485APOS 1 a485apos.htm
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 24, 2022
1933 Act Registration No.333-261613
1940 Act Registration No.811-23761
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549
FORM N-1A
 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
  [ X ]
 
 Pre-Effective Amendment No.
  [     ]
 
 
 
 Post-Effective Amendment No.
    1 
 [ X ]
 
   and/or      
 REGISTRATION STATEMENT UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940       [ X ]
  Amendment No.
   2  
 [ X ]  
                   (Check appropriate box or boxes)
NEUBERGER BERMAN ETF TRUST
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)
c/o Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC
1290 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10104-0002
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code: (212) 476-8800
Joseph V. Amato
Chief Executive Officer and President
Neuberger Berman ETF Trust
c/o Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC
1290 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York 10104-0002
(Name and Address of Agent for Service)
With copies to:
Stacy L. Fuller, Esq.
Lori L. Schneider, Esq.
K&L Gates LLP
1601 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20006-1600
___________________________________
Approximate Date of Proposed Public Offering: Continuous
It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):
      immediately upon filing pursuant to paragraph (b)
      on  _________________ pursuant to paragraph (b)
     60 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
      on  _________________ pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)
    X  75 days after filing pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
      on _________________ pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)
      on _________________ pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of Rule 485.


If appropriate, check the following box:
___ this post-effective amendment designates a new effective date for a previously filed post-effective amendment.
Title of Securities Being Registered: Shares of Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF


NEUBERGER BERMAN ETF TRUST
CONTENTS OF POST-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. 1 ON FORM N-1A
This Post-Effective Amendment consists of the following papers and documents.
Cover Sheet
Contents of Post-Effective Amendment No.1 on Form N-1A
Part A - Prospectus

Part B - Statement of Additional Information

Part C - Other Information
Signature Page
Exhibit Index
Exhibits
This registration statement does not affect the registration of any series of the Registrant not included herein.


Neuberger Berman ETF Trust
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF
TBD
Shares of the Fund are not individually redeemable. Shares of the Fund will be listed on NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”).






The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state in which the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion
Preliminary Prospectus Dated June 24, 2022





Prospectus ________ __, 2022
These securities have not been approved or disapproved by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor the Commodity Futures Trading Commission have determined if this prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


 
Contents
NEUBERGER BERMAN ETF TRUST     
 
2
13
13
27
 29
30
31
Financial Highlights 33
34
   
YOUR INVESTMENT
 
35
36
36
36
36
36
37
37
39
39
Fund Summaries
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF
GOAL
The Fund seeks total return.
FEES AND EXPENSES
These tables below describe the fees and expenses that you may pay if you buy, hold and sell shares of the Fund (“Shares”).  You may pay other fees, such as brokerage commissions and other fees to financial intermediaries, which are not reflected in the table and example below.
 
 
Shareholder Fees (fees paid directly from your investment)
 None
Annual Fund Operating Expenses (expenses that you pay each year as a % of the value of your investment)
 
Management fees of Fund and Subsidiary (as defined below)
0.59
Total other expenses1
0.20
Other expenses of Fund
0.16
Other expenses of Subsidiary
0.04
Total annual operating expenses
0.79
Management fee waiver
0.14
Total annual operating expenses after fee waiver2
0.65
1
“Other expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year; actual expenses may vary.
2
[Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC (“Manager”) has contractually undertaken to waive and/or reimburse certain fees and expenses of the Fund so that the total annual operating expenses (excluding interest, taxes, brokerage commissions, acquired fund fees and expenses, dividend and interest expenses relating to short sales, and extraordinary expenses, if any) (“Operating Expenses”) of the Fund are limited to [0.64]% of average net assets. This undertakings lasts until [8/31/2025] and may not be terminated during its term without the consent of the Board of Trustees. The Fund has agreed that it will repay the Manager for fees and expenses waived or reimbursed for the Fund provided that repayment does not cause annual Operating Expenses to exceed [0.64]% of the Fund's average net assets. Any such repayment must be made within three years after the year in which the Manager incurred the expense.]
 
For purposes of the contractual expense limitations, Operating Expenses shall be deemed to include the Operating Expenses of the Fund's wholly owned Cayman Islands subsidiary (see the “Principal Investment Strategies” section).
Expense Example
The expense example can help you compare costs among funds. The example assumes that you invested $10,000 for the periods shown, that you redeemed all of your shares at the end of those periods, that the Fund earned a hypothetical 5% total return each year, and that the Fund’s expenses were those in the table. Actual performance and expenses may be higher or lower.
1 Year
3 Years
5 Years
10 Years
$66
$208
$395
$937
Portfolio Turnover
The Fund pays transaction costs, such as commissions, when it buys and sells securities (or “turns over” its portfolio). A higher portfolio turnover rate may indicate higher transaction costs and may result in higher taxes when Fund shares are held in a taxable account. These costs, which are not reflected in annual operating expenses or in the example, affect the Fund’s performance. During the most recent fiscal year, when it operated as a mutual fund, the Fund’s portfolio turnover rate was 56% of the average value of its portfolio.
2 Commodity Strategy ETF
PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT STRATEGIES
The Fund seeks to achieve its goal by investing under normal circumstances in commodity-linked derivative instruments and fixed income instruments. Commodities are assets such as oil, natural gas, agricultural products or metals.
The Fund seeks to gain long and short exposure to the commodity markets by investing, directly or indirectly, in futures contracts on individual commodities and other commodity-linked derivative instruments. The performance of these commodity-linked derivative instruments is expected to correspond to the performance of the commodity underlying the derivative instrument, without requiring the Fund to invest directly in commodities. Although the Fund may make these investments in commodity-linked derivative instruments directly, the Fund expects to gain exposure to these investments primarily by investing in a wholly owned subsidiary of the Fund formed in the Cayman Islands (“Subsidiary”).
The Subsidiary is managed by Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC and has the same investment goal as the Fund. The Subsidiary may invest without limitation in commodity-linked derivative instruments. The Subsidiary also may invest in fixed income securities, cash or cash equivalent instruments, or money market mutual funds, some of which may serve as collateral for the Subsidiary’s derivative instruments. The Fund will not invest more than 25% of the value of its total assets in the Subsidiary at the end of any quarter of its taxable year.
In managing the Fund’s commodity investments, the Portfolio Managers seek to identify investment opportunities using quantitative investment models and fundamental analyses with an emphasis on risk management in an attempt to take advantage of both short-term and long-term opportunities in commodity markets. By managing a broadly diversified portfolio of commodity investments with an active investment approach, the Portfolio Managers seek to provide investors with an investment vehicle whose returns are not highly correlated with other major asset classes. The Fund may take short positions in one or more separate commodities. The short positions used by the Fund primarily involve buying a derivative on a commodity in anticipation that the price of the commodity will decline.
The Portfolio Managers will use various quantitative models employing strategies intended to identify investment opportunities and determine portfolio weightings in different commodity sectors and markets. These strategies include: (i) a risk-balancing strategy that considers the total portfolio risk the Portfolio Managers believe to be associated with each commodity; (ii) a strategy that endeavors to assess top down macro variables among various commodity sectors (such as, energy, industrial, precious metals, agricultural, livestock and softs (e.g., sugar, cotton, cocoa and coffee)); and/or (iii) a strategy that endeavors to assess the outlook for individual commodities within each commodity sector.
From time to time, the Fund’s investment program may emphasize a particular sector of the commodities markets. If the Fund emphasizes one or more sectors the performance of your investment in the Fund will likely be affected by events affecting the performance of those sectors. Additional information about certain risks related to the various commodities market sectors are summarized under “Additional Information about Principal Investment Risks” in the Prospectus.
The Fund’s fixed income investments will be mainly in investment grade fixed income securities and are intended to provide liquidity and preserve capital and may serve as collateral for the Fund’s derivative instruments. These may include fixed income securities issued by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities, mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, and securities issued by corporations or trust entities. The Fund considers fixed income securities to be investment grade if, at the time of investment, they are rated within the four highest categories by at least one independent credit rating agency or, if unrated, are determined by the Portfolio Managers to be of comparable quality.
The Fund may invest in cash or cash equivalent instruments. Because the Fund will use derivatives to gain exposure to commodities, and because derivatives may not require the Fund to deposit the full notional amount of the investment, the Fund may invest a significant amount of its assets in money market mutual funds or other fixed income investments, as described above. The Fund’s (and the Subsidiary’s) use of commodity-linked derivative instruments to obtain long and short exposure to the commodity markets may result in leverage, which amplifies the risks that are associated with the commodities underlying the derivative instruments. The Fund’s aggregate investment exposure, as measured on a notional basis, may be greater than 100% of the Fund’s total assets from time to time.
3 Commodity Strategy ETF
Although the Fund invests primarily in domestic securities and other instruments, it may also invest in foreign securities and other instruments.
In an effort to achieve its goal, the Fund may engage in active and frequent trading.
PRINCIPAL INVESTMENT RISKS
Most of the Fund’s performance depends on what happens in the commodity and stock markets, the Portfolio Managers’ evaluation of those developments, and the success of the Portfolio Managers in implementing the Fund’s investment strategies. The Fund’s use of derivative instruments will result in leverage, which amplifies the risks that are associated with these markets. The markets’ behavior can be difficult to predict, particularly in the short term. There can be no guarantee that the Fund will achieve its goal. The Fund may take temporary defensive and cash management positions; to the extent it does, it will not be pursuing its principal investment strategies.
The actual risk exposure taken by the Fund in its investment program will vary over time, depending on various factors including the Portfolio Managers' evaluation of issuer, political, regulatory, market, or economic developments. There can be no guarantee that the Portfolio Managers will be successful in their attempts to manage the risk exposure of the Fund or will appropriately evaluate or weigh the multiple factors involved in investment decisions, including issuer, market and/or instrument-specific analysis, valuation and environmental, social and governance factors.
The Fund is not a bank deposit, and is not guaranteed or insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency. The value of your investment may fall, sometimes sharply, and you could lose money by investing in the Fund.
Each of the following risks, which are described in alphabetical order and not in order of any presumed importance, can significantly affect the Fund’s performance. The relative importance of, or potential exposure as a result of, each of these risks will vary based on market and other investment-specific considerations.
Call Risk. Upon the issuer’s desire to call a security, or under other circumstances where a security is called, including when interest rates are low and issuers opt to repay the obligation underlying a “callable security” early, the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a lower yield and may not benefit from any increase in value that might otherwise result from declining interest rates.
Commodity Regulatory Risk. The Fund is deemed a “commodity pool” and the Fund’s investment manager is considered a “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Fund under the Commodity Exchange Act. The Fund’s investment manager is therefore subject to dual regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Compliance with regulations governing commodity pools may increase the Fund’s regulatory compliance costs. The regulatory requirements could change at any time and additional regulations could also be adopted, which may adversely impact the Fund, and the Fund may be compelled to consider significant changes, which could include substantially altering its principal investment strategies or, if deemed necessary, liquidating the Fund.
Commodity Risk. The Fund’s and the Subsidiary's significant investment exposure to the commodities markets and/or a particular sector of the commodities markets may subject the Fund and the Subsidiary to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The commodities markets are impacted by a variety of factors, including market movements, resource availability, commodity price volatility, speculation in the commodities markets, domestic and foreign political and economic events and policies, trade policies and tariffs, war, acts of terrorism, changes in domestic or foreign interest rates and/or investor expectations concerning interest rates, domestic and foreign inflation rates and investment and trading activities in commodities. Prices of various commodities may also be affected by factors such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and other regulatory developments. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions. To the extent the Fund focuses its investments in a particular commodity in the commodities market, the Fund will be more susceptible to risks associated with the particular commodity. No active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments. Because the Fund’s and the Subsidiary's performance is linked to the performance of potentially volatile commodities, investors should be willing to assume the risks of significant fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s shares.
4 Commodity Strategy ETF
Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that issuers, guarantors, or insurers may fail, or become less able or unwilling, to pay interest and/or principal when due. Changes in the actual or perceived creditworthiness of an issuer or a downgrade or default affecting any of the Fund’s securities could affect the Fund’s performance. Generally, the longer the maturity and the lower the credit quality of a security, the more sensitive it is to credit risk.
Currency Risk. Currency risk is the risk that foreign currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar. To the extent that the Fund invests in securities or other instruments denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, changes in currency exchange rates could adversely impact investment gains or add to investment losses. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time and can be affected unpredictably by various factors, including investor perception and changes in interest rates; intervention, or failure to intervene, by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational entities; or by currency controls or political developments in the U.S. or abroad.
Derivatives Risk. Use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that can involve investment techniques and risks different from, and in some respects greater than, those associated with investing in more traditional investments, such as stocks and bonds. Derivatives can be highly complex and highly volatile and may perform in unanticipated ways. Derivatives can create leverage, and the Fund could lose more than the amount it invests; some derivatives can have the potential for unlimited losses. Derivatives may at times be highly illiquid, and the Fund may not be able to close out or sell a derivative at a particular time or at an anticipated price. Derivatives can be difficult to value and valuation may be more difficult in times of market turmoil. The value of a derivative instrument depends largely on (and is derived from) the value of the reference instrument underlying the derivative. There may be imperfect correlation between the behavior of a derivative and that of the reference instrument underlying the derivative. An abrupt change in the price of a reference instrument could render a derivative worthless. Derivatives may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the reference instrument. Suitable derivatives may not be available in all circumstances, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will use derivatives to reduce exposure to other risks when that might have been beneficial. Derivatives involve counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the derivative will fail to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the derivative. That risk is generally thought to be greater with over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives than with derivatives that are exchange traded or centrally cleared. When the Fund uses derivatives, it will likely be required to provide margin or collateral and/or segregate cash or other liquid assets; these practices are intended to satisfy contractual undertakings and regulatory requirements and will not prevent the Fund from incurring losses on derivatives. The need to provide margin or collateral and/or segregate assets could limit the Fund's ability to pursue other opportunities as they arise. Ongoing changes to regulation of the derivatives markets and actual and potential changes in the regulation of funds using derivative instruments could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategies. New regulation of derivatives may make them more costly, or may otherwise adversely affect their liquidity, value or performance.
Futures. Futures contracts are subject to the risk that an exchange may impose price fluctuation limits, which may make it difficult or impossible for a fund to close out a position when desired. In the absence of such limits, the liquidity of the futures market depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than taking or making delivery. To the extent the Fund enters into futures contracts requiring physical delivery (e.g., certain commodities contracts), the inability of the Fund to take or make physical delivery can negatively impact performance.
ETF Risk. As an exchange-traded fund (“ETF”), the Fund is subject to the following risks:

Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they exit the business or are otherwise unable to proceed in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem, shares of the Fund may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and possible face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for ETFs, such as the Fund, that invest in securities issued by non-U.S. issuers or other securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.
5 Commodity Strategy ETF
International Closed Market Trading Risk. To the extent the Fund’s investments trade in markets that are closed when the Fund and NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”) are open, there are likely to be deviations between current pricing of an underlying security and the last quoted price for the underlying security (i.e., the Fund’s quote from the closed foreign market). As a result, premiums or discounts to NAV may develop in share prices. In addition, shareholders may not be able to purchase or redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.
Premium/Discount Risk. There may be times when the market price of the Fund’s shares is more than the NAV intra-day (at a premium) or less than the NAV intra-day (at a discount). As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop loss orders to sell Fund shares may be executed at prices well below NAV.
Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. Secondary market trading is subject to bid-ask spreads and trading in Fund shares may be halted by the Exchange because of market conditions or other reasons. If a trading halt occurs, a shareholder may temporarily be unable to purchase or sell shares of the Fund. In addition, although the Fund’s shares are listed on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed.

Foreign Risk. Foreign securities involve risks in addition to those associated with comparable U.S. securities. Additional risks include exposure to less developed or less efficient trading markets; social, political, diplomatic, or economic instability; trade barriers and other protectionist trade policies (including those of the U.S.); fluctuations in foreign currencies or currency redenomination; potential for default on sovereign debt; nationalization or expropriation of assets; settlement, custodial or other operational risks; higher transaction costs; confiscatory withholding or other taxes; and less stringent auditing, corporate disclosure, governance, and legal standards. As a result, foreign securities may fluctuate more widely in price, and may also be less liquid, than comparable U.S. securities. World markets, or those in a particular region, may all react in similar fashion to important economic or political developments. In addition, foreign markets may perform differently than the U.S. market. The effect of economic instability on specific foreign markets or issuers may be difficult to predict or evaluate. Regardless of where a company is organized or its stock is traded, its performance may be affected significantly by events in regions from which it derives its profits or in which it conducts significant operations.
Securities of issuers traded on foreign exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange or by governmental authorities. Trading suspensions may be applied from time to time to the securities of individual issuers for reasons specific to that issuer, or may be applied broadly by exchanges or governmental authorities in response to market events. In the event that the Fund holds material positions in such suspended securities, the Fund’s ability to liquidate its positions or provide liquidity to investors may be compromised and the Fund could incur significant losses.
High Portfolio Turnover. The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading and may have a high portfolio turnover rate, which may increase the Fund’s transaction costs, may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and may generate a greater amount of capital gain distributions to shareholders than if the Fund had a low portfolio turnover rate.
Interest Rate Risk. In general, the value of investments with interest rate risk, such as debt securities, will move in the direction opposite to movements in interest rates. If interest rates rise, the value of such securities may decline. Typically, the longer the maturity or duration of a debt security, the greater the effect a change in interest rates could have on the security’s price. Thus, the sensitivity of the Fund’s debt securities to interest rate risk will increase with any increase in the duration of those securities.
6 Commodity Strategy ETF
Issuer-Specific Risk. An individual security may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the market as a whole.
Large Shareholder Risk. Certain large shareholders, including Authorized Participants, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s shares. There is no requirement that these shareholders maintain their investment in the Fund. There is a risk that such large shareholders or that the Fund’s shareholders generally may redeem all or a substantial portion of their investments in the Fund in a short period of time, which could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s NAV, liquidity, and brokerage costs. Large redemptions could also result in tax consequences to shareholders and impact the Fund’s ability to implement its investment strategy.
Leverage Risk. Leverage amplifies changes in the Fund’s net asset value and may make the Fund more volatile. Derivatives may create leverage and can result in losses to the Fund that exceed the amount originally invested and may accelerate the rate of losses. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s use of any leverage will be successful. The Fund’s investment exposure can exceed its net assets, sometimes by a significant amount.
Liquidity Risk. From time to time, the trading market for a particular investment in which the Fund invests, or a particular type of instrument in which the Fund is invested, may become less liquid or even illiquid. Illiquid investments frequently can be more difficult to purchase or sell at an advantageous price or time, and there is a greater risk that the investments may not be sold for the price at which the Fund is carrying them. Certain investments that were liquid when the Fund purchased them may become illiquid, sometimes abruptly. Additionally, market closures due to holidays or other factors may render a security or group of securities (e.g., securities tied to a particular country or geographic region) illiquid for a period of time. An inability to sell a portfolio position can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities. Market prices for such securities or other investments may be volatile. During periods of substantial market volatility, an investment or even an entire market segment may become illiquid, sometimes abruptly, which can adversely affect the Fund’s ability to limit losses.
Unexpected episodes of illiquidity, including due to market or political factors, instrument or issuer-specific factors and/or unanticipated outflows, may limit the Fund’s ability to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period. To meet redemption requests during periods of illiquidity, the Fund may be forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions.
Market Direction Risk. Since the Fund will typically hold both long and short positions, an investment in the Fund will involve market risks associated with different types of investment decisions than those made for a typical “long only” fund. The Fund’s results could suffer when there is a general market advance and the Fund holds significant “short” positions, or when there is a general market decline and the Fund holds significant “long” positions. The markets may have considerable volatility from day to day and even in intra-day trading.
Market Volatility Risk. Markets may be volatile and values of individual securities and other investments, including those of a particular type, may decline significantly in response to adverse issuer, political, regulatory, market, economic or other developments that may cause broad changes in market value, public perceptions concerning these developments, and adverse investor sentiment or publicity. Geopolitical and other risks, including environmental and public health risks may add to instability in world economies and markets generally. Changes in value may be temporary or may last for extended periods. If the Fund sells a portfolio position before it reaches its market peak, it may miss out on opportunities for better performance.
Model Risk. To a significant extent, the Fund’s performance will depend on the success of implementing and managing the investment models that assist in allocating the Fund’s assets. Models that have been formulated on the basis of past market data may not be indicative of future price movements. Models may not be reliable if unusual or disruptive events cause market moves the nature or size of which are inconsistent with the historic performance of individual markets and their relationship to one another or to other macroeconomic events. Models also may have hidden biases or exposure to broad structural or sentiment shifts. In the event that actual events fail to conform to the assumptions underlying such models, losses could be incurred. The performance of the investment models may be impacted by software or other technology malfunctions, programming inaccuracies, and similar circumstances.
7 Commodity Strategy ETF
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The value of mortgage- and asset-backed securities, including collateralized mortgage instruments, will be influenced by the factors affecting the housing market or the assets underlying the securities. These securities tend to be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than other types of debt securities. In addition, investments in mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to prepayment risk and extension risk, call risk, credit risk, valuation risk, and illiquid investment risk, sometimes to a higher degree than various other types of debt securities. These securities are also subject to the risk of default on the underlying mortgages or assets, particularly during periods of market downturn, and an unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the underlying assets will adversely affect the security’s value.
Other Investment Company Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies, including money market funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs), its performance will be affected by the performance of those other investment companies. Investments in other investment companies are subject to the risks of the other investment companies’ investments, as well as to the other investment companies’ expenses.
An ETF may trade in the secondary market at a price below the value of its underlying portfolio and may not be liquid. An actively managed ETF’s performance will reflect its adviser’s ability to make investment decisions that are suited to achieving the ETF’s investment objectives. A passively managed ETF may not replicate the performance of the index it intends to track.
Prepayment and Extension Risk. The Fund’s performance could be affected if borrowers pay back principal on certain debt securities, such as mortgage- or asset-backed securities, before (prepayment) or after (extension) the market anticipates such payments, shortening or lengthening their duration. Due to a decline in interest rates or an excess in cash flow into the issuer, a debt security might be called or otherwise converted, prepaid or redeemed before maturity. As a result of prepayment, the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a lower yield, may not benefit from any increase in value that might otherwise result from declining interest rates, and may lose any premium it paid to acquire the security. Conversely, rising market interest rates generally result in slower payoffs or extension, which effectively increases the duration of certain debt securities, heightening interest rate risk and increasing the magnitude of any resulting price declines.
Recent Market Conditions. National economies are substantially interconnected, as are global financial markets, which creates the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. Some countries, including the U.S., have in recent years adopted more protectionist trade policies. The rise in protectionist trade policies, changes to some major international trade agreements and the potential for changes to others, could affect the economies of many nations in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. Markets have been sensitive to the outlook for resolving the U.S.-China “trade war,” a trend that may continue in the future. Russia’s assertion of its influence in its surrounding region, including potential actions in Ukraine, increases the likelihood of additional sanctions by the U.S. and other countries, which may cause volatility in the markets.
High public debt in the U.S. and other countries creates ongoing systemic and market risks and policymaking uncertainty, and there may be a further increase in public debt due to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic relief and public health measures. Governments and central banks have moved to limit the potential negative economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic with interventions that are unprecedented in size and scope and may continue to do so, but the ultimate impact of these efforts is uncertain. Governments’ efforts to limit potential negative economic effects of the pandemic may be altered, delayed, or eliminated at inopportune times for political, policy or other reasons. Interest rates have been unusually low in recent years in the U.S. and abroad. It is difficult to predict the impact on various markets of a significant rate increase or other significant policy changes, perhaps in response to indications of increasing inflation. Over the longer term, rising interest rates may present a greater risk than has historically been the case due to the current period of relatively low rates and the effect of government fiscal and monetary policy initiatives and potential market reaction to those initiatives or their alteration or cessation.
The impact of the pandemic has negatively affected and may continue to affect the economies of many nations, individual companies and the global securities and commodities markets, including their liquidity, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. The pandemic has accelerated trends toward working remotely and shopping on-line, which may negatively affect the value of office and commercial real estate and companies that have been slow to transition to an on-line business model, and has disrupted the supply chains that many businesses
8 Commodity Strategy ETF
depend on. The travel, hospitality and public transit industries may suffer long-term negative effects from the pandemic and resulting changes to public behavior.
Over the past several years, the U.S. has moved away from tighter industry regulation, a trend that appears to be changing. Increased regulation may impose added costs on the Fund and its service providers for monitoring and compliance, and affect the businesses of various portfolio companies, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time.
Sector Risk. Individual sectors may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the broader market. The industries that constitute a sector may all react in the same way to economic, political or regulatory events.
Short Sale Risk. Short sales involve selling a security the Fund does not own in anticipation that the security’s price will decline. Because the Fund may invest the proceeds of a short sale, another effect of short selling on the Fund is leverage, in that it amplifies changes in the Fund’s net asset value since it increases the exposure of the Fund to the market. The Fund may not always be able to close out a short position at a favorable time or price. If the Fund covers its short sale at an unfavorable price, the cover transaction is likely to reduce or eliminate any gain, or cause a loss to the Fund. Short sales, at least theoretically, present a risk of unlimited loss on an individual security basis, particularly in cases where the Fund is unable, for whatever reason, to close out its short position, since the Fund may be required to buy the security sold short at a time when the security has appreciated in value, and there is potentially no limit to the amount of such appreciation. When the Fund is selling a security short, it must maintain a segregated account of cash or high-grade securities equal to the margin requirement. As a result, the Fund may maintain high levels of cash or other liquid assets (such as U.S. Treasury bills, money market instruments, certificates of deposit, high quality commercial paper and long equity positions). The Fund may utilize the collateral obtained from securities lending for this cash. The need to maintain cash or other liquid assets in segregated accounts could limit the Fund's ability to pursue other opportunities as they arise.
Subsidiary Risk. By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with the Subsidiary’s investments and operations. The commodity-linked derivative instruments and other investments held by the Subsidiary are similar to those that are permitted to be held by the Fund, and thus, present the same risks whether they are held by the Fund or the Subsidiary. There can be no assurance that the investment objective of the Subsidiary will be achieved. The Subsidiary is not registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”), and, unless otherwise noted in this prospectus, is not subject to all the investor protections of the 1940 Act. However, the Fund wholly owns and controls the Subsidiary, and the Fund and the Subsidiary are both managed by Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC, making it unlikely that the Subsidiary will take action contrary to the interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Fund’s Board of Trustees has oversight responsibility for the investment activities of the Fund, including its investment in the Subsidiary, and the Fund’s role as sole shareholder of the Subsidiary. In adhering to the Fund’s investment restrictions and limitations, Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC will treat the assets of the Subsidiary generally in the same manner as assets that are held directly by the Fund. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands, under which the Fund and the Subsidiary, respectively, are organized, could result in the inability of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as described in this prospectus and the Statement of Additional Information and could adversely affect the Fund and its shareholders.
Tax Risk. To qualify as a “regulated investment company” under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“Code”) (“RIC”), and be eligible to receive “pass-through” tax treatment, the Fund must, among other things, derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from types of income treated as “qualifying income” under the Code. Although qualifying income does not include income derived directly from commodities, including certain commodity-linked derivative instruments, the Internal Revenue Service (“Service”) issued a large number of private letter rulings (which the Fund may not use or cite as precedent) between 2006 and 2011 concluding that income a RIC derives from a wholly owned foreign subsidiary (a “CFC”) (such as the Subsidiary) that earns income derived from commodities and income from certain commodity-linked notes is qualifying income.
Regulations provide that the income of a CFC, in which a RIC invests as part of its business of investing in stock or securities,  that the Code requires a RIC to include in its gross income each taxable year (“Subpart F Inclusion”) will constitute qualifying income for the RIC whether or not the Subpart F Inclusion is distributed by the CFC to the
9 Commodity Strategy ETF
RIC. The Regulations are consistent with the conclusions in the rulings described above. The Fund has also received an opinion of counsel, which is not binding on the Service or the courts, that income the Fund derives from the Subsidiary should constitute qualifying income.
The Service has issued a revenue procedure stating that the Service will not “ordinarily” issue private letter rulings on any issue relating to the treatment of a corporation as a RIC that requires a determination of whether a financial instrument or position is a “security.” Accordingly, future rulings regarding the status of commodity-linked notes and other commodity-linked derivative instruments will be rarely issued, if at all.
The federal income tax treatment of the Fund’s income from the Subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, other Treasury regulations, and/or other guidance issued by the Service that could affect the character, timing of recognition, and/or amount of the Fund’s taxable income and/or net capital gains and, therefore, the distributions it makes. If the Fund failed the qualifying income test for any taxable year but was eligible to and did cure the failure, it would incur potentially significant federal income tax expense. If, on the other hand, the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for any taxable year and was ineligible to or otherwise did not cure the failure, it would be subject to federal income tax on its taxable income at the corporate tax rate, with the consequences that its income available for distribution to shareholders would be reduced and all such distributions from its current or accumulated earnings and profits would be taxable to its shareholders as dividend income. In that event, the Fund’s Board of Trustees may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or the Fund’s liquidation.
U.S. Government Securities Risk. Although the Fund may hold securities that carry U.S. government guarantees, these guarantees do not extend to shares of the Fund itself and do not guarantee the market prices of the securities. Furthermore, not all securities issued by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Securities not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury carry at least some risk of non-payment or default.
A summary of the Fund’s additional principal investment risks is as follows:
Operational and Cybersecurity Risk. The Fund and its service providers, and your ability to transact with the Fund, may be negatively impacted due to operational matters arising from, among other problems, human errors, systems and technology disruptions or failures, or cybersecurity incidents. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause the Fund or its service providers, as well as the securities trading venues and their service providers, to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. Cybersecurity incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. It is not possible for the Manager or the other Fund service providers to identify all of the cybersecurity or other operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls to completely eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects. Most issuers in which the Fund invests are heavily dependent on computers for data storage and operations, and require ready access to the internet to conduct their business. Thus, cybersecurity incidents could also affect issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, leading to significant loss of value.
Risk Management. Risk is an essential part of investing. No risk management program can eliminate the Fund’s exposure to adverse events; at best, it may only reduce the possibility that the Fund will be affected by such events, and especially those risks that are not intrinsic to the Fund’s investment program. The Fund could experience losses if judgments about risk prove to be incorrect.
Valuation Risk. The Fund may not be able to sell an investment at the price at which the Fund has valued the investment. Such differences could be significant, particularly for illiquid securities and securities that trade in relatively thin markets and/or markets that experience extreme volatility. If market or other conditions make it difficult to value some investments, SEC rules and applicable accounting protocols may require the Fund to value these investments using more subjective methods, known as fair value methodologies. Using fair value methodologies to price investments may result in a value that is different from an investment’s most recent price and from the prices used by other funds to calculate their NAVs. The Fund’s ability to value its investments in an accurate and timely manner may be impacted by technological issues and/or errors by third party service providers, such as pricing services or accounting agents.
10 Commodity Strategy ETF
PERFORMANCE
The following bar chart and table provide an indication of the risks of investing in the Fund. The Fund will adopt the performance history of its predecessor fund, Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy Fund. The information shown below is for the predecessor fund. The bar chart shows how the performance of the Fund’s Shares  has varied from year to year, as represented by the performance of the predecessor fund’s Institutional Class. The returns in the bar chart do not reflect any applicable sales charges of the predecessor fund. If sales charges were reflected, returns would be lower than those shown. The table below the bar chart shows what the returns would equal if you averaged out actual performance over various lengths of time and compares the returns with the returns of the predecessor fund’s broad-based market index. The index, which is described in “Description of Index” in the prospectus, has characteristics relevant to the predecessor Fund’s investment strategy. Unlike the returns in the bar chart, the returns in the table reflect the maximum applicable sales charges.
Returns of the predecessor fund would have been lower if the Manager had not reimbursed certain expenses and/or waived a portion of the investment management fees during certain of the periods shown.
While the Fund’s shares would have substantially similar annual returns to the Institutional Class shares of the predecessor mutual fund, their performance may differ from that shown because the Fund has lower expenses than the predecessor fund’s Institutional Class shares. Performance for the Fund’s Shares has not been adjusted to reflect the Fund’s Shares’ lower expenses than those of the predecessor fund’s Institutional Class shares. Performance for the predecessor fund is based on the NAV per share of the predecessor fund shares rather than on market-determined prices.
Past performance (before and after taxes) is not a prediction of future results. Visit www.nb.com/ETF or call 877-628-2583 for updated performance information.
YEAR-BY-YEAR % RETURNS AS OF 12/31 EACH YEAR
Best quarter:    Q4 '20, 16.30%
Worst quarter:    Q1 '20, -28.26%
AVERAGE ANNUAL TOTAL % RETURNS AS OF 12/31/21
Commodity Strategy ETF
1 Year
5 Years
Since Inception
(8/27/2012)
Return Before Taxes
29.80
6.44
-1.86
Return After Taxes on Distributions
11.78
2.55
-3.79
Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares
17.41
3.30
-2.18
Bloomberg Commodity Index (reflects no deduction for fees, expenses or taxes)
27.11
3.66
-3.39
After-tax returns are calculated using the historical highest individual federal marginal income tax rates and do not reflect the impact of state and local taxes. Actual after-tax returns depend on an investor’s tax situation and may differ from those shown. After-tax returns are not relevant to investors who hold their Fund shares through tax-deferred arrangements, such as 401(k) plans or individual retirement accounts. Return After Taxes on Distributions and Sale of Fund Shares may be higher than other returns for the same period due to a tax benefit of realizing a capital loss upon the sale of Fund shares.
11 Commodity Strategy ETF
INVESTMENT MANAGER
Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC (“NBIA” or the “Manager”) is the Fund’s investment manager.
PORTFOLIO MANAGERS
The Fund is managed by Hakan Kaya (Managing Director of the Manager), David Yi Wan (Senior Vice President of the Manager) and Michael Foster (Managing Director of the Manager). Mr. Kaya has managed the Fund since its inception in 2012, Mr. Wan has managed the Fund since February 2016 and Mr. Foster has managed the Fund since May 2021.
BUYING AND SELLING SHARES
The Fund issues and redeems Shares at its NAV only in a large specified number of Shares each called a “Creation Unit,” or multiples thereof, and only with authorized participants who have entered into contractual arrangements with the Fund’s distributor.
Individual Shares (rather than Creation Units) of the Fund may only be purchased and sold on a national securities exchange through a broker or dealer at market price and most investors will buy and sell Shares of the Fund on such an exchange. These transactions do not involve the Fund. The prices at which individual Shares may be purchased and sold on a national securities exchange through brokers are based on market prices and, because Shares will trade at market prices rather than at NAV, individual Shares of the Fund may trade at a price greater than or less than NAV. Shares of the Fund are listed on NYSE Arca, Inc.
An investor may incur costs attributable to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay to purchase Shares of the Fund (bid) and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for Shares (ask) when buying or selling Shares in the secondary market (the “bid-ask spread”). Most investors will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying and selling shares of the Fund through a broker/dealer.
Recent information, including information about the Fund’s NAV, market price, premiums and discounts, and bid-ask spreads, is included on the Fund’s website at www.nb.com/ETF.
TAX INFORMATION
Unless you invest in the Fund through a tax-advantaged retirement plan or account or are a tax-exempt investor, you will be subject to tax on Fund distributions to you of ordinary income and/or net capital gains. Those distributions generally are not taxable to such a plan or account or a tax-exempt investor, although withdrawals from certain retirement plans and accounts generally are subject to federal income tax.
PAYMENTS TO INVESTMENT PROVIDERS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES
If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker/dealer or other financial intermediary, such as a bank, brokerage firm, workplace retirement program, or financial adviser (who may be affiliated with the Manager), the Fund and/or Neuberger Berman BD LLC and/or its affiliates may pay the intermediary for the sale of Fund shares and related services. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker/dealer or other financial intermediary and its employees to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your financial intermediary  or visit its website for more information.
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Descriptions of Certain Practices and Security Types
Derivatives. A derivative is generally a financial contract the value of which depends on, or is derived from, changes in the value of one or more “reference instruments,” such as underlying assets (including securities), reference rates, indices or events. Derivatives may relate to stocks, bonds, credit, interest rates, commodities, currencies or currency exchange rates, or related indices. A derivative may also contain leverage to magnify the exposure to the reference instrument. Derivatives may be traded on organized exchanges and/or through clearing organizations, or in private transactions with other parties in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) market with a single dealer or a prime broker acting as an intermediary with respect to an executing dealer. Derivatives may be used for hedging purposes and non-hedging (or speculative) purposes. Some derivatives require one or more parties to post “margin,” which means that a party must deposit assets with, or for the benefit of, a third party, such as a futures commission merchant, in order to initiate and maintain the derivatives position. Margin is typically adjusted daily, and adverse market movements may require a party to post additional margin.
Futures. A futures contract is a standardized agreement to buy or sell a set quantity of an underlying asset at a future date, or to make or receive a cash payment based on the value of a securities index or other reference instrument at a future date.
Equity Securities. Equity securities may include common stock, REITs, MLPs, convertible securities and preferred stock.
Fixed Income Securities. Debt securities may consist of fixed and floating rate obligations of various credit quality and duration and may be issued by: corporate entities; trusts; domestic issuers, including securities issued or guaranteed as to principal or interest by the U.S. government or any of its agencies or instrumentalities; foreign issuers, including in emerging markets, and including foreign governments and supranational entities; and municipal issuers, including within the U.S. and its territories. Such obligations may include: bonds, loans, inflation-linked debt securities, when-issued and forward-settling securities, commercial paper, mortgage-backed securities and other asset-backed securities, and hybrid securities (including convertible securities).
Foreign Stocks. There are many promising opportunities for investment outside the United States. Foreign markets can respond to different factors and therefore may follow cycles that are different from each other. For this reason, many investors put a portion of their portfolios in foreign investments as a way of gaining further diversification.
Lower-Rated Debt Securities. Lower-rated debt securities (commonly known as “junk bonds”) typically offer investors higher yields than other fixed income securities. The higher yields are usually justified by the weaker credit profiles of these issuers as compared to investment grade issuers. Lower-rated debt securities may include debt obligations of all types issued by U.S. and non-U.S. corporate and governmental entities, including bonds, debentures and notes, loan interests and preferred stocks that have priority over any other class of stock of the entity as to the distribution of assets or the payment of dividends. A lower-rated debt security itself may be convertible into or exchangeable for equity securities, or it may carry with it the right to acquire equity securities evidenced by warrants attached to the security or acquired as part of a unit with the security.
Short Sales. Short sales involve selling a security the Fund does not own in anticipation that the security’s price will decline. To complete the transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be higher or lower than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. If the underlying security goes up in price during the period during which the short position is outstanding, the Fund will realize a loss on the transaction. Any loss will be increased by the amount of compensation, interest or dividends and transaction costs the Fund must pay to a lender of the security.
Additional Information about Principal Investment Risks
This section provides additional information about the Fund’s principal investment risks described in its Fund Summary section. The following risks are described in alphabetical order and not in order of any presumed importance or potential exposure.
Call Risk. Upon the issuer’s desire to call a security, or under other circumstances where a security is called, including when interest rates are low and issuers opt to repay the obligation underlying a “callable security” early, the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a lower yield or other less favorable characteristics. This may reduce the amount of the Fund’s distributions. In addition, the Fund may not benefit from any increase in value in the securities that might otherwise result from declining interest rates. The likelihood of a call also may impact the price of a security.
Commodity Regulatory Risk. Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF is deemed a “commodity pool” and the Fund’s investment manager is considered a “commodity pool operator” with respect to the Fund under the Commodity Exchange Act. The Fund's investment manager is therefore subject to dual regulation by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Compliance with regulations governing commodity pools may increase the Fund's regulatory compliance costs. The regulatory requirements could change at any time and additional regulations could also be adopted, which may adversely impact the Fund, and the Fund may be compelled to consider significant changes, which could include substantially altering its principal investment strategies or, if deemed necessary, liquidating the Fund.
Commodity Risk. The Fund’s and the Subsidiary’s significant investment exposure to the commodities markets and/or a particular sector of the commodities markets may subject the Fund and the Subsidiary to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The commodities markets are impacted by a variety of factors, including market movements, resource availability, commodity price volatility, speculation in the commodities markets, domestic and foreign political and economic events and policies, trade policies and tariffs, war, acts of terrorism, changes in domestic or foreign interest rates and/or investor expectations concerning interest rates, domestic and foreign inflation rates and investment and trading activities in commodities. Prices of various commodities may also be affected by factors such as drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and other regulatory developments. The frequency, duration and magnitude of such changes often cannot be predicted. The prices of commodities can also fluctuate widely due to supply and demand disruptions in major producing or consuming regions.
Certain commodities may be produced in a limited number of countries and may be controlled by a small number of producers or groups of producers. As a result, political, economic and supply related events in such countries could have a disproportionate impact on the prices of such commodities. No active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments, which may impair the ability of the Fund to sell or to realize the full value of such investments in the event of the need to liquidate such investments. In addition, adverse market conditions may impair the liquidity of commodities investments. Because the Fund’s and the Subsidiary’s performance is linked to the performance of potentially volatile commodities, investors should be willing to assume the risks of significant fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s shares.
Agricultural and Soft Commodities Sector Risk. Risks of investing in agricultural sector commodities include, in addition to other risks, the impact of government policies on planting of certain crops and possible alternative uses of agricultural resources, the location and size of crop production, trading of unprocessed or processed commodity products, and the volume and types of imports and exports. Climate change may severely impact the viability of certain crops in certain regions. Trade wars have introduced considerable uncertainty into some previously established international markets for agricultural products and could produce abrupt and substantial price changes.
Energy Sector Risk. Risks of investing in energy sector commodities include, in addition to other risks, price fluctuation caused by real and perceived inflationary trends and political developments, the cost assumed in complying with environmental and other safety regulations, supply of and demand for energy fuels, energy conservation efforts, capital expenditures on and the success of exploration and production projects, increased competition and technological advances, tax and other government regulations, and policies of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and oil importing nations. In addition, companies in the energy sector are at risk of liability from accidents resulting in pollution or other environmental damage claims and at risk of loss from terrorism, natural disasters, fires and explosions. There is growing political pressure to reduce the use of fossil fuels, which could begin to impact the securities of companies in that industry and the prices of related commodities.
Industrial Metals Sector Risk. Risks of investing in industrial metals sector commodities include, in addition to other risks, substantial price fluctuations over short periods of time, imposition of import controls, increased competition and changes in industrial, governmental, and commercial demand for industrial metals.
Precious Metals Sector Risk. Risks of investing in precious metals sector commodities include, in addition to other risks, changes in the level of the production and sale of precious metals by governments or central banks or other large holders.
Companies in each of the above sectors could also be affected by, among other things, commodity price volatility, exchange rates, government regulation, mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control devices, inflation expectations, resource availability, import controls, increased competition, technical progress, labor relations, and economic cycles.
Credit Risk. Credit risk is the risk that issuers, guarantors, or insurers may fail, or become less able or unwilling, to pay interest and/or principal when due. Changes in the actual or perceived creditworthiness of an issuer, factors affecting an issuer directly (such as management changes, labor relations, collapse of key suppliers or customers, or material changes in overhead), factors affecting the industry in which a particular issuer operates (such as competition or technological advances) and changes in general social, economic or political conditions can increase the risk of default by an issuer, which may affect a security’s credit quality or value.
Generally, the longer the maturity and the lower the credit quality of a security, the more sensitive it is to credit risk. In addition, lower credit quality may lead to greater volatility in the price of a security and may negatively affect a security’s liquidity. Ratings represent a rating agency’s opinion regarding the quality of the security and are not a guarantee of quality and do not protect against a decline in the value of a security. A downgrade or default affecting any of the Fund’s securities could affect the Fund’s performance. In addition, rating agencies may fail to make timely changes to credit ratings in response to subsequent events and a rating may become stale in that it fails to reflect changes in an issuer’s financial condition. The credit quality of a security or instrument can deteriorate suddenly and rapidly, which may negatively impact its liquidity and value. The securities in which the Fund invests may be subject to credit enhancement (for example, guarantees, letters of credit, or bond insurance). Entities providing credit or liquidity support also may be affected by credit risk. Credit enhancement is designed to help assure timely payment of the security; it does not protect the Fund against losses caused by declines in a security’s value due to changes in market conditions.
Currency Risk. Currency risk is the risk that foreign currencies will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar. To the extent that the Fund is exposed directly or indirectly to foreign currencies, including through its investments, or invests in securities or other instruments denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies, changes in currency exchange rates could adversely impact investment gains or add to investment losses. Domestic issuers that hold substantial foreign assets may be similarly affected. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate in response to factors external to a country’s economy, which makes the forecasting of currency market movements extremely difficult. Currency exchange rates may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time and can be affected unpredictably by various factors, including investor perception of a country’s economy and changes in interest rates; intervention, or failure to intervene, by U.S. or foreign governments, central banks, or supranational entities, such as the International Monetary Fund; or by currency controls or political developments in the U.S. or abroad. To the extent the Fund invests or hedges based on the perceived relationship between two currencies, there is a risk that the correlation between those currencies may not behave as anticipated.
Derivatives Risk. Use of derivatives is a highly specialized activity that can involve investment techniques and risks different from, and in some respects greater than, those associated with investing in more traditional investments, such as stocks and bonds. Derivatives can be highly complex and highly volatile and may perform in unanticipated ways. Derivatives can create leverage, which can magnify the impact of a decline in the value of the reference instrument underlying the derivative, and the Fund could lose more than the amount it invests. Derivatives can have the potential for unlimited losses, for example, where the Fund may be called upon to deliver a security it does not own. Derivatives may at times be highly illiquid, and the Fund may not be able to close out or sell a derivative at a particular time or at an anticipated price. Derivatives can be difficult to value and valuation may be more difficult in times of market turmoil. The value of a derivative instrument depends largely on (and is derived from) the value of the reference instrument underlying the derivative. There may be imperfect correlation between the behavior of a derivative and that of the reference instrument underlying the derivative, and the reference instrument may not perform as anticipated. An abrupt change in the price of a reference instrument could render a derivative worthless. Derivatives may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, the risks associated with investing directly in the reference instrument. Suitable derivatives may not be available in all circumstances, and there can be no assurance that the Fund will use derivatives to reduce exposure to other risks when that might have been beneficial.
Derivatives may involve fees, commissions, or other costs that may reduce the Fund’s gains or exacerbate losses from the derivatives. In addition, the Fund’s use of derivatives may have different tax consequences for the Fund than an investment in the reference instruments, and those differences may increase the amount and affect the timing of income recognition and character of taxable distributions payable to shareholders. Thus, the Fund could be required at times to liquidate other investments in order to satisfy its distribution requirements. Certain aspects of the regulatory treatment of derivative instruments, including federal income tax, are currently unclear and may be affected by changes in legislation, regulations, or other legally binding authority. In October 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act which will regulate the use of derivatives for certain funds registered under the Investment Company Act (‘‘Rule 18f-4’’). Unless the Fund qualifies as a ‘‘limited derivatives user’’ as defined in Rule 18f-4, Rule 18f-4 would, among other things, require the Fund to establish a comprehensive derivatives risk management program, to comply with certain value-at-risk based leverage limits, to appoint a derivatives risk manager and to provide additional disclosure both publicly and to the SEC regarding its derivatives positions. These requirements could have an impact on the Fund, including a potential increase in cost to enter into derivatives transactions. The full impact of Rule 18f-4 on the Fund remains uncertain, however, due to the compliance timeline within Rule 18f-4, it is unlikely that the Fund will be required to fully comply with the requirements until August 2022.
Derivatives involve counterparty risk, which is the risk that the other party to the derivative will fail to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the derivative. Counterparty risk may arise because of market activities and developments, the counterparty’s financial condition (including financial difficulties, bankruptcy, or insolvency), or other reasons. Not all derivative transactions require a counterparty to post collateral, which may expose the Fund to greater losses in the event of a default by a counterparty. Counterparty risk is generally thought to be greater with OTC derivatives than with derivatives that are exchange traded or centrally cleared. However, derivatives that are traded on organized exchanges and/or through clearing organizations involve the possibility that the futures commission merchant or clearing organization will default in the performance of its obligations.
When the Fund uses derivatives, it will likely be required to provide margin or collateral and/or segregate cash or other liquid assets; these practices are intended to satisfy contractual undertakings and regulatory requirements and will not prevent the Fund from incurring losses on derivatives. The need to provide margin or collateral and/or segregate assets could limit the Fund's ability to pursue other opportunities as they arise. Segregated assets are not available to meet redemptions. The amount of assets required to be segregated will depend on the type of derivative the Fund uses and the nature of the contractual arrangement. If the Fund is required to segregate assets equal to only the current market value of its obligation under a derivative, the Fund may be able to use derivatives to a greater extent, which would increase the degree of leverage the Fund could undertake through derivatives and otherwise, than if it were required to segregate assets equal to the full notional value of such derivative. Derivatives that have margin requirements involve the risk that if the Fund has insufficient cash or eligible margin securities to meet daily variation margin requirements, it may have to sell securities or other instruments from its portfolio at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. The Fund normally will remain obligated to meet margin requirements until a derivatives position is closed.
Ongoing changes to regulation of the derivatives markets and actual and potential changes in the regulation of funds using derivative instruments could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue its investment strategies. New regulation of derivatives may make them more costly, or may otherwise adversely affect their liquidity, value or performance.
Although the Fund may use derivatives to attempt to hedge against certain risks, the hedging instruments may not perform as expected and could produce losses.
Additional risks associated with certain types of derivatives are discussed below:
Forward Contracts. There are no limitations on daily price movements of forward contracts. Changes in foreign exchange regulations by governmental authorities might limit the trading of forward contracts on currencies. There have been periods during which certain counterparties have refused to continue to quote prices for forward contracts or have quoted prices with an unusually wide spread (the difference between the price at which the counterparty is prepared to buy and the price at which it is prepared to sell).
Futures. There can be no assurance that, at all times, a liquid market will exist for offsetting a futures contract that the Fund has previously bought or sold and this may result in the inability to close a futures position when desired. This could be the case if, for example, a futures price has increased or decreased by the maximum allowable daily limit and there is no buyer (or seller) willing to purchase (or sell) the futures contract that the Fund needs to sell (or buy) at that limit price. In the absence of such limits, the liquidity of the futures market depends on participants entering into offsetting transactions rather than taking or making delivery. To the extent the Fund enters into futures contracts requiring physical delivery (e.g., certain commodities contracts), the inability of the Fund to take or make physical delivery can negatively impact performance.
Options. The use of options involves investment strategies and risks different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. The prices of options are volatile and are influenced by, among other things, actual and anticipated changes in the value of the underlying instrument, or in interest or currency exchange rates, including the anticipated volatility of the underlying instrument (known as implied volatility), which in turn are affected by the performance of the issuer of the underlying instrument, by fiscal and monetary policies and by national and international political and economic events. As such, prior to the exercise or expiration of the option, the Fund is exposed to implied volatility risk, meaning the value, as based on implied volatility, of an option may increase due to market and economic conditions or views based on the sector or industry in which issuers of the underlying instrument participate, including company-specific factors. By writing put options, the Fund takes on the risk of declines in the value of the underlying instrument, including the possibility of a loss up to the entire strike price of each option it sells, but without the corresponding opportunity to benefit from potential increases in the value of the underlying instrument. When the Fund writes a put option, it assumes the risk that it must purchase the underlying instrument at a strike price that may be higher than the market price of the instrument. If there is a broad market decline and the Fund is not able to close out its written put options, it may result in substantial losses to the Fund. By writing a call option, the Fund may be obligated to deliver instruments underlying an option at less than the market price. In the case of an uncovered call option, there is a risk of unlimited loss. When an uncovered call is exercised, the Fund must purchase the underlying instrument to meet its call obligations and the necessary instruments may be unavailable for purchase. Additionally, volatility in the market for equity securities, which has been dramatically increased recently for certain stocks, can meaningfully increase the risk of loss associated with options. When the Fund writes a covered call option, it gives up the opportunity to profit from a price increase in the underlying instrument above the strike price. If a covered call option that the Fund has written is exercised, the Fund will experience a gain or loss from the sale of the underlying instrument, depending on the price at which the Fund purchased the instrument and the strike price of the option. The Fund will receive a premium from writing options, but the premium received may not be sufficient to offset any losses sustained from exercised options. In the case of a covered call, the premium received may be offset by a decline in the market value of the underlying instrument during the option period. If an option that the Fund has purchased is never exercised or closed out, the Fund will lose the amount of the premium it paid and the use of those funds.
Swaps. Swap transactions generally do not involve delivery of reference instruments or payment of the notional amount of the contract. Accordingly, the risk of loss with respect to swaps generally is limited to the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually obligated to make or, in the case of the other party to a swap defaulting, the net amount of payments that the Fund is contractually entitled to receive. If the Fund sells a credit default swap, however, the risk of loss may be the entire notional amount of the swap.
Some swaps are now executed through an organized exchange or regulated facility and cleared through a regulated clearing organization. The absence of an organized exchange or market for swap transactions may result in difficulties in trading and valuation, especially in the event of market disruptions. The use of an organized exchange or market for swap transactions is expected to result in swaps being easier to trade or value, but this may not always be the case.
ETF Risk. As an exchange-traded fund (“ETF”), the Fund is subject to the following risks:
Authorized Participants Concentration Risk. The Fund has a limited number of financial institutions that may act as Authorized Participants. To the extent they exit the business or are otherwise unable to proceed in creation and redemption transactions with the Fund and no other Authorized Participant is able to step forward to create or redeem, shares of the Fund may be more likely to trade at a premium or discount to net asset value (“NAV”) and possible face trading halts or delisting. Authorized Participant concentration risk may be heightened for ETFs, such as the Fund, that invest in securities issued by non-U.S. issuers or other securities or instruments that have lower trading volumes.
International Closed Market Trading Risk. To the extent the Fund’s investments trade in markets that are closed when the Fund and NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”) are open, there are likely to be deviations between current pricing of an underlying security and the last quoted price for the underlying security (i.e., the Fund’s quote from the closed foreign market). As a result, premiums or discounts to NAV may develop in share prices. In addition, shareholders may not be able to purchase or redeem their shares of the Fund, or purchase or sell shares of the Fund on the Exchange, on days when the NAV of the Fund could be significantly affected by events in the relevant non-U.S. markets.
Premium/Discount Risk. The NAV of the Fund’s shares will generally fluctuate with changes in the market value of the Fund’s securities holdings. The market prices of Fund shares will generally fluctuate in accordance with changes in the Fund’s NAV and supply and demand of shares on the secondary market. It cannot be predicted whether Fund shares will trade below, at or above their NAV. As a result, shareholders of the Fund may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling Fund shares. This risk is heightened in times of market volatility or periods of steep market declines. In such market conditions, market or stop-loss orders to sell the ETF shares may be executed at market prices that are significantly below NAV. The market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV of the shares during periods of market volatility or if the Fund’s holdings are or become more illiquid. Disruptions to creations and redemptions may result in trading prices that differ significantly from the Fund’s NAV. In addition, market prices of Fund shares may deviate significantly from the NAV if the number of Fund shares outstanding is smaller or if there is less active trading in Fund shares. Investors purchasing and selling Fund shares in the secondary market may not experience investment results consistent with those experienced by those creating and redeeming directly with the Fund.
Secondary Market Trading Risk. Investors buying or selling shares in the secondary market will normally pay brokerage commissions, which are often a fixed amount and may be a significant proportional cost for investors buying or selling relatively small amounts of shares. In addition, secondary market investors will incur the cost of the difference between the price that an investor is willing to pay for shares (the bid price) and the price at which an investor is willing to sell shares (the ask price). This difference in bid and ask prices is often referred to as the “spread” or “bid/ask spread.” The bid/ask spread, which increases the cost of purchasing and selling Fund shares, varies over time for shares based on trading volume and market liquidity, and is generally lower if the Fund’s shares have more trading volume and market liquidity and higher if the Fund’s shares have little trading volume and market liquidity. Increased market volatility may cause increased bid/ask spreads.
Although Fund shares are listed for trading on the Exchange, there can be no assurance that an active trading market for such shares will develop or be maintained or that the Fund’s shares will continue to be listed. Trading in Fund shares may be halted due to market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in shares inadvisable. In addition, trading in shares is subject to trading halts caused by extraordinary market volatility pursuant to Exchange “circuit breaker” rules. There can be no assurance that the requirements of the Exchange necessary to maintain the listing of any Fund will continue to be met or will remain unchanged or that the shares will trade with any volume, or at all.
Foreign Risk. Foreign securities involve risks in addition to those associated with comparable U.S. securities. Additional risks include exposure to less developed or less efficient trading markets; social, political, diplomatic, or economic instability; trade barriers and other protectionist trade policies (including those of the U.S.); fluctuations in
foreign currencies or currency redenomination; potential for default on sovereign debt; nationalization or expropriation of assets; settlement, custodial or other operational risks; higher transaction costs; confiscatory withholding or other taxes; and less stringent auditing, corporate disclosure, governance, and legal standards. The Fund may have limited or no legal recourse in the event of default with respect to certain foreign securities. In addition, key information about the issuer, the markets or the local government or economy may be unavailable, incomplete or inaccurate. As a result, foreign securities may fluctuate more widely in price, and may also be less liquid, than comparable U.S. securities. World markets, or those in a particular region, may all react in similar fashion to important economic or political developments.  In addition, securities issued by U.S. entities with substantial foreign operations may involve risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions in foreign countries, as well as currency exchange rates. Regardless of where a company is organized or its stock is traded, its performance may be affected significantly by events in regions from which it derives its profits or in which it conducts significant operations.
Securities of issuers traded on foreign exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange or by governmental authorities. Trading suspensions may be applied from time to time to the securities of individual issuers for reasons specific to that issuer, or may be applied broadly by exchanges or governmental authorities in response to market events. Suspensions may last for significant periods of time, during which trading in the securities and in instruments that reference the securities, such as derivative instruments, may be halted. In the event that the Fund holds material positions in such suspended securities, the Fund’s ability to liquidate its positions or provide liquidity to investors may be compromised and the Fund could incur significant losses.
In addition, foreign markets may perform differently than the U.S. market. Over a given period of time, foreign securities may underperform U.S. securities—sometimes for years. The Fund could also underperform if it invests in countries or regions whose economic performance falls short. To the extent that the Fund invests a portion of its assets in one country, state, region or currency, an adverse economic, business or political development may affect the value of the Fund’s investments more than if its investments were not so invested
The effect of economic instability on specific foreign markets or issuers may be difficult to predict or evaluate. Some national economies continue to show profound instability, which may in turn affect their international trading and financial partners or other members of their currency bloc.
High Portfolio Turnover. The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading and may have a high portfolio turnover rate, which may increase the Fund’s transaction costs, may adversely affect the Fund’s performance and may generate a greater amount of capital gain distributions to shareholders than if the Fund had a low portfolio turnover rate.
Interest Rate Risk. In general, the value of investments with interest rate risk, such as debt securities, will move in the direction opposite to movements in interest rates. If interest rates rise, the value of such securities may decline. Interest rates may change in response to the supply and demand for credit, changes to government monetary policy and other initiatives, inflation rates, and other factors. Debt securities have varying levels of sensitivity to changes in interest rates. Typically, the longer the maturity (i.e., the term of a debt security) or duration (i.e., a measure of the sensitivity of a debt security to changes in market interest rates, based on the entire cash flow associated with the security) of a debt security, the greater the effect a change in interest rates could have on the security’s price. For example, if interest rates increase by 1%, a debt security with a duration of two years will decrease in value by approximately 2%. Thus, the sensitivity of the Fund’s debt securities to interest rate risk will increase with any increase in the duration of those securities. Short-term securities tend to react to changes in short-term interest rates, and long-term securities tend to react to changes in long-term interest rates. Short-term and long-term interest rates, and interest rates in different countries, do not necessarily move in the same direction or by the same amount. The link between interest rates and debt security prices tends to be weaker with lower-rated debt securities than with investment grade debt securities.
Issuer-Specific Risk. An individual security may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the market as a whole. The value of an issuer’s securities may deteriorate because of a variety of factors, including disappointing earnings reports by the issuer, unsuccessful products or services, loss of major customers, major litigation against the issuer, or changes in government regulations affecting the issuer or the competitive environment. Certain unanticipated events, such as natural disasters, may have a significant adverse effect on the value of an issuer’s securities.
Large Shareholder Risk. Certain large shareholders, including Authorized Participants, may from time to time own a substantial amount of the Fund’s shares. There is no requirement that these shareholders maintain their investment in the Fund. There is a risk that such large shareholders or that the Fund’s shareholders generally may redeem all or a substantial portion of their investments in the Fund in a short period of time, which could have a significant negative impact on the Fund’s NAV, liquidity, and brokerage costs. Large redemptions could also result in tax consequences to shareholders and impact the Fund’s ability to implement its investment strategy. The Fund’s ability to pursue its investment objective after one or more large scale redemptions may be impaired and, as a result, the Fund may invest a larger portion of its assets in cash or cash equivalents.
Leverage Risk. Leverage amplifies changes in the Fund’s net asset value and may make the Fund more volatile. Derivatives, short positions and securities lending may create leverage and can result in losses to the Fund that exceed the amount originally invested and may accelerate the rate of losses. For certain instruments or transactions that create leverage, or have embedded leverage, relatively small market fluctuations may result in large changes in the value of such investments. In addition, the costs that the Fund pays to engage in these practices are additional costs borne by the Fund and could reduce or eliminate any net investment profits. Unless the profits from engaging in these practices exceed the costs of engaging in these practices, the use of leverage will diminish the investment performance of the Fund compared with what it would have been had the Fund not used leverage. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s use of any leverage will be successful. The Fund’s investment exposure can exceed its net assets, sometimes by a significant amount. When the Fund uses leverage or utilizes certain of these practices, it may need to dispose of some of its holdings at unfavorable times or prices in order to satisfy its obligations or to comply with certain asset coverage requirements.
Liquidity Risk. From time to time, the trading market for a particular investment or type of investment in which the Fund invests is or may become less liquid or even illiquid. Illiquid investments frequently can be more difficult to purchase or sell at an advantageous price or time. An illiquid investment means any investment that the Fund reasonably expects cannot be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment. Judgment plays a greater role in pricing these investments than it does in pricing investments having more active markets, and there is a greater risk that the investments may not be sold for the price at which the Fund is carrying them. The Fund may receive illiquid securities as a result of its investment in securities involved in restructurings. Certain investments that were liquid when the Fund purchased them may become illiquid, sometimes abruptly, particularly during periods of increased market volatility or adverse investor perception. Additionally, market closures due to holidays or other factors may render a security or group of securities (e.g., securities tied to a particular country or geographic region) illiquid for a period of time. An inability to sell a portfolio position can adversely affect the Fund’s value or prevent the Fund from being able to take advantage of other investment opportunities. Market prices for such securities or other investments may be volatile. Market participants attempting to sell the same or a similar investment at the same time as the Fund could decrease the liquidity of such investments, especially during times of market volatility. During periods of substantial market volatility, an investment or even an entire market segment may become illiquid, sometimes abruptly, which can adversely affect the Fund’s ability to limit losses.
Unexpected episodes of illiquidity, including due to market or political factors, instrument or issuer-specific factors and/or unanticipated outflows, may limit the Fund’s ability to pay redemption proceeds within the allowable time period. To meet redemption requests during periods of illiquidity, the Fund may be forced to sell securities at an unfavorable time and/or under unfavorable conditions.
Market Direction Risk. Since the Fund will typically hold both long and short positions, an investment in the Fund will involve market risks associated with different types of investment decisions than those made for a typical “long only” fund. The Fund’s results could suffer when there is a general market advance and the Fund holds significant “short” positions, or when there is a general market decline and the Fund holds significant “long” positions. The markets may have considerable volatility from day to day and even in intra-day trading.
Market Volatility Risk. Markets may be volatile and values of individual securities and other investments, including those of a particular type, may decline significantly in response to adverse issuer, political, regulatory, market, economic or other developments that may cause broad changes in market value, public perceptions concerning these developments, and adverse investor sentiment or publicity. Changes in the financial condition of a single issuer may impact a market as a whole. Changes in value may be temporary or may last for extended periods. If the Fund sells a portfolio position before it reaches its market peak, it may miss out on opportunities for better performance. Geopolitical risks, including terrorism, tensions or open conflict between nations, or political or economic dysfunction within some nations that are major players on the world stage or major producers of oil, may lead to overall instability in world economies and markets generally and have led, and may in the future lead, to increased market volatility and may have adverse long-term effects. Similarly, environmental and public health risks, such as natural disasters or epidemics, or widespread fear that such events may occur, may impact markets and economies adversely and cause market volatility in both the short- and long-term.
Model Risk. To a significant extent, the Fund’s performance will depend on the success of implementing and managing the investment models that assist in allocating the Fund’s assets. Fund performance will also be affected by the fundamental analysis and inputs used by models regarding investments. Models may be employed that turn out not to be well-suited to prevailing market conditions. Models that have been formulated on the basis of past market data may not be indicative of future price movements. Models may not be reliable if unusual or disruptive events specific to particular corporations, or major events external to the operation of markets, cause market moves the nature or size of which are inconsistent with the historic performance of individual markets and their relationship to one another or to other macroeconomic events. Models also may have hidden biases or exposure to broad structural or sentiment shifts. In the event that actual events fail to conform to the assumptions underlying such models, losses could be incurred. The performance of the investment models may be impacted by software or other technology malfunctions, programming inaccuracies, and similar circumstances.
Mortgage- and Asset-Backed Securities Risk. The value of mortgage- and asset-backed securities, including collateralized mortgage instruments, will be influenced by the factors affecting the housing market or the assets underlying the securities. These securities differ from more traditional debt securities because the principal is paid back over the life of the security rather than at the security’s maturity; however, principal may be repaid early if a decline in interest rates causes many borrowers to refinance (known as prepayment risk), or repaid more slowly if a rise in rates causes refinancings to slow down (known as extension risk). Thus, they tend to be more sensitive to changes in interest rates than other types of debt securities and as a result, these securities may exhibit additional volatility during periods of interest rate turmoil. In addition, investments in mortgage- and asset-backed securities may be subject to call risk, credit risk, valuation risk, and illiquid investment risk, sometimes to a higher degree than various other types of debt securities. These securities are also subject to the risk of default on the underlying mortgages or assets, particularly during periods of market downturn, and an unexpectedly high rate of defaults on the underlying assets will adversely affect the security’s value. Further, such securities may have credit support, the utility of which could be negatively affected by such conditions as well.

