable usage of our platform. A substantial portion of our guests come to our marketplace organically, though we also use paid marketing to further enhance the growth of our guest base. We focus our paid marketing spend on attracting guests that we expect are going to generate compelling value for us, and we focus on retaining guests that we expect are going to be accretive to our gross profit. We use our Turo Risk Score to assess the potential value of each transaction, and adjust our Marketplace Fees and other add-ons, such as security deposits, to ensure we are appropriately setting fees for transactions on our marketplace. For example, transactions with higher risk scores may require a deposit and lead to a higher trip fee, whereas lower risk scored transactions will generate lower trip fees in comparison.

Our guests have access to an increasingly larger and more diverse selection of vehicles in more locations. The unique vehicle inventory, along with the seamless guest experience, spurs organic word-of-mouth growth and repeat usage. Over time we have demonstrated the ability to both retain and generate repeat bookings from guests on our platform, and to improve the gross profit of the trips of our Guest Cohorts over time, through these risk-based fee strategies. We define “Guest Cohort” as the group of guests who first became active on our platform in a given year, and then measure the revenue they generate over the subsequent one-year period, and for each subsequent year, as compared to the first active year. For example, the 2018 Guest Cohort includes guests whose first trip started between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018. For a guest in the 2018 Guest Cohort whose first trip started on August 1, 2018, the first active year, or Year 1, is August 1, 2018 through July 31, 2019, and the subsequent one-year period, or Year 2, is August 1, 2019 through July 31, 2020. We have not included the 2014 and 2015 Guest Cohorts because we do not have accurate data available for those cohorts.

We are actively focused on ensuring the quality of our marketplace and will continue to invest in growing the profitability of our guest community. The table below illustrates the gross profit retention of each calendar year

 

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Guest Cohort and demonstrates our ability to retain and improve our Guest Cohorts over time. For example, we retained 29% of the gross profit from our 2016 Guest Cohort in Year 2, and this increased to 37% of the gross profit in Year 5. In addition, the 2017-2020 Guest Cohorts have performed better in Year 2 relative to the 2016 Guest Cohort. These improvements are a result of the continued investment in our risk-based fees and platform capabilities, including Turo Risk Score. Guest gross profit retention for all periods has been recast based on our definition of gross profit, which does not include customer support costs.

Guest gross profit retention curve

 

     Years from Guest Cohort activation  
     Year 1      Year 2     Year 3     Year 4     Year 5  
                     

2016 Guest Cohort

     100%        29%       19%       21%     37%  

2017 Guest Cohort

     100%        32%       27%     50%       64%  

2018 Guest Cohort

     100%        34%     38%       53%    

2019 Guest Cohort

     100%        42%       44%      

2020 Guest Cohort

     100%        31%        

2021 Guest Cohort

     100%           

Guest gross profit retention was impacted in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as represented by the “*” in the chart above. Despite this negative impact, we were able to improve gross profit retention of our Guest Cohorts. For example, the guest gross profit retention for the 2017 Guest Cohort improved from 32% in Year 2 to 64% in Year 5. As the travel industry and the economy recover from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we believe we will be able to continue the historical trends in our guest gross profit retention. The health of our customer acquisition unit economics further evidenced these efforts to optimize the gross profit of our Guest Cohorts. In 2022, the payback period (time taken to recover the cost of acquiring a new guest) for our U.S. users acquired during that period was three months on average.

Investments in people and technology

We have made, and will continue to make, significant investments to attract and retain employees, particularly engineers, data scientists, designers, and product management personnel to expand the capabilities and scope of our platform and enhance the experience for hosts and guests. The continued improvement of our technology through investment in engineering resources is paramount to enhancing our unique product capabilities, including our proprietary Turo Risk Score. We also plan to invest in sales and marketing activities to drive host and guest acquisition and increase our brand awareness. We expect to incur additional general and administrative expenses to support our growth and our transition to being a publicly traded company. Further, we continue to make investments in our technical and security infrastructure to support user growth, and in our office locations to support employee growth, which will increase expenses.

As cost of net revenue, operating expenses, and capital expenditures fluctuate over time, we may experience short-term, negative impacts to our results of operations and cash flows, but we are undertaking such investments in the belief that they will contribute to long-term growth.

Turo Risk Score enables us to deliver profitability across risk segments

We use the Turo Risk Score to inform trust and safety management practices and the Marketplace Fees and costs associated with each trip based on historical data and the expected costs, and to help ensure the economic viability of each trip booked on our platform. We have made, and will continue to make, significant investments in our technology platform that are intended to decrease the frequency and ultimate costs to us for reimbursement to hosts for damage to vehicles, to reduce the risk of payment fraud or identity theft, and to understand the likelihood that a guest will contribute risk to the marketplace in a manner that could increase our costs. In particular, our Turo Risk Score powers unique product capabilities to set fees for trips effectively.