Other Investment Company Risk. To the extent the Fund invests in other investment companies, including money market funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs), its performance will be affected by the performance of those other investment companies and to the allocation of its assets among those other investment companies. Investments in other investment companies are subject to the risks of the other investment companies’ investments, as well as to the other investment companies’ expenses. If the Fund invests in other investment companies, the Fund may receive distributions of taxable gains from portfolio transactions by that investment company and may recognize taxable gains from transactions in shares of that investment company, which could be taxable to the Fund’s shareholders when distributed to them.
An ETF may trade in the secondary market at a price below the value of its underlying portfolio and may not be liquid. An actively managed ETF’s performance will reflect its adviser’s ability to make investment decisions that are suited to achieving the ETF’s investment objectives. A passively managed ETF may not replicate the performance of the index it intends to track because of, for example, the temporary unavailability of certain index securities in the secondary market or discrepancies between the ETF and the index with respect to the weighting of
securities or the number of stocks held. A passively managed ETF may not be permitted to sell poorly performing stocks that are included in its index.
Operational and Cybersecurity Risk. The Fund and its service providers, and your ability to transact with the Fund, may be negatively impacted due to operational matters arising from, among other problems, human errors, systems and technology disruptions or failures, or cybersecurity incidents. Cybersecurity incidents may allow an unauthorized party to gain access to fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause the Fund or its service providers, as well as the securities trading venues and their service providers, to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. Cybersecurity incidents can result from deliberate attacks (e.g., malicious software coding, ransomware, or “hacking”) or unintentional events (e.g., inadvertent release of confidential information). A cybersecurity incident could, among other things, result in the loss or theft of customer data or funds, customers or employees being unable to access electronic systems (“denial of services”), loss or theft of proprietary information or corporate data, physical damage to a computer or network system, or remediation costs associated with system repairs. A cybersecurity incident may not permit the Fund and its service providers to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Fund, such as trading and calculating net asset value. Any cybersecurity incident could have a substantial adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders.
The occurrence of any of these problems could result in a loss of information, regulatory scrutiny, reputational damage and other consequences, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Fund or its shareholders. The Manager, through its monitoring and oversight of Fund service providers, endeavors to determine that service providers take appropriate precautions to avoid and mitigate risks that could lead to such problems. While the Manager has established business continuity plans and risk management systems seeking to address these problems, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems, and it is not possible for the Manager or the other Fund service providers to identify all of the cybersecurity or other operational risks that may affect the Fund or to develop processes and controls to completely eliminate or mitigate their occurrence or effects. Most issuers in which the Fund invests are heavily dependent on computers for data storage and operations, and require ready access to the internet to conduct their business. Thus, cybersecurity incidents could also affect issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, leading to significant loss of value.
Preferred Securities Risk. Preferred securities, which are a form of hybrid security (i.e., a security with both debt and equity characteristics), may pay fixed or adjustable rates of return. Preferred securities are subject to issuer-specific and market risks applicable generally to equity securities, however, unlike common stocks, participation in the growth of an issuer may be limited. Distributions on preferred securities are generally payable at the discretion of the issuer’s board of directors and after the company makes required payments to holders of its debt securities. For this reason, preferred securities are subject to greater credit, interest, and liquidation risk than debt securities, and the value of preferred securities will usually react more strongly than debt securities to actual or perceived changes in the company’s financial condition or prospects. Preferred securities of smaller companies may be more vulnerable to adverse developments than preferred securities of larger companies. Preferred securities may be less liquid than common stocks, and there is a risk an issuer of preferred securities may call or redeem prior to any stated maturity. Preferred securities may include provisions that permit the issuer, at its discretion, to defer or omit distributions for a stated period without any adverse consequences to the issuer. Preferred shareholders may have certain rights if distributions are not paid but generally have no legal recourse against the issuer, may suffer a loss of value if distributions are not paid, and may be required to report the deferred distribution on its tax returns, even though it may not have received any cash. Generally, preferred shareholders have no voting rights with respect to the issuer unless distributions to preferred shareholders have not been paid for a stated period, at which time the preferred shareholders may elect a number of directors to the issuer’s board. Generally, once all the distributions have been paid to preferred shareholders, the preferred shareholders no longer have voting rights.
Prepayment and Extension Risk. The Fund’s performance could be affected if borrowers pay back principal on certain debt securities, such as mortgage- or asset-backed securities, before (prepayment) or after (extension) the market anticipates such payments, shortening or lengthening their duration. Due to a decline in interest rates or an excess in cash flow into the issuer, a debt security might be called or otherwise converted, prepaid or redeemed before maturity. As a result of prepayment, the Fund may have to reinvest the proceeds in an investment offering a
lower yield, may not benefit from any increase in value that might otherwise result from declining interest rates, and may lose any premium it paid to acquire the security. Prepayments could also create capital gains tax liability in some instances. Conversely, rising market interest rates generally result in slower payoffs or extension, which effectively increases the duration of certain debt securities, heightening interest rate risk and increasing the magnitude of any resulting price declines. If the Fund’s investments are locked in at a lower interest rate for a longer period of time, the Fund may be unable to capitalize on securities with higher interest rates or wider spreads.
Recent Market Conditions. Certain illnesses spread rapidly and have the potential to significantly and adversely affect the global economy. Outbreaks such as the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, or other similarly infectious diseases may have material adverse impacts on the Fund. Epidemics and/or pandemics, such as the coronavirus, have and may further result in, among other things, closing borders, extended quarantines and stay-at-home orders, order cancellations, disruptions to supply chains and customer activity, widespread business closures and layoffs, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of this virus, and other epidemics and/or pandemics that may arise in the future, has negatively affected and may continue to affect the economies of many nations, individual companies and the global securities and commodities markets, including their liquidity, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. The impact of any outbreak may last for an extended period of time. The current pandemic has accelerated trends toward working remotely and shopping on-line, which may negatively affect the value of office and commercial real estate and companies that have been slow to transition to an on-line business model. The travel, hospitality and public transit industries may suffer long-term negative effects from the pandemic and resulting changes to public behavior.
Governments and central banks have moved to limit these negative economic effects with interventions that are unprecedented in size and scope and may continue to do so, but the ultimate impact of these efforts is uncertain. Governments’ efforts to limit potential negative economic effects of the pandemic may be altered, delayed, or eliminated at inopportune times for political, policy or other reasons. The impact of infectious diseases may be greater in countries that do not move effectively to control them, which may occur for political reasons or because of a lack of health care or economic resources. Health crises caused by the recent coronavirus outbreak may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries. Although effective vaccines are available, it may be many months before vaccinations are sufficiently widespread in many countries to allow the restoration of full economic activity. The failure to control the coronavirus in less developed countries may impact the economies of more developed countries.
Russia’s invasion of the Ukraine, and corresponding events in late February 2022, have had, and could continue to have, severe adverse effects on regional and global economic markets for securities and commodities. Following Russia’s actions, various governments, including the United States, have issued broad-ranging economic sanctions against Russia, including, among other actions, a prohibition on doing business with certain Russian companies, large financial institutions, officials and oligarchs; the removal by certain countries and the European Union of selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (“SWIFT”), the electronic banking network that connects banks globally; and restrictive measures to prevent the Russian Central Bank from undermining the impact of the sanctions. The current events, including sanctions and the potential for future sanctions, including any impacting Russia’s energy sector, and other actions, and Russia’s retaliatory responses to those sanctions and actions, may continue to adversely impact the Russian and Ukrainian economies and may result in the further decline of the value and liquidity of Russian and Ukrainian securities, a continued weakening of the ruble and hryvnia and continued exchange closures, and may have other adverse consequences on the Russian and Ukrainian economies that could impact the value of these investments and impair the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities.
Moreover, those events have, and could continue to have, an adverse effect on global markets performance and liquidity, thereby negatively affecting the value of the Fund’s investments beyond any direct exposure to Russian and Ukrainian issuers. The duration of ongoing hostilities and the vast array of sanctions and related events cannot be predicted. Those events present material uncertainty and risk with respect to markets globally and the performance of the Fund and its investments or operations could be negatively impacted.
High public debt in the U.S. and other countries creates ongoing systemic and market risks and policymaking uncertainty and there may be a further increase in the amount of debt due to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic relief and public health measures. Interest rates have been unusually low in recent years in the U.S. and abroad. It is difficult to predict the impact on various markets of a significant rate increase or other significant policy changes, whether brought about by government policy makers, perhaps in response to indications of increasing inflation, or by dislocations in world markets. For example, because investors may buy equity securities or other investments with borrowed money, a significant increase in interest rates may cause a decline in the markets for those investments. In addition, ongoing inflation pressures from tight labor markets and supply chain disruptions could cause a material increase in interest rates and/or negatively impact companies. Also, regulators have expressed concern that rate increases may cause investors to sell fixed income securities faster than the market can absorb them, contributing to price volatility. Over the longer term, rising interest rates may present a greater risk than has historically been the case due to the current period of relatively low rates and the effect of government fiscal and monetary policy initiatives and potential market reaction to those initiatives, or their alteration or cessation. Historical patterns of correlation among asset classes may break down in unanticipated ways during times of high volatility, disrupting investment programs and potentially causing losses. There is no assurance that the U.S. Congress will act to raise the nation’s debt ceiling; a failure to do so could cause market turmoil and substantial investment risks that cannot now be fully predicted.
National economies are substantially interconnected, as are global financial markets, which creates the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. A rise in protectionist trade policies, tariff “wars,” changes to some major international trade agreements and the potential for changes to others, and campaigns to “buy American,” could affect international trade and the economies of many nations in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time.
Markets have been sensitive to the outlook for resolving the U.S.-China “trade war,” a trend that may continue in the future. China’s economy, which has been sustained in recent years largely through a debt-financed housing boom, may be approaching the limits of that strategy and may experience a significant slowdown as a result of debt that cannot be repaid. Due to the size of China’s economy, such a slowdown could impact a number of other countries.
In December 2020, the United Kingdom (“UK”) and the European Union (“EU”) signed a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) to delineate the terms on which the UK left the EU. The TCA did little to address financial services and products provided by UK entities to customers in the EU, leaving the future of such services and products uncertain. New trading rules have disrupted the cross-border flow of products and supplies for many businesses; it remains to be seen whether these will be smoothed out with the passage of time or cause long-term damage to affected businesses. There is some uncertainty as to whether dislocations in the UK’s economy are mainly the result of COVID-19 (as the government claims) or the result of the country having left the EU.
Over the past several years, the U.S. has moved away from tighter legislation and regulation impacting businesses and the financial services industry. There is a strong potential for materially increased regulation in the future, as well as higher taxes and/or taxes restructured to incentivize different activities. These changes, should they occur, may impose added costs on the Fund and its service providers, and affect the businesses of various portfolio companies, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time. Unexpected political, regulatory and diplomatic events within the U.S. and abroad may affect investor and consumer confidence and may adversely impact financial markets and the broader economy.
Sector Risk. From time to time, based on market or economic conditions, the Fund may have significant positions in one or more sectors of the market. To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in one sector, industry, or sub-sector of the market, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors, industries, or sub-sectors. An individual sector, industry, or sub-sector of the market may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the broader market. The industries that constitute a sector may all react in the same way to economic, political or regulatory events. The Fund’s performance could also be affected if the sectors, industries, or sub-sectors do not perform as expected. Alternatively, the lack of exposure to one or more sectors or industries may adversely affect performance.  For information about the risks of investing in particular sectors, see the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information.
Short Sale Risk. Short sales involve selling a security the Fund does not own in anticipation that the security’s price will decline. To complete the transaction, the Fund must borrow the security to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obligated to replace the security borrowed by purchasing the security at the market price at the time of replacement. The price at such time may be higher or lower than the price at which the security was sold by the Fund. If the underlying security goes up in price during the period during which the short position is outstanding, the Fund will realize a loss on the transaction.
Short sales, at least theoretically, present a risk of unlimited loss on an individual security basis, particularly in cases where the Fund is unable, for whatever reason, to close out its short position, since the Fund may be required to buy the security sold short at a time when the security has appreciated in value, and there is potentially no limit to the amount of such appreciation. Volatility in the market for equity securities, which has been dramatically increased recently for certain stocks, can meaningfully increase the risk of loss associated with short sales. Additionally, because the Fund may invest the proceeds of a short sale, another effect of short selling on the Fund is leverage, in that it amplifies changes in the Fund’s net asset value since it increases the exposure of the Fund to the market and may increase losses and the volatility of returns.
The Fund may not always be able to close out a short position at a favorable time or price. A lender may request that borrowed securities be returned to it on short notice, and the Fund may have to buy the borrowed securities at an unfavorable price, which will potentially reduce or eliminate any gain or cause a loss to the Fund. The Fund incurs expenses for borrowing securities that may include fees paid to the lender and amounts equal to dividends or interest paid by the borrowed security.
When the Fund is selling a security short, it must maintain a segregated account of cash or high-grade securities equal to the margin requirement. (Margin posted with the broker, not including the proceeds of the short sale, counts toward this requirement.) As a result, the Fund may maintain high levels of cash or other liquid assets (such as U.S. Treasury bills, money market instruments, certificates of deposit, high quality commercial paper and long equity positions) or may utilize the collateral obtained from securities lending for this cash. The need to maintain cash or other liquid assets in segregated accounts could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue other opportunities as they arise.
Subsidiary Risk. By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with the Subsidiary’s investments and operations. The commodity-linked derivative instruments and other investments held by the Subsidiary are similar to those that are permitted to be held by the Fund, and thus, present the same risks whether they are held by the Fund or the Subsidiary. There can be no assurance that the investment objective of the Subsidiary will be achieved. The Subsidiary is not registered under the 1940 Act, and, unless otherwise noted in this prospectus, is not subject to all the investor protections of the 1940 Act. However, the Fund wholly owns and controls the Subsidiary, and the Fund and the Subsidiary are both managed by Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC, making it unlikely that the Subsidiary will take action contrary to the interests of the Fund and its shareholders. The Fund’s Board of Trustees has oversight responsibility for the investment activities of the Fund, including its investment in the Subsidiary, and the Fund’s role as sole shareholder of the Subsidiary. In adhering to the Fund’s investment restrictions and limitations, Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC will treat the assets of the Subsidiary generally in the same manner as assets that are held directly by the Fund. Changes in the laws of the United States and/or the Cayman Islands, under which the Fund and the Subsidiary, respectively, are organized, could result in the inability of the Fund and/or the Subsidiary to operate as described in this prospectus and the Statement of Additional Information and could adversely affect the Fund and its shareholders.
Tax Risk. To qualify as a RIC under the Code, and be eligible to receive “pass-through” tax treatment, the Fund must, among other things, derive at least 90% of its gross income for each taxable year from types of income treated as “qualifying income” under the Code. Although qualifying income does not include income derived directly from commodities, including certain commodity-linked derivative instruments, the Service issued a large number of private letter rulings (which the Fund may not use or cite as precedent) between 2006 and 2011 concluding that
income a RIC derives from a wholly owned foreign subsidiary (a “CFC”) (such as the Subsidiary) that earns income derived from commodities and income from certain commodity-linked notes is qualifying income.
Regulations provide that  the income of a CFC, in which a RIC invests as part of its business of investing in stock or securities, income that the Code requires a RIC to include in its gross income each taxable year (“Subpart F Inclusion”) will constitute qualifying income for the RIC whether or not the Subpart F Inclusion is distributed by the CFC to the RIC. The Regulations are consistent with the conclusions in the rulings described above. The Fund has also received an opinion of counsel, which is not binding on the Service or the courts, that income the Fund derives from the Subsidiary should constitute qualifying income.
The Service has issued a revenue procedure stating that the Service will not “ordinarily” issue private letter rulings on any issue relating to the treatment of a corporation as a RIC that requires a determination of whether a financial instrument or position is a “security.” Accordingly, future rulings regarding the status of commodity-linked notes and other commodity-linked derivative instruments will be rarely issued, if at all.
The federal income tax treatment of the Fund’s income from the Subsidiary may be adversely affected by future legislation, other Treasury regulations, and/or other guidance issued by the Service that could affect the character, timing of recognition, and/or amount of the Fund’s taxable income and/or net capital gains and, therefore, the distributions it makes. If the Fund failed the qualifying income test for any taxable year but was eligible to and did cure the failure, it would incur potentially significant federal income tax expense. If, on the other hand, the Fund failed to qualify as a RIC for any taxable year and was ineligible to or otherwise did not cure the failure, it would be subject to federal income tax on its taxable income at the corporate tax rate, with the consequences that its income available for distribution to shareholders would be reduced and all such distributions from its current or accumulated earnings and profits would be taxable to its shareholders as dividend income. In that event, the Fund’s Board of Trustees may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or the Fund’s liquidation.
U.S. Government Securities Risk. Although the Fund may hold securities that carry U.S. government guarantees, these guarantees do not extend to shares of the Fund itself and do not guarantee the market prices of the securities. Furthermore, not all securities issued by the U.S. government and its agencies and instrumentalities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Treasury. Some are backed by the issuer’s right to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, while others are backed only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality. These securities carry at least some risk of non-payment or default by the issuer. The maximum potential liability of the issuers of some U.S. government securities may greatly exceed their current resources, including their legal right to support from the U.S. Treasury. It is possible that these issuers will not have the funds to meet their payment obligations in the future.
In recent periods, the values of U.S. government securities have been affected substantially by increased demand for them around the world. Increases or decreases in the demand for U.S. government securities may occur at any time and may result in increased volatility in the values of those securities. In recent years, credit rating agencies have shown some concern about whether the U.S. government has the political will necessary to service all of its outstanding and expected future debt, and some have adjusted their ratings or outlook for U.S. government debt accordingly. These developments, and the factors underlying them, could cause an increase in interest rates and borrowing costs, which may negatively impact both the perception of credit risk associated with the debt securities issued by the U.S. and the government's ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms. In addition, these developments could create broader financial turmoil and uncertainty, which could increase volatility in both stock and bond markets. These events could result in significant adverse impacts on issuers of securities held by the Fund.
Valuation Risk. The price at which the Fund sells any particular investment may differ from the Fund’s valuation of the investment. Such differences could be significant, particularly for illiquid securities and securities that trade in relatively thin markets and/or markets that experience extreme volatility. If market or other conditions make it difficult to value some investments, SEC rules and applicable accounting protocols may require the Fund to value these investments using more subjective methods, known as fair value methodologies. Using fair value methodologies to price investments may result in a value that is different from an investment’s most recent closing price and from the prices used by other funds to calculate their NAVs. Investors who purchase or redeem Fund shares on days when the Fund is holding fair-valued securities may receive fewer or more shares, or lower or higher redemption proceeds, than they would have received if the Fund had not held fair-valued securities or had used a
different valuation methodology. The value of foreign securities, certain futures and fixed income securities, and currencies, as applicable, may be materially affected by events after the close of the markets on which they are traded but before the Fund determines its net asset value. The Fund’s ability to value its investments in an accurate and timely manner may be impacted by technological issues and/or errors by third party service providers, such as pricing services or accounting agents.
Variable and Floating Rate Instruments Risk. The market prices of instruments with variable and floating interest rates are generally less sensitive to interest rate changes than are the market prices of instruments with fixed interest rates. Variable and floating rate instruments may decline in value if market interest rates or interest rates paid by such instruments do not move as expected. Conversely, variable and floating rate instruments will not generally rise in value if market interest rates decline. Thus, investing in variable and floating rate instruments generally allows less opportunity for capital appreciation and depreciation than investing in instruments with a fixed interest rate. Certain types of floating rate instruments, such as interests in bank loans, may be subject to greater liquidity risk than other debt securities.
Certain variable and floating rate instruments have an interest rate floor feature, which prevents the interest rate payable by the instrument from dropping below a specified level as compared to a reference interest rate (the “reference rate”), such as LIBOR. Such a floor protects the Fund from losses resulting from a decrease in the reference rate below the specified level. However, if the reference rate is below the floor, there will be a lag between a rise in the reference rate and a rise in the interest rate payable by the instrument, and the Fund may not benefit from increasing interest rates for a significant period of time. Rates on certain variable rate instruments typically only reset periodically. As a result, changes in prevailing interest rates, particularly sudden and significant changes, can cause some fluctuations in the Fund’s value to the extent that it invests in variable rate instruments.
Information about Additional Risks and Other Practices
As discussed in the Statement of Additional Information, the Fund may engage in certain practices and invest in certain securities in addition to those described as its “principal investment strategies” in its Fund Summary section. For example, should the Fund engage in borrowing or securities lending, or should the Fund use derivatives or invest in foreign securities, it will be subject to the additional risks associated with these practices and securities.
Borrowing money, securities lending, or using derivatives would create investment leverage, meaning that certain gains or losses would be amplified, increasing share price movements.  With respect to borrowing, the Fund may borrow money to obtain the collateral needed to borrow a security in order to effect a short sale of that security. The cost to the Fund of borrowing may exceed the profits attained on any such shorts positions. Similarly, the Fund may lend securities and use the collateral obtained from the securities loans as the collateral necessary to borrow a security on which the Fund is taking a short position. Securities lending involves some risk of loss of the Fund’s rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially.
A Fund that does not engage in derivatives as part of its principal investment strategy may, to a limited extent, use certain derivatives for hedging or investment purposes. A derivative instrument, whether used for hedging or for speculation, could fail to perform as expected, causing a loss for the Fund.
Foreign securities, including those issued by foreign governments, involve risks in addition to those associated with comparable U.S. securities, and can fluctuate more widely in price, and may also be less liquid, than comparable U.S. securities. Securities issued by U.S. entities with substantial foreign operations may involve risks relating to political, economic, or regulatory conditions in foreign countries.
As part of its liquidity management practices, including for cash management purposes or to facilitate short-term liquidity, the Fund may invest in reverse repurchase agreements. In a reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund sells portfolio securities to another party, such as a bank or broker-dealer, in return for cash and agrees to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price and date, which reflects an interest payment to that party. Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the other party will fail to return the securities in a timely manner, or at all, which may result in losses to the Fund. The Fund could lose money if it is unable to recover the securities and the value of the cash collateral held by the Fund is less than the value of the securities. These events could also trigger adverse tax consequences to the Fund. Reverse repurchase agreements also involve the risk that the market value of the securities sold will decline below the price at which the Fund is obligated to repurchase them. Reverse repurchase
agreements may be viewed as a form of borrowing by the Fund. When the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, any fluctuations in the market value of either the securities transferred to another party or the securities in which the proceeds may be invested would affect the market value of the Fund’s assets. During the term of the agreement, the Fund may also be obligated to pledge additional cash and/or securities in the event of a decline in the fair value of the transferred security. The Manager monitors the creditworthiness of counterparties to reverse repurchase agreements.
In addition, the Fund may be an investment option for a Neuberger Berman fund that is managed as a “fund of funds.” As a result, from time to time, the Fund may experience relatively large redemptions or investments and could be required to sell securities or to invest cash at a time when it is not advantageous to do so.
In anticipation of adverse or uncertain market, economic, political, or other temporary conditions, including during periods of high cash inflows or outflows, the Fund may temporarily depart from its goal and use a different investment strategy (including leaving a significant portion of its assets uninvested) for defensive purposes. Doing so could help the Fund avoid losses, but may mean lost opportunities. In addition, in doing so different factors could affect the Fund’s performance and the Fund may not achieve its goal.
In addition, to the extent the Fund is new or is undergoing a transition (such as a change in strategy, rebalancing, reorganization, liquidation or experiencing large inflows or outflows) or takes a temporary defensive position, it may deviate from its principal investment strategies during such period.
The Fund may change its goal without shareholder approval, although none currently intend to do so.
Please see the Statement of Additional Information for more information.
In addition, the Fund may seek to gain investment exposure to cryptocurrencies through bitcoin futures traded on futures exchanges registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission or through investments in the securities of exchange traded funds organized and listed for trading in Canada that invest in bitcoin. While the Fund will not invest more than 5% of the value of its net assets in such cryptocurrency investments (measured at the time of investment), these investments are subject to the following additional risks:
Cryptocurrency Risk. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Although cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class, there are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. Cryptocurrency is a newer technological innovation with limited history; it is highly speculative and future regulatory actions or policies may significantly affect the price of cryptocurrencies, and thus the value of the Fund’s investments in cryptocurrencies.
The value of cryptocurrencies is normally determined by the supply and demand for cryptocurrency in the global market for the trading of cryptocurrency, which consists primarily of transactions on electronic exchanges. The market price of bitcoin has been subject to extreme fluctuations, and may be highly volatile. If cryptocurrency markets continue to be subject to sharp fluctuations, the Fund’s exposure to cryptocurrency could result in substantial losses to the Fund. Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank), and the value is generally not backed by any government, corporation, or other identified body. Cryptocurrency is not legal tender; Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, which could severely affect the value of any holdings. Regulation in the United States is still developing. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction. Accordingly, bitcoin held by the cryptocurrency investment vehicles that the Fund may invest in are also susceptible to these risks.
Cryptocurrency exchanges and other trading venues on which cryptocurrencies trade are relatively new and, in most cases, largely unregulated and may therefore be more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies. The Fund’s indirect investment in bitcoin remains subject to volatility experienced by the cryptocurrency exchanges and other cryptocurrency trading venues. Cryptocurrency exchanges may stop operating or permanently shut down due to fraud, technical glitches, hackers or malware, which may also affect the price of bitcoin and thus the Fund’s indirect investments in bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency Futures Risk. The cryptocurrency futures contracts the Fund may invest in are bitcoin futures traded on futures exchanges registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Bitcoin futures expose the Fund
to all of the risks related to cryptocurrency discussed under “Cryptocurrency Risk” above and also expose the Fund to risks specific to bitcoin futures.
The market for bitcoin futures may be less developed, and potentially less liquid and more volatile, than more established futures markets given that the cryptocurrency futures market is relatively new. In addition, exchanges on which cryptocurrency futures are traded and their related clearinghouses and the Fund’s futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) generally require the Fund to maintain relatively high levels of initial margin at the clearinghouse and FCM in connection with bitcoin futures. Cryptocurrency futures are subject to collateral requirements and daily limits that may limit the Fund’s ability to achieve the desired exposure.
In addition, bitcoin, as well as bitcoin futures, have generally exhibited significant price volatility relative to traditional asset classes. Cryptocurrency futures may also experience significant price volatility as a result of being the target of market fraud and manipulation. Futures contracts based on bitcoin are also subject to the risks otherwise applicable to derivatives, in particular those described in “Derivatives Risk—Futures” below.
Cryptocurrency Tax Risk. Many significant aspects of the tax treatment of investments in cryptocurrency are uncertain, and a direct or indirect investment in cryptocurrency may produce income that if directly earned by a regulated investment company like the Fund, would be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of the income test applicable to regulated investment companies. Accordingly, to the extent the Fund invests in cryptocurrencies futures, or investment vehicles that invest in cryptocurrencies, it will do so through the Subsidiary.
In 2014, the IRS released a notice (the “Notice”) discussing certain aspects of “convertible virtual currency” (that is, digital assets that have an equivalent value in fiat currency or that act as a substitute for fiat currency) for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, in particular, stating that such a digital asset (i) is “property,” (ii) is not “currency” for purposes of the rules relating to foreign currency gain or loss and (iii) may be held as a capital asset. In 2019, the IRS released a revenue ruling and a set of “Frequently Asked Questions” (the “Ruling & FAQs”) that provide some additional guidance. However, the Notice and the Ruling & FAQs do not address other significant aspects of the U.S. federal income tax treatment of digital assets.
It is unclear what additional guidance on the treatment of digital assets for U.S. federal, state and local income tax purposes may be issued or when such guidance may be issued. Because of the evolving nature of digital assets, it is not possible to predict potential future developments that may arise with respect to digital assets. Any future guidance on the treatment of digital assets for federal, state or local tax purposes could result in adverse tax consequences for the Fund or the Subsidiary and could have an adverse effect on the value of bitcoin.
In addition, the Fund may be an investment option for a Neuberger Berman mutual fund that is managed as a “fund of funds.” As a result, from time to time, the Fund may experience relatively large redemptions or investments and could be required to sell securities or to invest cash at a time when it is not advantageous to do so.
In anticipation of adverse or uncertain market, economic, political, or other temporary conditions, including during periods of high cash inflows or outflows, the Fund may temporarily depart from its goal and use a different investment strategy (including leaving a significant portion of its assets uninvested) for defensive purposes. Doing so could help the Fund avoid losses, but may mean lost opportunities. In addition, in doing so different factors could affect the Fund’s performance and the Fund may not achieve its goal.
In addition, to the extent the Fund is new or is undergoing a transition (such as a change in strategy, rebalancing, reorganization, liquidation or experiencing large inflows or outflows) or takes a temporary defensive position, it may deviate from its principal investment strategies during such period.
The Fund may change its goal without shareholder approval, although none currently intend to do so.
Please see the Statement of Additional Information for more information.
Description of Index
The Bloomberg Commodity Index is a rolling index composed of exchange-traded futures contracts on physical commodities. The index relies primarily on liquidity data of futures contracts, along with U.S. dollar-adjusted production data, in determining the relative quantities of included commodities. The index is designed to be a highly liquid and diversified benchmark for commodities investments. The version of the index that is calculated on a total
return basis reflects the returns on a fully collateralized investment in the underlying commodity futures contracts, combined with the returns on cash collateral invested in U.S. Treasury Bills.

Management of the Funds
Investment Manager
Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC (“Manager” or “NBIA”), located at 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104, is the Fund’s investment manager and administrator. Neuberger Berman BD LLC (“Distributor”), located at 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104, is the Fund’s distributor. Pursuant to an investment advisory agreement, the Manager is responsible for choosing the Fund’s investments and handling its day-to-day business. The services provided by the Manager as the investment manager and administrator include, among others, overall responsibility for providing all supervisory, management, and administrative services reasonably necessary for the operation of the Funds, which may include, among others, compliance monitoring, operational and investment risk management, legal and administrative services and portfolio accounting services. The Manager carries out its duties subject to the policies established by the Board of Trustees. The investment advisory agreement establishes the fees the Fund pays to the Manager for its services as the Fund’s investment manager and the expenses paid directly by the Fund. Together, the Neuberger Berman affiliates manage approximately $460 billion in total assets (as of 12/31/2021) and continue an asset management history that began in 1939.
A discussion regarding the basis for the Board of Trustees’ approval of the Fund’s investment advisory agreements will be available in the Fund’s annual report to shareholders for the period ending August 31, 2023.
NBIA may engage one or more of foreign affiliates that are not registered under the 1940 Act (“participating affiliates”) in accordance with applicable SEC no-action letters. As participating affiliates, whether or not registered with the SEC, the affiliates may provide designated investment personnel to associate with NBIA as “associated persons” of NBIA and perform specific advisory services for NBIA, including services for the Funds, which may involve, among other services, portfolio management and/or placing orders for securities and other instruments. The designated employees of a participating affiliate act for NBIA and are subject to certain NBIA policies and procedures as well as supervision and periodic monitoring by NBIA. The Funds will pay no additional fees and expenses as a result of any such arrangements.
Neither this Prospectus nor the Statement of Additional Information is intended to give rise to any contract rights or other rights in any shareholder, other than any rights conferred explicitly by federal or state securities laws that have not been waived. The Funds enter into contractual arrangements with various parties, including, among others, the Manager, who provide services to the Funds. Shareholders are not parties to, or intended to be third party beneficiaries of, those contractual arrangements. Where shareholders are not third party beneficiaries of contractual arrangements, those contractual arrangements cannot be enforced by shareholders acting on their own behalf.
The Manager has obtained “manager of managers” exemptive relief from the SEC that permits the Manager, subject to the approval of the Board of Trustees, to appoint an unaffiliated subadviser or to change the terms of a subadvisory agreement with an unaffiliated subadviser for the Fund without first obtaining shareholder approval. The exemptive order permits the Fund to add or to change unaffiliated subadvisers or to change the fees paid to such subadvisers from time to time without the expense and delays associated with obtaining shareholder approval of the change. Under this order, the Manager has ultimate responsibility (subject to oversight by the Board) to oversee the subadvisers and recommend their hiring, termination, and replacement. The Fund will notify shareholders of any change in the identity of a subadviser or the addition of a subadviser to the Fund.
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF:  The Fund will pay the Manager a fee at the annual rate of 0.500% of the first $250 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets; 0.475% of the next $250 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets; 0.450% of the next $250 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets; 0.425% of the next $250 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets; 0.400% of the next $500 million of the Fund’s average daily net assets; 0.375% of the next $2.5 billion of the Fund’s average daily net assets; and 0.350% in excess of $4 billion of the Fund’s daily net assets for investment advisory services. The Fund will pay the Manager a fee at the annual rate of 0.09% of the Fund's average daily net assets for administrative services provided to the Fund.

Portfolio Managers
Please see the Statement of Additional Information for additional information about each Portfolio Manager’s compensation, other accounts managed by each Portfolio Manager, and each Portfolio Manager’s ownership of shares in the Fund(s) that he or she manages.
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF
Hakan Kaya, Ph.D., is a Managing Director of the Manager. He joined the firm in 2008 and is a Portfolio Manager with the Quantitative Investment Group. Prior to joining the firm, he was a consultant at another investment firm where he developed statistical relative value and directional models for commodities investments.
David Yi Wan is a Senior Vice President of the Manager. He joined the firm in 2001 and is a Portfolio Manager with the Quantitative Investment Group. Prior to joining the firm, he worked in Information Management at another investment firm.
Michael Foster is a Managing Director of the Manager. He has been a Portfolio Manager of the Fund since May 2021. Mr. Foster has been a portfolio manager at the firm since 2004.
About the Wholly Owned Subsidiary
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF invests in a wholly owned subsidiary (“Subsidiary”).
The Subsidiary is an exempted company, the members of which have limited liability, incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. The Fund invests in its Subsidiary in order to gain exposure to the commodities markets within the limitations of the Code applicable to RICs. The Fund must maintain no more than 25% of the value of its total assets in its Subsidiary at the end of every quarter of its taxable year.
The Subsidiary is overseen by its own board of directors. However, the Fund’s Board of Trustees maintains oversight responsibility for investment activities of its Subsidiary generally as if its Subsidiary’s investments were held directly by the Fund. The Manager is responsible for the Subsidiary’s day-to-day business pursuant to a separate investment advisory agreement between the Subsidiary and the Manager. Under this agreement, the Manager provides the Subsidiary with the same type of management services, under the same terms, as are provided to the Fund.
In managing the Subsidiary’s investment portfolio, and in adhering to the Fund’s compliance policies and procedures and investment policies and restrictions, the Manager will treat the assets of the Subsidiary generally in the same manner as assets that are held directly by the Fund.
The Subsidiary bears the other fees and expenses it incurs in connection with its operations, such as those for services it receives from third party service providers. Accordingly, such fees and expenses are paid indirectly by the Fund.
Please refer to the Statement of Additional Information for additional information about the organization and management of the Subsidiary.







Financial Highlights
These financial highlights describe the performance of the Fund for the fiscal periods indicated. The Fund has adopted the performance history of the Institutional Class shares of the predecessor fund, which operated as a mutual fund. The financial information shown below for the predecessor mutual fund for the periods prior to the inception of the Fund on _____. 2022.  The total returns in the table represent the rate that an investor would have earned or lost on an investment in Institutional Class shares in the predecessor mutual fund, which the Adviser believes is an accurate representation of how the ETF would have performed, assuming reinvestment of all dividends and distributions.
All figures have been derived from the financial statements audited by Ernst & Young LLP, the Fund's independent registered public accounting firm. Their report, along with full financial statements, appears in the Fund's most recent annual shareholder report (see back cover).
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy Fund—Institutional Class (predecessor fund)
YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 31,
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
PER-SHARE DATA ($)
 
 
 
 
 
Data apply to a single share throughout each year indicated. You can see what the Fund earned (or lost), what it distributed to investors, and how its share price changed.
 
 
 
 
 
Share price (NAV) at beginning of year
5.99
6.36
6.19
6.00
5.08
Plus:
 
 
 
 
 
Income from investment operations
 
 
 
 
 
Net investment income (loss)(3)
0.02
0.08
0.12
0.04
(0.02)
Net gains (losses)—realized and unrealized
0.35
(0.01)
(0.16)
(0.86)
2.77
Subtotal: income (loss) from investment operations
0.37
0.07
(0.04)
(0.82)
2.75
Minus:
 
 
 
 
 
Distributions to shareholders
 
 
 
 
 
Income dividends
0.24
0.15
0.10
0.03
Subtotal: distributions to shareholders
0.24
0.15
0.10
0.03
Equals:
 
 
 
 
 
Share price (NAV) at end of year
6.36
6.19
6.00
5.08
7.80
RATIOS (% OF AVERAGE NET ASSETS)
 
 
 
 
 
The ratios show the Fund’s expenses and net investment income (loss)—as they actually are as well as how they would have been if certain expense reimbursement arrangements had not been in effect.
 
 
 
 
 
Net expenses—actual
0.85
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.74
Gross expenses(1)
1.18
0.98
0.96
0.99
0.99
Net investment income (loss)—actual
0.36
1.31
1.99
0.74
(0.36)
OTHER DATA
 
 
 
 
 
Total return shows how an investment in the Fund would have performed over each year, assuming all distributions were reinvested. The turnover rate reflects how actively the Fund bought and sold securities.
 
 
 
 
 
Total return (%)(2)
6.18
1.19
(0.41)
(13.98)
54.44
Net assets at end of year (in millions of dollars)
83.1
100.3
145.3
89.4
147.4
Portfolio turnover rate (%)
105
107
88
109
56
(1)
Shows what this ratio would have been if there had been no expense reimbursement.
(2)
Would have been lower if the Manager had not reimbursed certain expenses.
(3)
The per share amounts have been calculated based on the average number of shares outstanding during each fiscal period.
Other Service Providers
Neuberger Berman BD LLC (“Distributor”), an affiliate of the Manager, serves as the Fund’s distributor. Shares in less than Creation Units are not distributed by the Distributor, and the Distributor does not maintain a secondary market in the shares of the Fund.
State Street Bank (“State Street”) serves as custodian and transfer agent for the Fund. State Street maintains in separate accounts cash, securities and other assets of the Fund, keeps all necessary accounts and records, and provides other services.
YOUR INVESTMENT
Share Price Calculations
The net asset value per share of the Fund is the total value of Fund assets attributable to shares of that Fund minus the liabilities attributable to the Fund, divided by the total number of shares outstanding for that Fund. Because the value of the Fund's portfolio securities changes every business day, its share price usually changes as well.
The Fund normally calculates its share price on each day the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE Exchange”) is open once daily as of 4:00 P.M., Eastern time. In the event of an emergency or other disruption in trading on the NYSE Exchange, the Fund’s share price would still normally be determined as of 4:00 P.M., Eastern time. The NYSE Exchange is generally closed on all national holidays and Good Friday; Fund shares will not be priced on those days or other days on which the NYSE Exchange is scheduled to be closed. When the NYSE Exchange is closed for unusual reasons, Fund shares will generally not be priced although the Fund may decide to remain open and price Fund shares and in such a case, the Fund would post a notice on www.nb.com/ETF.
The Fund generally values its investments based upon their last reported sale prices, market quotations, or estimates of value provided by an independent pricing service as of the time as of which the Fund’s share price is calculated. Equity securities (including securities issued by ETFs) and exchange-traded derivative instruments held by the Fund generally are valued by one or more independent pricing services approved by the Board of Trustees at the last reported sale price or official closing price or, if there is no reported sale quoted on a principal exchange or market for that security or official closing price, on the basis of market quotations. Debt securities and certain derivative instruments that do not trade on an exchange generally are valued by one or more independent pricing services approved by the Board of Trustees on the basis of market quotations and in the case of derivatives, market data about the underlying investments. Short-term securities held by the Fund may be valued on the basis of amortized cost, unless other factors indicate that amortized cost is not an accurate estimate of the security’s value.
Investments in non-exchange traded investment companies are valued using the respective fund’s daily calculated net asset value per share. The prospectuses for these funds explain the circumstances under which the funds will use fair value pricing and the effects of using fair value pricing.
If a valuation for a security is not available from an independent pricing service or if the Manager believes in good faith that the valuation does not reflect the amount the Fund would receive on a current sale of that security, the Fund seeks to obtain quotations from brokers or dealers. If such quotations are not readily available, the Fund may use a fair value estimate made according to methods approved by the Board of Trustees. The Fund may also use these methods to value certain types of illiquid securities. Fair value pricing generally will be used if the market in which a portfolio security trades closes early or if trading in a particular security was halted during the day and did not resume prior to the time as of which the Fund’s share price is calculated.
The Fund may also fair value securities that trade in a foreign market if significant events that appear likely to affect the value of those securities occur between the time the foreign market closes and the time as of which the Fund’s share price is calculated. Significant events may include (1) corporate actions or announcements that affect a single issuer, (2) governmental actions that affect securities in one sector, country or region, (3) natural disasters or armed conflicts that affect a country or region, or (4) significant domestic or foreign market fluctuations.
For certain foreign assets, after the relevant foreign markets have closed, a third-party vendor supplies evaluated, systematic fair value pricing based upon analysis of historical correlation of multiple factors. In the case of both foreign equity and foreign income securities, in the absence of precise information about the market values of these foreign securities as of the time as of which the Fund’s share price is calculated, the Board has determined on the basis of available data that prices adjusted or evaluated in this way are likely to be closer to the prices the Fund could realize on a current sale than are the prices of those securities established at the close of the foreign markets in which the securities primarily trade. Please see the Funds’ Statement of Additional Information for additional detail about the Funds’ fair valuation practices.
The effect of using fair value pricing is that a portfolio security will be priced based on the subjective judgment of the Manager, operating under procedures approved by the Board of Trustees, instead of being priced using valuations from an independent pricing service. Fair value pricing can help to protect the Fund by reducing arbitrage opportunities available to short-term traders, but there is no assurance that fair value pricing will completely prevent dilution of the Fund’s net asset value by such traders.
Trading in securities on many foreign exchanges is normally completed before the Fund calculates its net asset value. In addition, foreign markets may be open on days when U.S. markets are closed. As a result, the value of foreign securities owned by the Fund could change at times or on days when the Fund’s net asset value is not calculated, when Fund shares do not trade, and when sales and redemptions of Fund shares do not occur.
In December 2020, the SEC adopted Rule 2a-5 under the 1940 Act, which establishes requirements for determining fair value in good faith for purposes of the 1940 Act, including related oversight and reporting requirements. The rule also defines when market quotations are “readily available” for purposes of the 1940 Act, the threshold for determining whether the Fund must fair value a security. The Funds will not be required to comply with this new rule until September 8, 2022. The Funds and the Manager are evaluating the impact of the rule on the Funds' valuation policies.
Buying and Selling Fund Shares
Shares of the Fund may be purchased or redeemed directly from the Fund only in Creation Units or multiples thereof. Only a broker-dealer (“Authorized Participant”) that enters into an Authorized Participant Agreement with the Fund’s Distributor may engage in creation and redemption transactions directly with the Fund. Purchases and redemptions directly with the Fund must follow the Fund’s procedures, and are subject to transaction fees, which are described in the SAI. Orders for such transactions may be rejected or delayed if they are not submitted in good order and subject to the other conditions set forth in this prospectus and the SAI. Please see the SAI for more information about purchases and redemptions of Creation Units.
Once purchased (i.e., created) by an Authorized Participant, shares are listed on the Exchange and trade in the secondary market. When you buy or sell the Fund’s shares in the secondary market, you will pay or receive the market price. The price at which you buy or sell Shares (i.e., the market price) may be more or less than the NAV of the Shares. Unless imposed by your broker, there is no minimum dollar amount you must invest in the Fund and no minimum number of Shares you must buy. Shares can be bought and sold throughout the trading day like other publicly traded securities. Most investors will buy and sell shares through a broker and, thus, will incur customary brokerage commissions and charges when buying or selling shares. Except when aggregated in Creation Units, Shares are not redeemable by the Fund.
The secondary markets are closed on weekends and also are generally closed on the following holidays: New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Presidents’ Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day (observed), Juneteenth National Independence Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans’ Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.
For more information on how to buy and sell shares of the Fund, call 877-628-2583 or visit www.nb.com/ETF.
Premium/Discount Information
Information showing the number of days the market price of the Fund’s shares was greater than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a premium) and the number of days it was less than the Fund’s NAV per share (i.e., at a discount) for various time periods will be available by visiting the Funds' website at www.nb.com/ETF. The premium and discount information contained on the website will represent past performance and cannot be used to predict future results.
Portfolio Holdings Information
Each day the Funds are open for business, the Trust publicly disseminates the Fund’s full portfolio holdings as of the close of the previous day through the Funds’ website. A description of the Funds’ policies and procedures with respect to the disclosure of Funds’ portfolio holdings is available in the Fund’s Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”). The holdings of the Fund can be found on the Funds’ website at www.nb.com/ETF.
Active Investors and Market Timing
The Trust’s Board of Trustees has determined not to adopt policies and procedures designed to prevent or monitor for frequent purchases and redemptions of the Fund’s shares because the Fund sells and redeems its shares at NAV only in Creation Units pursuant to the terms of an Authorized Participant Agreement between the Authorized Participant and the Distributor, and such direct trading between the Fund and Authorized Participants is critical to ensuring that the Fund’s shares trade at or close to NAV. Further, the vast majority of trading in Fund shares occurs on the secondary market, which does not involve the Fund directly and therefore does not cause the Fund to experience many of the harmful effects of market timing, such as dilution and disruption of portfolio management. In addition, the Fund imposes a transaction fee on Creation Unit transactions, which is designed to offset transfer and other transaction costs incurred by the Fund in connection with the issuance and redemption of 
Creation Units and may employ fair valuation pricing to minimize potential dilution from market timing The Fund reserves the right to reject any purchase order at any time and reserves the right to impose restrictions on disruptive, excessive, or short-term trading.
Investments by Registered Investment Companies
Section 12(d)(1) of the 1940 Act restricts investments by investment companies in the securities of other investment companies, including shares of the Fund. Registered investment companies are permitted to invest in the Fund beyond the limits set forth in Section 12(d)(1) in reliance on rules adopted by the SEC, particularly Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act, or any other applicable exemptive relief.
Continuous Offering
The method by which Creation Units of Fund shares are created and traded may raise certain issues under applicable securities laws. Because new Creation Units of shares are issued and sold by the Fund on an ongoing basis, a “distribution,” as such term is used in the Securities Act, may occur at any point. Broker-dealers and other persons are cautioned that some activities on their part may, depending on the circumstances, result in their being deemed participants in a distribution in a manner which could render them statutory underwriters and subject them to the prospectus delivery requirement and liability provisions of the Securities Act.
For example, a broker-dealer firm or its client may be deemed a statutory underwriter if it takes Creation Units after placing an order with the Distributor, breaks them down into constituent shares and sells the shares directly to customers or if it chooses to couple the creation of a supply of new shares with an active selling effort involving solicitation of secondary market demand for shares. A determination of whether one is an underwriter for purposes of the Securities Act must take into account all the facts and circumstances pertaining to the activities of the broker-
dealer or its client in the particular case, and the examples mentioned above should not be considered a complete description of all the activities that could lead to a characterization as an underwriter.
Broker-dealer firms should also note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are effecting transactions in shares, whether or not participating in the distribution of shares, are generally required to deliver a prospectus. This is because the prospectus delivery exemption in Section 4(3) of the Securities Act is not available in respect of such transactions as a result of Section 24(d) of the 1940 Act. As a result, broker-dealer firms should note that dealers who are not “underwriters” but are participating in a distribution (as contrasted with engaging in ordinary secondary market transactions) and thus dealing with the shares that are part of an overallotment within the meaning of Section 4(3)(C) of the Securities Act, will be unable to take advantage of the prospectus delivery exemption provided by Section 4(3) of the Securities Act. For delivery of prospectuses to exchange members, the prospectus delivery mechanism of Rule 153 under the Securities Act is only available with respect to transactions on a national exchange.
Dealers effecting transactions in the Fund’s shares, whether or not participating in this distribution, are generally required to deliver a Prospectus. This is in addition to any obligation of dealers to deliver a Prospectus when acting as underwriters.
Payments to Broker-Dealers and Other Financial Intermediaries
If you purchase shares of the Fund through a broker-dealer or other financial intermediary (such as a bank), the Manager or an affiliate may pay the intermediary for marketing activities or other services related to the sale or promotion of the Fund. These payments may create a conflict of interest by influencing the broker-dealer or other financial intermediary and your salesperson to recommend the Fund over another investment. Ask your salesperson or visit your financial intermediary’s website for more information.
Distributions and Taxes
Distributions—The Fund pays out to its shareholders any net investment income and net realized capital and foreign currency gains. Ordinarily, the Fund makes any distributions once a year (normally in December). The Fund may make additional distributions, if necessary, to avoid federal income or excise taxes.
Dividend Reinvestment Service - The Trust does not provide dividend reinvestment services. Broker-dealers may make available the Depository Trust Company book-entry Dividend Reinvestment Service for use by beneficial owners of the Funds for reinvestment of their dividend distributions. Beneficial owners should contact their broker to determine the availability and costs of the service and the details of participation therein. Brokers may require beneficial owners to adhere to specific procedures and timetables. If this service is available and used, dividend distributions of both income and realized gains will be automatically reinvested in additional whole shares of the Funds purchased in the secondary market.
How distributions are taxed—Except for tax-advantaged retirement plans and other tax-exempt investors (collectively, “exempt investors”) and except as noted below, all Fund distributions you receive are generally taxable to you, regardless of whether you take them in cash or reinvest them in additional Fund shares.
Fund distributions to IRAs, Roth IRAs, and qualified retirement plans generally are tax-free. Eventual withdrawals from a Roth IRA also may be tax-free, while withdrawals from other retirement plans and accounts generally are subject to federal income tax.
Distributions generally are taxable to shareholders other than exempt investors in the year they are received. In some cases, however, distributions received in January are treated for federal income tax purposes as if they had been paid the previous December 31. Your tax statement (see “Taxes and You”) will help clarify this for you.
Distributions of net investment income and the excess of net short-term capital gain over net long-term capital loss (“dividends”) are taxed as ordinary income. However, for individual and certain other non-corporate shareholders (each, an “individual shareholder”) who satisfy certain holding period and other restrictions with respect to their Fund shares on which the dividends are paid, the Fund’s dividends attributable to “qualified dividend income” (generally, dividends the Fund receives on stock of most U.S. and certain foreign corporations with respect to which it satisfies those restrictions) are subject to maximum federal income tax rates that are lower than the maximum rates for ordinary income (“lower maximum rates”).
Distributions of net capital gain (i.e., the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) are taxed as long-term capital gain and for individual shareholders are subject to the lower maximum rates. The tax treatment of capital gain distributions from the Fund depends on how long the Fund held the securities it sold that generated the gain, not on when you bought your shares of the Fund or whether you reinvested your distributions.
If, for any taxable year, the Fund distributes an amount that exceeds the sum of its investment company taxable income plus net capital gain for that year—which might result from, among other things, the difference between book and tax accounting treatment of certain derivatives and foreign currency transactions—that excess generally will not be taxable (a so-called “return of capital”), which will reduce your tax basis in your Fund shares. To the extent that excess is greater than your tax basis, it will be treated as gain from a redemption of your shares (taxed as described below).
Shareholders should review any notice that accompanies a payment of dividends or other distributions to determine whether any portion of the payment represents a return of capital rather than a distribution of the Fund’s net income and/or realized gains.
Additional tax—An individual shareholder’s distributions from the Fund and net gains recognized on redemptions and exchanges of Fund shares are subject to a 3.8% federal tax on the lesser of (1) the individual’s “net investment income” (which generally includes distributions from the Fund and net gains from the disposition of Fund shares) or (2) the excess of the individual's “modified adjusted gross income” over a specified threshold amount. This tax is in addition to any other taxes due on that income. You should consult your own tax professional regarding the effect, if any, this tax may have on your investment in Fund shares.
Taxes and You
The taxes you actually owe on Fund distributions and share transactions can vary with many factors, such as your marginal tax bracket, how long you held your shares and, if you are an individual shareholder, whether you owe federal alternative minimum tax.
How can you figure out your tax liability on Fund distributions and share transactions? One helpful tool is the tax statement that your broker sends you after the end of each calendar year. It details the distributions you received during the past year and shows their tax status. That statement, or a separate statement from your broker, also covers your share transactions.
Most importantly, consult your tax professional. Everyone’s tax situation is different, and your tax professional should be able to help you answer any questions you may have.
Buying Shares Before a Distribution
The money the Fund earns, either as net investment income or as net realized capital gains, is reflected in its share price until it distributes the money. At that time, the amount of the distribution is deducted from the share price. Because of this, if you buy shares of the Fund just before it makes such a distribution, you will end up getting some of your investment back as a taxable distribution. You can avoid this situation by waiting to invest until after the record date for the distribution.
Generally, if you are an exempt investor, there are no current tax consequences to you from distributions.
Taxes When Shares are Sold
Generally, you will recognize taxable gain or loss if you sell or otherwise dispose of your shares. Any gain arising from such a disposition generally will be treated as long-term capital gain if you held the shares for more than one year; otherwise, it will be classified as short-term capital gain. However, any capital loss arising from the disposition of shares held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received with respect to such shares. In addition, all or a portion of any loss recognized upon a disposition of shares may be disallowed under “wash sale” rules if other shares of the same Fund are purchased (whether through reinvestment of distributions or otherwise) within 30 days before or after the disposition. If disallowed, the loss will be reflected in an adjustment to the basis of the shares acquired.
Taxes on Creations and Redemptions of Creation Units
A person who purchases a Creation Unit by exchanging securities in-kind generally will recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between (i) the sum of the market value of the Creation Units at the time of the exchange and any net amount of cash received by the Authorized Participant in the exchange and (ii) the sum of the purchaser’s aggregate basis in the securities surrendered and any net amount of cash paid for the Creation Units. A person who redeems Creation Units and receives securities in-kind from the Fund will generally recognize a gain or loss equal to the difference between the redeemer’s basis in the Creation Units, and the aggregate market value of the securities received and any net cash received. The IRS, however, may assert that a loss realized upon an in-kind exchange of securities for Creation Units or an exchange of Creation Units for securities cannot be deducted currently under the rules governing “wash sales,” or on the basis that there has been no significant change in economic position. Persons effecting in-kind creations or redemptions should consult their own tax adviser with respect to these matters.
The Fund has the right to reject an order for Creation Units if the purchaser (or a group of purchasers) would, upon obtaining the shares so ordered, own 80% or more of the outstanding shares of the Fund and if, pursuant to section 351 of the Code, the Fund would have a basis in the deposit securities different from the market value of such securities on the date of deposit. The Fund also has the right to require information necessary to determine beneficial share ownership for purposes of the 80% determinations.
Disclaimers
NYSE Arca, Inc. Disclaimer
Shares of the Funds are not sponsored, endorsed or promoted by NYSE Arca, Inc. (“NYSE Arca”). NYSE Arca makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, to the owners of the shares of the Funds or any member of the public regarding the ability of the Funds to meet their investment objective. NYSE Arca is not responsible for, nor has it participated in the determination of the timing of, prices of, or quantities of shares of the Funds to be issued, nor in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the shares are redeemable. NYSE Arca has no obligation or liability to owners of the shares of the Funds in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the shares of the Funds.
NYSE Arca makes no warranty, express or implied, as to results to be obtained by the Trust on behalf of the Funds as licensee, licensee’s customers and counterparties, owners of the shares of the Funds, or any other person or entity from the use of the subject index or any data included therein in connection with the rights licensed as described herein or for any other use. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall NYSE Arca have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.
 
NEUBERGER BERMAN ETF TRUST
If you would like further details on these Funds, you can request a free copy of the following documents:
Shareholder Reports. The shareholder reports offer information about the Fund, including:
a discussion by the Portfolio Managers about strategies and market conditions that significantly affected the Fund’s performance during the last fiscal year or fiscal period
Fund performance data and financial statements
portfolio holdings.
Statement of Additional Information (SAI). The SAI contains more comprehensive information on the Fund, including:
various types of securities and practices, and their risks
investment limitations and additional policies
information about the Fund’s management and business structure.
The SAI is hereby incorporated by reference into this prospectus, making it legally part of the prospectus.
Investment Manager: Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC
Obtaining Information
You can obtain a shareholder report, SAI, and other information from your financial intermediary, or from:
Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC
1290 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10104
877-628-2583
Website: www.nb.com/ETF
Reports and other information about the Funds are available on the EDGAR Database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov, and copies of this information may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov.
The Fund’s current net asset value per share is made available at: www.nb.com/ETF.
The “Neuberger Berman” name and logo and “Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC” are registered service marks of Neuberger Berman Group LLC. The individual Fund names in this prospectus are either service marks or registered service marks of Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC. ©2022 Neuberger Berman BD LLC, distributor. All rights reserved.
SEC File Number: 811-23761


The information in this Statement of Additional Information is not complete and may be
changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities
and Exchange Commission is effective. This Statement of Additional Information is not an offer to sell securities
and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities.

Subject to Completion
Preliminary Statement of Additional Information
Dated June 24, 2022

NEUBERGER BERMAN ETF TRUST
STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
DATED ________, 2022


Fund
Exchange:
Ticker:
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF
NYSE Arca, Inc.
[           ]

1290 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10104
(877)-628-2583
www.nb.com/ETF
Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF (the “Fund,”) is an exchange-traded fund that offers shares pursuant to the prospectus dated ______ __, 2022.
The prospectus and summary prospectus (together, the “Prospectus”) provide more information about your Fund that you should know before investing. You can get a free copy of the Prospectus, annual report and/or semi-annual report from Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC (“NBIA” or the “Manager”), 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104, or by calling the Fund’s number or visiting the Fund’s website, as listed above. You should read the Prospectus and consider the investment objective, risks, and fees and expenses of your Fund carefully before investing.
This Statement of Additional Information (“SAI”) is not a prospectus and should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus.  This SAI is not an offer to sell any shares of the Fund.  A written offer can be made only by a Prospectus.
It is currently contemplated that before the Fund commences operations, all of the assets of another investment company advised by NBIA, Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy Fund, (the "Predecessor Fund"), will be transferred to the Fund in a tax-free reorganization. The Predecessor Fund’s financial statements, notes thereto and the report of its independent registered public accounting firm are incorporated by reference from the Predecessor Fund’s annual report to shareholders into (and are therefore legally part of) this SAI.
No person has been authorized to give any information or to make any representations not contained in the Prospectus or in this SAI in connection with the offering made by the Prospectus,

and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by the Fund or its distributor. The Prospectus and this SAI do not constitute an offering by the Fund or its distributor in any jurisdiction in which such offering may not lawfully be made.
The “Neuberger Berman” name and logo and “Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC” are registered service marks of Neuberger Berman Group LLC. The individual Fund name in this SAI is either a service mark or registered service mark of Neuberger Berman Investment Advisers LLC. ©2022 Neuberger Berman BD LLC, distributor. All rights reserved.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
   
INVESTMENT INFORMATION
1
Investment Policies and Limitations
2
Cash Management and Temporary Defensive Positions
6
Additional Investment Information
7
   
PERFORMANCE INFORMATION
79
   
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
79
Information about the Board of Trustees
79
Information about the Officers of the Trust
86
The Board of Trustees
90
   
INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SERVICES
97
Investment Manager and Administrator
97
Management and Administration Fees
99
Contractual Expense Limitation
99
Portfolio Manager Information
99
Other Investment Companies or Accounts Managed
104
Codes of Ethics
105
Management and Control of NBIA
105
   
DISTRIBUTION ARRANGEMENTS
105
Distributor
105
Additional Payments to Financial Intermediaries
106
   
ADDITIONAL PURCHASE INFORMATION
107
Net Asset Value
107
   
EXCHANGE LISTING AND TRADING
108
   
BOOK ENTRY ONLY SYSTEM
109
   
CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF CREATION UNITS
111
General
111
Custom Baskets
111
Purchases of Creation Units
112
Placement of Purchase Orders
113
Acceptance of Orders for, and Issuance of, Creation Units
113
Creation Transaction Fees
114
Redemptions of Creation Units
115
Placement of Redemption Orders
115
Acceptance of Orders for, and Redemption of, Creation Units
116
Redemption Transaction Fees
117
iii

Taxation on Creation and Redemptions of Creation Units
118
Postponement of Redemptions
118
   
DIVIDENDS AND OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS
119
   
ADDITIONAL TAX INFORMATION
119
Taxation of the Fund
119
The Subsidiary
125
Taxation of the Fund’s Shareholders
126
   
FUND TRANSACTIONS
130
Portfolio Turnover
134
Proxy Voting
134
   
PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS DISCLOSURE
135
Portfolio Holdings Disclosure Policy
135
Public Disclosure
135
Selective Disclosure Procedures
135
Portfolio Holdings Approved Recipients
136
   
REPORTS TO SHAREHOLDERS
137
   
ORGANIZATION, CAPITALIZATION AND OTHER MATTERS
137
   
CUSTODIAN AND TRANSFER AGENT
138
   
INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
138
   
LEGAL COUNSEL
138
   
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
138
   
FINANCIAL STATEMENT
139
   
APPENDIX A – LONG-TERM AND SHORT-TERM DEBT SECURITIES RATING DESCRIPTIONS
A-1
   
APPENDIX B – PROXY VOTING POLICY FOR NEUBERGER BERMAN INVESTMENT ADVISERS LLC
B-1
iv


INVESTMENT INFORMATION
The Fund is a separate operating series of Neuberger Berman ETF Trust (“Trust”), a Delaware statutory trust since November 5, 2010, that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) as an open-end management investment company.
The Predecessor Fund began operations August 27, 2012 as a traditional open-end mutual fund.  It was converted to an exchange traded fund, Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF, on __________ __, 2022.
The Fund will offer and issue shares of beneficial interest (“Shares”) at its net asset value (“NAV”) only in aggregations of a specified number of Shares (each, a “Creation Unit”). Similarly, Shares are redeemable by the Fund only in Creation Units. Only Authorized Participants (as defined in the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section of this SAI) who have entered into contractual arrangements with the Fund’s Distributor may enter into Creation Unit transactions with the Fund on behalf of themselves or their customers. Creation Units of the Fund are issued and redeemed generally in exchange for a basket of securities (“Basket”), together with a specified cash payment, or, in certain circumstances, for an all cash payment. Unlike mutual funds, Shares are not individually redeemable.
Shares of the Fund are or will be listed on a national securities exchange, such as NYSE Arca, Inc. (“Exchange”) and trade in the secondary market, where most investors will buy and sell them at market prices that change throughout the day.  Such market prices may be lower, higher or equal to NAV. Accordingly, when transacting in the secondary market, investors may pay more than NAV when purchasing shares and receive less than NAV when selling shares.  They may also be subject to brokerage commissions and charges.  Shares of the Fund are or will be traded on the Exchange.
The Board of Trustees reserves the right to declare a split or a consolidation in the number of Shares outstanding of the Fund, and to make a corresponding change in the number of Shares constituting a Creation Unit.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require that creations and redemptions of Shares be effected entirely in cash, in-kind or a combination thereof. Fees imposed by the Fund in connection with creations and redemptions of Shares (“Transaction Fees”) and other costs associated with creations or redemptions that include cash may be higher than Transaction Fees and other costs associated with in-kind creations or redemptions. In all cases, conditions with respect to creations and redemptions of Shares and fees will be limited in accordance with the requirements of SEC rules and regulations applicable to management investment companies offering redeemable securities. See the “Creation and Redemption of Creation Units” section of this SAI for more information.
The Trust reserves the right to permit or require a “cash” option for creations and redemptions of Shares (subject to applicable legal requirements). In each instance of such cash creations or redemptions, the Trust may impose transaction fees based on transaction expenses related to the particular exchange, which fees will be higher than the transaction fees associated with in-kind purchases or redemptions. Because the Trust, on behalf of the Fund reserves the right to issue and redeem Creation Units principally for cash, the Fund may incur higher costs in buying and selling securities than if the Fund issued and redeemed Creation Units principally in-kind. To the extent that these additional costs are not offset, these costs may be imposed on the Fund and may decrease the Fund’s NAV.
1

The Fund is a separate series of the Trust, and each Share of the Fund represents an equal proportionate interest in the Fund. All consideration received by the Trust for the Fund’s Shares and all assets of the Fund belong solely to that Fund and would be subject to liabilities related thereto.
The following information supplements the discussion of the Fund’s investment objectives, policies, and limitations in the Prospectus. The investment objective and, unless otherwise specified, the investment policies and limitations of the Fund are not fundamental.
Any investment objective, policy, or limitation that is not fundamental may be changed by the trustees of the Trust (“Fund Trustees”) without shareholder approval. The fundamental investment policies and limitations of the Fund may not be changed without the approval of the lesser of:
(1)  67% of the units of beneficial interest (“shares”) of the Fund present at a meeting at which more than 50% of the outstanding shares of the Fund are present or represented, or
(2) a majority of the outstanding shares of the Fund.
These percentages are required by the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (“1940 Act”), and are referred to in this SAI as a “1940 Act majority vote.”
The policy of a fund permitting it to operate as a non-diversified investment company under the 1940 Act may change by operation of law. Specifically, Rule 13a-1 under the 1940 Act provides in effect that, if a fund’s investment portfolio actually meets the standards of a diversified fund for three consecutive years, the fund’s status will change to that of a diversified fund. Neuberger Berman Commodity Strategy ETF will operate as a diversified investment company.
Investment Policies and Limitations
Except as set forth in the investment limitation on borrowing and the investment limitation on illiquid securities, any investment policy or limitation that involves a maximum percentage of securities or assets will not be considered exceeded unless the percentage limitation is exceeded immediately after, and because of, a transaction by the Fund. If events subsequent to a transaction result in the Fund exceeding the percentage limitation on illiquid securities, the Manager will take appropriate steps to reduce the percentage held in illiquid securities, as may be required by law, within a reasonable amount of time.
The following investment policies and limitations are fundamental:
1. Borrowing.   The Fund may not borrow money except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

2. Commodities.  The Fund may purchase or sell commodities or contracts related to commodities to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

3. Industry Concentration.  The Fund may not make any investment if, as a result, the Fund’s investments will be concentrated in any one industry except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or
2

other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority, except that it may invest 25% or more of its total assets in investments that provide exposure to the group of industries that comprise the commodities sector. This limitation does not apply to U.S. Government and Agency Securities, securities of other investment companies, and state, territorial or municipal securities or such other securities as may be excluded for this purpose under the 1940 Act, the rules and regulations thereunder and any applicable exemptive relief or SEC or SEC staff interpretations.