 

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The more trips taken, the better we are able to refine our algorithms and continuously improve the accuracy of the Turo Risk Score to drive actionable insights that inform fees, inventory adjustments, trust and safety practices, and more. We expect that improvements in our Turo Risk Score capabilities will allow us to adjust fees to account for risks presented in the marketplace, thus helping to optimize broad based risk-related costs, guide fees to be more cost-effective and efficient, and drive improvements to our contribution margin over time. For illustration purposes, we have included a chart below reflecting how the Turo Risk Score has optimized trip monetization by transaction. Note that underlying data, particularly for recent periods, will change as claims develop over time.

 

Turo Risk Score has optimized monetization & profitablity Turo Risk Score segments Lower score = lower risk Higher score = higher risk Gross margin % 100% 0% -100% 2018 2019 2020 2021 Segment A Segment B Segment C Segment D Segment E

LOGO

Notes: U.S. only.

Seasonality

Our overall business is seasonal, reflecting typical travel behavior patterns over the course of the calendar year. In addition, each city and region where we operate has unique seasonality, events, and weather that can increase or decrease demand for our offering. Certain holidays can also have an impact on demand on the holiday itself or during the preceding and subsequent weekends. Typically, our second and third quarters experience higher revenue as this is the peak travel season in North America, the United Kingdom, and France. Our GBV typically follows the seasonality patterns of revenue. We recognize revenue when the trip occurs, and as a result, our revenue, contribution profit (loss), and adjusted EBITDA tend to be highest in the second and third quarter of the year. Our customer support costs also increase in the second and third quarters as we increase our staffing to handle increased activity on our platform in those periods.

In 2020, 2021, and 2022, we saw the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting macroeconomic effects, including on the travel and rental car industries, overwhelm the historical seasonality pattern in our Days, GBV, contribution profit (loss), contribution margin, and adjusted EBITDA as a result of shelter-in-place orders, government travel restrictions, and changing travel preferences. We expect this impact on typical seasonality to continue if the COVID-19 pandemic, similar public health outbreak, or resulting macroeconomic factors continue to impact travel restrictions and customer preferences globally.

Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant fluctuations in our quarterly financial results. Initially, we experienced a period of decreased use of our platform due to shelter-in-place orders and the uncertainty resulting

 

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from the pandemic, which adversely impacted our revenue, results of operations, and cash flows in the first half of 2020. In response to these impacts, we implemented certain temporary cost-cutting measures in March 2020, such as decreased marketing-related spend, layoffs, furloughs, and salary reductions. We also discontinued our operations in Germany, in part, as a cost-cutting measure in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

As shelter-in-place orders started to be lifted in the second half of 2020, we began experiencing use of our platform above pre-COVID-19 levels. The conditions related to and arising from the COVID-19 pandemic have incentivized additional individuals to seek entrepreneurial forms of primary and supplementary income, which we believe has led to increases in both the total number of hosts listing vehicles on our platform and the number of small business hosts sharing three or more vehicles on our platform. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed consumer behaviors by elevating the desire for private transportation options instead of public or shared transportation options. In addition, rental car companies reduced their fleet sizes in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic and have been unable to quickly rebuild their fleets due to constraints in automobile manufacturing capacity. As a result, they are currently challenged in meeting consumer demand in many markets. In light of these conditions, more consumers have turned to peer-to-peer car sharing for their vehicle needs. We have therefore experienced an increase in the number of guests booking trips on our platform, and an improvement in the risk profile of the trips booked as the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, which may not continue in the future, particularly as we experience fluctuations in the use of our platform since the emergence of variants of concern. The combination of circumstances that have accelerated the growth and anticipated profitability of our business stemming from the effects of the expectations of the tapering of the COVID-19 pandemic are not expected to continue in the future, and we may experience a decrease in growth rate in future periods after the effects of the pandemic diminish, including as a result of reversing many of the cost-cutting measures we employed.

Changes to our business model, marketplace fees, and value-added services fees

From time to time, we institute changes to our Marketplace and Value-Added Services Fees in order to improve the host and guest experience on our marketplace and drive revenue retention and gross profit retention. For example, in the second quarter of 2021, we reduced the Value-Added Services Fees we charge many hosts and implemented temporary reductions in the Marketplace Fees charged to guests for certain trips. We anticipate that these changes, and any future changes, will impact our future financial results as adjustments flow through our business.

Components of results of operations

Net revenue

Our revenue consists of service fees charged to our customers, net of incentives and refunds. We consider both hosts and guests to be our customers. We generate revenue from enabling guest bookings of vehicles offered by hosts on our platform, which we refer to as the Marketplace Services, as well through offering Protection Plan Services. We offer various incentive programs to hosts, including minimum guaranteed payments and vehicle listing bonus payments.

We experience a difference in timing between when a booking is made and when we recognize revenue. We recognize revenue from Marketplace Services at the time of check-in for the reservation. We charge service fees to our customers as a percentage of the value of the total booking, excluding taxes. We collect both the booking value from the guest on behalf of the host and the applicable guest fees owed to us using the guest’s pre-authorized payment method. After the trip is complete, we, or our third-party payment processors, disburse the booking value to the host, less the fees due from the host to us. As we do not establish the prices for vehicles booked nor do we control the right to use the vehicle either before or after completion of the service, we have concluded that for accounting purposes we are acting in an agent capacity and revenue is presented on a net basis to reflect the service fees we receive from Marketplace Services.