4. Lending.  The Fund may lend money or other assets to the extent permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

5. Real Estate.  The Fund may not purchase or sell real estate except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

6. Senior Securities.  The Fund may not issue senior securities except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

7. Underwriting. The Fund may not engage in the business of underwriting the securities of other issuers except as permitted by (i) the 1940 Act or interpretations or modifications by the SEC, SEC staff or other authority with appropriate jurisdiction, or (ii) exemptive or other relief or permission from the SEC, SEC staff or other authority.

The Fund’s limitation on investments in any one issuer does not limit the Fund’s ability to invest up to 100% of its total assets in a master portfolio with the same investment objective, policies and limitations as the Fund.
The Fund has the following additional fundamental investment policy:
Notwithstanding any other investment policy of the Fund, the Fund may invest all of its investable assets (cash, securities, and receivables relating to securities) in an open‑end management investment company having substantially the same investment objective, policies, and limitations as the Fund.
With respect to the investment limitation on borrowings, the Fund may pledge assets in connection with permitted borrowings.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to borrowing money set forth in (1) above, the 1940 Act permits the Fund to borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose, and to borrow up to 5% of the Fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes. (The Fund’s total assets include the amounts being borrowed.) To limit the risks attendant to borrowing, the 1940 Act requires the Fund to maintain an “asset coverage” of at least 300% of the amount of its borrowings, provided that in the event that the Fund’s asset coverage falls below 300%, the Fund is required to reduce the amount of its borrowings so that it meets the 300% asset coverage threshold within three days (not including Sundays and holidays). Asset coverage means the ratio that the value of the Fund’s total assets (including amounts borrowed), minus liabilities other than borrowings, bears to the aggregate
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amount of all borrowings. Certain trading practices and investments, such as reverse repurchase agreements, may be considered to be borrowings and thus subject to the 1940 Act restrictions.  The Fund also has obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to permit it to borrow money from other funds for temporary purposes.
For purposes of the investment limitation on commodities, the Fund does not consider foreign currencies or forward contracts to be physical commodities.  Also, this limitation does not prohibit the Fund from purchasing securities backed by physical commodities, including interests in exchange-traded investment trusts and other similar entities, derivative instruments, or from purchasing physical commodities.
For purposes of the limitation on commodities, the restriction does not prevent the Fund from investing in a wholly owned subsidiary, thereby gaining exposure to the investment returns of commodities markets within the limitations of federal income tax requirements, or from investing in commodity-linked derivative instruments.
None of the foregoing limitations shall be construed to prevent a Fund from purchasing, holding or selling all or a portion of any issuance of sukuk or similarly structured investments.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to industry concentration set forth above, the 1940 Act does not define what constitutes “concentration” in an industry. The SEC staff has taken the position that investment of 25% or more of a fund’s total assets in one or more issuers conducting their principal activities in the same industry or group of industries constitutes concentration. It is possible that interpretations of concentration could change in the future. The policy on industry concentration above will be interpreted to refer to concentration as that term may be interpreted from time to time by the SEC, SEC staff or other relevant authority. The policy also will be interpreted to permit investment without limit in the following: securities of the U.S. government and its agencies or instrumentalities; securities of state, territory, possession or municipal governments and their authorities, agencies, instrumentalities or political subdivisions; securities of foreign governments; and repurchase agreements collateralized by any such obligations. Accordingly, issuers of the foregoing securities will not be considered to be members of any industry and there will be no limit on investment in issuers domiciled in a single jurisdiction or country. For purposes of the fundamental policy relating to concentration, mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities are grouped according to the nature of their collateral, and certificates of deposit (“CDs”) are interpreted to include similar types of time deposits.
For purposes of the investment limitation on concentration in a particular industry, industry classifications are determined for each Fund in accordance with the industry or sub-industry classifications established by the Global Industry Classification Standard.  However, NBIA will, on behalf of a Fund, make reasonable determinations as to the appropriate industry classification to assign to each security or instrument in which the Fund invests. The definition of what constitutes a particular “industry” is an evolving one, particularly for industries or sectors within industries that are new or are undergoing rapid development. Some securities could reasonably fall within more than one industry category. Each Fund’s industry concentration policy will be interpreted to give broad authority to a Fund as to how to classify issuers within or among industries. Also with respect to the fundamental policy relating to industry concentration set forth above, the Fund determines the “issuer” of a municipal obligation that is not a general obligation note or bond based on the obligation’s characteristics. The most significant of these characteristics is the source of funds for the repayment of principal and payment of interest on the obligation. If an obligation is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit or other guarantee, without which the obligation would not qualify for purchase under the Fund’s quality restrictions, the issuer of the letter of credit or the guarantee is considered an issuer of the obligation. If an obligation meets the Fund’s quality restrictions without credit support, the Fund treats the commercial
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developer or the industrial user, rather than the governmental entity or the guarantor, as the only issuer of the obligation, even if the obligation is backed by a letter of credit or other guarantee.
For purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration policy, the Fund will not exclude securities the interest on which is exempt from federal income tax (“tax-exempt securities”) that are issued by municipalities to finance non-governmental projects, such as hospitals (i.e., private activity bonds (“PABs”)), from the industry concentration policy.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to industry concentration above, if an investment company in which the Fund invests has an industry concentration policy, the Fund will consider that investment company for purposes of the Fund’s industry concentration policy.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to lending set forth in (4) above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit the Fund from making loans; however, SEC staff interpretations currently prohibit funds from lending more than one-third of their total assets, except through the purchase of debt obligations or the use of repurchase agreements. (A repurchase agreement is an agreement to purchase a security, coupled with an agreement to sell that security back to the original seller on an agreed-upon date at a price that reflects current interest rates. The SEC frequently treats repurchase agreements as loans.) The Fund also will be permitted by this policy to make loans of money, including to other funds. The Fund has obtained exemptive relief from the SEC to make loans to other funds for temporary purposes. The policy in (4) above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from purchasing or investing in debt obligations and loans. In addition, collateral arrangements with respect to options, forward currency and futures transactions and other derivative instruments, as well as delays in the settlement of securities transactions, will not be considered loans.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to real estate set forth in (5) above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit the fund from owning real estate; however, the Fund could lose favorable tax treatment if too much of its income is from sources other than investments in securities. This does not prevent the Fund from investing in securities of companies that invest in real estate or real estate-related activities.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to issuing senior securities set forth in (6) above, “senior securities” are defined as Fund obligations that have a priority over the Fund’s shares with respect to the payment of dividends or the distribution of Fund assets. The 1940 Act prohibits the Fund from issuing senior securities except that the Fund may borrow money in amounts of up to one-third of the Fund’s total assets from banks for any purpose. The Fund may also borrow up to 5% of the Fund’s total assets from banks or other lenders for temporary purposes, and these borrowings are not considered senior securities. The policy in (6) above will be interpreted not to prevent collateral arrangements with respect to swaps, options, forward or futures contracts or other derivatives, or the posting of initial or variation margin.  Also the SEC staff has said it will not raise senior security issues with respect to a fund’s investments in derivatives if the fund establishes a segregated account or off-setting positions in sufficient amounts.
With respect to the fundamental policy relating to underwriting set forth in (7) above, the 1940 Act does not prohibit the Fund from engaging in the underwriting business or from underwriting the securities of other issuers; in fact, the 1940 Act permits the Fund to have underwriting commitments of up to 25% of its assets under certain circumstances. Those circumstances currently are that the amount of the Fund’s underwriting commitments, when added to the value of the Fund’s investments in issuers where the Fund owns more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of those issuers, cannot exceed the 25% cap. A fund engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act. Although it is not believed that the application of the 1933 Act provisions described above would cause the Fund to be engaged in the business of underwriting,
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the policy in (7) above will be interpreted not to prevent the Fund from engaging in transactions involving the acquisition or disposition of portfolio securities, regardless of whether the fund may be considered to be an underwriter under the 1933 Act.
The Fund’s fundamental policies will be interpreted broadly. For example, the policies will be interpreted to refer to the 1940 Act and the related rules as they are in effect from time to time, and to interpretations and modifications of or relating to the 1940 Act by the SEC and others as they are given from time to time. When a policy provides that an investment practice may be conducted as permitted by the 1940 Act, the policy will be interpreted to mean either that the 1940 Act expressly permits the practice or that the 1940 Act does not prohibit the practice.
[The following investment policies and limitations are non-fundamental:
1. Lending.  Except for the purchase of debt securities, loans, loan participations or other forms of direct debt instruments and engaging in repurchase agreements, the Fund may not make any loans other than securities loans.
2. Margin Transactions.  The Fund may not purchase securities on margin from brokers or other lenders, except that the Fund may obtain such short-term credits as are necessary for the clearance of securities transactions. Margin posted as collateral in connection with derivatives transactions and short sales shall not constitute the purchase of securities on margin and shall not be deemed to violate the foregoing limitation.
3. Illiquid Securities.  The Fund may not purchase any security if, as a result, more than 15% of its net assets would be invested in illiquid securities. Generally, illiquid securities include securities that cannot be expected to be sold or disposed of within seven days in the ordinary course of business for approximately the amount at which the Fund has valued the securities, such as repurchase agreements maturing in more than seven days.
4. Investment by the Fund of Funds. If shares of the Fund are purchased by another fund in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act, for so long as shares of the Fund are held by such fund, the Fund will not purchase securities of registered open-end investment companies or registered unit investment trusts in reliance on Section 12(d)(1)(F) or Section 12(d)(1)(G) of the 1940 Act.
5. Senior Securities. Section 18(f)(1) of the 1940 Act prohibits an open-end investment company from issuing any class of senior security, or selling any class of senior security of which it is the issuer, except that the investment company may borrow from a bank provided that immediately after any such borrowing there is asset coverage of at least 300% for all of its borrowings.  The SEC has taken the position that certain instruments that create future obligations may be considered senior securities subject to provisions of the 1940 Act that limit the ability of investment companies to issue senior securities. Common examples include reverse repurchase agreements, short sales, futures and options positions, forward contracts and when-issued securities. However, the SEC has clarified that, if a fund segregates cash or liquid securities sufficient to cover such obligations or holds off-setting positions (or, in some cases, uses a combination of such strategies), the SEC will not raise senior securities issues under the 1940 Act.]
Cash Management and Temporary Defensive Positions
For temporary defensive purposes, or to manage cash pending investment or payout, the Fund may invest up to 100% of its total assets in cash or cash equivalents, U.S. Government and Agency Securities,
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commercial paper, money market funds, and certain other money market instruments, as well as repurchase agreements collateralized by the foregoing. The Fund may also invest in such instruments to increase liquidity or to provide collateral to be segregated.  These investments may prevent the Fund from achieving its investment objective.
In reliance on an SEC exemptive rule, the Fund may invest an unlimited amount of its uninvested cash and cash collateral received in connection with securities lending in shares of money market funds and unregistered funds that operate in compliance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, whether or not advised by NBIA or an affiliate, under specified conditions.  Among other things, the conditions preclude the investing Fund from paying a sales charge, as defined in rule 2830(b) of the NASD Conduct Rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) (“sales charge”), or a service fee, as defined in that rule, in connection with its purchase or redemption of the money market fund’s or unregistered fund’s shares, or the Fund’s investment adviser must waive a sufficient amount of its advisory fee to offset any such sales charge or service fee.
Additional Investment Information
Unless otherwise indicated, the Fund may buy the types of securities and use the investment techniques described below, subject to any applicable investment policies and limitations. However, the Fund may not buy all of the types of securities or use all of the investment techniques described below.  The Fund’s principal investment strategies and the principal risks of the Fund’s principal investment strategies are discussed in the Prospectus.
Pursuant to Rule 12d1-4 under the 1940 Act, the Fund may invest in both affiliated and unaffiliated investment companies, including exchange-traded funds (“ETFs”), (“underlying funds”) in excess of the limits in Section 12 of the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. When the Fund invests in underlying funds, it is indirectly exposed to the investment practices of the underlying funds and, therefore, is subject to all the risks associated with the practices of the underlying funds. This SAI is not an offer to sell shares of any underlying fund. Shares of an underlying fund are sold only through the currently effective prospectus for that underlying fund. Unless otherwise noted herein, the investment practices and associated risks detailed below also include those to which the Fund indirectly may be exposed through its investment in an underlying fund. Unless otherwise noted herein, any references to investments made by the Fund include those that may be made both directly by the Fund and indirectly by the Fund through its investments in underlying funds.
Asset-Backed Securities. Asset-backed securities represent direct or indirect participations in, or are secured by and payable from, pools of assets such as, among other things, motor vehicle installment sales contracts, installment loan contracts, leases of various types of real and personal property, and receivables from revolving credit (credit card) agreements, or a combination of the foregoing. These assets are securitized through the use of trusts and special purpose corporations. Credit enhancements, such as various forms of cash collateral accounts or letters of credit, may support payments of principal and interest on asset-backed securities. Although these securities may be supported by letters of credit or other credit enhancements, payment of interest and principal ultimately depends upon individuals paying the underlying loans, which may be affected adversely by general downturns in the economy. Asset-backed securities are subject to the same risk of prepayment described with respect to mortgage-backed securities and to extension risk (the risk that an issuer of a security will make principal payments slower than anticipated by the investor, thus extending the securities’ duration). The risk that recovery on repossessed collateral might be unavailable or inadequate to support payments, however, is greater for asset-backed securities than for mortgage-backed securities.
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Certificates for Automobile ReceivablesSM (“CARSSM”) represent undivided fractional interests in a trust whose assets consist of a pool of motor vehicle retail installment sales contracts and security interests in the vehicles securing those contracts. Payments of principal and interest on the underlying contracts are passed through monthly to certificate holders and are guaranteed up to specified amounts by a letter of credit issued by a financial institution unaffiliated with the trustee or originator of the trust. Underlying installment sales contracts are subject to prepayment, which may reduce the overall return to certificate holders. Certificate holders also may experience delays in payment or losses on CARSSM if the trust does not realize the full amounts due on underlying installment sales contracts because of unanticipated legal or administrative costs of enforcing the contracts; depreciation, damage, or loss of the vehicles securing the contracts; or other factors.
Credit card receivable securities are backed by receivables from revolving credit card agreements (“Accounts”). Credit balances on Accounts are generally paid down more rapidly than are automobile contracts. Most of the credit card receivable securities issued publicly to date have been pass-through certificates. In order to lengthen their maturity or duration, most such securities provide for a fixed period during which only interest payments on the underlying Accounts are passed through to the security holder; principal payments received on the Accounts are used to fund the transfer of additional credit card charges made on the Accounts to the pool of assets supporting the securities. Usually, the initial fixed period may be shortened if specified events occur which signal a potential deterioration in the quality of the assets backing the security, such as the imposition of a cap on interest rates. An issuer’s ability to extend the life of an issue of credit card receivable securities thus depends on the continued generation of principal amounts in the underlying Accounts and the non-occurrence of the specified events. The non-deductibility of consumer interest, as well as competitive and general economic factors, could adversely affect the rate at which new receivables are created in an Account and conveyed to an issuer, thereby shortening the expected weighted average life of the related security and reducing its yield. An acceleration in cardholders’ payment rates or any other event that shortens the period during which additional credit card charges on an Account may be transferred to the pool of assets supporting the related security could have a similar effect on its weighted average life and yield.
Credit cardholders are entitled to the protection of state and federal consumer credit laws. Many of those laws give a holder the right to set off certain amounts against balances owed on the credit card, thereby reducing amounts paid on Accounts. In addition, unlike the collateral for most other asset-backed securities, Accounts are unsecured obligations of the cardholder.
The Fund may invest in trust preferred securities, which are a type of asset-backed security. Trust preferred securities represent interests in a trust formed by a parent company to finance its operations. The trust sells preferred shares and invests the proceeds in debt securities of the parent. This debt may be subordinated and unsecured. Dividend payments on the trust preferred securities match the interest payments on the debt securities; if no interest is paid on the debt securities, the trust will not make current payments on its preferred securities. Unlike typical asset-backed securities, which have many underlying payors and are usually overcollateralized, trust preferred securities have only one underlying payor and are not overcollateralized. Issuers of trust preferred securities and their parents currently enjoy favorable tax treatment. If the tax characterization of trust preferred securities were to change, they could be redeemed by the issuers, which could result in a loss to the Fund.
Banking and Savings Institution Securities. These include CDs, time deposits, bankers’ acceptances, and other short-term and long-term debt obligations issued by commercial banks and savings institutions. The CDs, time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances in which the Fund invests typically are not covered by deposit insurance.
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A certificate of deposit is a short-term negotiable certificate issued by a commercial bank against funds deposited in the bank and is either interest-bearing or purchased on a discount basis. A bankers’ acceptance is a short-term draft drawn on a commercial bank by a borrower, usually in connection with an international commercial transaction. The borrower is liable for payment as is the bank, which unconditionally guarantees to pay the draft at its face amount on the maturity date. Fixed time deposits are obligations of branches of U.S. banks or foreign banks that are payable at a stated maturity date and bear a fixed rate of interest. Although fixed time deposits do not have a market, there are no contractual restrictions on the right to transfer a beneficial interest in the deposit to a third party. Deposit notes are notes issued by commercial banks that generally bear fixed rates of interest and typically have original maturities ranging from eighteen months to five years.
Banks are subject to extensive governmental regulations that may limit both the amounts and types of loans and other financial commitments that may be made and the interest rates and fees that may be charged. The profitability of this industry is largely dependent upon the availability and cost of capital, which can fluctuate significantly when interest rates change. Also, general economic conditions, consolidation and competition among banking and savings institutions play an important part in the operations of this industry and exposure to credit losses arising from possible financial difficulties of borrowers might affect a bank’s ability to meet its obligations. Bank obligations may be general obligations of the parent bank or may be limited to the issuing branch by the terms of the specific obligations or by government regulation.
In 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) was passed, which significantly impacted the financial services industry, including more stringent regulation of depository institutions and their holding companies.  Federal regulatory agencies are still implementing many of the Dodd-Frank Act’s provisions but increased regulation could impact the operations and profitability of depository institutions and their holding companies.
In addition, securities of foreign banks and foreign branches of U.S. banks may involve investment risks in addition to those relating to domestic bank obligations. Such risks include future political and economic developments, the possible seizure or nationalization of foreign deposits, and the possible adoption of foreign governmental restrictions that might adversely affect the payment of principal and interest on such obligations. In addition, foreign banks and foreign branches of U.S. banks may be subject to less stringent reserve requirements and non-U.S. issuers generally are subject to different accounting, auditing, reporting and recordkeeping standards than those applicable to U.S. issuers.
Commercial Paper. Commercial paper is a short-term debt security issued by a corporation, bank, municipality, or other issuer, usually for purposes such as financing current operations. The Fund may invest in commercial paper that cannot be resold to the public without an effective registration statement under the 1933 Act. While some restricted commercial paper normally is deemed illiquid, the Manager may in certain cases determine that such paper is liquid.
Commodities Related Investments. The Fund may purchase securities backed by physical commodities, including interests in exchange-traded investment trusts and other similar entities, the value of the shares of which relates directly to the value of physical commodities held by such an entity.  As an investor in such an entity, the Fund would indirectly bear its pro rata share of the entity’s expenses, which may include storage and other costs relating to the entity’s investments in physical commodities.
In addition, the Fund will not qualify as a RIC for any taxable year in which more than 10% of its gross income consists of “non-qualifying” income, which includes gains from selling physical commodities (or options or futures contracts thereon unless the gain is realized from certain hedging transactions) and
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certain other non-passive income.  The Fund’s investment in securities backed by, or in such entities that invest in, physical commodities, other than shares of a wholly owned Subsidiary (as defined below), would produce non-qualifying income, although investments in certain “commodity linked notes” and/or in stock of a “controlled foreign corporation” that invests in physical commodities and annually distributes its net income and gains generally should not produce such income.  To remain within the 10% limitation, the Fund may need to hold such an investment or sell it at a loss, or sell other investments, when for investment reasons it would not otherwise do so.  The availability of such measures does not guarantee that the Fund would be able to satisfy that limitation.
Exposure to physical commodities may subject the Fund to greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.  The value of such investments may be affected by overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as supply and demand, drought, floods, weather, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments.  Their value may also respond to investor perception of instability in the national or international economy, whether or not justified by the facts.  However, these investments may help to moderate fluctuations in the value of the Fund’s other holdings, because these investments may not correlate with investments in traditional securities.  Economic and other events (whether real or perceived) can reduce the demand for commodities, which may reduce market prices and cause the value of the Fund’s shares to fall.  No active trading market may exist for certain commodities investments, which may impair the ability of the Fund to sell or realize the full value of such investments in the event of the need to liquidate such investments.  Certain commodities are subject to limited pricing flexibility because of supply and demand factors.  Others are subject to broad price fluctuations as a result of the volatility of the prices for certain raw materials and the instability of the supplies of other materials.  These additional variables may create additional investment risks and result in greater volatility than investments in traditional securities.  Because physical commodities do not generate investment income, the return on such investments will be derived solely from the appreciation or depreciation on such investments.  Certain types of commodities instruments (such as commodity-linked swaps and commodity-linked structured notes) are subject to the risk that the counterparty to the instrument will not perform or will be unable to perform in accordance with the terms of the instrument.
With respect to the Fund, the commodity-related investments of its wholly owned Subsidiary (as defined below) will not generally be subject to U.S. laws (including securities laws) and their protections. Further, they will be subject to the laws of a foreign jurisdiction, which can be adversely affected by developments in that jurisdiction.
Policies and Limitations.  For the Fund’s policies and limitations on commodities, see “Investment Policies and Limitations -- Commodities” above. In addition, the Fund does not intend to sell commodities related investments when doing so would cause it to fail to qualify as a RIC.
Convertible Securities. A convertible security is a bond, debenture, note, preferred stock, or other security or debt obligation that may be converted into or exchanged for a prescribed amount of common stock of the same or a different issuer within a particular period of time at a specified price or formula. Convertible securities generally have features of, and risks associated with, both equity and fixed income instruments. As such, the value of most convertible securities will vary with changes in the price of, and will be subject to the risks associated with, the underlying common stock.  Additionally, convertible securities are also subject to the risk that the issuer may not be able to pay principal or interest when due and the value of the convertible security may change based on the issuer’s credit rating.
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A convertible security entitles the holder to receive the interest paid or accrued on debt or the dividend paid on preferred stock until the convertible security matures or is redeemed, converted or exchanged. Before conversion, such securities ordinarily provide a stream of income with generally higher yields than common stocks of the same or similar issuers, but lower than the yield on non-convertible debt. Convertible securities are usually subordinated to comparable-tier non-convertible securities and other senior debt obligations of the issuer, but rank senior to common stock in a company’s capital structure. The value of a convertible security is a function of (1) its yield in comparison to the yields of other securities of comparable maturity and quality that do not have a conversion privilege and (2) its worth if converted into the underlying common stock.
The price of a convertible security often reflects variations in the price of the underlying common stock in a way that non-convertible debt may not. Convertible securities may be issued by smaller capitalization companies whose stock prices may be more volatile than larger capitalization companies. A convertible security may have a mandatory conversion feature or a call feature that subjects it to redemption at the option of the issuer at a price established in the security’s governing instrument. If a convertible security held by the Fund is called for redemption, the Fund will be required to convert it into the underlying common stock, sell it to a third party or permit the issuer to redeem the security. Any of these actions could have an adverse effect on the Fund’s ability to achieve its investment objectives.
Cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies (also referred to as “virtual currencies” and “digital currencies”) are digital assets designed to act as a medium of exchange. Although cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class, there are thousands of cryptocurrencies, the most well-known of which is bitcoin. Cryptocurrency is a new technological innovation with limited history; it is highly speculative and future regulatory actions or policies may affect the price of cryptocurrencies, and thus a Fund’s investments in cryptocurrencies.
Bitcoin is a digital asset whose ownership, operation, and behavior are determined by participants in an online, peer-to-peer network that connects computers that run publicly accessible, or “open source,” software that follows the rules and procedures governing the bitcoin network (commonly referred to as the bitcoin protocol). Ownership and the ability to transfer or take other actions with respect to bitcoin is protected through public‑key cryptography. The supply of bitcoin is constrained formulaically by the bitcoin protocol. The further development of the bitcoin network, which are part of a new and rapidly changing industry, is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate.
Cryptocurrency facilitates decentralized, peer-to-peer financial exchange and value storage that is used like money, without the oversight of a central authority or banks. The value of cryptocurrency is not backed by any government, corporation, or other identified body. Similar to fiat currencies (i.e., a currency that is backed by a central bank or a national, supra-national or quasi-national organization), cryptocurrencies are susceptible to theft, loss and destruction.
The value of the Fund’s investments in cryptocurrency is subject to fluctuations in the value of the cryptocurrency, which have been and may in the future be highly volatile. The value of cryptocurrencies is normally determined by the supply and demand for cryptocurrency in the global market for the trading of cryptocurrency, which consists primarily of transactions on electronic exchanges. However, the price of cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, could drop precipitously (including to zero) for a variety of reasons, including, but not limited to, regulatory changes, a crisis of confidence, flaw or operational issue in the bitcoin network or a change in user preference to competing cryptocurrencies.
Cryptocurrencies trade on exchanges, which are largely unregulated and, therefore, are more exposed to fraud and failure than established, regulated exchanges for securities, derivatives and other currencies.
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Cryptocurrency exchanges have in the past, and may in the future, cease operating temporarily or even permanently, resulting in the potential loss of users’ cryptocurrency or other market disruptions. Cryptocurrency exchanges are more exposed to the risk of market manipulation than exchanges for traditional assets. Cryptocurrency exchanges that are regulated typically must comply with minimum net capital, cybersecurity, and anti-money laundering requirements, but are not typically required to protect customers or their markets to the same extent that regulated securities exchanges or futures exchanges are required to do. Furthermore, many cryptocurrency exchanges lack certain safeguards established by traditional exchanges to enhance the stability of trading on the exchange, such as measures designed to prevent sudden drops in value of items traded on the exchange (i.e., “flash crashes”). As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies on exchanges may be subject to larger and more frequent sudden declines than assets traded on traditional exchanges. In addition, cryptocurrency exchanges are also subject to the risk of cybersecurity threats and have been breached, resulting in the theft and/or loss of bitcoin.
A cyber or other security breach or a business failure of a cryptocurrency exchange or custodian may affect the price of a particular cryptocurrency or cryptocurrencies generally. A risk also exists with respect to malicious actors or previously unknown vulnerabilities, which may adversely affect the value of a particular cryptocurrency or cryptocurrencies generally.
Factors affecting the further development of cryptocurrency include, but are not limited to: continued worldwide growth or possible cessation or reversal in the adoption and use of cryptocurrency and other digital assets; government and quasi-government regulation or restrictions on or regulation of access to and operation of digital asset networks; changes in consumer demographics and public preferences; maintenance and development of open-source software protocol; availability and popularity of other forms or methods of buying and selling goods and services; the use of the networks supporting digital assets, such as those for developing smart contracts and distributed applications; general economic conditions and the regulatory environment relating to digital assets; negative consumer or public perception; and general risks tied to the use of information technologies, including cyber risks. A breach or failure of one cryptocurrency may lead to a loss in confidence in, and thus decreased usage and or value of, other cryptocurrencies.
Currently, there is relatively limited use of cryptocurrency in the retail and commercial marketplace, which contributes to price volatility. A lack of expansion by cryptocurrencies into retail and commercial markets, or a contraction of such use, may result in increased volatility or a reduction in the value of cryptocurrencies, either of which could adversely impact the Fund’s cryptocurrency investments. In addition, to the extent market participants develop a preference for one cryptocurrency over another, the value of the less preferred cryptocurrency would likely be adversely affected.
Cryptocurrency generally operates without central authority (such as a bank) and is not backed by any government. Federal, state and/or foreign governments may restrict the use and exchange of cryptocurrency, and regulation in the United States is still developing. Ongoing and future regulatory actions may alter, perhaps to a materially adverse extent, the nature of an investment in cryptocurrency. A determination that cryptocurrency or any other digital asset is a “security” may adversely affect the value of cryptocurrency.
Direct Debt Instruments including Loans, Loan Assignments, and Loan Participations. Direct debt includes interests in loans, notes and other interests in amounts owed to financial institutions by borrowers, such as companies and governments, including emerging market countries. Direct debt instruments are interests in amounts owed by corporate, governmental, or other borrowers (including emerging market countries) to lenders or lending syndicates. Purchasers of loans and other forms of direct indebtedness depend primarily upon the creditworthiness of the borrower for payment of principal and interest. The borrower may be in financial distress
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or may default. If the Fund does not receive scheduled interest or principal payments on such indebtedness, the Fund’s share price and yield could be adversely affected. Participations in debt instruments may involve a risk of insolvency of the selling bank. In addition, there may be fewer legal protections for owners of participation interests than for direct lenders.  Direct indebtedness of developing countries involves a risk that the governmental entities responsible for the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to pay interest and repay principal when due. See the additional risks described under “Foreign Securities” in this SAI.
Direct debt instruments may have floating interest rates.  These interest rates will vary depending on the terms of the underlying loan and market conditions.
Loans, Loan Assignments, and Loan Participations.  Floating rate securities, including loans, provide for automatic adjustment of the interest rate at fixed intervals (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, or semi-annually) or automatic adjustment of the interest rate whenever a specified interest rate or index changes. The interest rate on floating rate securities ordinarily is determined by reference to LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate), a particular bank’s prime rate, the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill rate, the rate of return on commercial paper or bank CDs, an index of short-term tax-exempt rates or some other objective measure. The Fund may invest in secured and unsecured loans.
The Fund may invest in direct debt instruments by direct investment as a lender, by taking an assignment of all or a portion of an interest in a loan previously held by another institution or by acquiring a participation interest in a loan that continues to be held by another institution. It also may be difficult for the Fund to obtain an accurate picture of a selling bank’s financial condition. Loans are subject to the same risks as other direct debt instruments discussed above and carry additional risks described in this section.
Direct Investments. When the Fund invests as an initial investor in a new loan, the investment is typically made at par value. Secondary purchases of loans may be made at a premium to par, at par, or at a discount to par. Therefore, the Fund’s return on a secondary investment may be lower, equal, or higher than if the Fund had made a direct investment. As an initial investor in a new loan, the Fund may be paid a commitment fee.
Assignments. When the Fund purchases a loan by assignment, the Fund typically succeeds to the rights of the assigning lender under the loan agreement and becomes a lender under the loan agreement. Subject to the terms of the loan agreement, the Fund typically succeeds to all the rights and obligations under the loan agreement of the assigning lender. However, assignments may be arranged through private negotiations between potential assignees and potential assignors, and the rights and obligations acquired by the purchaser of an assignment may differ from, and be more limited than, those held by the assigning lender.
Participation Interests.  The Fund’s rights under a participation interest with respect to a particular loan may be more limited than the rights of original lenders or of investors who acquire an assignment of that loan.  In purchasing participation interests, the Fund will have the right to receive payments of principal, interest and any fees to which it is entitled only from the lender selling the participation interest (the “participating lender”) and only when the participating lender receives the payments from the borrower.
In a participation interest, the Fund will usually have a contractual relationship only with the selling institution and not the underlying borrower.  The Fund normally will have to rely on the participating lender to demand and receive payments in respect of the loans, and to pay those amounts on to the Fund; thus, the Fund will be subject to the risk that the lender may be unwilling or unable to do so.  In such a case, the Fund would not likely have any rights against the borrower directly.  In addition, the Fund generally will have no right to object to certain changes to the loan agreement agreed to by the participating lender.
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In buying a participation interest, the Fund might not directly benefit from the collateral supporting the related loan and may be subject to any rights of set off the borrower has against the selling institution. In the event of bankruptcy or insolvency of the borrower, the obligation of the borrower to repay the loan may be subject to certain defenses that can be asserted by the borrower as a result of any improper conduct of the participating lender. As a result, the Fund may be subject to delays, expenses and risks that are greater than those that exist when the Fund is an original lender or assignee.
Creditworthiness.  The Fund’s ability to receive payments in connection with loans depends on the financial condition of the borrower. The Manager will not rely solely on another lending institution’s credit analysis of the borrower, but will perform its own investment analysis of the borrower. The Manager’s analysis may include consideration of the borrower’s financial strength, managerial experience, debt coverage, additional borrowing requirements or debt maturity schedules, changing financial conditions, and responsiveness to changes in business conditions and interest rates. Indebtedness of borrowers whose creditworthiness is poor involves substantially greater risks and may be highly speculative.  Borrowers that are in bankruptcy or restructuring may never pay off their indebtedness, or may pay only a small fraction of the amount owed.  In connection with the restructuring of a loan or other direct debt instrument outside of bankruptcy court in a negotiated work-out or in the context of bankruptcy proceedings, equity securities or junior debt securities may be received in exchange for all or a portion of an interest in the security.
In buying a participation interest, the Fund assumes the credit risk of both the borrower and the participating lender.  If the participating lender fails to perform its obligations under the participation agreement, the Fund might incur costs and delays in realizing payment and suffer a loss of principal and/or interest. If a participating lender becomes insolvent, the Fund may be treated as a general creditor of that lender. As a general creditor, the Fund may not benefit from a right of set off that the lender has against the borrower. The Fund will acquire a participation interest only if the Manager determines that the participating lender or other intermediary participant selling the participation interest is creditworthy.
Ratings.  Loan interests may not be rated by independent rating agencies and therefore, investments in a particular loan participation may depend almost exclusively on the credit analysis of the borrower performed by the Manager.
Agents.  Loans are typically administered by a bank, insurance company, finance company or other financial institution (the “agent”) for a lending syndicate of financial institutions.  In a typical loan, the agent administers the terms of the loan agreement and is responsible for the collection of principal and interest and fee payments from the borrower and the apportionment of these payments to all lenders that are parties to the loan agreement.  In addition, an institution (which may be the agent) may hold collateral on behalf of the lenders.  Typically, under loan agreements, the agent is given broad authority in monitoring the borrower’s performance and is obligated to use the same care it would use in the management of its own property.  In asserting rights against a borrower, the Fund normally will be dependent on the willingness of the lead bank to assert these rights, or upon a vote of all the lenders to authorize the action.
If an agent becomes insolvent, or has a receiver, conservator, or similar official appointed for it by the appropriate regulatory authority, or becomes a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding, the agent’s appointment may be terminated and a successor agent would be appointed.  If an appropriate regulator or court determines that assets held by the agent for the benefit of the purchasers of loans are subject to the claims of the agent’s general or secured creditors, the Fund might incur certain costs and delays in realizing payment on a loan or suffer a loss of principal and/or interest.  The Fund may be subject to similar risks when it buys a participation interest or an assignment from an intermediary.
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Collateral. Although most of the loans in which the Fund invests are secured, there is no assurance that the collateral can be promptly liquidated, or that its liquidation value will be equal to the value of the debt. In most loan agreements there is no formal requirement to pledge additional collateral if the value of the initial collateral declines.  As a result, a loan may not always be fully collateralized and can decline significantly in value.
If a borrower becomes insolvent, access to collateral may be limited by bankruptcy and other laws.  Borrowers that are in bankruptcy may pay only a small portion of the amount owed, if they are able to pay at all. In addition, if a secured loan is foreclosed, the Fund may bear the costs and liabilities associated with owning and disposing of the collateral.  The collateral may be difficult to sell and the Fund would bear the risk that the collateral may decline in value while the Fund is holding it. There is also a possibility that the Fund will become the owner of its pro rata share of the collateral which may carry additional risks and liabilities.  In addition, under legal theories of lender liability, the Fund potentially might be held liable as a co-lender.  In the event of a borrower’s bankruptcy or insolvency, the borrower’s obligation to repay the loan may be subject to certain defenses that the borrower can assert as a result of improper conduct by the Agent.
Some loans are unsecured.  If the borrower defaults on an unsecured loan, the Fund will be a general creditor and will not have rights to any specific assets of the borrower.
Liquidity. Loans are generally subject to legal or contractual restrictions on resale.  Loans are not currently listed on any securities exchange or automatic quotation system.  As a result, there may not be a recognized, liquid public market for loan interests.
Prepayment Risk and Maturity.  Because many loans are repaid early, the actual maturity of loans is typically shorter than their stated final maturity calculated solely on the basis of the stated life and payment schedule. The degree to which borrowers prepay loans, whether as a contractual requirement or at their election, may be affected by general business conditions, market interest rates, the borrower’s financial condition and competitive conditions among lenders.  Such prepayments may require the Fund to replace an investment with a lower yielding security which may have an adverse effect on the Fund’s share price.  Prepayments cannot be predicted with accuracy.  Floating rate loans can be less sensitive to prepayment risk, but the Fund’s net asset value (“NAV”) may still fluctuate in response to interest rate changes because variable interest rates may reset only periodically and may not rise or decline as much as interest rates in general.
Restrictive Covenants.  A borrower must comply with various restrictive covenants in a loan agreement such as restrictions on dividend payments and limits on total debt.  The loan agreement may also contain a covenant requiring the borrower to prepay the loan with any free cash flow.  A breach of a covenant is normally an event of default, which provides the agent or the lenders the right to call the outstanding loan.
Fees and Expenses.  The Fund may be required to pay and receive various fees and commissions in the process of purchasing, selling, and holding loans. The fee component may include any, or a combination of, the following elements: assignment fees, arrangement fees, non-use fees, facility fees, letter of credit fees, and ticking fees. Arrangement fees are paid at the commencement of a loan as compensation for the initiation of the transaction. A non-use fee is paid based upon the amount committed but not used under the loan. Facility fees are on-going annual fees paid in connection with a loan. Letter of credit fees are paid if a loan involves a letter of credit. Ticking fees are paid from the initial commitment indication until loan closing if for an extended period. The amount of fees is negotiated at the time of closing.  In addition, the Fund incurs expenses associated with researching and analyzing potential loan investments, including legal fees.
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Available Information. Loans normally are not registered with the SEC or any state securities commission or listed on any securities exchange. As a result, the amount of public information available about a specific loan historically has been less extensive than if the loan were registered or exchange traded. They may also not be considered “securities,” and purchasers, such as the Fund, therefore may not be entitled to rely on the strong anti-fraud protections of the federal securities laws.
Leveraged Buy-Out Transactions.  Loans purchased by the Fund may represent interests in loans made to finance highly leveraged corporate acquisitions, known as “leveraged buy-out” transactions, leveraged recapitalization loans and other types of acquisition financing.  The highly leveraged capital structure of the borrowers in such transactions may make such loans especially vulnerable to adverse changes in economic or market conditions.
Junior Loans.  The Fund may invest in second lien secured loans and secured and unsecured subordinated loans, including bridge loans (“Junior Loans”). In the event of a bankruptcy or liquidation, second lien secured loans are generally paid only if the value of the borrower’s collateral is sufficient to satisfy the borrower’s obligations to the first lien secured lenders and even then, the remaining collateral may not be sufficient to cover the amount owed to the Fund.  Second lien secured loans give investors priority over general unsecured creditors in the event of an asset sale.
Junior Loans are subject to the same general risks inherent to any loan investment, including credit risk, market and liquidity risk, and interest rate risk. Due to their lower place in the borrower’s capital structure, Junior Loans involve a higher degree of overall risk than senior loans of the same borrower.
Bridge Loans.  Bridge loans or bridge facilities are short-term loan arrangements (e.g., 12 to 18 months) typically made by a borrower in anticipation of intermediate-term or long-term permanent financing. Most bridge loans are structured as floating-rate debt with step-up provisions under which the interest rate on the bridge loan rises over time.  Thus, the longer the loan remains outstanding, the more the interest rate increases. In addition, bridge loans commonly contain a conversion feature that allows the bridge loan investor to convert its loan interest into senior exchange notes if the loan has not been prepaid in full on or prior to its maturity date. Bridge loans may be subordinate to other debt and may be secured or unsecured. Like any loan, bridge loans involve credit risk. Bridge loans are generally made with the expectation that the borrower will be able to obtain permanent financing in the near future. Any delay in obtaining permanent financing subjects the bridge loan investor to increased risk. A borrower’s use of bridge loans also involves the risk that the borrower may be unable to locate permanent financing to replace the bridge loan, which may impair the borrower’s perceived creditworthiness.
Delayed draw term loans. The Fund may be obligated under the terms of the relevant loan documents to advance additional funds after the initial disbursement that it makes at the time of its investment.  For example, the loan may not have been fully funded at that time or the lenders may have ongoing commitments to make further advances up to a stated maximum. When a loan has been fully funded, however, repaid principal amounts normally may not be reborrowed.  Interest accrues on the outstanding principal amount of the loan. The borrower normally may pay a fee during any commitment period.
Policies and Limitations. The Fund does not intend to invest in loan instruments that could require additional investments upon the borrower’s demand, but may invest in loans that require funding at a later date following the initial investment in the loan.
The Fund’s policies limit the percentage of its assets that can be invested in the securities of one issuer or in issuers primarily involved in one industry. Legal interpretations by the SEC staff may require the Fund to
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treat both the lending bank and the borrower as “issuers” of a loan participation by the Fund. In combination, the Fund’s policies and the SEC staff’s interpretations may limit the amount the Fund can invest in loan participations.
For purposes of determining its dollar-weighted average maturity or duration, the Fund calculates the remaining maturity or duration of loans on the basis of the stated life and payment schedule.
Distressed Securities. The Fund may invest in distressed securities, including loans, bonds and notes may involve a substantial degree of risk.  Distressed securities include securities of companies that are in financial distress and that may be in or about to enter bankruptcy.
The Fund may invest in issuers of distressed securities that the Manager expects will make an exchange offer or will be the subject of a plan of reorganization that the Fund will receive new securities in return for the distressed securities.  A significant period of time may pass between the time at which the Fund makes its investment in these distressed securities and the time that any exchange offer or plan of reorganization is completed and there can be no assurance that such an exchange offer will be made or that such a plan of reorganization will be adopted. During this period, it is unlikely that the Fund will receive any interest payments on the distressed securities, the Fund will be subject to significant uncertainty as to whether or not the exchange offer or plan of reorganization will be completed and the Fund may be required to bear certain extraordinary expenses to protect and recover its investment. Therefore, to the extent the Fund seeks capital appreciation through investment in distressed securities, the Fund’s ability to achieve current income for its shareholders may be diminished.
The Fund also will be subject to significant uncertainty as to when and in what manner and for what value the obligations evidenced by the distressed securities will eventually be satisfied (e.g., through a liquidation of the obligor’s assets, an exchange offer or plan of reorganization involving the distressed securities or a payment of some amount in satisfaction of the obligation). Even if an exchange offer is made or plan of reorganization is adopted with respect to distressed securities held by the Fund, there can be no assurance that the securities or other assets received by the Fund in connection with such exchange offer or plan of reorganization will not have a lower value or income potential than may have been anticipated when the investment was made or no value. Moreover, any securities received by the Fund upon completion of an exchange offer or plan of reorganization may be restricted as to resale. Similarly, if the Fund participates in negotiations with respect to any exchange offer or plan of reorganization with respect to an issuer of distressed securities, the Fund may be restricted from disposing of such securities. To the extent that the Fund becomes involved in such proceedings, the Fund may have a more active participation in the affairs of the issuer than that assumed generally by an investor. The Fund, however, will not make investments for the purpose of exercising day-to-day management of any issuer’s affairs.
In certain periods, there may be little or no liquidity in the markets for distressed securities or other instruments. In addition, the prices of such securities may be subject to periods of abrupt and erratic market movements and above-average price volatility. It may be difficult to obtain financial information regarding the financial condition of a borrower or issuer, and its financial condition may be changing rapidly. It may be more difficult to value such securities and the spread between the bid and asked prices of such securities may be greater than normally expected.
Dollar Rolls.  In a “dollar roll,” the Fund sells securities for delivery in the current month and simultaneously agrees to repurchase substantially similar (i.e., same type and coupon) securities on a specified future date from the same party. During the period before the repurchase, the Fund forgoes principal and interest payments on the securities. The Fund is compensated by the difference between the current sales
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price and the forward price for the future purchase (often referred to as the “drop”), as well as by the interest earned on the cash proceeds of the initial sale. Dollar rolls may increase fluctuations in the Fund’s NAV and may be viewed as a form of leverage. A “covered roll” is a specific type of dollar roll in which the Fund holds an offsetting cash position or a cash-equivalent securities position that matures on or before the forward settlement date of the dollar roll transaction. There is a risk that the counterparty will be unable or unwilling to complete the transaction as scheduled, which may result in losses to the Fund. The Manager monitors the creditworthiness of counterparties to dollar rolls.
Policies and Limitations. Dollar rolls are considered borrowings for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies and limitations concerning borrowings.
Energy-Related Investments.  The securities of companies in energy-related activities include, among others, integrated oil and gas companies, refining companies,  independent oil and gas companies, oil service companies, coal companies, energy infrastructure companies, energy transportation companies, energy master limited partnerships (see “Master Limited Partnerships” above), natural gas and electric utilities, and alternative energy providers. Companies in the energy sector are especially affected by variations in the commodities markets (that may be due to market events, regulatory developments or other factors that the Fund cannot control) and may lack the resources and the broad business lines to weather hard times. These companies face the risk that their earnings, dividends and stock prices will be affected by changes in the prices and supplies of energy fuels. Prices and supplies of energy can fluctuate significantly over short and long periods because of a variety of factors, including the supply and demand for energy fuels, international political events, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects, tax and other governmental regulations, policies of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”), and relationships among OPEC members and between OPEC and oil-importing countries.  In addition, companies in the energy sector are at risk of civil liability from accidents resulting in pollution or other environmental damage claims and risk of loss from terrorism and natural disasters.  Shifts in energy consumption or supply disruptions may significantly impact companies in this sector.  Further, because a significant portion of revenues of companies in this sector are derived from a relatively small number of customers that are largely composed of governmental entities and utilities, governmental budget constraints may have a significant impact on the stock prices of companies in this industry.
Equity Securities. Equity securities in which the Fund may invest include common stocks, preferred stocks, convertible securities and warrants. Common stocks and preferred stocks represent shares of ownership in a corporation. Preferred stocks usually have specific dividends and rank after bonds and before common stock in claims on assets of the corporation should it be dissolved. Increases and decreases in earnings are usually reflected in a corporation’s stock price. Convertible securities are debt or preferred equity securities convertible into common stock. Usually, convertible securities pay dividends or interest at rates higher than common stock, but lower than other securities. Convertible securities usually participate to some extent in the appreciation or depreciation of the underlying stock into which they are convertible. Warrants are options to buy a stated number of shares of common stock at a specified price anytime during the life of the warrants.
To the extent the Fund invests in such securities, the value of securities held by the Fund will be affected by changes in the stock markets, which may be the result of domestic or international political or economic news, changes in interest rates or changing investor sentiment. At times, the stock markets can be volatile and stock prices can change substantially. Because some investors purchase equity securities with borrowed money, an increase in interest rates can cause a decline in equity prices. The equity securities of
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smaller companies are more sensitive to these changes than those of larger companies. This market risk will affect the Fund’s NAV per share, which will fluctuate as the value of the securities held by the Fund changes. Not all stock prices change uniformly or at the same time and not all stock markets move in the same direction at the same time. Other factors affect a particular stock’s prices, such as poor earnings reports by an issuer, loss of major customers, major litigation against an issuer, or changes in governmental regulations affecting an industry. Adverse news affecting one company can sometimes depress the stock prices of all companies in the same industry. Not all factors can be predicted.
ESG Policies and Limitations Risk. The Fund’s application of any ESG policies and limitations described below is designed and utilized to help identify companies that demonstrate the potential to create economic value or reduce risk; however as with the use of any investment criteria in selecting a portfolio, there is no guarantee that the criteria used by the Fund will result in the selection of issuers that will outperform other issuers, or help reduce risk in the portfolio. The use of the Fund’s ESG policies and limitations could also affect the Fund’s exposure to certain sectors or industries, and could impact the Fund’s investment performance depending on whether the ESG policies and limitations used are ultimately reflected in the market.
Policies and Limitations.  Investments by the Fund in securities issued by companies that have more than 25% of revenue derived from thermal coal mining or are expanding new thermal coal power generation are subject to formal review and approval by Neuberger Berman’s Environmental, Social and Governance Committee before the initiation of any new investment positions in the securities of those companies.
Fixed Income Securities. Fixed income securities are subject to the risk of an issuer’s inability to meet principal and interest payments on its obligations (“credit risk”) and are subject to price volatility due to such factors as interest rate sensitivity (“interest rate risk”), market perception of the creditworthiness of the issuer, and market liquidity (“market risk”). The value of the Fund’s fixed income investments is likely to decline in times of rising market interest rates. Conversely, the value of the Fund’s fixed income investments is likely to rise in times of declining market interest rates. Typically, the longer the time to maturity of a given security, the greater is the change in its value in response to a change in interest rates. Foreign debt securities are subject to risks similar to those of other foreign securities.
Lower-rated securities are more likely to react to developments affecting market and credit risk than are more highly rated securities, which react primarily to movements in the general level of interest rates.  Debt securities in the lowest rating categories may involve a substantial risk of default or may be in default. Changes in economic conditions or developments regarding the individual issuer are more likely to cause price volatility and weaken the capacity of the issuer of such securities to make principal and interest payments than is the case for higher-grade debt securities. An economic downturn affecting the issuer may result in an increased incidence of default. The market for lower-rated securities may be thinner and less active than for higher-rated securities. Pricing of thinly traded securities requires greater judgment than pricing of securities for which market transactions are regularly reported. Odd lots may trade at lower prices than institutional round lots.
Call Risk. Some debt securities in which the Fund may invest are also subject to the risk that the issuer might repay them early (“call risk”). When market interest rates are low, issuers generally call securities paying higher interest rates. For this reason, the Fund holding a callable security may not enjoy the increase in the security’s market price that usually accompanies a decline in rates. Furthermore, the Fund would have to reinvest the proceeds from the called security at the current, lower rates.
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Ratings of Fixed Income Securities.  The Fund may purchase securities rated by S&P, Moody’s, Fitch, Inc. or any other nationally recognized statistical rating organization (“NRSRO”) (please see the Prospectuses for further information). The ratings of an NRSRO represent its opinion as to the quality of securities it undertakes to rate. Ratings are not absolute standards of quality; consequently, securities with the same maturity, duration, coupon, and rating may have different yields. In addition, NRSROs are subject to an inherent conflict of interest because they are often compensated by the same issuers whose securities they rate.  Although the Fund may rely on the ratings of any NRSRO, the Fund refers primarily to ratings assigned by S&P, Moody’s, and Fitch, Inc., which are described in Appendix A. The Fund may also invest in unrated securities that have been determined by the Manager to be comparable in quality to the rated securities in which the Fund may permissibly invest.
High-quality debt securities. High-quality debt securities are securities that have received from at least one NRSRO, such as S&P, Moody’s or Fitch, Inc., a rating in one of the two highest rating categories (the highest category in the case of commercial paper) or, if not rated by any NRSRO, such as U.S. Government and Agency Securities, have been determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality.
Investment Grade Debt Securities.  Investment grade debt securities are securities that have received, from at least one NRSRO that has rated it, a rating in one of the four highest rating categories or, if not rated by any NRSRO, have been determined by the Manager to be of comparable quality. Moody’s deems securities rated in its fourth highest rating category (Baa) to have speculative characteristics; a change in economic factors could lead to a weakened capacity of the issuer to repay.
Lower-Rated Debt Securities. Lower-rated debt securities or “junk bonds” are those rated below the fourth highest category (including those securities rated as low as D by S&P) or unrated securities of comparable quality. Securities rated below investment grade are often considered speculative.
Ratings Downgrades. Subsequent to the Fund’s purchase of debt securities, the rating of that issue of debt securities may be reduced, so that the securities would no longer be eligible for purchase by the Fund.
Duration and Maturity.  Duration is a measure of the sensitivity of debt securities to changes in market interest rates, based on the entire cash flow associated with the securities, including payments occurring before the final repayment of principal.
The Manager may utilize duration as a tool in portfolio selection instead of the more traditional measure known as “term to maturity.” “Term to maturity” measures only the time until a debt security provides its final payment, taking no account of the pattern of the security’s payments prior to maturity. Duration incorporates a bond’s yield, coupon interest payments, final maturity and call features into one measure. Duration therefore provides a more accurate measurement of a bond’s likely price change in response to a given change in market interest rates. The longer the duration, the greater the bond’s price movement will be as interest rates change. For any fixed income security with interest payments occurring prior to the payment of principal, duration is always less than maturity.
Futures, options and options on futures have durations which are generally related to the duration of the securities underlying them. Holding long futures or call option positions will lengthen the Fund’s duration by approximately the same amount as would holding an equivalent amount of the underlying securities. Short futures or put options have durations roughly equal to the negative of the duration of the securities that underlie these positions, and have the effect of reducing portfolio duration by approximately the same amount as would selling an equivalent amount of the underlying securities.
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There are some situations where even the standard duration calculation does not properly reflect the interest rate exposure of a security. For example, floating and variable rate securities often have final maturities of ten or more years; however, their interest rate exposure corresponds to the frequency of the coupon reset. Another example where the interest rate exposure is not properly captured by duration is the case of mortgage-backed securities. The stated final maturity of such securities is generally 30 years, but current and expected prepayment rates are critical in determining the securities’ interest rate exposure. In these and other similar situations, the Manager, where permitted, will use more sophisticated analytical techniques that incorporate the economic life of a security into the determination of its interest rate exposure.
The Fund may invest in securities of any maturity and does not have a target average duration.
Policies and Limitations.  There are no restrictions as to the amount of the Fund’s assets that may be invested in fixed income securities or the ratings of such securities the Fund may acquire or the portion of its assets each may invest in debt securities in a particular ratings category.
Foreign Securities.  The Fund may invest in equity, debt, or other securities of foreign issuers and foreign branches of U.S. banks.  These securities may be U.S. dollar denominated  or denominated in or indexed to foreign currencies and may include (1) common and preferred stocks, (2) negotiable certificates of deposit (“CDs”), commercial paper, fixed time deposits, and bankers’ acceptances, (3) obligations of other corporations, and (4) obligations of foreign governments and their subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, international agencies, and supranational entities. Foreign issuers are issuers organized and doing business principally outside the United States and include banks, non-U.S. governments, and quasi-governmental organizations. Investments in foreign securities involve sovereign and other risks, in addition to the credit and market risks normally associated with domestic securities. These risks include the possibility of adverse political and economic developments (including political or social instability, nationalization, expropriation, or confiscatory taxation); the potentially adverse effects of the unavailability of public information regarding issuers, less governmental supervision and regulation of financial markets, reduced liquidity of certain financial markets, and the lack of uniform accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards or the application of standards that are different or less stringent than those applied in the United States; different laws and customs governing securities tracking; and possibly limited access to the courts to enforce the Fund’s rights as an investor.  It may be difficult to invoke legal process or to enforce contractual obligations abroad, and it may be especially difficult to sue a foreign government in the courts of that country.
Additionally, investing in foreign currency denominated securities involves the additional risks of (a) adverse changes in foreign exchange rates, (b) nationalization, expropriation, or confiscatory taxation, and (c) adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations (which could prevent cash from being brought back to the United States). Additionally, dividends and interest payable on foreign securities (and gains realized on disposition thereof) may be subject to foreign taxes, including taxes withheld from those payments. Commissions on foreign securities exchanges are often at fixed rates and are generally higher than negotiated commissions on U.S. exchanges, although the Fund endeavors to achieve the most favorable net results on portfolio transactions.
Foreign securities often trade with less frequency and in less volume than domestic securities and therefore may exhibit greater price volatility. Additional costs associated with an investment in foreign securities may include higher custodial fees than apply to domestic custody arrangements and transaction costs of foreign currency conversions.
Foreign markets also have different clearance and settlement procedures. In certain markets, there have been times when settlements have been unable to keep pace with the volume of securities transactions,
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making it difficult to conduct such transactions. Delays in settlement could result in temporary periods when a portion of the assets of the Fund are uninvested and no return is earned thereon. The inability of the Fund to make intended security purchases due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to miss attractive investment opportunities. Inability to dispose of portfolio securities due to settlement problems could result in losses to the Fund due to subsequent declines in value of the securities or, if the Fund has entered into a contract to sell the securities, could result in possible liability to the purchaser.  The inability of the Fund to settle security purchases or sales due to settlement problems could cause the Fund to pay additional expenses, such as interest charges.
Securities of issuers traded on exchanges may be suspended, either by the issuers themselves, by an exchange or by government authorities. The likelihood of such suspensions may be higher for securities of issuers in emerging or less-developed market countries than in countries with more developed markets. Trading suspensions may be applied from time to time to the securities of individual issuers for reasons specific to that issuer, or may be applied broadly by exchanges or governmental authorities in response to market events. Suspensions may last for significant periods of time, during which trading in the securities and instruments that reference the securities, such as participatory notes (or “P-notes”) or other derivative instruments, may be halted. In the event that the Fund holds material positions in such suspended securities or instruments, the Fund’s ability to liquidate its positions or provide liquidity to investors may be compromised and the Fund could incur significant losses.
Interest rates prevailing in other countries may affect the prices of foreign securities and exchange rates for foreign currencies. Local factors, including the strength of the local economy, the demand for borrowing, the government’s fiscal and monetary policies, and the international balance of payments, often affect interest rates in other countries. Individual foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in such respects as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency, and balance of payments position.
The Fund may invest in American Depositary Receipts (“ADRs”), European Depositary Receipts (“EDRs”), Global Depositary Receipts (“GDRs”) and International Depositary Receipts (“IDRs”). ADRs (sponsored or unsponsored) are receipts typically issued by a U.S. bank or trust company evidencing its ownership of the underlying foreign securities. Most ADRs are denominated in U.S. dollars and are traded on a U.S. stock exchange. However, they are subject to the risk of fluctuation in the currency exchange rate if, as is often the case, the underlying securities are denominated in foreign currency. EDRs are receipts issued by a European bank evidencing its ownership of the underlying foreign securities and are often denominated in a foreign currency. GDRs are receipts issued by either a U.S. or non-U.S. banking institution evidencing its ownership of the underlying foreign securities and are often denominated in U.S. dollars. IDRs are receipts typically issued by a foreign bank or trust company evidencing its ownership of the underlying foreign securities. Depositary receipts involve many of the same risks of investing directly in foreign securities, including currency risks and risks of foreign investing.
Issuers of the securities underlying sponsored depositary receipts, but not unsponsored depositary receipts, are contractually obligated to disclose material information in the United States. Therefore, the market value of unsponsored depositary receipts is less likely to reflect the effect of such information.
Policies and Limitations.  The Fund is not restricted in the amount it may invest in foreign securities, including foreign securities denominated in any one foreign currency.  There also will be no limit on investment in issuers domiciled or doing business in, or whose securities are primarily traded in, a single jurisdiction or country.
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Securities of Issuers in Emerging Market Countries.  The risks described above for foreign securities may be heightened in connection with investments in emerging market countries. Historically, the markets of emerging market countries have been more volatile than the markets of developed countries, reflecting the greater uncertainties of investing in less established markets and economies. In particular, emerging market countries may have less stable governments; may present the risks of nationalization of businesses, restrictions on foreign ownership and prohibitions on the repatriation of assets; and may have less protection of property rights than more developed countries. The economies of emerging market countries may be reliant on only a few industries, may be highly vulnerable to changes in local or global trade conditions and may suffer from high and volatile debt burdens or inflation rates. Local securities markets may trade a small number of securities and may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume, potentially making prompt liquidation of holdings difficult or impossible at times.
In determining where an issuer of a security is based, the Manager may consider such factors as where the company is legally organized, maintains its principal corporate offices and/or conducts its principal operations.
Additional costs could be incurred in connection with the Fund’s investment activities outside the United States. Brokerage commissions may be higher outside the United States, and the Fund will bear certain expenses in connection with its currency transactions. Furthermore, increased custodian costs may be associated with maintaining assets in certain jurisdictions.
Certain risk factors related to emerging market countries include:
Currency fluctuations.  The Fund’s investments may be valued in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Certain emerging market countries’ currencies have experienced and may in the future experience significant declines against the U.S. dollar. For example, if the U.S. dollar appreciates against foreign currencies, the value of the Fund’s securities holdings would generally depreciate and vice versa. Consistent with its investment objective, the Fund can engage in certain currency transactions to hedge against currency fluctuations. See “Forward Foreign Currency Transactions.”  After the Fund has distributed income, subsequent foreign currency losses may result in the Fund’s having distributed more income in a particular fiscal period than was available from investment income, which could result in a return of capital to shareholders.

Government regulation.  The political, economic and social structures of certain developing countries may be more volatile and less developed than those in the United States. Certain emerging market countries lack uniform accounting, auditing, financial reporting and corporate governance standards, have less governmental supervision of financial markets than in the United States, and do not honor legal rights enjoyed in the United States. Certain governments may be more unstable and present greater risks of nationalization or restrictions on foreign ownership of local companies.
Repatriation of investment income, capital and the proceeds of sales by foreign investors may require governmental registration and/or approval in some emerging market countries. While the Fund will only invest in markets where these restrictions are considered acceptable by the Manager, a country could impose new or additional repatriation restrictions after the Fund’s investment. If this happened, the Fund’s response might include, among other things, applying to the appropriate authorities for a waiver of the restrictions or engaging in transactions in other markets designed to offset the risks of decline in that country. Such restrictions will be considered in relation to the Fund’s liquidity needs and all other positive and negative factors. Further, some attractive equity securities may not be available to the Fund, or the Fund may have to
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pay a premium to purchase those equity securities, due to foreign shareholders already holding the maximum amount legally permissible.
While government involvement in the private sector varies in degree among emerging market countries, such involvement may in some cases include government ownership of companies in certain sectors, wage and price controls or imposition of trade barriers, market manipulation and other protectionist measures. With respect to any emerging market country, there is no guarantee that some future economic or political crisis will not lead to price controls, forced mergers of companies, expropriation, or creation of government monopolies to the possible detriment of the Fund’s investments.
Less developed securities markets.  Emerging market countries may have less well developed securities markets and exchanges. These markets have lower trading volumes than the securities markets of more developed countries. These markets may be unable to respond effectively to increases in trading volume. Consequently, these markets may be substantially less liquid than those of more developed countries, and the securities of issuers located in these markets may have limited marketability. These factors may make prompt liquidation of substantial portfolio holdings difficult or impossible at times.
Settlement risks.  Settlement systems in emerging market countries are generally less well organized than developed markets. Supervisory authorities may also be unable to apply standards comparable to those in developed markets. Thus, there may be risks that settlement may be delayed and that cash or securities belonging to the Fund may be in jeopardy because of failures of or defects in the systems. In particular, market practice may require that payment be made before receipt of the security being purchased or that delivery of a security be made before payment is received. In such cases, default by a broker or bank (the “counterparty”) through whom the transaction is effected might cause the Fund to suffer a loss. The Fund will seek, where possible, to use counterparties whose financial status is such that this risk is reduced. However, there can be no certainty that the Fund will be successful in eliminating this risk, particularly as counterparties operating in emerging market countries frequently lack the substance or financial resources of those in developed countries. There may also be a danger that, because of uncertainties in the operation of settlement systems in individual markets, competing claims may arise with respect to securities held by or to be transferred to the Fund.
Investor information.  The Fund may encounter problems assessing investment opportunities in certain emerging market securities markets in light of limitations on available information, including the quality and reliability of such information, and different regulatory, accounting, auditing, financial reporting and recordkeeping standards. In such circumstances, the Manager will seek alternative sources of information, and to the extent it may not be satisfied with the sufficiency of the information obtained with respect to a particular market or security, the Fund will not invest in such market or security.
Taxation.  Taxation of dividends received, and net capital gains realized, by non-residents on securities issued in emerging market countries varies among those countries, and, in some cases, the applicable tax rate is comparatively high. In addition, emerging market countries typically have less well-defined tax laws and procedures than developed countries, and such laws and procedures may permit retroactive taxation so that the Fund could in the future become subject to local tax liability that it had not reasonably anticipated in conducting its investment activities or valuing its assets.
Litigation and Enforcement.  The Fund and its shareholders may encounter substantial difficulties in obtaining and enforcing judgments against non-U.S. resident individuals and companies.
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Fraudulent securities.  Securities purchased by the Fund may subsequently be found to be fraudulent or counterfeit, resulting in a loss to the Fund.
Risks of Investing in Frontier Emerging Market Countries. Frontier emerging market countries are countries that have smaller economies or less developed capital markets than traditional emerging markets.  Frontier emerging market countries tend to have relatively low gross national product per capita compared to the larger traditionally-recognized emerging markets. The frontier emerging market countries include the least developed countries even by emerging markets standards.  The risks of investments in frontier emerging market countries include all the risks described above for investment in foreign securities and emerging markets, although these risks are magnified in the case of frontier emerging market countries.
Risks of Variable Interest Entities. For purposes of raising capital offshore on exchanges outside of China, including on U.S. exchanges, many Chinese-based operating companies are structured as Variable Interest Entities (“VIEs”). In this structure, the Chinese-based operating company is the VIE and establishes an entity, which is typically offshore in a foreign jurisdiction, such as the Cayman Islands. The offshore entity lists on a foreign exchange and enters into contractual arrangements with the VIE. This structure allows Chinese companies in which the government restricts foreign ownership to raise capital from foreign investors. While the offshore entity has no equity ownership of the VIE, these contractual arrangements permit the offshore entity to consolidate the VIE’s financial statements with its own for accounting purposes and provide for economic exposure to the performance of the underlying Chinese operating company. Therefore, an investor in the listed offshore entity, such as the Fund, will have exposure to the Chinese-based operating company only through contractual arrangements and has no ownership in the Chinese-based operating company. Furthermore, because the offshore entity only has specific rights provided for in these service agreements with the VIE, its abilities to control the activities at the Chinese-based operating company are limited and the operating company may engage in activities that negatively impact investment value.
While the VIE structure has been widely adopted, it is not formally recognized under Chinese law and therefore there is a risk that the Chinese government could prohibit the existence of such structures or negatively impact the VIE’s contractual arrangements with the listed offshore entity by making them invalid. If these contracts were found to be unenforceable under Chinese law, investors in the listed offshore entity, such as the Fund, may suffer significant losses with little or no recourse available. If the Chinese government determines that the agreements establishing the VIE structures do not comply with Chinese law and regulations, including those related to restrictions on foreign ownership, it could subject a Chinese-based issuer to penalties, revocation of business and operating licenses, or forfeiture of ownership interest. In addition, the listed offshore entity’s control over a VIE may also be jeopardized if a natural person who holds the equity interest in the VIE breaches the terms of the agreement, is subject to legal proceedings or if any physical instruments for authenticating documentation, such as chops and seals, are used without the Chinese-based issuer’s authorization to enter into contractual arrangements in China. Chops and seals, which are carved stamps used to sign documents, represent a legally binding commitment by the company. Moreover, any future regulatory action may prohibit the ability of the offshore entity to receive the economic benefits of the Chinese-based operating company, which may cause the value of the Fund’s investment in the listed offshore entity to suffer a significant loss. For example, in 2021, the Chinese government prohibited use of the VIE structure for investment in after-school tutoring companies. There is no guarantee that the government will not place similar restrictions on other industries.
Sovereign Government and Supranational Debt. Investments in debt securities issued by foreign governments and their political subdivisions or agencies (“Sovereign Debt”) involve special risks. Sovereign Debt is subject to risks in addition to those relating to non-U.S. investments generally. The issuer of the debt or the governmental authorities that control the repayment of the debt may be unable or unwilling to repay principal and/or interest when due in accordance with the terms of such debt, and a fund may have limited
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legal recourse in the event of a default.  As a sovereign entity, the issuing government may be immune from lawsuits in the event of its failure or refusal to pay the obligations when due.
Sovereign Debt differs from debt obligations issued by private entities in that, generally, remedies for defaults must be pursued in the courts of the defaulting party. Legal recourse is therefore somewhat diminished. Political conditions, especially a sovereign entity’s willingness to meet the terms of its debt obligations, are of considerable significance. Also, holders of commercial bank debt issued by the same sovereign entity may contest payments to the holders of Sovereign Debt in the event of default under commercial bank loan agreements.
A sovereign debtor’s willingness or ability to repay principal and interest due in a timely manner may be affected by, among other factors, its cash flow situation, the extent of its non-U.S. reserves, the availability of sufficient non-U.S. exchange on the date a payment is due, the relative size of the debt service burden to the economy as a whole, the sovereign debtor’s policy toward principal international lenders and the political constraints to which a sovereign debtor may be subject. Increased protectionism on the part of a country’s trading partners or political changes in those countries, could also adversely affect its exports. Such events could diminish a country’s trade account surplus, if any, or the credit standing of a particular local government or agency.
Sovereign debtors may also be dependent on disbursements or assistance from foreign governments or multinational agencies, the country’s access to trade and other international credits, and the country’s balance of trade. Assistance may be dependent on a country’s implementation of austerity measures and reforms, which measures may limit or be perceived to limit economic growth and recovery. Some sovereign debtors have rescheduled their debt payments, declared moratoria on payments or restructured their debt to effectively eliminate portions of it, and similar occurrences may happen in the future. There is no bankruptcy proceeding by which sovereign debt on which governmental entities have defaulted may be collected in whole or in part.
The ability of some sovereign debtors to repay their obligations may depend on the timely receipt of assistance from international agencies or other governments, the flow of which is not assured. The willingness of such agencies to make these payments may depend on the sovereign debtor’s willingness to institute certain economic changes, the implementation of which may be politically difficult.
The occurrence of political, social or diplomatic changes in one or more of the countries issuing Sovereign Debt could adversely affect a Fund’s investments. Political changes or a deterioration of a country’s domestic economy or balance of trade may affect the willingness of countries to service their Sovereign Debt. While NBIA endeavors to manage investments in a manner that will minimize the exposure to such risks, there can be no assurance that adverse political changes will not cause the Fund to suffer a loss of interest or principal on any of its holdings.
Sovereign Debt may include: debt securities issued or guaranteed by governments, governmental agencies or instrumentalities and political subdivisions located in emerging market countries; debt securities issued by government owned, controlled or sponsored entities located in emerging market countries; interests in entities organized and operated for the purpose of restructuring the investment characteristics of instruments issued by any of the above issuers; participations in loans between emerging market governments and financial institutions; and Brady Bonds, which are debt securities issued under the framework of the Brady Plan as a means for debtor nations to restructure their outstanding external indebtedness.
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Brady Bonds may be collateralized or uncollateralized and issued in various currencies (although most are dollar-denominated) and they are actively traded in the over-the-counter (“OTC”) secondary market. Certain Brady Bonds are collateralized in full as to principal due at maturity by zero coupon obligations issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies or instrumentalities having the same maturity (“Collateralized Brady Bonds”). Brady Bonds are not, however, considered to be U.S. Government Securities.
Dollar-denominated, Collateralized Brady Bonds may be fixed rate bonds or floating rate bonds. Interest payments on Brady Bonds are often collateralized by cash or securities in an amount that, in the case of fixed rate bonds, is equal to at least one year of rolling interest payments or, in the case of floating rate bonds, initially is equal to at least one year’s rolling interest payments based on the applicable interest rate at that time and is adjusted at regular intervals thereafter. Certain Brady Bonds are entitled to “value recovery payments” in certain circumstances, which in effect constitute supplemental interest payments but generally are not collateralized. Brady Bonds are often viewed as having three or four valuation components: (i) collateralized repayment of principal at final maturity; (ii) collateralized interest payments; (iii) uncollateralized interest payments; and (iv) any uncollateralized repayment of principal at maturity (these uncollateralized amounts constitute the “residual risk”). In the event of a default with respect to Collateralized Brady Bonds as a result of which the payment obligations of the issuer are accelerated, the U.S. Treasury zero coupon obligations held as collateral for the payment of principal will not be distributed to investors, nor will such obligations be sold and the proceeds distributed. The collateral will be held by the collateral agent to the scheduled maturity of the defaulted Brady Bonds, which will continue to be outstanding, at which time the face amount of the collateral will equal the principal payments which would have been due on the Brady Bonds in the normal course. In addition, in light of the residual risk of Brady Bonds and, among other factors, the history of defaults with respect to commercial bank loans by public and private entities of countries issuing Brady Bonds, investments in Brady Bonds should be viewed as speculative.
Supranational entities may also issue debt securities.  A supranational entity is a bank, commission or company established or financially supported by the national governments of one or more countries to promote reconstruction or development.  Included among these organizations are the Asian Development Bank, the European Investment Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Supranational organizations have no taxing authority and are dependent on their members for payments of interest and principal. Further, the lending activities of such entities are limited to a percentage of their total capital, reserves and net income.
Fund of Funds Structure.   Section 12(d)(1)(A) of the 1940 Act, in relevant part, prohibits a registered investment company from acquiring shares of an investment company if after such acquisition the securities represent more than 3% of the total outstanding voting stock of the acquired company, more than 5% of the total assets of the acquiring company, or, together with the securities of any other investment companies, more than 10% of the total assets of the acquiring company except in reliance on certain exceptions contained in the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Pursuant to Rule 12d1-4, the Fund is permitted to exceed the limits of Section 12 of the 1940 Act if the Fund complies with Rule 12d1-4’s conditions, including (i) limits on control and voting; (ii) required evaluations and findings; (iii) required fund of funds investment agreements; and (iv) limits on complex structures.

The Manager may be deemed to have a conflict of interest when determining whether to invest or maintain the Fund’s assets in affiliated underlying funds.  The Manager would seek to mitigate this conflict of interest, however, by undertaking to waive a portion of the Fund’s advisory fee equal to the advisory fee
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it receives from affiliated underlying funds on the Fund’s assets invested in those affiliated underlying funds.  The Manager and its affiliates may derive indirect benefits such as increased assets under management from investing Fund assets in an affiliated underlying fund, which benefits would not be present if investments were made in unaffiliated underlying funds.  In addition, although the Manager will waive a portion of the Fund’s advisory fee (as previously described), the Fund will indirectly bear its pro rata share of an affiliated underlying fund’s other fees and expenses, and such fees and expenses may be paid to the Manager or its affiliates or a third party.
Futures Contracts, Options on Futures Contracts, Options on Securities and Indices, Forward Currency Contracts, Options on Foreign Currencies, and Swap Agreements (collectively, “Financial Instruments”). Financial Instruments are instruments whose value is dependent upon the value of an underlying asset or assets, which may include stocks, bonds, commodities, interest rates, currency exchange rates, or related indices.  As described below, Financial Instruments may be used for “hedging” purposes, meaning that they may be used in an effort to offset a decline in value in the Fund’s other investments, which could result from changes in interest rates, market prices, currency fluctuations, or other market factors.  Financial Instruments may also be used for non-hedging purposes in an effort to implement a cash management strategy, to enhance income or gain, to manage or adjust the risk profile of the Fund or the risk of individual positions, to gain exposure more efficiently than through a direct purchase of the underlying security, or to gain exposure to securities, markets, sectors or geographical areas.
The Dodd-Frank Act requires the SEC and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) to establish new regulations with respect to derivatives defined as security-based swaps (e.g., derivatives based on an equity or a narrowly based equity index) and swaps (e.g., derivatives based on a broad-based index or commodity), respectively, and the markets in which these instruments trade. In addition, it subjected all security-based swaps and swaps to SEC and CFTC jurisdiction, respectively.
The SEC adopted Rule 18f-4 under the 1940 Act in November 2020 which will regulate the use of derivatives for certain funds registered under the Investment Company Act (‘‘Rule 18f-4’’). Unless the Fund qualifies as a ‘‘limited derivatives user’’ as defined in Rule 18f-4, Rule 18f-4 would, among other things, require the Fund to establish a comprehensive derivatives risk management program, to comply with certain value-at-risk based leverage limits, to appoint a derivatives risk manager and to provide additional disclosure both publicly and to the SEC regarding its derivatives positions. For funds that qualify as limited derivatives users, Rule 18f-4 requires a fund to have policies and procedures to manage its aggregate derivatives risk. These requirements could have an impact on the Fund, including a potential increase in cost to enter into derivatives transactions.  Due to the compliance timeline within Rule 18f-4, the Fund will not be required to fully comply with the requirements until August 2022.