 

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We also offer hosts and their guests Protection Plan Services. Insurance is included for hosts and their guests automatically at no additional cost. Amounts charged for Protection Plan Services for hosts vary based upon the level of contractual reimbursement hosts are entitled to receive in the event of damage to, or loss of, their vehicle during a trip. Amounts charged for Protection Plan Services for guests vary based upon the level of their capped financial responsibility in the event of damage to, or loss of, the host’s vehicle. We collect fees for Protection Plan Services from the guest up front at the same time the Marketplace Service fees are collected. We provide Protection Plan Services over the duration of the trip, and therefore revenue is recognized ratably over the trip period. Because we bear the risk of loss or damage to the host’s vehicle subject to the provisions and exclusions of our terms of service, we are the principal in the transaction for accounting purposes as it relates to the Protection Plan Services. We expect our revenue to increase in future periods as we grow our business. Over the long term, as our business continues to grow and mature, we expect that our revenue growth rate will decline.

Cost of net revenue

Cost of net revenue primarily consists of costs associated with our host and guest protection programs and our platform costs. Protection program costs include costs of physical damage to host vehicles (offset by amounts subrogated by third parties and collected from hosts and guests), liability insurance premiums paid by us, loss reserves, claims processing, and personnel-related expenses. Platform costs include payment processing fees, costs associated with third-party data centers used to host our platform, and amortization of internally developed and acquired developed technology. Personnel-related expenses generally include salary, bonus, stock-based compensation, and employee benefits. We expect our cost of net revenue will continue to increase on an absolute dollar basis for the foreseeable future to the extent that we continue to see growth on our platform. Cost of net revenue may vary as a percentage of net revenue from year to year based on activity on our marketplace.

Operations and support

Operations and support expense primarily consists of costs associated with third-party service provider fees and personnel-related expenses associated with customer support provided to hosts and guests via phone, email, and chat. Personnel-related expenses generally include salary, bonus, stock-based compensation, and employee benefits. We expect our operations and support costs will continue to increase on an absolute dollar basis for the foreseeable future to the extent that we continue to see growth in Days. Operations and support expense may vary as a percentage of net revenue from year to year based on GBV.

Product development

Product development expense primarily consists of personnel-related compensation expenses as well as expenses associated with the licensing of third-party software and allocated overhead. We expect that our product development expense will increase on an absolute dollar basis and will vary from period to period as a percentage of net revenue for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in product development activities relating to ongoing improvements to and maintenance of our technology platform, including the potential hiring of personnel to support these efforts.

Sales and marketing

Sales and marketing expense primarily consists of performance marketing, personnel-related compensation expenses, and brand marketing. Sales and marketing expense also includes allocated overhead. We expect that our sales and marketing expense will increase on an absolute dollar basis and will vary from period to period as a percentage of net revenue for the foreseeable future.

 

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General and administrative

General and administrative expense primarily consists of personnel-related expenses for executive management and administrative functions, including finance and accounting, legal, government relations, and human resources. General and administrative expenses also include certain professional service fees, including legal and lobbying expenses, loss contingencies, allocated overhead, and other expenses such as bad debt expense, chargebacks for fraudulent transactions, and indirect taxes. We expect to incur additional general and administrative expense as a result of operating as a public company, including expenses to comply with Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and stock exchange rules and regulations, as well as increased expenses for corporate insurance, director and officer insurance, investor relations, and professional services. We expect general and administrative expense to increase on an absolute dollar basis, vary as a percentage of net revenue from period to period over the short term, and decrease over the long term.

Change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability

The change in the fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant liability consists of the net changes in the fair value of our outstanding warrants to purchase redeemable convertible preferred stock that are remeasured at the end of each reporting period. We will continue to recognize changes in the fair value of warrants until each respective warrant is exercised, expires, or qualifies for equity classification.

Other income and (expense), net

Other income and (expense), net consists primarily of interest income on cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, net of interest expense and gains and losses on foreign currency transactions and balances.

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes consists of U.S. federal and state income and franchise tax, international taxes, as applicable, and net changes to the deferred tax assets, liabilities, and valuation allowances.

 

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Results of operations

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the periods presented:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2019      2020      2021            2022        
     (in thousands)  

Net revenue

   $ 141,689      $ 149,905      $ 469,047      $ 746,592  

Costs and expenses

           

Cost of net revenue(1)

     97,598        96,716        199,988        341,510  

Operations and support(1)

     15,400        13,082        33,546        64,286  

Product development(1)

     26,649        17,749        33,269        55,082  

Sales and marketing(1)

     57,845        20,037        52,713        111,297  

General and administrative(1)

     49,428        58,039        102,975        140,597  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total costs and expenses

     246,920        205,623        422,491        712,772  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

(Loss) income from operations

     (105,231)        (55,718)        46,556        33,820  

Other income and (expense), net

           

Change in fair value of redeemable convertible preferred stock warrant

     5,181        (41,934)        (85,238)        50,724  

Other income and (expense), net

     1,538        655        (594)        5,883  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Other income and (expense), net

     6,719        (41,279)        (85,832)        56,607