Futures Contracts and Options on Futures Contracts. The Fund may purchase and sell futures contracts (sometimes referred to as “futures”) and options thereon for hedging purposes (i.e., to attempt to offset against changes in the prices of securities or, in the case of foreign currency futures and options thereon, to attempt to offset against changes in prevailing currency exchange rates) or non-hedging purposes.
A “purchase” of a futures contract (or entering into a “long” futures position) entails the buyer’s assumption of a contractual obligation to take delivery of the instrument underlying the contract at a specified price at a specified future time. A “sale” of a futures contract (or entering into a “short” futures position) entails the seller’s assumption of a contractual obligation to make delivery of the instrument underlying the contract at a specified price at a specified future time.
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The value of a futures contract tends to increase or decrease in tandem with the value of its underlying instrument. Therefore, purchasing futures contracts will tend to increase the Fund’s exposure to positive and negative price fluctuations in the underlying instrument, much as if the Fund had purchased the underlying instrument directly. The Fund may purchase futures contracts to fix what the Manager believes to be a favorable price for securities the Fund intends to purchase. When the Fund sells a futures contract, by contrast, the value of its futures position will tend to move in a direction contrary to the market for the underlying instrument. Selling futures contracts, therefore, will tend to offset both positive and negative market price changes, much as if the Fund had sold the underlying instrument. The Fund may sell futures contracts to offset a possible decline in the value of its portfolio securities. In addition, the Fund may purchase or sell futures contracts with a greater or lesser value than the securities it wishes to hedge to attempt to compensate for anticipated differences in volatility between positions the Fund may wish to hedge and the standardized futures contracts available to it, although this may not be successful in all cases.  Further, a loss incurred on a particular transaction being used as a hedge does not mean that it failed to achieve its objective, if the goal was to prevent a worse loss that may have resulted had a particular securities or cash market investment suffered a substantial loss and there were no offsetting hedge.
Certain futures, including index futures and futures not calling for the physical delivery or acquisition of the instrument underlying the contract, are settled on a net cash payment basis rather than by the delivery of the underlying instrument.  In addition, although futures contracts by their terms may call for the physical delivery or acquisition of the instrument underlying the contract, in most cases the contractual obligation is extinguished by being closed out before the expiration of the contract. A futures position is closed out by buying (to close out an earlier sale) or selling (to close out an earlier purchase) an identical futures contract calling for delivery in the same month. This may result in a profit or loss. While futures contracts entered into by the Fund will usually be liquidated in this manner, the Fund may instead make or take delivery of the underlying instrument or utilize the cash settlement process whenever it appears economically advantageous for it to do so.
Because the futures markets may be more liquid than the cash markets, the use of futures contracts permits the Fund to enhance portfolio liquidity and maintain a defensive position without having to sell portfolio securities. For example, (i) futures contracts on single stocks, interest rates and indices (including on narrow-based indices) and options thereon may be used as a maturity or duration management device and/or a device to reduce risk or preserve total return in an adverse environment for the hedged securities, and (ii) foreign currency futures and options thereon may be used as a means of establishing more definitely the effective return on, or the purchase price of, securities denominated in foreign currencies that are held or intended to be acquired by the Fund.
For purposes of managing cash flow, the Fund may use futures and options thereon to increase its exposure to the performance of a recognized securities index.
With respect to currency futures, the Fund may sell a currency futures contract or a call option thereon, or may purchase a put option on a currency futures contract, if the Manager anticipates that exchange rates for a particular currency will fall. Such a transaction will be used as a hedge (or, in the case of a sale of a call option, a partial hedge) against a decrease in the value of portfolio securities denominated in that currency. If the Manager anticipates that exchange rates for a particular currency will rise, the Fund may purchase a currency futures contract or a call option thereon to protect against an increase in the price of securities that are denominated in that currency and that the Fund intends to purchase. The Fund also may purchase a currency futures contract or a call option thereon for non-hedging purposes when the Manager anticipates that a particular currency will appreciate in value, but securities denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not held in the Fund’s investment portfolio.
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The Fund may invest in commodity-linked futures contracts. The Fund may invest either directly or through a wholly owned Subsidiary (as defined below).  Currently, the Fund invests in commodity-linked futures contracts through a wholly owned Subsidiary.  Commodity-linked futures contracts are generally based upon commodities within six main commodity groups: (1) energy, which includes, among others, crude oil, gas oil, natural gas, gasoline and heating oil; (2) livestock, which includes, among others, feeder cattle, live cattle and hogs; (3) agriculture, which includes, among others, wheat (Kansas City wheat and Chicago wheat), corn and soybeans; (4) industrial metals, which includes, among others, aluminum, copper, lead, nickel and zinc; (5) precious metals, which includes, among others, gold, silver, platinum and palladium; and (6) softs, which includes cotton, coffee, sugar and cocoa. With respect to these physical commodities, the price of a commodity futures contract will reflect the storage costs of purchasing the physical commodity. These storage costs include the time value of money invested in the physical commodity plus the actual costs of storing the commodity, less any benefits from ownership of the physical commodity that are not obtained by the holder of a futures contract (these benefits are sometimes referred to as the “convenience yield”). To the extent that these storage costs change for an underlying commodity while the Fund is long futures contracts on that commodity, the value of the futures contract may change proportionately. Commodity-linked futures contracts may also be based upon cryptocurrencies, which includes bitcoin. The Fund may seek to invest in cash settled bitcoin futures. In the United States, the trading and clearing of bitcoin futures are required to take place on futures exchanges regulated and supervised by the CFTC, such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (“CME”). For CME bitcoin futures, the value of bitcoin futures is determined by reference to the CME CF Bitcoin Reference Rate, which provides an indication of the price of bitcoin across certain cash bitcoin exchanges.
“Initial Margin” with respect to a futures contract is the amount of assets that must be deposited by the Fund with, or for the benefit of, a futures commission merchant or broker in order to initiate the Fund’s futures positions.  Initial margin is the margin deposit made by the Fund when it enters into a futures contract; it is intended to assure performance of the contract by the Fund. If the value of the Fund’s futures account declines by a specified amount, the Fund will receive a margin call and be required to post assets sufficient to restore the equity in the account to the initial margin level.  (This is sometimes referred to as “variation margin;” technically, variation margin refers to daily payments that a clearing member firm is required to pay to the clearing organization based upon marking to market of the firm’s portfolio.)  However, if favorable price changes in the futures account cause the margin deposit to exceed the required initial margin level, the excess margin may be transferred to the Fund. The futures commission merchant or clearing member firm through which the Fund enters into and clears futures contracts may require a margin deposit in excess of exchange minimum requirements based upon its assessment of the Fund’s creditworthiness.  In computing its NAV, the Fund will mark to market the value of its open futures positions.  The Fund also must make margin deposits with respect to options on futures that it has written (but not with respect to options on futures that it has purchased, if the Fund has paid the required premium in full at the outset). If the futures commission merchant or broker holding the margin deposit or premium goes bankrupt, the Fund could suffer a delay in recovering excess margin or other funds and could ultimately suffer a loss.
Because of the low margin deposits required, futures trading involves an extremely high degree of leverage; as a result, a relatively small price movement in a futures contract may result in immediate and substantial loss, or gain, to the investor. Losses that may arise from certain futures transactions are potentially unlimited, and may exceed initial margin deposits as well as deposits made in response to subsequent margin calls.
The Fund may enter into futures contracts and options thereon that are traded on exchanges regulated by the CFTC or on non-U.S. exchanges. U.S. futures contracts are traded on exchanges that have been designated as “contract markets” by the CFTC; futures transactions must be executed through a futures
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commission merchant that is a member of the relevant contract market.  Futures executed on regulated futures exchanges have minimal counterparty risk to the Fund because the exchange's clearing organization assumes the position of the counterparty in each transaction.   Thus, the Fund is exposed to risk only in connection with the clearing organization and not in connection with the original counterparty to the transaction.  However, if a futures customer defaults on a futures contract and the futures commission merchant carrying that customer’s account cannot cover the defaulting customer’s obligations on its futures contracts, the clearing organization may use any or all of the collateral in the futures commission merchant’s customer omnibus account — including the assets of the futures commission merchant’s other customers, such as the Fund — to meet the defaulting customer’s obligations.  This is sometimes referred to as “fellow customer risk.”  Trading on non-U.S. exchanges is subject to the legal requirements of the jurisdiction in which the exchange is located and to the rules of such exchange, and may not involve a clearing mechanism and related guarantees. Funds deposited in connection with such trading may also be subject to the bankruptcy laws of such other jurisdiction, which may result in a delay in recovering such funds in a bankruptcy and could ultimately result in a loss.
An option on a futures contract gives the purchaser the right, in return for the premium paid, to assume a position in the contract (a long position if the option is a call and a short position if the option is a put) at a specified exercise price at any time during the option exercise period. The writer of the option is required upon exercise to assume a short futures position (if the option is a call) or a long futures position (if the option is a put). Upon exercise of the option, the accumulated cash balance in the writer’s futures margin account is delivered to the holder of the option. That balance represents the amount by which the market price of the futures contract at exercise exceeds, in the case of a call, or is less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option. Options on futures have characteristics and risks similar to those of securities options, as discussed herein.
Although the Fund believes that the use of futures contracts and options may benefit it, if the Manager’s judgment about the general direction of the markets or about interest rate or currency exchange rate trends is incorrect, the Fund’s overall return would be lower than if it had not entered into any such contracts. The prices of futures contracts and options are volatile and are influenced by, among other things, actual and anticipated changes in interest or currency exchange rates, which in turn are affected by fiscal and monetary policies and by national and international political and economic events. At best, the correlation between changes in prices of futures contracts or options and of securities being hedged can be only approximate due to differences between the futures and securities markets or differences between the securities or currencies underlying the Fund’s futures or options position and the securities held by or to be purchased for the Fund. The currency futures or options market may be dominated by short-term traders seeking to profit from changes in exchange rates. This would reduce the value of such contracts used for hedging purposes over a short-term period. Such distortions are generally minor and would diminish as the contract approaches maturity.
Under certain circumstances, futures exchanges may limit the amount of fluctuation in the price of a futures contract or option thereon during a single trading day; once the daily limit has been reached, no trades may be made on that day at a price beyond that limit.  Daily limits govern only price movements during a particular trading day, however; they do not limit potential losses.  In fact, a daily limit may increase the risk of loss, because prices can move to the daily limit for several consecutive trading days with little or no trading, thereby preventing liquidation of unfavorable futures and options positions and subjecting traders to substantial losses.  If this were to happen with respect to a position held by the Fund, it could (depending on the size of the position) have an adverse impact on the Fund’s NAV.  In addition, the Fund would continue to be subject to margin calls and might be required to maintain the position being hedged by the futures contract or option thereon or to maintain cash or securities in a segregated account.
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Many electronic trading facilities that support futures trading are supported by computer-based component systems for the order, routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades.  The Fund’s ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house or member firms.
Call Options on Securities. The Fund may write (sell) covered call options and purchase call options on securities for hedging purposes (i.e., to attempt to reduce, at least in part, the effect on the Fund’s NAV of price fluctuations of securities held by the Fund) or non-hedging purposes. When writing call options, the Fund writes only “covered” call options.  A call option is “covered” if the Fund simultaneously holds an equivalent position in the security underlying the option. Portfolio securities on which the Fund may write and purchase call options are purchased solely on the basis of investment considerations consistent with the Fund’s investment objective.
When the Fund writes a call option, it is obligated to sell a security to a purchaser at a specified price at any time until a certain date if the purchaser decides to exercise the option. The Fund will receive a premium for writing a call option. So long as the obligation of the call option continues, the Fund may be assigned an exercise notice, requiring it to deliver the underlying security against payment of the exercise price. The Fund may be obligated to deliver securities underlying an option at less than the market price.
The writing of covered call options is a conservative investment technique that is believed to involve relatively little risk (in contrast to the writing of “naked” or uncovered call options, which the Fund will not do), but is capable of enhancing the Fund’s total return. When writing a covered call option, the Fund, in return for the premium, gives up the opportunity for profit from a price increase in the underlying security above the exercise price, but retains the risk of loss should the price of the security decline.
If a call option that the Fund has written expires unexercised, the Fund will realize a gain in the amount of the premium; however, that gain may be offset by a decline in the market value of the underlying security during the option period. If a call option that the Fund has written is exercised, the Fund will realize a gain or loss from the sale of the underlying security.
When the Fund purchases a call option, it pays a premium to the writer for the right to purchase a security from the writer for a specified amount at any time until a certain date.  The Fund generally would purchase a call option to offset a previously written call option or to protect itself against an increase in the price of a security it intends to purchase.
Put Options on Securities. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase put options on securities for hedging purposes (i.e., to attempt to reduce, at least in part, the effect on the Fund’s NAV of price fluctuations of securities held by the Fund) or non-hedging purposes. Portfolio securities on which the Fund may write and purchase put options are purchased solely on the basis of investment considerations consistent with the Fund’s investment objective.
When the Fund writes a put option, it is obligated to acquire a security at a certain price at any time until a certain date if the purchaser decides to exercise the option. The Fund will receive a premium for writing a put option. When writing a put option, the Fund, in return for the premium, takes the risk that it must purchase the underlying security at a price that may be higher than the current market price of the security. If a put option that the Fund has written expires unexercised, the Fund will realize a gain in the amount of the premium.
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When the Fund purchases a put option, it pays a premium to the writer for the right to sell a security to the writer for a specified amount at any time until a certain date. The Fund generally would purchase a put option to protect itself against a decrease in the market value of a security it owns.
Low Exercise Price Options. The Fund may use non-standard warrants, including low exercise price options (“LEPOs”), to gain exposure to issuers in certain countries. These securities are issued by banks and other financial institutions. LEPOs are different from standard warrants in that they do not give their holders the right to receive a security of the issuer upon exercise. Rather, LEPOs pay the holder the difference in price of the underlying security between the date the LEPO was purchased and the date it is sold. By purchasing LEPOs, the Fund could incur losses because it would face many of the same types of risks as owning the underlying security directly. Additionally, LEPOs entail the same risks as other over-the-counter (“OTC”) derivatives. These include the risk that the counterparty or issuer of the LEPO may be unable or unwilling to make payments or to otherwise honor its obligations, that the parties to the transaction may disagree as to the meaning or application of contractual terms, or that the instrument may not perform as expected. Additionally, while LEPOs may be listed on an exchange, there is no guarantee that a liquid market will exist or that the counterparty or issuer of a LEPO will be willing to repurchase such instrument when the Fund wishes to sell it.
General Information About Options on Securities. The exercise price of an option may be below, equal to, or above the market value of the underlying security at the time the option is written. Options normally have expiration dates between three and nine months from the date written. American-style options are exercisable at any time prior to their expiration date. European-style options are exercisable only immediately prior to their expiration date. The obligation under any option written by the Fund terminates upon expiration of the option or, at an earlier time, when the Fund offsets the option by entering into a “closing purchase transaction” to purchase an option of the same series. If an option is purchased by the Fund and is never exercised or closed out, the Fund will lose the entire amount of the premium paid.
Options are traded both on U.S. national securities exchanges and in the OTC market. Options also are traded on non-U.S. exchanges. Exchange-traded options are issued by a clearing organization affiliated with the exchange on which the option is listed; the clearing organization in effect guarantees completion of every exchange-traded option. In contrast, OTC options are contracts between the Fund and a counterparty, with no clearing organization guarantee. Thus, when the Fund sells (or purchases) an OTC option, it generally will be able to “close out” the option prior to its expiration only by entering into a closing transaction with the dealer to whom (or from whom) the Fund originally sold (or purchased) the option. There can be no assurance that the Fund would be able to liquidate an OTC option at any time prior to expiration. Unless the Fund is able to effect a closing purchase transaction in a covered OTC call option it has written, it will not be able to liquidate securities used as cover until the option expires or is exercised or until different cover is substituted. In the event of the counterparty’s insolvency, the Fund may be unable to liquidate its options position and the associated cover. The Manager monitors the creditworthiness of dealers with which the Fund may engage in OTC options transactions.
The premium the Fund receives (or pays) when it writes (or purchases) an option is the amount at which the option is currently traded on the applicable market. The premium may reflect, among other things, the current market price of the underlying security, the relationship of the exercise price to the market price, the historical price volatility of the underlying security, the length of the option period, the general supply of and demand for credit, and the interest rate environment. The premium the Fund receives when it writes an option is recorded as a liability on the Fund’s statement of assets and liabilities. This liability is adjusted daily to the option’s current market value.
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Closing transactions are effected in order to realize a profit (or minimize a loss) on an outstanding option, to prevent an underlying security from being called, or to permit the sale or the put of the underlying security. Furthermore, effecting a closing transaction permits the Fund to write another call option on the underlying security with a different exercise price or expiration date or both. There is, of course, no assurance that the Fund will be able to effect closing transactions at favorable prices. If the Fund cannot enter into such a transaction, it may be required to hold a security that it might otherwise have sold (or purchase a security that it might otherwise not have bought), in which case it would continue to be at market risk on the security.
The Fund will realize a profit or loss from a closing purchase transaction if the cost of the transaction is less or more than the premium received from writing the call or put option. Because increases in the market price of a call option generally reflect increases in the market price of the underlying security, any loss resulting from the repurchase of a call option is likely to be offset, in whole or in part, by appreciation of the underlying security owned by the Fund; however, the Fund could be in a less advantageous position than if it had not written the call option.
The Fund pays brokerage commissions or spreads in connection with purchasing or writing options, including those used to close out existing positions. From time to time, the Fund may purchase an underlying security for delivery in accordance with an exercise notice of a call option assigned to it, rather than deliver the security from its inventory. In those cases, additional brokerage commissions are incurred.
The hours of trading for options may not conform to the hours during which the underlying securities are traded. To the extent that the options markets close before the markets for the underlying securities close, significant price and rate movements can take place in the underlying markets that cannot be reflected in the options markets.
Additionally, volatility in the market for equity securities, which has been dramatically increased recently for certain stocks, can meaningfully increase the risk of loss associated with options.
Policies and Limitations. The assets used as cover (or segregated) for illiquid OTC options written by the Fund will be considered illiquid and thus subject to the Fund’s 15% limitation on illiquid securities, unless such OTC options are sold to qualified dealers who agree that the Fund may repurchase such OTC options it writes at a maximum price to be calculated by a formula set forth in the option agreement. The cover for an illiquid OTC call option written subject to this procedure will be considered illiquid only to the extent that the maximum repurchase price under the formula exceeds the intrinsic value of the option.
Put and Call Options on Securities Indices and Other Financial Indices. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase put and call options on securities indices and other financial indices for hedging or non-hedging purposes. In so doing, the Fund can pursue many of the same objectives it would pursue through the purchase and sale of options on individual securities or other instruments.
Options on securities indices and other financial indices are similar to options on a security or other instrument except that, rather than settling by physical delivery of the underlying instrument, options on indices settle by cash settlement; that is, an option on an index gives the holder the right to receive, upon exercise of the option, an amount of cash if the closing level of the index upon which the option is based is greater than, in the case of a call, or is less than, in the case of a put, the exercise price of the option (except if, in the case of an OTC option, physical delivery is specified). This amount of cash is equal to the difference between the closing price of the index and the exercise price of the option times a specified multiple (multiplier), which determines the total dollar value for each point of such difference. The seller of the option is obligated, in return for the premium received, to make delivery of this amount.
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A securities index fluctuates with changes in the market values of the securities included in the index.  The gain or loss on an option on an index depends on price movements in the instruments comprising the market, market segment, industry or other composite on which the underlying index is based, rather than price movements in individual securities, as is the case with respect to options on securities. The risks of investment in options on indices may be greater than the risks of investment in options on securities.
The effectiveness of hedging through the purchase of securities index options will depend upon the extent to which price movements in the securities being hedged correlate with price movements in the selected securities index. Perfect correlation is not possible because the securities held or to be acquired by the Fund will not exactly match the composition of the securities indices on which options are available.
For purposes of managing cash flow, the Fund may purchase put and call options on securities indices to increase its exposure to the performance of a recognized securities index.
Securities index options have characteristics and risks similar to those of securities options, as discussed herein. Certain securities index options are traded in the OTC market and involve liquidity and credit risks that may not be present in the case of exchange-traded securities index options.
Options on Foreign Currencies. The Fund may write (sell) and purchase covered call and put options on foreign currencies for hedging or non-hedging purposes. The Fund may use options on foreign currencies to protect against decreases in the U.S. dollar value of securities held or increases in the U.S. dollar cost of securities to be acquired by the Fund or to protect the U.S. dollar equivalent of dividends, interest, or other payments on those securities. In addition, the Fund may write and purchase covered call and put options on foreign currencies for non-hedging purposes (e.g., when the Manager anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but securities denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not held in the Fund’s investment portfolio). The Fund may write covered call and put options on any currency in order to realize greater income than would be realized on portfolio securities alone.
Currency options have characteristics and risks similar to those of securities options, as discussed herein. Certain options on foreign currencies are traded on the OTC market and involve liquidity and credit risks that may not be present in the case of exchange-traded currency options.
Forward Foreign Currency Transactions. The Fund may enter into contracts for the purchase or sale of a specific currency at a future date, which may be any fixed number of days in excess of two days from the date of the contract agreed upon by the parties, at a price set at the time of the contract (“forward currency contracts”) for hedging or non-hedging purposes. The Fund also may engage in foreign currency transactions on a spot basis (i.e., cash transaction that results in actual delivery within two days) at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency market.
The Fund may enter into forward currency contracts in an attempt to hedge against changes in prevailing currency exchange rates (i.e., as a means of establishing more definitely the effective return on, or the purchase price of, securities denominated in foreign currencies). The Fund may also enter into forward currency contracts to protect against decreases in the U.S. dollar value of securities held or increases in the U.S. dollar cost of securities to be acquired by the Fund or to protect the U.S. dollar equivalent of dividends, interest, or other payments on those securities. In addition, the Fund may enter into forward currency contracts for non-hedging purposes when the Manager anticipates that a foreign currency will appreciate or depreciate in value, but securities denominated in that currency do not present attractive investment opportunities and are not held in the Fund’s investment portfolio.  The cost to the Fund of engaging in
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forward currency contracts varies with factors such as the currency involved, the length of the contract period, and the market conditions then prevailing.
Sellers or purchasers of forward currency contracts can enter into offsetting closing transactions, similar to closing transactions on futures, by purchasing or selling, respectively, an instrument identical to the instrument sold or bought, respectively. Secondary markets generally do not exist for forward currency contracts, however, with the result that closing transactions generally can be made for forward currency contracts only by negotiating directly with the counterparty. Thus, there can be no assurance that the Fund will in fact be able to close out a forward currency contract at a favorable price prior to maturity. In addition, in the event of insolvency of the counterparty, the Fund might be unable to close out a forward currency contract at any time prior to maturity. In either event, the Fund would continue to be subject to market risk with respect to the position, and would continue to be required to maintain a position in the securities or currencies that are the subject of the hedge or to maintain cash or securities.
The precise matching of forward currency contract amounts and the value of the securities involved generally will not be possible because the value of such securities, measured in the foreign currency, will change after the forward currency contract has been established. Thus, the Fund might need to purchase or sell foreign currencies in the spot (cash) market to the extent such foreign currencies are not covered by forward currency contracts. The projection of short-term currency market movements is extremely difficult, and the successful execution of a short-term hedging strategy is highly uncertain.
The Manager believes that the use of foreign currency hedging techniques, including “proxy-hedges,” can provide significant protection of NAV in the event of a general increase or decrease in the value of the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies. For example, the return available from securities denominated in a particular foreign currency would decline if the value of the U.S. dollar increased against that currency. Such a decline could be partially or completely offset by an increase in the value of a hedge involving a forward currency contract to sell that foreign currency or a proxy-hedge involving a forward currency contract to sell a different foreign currency whose behavior is expected to resemble the behavior of the currency in which the securities being hedged are denominated but which is available on more advantageous terms.
However, a hedge or a proxy-hedge cannot protect against exchange rate risks perfectly and, if the Manager is incorrect in its judgment of future exchange rate relationships, the Fund could be in a less advantageous position than if such a hedge had not been established.  If the Fund uses proxy-hedging, it may experience losses on both the currency in which it has invested and the currency used for hedging if the two currencies do not vary with the expected degree of correlation. Using forward currency contracts to protect the value of the Fund’s securities against a decline in the value of a currency does not eliminate fluctuations in the prices of the underlying securities. Because forward currency contracts may not be traded on an exchange, the assets used to cover such contracts may be illiquid. The Fund may experience delays in the settlement of its foreign currency transactions.
Forward currency contracts in which the Fund may engage include foreign exchange forwards. The consummation of a foreign exchange forward requires the actual exchange of the principal amounts of the two currencies in the contract (i.e., settlement on a physical basis).  Because foreign exchange forwards are physically settled through an exchange of currencies, they are traded in the interbank market directly between currency traders (usually large commercial banks) and their customers. A foreign exchange forward generally has no deposit requirement, and no commissions are charged at any stage for trades; foreign exchange dealers realize a profit based on the difference (the spread) between the prices at which they are buying and the prices at which they are selling various currencies.When the Fund enters into a foreign exchange forward, it relies on the counterparty to make or take delivery of the underlying currency at the
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maturity of the contract. Failure by the counterparty to do so would result in the loss of any expected benefit of the transaction.
The Fund may be required to obtain the currency that it must deliver under the foreign exchange forward through the sale of portfolio securities denominated in such currency or through conversion of other assets of the Fund into such currency.  When the Fund engages in foreign currency transactions for hedging purposes, it will not enter into foreign exchange forwards to sell currency or maintain a net exposure to such contracts if their consummation would obligate the Fund to deliver an amount of foreign currency materially in excess of the value of its portfolio securities or other assets denominated in that currency.
Forward currency contracts in which the Fund may engage also include non-deliverable forwards (“NDFs”). NDFs are cash-settled, short-term forward contracts on foreign currencies (each a “Reference Currency”) that are non-convertible and that may be thinly traded or illiquid.  NDFs involve an obligation to pay an amount (the “Settlement Amount”) equal to the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate for the Reference Currency and the agreed upon exchange rate (the “NDF Rate”), with respect to an agreed notional amount.  NDFs have a fixing date and a settlement (delivery) date.  The fixing date is the date and time at which the difference between the prevailing market exchange rate and the agreed upon exchange rate is calculated. The settlement (delivery) date is the date by which the payment of the Settlement Amount is due to the party receiving payment.
Although NDFs are similar to forward exchange forwards, NDFs do not require physical delivery of the Reference Currency on the settlement date. Rather, on the settlement date, the only transfer between the counterparties is the monetary settlement amount representing the difference between the NDF Rate and the prevailing market exchange rate. NDFs typically may have terms from one month up to two years and are settled in U.S. dollars.
NDFs are subject to many of the risks associated with derivatives in general and forward currency transactions, including risks associated with fluctuations in foreign currency and the risk that the counterparty will fail to fulfill its obligations.  Although NDFs have historically been traded OTC, in the future, pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, they may be exchange-traded.  Under such circumstances, they may be centrally cleared and a secondary market for them will exist.  With respect to NDFs that are centrally-cleared, an investor could lose margin payments it has deposited with the clearing organization as well as the net amount of gains not yet paid by the clearing organization if the clearing organization breaches its obligations under the NDF, becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In the event of bankruptcy of the clearing organization, the investor may be entitled to the net amount of gains the investor is entitled to receive plus the return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the clearing organization’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the investor.  Even if some NDFs remain traded OTC, they will be subject to margin requirements for uncleared swaps and counterparty risk common to other swaps, as discussed below.
The Fund may purchase securities of an issuer domiciled in a country other than the country in whose currency the securities are denominated.
Swap Agreements. The Fund may enter into swap agreements to manage or gain exposure to particular types of investments (including commodities, equity securities, interest rates or indices of equity securities in which the Fund otherwise could not invest efficiently) or to help enhance the value of its portfolio. The Fund may also enter into other types of swap agreements, including total return swaps, asset swaps, currency swaps and credit default swaps, and may write (sell) and purchase options thereon for hedging and non-hedging purposes.
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Swap agreements historically have been individually negotiated and structured to include exposure to a variety of different types of investments or market factors. Swap agreements are two party contracts entered into primarily by institutional investors. Swap agreements can vary in term like other fixed-income investments. Most swap agreements are currently traded over-the-counter. In a standard “swap” transaction, two parties agree to exchange one or more payments based, for example, on the returns (or differentials in rates of return) earned or realized on particular predetermined investments or instruments (such as securities, indices, or other financial or economic interests). The gross payments to be exchanged (or “swapped”) between the parties are calculated with respect to a notional amount, which is the predetermined dollar principal of the trade representing the hypothetical underlying quantity upon which payment obligations are computed. If a swap agreement provides for payment in different currencies, the parties may agree to exchange the principal amount. A swap also includes an instrument that is dependent on the occurrence, nonoccurrence or the extent of the occurrence of an event or contingency associated with a potential financial, economic or commercial consequence, such as a credit default swap.
Depending on how they are used, swap agreements may increase or decrease the overall volatility of the Fund’s investments and its share price and yield.  Swap agreements are subject to liquidity risk, meaning that the Fund may be unable to sell a swap agreement to a third party at a favorable price.  Swap agreements may involve leverage and may be highly volatile; depending on how they are used, they may have a considerable impact on the Fund’s performance. The risks of swap agreements depend upon the Fund’s ability to terminate its swap agreements or reduce its exposure through offsetting transactions. Swaps are highly specialized instruments that require investment techniques and risk analyses different from those associated with stocks, bonds, and other traditional investments.
Some swaps currently are, and more in the future will be, centrally cleared. Swaps that are centrally cleared are subject to the creditworthiness of the clearing organization involved in the transaction.  For example, an investor could lose margin payments it has deposited with its futures commission merchant as well as the net amount of gains not yet paid by the clearing organization if the clearing organization becomes insolvent or goes into bankruptcy. In the event of bankruptcy of the clearing organization, the investor may be entitled to the net amount of gains the investor is entitled to receive plus the return of margin owed to it only in proportion to the amount received by the clearing organization’s other customers, potentially resulting in losses to the investor.
To the extent a swap is not centrally cleared, the use of a swap involves the risk that a loss may be sustained as a result of the insolvency or bankruptcy of the counterparty or the failure of the counterparty to make required payments or otherwise comply with the terms of the agreement. If a counterparty’s creditworthiness declines, the value of the swap might decline, potentially resulting in losses to the Fund. Changing conditions in a particular market area, whether or not directly related to the referenced assets that underlie the swap agreement, may have an adverse impact on the creditworthiness of the counterparty. If a default occurs by the counterparty to such a transaction, the Fund may have contractual remedies pursuant to the agreements related to the transaction.
The regulation of the U.S. and non-U.S. swaps markets has undergone substantial change in recent years. Although the CFTC released final rules relating to clearing, reporting, recordkeeping and registration requirements under the legislation, many of the provisions of Dodd-Frank Act are subject to further final rule making or phase-in periods, and thus their ultimate impact remains unclear. New regulations could, among other things, restrict the Fund’s ability to engage in swap transactions (for example, by making certain types of swaps no longer available to the Fund) and/or increase the costs of such swap transactions (for example, by increasing margin or capital requirements), and the Fund might be unable to fully execute its investment strategies as a result. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which the Fund engages in
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swaps also could prevent the Fund from using these instruments or affect the pricing or other factors relating to these instruments, or may change the availability of certain investments.
Regulations adopted by the CFTC, SEC and banking regulators may require the Fund to post margin on OTC swaps, and exchanges will set minimum margin requirements for exchange-traded and cleared swaps. The prudential regulators issued final rules that will require banks subject to their supervision to exchange variation and initial margin in respect of their obligations arising under OTC swap agreements.  The CFTC adopted similar rules that apply to CFTC-registered swap dealers that are not banks.  Such rules generally require the Fund to segregate additional assets in order to meet the new variation and initial margin requirements when they enter into OTC swap agreements.  The European Supervisory Authorities (“ESA”), various national regulators in Europe, the Australian Securities & Investment Commission, the Japanese Financial Services Agency and the Canadian Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions adopted rules and regulations that are similar to that of the Federal Reserve. The variation margin requirements are now effective and the initial margin requirements are being phased-in through 2022 based on average daily aggregate notional amount of covered swaps between swap dealers and swap entities. Due to these regulations, the Fund could be required to engage in greater documentation and recordkeeping with respect to swap agreements.
Separately, on December 8, 2020, the CFTC adopted regulations allowing investment advisers for registered investment companies and other institutional investors to apply a minimum transfer amount (“MTA”) of variation margin based upon the separately managed investment account or sleeve (“Sleeve”) that the adviser is responsible for, rather than having to calculate the MTA across all accounts of the investor. An investment manager must abide by the following conditions: (1) any such swaps are entered into with the swap dealer by an asset manager on behalf of a Sleeve owned by the legal entity pursuant to authority granted under an investment management agreement; (2) the swaps of such Sleeve are subject to a master netting agreement that does not permit netting of initial or variation margin obligations across Sleeves of the legal entity that have swaps outstanding with the swap dealer; and (3) the swap dealer applies an MTA no greater than $50,000 to the initial and variation margin collection and posting obligations required of such Sleeve. As of the date of this SAI, the banking regulators have not provided similar relief, although swaps dealers subject to a banking regulator are expected to act in a manner consistent with the relief provided by the CFTC.
Regulations adopted by the prudential regulators require certain banks to include in a range of financial contracts, including swap agreements, terms delaying or restricting default, termination and other rights in the event that the bank and/or its affiliates become subject to certain types of resolution or insolvency proceedings. The regulations could limit the Fund’s ability to exercise a range of cross-default rights if its counterparty, or an affiliate of the counterparty, is subject to bankruptcy or similar proceedings. Such regulations could further negatively impact the Fund’s use of swaps.
Swap agreements can take many different forms and are known by a variety of names including, but not limited to, interest rate swaps, mortgage swaps, total return swaps, inflation swaps, asset swaps (where parties exchange assets, typically a debt security), currency swaps, equity swaps, credit default swaps, commodity-linked swaps, and contracts for differences.  The Fund may also write (sell) and purchase options on swaps (swaptions).
Interest Rate Swaps, Mortgage Swaps, and Interest Rate “Caps,” “Floors,” and “Collars.”  In a typical interest rate swap agreement, one party agrees to make regular payments equal to a floating rate on a specified amount in exchange for payments equal to a fixed rate, or a different floating rate, on the same amount for a specified period. Mortgage swap agreements are similar to interest rate swap agreements, except
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the notional principal amount is tied to a reference pool of mortgages or index of mortgages.  In an interest rate cap or floor, one party agrees, usually in return for a fee, to make payments under particular circumstances. For example, the purchaser of an interest rate cap has the right to receive payments to the extent a specified interest rate exceeds an agreed level; the purchaser of an interest rate floor has the right to receive payments to the extent a specified interest rate falls below an agreed level. An interest rate collar entitles the purchaser to receive payments to the extent a specified interest rate falls outside an agreed range.
Among other techniques, the Fund may use interest rate swaps to offset declines in the value of fixed income securities held by the Fund.  In such an instance, the Fund may agree with a counterparty to pay a fixed rate (multiplied by a notional amount) and the counterparty to pay a floating rate multiplied by the same notional amount. If long-term interest rates rise, resulting in a diminution in the value of the Fund’s portfolio, the Fund would receive payments under the swap that would offset, in whole or in part, such diminution in value; if interest rates fall, the Fund would likely lose money on the swap transaction. The Fund may also enter into constant maturity swaps, which are a variation of the typical interest rate swap. Constant maturity swaps are exposed to changes in long-term interest rate movements.
Total Return Swaps.  The Fund may enter into total return swaps (“TRS”) to obtain exposure to a security or market without owning or taking physical custody of such security or market.  The Fund may be either a total return receiver or a total return payer. Generally, the total return payer sells to the total return receiver an amount equal to all cash flows and price appreciation on a defined security or asset payable at periodic times during the swap term (i.e., credit risk) in return for a periodic payment from the total return receiver based on a designated index (e.g., the London Interbank Offered Rate, known as LIBOR or the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, known as SOFR) and spread, plus the amount of any price depreciation on the reference security or asset. The total return payer does not need to own the underlying security or asset to enter into a total return swap. The final payment at the end of the swap term includes final settlement of the current market price of the underlying reference security or asset, and payment by the applicable party for any appreciation or depreciation in value. Usually, collateral must be posted by the total return receiver to secure the periodic interest-based and market price depreciation payments depending on the credit quality of the underlying reference security and creditworthiness of the total return receiver, and the collateral amount is marked-to-market daily equal to the market price of the underlying reference security or asset between periodic payment dates.
TRS may effectively add leverage to the Fund’s portfolio because, in addition to its net assets, the Fund would be subject to investment exposure on the notional amount of the swap.  If the Fund is the total return receiver in a TRS, then the credit risk for an underlying asset is transferred to the Fund in exchange for its receipt of the return (appreciation) on that asset. If the Fund is the total return payer, it is hedging the downside risk of an underlying asset but it is obligated to pay the amount of any appreciation on that asset.
Inflation Swaps. In an inflation swap, one party agrees to pay the cumulative percentage increase in a price index, such as the Consumer Price Index, over the term of the swap (with some lag on the referenced inflation index) and the other party agrees to pay a compounded fixed rate. Inflation swaps may be used to protect the Fund’s NAV against an unexpected change in the rate of inflation measured by an inflation index.
Credit Default Swaps. In a credit default swap, the credit default protection buyer makes periodic payments, known as premiums, to the credit default protection seller. In return, the credit default protection seller will make a payment to the credit default protection buyer upon the occurrence of a specified credit event. A credit default swap can refer to a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets, each known as the reference entity or underlying asset. The Fund may act as either the buyer or the seller of a credit default swap. The Fund may buy or sell credit default protection on a basket of issuers or
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assets, even if a number of the underlying assets referenced in the basket are lower-quality debt securities. In an unhedged credit default swap, the Fund buys credit default protection on a single issuer or asset, a basket of issuers or assets or index of assets without owning the underlying asset or debt issued by the reference entity. Credit default swaps involve greater and different risks than investing directly in the referenced asset, because, in addition to market risk, credit default swaps include liquidity, counterparty and operational risk.
Credit default swaps allow the Fund to acquire or reduce credit exposure to a particular issuer, asset or basket of assets. If a swap agreement calls for payments by the Fund, the Fund must be prepared to make such payments when due. If the Fund is the credit default protection seller, the Fund will experience a loss if a credit event occurs and the credit of the reference entity or underlying asset has deteriorated. If the Fund is the credit default protection buyer, the Fund will be required to pay premiums to the credit default protection seller. In the case of a physically settled credit default swap in which the Fund is the protection seller, the Fund must be prepared to pay par for and take possession of debt of a defaulted issuer delivered to the Fund by the credit default protection buyer. Any loss would be offset by the premium payments the Fund receives as the seller of credit default protection. If the Fund sells (writes) a credit default swap, it currently intends to segregate the full notional value of the swap, except if the Fund sells a credit default swap on an index with certain characteristics (i.e., on a broad based index and cash settled) where the Manager believes segregating only the amount out of the money more appropriately represents the Fund’s exposure.
Commodity-Linked Swaps.  Commodity-linked swaps are two party contracts in which the parties agree to exchange the return or interest rate on one instrument for the return of a particular commodity, commodity index or commodity futures or options contract. The payment streams are calculated by reference to an agreed upon notional amount. A one-period swap contract operates in a manner similar to a forward or futures contract because there is an agreement to swap a commodity for cash at only one forward date. The Fund may engage in swap transactions that have more than one period and therefore more than one exchange of payments. The Fund may invest in total return commodity swaps to gain exposure to the overall commodity markets. In a total return commodity swap, the Fund will receive the price appreciation of a commodity index, a portion of the index, or a single commodity in exchange for paying an agreed-upon fee. If a commodity swap is for one period, the Fund will pay a fixed fee, established at the outset of the swap.  However, if the term of a commodity swap is more than one period, with interim swap payments, the Fund will pay an adjustable or floating fee. With “floating” rate, the fee is pegged to a base rate such as LIBOR or SOFR, and is adjusted each period. Therefore, if interest rates increase over the term of the swap contract, the Fund may be required to pay a higher fee at each swap reset date.
Currency Swaps.  A currency swap involves the exchange by the Fund and another party of the cash flows on a notional amount of two or more currencies based on the relative value differential among them, such as exchanging a right to receive a payment in foreign currency for the right to receive U.S. dollars. The Fund may enter into currency swaps (where the parties exchange their respective rights to make or receive payments in specified currencies). Currency swap agreements may be entered into on a net basis or may involve the delivery of the entire principal value of one designated currency in exchange for the entire principal value of another designated currency. In such cases, the entire principal value of a currency swap is subject to the risk that the counterparty will default on its contractual delivery obligations.
Equity Swaps. Equity swaps are contracts that allow one party to exchange the returns, including any dividend income, on an equity security or group of equity securities for another payment stream.  Under an equity swap, payments may be made at the conclusion of the equity swap or periodically during its term. The Fund may enter into equity swaps. An equity swap may be used to invest in a market without owning or
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taking physical custody of securities in circumstances in which direct investment may be restricted for legal reasons or is otherwise deemed impractical or disadvantageous.   Furthermore, equity swaps may be illiquid and the Fund may be unable to terminate its obligations when desired.  In addition, the value of some components of an equity swap (such as the dividends on a common stock) may also be sensitive to changes in interest rates.
Options on Swaps (Swaptions). A swaption is an option to enter into a swap agreement. The purchaser of a swaption pays a premium for the option and obtains the right, but not the obligation, to enter into an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms. The seller of a swaption, in exchange for the premium, becomes obligated (if the option is exercised) to enter into an underlying swap on agreed-upon terms.  Depending on the terms of the particular option agreement, the Fund generally will incur a greater degree of risk when it writes a swaption than when it purchases a swaption.  When the Fund purchases a swaption, it risks losing only the amount of the premium it has paid should it decide to let the option expire unexercised.
Contracts for Differences.  The Fund may purchase contracts for differences (“CFDs”). A CFD is a form of equity swap in which its value is based on the fluctuating value of some underlying instrument (e.g., a single security, stock basket or index). A CFD is a privately negotiated contract between two parties, buyer and seller, stipulating that the seller will pay to or receive from the buyer the difference between the nominal value of the underlying instrument at the opening of the contract and that instrument’s value at the end of the contract.  The buyer and seller are both required to post margin, which is adjusted daily, and adverse market movements against the underlying instrument may require the buyer to make additional margin payments.  The buyer will also pay to the seller a financing rate on the notional amount of the capital employed by the seller less the margin deposit. A CFD is usually terminated at the buyer’s initiative.
A CFD can be set up to take either a short or long position on the underlying instrument and enables the Fund to potentially capture movements in the share prices of the underlying instrument without the need to own the underlying instrument. By entering into a CFD transaction, the Fund could incur losses because it would face many of the same types of risks as owning the underlying instrument directly.
As with other types of swap transactions, CFDs also carry counterparty risk, which is the risk that the counterparty to the CFD transaction may be unable or unwilling to make payments or to otherwise honor its financial obligations under the terms of the contract, that the parties to the transaction may disagree as to the meaning or application of contractual terms, or that the instrument may not perform as expected. If the counterparty were to do so, the value of the contract, and of the Fund’s shares, may be reduced.
Policies and Limitations. In accordance with SEC staff requirements, the Fund will segregate cash or appropriate liquid assets in an amount equal to its obligations under security-based swap agreements.
Combined Transactions.  The Fund may enter into multiple transactions, which may include multiple options transactions, multiple interest rate transactions and any combination of options and interest rate transactions, instead of a single Financial Instrument, as part of a single or combined strategy when, in the judgment of the Manager, it is in the best interests of the Fund to do so. A combined transaction will usually contain elements of risk that are present in each of its component transactions. Although the Fund will normally enter into combined transactions based on the Manager’s judgment that the combined transactions will reduce risk or otherwise more effectively achieve the desired portfolio management goal, it is possible that the combined transactions will instead increase risk or hinder achievement of the desired portfolio management goal.
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Cover for Financial Instruments.  Transactions using Financial Instruments, other than purchased options, expose the Fund to an obligation to another party. The Fund will not enter into any such transactions unless it owns either (1) an offsetting (“covering”) position in securities, currencies or other options, futures contracts, forward contracts, or swaps, or (2) cash and liquid assets held in a segregated account, or designated on its records as segregated, with a value, marked-to-market daily, sufficient to cover its potential obligations to the extent not covered as provided in (1) above. The Fund will comply with SEC guidelines regarding “cover” for Financial Instruments and, if the guidelines so require, segregate the prescribed amount of cash or appropriate liquid assets.
Assets used as cover or held in a segregated account cannot be sold while the position in the corresponding Financial Instrument is outstanding, unless they are replaced with other suitable assets. As a result, the segregation of a large percentage of the Fund’s assets could impede Fund management or the Fund’s ability to meet redemption requests or other current obligations. The Fund may be unable to promptly dispose of assets that cover, or are segregated with respect to, an illiquid futures, options, forward, or swap position; this inability may result in a loss to the Fund.
General Risks of Financial Instruments. The primary risks in using Financial Instruments are:  (1) imperfect correlation or no correlation between changes in market value of the securities or currencies held or to be acquired by the Fund and the prices of Financial Instruments; (2) possible lack of a liquid secondary market for Financial Instruments and the resulting inability to close out Financial Instruments when desired; (3) the fact that the skills needed to use Financial Instruments are different from those needed to select the Fund’s securities; (4) the fact that, although use of Financial Instruments for hedging purposes can reduce the risk of loss, they also can reduce the opportunity for gain, or even result in losses, by offsetting favorable price movements in hedged investments; (5) the possible inability of the Fund to purchase or sell a portfolio security at a time that would otherwise be favorable for it to do so, or the possible need for the Fund to sell a portfolio security at a disadvantageous time, due to its need to maintain cover or to segregate securities in connection with its use of Financial Instruments; and (6) when traded on non-U.S. exchanges, Financial Instruments may not be regulated as rigorously as in the United States. There can be no assurance that the Fund’s use of Financial Instruments will be successful.
In addition, Financial Instruments may contain leverage to magnify the exposure to the underlying asset or assets.
The Fund’s use of Financial Instruments may be limited by the provisions of the Code and Treasury Department regulations with which it must comply to continue to qualify as a RIC. See “Additional Tax Information.” Financial Instruments may not be available with respect to some currencies, especially those of so-called emerging market countries.
Policies and Limitations. When hedging, the Manager intends to reduce the risk of imperfect correlation by investing only in Financial Instruments whose behavior is expected to resemble or offset that of a Fund’s underlying securities or currency. The Manager intends to reduce the risk that a Fund will be unable to close out Financial Instruments by entering into such transactions only if the Manager believes there will be an active and liquid secondary market.
Illiquid Securities.  Generally, an illiquid security is any investment that may not reasonably be expected to be sold or disposed of in current market conditions in seven calendar days or less without the sale or disposition significantly changing the market value of the investment.  Illiquid securities may include unregistered or other restricted securities and repurchase agreements maturing in greater than seven days. Illiquid securities may also include commercial paper under section 4(2) of the 1933 Act, and Rule 144A
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securities (restricted securities that may be traded freely among qualified institutional buyers pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the securities laws); these securities are considered illiquid unless the Manager determines they are liquid. Most such securities held by the Fund are deemed liquid. Generally, foreign securities freely tradable in their principal market are not considered restricted or illiquid, even if they are not registered in the United States. Illiquid securities may be difficult for the Fund to value or dispose of due to the absence of an active trading market. The sale of some illiquid securities by the Fund may be subject to legal restrictions, which could be costly to the Fund.
Policies and Limitations.  For the Fund’s policies and limitations on illiquid securities, see “Investment Policies and Limitations -- Illiquid Securities” above.
Indexed Securities.  The Fund may invest in indexed securities whose values are linked to currencies, interest rates, commodities, indices, or other financial indicators, domestic or foreign. Most indexed securities are short- to intermediate-term fixed income securities whose values at maturity or interest rates rise or fall according to the change in one or more specified underlying instruments. The value of indexed securities may increase or decrease if the underlying instrument appreciates, and they may have return characteristics similar to direct investment in the underlying instrument. An indexed security may be more volatile than the underlying instrument itself.
Inflation-Indexed Securities. Inflation-indexed bonds are fixed income securities whose principal value or coupon (interest payment) is periodically adjusted according to the rate of inflation.  The Fund may invest in inflation-indexed securities issued in any country.  Two structures are common. The Treasury Department and some other issuers use a structure that accrues inflation into the principal value of the bond.  Other issuers pay out the index-based accruals as part of a semiannual coupon.  The Fund may invest in Treasury Department securities the principal value of which is adjusted daily in accordance with changes to the Consumer Price Index. Such securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. Interest is calculated on the basis of the current adjusted principal value. The principal value of inflation-indexed securities declines in periods of deflation, but holders at maturity receive no less than par. If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds the security, the Fund may earn less on it than on a conventional bond.
The Fund may invest in Treasury Department inflation-indexed securities, formerly called “U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities,” (“U.S. TIPS”), which are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.  The periodic adjustment of U.S. TIPS is currently tied to the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (“CPI-U”), which is calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is part of the Labor Department. The CPI-U is a measurement of changes in the cost of living, made up of components such as housing, food, transportation and energy. Inflation-indexed bonds issued by a non-U.S. government are generally adjusted to reflect a comparable inflation index, calculated by that government. There can be no assurance that the CPI-U or any non-U.S. inflation index will accurately measure the real rate of inflation in the prices of goods and services. In addition, there can be no assurance that the rate of inflation in a non-U.S. country will be correlated to the rate of inflation in the United States. The three-month lag in calculating the CPI-U for purposes of adjusting the principal value of U.S. TIPS may give rise to risks under certain circumstances.
Interest is calculated on the basis of the current adjusted principal value. The principal value of inflation-indexed securities declines in periods of deflation, but holders at maturity receive no less than par.  However, if the Fund purchases inflation-indexed securities in the secondary market whose principal values have been adjusted upward due to inflation since issuance, the fund may experience a loss if there is a subsequent period of deflation.  If inflation is lower than expected during the period the Fund holds the
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security, the Fund may earn less on it than on a conventional bond. The Fund may also invest in other inflation-related bonds which may or may not provide a guarantee of principal. If a guarantee of principal is not provided, the adjusted principal value of the bond repaid at maturity may be less than the original principal amount.
Because the coupon rate on inflation-indexed securities is lower than fixed-rate Treasury Department securities, the CPI-U would have to rise at least to the amount of the difference between the coupon rate of the fixed-rate Treasury Department issues and the coupon rate of the inflation-indexed securities, assuming all other factors are equal, in order for such securities to match the performance of the fixed-rate Treasury Department securities.
Inflation-indexed securities are expected to react primarily to changes in the “real” interest rate (i.e., the nominal (or stated) rate less the rate of inflation), while a typical bond reacts to changes in the nominal interest rate. Accordingly, inflation-indexed securities have characteristics of fixed-rate Treasury Department securities having a shorter duration. Changes in market interest rates from causes other than inflation will likely affect the market prices of inflation-indexed securities in the same manner as conventional bonds.
Any increase in the principal value of an inflation-indexed security is taxable in the year the increase occurs, even though its holders do not receive cash representing the increase until the security matures. Because the Fund must distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including non-cash income attributable to those principal value increases) and net realized gains to its shareholders each taxable year to continue to qualify  for treatment as a RIC and to minimize or avoid payment of federal income and excise taxes, the Fund may have to dispose of other investments under disadvantageous circumstances to generate cash, or may be required to borrow, to satisfy its distribution requirements.
The Treasury Department began issuing inflation-indexed bonds in 1997. Certain non-U.S. governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, have a longer history of issuing inflation-indexed bonds, and there may be a more liquid market in certain of these countries for these securities.
Investments by Funds of Funds or Other Large Shareholders.  The Fund may experience large redemptions or investments due to transactions in Fund shares by funds of funds, other large shareholders, or similarly managed accounts. While it is impossible to predict the overall effect of these transactions over time, there could be an adverse impact on the Fund’s performance. In the event of such redemptions or investments, the Fund could be required to sell securities or to invest cash at a time when it may not otherwise desire to do so. Such transactions may increase the Fund’s brokerage and/or other transaction costs and affect the liquidity of the Fund’s portfolio. In addition, when funds of funds or other investors own a substantial portion of the Fund’s shares, a large redemption by such an investor could cause actual expenses to increase, or could result in the Fund’s current expenses being allocated over a smaller asset base, leading to an increase in the Fund’s expense ratio. Redemptions of Fund shares could also accelerate the Fund’s realization of capital gains (which would be taxable to its shareholders when distributed to them) if the Fund is unable to transact in-kind and sales of securities needed to fund the redemptions result in net capital gains. The impact of these transactions is likely to be greater when a fund of funds or other significant investor purchases, redeems, or owns a substantial portion of the Fund’s shares. A high volume of redemption requests can impact the Fund the same way as the transactions of a single shareholder with substantial investments.
Leverage.  The Fund may engage in transactions that have the effect of leverage.  Although leverage creates an opportunity for increased total return, it also can create special risk considerations. For example, leverage from borrowing may amplify changes in the Fund’s NAV. Although the principal of such borrowings will be fixed, the Fund’s assets may change in value during the time the borrowing is outstanding. Leverage
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from borrowing creates interest expenses for the Fund. To the extent the income derived from securities purchased with borrowed funds is sufficient to cover the cost of leveraging, the net income of the Fund will be greater than it would be if leverage were not used. Conversely, to the extent the income derived from securities purchased with borrowed funds is not sufficient to cover the cost of leveraging, the net income of the Fund will be less than it would be if leverage were not used and, therefore, the amount (if any) available for distribution to the Fund’s shareholders as dividends will be reduced. Reverse repurchase agreements, securities lending transactions, when-issued and delayed-delivery transactions, certain Financial Instruments (as defined above), and short sales, among others, may create leverage.
Policies and Limitations.  For the Fund’s policies and limitations on borrowing, see “Investment Policies and Limitations -- Borrowing” above.  The Fund may make investments while borrowings are outstanding. The Fund may borrow money for investment purposes, however, in general, the Fund does not intend to do so. The Fund also may use leverage to purchase securities needed to close out short sales or to obtain the collateral needed to borrow a security in order to effect a short sale of that security. The Fund may engage in transactions that have the effect of leverage for investment purposes and to facilitate hedging transactions.
LIBOR Rate Risk. Many debt securities, derivatives and other financial instruments, including some of the Fund’s investments, utilize the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as the reference or benchmark rate for variable interest rate calculations. However, concerns have arisen regarding LIBOR’s viability as a benchmark, due to manipulation allegations dating from about 2012 and, subsequently, reduced activity in the financial markets that it measures. In 2017, the UK Financial Conduct Authority announced that after 2021 it would cease its active encouragement of UK banks to provide the quotations needed to sustain LIBOR.  The ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (the “ICE”), the current administrator of LIBOR, ceased publishing most LIBOR maturities, including some U.S. dollar LIBOR maturities, on December 31, 2021, and the remaining and most liquid U.S. dollar LIBOR maturities will cease to be published after June 30, 2023.  The FCA announced on September 29, 2021, that it would compel the ICE to publish synthetic LIBOR values for certain maturities for Pounds Sterling and Japanese Yen throughout 2022. There is a risk that any of these LIBOR maturities may cease to be published before these dates.
Also in 2017, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of large U.S. banks working with the Federal Reserve, announced its selection of a new Secured Overnight Funding Rate (“SOFR”), which is a broad measure of the cost of overnight borrowings secured by Treasury Department securities, as an appropriate replacement for U.S. dollar LIBOR. Bank working groups and regulators in other countries have suggested other alternatives for their markets, including the Sterling Overnight Interbank Average Rate (“SONIA”) in England.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing SOFR in April, 2018, with the expectation that it could be used on a voluntary basis in new instruments and for new transactions under existing instruments. However, SOFR is fundamentally different from LIBOR. It is a secured, nearly risk-free rate, while LIBOR is an unsecured rate that includes an element of bank credit risk. Also, while term SOFR for various maturities has begun to be adopted by some parties and for some types of transactions,  SOFR is strictly an overnight rate, while LIBOR historically has been published for various maturities, ranging from overnight to one year. Thus, LIBOR may be expected to be higher than SOFR, and the spread between the two is likely to widen in times of market stress.  Certain existing contracts provide for a spread adjustment when transitioning to SOFR from LIBOR, but there is no assurance that it will provide adequate compensation.
Various financial industry groups have planned for the transition from LIBOR to SOFR or another new benchmark, but there are obstacles to converting certain longer term securities and transactions.
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Transition planning is ongoing, and neither the effect of the transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known. The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on the LIBOR to determine interest rates. It also could lead to a reduction in the value of some LIBOR-based investments and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against existing LIBOR-based instruments. Since the usefulness of LIBOR as a benchmark could deteriorate during the transition period, these effects could occur prior to June 30, 2023, could occur particularly with respect to synthetic values of LIBOR, or could occur throughout the transition period.
Lower-Rated Debt Securities.  Lower-rated debt securities or “junk bonds” are those rated below the fourth highest category (including those securities rated as low as D by S&P) or unrated securities of comparable quality.  Securities rated below investment grade are often considered to be speculative. These securities have poor protection with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Lower-rated debt securities generally offer a higher current yield than that available for investment grade issues with similar maturities, but they may involve significant risk under adverse conditions. In particular, adverse changes in general economic conditions and in the industries in which the issuers are engaged and changes in the financial condition of the issuers are more likely to cause price volatility and weaken the capacity of the issuer to make principal and interest payments than is the case for higher-grade debt securities. These securities are susceptible to default or decline in market value due to real or perceived adverse economic and business developments relating to the issuer, market interest rates and market liquidity. In addition, the Fund that invests in lower-quality securities may incur additional expenses to the extent recovery is sought on defaulted securities. Because of the many risks involved in investing in lower-rated debt securities, the success of such investments is dependent on the credit analysis of the Manager.
During periods of economic downturn or rising interest rates, highly leveraged issuers may experience financial stress which could adversely affect their ability to make payments of interest and principal and increase the possibility of default. In addition, such issuers may not have more traditional methods of financing available to them and may be unable to repay debt at maturity by refinancing. The risk of loss due to default by such issuers is significantly greater because such securities frequently are unsecured and subordinated to the prior payment of senior indebtedness.
At certain times in the past, the market for lower-rated debt securities has expanded rapidly, and its growth generally paralleled a long economic expansion. In the past, the prices of many lower-rated debt securities declined substantially, reflecting an expectation that many issuers of such securities might experience financial difficulties. As a result, the yields on lower-rated debt securities rose dramatically. However, such higher yields did not reflect the value of the income stream that holders of such securities expected, but rather the risk that holders of such securities could lose a substantial portion of their value as a result of the issuers’ financial restructuring or defaults. There can be no assurance that such declines will not recur.
The market for lower-rated debt issues generally is thinner or less active than that for higher quality securities, which may limit the Fund’s ability to sell such securities at fair value in response to changes in the economy or financial markets. Judgment may play a greater role in pricing such securities than it does for more liquid securities. Adverse publicity and investor perceptions, whether or not based on fundamental analysis, may also decrease the values and liquidity of lower rated debt securities, especially in a thinly traded market.
The Fund may invest in securities whose ratings imply an imminent risk of default with respect to such payments.  Issuers of securities in default may fail to resume principal or interest payments, in which case the Fund may lose its entire investment.
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See Appendix A for further information about the ratings of debt securities assigned by S&P, Fitch, Inc., and Moody’s.
Policies and Limitations. The Fund may invest up to 10% of total assets under normal market conditions in debt securities rated by at least one NRSRO in the lowest investment grade category (BBB/Baa) or lower or unrated securities of comparable quality.  This policy does not apply to collateral received for securities lending. The Fund does not normally invest in or continue to hold securities that are in default or have defaulted with respect to the payment of interest or repayment of principal but may do so depending on market conditions.
Each Fund considers bonds rated by at least one NRSRO below the fourth highest rating category to be lower-rated debt securities or “junk bonds.”
Master Limited Partnerships. Master limited partnerships (“MLPs”) are limited partnerships (or similar entities, such as limited liability companies) in which the ownership units (e.g., limited partnership interests) are publicly traded. MLP units are registered with the SEC and are freely traded on a securities exchange or in the OTC market. Many MLPs operate in oil and gas related businesses, including energy processing and distribution.  Many MLPs are pass-through entities that generally are taxed at the unitholder level and are not subject to federal or state income tax at the entity level. Annual income, gains, losses, deductions and credits of such an MLP pass-through directly to its unitholders. Distributions from an MLP may consist in part of a return of capital. Generally, an MLP is operated under the supervision of one or more general partners. Limited partners are not involved in the day-to-day management of an MLP.
Investing in MLPs involves certain risks related to investing in their underlying assets and risks associated with pooled investment vehicles. MLPs holding credit-related investments are subject to interest rate risk and the risk of default on payment obligations by debt issuers. MLPs that concentrate in a particular industry or a particular geographic region are subject to risks associated with such industry or region. Investments held by MLPs may be relatively illiquid, limiting the MLPs’ ability to vary their portfolios promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions. MLPs may have limited financial resources, their securities may trade infrequently and in limited volume, and they may be subject to more abrupt or erratic price movements than securities of larger or more broadly based companies.
The risks of investing in an MLP are generally those inherent in investing in a partnership as opposed to a corporation. For example, state law governing partnerships is different than state law governing corporations. Accordingly, there may be fewer protections afforded investors in an MLP than investors in a corporation. For example, although unitholders of an MLP are generally limited in their liability, similar to a corporation’s shareholders, creditors typically have the right to seek the return of distributions made to unitholders if the liability in question arose before the distributions were paid. This liability may stay attached to a unitholder even after it sells its units.
Policies and Limitations. Under certain circumstances, an MLP could be deemed an investment company. If that occurred, the Fund’s investment in the MLP’s securities would be limited by the 1940 Act. See “Securities of Other Investment Companies.”
Mortgage-Backed Securities. Mortgage-backed securities, including residential and commercial mortgage-backed securities, represent direct or indirect participations in, or are secured by and payable from, pools of mortgage loans. Those securities may be guaranteed by a U.S. Government agency or
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instrumentality (such as by Ginnie Mae); issued and guaranteed by a government-sponsored stockholder-owned corporation, though not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States (such as by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac (collectively, the “GSEs”), and described in greater detail below); or issued by fully private issuers. Private issuers are generally originators of and investors in mortgage loans and include savings associations, mortgage bankers, commercial banks, investment bankers, and special purpose entities. Private mortgage-backed securities may be backed by U.S. Government agency supported mortgage loans or some form of non-governmental credit enhancement.
Government-related guarantors (i.e., not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government) include Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Fannie Mae is a government-sponsored corporation owned by stockholders. It is subject to general regulation by the Federal Housing Finance Authority (“FHFA”). Fannie Mae purchases residential mortgages from a list of approved seller/servicers that include state and federally chartered savings and loan associations, mutual savings banks, commercial banks, credit unions and mortgage bankers. Fannie Mae guarantees the timely payment of principal and interest on pass-through securities that it issues, but those securities are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
Freddie Mac is a government-sponsored corporation formerly owned by the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks and now owned by stockholders. Freddie Mac issues Participation Certificates (“PCs”), which represent interests in mortgages from Freddie Mac’s national portfolio. Freddie Mac guarantees the timely payment of interest and ultimate collection of principal on the PCs it issues, but those PCs are not backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
The Treasury Department has historically had the authority to purchase obligations of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. However, in 2008, due to capitalization concerns, Congress provided the Treasury Department with additional authority to lend the GSEs emergency funds and to purchase their stock. In September 2008, those capital concerns led the Treasury Department and the FHFA to announce that the GSEs had been placed in conservatorship.
Since that time, the GSEs have received significant capital support through Treasury Department preferred stock purchases as well as Treasury Department and Federal Reserve purchases of their mortgage backed securities (“MBS”). While the MBS purchase programs ended in 2010, the Treasury Department announced in December 2009 that it would continue its support for the entities’ capital as necessary to prevent a negative net worth. However, no assurance can be given that the Federal Reserve, Treasury Department, or FHFA initiatives will ensure that the GSEs will remain successful in meeting their obligations with respect to the debt and MBS they issue into the future.
In 2012, the FHFA initiated a strategic plan to develop a program related to credit risk transfers intended to reduce Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s overall risk through the creation of credit risk transfer assets (“CRTs”). CRTs come in two primary series: Structured Agency Credit Risk (“STACRs”) for Freddie Mac and Connecticut Avenue Securities (“CAS”) for Fannie Mae, although other series may be developed in the future. CRTs are typically structured as unsecured general obligations of either entities guaranteed by a government-sponsored stockholder-owned corporation, though not backed by the full faith and credit of the United States (such as by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac (collectively, the “GSEs”) or special purpose entities), and their cash flows are based on the performance of a pool of reference loans.  Unlike traditional residential MBS securities, bond payments typically do not come directly from the underlying mortgages.  Instead, the GSEs either make the payments to CRT investors, or the GSEs make certain payments to the special purpose entities and the special purpose entities make payments to the investors.  In certain structures, the special purpose entities make payments to the GSEs upon the occurrence of credit events with respect to the underlying mortgages, and the obligation of the special purpose entity to make such payments to the GSE
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is senior to the obligation of the special purpose entity to make payments to the CRT investors.   CRTs are typically floating rate securities and may have multiple tranches with losses first allocated to the most junior or subordinate tranche.  This structure results in increased sensitivity to dramatic housing downturns, especially for the subordinate tranches. Many CRTs also have collateral performance triggers (e.g., based on credit enhancement, delinquencies or defaults, etc.) that could shut off principal payments to subordinate tranches. Generally, GSEs have the ability to call all of the CRT tranches at par in 10 years.
In addition, the future of the GSEs is in serious question as the U.S. Government is considering multiple options, ranging on a spectrum from significant reform, nationalization, privatization, consolidation, or abolishment of the entities. Congress is considering several pieces of legislation that would reform the GSEs, proposing to address their structure, mission, portfolio limits, and guarantee fees, among other issues.
The FHFA and the Treasury Department (through its agreement to purchase GSE preferred stock) have imposed strict limits on the size of GSEs’ mortgage portfolios. In August 2012, the Treasury Department amended its preferred stock purchase agreements to provide that the GSEs’ portfolios would be wound down at an annual rate of 15 percent (up from the previously agreed annual rate of 10 percent), requiring the GSEs to reach the $250 billion target by December 31, 2018. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac were below the $250 billion cap for year-end 2018. On December 21, 2017, a letter agreement between the Treasury and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac changed the terms of the senior preferred stock certificates to permit the GSEs each to retain a $3 billion capital reserve, quarterly. Under the 2017 letter, each GSE paid a dividend to Treasury equal to the amount that its net worth exceeded $3 billion at the end of each quarter. On September 30, 2019, the Treasury and the FHFA, acting as conservator to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, announced amendments to the respective senior preferred stock certificates that will permit the GSEs to retain earnings beyond the $3 billion capital reserves previously allowed through the 2017 letter agreements. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are now permitted to maintain capital reserves of $25 billion and $20 billion, respectively.
Mortgage-backed securities may have either fixed or adjustable interest rates. Tax or regulatory changes may adversely affect the mortgage securities market. In addition, changes in the market’s perception of the issuer may affect the value of mortgage-backed securities. The rate of return on mortgage-backed securities may be affected by prepayments of principal on the underlying loans, which generally increase as market interest rates decline; as a result, when interest rates decline, holders of these securities normally do not benefit from appreciation in market value to the same extent as holders of other non-callable debt securities.
Because many mortgages are repaid early, the actual maturity and duration of mortgage-backed securities are typically shorter than their stated final maturity and their duration calculated solely on the basis of the stated life and payment schedule. In calculating its dollar-weighted average maturity and duration, the Fund may apply certain industry conventions regarding the maturity and duration of mortgage-backed instruments. Different analysts use different models and assumptions in making these determinations. The Fund uses an approach that the Manager believes is reasonable in light of all relevant circumstances. If this determination is not borne out in practice, it could positively or negatively affect the value of the Fund when market interest rates change. Increasing market interest rates generally extend the effective maturities of mortgage-backed securities, increasing their sensitivity to interest rate changes.
Mortgage-backed securities may be issued in the form of collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) or collateralized mortgage-backed bonds (“CBOs”). CMOs are obligations that are fully collateralized, directly or indirectly, by a pool of mortgages; payments of principal and interest on the mortgages are passed through to the holders of the CMOs, although not necessarily on a pro rata basis, on
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the same schedule as they are received. CBOs are general obligations of the issuer that are fully collateralized, directly or indirectly, by a pool of mortgages. The mortgages serve as collateral for the issuer’s payment obligations on the bonds, but interest and principal payments on the mortgages are not passed through either directly (as with mortgage-backed “pass-through” securities issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies or instrumentalities) or on a modified basis (as with CMOs). Accordingly, a change in the rate of prepayments on the pool of mortgages could change the effective maturity or the duration of a CMO but not that of a CBO (although, like many bonds, CBOs may be callable by the issuer prior to maturity). To the extent that rising interest rates cause prepayments to occur at a slower than expected rate, a CMO could be converted into a longer-term security that is subject to greater risk of price volatility.
Governmental, government-related, and private entities (such as commercial banks, savings institutions, private mortgage insurance companies, mortgage bankers, and other secondary market issuers, including securities broker-dealers and special purpose entities that generally are affiliates of the foregoing established to issue such securities) may create mortgage loan pools to back CMOs and CBOs. Such issuers may be the originators and/or servicers of the underlying mortgage loans, as well as the guarantors of the mortgage-backed securities. Pools created by non-governmental issuers generally offer a higher rate of interest than governmental and government-related pools because of the absence of direct or indirect government or agency guarantees. Various forms of insurance or guarantees, including individual loan, title, pool, and hazard insurance and letters of credit, may support timely payment of interest and principal of non-governmental pools. Governmental entities, private insurers, and mortgage poolers issue these forms of insurance and guarantees. The Manager considers such insurance and guarantees, as well as the creditworthiness of the issuers thereof, in determining whether a mortgage-backed security meets the Fund’s investment quality standards. There can be no assurance that private insurers or guarantors can meet their obligations under insurance policies or guarantee arrangements. The Fund may buy mortgage-backed securities without insurance or guarantees, if the Manager determines that the securities meet the Fund’s quality standards. The Manager will, consistent with the Fund’s investment objective, policies and limitations and quality standards, consider making investments in new types of mortgage-backed securities as such securities are developed and offered to investors.
Policies and Limitations.  The Fund may not purchase mortgage-backed securities that, in the Manager’s opinion, are illiquid if, as a result, more than 15% of the Fund’s net assets would be invested in illiquid securities.
Freddie Mac Collateralized Mortgage Obligations. Freddie Mac CMOs are debt obligations of Freddie Mac issued in multiple tranches having different maturity dates that are secured by the pledge of a pool of conventional mortgage loans purchased by Freddie Mac. Unlike Freddie Mac PCs, payments of principal and interest on the CMOs are made semiannually, as opposed to monthly. The amount of principal payable on each semiannual payment date is determined in accordance with Freddie Mac’s mandatory sinking fund schedule, which, in turn, is equal to approximately 100% of FHA prepayment experience applied to the mortgage collateral pool. All sinking fund payments in the CMOs are allocated to the retirement of the individual tranches of bonds in the order of their stated maturities. Payment of principal on the mortgage loans in the collateral pool in excess of the amount of Freddie Mac’s minimum sinking fund obligation for any payment date are paid to the holders of the CMOs as additional sinking fund payments. This “pass-through” of prepayments has the effect of retiring most CMO tranches prior to their stated final maturity.
If collection of principal (including prepayments) on the mortgage loans during any semiannual payment period is not sufficient to meet Freddie Mac’s minimum sinking fund obligation on the next sinking fund payment date, Freddie Mac agrees to make up the deficiency from its general funds.
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Criteria for the mortgage loans in the pool backing the Freddie Mac CMOs are identical to those of Freddie Mac PCs. Freddie Mac has the right to substitute collateral in the event of delinquencies and/or defaults.
Other Mortgage-Related Securities. Other mortgage-related securities include securities other than those described above that directly or indirectly represent a participation in, or are secured by and payable from, mortgage loans on real property, including stripped mortgage-backed securities. Other mortgage-related securities may be equity or debt securities issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, homebuilders, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks, partnerships, trusts and special purpose entities of the foregoing.
Municipal Obligations. Municipal obligations are issued by or on behalf of states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories and possessions and their political subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities. The interest on municipal obligations is generally exempt from federal income tax. The Fund determines the tax-exempt status of the interest on any issue of municipal obligations based on an opinion of the issuer’s bond counsel, which is not binding on the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“Service”) or the courts, at the time the obligations are issued.
Municipal obligations include “general obligation” securities, which are backed by the full taxing power of the issuing governmental entity, and “revenue” securities, which are backed only by the income from a specific project, facility, or tax. Municipal obligations also include PABs, which are issued by or on behalf of public authorities to finance various privately operated facilities, and are generally supported only by revenue from those facilities, if any.  They are not backed by the credit of any governmental or public authority. “Anticipation notes” are issued by municipalities in expectation of future proceeds from the issuance of bonds or from taxes or other revenues and are payable from those bond proceeds, taxes, or revenues. Municipal obligations also include tax-exempt commercial paper, which is issued by municipalities to help finance short-term capital or operating requirements.
The value of municipal obligations depends on the continuing payment of interest and principal when due by the issuers of the municipal obligations (or, in the case of PABs, the revenues generated by the facility financed by the bonds or, in certain other instances, the provider of the credit facility backing the obligations or insurers issuing insurance backing the obligations).
The Fund may purchase municipal securities that are fully or partially backed by entities providing credit support such as letters of credit, guarantees, or insurance. The credit quality of the entities that provide such credit support will affect the market values of those securities. The insurance feature of a municipal security guarantees the full and timely payment of interest and principal through the life of an insured obligation. The insurance feature does not, however, guarantee the market value of the insured obligation or the NAV of the Fund’s shares represented by such an insured obligation.  The Manager generally looks to the credit quality of the issuer of a municipal security to determine whether the security meets the Fund's quality restrictions, even if the security is covered by insurance.  However, a downgrade in the claims-paying ability of an insurer of a municipal security could have an adverse effect on the market value of the security.  Certain significant providers of insurance for municipal securities can incur and, in the past have incurred, significant losses as a result of exposure to certain categories of investments, such as sub-prime mortgages and other lower credit quality investments that have experienced defaults or otherwise suffered extreme credit deterioration. Such losses can adversely impact the capital adequacy of these insurers and may call into question the insurers’ ability to fulfill their obligations under such insurance if they are called to do so, which could negatively affect the Fund.  There are a limited number of providers of insurance for municipal
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securities and the Fund may have multiple investments covered by one insurer.  Accordingly, this may make the value of those investments dependent on the claims-paying ability of that one insurer and could result in share price volatility for the Fund's shares.
As with other fixed income securities, an increase in interest rates generally will reduce the value of the Fund’s investments in municipal obligations, whereas a decline in interest rates generally will increase that value.
Some municipal securities, including those in the high yield market, may include transfer restrictions (e.g., may only be transferred to qualified institutional buyers and purchasers meeting other qualification requirements set by the issuer). As such, it may be difficult to sell municipal securities at a time when it may otherwise be desirable to do so or the Fund may be able to sell them only at prices that are less than what the Fund regards as their fair market value.
Periodic efforts to restructure the federal budget and the relationship between the federal government and state and local governments may adversely impact the financing of some issuers of municipal securities. Some states and localities may experience substantial deficits and may find it difficult for political or economic reasons to increase taxes. Efforts are periodically undertaken that may result in a restructuring of the federal income tax system. These developments could reduce the value of all municipal securities, or the securities of particular issuers.
Unlike other types of investments, municipal obligations have traditionally not been subject to the registration requirements of the federal securities laws, although there have been proposals to provide for such registration. This lack of SEC regulation has adversely affected the quantity and quality of information available to the bond markets about issuers and their financial condition. The SEC has responded to the need for such information with Rule 15c2-12 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Rule”). The Rule requires that underwriters must reasonably determine that an issuer of municipal securities undertakes in a written agreement for the benefit of the holders of such securities to file with a nationally recognized municipal securities information repository certain information regarding the financial condition of the issuer and material events relating to such securities. The SEC’s intent in adopting the Rule was to provide holders and potential holders of municipal securities with more adequate financial information concerning issuers of municipal securities. The Rule provides exemptions for issuances with a principal amount of less than $1,000,000 and certain privately placed issuances.
The federal bankruptcy statutes provide that, in certain circumstances, political subdivisions and authorities of states may initiate bankruptcy proceedings without prior notice to or consent of their creditors. These proceedings could result in material and adverse changes in the rights of holders of their obligations.
From time to time, federal legislation has affected the availability of municipal obligations for investment by the Fund. There can be no assurance that legislation adversely affecting the tax-exempt status of the interest on municipal obligations will not be enacted in the future.
In response to the national economic downturn, governmental cost burdens may be reallocated among federal, state and local governments. Also as a result of the downturn, many state and local governments are experiencing significant reductions in revenues and are consequently experiencing difficulties meeting ongoing expenses. Certain of these state or local governments may have difficulty paying principal or interest when due on their outstanding debt and may experience credit ratings downgrades on their debt. In addition, municipal securities backed by revenues from a project or specified assets may be adversely impacted by a municipality’s failure to collect the revenue.
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The Service occasionally challenges the tax-exempt status of the interest on particular municipal securities. If the Service determined that interest earned on a municipal security the Fund held was taxable and the issuer thereof failed to overcome that determination, that interest would be taxable to the Fund, possibly retroactive to the time the Fund purchased the security.
Listed below are different types of municipal obligations:
General Obligation Bonds. A general obligation bond is backed by the governmental issuer’s pledge of its full faith and credit and power to raise taxes for payment of principal and interest under the bond. The taxes or special assessments that can be levied for the payment of debt service may be limited or unlimited as to rate or amount. Many jurisdictions face political and economic constraints on their ability to raise taxes. These limitations and constraints may adversely affect the ability of the governmental issuer to meet its obligations under the bonds in a timely manner.
Revenue Bonds. Revenue bonds are backed by the income from a specific project, facility or tax. Revenue bonds are issued to finance a wide variety of public projects, including (1) housing, (2) electric, gas, water, and sewer systems, (3) highways, bridges, and tunnels, (4) port and airport facilities, (5) colleges and universities, and (6) hospitals. In some cases, repayment of these bonds depends upon annual legislative appropriations; in other cases, if the issuer is unable to meet its legal obligation to repay the bond, repayment becomes an unenforceable “moral obligation” of a related governmental unit. Revenue bonds issued by housing finance authorities are backed by a wider range of security, including partially or fully insured mortgages, rent subsidized and/or collateralized mortgages, and net revenues from housing projects.
Most PABs are revenue bonds, in that principal and interest are payable only from the net revenues of the facility financed by the bonds. These bonds generally do not constitute a pledge of the general credit of the public issuer or private operator or user of the facility. In some cases, however, payment may be secured by a pledge of real and personal property constituting the facility.
Resource Recovery Bonds. Resource recovery bonds are a type of revenue bond issued to build facilities such as solid waste incinerators or waste-to-energy plants. Typically, a private corporation will be involved on a temporary basis during the construction of the facility, and the revenue stream will be secured by fees or rents paid by municipalities for use of the facilities. The credit and quality of resource recovery bonds may be affected by the viability of the project itself, tax incentives for the project, and changing environmental regulations or interpretations thereof.
Municipal Lease Obligations. These obligations, which may take the form of a lease, an installment purchase, or a conditional sale contract, are issued by a state or local government or authority to acquire land and a wide variety of equipment and facilities. The Fund will usually invest in municipal lease obligations through certificates of participation (“COPs”), which give the Fund a specified, undivided interest in the obligation. For example, a COP may be created when long-term revenue bonds are issued by a governmental corporation to pay for the acquisition of property. The payments made by the municipality under the lease are used to repay interest and principal on the bonds. Once these lease payments are completed, the municipality gains ownership of the property. These obligations are distinguished from general obligation or revenue bonds in that they typically are not backed fully by the municipality’s credit, and their interest may become taxable if the lease is assigned. The lease subject to the transaction usually contains a “non-appropriation” clause. A non-appropriation clause states that, while the municipality will use its best efforts to make lease payments, the municipality may terminate the lease without penalty if its appropriating body does not allocate the necessary funds. Such termination would result in a significant loss to the Fund.
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Municipal Notes. Municipal notes include the following:
1. Project notes are issued by local issuing agencies created under the laws of a state, territory, or possession of the United States to finance low-income housing, urban redevelopment, and similar projects. These notes are backed by an agreement between the local issuing agency and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”). Although the notes are primarily obligations of the local issuing agency, the HUD agreement provides the full faith and credit of the United States as additional security.
2. Tax anticipation notes are issued to finance working capital needs of municipalities. Generally, they are issued in anticipation of future seasonal tax revenues, such as property, income and sales taxes, and are payable from these future revenues.
3. Revenue anticipation notes are issued in expectation of receipt of other types of revenue, including revenue made available under certain state aid funding programs. Such appropriation of revenue is generally accounted for in the state budgetary process.
4. Bond anticipation notes are issued to provide interim financing until long-term bond financing can be arranged. In most cases, the long-term bonds provide the funds for the repayment of the notes.
5. Construction loan notes are sold to provide construction financing. After completion of construction, many projects receive permanent financing from Fannie Mae (also known as the Federal National Mortgage Association) or Ginnie Mae (also known as the Government National Mortgage Association).
6. Tax-exempt commercial paper is a short-term obligation issued by a state or local government or an agency thereof to finance seasonal working capital needs or as short-term financing in anticipation of longer-term financing.
7. Pre-refunded and “escrowed” municipal bonds are bonds with respect to which the issuer has deposited, in an escrow account, an amount of securities and cash, if any, that will be sufficient to pay the periodic interest on and principal amount of the bonds, either at their stated maturity date or on the date the issuer may call the bonds for payment. This arrangement gives the investment a quality equal to the securities in the account, usually U.S. Government Securities (defined below). The Fund can also purchase bonds issued to refund earlier issues. The proceeds of these refunding bonds are often used for escrow to support refunding.
Participation Interests of Municipal Obligations. The Fund may purchase from banks participation interests in all or part of specific holdings of short-term municipal obligations. Each participation interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by a selling bank determined by the Manager to be creditworthy. The Fund has the right to sell the participation interest back to the bank, usually after seven days’ notice, for the full principal amount of its participation, plus accrued interest, but only (1) to provide portfolio liquidity, (2) to maintain portfolio quality, or (3) to avoid losses when the underlying municipal obligations are in default. Although no Fund currently intends to acquire participation interests, the Fund reserves the right to do so in the future.
Purchases with a Standby Commitment to Repurchase. When the Fund purchases municipal obligations, it also may acquire a standby commitment obligating the seller to repurchase the obligations at an agreed upon price on a specified date or within a specified period. A standby commitment is the equivalent of a nontransferable “put” option held by the Fund that terminates if the Fund sells the obligations to a third party.
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The Fund may enter into standby commitments only with banks and (if permitted under the 1940 Act) securities dealers determined to be creditworthy. The Fund’s ability to exercise a standby commitment depends on the ability of the bank or securities dealer to pay for the obligations on exercise of the commitment. If a bank or securities dealer defaults on its commitment to repurchase such obligations, the Fund may be unable to recover all or even part of any loss it may sustain from having to sell the obligations elsewhere.
Although no Fund currently intends to invest in standby commitments, the Fund reserves the right to do so in the future. By enabling the Fund to dispose of municipal obligations at a predetermined price prior to maturity, this investment technique allows the Fund to be fully invested while preserving the flexibility to make commitments for when-issued securities, take advantage of other buying opportunities, and meet redemptions.
Standby commitments are valued at zero in determining NAV. The maturity or duration of municipal obligations purchased by the Fund is not shortened by a standby commitment. Therefore, standby commitments do not affect the dollar-weighted average maturity or duration of the Fund’s investment portfolio.
Residual Interest Bonds. The Fund may purchase one component of a municipal security that is structured in two parts: A variable rate security and a residual interest bond. The interest rate for the variable rate security is determined by an index or an auction process held approximately every 35 days, while the residual interest bond holder receives the balance of the income less an auction fee. These instruments are also known as inverse floaters because the income received on the residual interest bond is inversely related to the market rates. The market prices of residual interest bonds are highly sensitive to changes in market rates and may decrease significantly when market rates increase.
Tender Option Bonds. Tender option bonds are created by coupling an intermediate- or long-term fixed rate tax-exempt bond (generally held pursuant to a custodial arrangement) with a tender agreement that gives the holder the option to tender the bond at its face value. As consideration for providing the tender option, the sponsor (usually a bank, broker-dealer, or other financial institution) receives periodic fees equal to the difference between the bond’s fixed coupon rate and the rate (determined by a remarketing or similar agent) that would cause the bond, coupled with the tender option, to trade at par on the date of such determination. After payment of the tender option fee, the Fund effectively holds a demand obligation that bears interest at the prevailing short-term tax-exempt rate. The Manager considers the creditworthiness of the issuer of the underlying bond, the custodian, and the third party provider of the tender option. In certain instances, a sponsor may terminate a tender option if, for example, the issuer of the underlying bond defaults on interest payments or the bond’s rating falls below investment grade.
Yield and Price Characteristics of Municipal Obligations. Municipal obligations generally have the same yield and price characteristics as other debt securities. Yields depend on a variety of factors, including general conditions in the money and bond markets and, in the case of any particular securities issue, its amount, maturity, duration, and rating. Market prices of fixed income securities usually vary upward or downward in inverse relationship to market interest rates.
Municipal obligations with longer maturities or durations tend to produce higher yields. They are generally subject to potentially greater price fluctuations, and thus greater appreciation or depreciation in value, than obligations with shorter maturities or durations and lower yields. An increase in interest rates generally will reduce the value of the Fund’s investments, whereas a decline in interest rates generally will increase that value. The ability of the Fund to achieve its investment objective also is dependent on the continuing ability of the issuers of the municipal obligations in which the Fund invests (or, in the case of PABs, the revenues generated by the facility financed by the bonds or, in certain other instances, the provider of the credit facility backing the bonds) to pay interest and principal when due.
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Policies and Limitations. No Fund will acquire standby commitments with a view to exercising them when the exercise price exceeds the current value of the underlying obligations; the Fund will do so only to facilitate portfolio liquidity.
Natural Disasters and Adverse Weather Conditions.  Certain areas of the world historically have been prone to major natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, typhoons, flooding, tidal waves, tsunamis, erupting volcanoes, wildfires or droughts, and have been economically sensitive to environmental events. Such disasters, and the resulting damage, could have a severe and negative impact on the Fund’s investment portfolio and, in the longer term, could impair the ability of issuers in which the Fund invests to conduct their businesses in the manner normally conducted. Adverse weather conditions may also have a particularly significant negative effect on issuers in the agricultural sector and on insurance companies that insure against the impact of natural disasters.
Operational and Cybersecurity Risk.  With the increased use of technologies such as the Internet and the dependence on computer systems to perform necessary business functions, the Fund or its service providers, including Authorized Participants, as well as securities trading venues, such as the Exchange, and your ability to transact with the Fund or securities trading venues, may be negatively impacted due to operational matters arising from, among other problems, human errors, systems and technology disruptions or failures, or cybersecurity incidents. A cybersecurity incident may refer to intentional or unintentional events that allow an unauthorized party to gain access to Fund assets, customer data, or proprietary information, or cause the Fund or Fund service providers (including, but not limited to, the Fund’s manager, distributor, fund accountants, custodian, transfer agent, sub-advisers (if applicable), and financial intermediaries), as well as the securities trading venues and their service providers, to suffer data corruption or lose operational functionality. A cybersecurity incident could, among other things, result in the loss or theft of customer data or funds, customers or employees being unable to access electronic systems (“denial of services”), loss or theft of proprietary information or corporate data, physical damage to a computer or network system, or remediation costs associated with system repairs.  Any of these results could have a substantial adverse impact on the Fund and its shareholders. For example, if a cybersecurity incident results in a denial of service, Fund shareholders could lose access to their electronic accounts and be unable to buy or sell Fund shares for an unknown period of time, and employees could be unable to access electronic systems to perform critical duties for the Fund, such as trading, NAV calculation, shareholder accounting or fulfillment of Fund transactions. 
The Fund’s service providers may also be negatively impacted due to operational risks arising from factors such as processing errors and human errors, inadequate or failed internal or external processes, failures in systems and technology, changes in personnel, and errors caused by third-party service providers or trading counterparties. In particular, these errors or failures as well as other technological issues may adversely affect the Fund’s ability to calculate its NAVs in a timely manner, including over a potentially extended period.
The occurrence of an operational or cybersecurity incident could result in regulatory penalties, reputational damage, additional compliance costs associated with corrective measures, or financial loss of a significant magnitude and could result in allegations that the Fund or Fund service provider violated privacy and other laws. Similar adverse consequences could result from incidents affecting issuers of securities in which the Fund invests, counterparties with which the Fund engages in transactions, governmental and other regulatory authorities, exchange and other financial market operators, banks, brokers, dealers, insurance companies, and other financial institutions and other parties. Although the Fund and its Manager endeavor to determine that service providers have established risk management systems that seek to reduce these operational and cybersecurity risks, and business continuity plans in the event there is an incident, there are
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inherent limitations in these systems and plans, including the possibility that certain risks may not have been identified, in large part because different or unknown threats may emerge in the future. Furthermore, the Fund does not control the operational and cybersecurity systems and plans of the issuers of securities in which the Fund invests or the Fund’s third party service providers or trading counterparties or any other service providers whose operations may affect the Fund or its shareholders.

Preferred Stock. Unlike interest payments on debt securities, dividends on preferred stock are generally payable at the discretion of the issuer’s board of directors. Preferred shareholders may have certain rights if dividends are not paid but generally have no legal recourse against the issuer. Shareholders may suffer a loss of value if dividends are not paid. The market prices of preferred stocks are generally more sensitive to changes in the issuer’s creditworthiness than are the prices of debt securities.
Private Companies and Pre-IPO Investments.  Investments in private companies, including companies that have not yet issued securities publicly in an IPO (“Pre-IPO shares”) involve greater risks than investments in securities of companies that have traded publicly on an exchange for extended periods of time. Investments in these companies are generally less liquid than investments in securities issued by public companies and may be difficult for the Fund to value.  Compared to public companies, private companies may have a more limited management group and limited operating histories with narrower, less established product lines and smaller market shares, which may cause them to be more vulnerable to competitors’ actions, market conditions and consumer sentiment with respect to their products or services, as well as general economic downturns.  In addition, private companies may have limited financial resources and may be unable to meet their obligations.  This could lead to bankruptcy or liquidation of such private company or the dilution or subordination of the Fund’s investment in such private company. Additionally, there is significantly less information available about private companies’ business models, quality of management, earnings growth potential and other criteria used to evaluate their investment prospects and the little public information available about such companies may not be reliable. Because financial reporting obligations for private companies are not as rigorous as public companies, it may be difficult to fully assess the rights and values of certain securities issued by private companies.  The Fund may only have limited access to a private company’s actual financial results and there is no assurance that the information obtained by the Fund is reliable.  Although there is a potential for pre-IPO shares to increase in value if the company does issue shares in an IPO, IPOs are risky and volatile and may cause the value of the Fund’s investment to decrease significantly. Moreover, because securities issued by private companies are generally not freely or publicly tradable, the Fund may not have the opportunity to purchase or the ability to sell these shares in the amounts or at the prices the Fund desires. The private companies the Fund may invest in may not ever issue shares in an IPO and a liquid market for their pre-IPO shares may never develop, which may negatively affect the price at which the Fund can sell these shares and make it more difficult to sell these shares, which could also adversely affect the Fund’s liquidity. Furthermore, these investments may be subject to additional contractual restrictions on resale that would prevent the Fund from selling the company’s securities for a period of time following any IPO.  The Fund’s investment in a private company’s securities will involve investing in restricted securities.  See “Restricted Securities and Rule 144A Securities” for risks related to restricted securities. If the Fund invests in private companies or issuers, there is a possibility that NBIA may obtain access to material non-public information about an issuer of private placement securities, which may limit NBIA’s ability to sell such securities, could negatively impact NBIA’s ability to manage the Fund since NBIA may be required to sell other securities to meet redemptions, or could adversely impact the Fund’s performance.
Private Investments in Public Equity (PIPEs).  The Fund may invest in securities issued in private investments in public equity transactions, commonly referred to as “PIPEs.” A PIPE investment involves the sale of equity securities, or securities convertible into equity securities, in a private placement transaction by
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an issuer that already has outstanding, publicly traded equity securities of the same class. Shares acquired in PIPEs are commonly sold at a discount to the current market value per share of the issuer’s publicly traded securities.

Securities acquired in PIPEs generally are not registered with the SEC until after a certain period of time from the date the private sale is completed, which may be months and perhaps longer. PIPEs may contain provisions that require the issuer to pay penalties to the holder if the securities are not registered within a specified period. Until the public registration process is completed, securities acquired in PIPEs are restricted and, like investments in other types of restricted securities, may be illiquid. Any number of factors may prevent or delay a proposed registration. Prior to or in the absence of registration, it may be possible for securities acquired in PIPEs to be resold in transactions exempt from registration under the 1933 Act. There is no guarantee, however, that an active trading market for such securities will exist at the time of disposition, and the lack of such a market could hurt the market value of the Fund’s investments. Even if the securities acquired in PIPEs become registered, or the Fund is able to sell the securities through an exempt transaction, the Fund may not be able to sell all the securities it holds on short notice and the sale could impact the market price of the securities.  See “Restricted Securities and Rule 144A Securities” for risks related to restricted securities.
Real Estate-Related Instruments.  The Fund will not invest directly in real estate, but the Fund may invest in securities issued by real estate companies. Investments in the securities of companies in the real estate industry subject the Fund to the risks associated with the direct ownership of real estate. These risks include declines in the value of real estate, risks associated with general and local economic conditions, possible lack of availability of mortgage funds, overbuilding, extended vacancies of properties, increased competition, increase in property taxes and operating expenses, changes in zoning laws, losses due to costs resulting from the clean-up of environmental problems, liability to third parties for damages resulting from environmental problems, casualty or condemnation losses, limitation on rents, changes in neighborhood values and the appeal of properties to tenants, and changes in interest rates. In addition, certain real estate valuations, including residential real estate values, are influenced by market sentiments, which can change rapidly and could result in a sharp downward adjustment from current valuation levels.
Real estate-related instruments include securities of real estate investment trusts (also known as “REITs”), commercial and residential mortgage-backed securities and real estate financings. Such instruments are sensitive to factors such as real estate values and property taxes, interest rates, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, overbuilding, and the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer. Real estate-related instruments may also be affected by tax and regulatory requirements, such as those relating to the environment.
REITs are sometimes informally characterized as equity REITs, mortgage REITs and hybrid REITs. An equity REIT invests primarily in the fee ownership or leasehold ownership of land and buildings and derives its income primarily from rental income. An equity REIT may also realize capital gains (or losses) by selling real estate properties in its portfolio that have appreciated (or depreciated) in value. A mortgage REIT invests primarily in mortgages on real estate, which may secure construction, development or long-term loans, and derives its income primarily from interest payments on the credit it has extended. A hybrid REIT combines the characteristics of equity REITs and mortgage REITs, generally by holding both ownership interests and mortgage interests in real estate.
REITs (especially mortgage REITs) are subject to interest rate risk. Rising interest rates may cause REIT investors to demand a higher annual yield, which may, in turn, cause a decline in the market price of the equity securities issued by a REIT. Rising interest rates also generally increase the costs of obtaining
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financing, which could cause the value of the Fund’s REIT investments to decline. During periods when interest rates are declining, mortgages are often refinanced. Refinancing may reduce the yield on investments in mortgage REITs. In addition, because mortgage REITs depend on payment under their mortgage loans and leases to generate cash to make distributions to their shareholders, investments in such REITs may be adversely affected by defaults on such mortgage loans or leases.

REITs are dependent upon management skill, are not diversified, and are subject to heavy cash flow dependency, defaults by borrowers, and self-liquidation. Domestic REITs are also subject to the possibility of failing to qualify for tax-free “pass-through” of distributed net income and net realized gains under the Code and failing to maintain exemption from the 1940 Act.
REITs are subject to management fees and other expenses. Therefore, investments in REITs will cause the Fund to bear its proportionate share of the costs of the REITs’ operations. At the same time, the Fund will continue to pay its own management fees and expenses with respect to all of its assets, including any portion invested in REITs.
Recent Market ConditionsCertain illnesses spread rapidly and have the potential to significantly and adversely affect the global economy. Outbreaks such as the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, or other similarly infectious diseases may have material adverse impacts on the Fund. Epidemics and/or pandemics, such as the coronavirus, have and may further result in, among other things, closing borders, extended quarantines and stay-at-home orders, order cancellations, disruptions to supply chains and customer activity, widespread business closures and layoffs, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The impact of this virus, and other epidemics and/or pandemics that may arise in the future, has negatively affected and may continue to affect the economies of many nations, individual companies and the global securities and commodities markets, including their liquidity, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time.  Widespread layoffs and job furloughs may negatively affect the value of many mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities.  The impact of any outbreak may last for an extended period of time. The current pandemic has accelerated trends toward working remotely and shopping online, which may negatively affect the value of office and commercial real estate.  The travel, hospitality and public transit industries may suffer long-term negative effects from the pandemic and resulting changes to public behavior. Governments and central banks have moved to limit these negative economic effects with interventions that are unprecedented in size and scope and may continue to do so, but the ultimate impact of these efforts in many countries is uncertain. Governments’ efforts to limit potential negative economic effects of the pandemic may be altered, delayed, or eliminated at inopportune times for political, policy or other reasons.   The impact of infectious diseases may be greater in countries that do not move effectively to control them, which may occur for political reasons or because of a lack of health care or economic resources. Health crises caused by the recent coronavirus outbreak may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries. Although effective vaccines are now available, it may be many months before vaccinations are sufficiently widespread to allow the restoration of full economic activity. The failure to control the coronavirus in less developed countries may impact the economies of more developed countries.
High public debt in the U.S. and other countries creates ongoing systemic and market risks and policymaking uncertainty and there may be a further increase in the amount of debt due to the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic relief and public health measures. Interest rates have been unusually low in recent years in the U.S. and abroad. It is difficult to predict the impact on various markets of a significant rate increase or other significant policy changes, whether brought about by U.S. policy makers, perhaps in response to increasing indications of inflation, or by dislocations in world markets.  For example, because investors may buy equity securities or other investments with borrowed money, a significant increase in interest rates may cause a decline in the markets for those investments.  In
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addition, ongoing inflation pressures from tight labor markets and supply chain disruptions could cause a material increase in interest rates and/or negatively impact companies. Also, regulators have expressed concern that rate increases may cause investors to sell fixed income securities faster than the market can absorb them, contributing to price volatility. Over the longer term, rising interest rates may present a greater risk than has historically been the case due to the current period of relatively low rates and the effect of government fiscal and monetary policy initiatives and potential market reaction to those initiatives or their alteration or cessation.

Russia’s invasion of the Ukraine, and corresponding events in late February 2022, have had, and could continue to have, severe adverse effects on regional and global economic markets for securities and commodities. Following Russia’s actions, various governments, including the United States, have issued broad-ranging economic sanctions against Russia, including, among other actions, a prohibition on doing business with certain Russian companies, large financial institutions, officials and oligarchs; the removal  by certain countries and the European Union of selected Russian banks from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (“SWIFT”), the electronic banking network that connects banks globally; and restrictive measures to prevent the Russian Central Bank from undermining the impact of the sanctions.  The current events, including sanctions and the potential for future sanctions, including any impacting Russia’s energy sector, and other actions, and Russia’s retaliatory responses to those sanctions and actions, may continue to adversely impact the Russian and Ukrainian economies and may result in the further decline of the value and liquidity of Russian and Ukrainian securities, a continued weakening of the ruble and hryvnia and continued exchange closures, and may have other adverse consequences on the Russian and Ukrainian economies that could impact the value of these investments and impair the ability of the Fund to buy, sell, receive or deliver those securities.  Moreover, those events have, and could continue to have, an adverse effect on global markets performance and liquidity, thereby negatively affecting the value of the Fund’s investments beyond any direct exposure to Russian and Ukrainian issuers. The duration of ongoing hostilities and the vast array of sanctions and related events cannot be predicted. Those events present material uncertainty and risk with respect to markets globally and the performance of the Fund and its investments or operations could be negatively impacted.

During times of market turmoil, investors tend to look to the safety of securities issued or backed by the Treasury Department, causing the prices of these securities to rise and the yield to decline. Reduced liquidity in fixed income and credit markets may negatively affect many issuers worldwide and make it more difficult for borrowers to obtain financing on attractive terms, if at all.  Historical patterns of correlation among asset classes may break down in unanticipated ways during times of market turmoil, disrupting investment programs and potentially causing losses. There is no assurance that the U.S. Congress will act to raise the nation’s debt ceiling; a failure to do so could cause market turmoil and substantial investment risks that cannot now be fully predicted.
National economies are substantially interconnected, as are global financial markets, which creates the possibility that conditions in one country or region might adversely impact issuers in a different country or region. A rise in protectionist trade policies, tariff “wars,” changes to some major international trade agreements and the potential for changes to others,  and campaigns to “buy American,” could affect international trade and the economies of many nations in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time.
Markets have been sensitive to the outlook for resolving the U.S.-China “trade war,” a trend that may continue in the future. China’s economy, which has been sustained in recent years largely through a debt-financed housing boom, may be approaching the limits of that strategy and may experience a significant slowdown as a result of debt that cannot be repaid.  Due to the size of China’s economy, such a slowdown
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could impact a number of other countries. In December 2020, the United Kingdom (“UK”) and the European Union (“EU”) signed a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) to delineate the terms on which the UK left the EU. The TCA did little to address financial services and products provided by UK entities to customers in the EU, leaving the future of such services uncertain.  Also left uncertain was the long-term future of the UK auto industry, which relies heavily on exports to the EU, although the TCA leaves a long period for issues to be resolved.  New trading rules have disrupted the cross-border flow of products and supplies for many businesses; it remains to be seen whether these will be smoothed out with the passage of time or cause long-term damage to affected businesses.  There is some uncertainty as to whether dislocations in the UK’s economy are mainly the result of COVID-19 (as the government claims) or the result of the country having left the EU.

Over the past several years, the U.S. has moved away from tighter legislation and industry regulation impacting businesses and the financial services industry.  There is a strong potential for materially increased regulation in the future, as well as higher taxes or taxes restructured to incentivize different activities.  These changes, should they occur, may impose added costs on the Fund and its service providers and affect the businesses of various portfolio companies, in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen at the present time.  Unexpected political, regulatory and diplomatic events within the U.S. and abroad may affect investor and consumer confidence and may adversely impact financial markets and the broader economy.
Climate Change. There is increasing concern about the potential effects of global climate change on property and security values.  A rise in sea levels, a change in weather patterns, including an increase in powerful storms and large wildfires, and/or a climate-driven increase in flooding could cause properties to lose value or become unmarketable altogether.  Unlike previous declines in the real estate market, properties in affected zones may not ever recover their value.   The U.S. administration appears concerned about the climate change problem and is focusing regulatory and public works projects around those concerns. Regulatory changes and divestment movements tied to concerns about climate change could adversely affect the value of certain land and the viability of industries whose activities or products are seen as accelerating climate change.
Losses relating to climate change could adversely affect corporate issuers and mortgage lenders, the value of mortgage-backed securities, the bonds of municipalities that depend on tax or other revenues and tourist dollars generated by affected properties, and insurers of the property and/or of corporate, municipal or mortgage-backed securities.  Since property and security values are driven largely by buyers’ perceptions, it is difficult to know the time period over which these market effects might unfold.
LIBOR Transition. Certain financial contracts around the world specify rates that are based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) which is produced daily by averaging the rates for inter-bank lending reported by a number of banks. As previously announced by the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, most maturities and currencies of LIBOR were phased out at the end of 2021, with the remaining ones to be phased out on June 30, 2023.  There are risks that the financial services industry will not have a suitable substitute in place by that time and that there will not be time to perform the substantial work necessary to revise the many existing contracts that rely on LIBOR. The transition process, or a failure of the industry to transition properly, might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets that currently rely on LIBOR. It also could lead to a reduction in the value of some LIBOR-based investments and reduce the effectiveness of new hedges placed against existing LIBOR-based instruments. New York has passed legislation to ease the transition from LIBOR and federal LIBOR transition relief legislation has been proposed, but there is no assurance whether or when such legislation will be enacted or if it will adequately address all issues or be subject to litigation.
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Repurchase Agreements.  In a repurchase agreement, the Fund purchases securities from a bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System, from a foreign bank or from a U.S. branch or agency of a foreign bank, or from a securities dealer that agrees to repurchase the securities from the Fund at a higher price on a designated future date. Repurchase agreements generally are for a short period of time, usually less than a week. Costs, delays, or losses could result if the selling party to a repurchase agreement becomes bankrupt or otherwise defaults. The Manager monitors the creditworthiness of sellers.  If the Fund enters into a repurchase agreement subject to foreign law and the counter-party defaults, that Fund may not enjoy protections comparable to those provided to certain repurchase agreements under U.S. bankruptcy law and may suffer delays and losses in disposing of the collateral as a result.
Policies and Limitations.  Repurchase agreements with a maturity or demand of more than seven days are considered to be illiquid securities. No Fund may enter into a repurchase agreement with a maturity or demand of more than seven days if, as a result, more than 15% of the value of its net assets would then be invested in such repurchase agreements and other illiquid securities. The Fund may enter into a repurchase agreement only if (1) the underlying securities (excluding maturity and duration limitations, if any) are of a type that the Fund’s investment policies and limitations would allow it to purchase directly, (2) the market value of the underlying securities, including accrued interest, at all times equals or exceeds the repurchase price, and (3) payment for the underlying securities is made only upon satisfactory evidence that the securities are being held for the Fund’s account by its custodian or a bank acting as the Fund’s agent.
Restricted Securities and Rule 144A Securities.  The Fund may invest in “restricted securities,” which generally are securities that may be resold to the public only pursuant to an effective registration statement under the 1933 Act or an exemption from registration.  Regulation S under the 1933 Act is an exemption from registration that permits, under certain circumstances, the resale of restricted securities in offshore transactions, subject to certain conditions, and Rule 144A under the 1933 Act is an exemption that permits the resale of certain restricted securities to qualified institutional buyers.
Since its adoption by the SEC in 1990, Rule 144A has facilitated trading of restricted securities among qualified institutional investors.  To the extent restricted securities held by the Fund qualify under Rule 144A and an institutional market develops for those securities, the Fund expects that it will be able to dispose of the securities without registering the resale of such securities under the 1933 Act.  However, to the extent that a robust market for such 144A securities does not develop, or a market develops but experiences periods of illiquidity, investments in Rule 144A securities could increase the level of the Fund’s illiquidity.
Where an exemption from registration under the 1933 Act is unavailable, or where an institutional market is limited, the Fund may, in certain circumstances, be permitted to require the issuer of restricted securities held by the Fund to file a registration statement to register the resale of such securities under the 1933 Act.  In such case, the Fund will typically be obligated to pay all or part of the registration expenses, and a considerable period may elapse between the decision to sell and the time the Fund may be permitted to resell a security under an effective registration statement. If, during such a period, adverse market conditions were to develop, or the value of the security were to decline, the Fund might obtain a less favorable price than prevailed when it decided to sell. Restricted securities for which no market exists are priced by a method that the Fund Trustees believe accurately reflects fair value.
Reverse Repurchase Agreements.  In a reverse repurchase agreement, the Fund sells portfolio securities to another party and agrees to repurchase the securities at an agreed-upon price and date, which reflects an interest payment.  Reverse repurchase agreements involve the risk that the other party will fail to return the securities in a timely manner, or at all, which may result in losses to the Fund.  The Fund could lose money if it is unable to recover the securities and the value of the collateral held by the Fund is less than
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the value of the securities. These events could also trigger adverse tax consequences to the Fund. Reverse repurchase agreements also involve the risk that the market value of the securities sold will decline below the price at which the Fund is obligated to repurchase them.  Reverse repurchase agreements may be viewed as a form of borrowing by the Fund. When the Fund enters into a reverse repurchase agreement, any fluctuations in the market value of either the securities transferred to another party or the securities in which the proceeds may be invested would affect the market value of the Fund’s assets. During the term of the agreement, the Fund may also be obligated to pledge additional cash and/or securities in the event of a decline in the fair value of the transferred security.  The Manager monitors the creditworthiness of counterparties to reverse repurchase agreements.  For the Fund’s policies and limitations on borrowing, see “Investment Policies and Limitations -- Borrowing” above.

Policies and Limitations.  Reverse repurchase agreements are considered borrowings for purposes of the Fund’s investment policies and limitations concerning borrowings. While a reverse repurchase agreement is outstanding, the Fund will deposit in a segregated account with its custodian, or designate on its records as segregated, cash or appropriate liquid securities, marked to market daily, in an amount at least equal to that Fund’s obligations under the agreement.
Risks of Investments in China A-shares through the Stock Connect Programs.  There are significant risks inherent in investing in China A-shares through the “Connect Programs”, such as the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect program (“Shanghai Connect Program”) and the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect Program (“Shenzhen Connect Program”). The Connect Programs are subject to daily quota limitations and an investor cannot purchase and sell the same security on the same trading day, which may restrict the Fund’s ability to invest in China A-shares through the Connect Programs and to enter into or exit trades on a timely basis. A Chinese stock exchange may be open at a time when the relevant Connect Program is not trading (i.e. the Shanghai Stock Exchange under the Shanghai Connect Program or the Shenzhen Stock Exchange under the Shenzhen Connect Program), with the result that prices of China A-shares may fluctuate at times when the Fund is unable to add to or exit its position.  Only certain China A-shares are eligible to be accessed through the Connect Programs. Such securities may lose their eligibility at any time, in which case they could be sold but could no longer be purchased through the Connect Programs. The future impact of this integration of Chinese and foreign markets is unclear and the actual effect on the market for trading China A-shares with the introduction of large numbers of foreign investors is unknown. In addition, there is no assurance that the necessary systems required to operate the Connect Programs will function properly or will continue to be adapted to changes and developments in both markets.  In the event that the relevant systems do not function properly, trading through the Connect Programs could be disrupted.
The Connect Programs are subject to regulations promulgated by regulatory authorities for both the Chinese and the Hong Kong stock exchanges and further regulations or restrictions, such as limitations on redemptions or suspension of trading, may adversely impact the Connect Programs, if the authorities believe it is necessary to assure orderly markets or for other reasons. The relevant regulations are relatively new and are subject to change, and there is no certainty as to how they will be applied and Chinese securities trading law can change on a frequent basis. Further, there is no guarantee that the relevant Chinese stock exchange (i.e. Shanghai Stock Exchange or Shenzhen Stock Exchange) involved in a particular Connect Program and the Hong Kong stock exchange will continue to support such Connect Program in the future. Investments in China A-shares may not be covered by the securities investor protection programs of the Chinese and/or the Hong Kong stock exchanges and, without the protection of such programs, will be subject to the risk of default by the broker. In the event that China Securities Depository and Clearing Corporation Limited (“ChinaClear”), the depository of the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, defaulted, the Hong Kong Securities Clearing Company Limited, being the nominee under the Connect Programs, has limited legal obligation to assist clearing participants in pursuing claims against ChinaClear.
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Currently, there is little precedent that the applicable courts in the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) would accept beneficial owners, rather than the nominee, under the Connect Programs to pursue claims directly against ChinaClear in the PRC. Therefore, the Fund may not be able to recover fully its losses from ChinaClear or may be delayed in receiving proceeds as part of any recovery process. The Fund also may not be able to exercise the rights of a shareholder and may be limited in its ability to pursue claims against the issuer of China A-shares.  The Fund may not be able to participate in corporate actions affecting China A-shares held through the Connect Programs due to the fact that the Fund only holds such China A-shares beneficially, time constraints or for other operational reasons. Similarly, the Fund may not be able to appoint proxies or participate in shareholders’ meetings due to the fact that the Fund only holds such China A-shares beneficially as well as current limitations on the use of multiple proxies in China. Because all trades on the Connect Programs in respect of eligible China A-shares must be settled in Renminbi (“RMB”), the Chinese currency, investors must have timely access to a reliable supply of offshore RMB, which cannot be guaranteed.

Trades on the Connect Programs may be subject to certain operational requirements prior to trading, which may restrict the ability of the Fund to sell China A-shares on that trading day if such requirements are not completed prior to the market opening. For example, certain local custodians offer a “bundled brokerage/custodian” solution to address such requirements but this may limit the number of brokers that the Fund may use to execute trades. An enhanced model has also been implemented by the Hong Kong stock exchange, but there are operational and practical challenges for an investor to utilize such enhanced model. If an investor holds 5% or more of the total shares issued by a China-A share issuer, the investor must return any profits obtained from the purchase and sale of those shares if both transactions occur within a six-month period. If the Fund holds 5% or more of the total shares of a China-A share issuer through its Connect Program investments, its profits may be subject to these limitations.  In addition, it is not currently clear whether all accounts managed by NBIA and/or its affiliates will be aggregated for purposes of this limitation. If that is the case, it makes it more likely that the Fund’s profits may be subject to these limitations.
Issuers of China A-shares have a foreign ownership limit of not more than 10% per individual and 30% in the aggregate. In the event that the ownership limit is breached, it is unlikely that an investor would be notified until the end of the trading day, after which a forced sale procedure would be implemented to bring the foreign ownership percentage back below 10% or 30%, as applicable. This is operationally complicated and may adversely impact the Fund’s performance.
The focus of the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets are somewhat different.  The Shenzhen Stock Exchange tends to focus on small- and mid-cap “growth stocks” in fast-growing sectors such as information technology, consumer cyclicals, and healthcare whereas the Shanghai Stock Exchange is dominated by relatively large-cap enterprises and has a strong focus on finance and industrial sectors.
Risks of Reliance on Computer Programs or Codes.  Many processes used in Fund management, including security selection, rely, in whole or in part, on the use of computer programs or codes, some of which are created or maintained by the Manager or its affiliates and some of which are created or maintained by third parties.  Errors in these programs or codes may go undetected, possibly for quite some time, which could adversely affect the Fund’s operations or performance.  Computer programs or codes are susceptible to human error when they are first created and as they are developed and maintained. Some funds, like the Fund, may be subject to heightened risk in this area because the funds’ advisers rely to a greater extent on computer programs or codes in managing the funds’ assets.
While efforts are made to guard against problems associated with computer programs or codes, there can be no assurance that such efforts will always be successful.  The Fund has limited insight into the
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computer programs and processes of some service providers and may have to rely on contractual assurances or business relationships to protect against some errors in the service providers’ systems.

Sector Risk. From time to time, based on market or economic conditions, the Fund may have significant positions in one or more sectors of the market.  To the extent the Fund invests more heavily in one sector, industry, or sub-sector of the market, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those sectors, industries, or sub-sectors.   An individual sector, industry, or sub-sector of the market may be more volatile, and may perform differently, than the broader market.  The industries that constitute a sector may all react in the same way to economic, political or regulatory events. The Fund’s performance could also be affected if the sectors, industries, or sub-sectors do not perform as expected. Alternatively, the lack of exposure to one or more sectors or industries may adversely affect performance.
Communication Services Sector. The communication services sector, particularly telephone operating companies, are subject to both federal and state government regulations. Many telecommunications companies intensely compete for market share and can be impacted by technology changes within the sector such as the shift from wired to wireless communications. In September 2018, the communication services sector was redefined to also include media, entertainment and select internet-related companies.  Media and entertainment companies can be subject to the risk that their content may not be purchased or subscribed to.  Internet-related companies may be subject to greater regulatory oversight given increased cyberattack risk and privacy concerns.  Additionally, internet-related companies may not achieve investor expectations for higher growth levels, which can result in stock price declines.
Consumer Discretionary Sector. The consumer discretionary sector can be significantly affected by the performance of the overall economy, interest rates, competition, and consumer confidence. Success can depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending. Changes in demographics and consumer tastes can also affect the demand for, and success of, consumer discretionary products.
Consumer Staples Sector. The consumer staples sector can be significantly affected by demographic and product trends, competitive pricing, food fads, marketing campaigns, and environmental factors, as well as the performance of the overall economy, interest rates, consumer confidence, and the cost of commodities. Regulations and policies of various domestic and foreign governments affect agricultural products as well as other consumer staples.
Energy Sector. The energy sector can be significantly affected by fluctuations in energy prices and supply and demand of energy fuels caused by geopolitical events, energy conservation, the success of exploration projects, weather or meteorological events, and tax and other government regulations. In addition, companies in the energy sector are at risk of civil liability from accidents resulting in pollution or other environmental damage claims. In addition, since the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has issued public warnings indicating that energy assets, specifically those related to pipeline infrastructure and production, transmission, and distribution facilities, might be future targets of terrorist activity. Further, because a significant portion of revenues of companies in this sector are derived from a relatively small number of customers that are largely composed of governmental entities and utilities, governmental budget constraints may have a significant impact on the stock prices of companies in this sector.
Financials Sector. The financials sector is subject to extensive government regulation, which can limit both the amounts and types of loans and other financial commitments that companies in this sector can make, and the interest rates and fees that these companies can charge. Profitability can be largely dependent on the availability and cost of capital and the rate of corporate and consumer debt defaults, and can fluctuate
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significantly when interest rates change. Financial difficulties of borrowers can negatively affect the financials sector. Insurance companies can be subject to severe price competition. The financials sector can be subject to relatively rapid change as distinctions between financial service segments become increasingly blurred.

Health Care Sector. The health care sector is subject to government regulation and reimbursement rates, as well as government approval of products and services, which could have a significant effect on price and availability. Furthermore, the types of products or services produced or provided by health care companies quickly can become obsolete. In addition, pharmaceutical companies and other companies in the health care sector can be significantly affected by patent expirations.
Industrials Sector. The industrials sector can be significantly affected by general economic trends, including employment, economic growth, and interest rates, changes in consumer sentiment and spending, commodity prices, legislation, government regulation and spending, import controls, and worldwide competition. Companies in this sector also can be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control.
Information Technology Sector. The information technology sector can be significantly affected by obsolescence of existing technology, short product cycles, falling prices and profits, competition from new market entrants, and general economic conditions. The issuers of technology securities also may be smaller or newer companies, which may lack depth of management, be unable to generate funds necessary for growth or potential development, or be developing or marketing new products or services for which markets are not yet established and may never become established.
Materials Sector. The materials sector can be significantly affected by the level and volatility of commodity prices, the exchange value of the dollar, import and export controls, and worldwide competition. At times, worldwide production of materials has exceeded demand as a result of over-building or economic downturns, which has led to commodity price declines and unit price reductions. Companies in this sector also can be adversely affected by liability for environmental damage, depletion of resources, and mandated expenditures for safety and pollution control.
Utilities Sector. The utilities sector can be significantly affected by government regulation, interest rate changes, financing difficulties, supply and demand of services or fuel, changes in taxation, natural resource conservation, intense competition, and commodity price fluctuations.
Securities Loans. The Fund may lend portfolio securities to banks, brokerage firms, and other institutional investors, provided that cash or equivalent collateral, initially equal to at least 102% (105% in the case of foreign securities) of the market value of the loaned securities, is maintained by the borrower with the Fund or with the Fund’s lending agent, who holds the collateral on the Fund’s behalf. Thereafter, cash or equivalent collateral, equal to at least 100% of the market value of the loaned securities, is to be continuously maintained by the borrower with the Fund. The Fund may invest the cash collateral and earn income, or it may receive an agreed upon amount of interest income from a borrower that has delivered equivalent collateral. During the time securities are on loan, the borrower will pay the Fund an amount equivalent to any dividends or interest paid on such securities. These loans are subject to termination at the option of the Fund or the borrower. The Fund may pay reasonable administrative and custodial fees in connection with a loan and may pay a negotiated portion of the interest earned on the cash or equivalent collateral to the borrower. The Fund does not have the right to vote on securities while they are on loan.  However, it is the Fund’s policy to attempt to terminate loans in time to vote those proxies that the Fund has determined are material to the interests of the Fund. The Manager believes the risk of loss on these transactions is slight because if a borrower
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were to default for any reason, the collateral should satisfy the obligation. However, as with other extensions of secured credit, loans of portfolio securities involve some risk of loss of rights in the collateral should the borrower fail financially.  The Fund may loan securities through third parties not affiliated with Neuberger Berman BD LLC (“Neuberger Berman”) that would act as agent to lend securities to principal borrowers.

Policies and Limitations.  The Fund may lend portfolio securities with a value not exceeding 33-1/3% of its total assets (taken at current value) to banks, brokerage firms, or other institutional investors. The Fund has authorized State Street Bank and Trust Company (“State Street”) to effect loans of available securities of the Fund with entities on State Street’s approved list of borrowers, which includes State Street and its affiliates.  The Fund may obtain a list of these approved borrowers.  Borrowers are required continuously to secure their obligations to return securities on loan from the Fund by depositing collateral in a form determined to be satisfactory by the Fund Trustees. The collateral, which must be marked to market daily, must be initially equal to at least 102% (105% in the case of foreign securities) of the market value of the loaned securities, which will also be marked to market daily.  Thereafter, the collateral must be equal to at least 100% of the market value of the loaned securities.  The Fund may invest the collateral obtained from securities lending for investment purposes.  See the section entitled “Cash Management and Temporary Defensive Positions” for additional information on how the Fund may invest the collateral obtained from securities lending.  The Fund does not count uninvested collateral for purposes of any investment policy or limitation that requires the Fund to invest specific percentages of its assets in accordance with its principal investment program.
Securities of ETFs and Other Exchange-Traded Investment Vehicles. The Fund may invest in the securities of ETFs and other pooled investment vehicles that are traded on an exchange and that hold a portfolio of securities or other financial instruments (collectively, “exchange-traded investment vehicles”).   When investing in the securities of exchange-traded investment vehicles, the Fund will be indirectly exposed to all the risks of the portfolio securities or other financial instruments they hold.   The performance of an exchange-traded investment vehicle will be reduced by transaction and other expenses, including fees paid by the exchange-traded investment vehicle to service providers.  ETFs are investment companies that are registered as open-end management companies or unit investment trusts. The limits that apply to the Fund’s investment in securities of other investment companies generally apply also to the Fund’s investment in securities of ETFs. See “Securities of Other Investment Companies.”
Shares of exchange-traded investment vehicles are listed and traded in the secondary market. Many exchange-traded investment vehicles are passively managed and seek to provide returns that track the price and yield performance of a particular index or otherwise provide exposure to an asset class (e.g., currencies or commodities).  Although such exchange-traded investment vehicles may invest in other instruments, they largely hold the securities (e.g., common stocks) of the relevant index or financial instruments that provide exposure to the relevant asset class. The share price of an exchange-traded investment vehicle may not track its specified market index, if any, and may trade below its NAV. An active secondary market in the shares of an exchange-traded investment vehicle may not develop or be maintained and may be halted or interrupted due to actions by its listing exchange, unusual market conditions, or other reasons. There can be no assurance that the shares of an exchange-traded investment vehicle will continue to be listed on an active exchange.
The Fund also may effect short sales of exchange-traded investment vehicles and may purchase and sell options on shares of exchange-traded investment vehicles. If the Fund effects a short sale of an exchange-traded investment vehicle, it may take long positions in individual securities held by the exchange-traded investment vehicle to limit the potential loss in the event of an increase in the market price of the exchange-traded investment vehicle sold short.
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Securities of Canadian Cryptocurrency ETFs. A Fund may invest in the securities of ETFs organized and listed for trading in Canada that invest in bitcoin. Canadian ETFs that provide exposure to bitcoin are subject to many of the same risks as a direct investment in such cryptocurrency. See “Cryptocurrencies.” Additionally, shares of these Canadian ETFs may trade at a premium or discount from the value of their underlying investments, may become illiquid, may or may not be correlated with the price of bitcoin or bitcoin futures contracts and may be highly volatile. The performance of any Canadian ETF will be reduced by transaction and other expenses, including fees paid by the ETF to service providers. See “Securities of ETFs and Other Exchange-Traded Investment Vehicles” above.
In addition, Canadian ETFs are not regulated under the 1940 Act, the 1933 Act or any other U.S. federal or state securities laws. Therefore, the Fund’s investments in these vehicles will not benefit from the protections and restrictions of such U.S. statutes and regulations.
Securities of Other Investment Companies. As indicated above, investments by the Fund in shares of other investment companies are subject to the limitations of the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder.  However, pursuant to Rule 12d1-4, the Fund is permitted to invest in shares of certain investment companies beyond the limits contained in the 1940 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder under the rule. The Fund may invest in the securities of other investment companies, including open-end management companies, closed-end management companies (including business development companies (“BDCs”)) and unit investment trusts, that are consistent with its investment objectives and policies.  Such an investment may be the most practical or only manner in which the Fund can invest in certain asset classes or participate in certain markets, such as foreign markets, because of the expenses involved or because other vehicles for investing in those markets may not be available at the time the Fund is ready to make an investment.  When investing in the securities of other investment companies, the Fund will be indirectly exposed to all the risks of such investment companies' portfolio securities.  In addition, as a shareholder in an investment company, the Fund would indirectly bear its pro rata share of that investment company’s advisory fees and other operating expenses.  Fees and expenses incurred indirectly by the Fund as a result of its investment in shares of one or more other investment companies generally are referred to as “acquired fund fees and expenses” and may appear as a separate line item in the Fund’s Prospectus fee table. For certain investment companies, such as BDCs, these expenses may be significant.  The 1940 Act imposes certain restraints upon the operations of a BDC. For example, BDCs are required to invest at least 70% of their total assets primarily in securities of private companies or thinly traded U.S. public companies, cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities and high quality debt investments that mature in one year or less.  As a result, BDCs generally invest in less mature private companies, which involve greater risk than well-established, publicly-traded companies.  In addition, the shares of closed-end management companies may involve the payment of substantial premiums above, while the sale of such securities may be made at substantial discounts from, the value of such issuer’s portfolio securities.  Historically, shares of closed-end funds, including BDCs, have frequently traded at a discount to their NAV, which discounts have, on occasion, been substantial and lasted for sustained periods of time.
Certain money market funds that operate in accordance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act float their NAV while others seek to preserve the value of investments at a stable NAV (typically $1.00 per share). An investment in a money market fund, even an investment in a fund seeking to maintain a stable NAV per share, is not guaranteed, and it is possible for the Fund to lose money by investing in these and other types of money market funds. If the liquidity of a money market fund’s portfolio deteriorates below certain levels, the money market fund may suspend redemptions (i.e., impose a redemption gate) and thereby prevent the Fund from selling its investment in the money market fund or impose a fee of up to 2% on amounts the Fund redeems from the money market fund (i.e., impose a liquidity fee).
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Policies and Limitations.  For cash management purposes, the Fund may invest an unlimited amount of its uninvested cash and cash collateral received in connection with securities lending in shares of money market funds and unregistered funds that operate in compliance with Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act, whether or not advised by the Manager or an affiliate, under specified conditions.  See “Cash Management and Temporary Defensive Positions.”
Otherwise, the Fund’s investment in securities of other investment companies is generally limited to (i) 3% of the total voting stock of any one investment company, (ii) 5% of the Fund’s total assets with respect to any one investment company and (iii) 10% of the Fund’s total assets in all investment companies in the aggregate.  However, the Fund may exceed these limits when investing in shares of certain other investment companies, subject to the requirements under Rule 12d1-4. In addition, the Fund may exceed these limits when investing in shares of certain other investment companies, subject to the requirements under Rule 12d1-4.  See “Fund of Funds Structure.”
Fund of fund arrangements must comply with the provisions of the 1940 Act, Rule 12d1-4, or another rule.  Pursuant to Rule 12d1-4, the Fund is permitted to exceed the limits of Section 12 of the 1940 Act if the Fund complies with Rule 12d1-4’s conditions, including (i) limits on control and voting; (ii) required evaluations and findings; (iii) required fund of funds investment agreements; and (iv) limits on complex structures. The Fund is also able to invest up to 100% of its total assets in a master portfolio with the same investment objectives, policies and limitations as the Fund.
Short Sales.  The Fund may use short sales for hedging and non-hedging purposes. To effect a short sale, the Fund borrows a security from or through a brokerage firm to make delivery to the buyer. The Fund is then obliged to replace the borrowed security by purchasing it at the market price at the time of replacement. Until the security is replaced, the Fund is required to pay the lender any dividends on the borrowed security and may be required to pay loan fees or interest. Short sales, at least theoretically, present a risk of unlimited loss on an individual security basis, particularly in cases where the Fund is unable, for whatever reason, to close out its short position, since the Fund may be required to buy the security sold short at a time when the security has appreciated in value, and there is potentially no limit to the amount of such appreciation.
The Fund may realize a gain if the security declines in price between the date of the short sale and the date on which the Fund replaces the borrowed security. The Fund will incur a loss if the price of the security increases between those dates. The amount of any gain will be decreased, and the amount of any loss will be increased, by the amount of any premium or interest the Fund is required to pay in connection with a short sale. A short position may be adversely affected by imperfect correlation between movements in the prices of the securities sold short and the securities being hedged.
The Fund may also make short sales against-the-box, in which it sells short securities only if it owns or has the right to obtain without payment of additional consideration an equal amount of the same type of securities sold.
The effect of short selling is similar to the effect of leverage. Short selling may amplify changes in the Fund’s NAV. Short selling may also produce higher than normal portfolio turnover, which may result in increased transaction costs to the Fund.
When the Fund is selling stocks short, it must maintain a segregated account of cash or high-grade securities that, together with any collateral (exclusive of short sale proceeds) that it is required to deposit with the securities lender or the executing broker, is at least equal to the value of the shorted securities, marked to market daily. As a result, the Fund may need to maintain high levels of cash or liquid assets (such as Treasury
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Department bills, money market accounts, repurchase agreements, certificates of deposit, high quality commercial paper and long equity positions).  The need to maintain cash or other liquid assets in segregated accounts could limit the Fund’s ability to pursue other opportunities as they arise. Policies and Limitations. The Fund’s ability to engage in short sales may be impaired by any temporary prohibitions on short selling imposed by domestic and certain foreign government regulators.

Special Purpose Acquisition Companies.  The Fund may invest in stock, warrants or other securities of special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) or similar special purpose entities that pool funds to seek potential acquisition opportunities. Unless and until an acquisition is completed, a SPAC or similar entity generally maintains assets (less a portion retained to cover expenses) in a trust account comprised of U.S. Government securities, money market securities, and cash. If an acquisition is not completed within a pre-established period of time, the invested funds are returned to the entity’s shareholders. Because SPACs and similar entities are in essence blank-check companies without an operating history or ongoing business other than seeking acquisitions, the value of their securities is particularly dependent on the ability of the entity’s management to identify and complete a profitable acquisition. More recently, SPACs have provided an opportunity for startups to go public without going through the traditional IPO process. This presents the risk that startups may become publicly traded with potentially less due diligence than what is typical in a traditional IPO through an underwriter. Since SPAC sponsors often stand to earn equity in the company if a deal is completed, SPAC sponsors may have a potential conflict of interest in completing a deal that may be unfavorable for other investors in the SPAC. SPACs may allow shareholders to redeem their pro rata investment immediately after the SPAC announces a proposed acquisition, sometimes including interest, which may prevent the entity’s management from completing the transaction. Some SPACs may pursue acquisitions only within certain industries or regions, which may increase the volatility of their prices. In addition, investments in SPACs may include private placements, including PIPEs, and, accordingly, may be considered illiquid and/or be subject to restrictions on resale.
Stripped Mortgage Backed Securities (SMBS). SMBS are derivative multi-class mortgage securities. SMBS may be issued by agencies or instrumentalities of the U.S. Government, or by private originators of, or investors in, mortgage loans, including savings and loan associations, mortgage banks, commercial banks, investment banks and special purpose entities of the foregoing.
SMBS are usually structured with two classes that receive different proportions of the interest and principal distributions on a pool of mortgage assets. A common type of SMBS will have one class receiving some of the interest and most of the principal from the mortgage assets, while the other class will receive most of the interest and the remainder of the principal. In the most extreme case, one class will receive all of the interest (the interest-only or “IO” class), while the other class will receive all of the principal (the principal-only or “PO” class). The yield to maturity on an IO class is extremely sensitive to the rate of principal payments (including prepayments) on the related underlying mortgage assets, and a rapid rate of principal payments may have a material adverse effect on the Fund’s yield to maturity from these securities. If the underlying mortgage assets experience greater than anticipated prepayments of principal, the Fund may fail to recoup some or all of its initial investment in these securities even if the security is in one of the highest rating categories.
Although SMBS are purchased and sold by institutional investors through several investment banking firms acting as brokers or dealers, these securities were only recently developed. As a result, established trading markets have not yet developed and, accordingly, these securities may be deemed “illiquid” and subject to the Fund’s limitations on investments in illiquid securities.
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Stripped Securities. Stripped securities are the separate income or principal components of a debt security. The risks associated with stripped securities are similar to those of other debt securities, although stripped securities may be more volatile, and the value of certain types of stripped securities may move in the same direction as interest rates. U.S. Treasury securities that have been stripped by a Federal Reserve Bank are obligations issued by the U.S. Treasury.
Privately stripped government securities are created when a dealer deposits a U.S. Treasury security or other U.S. Government security with a custodian for safekeeping. The custodian issues separate receipts for the coupon payments and the principal payment, which the dealer then sells. These coupons are not obligations of the U.S. Treasury.
Structured Notes.  The Fund may invest in structured notes, such as participatory notes, credit linked notes and securities (“CLNs”), exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”) and other related instruments. These instruments are notes where the principal and/or interest rate or value of the structured note is determined by reference to the performance of an underlying indicator.  Underlying indicators may include a security or other financial instrument, asset, currency, interest rate, credit rating, commodity, volatility measure or index. Generally, investments in such notes are used as a substitute for positions in underlying indicators. The interest and/or principal payments that may be made on a structured note may vary widely, depending on a variety of factors, including the volatility of the underlying indicator. The performance results of structured notes will not replicate exactly the performance of the underlying indicator that the notes seek to replicate due to transaction costs and other expenses. Issuers of structured notes can vary and may include corporations, banks, broker-dealers and limited purpose trusts or other vehicles.   Structured notes may be exchange traded or traded OTC and privately negotiated.
Investments in structured notes involve many of the same risks associated with a direct investment in the underlying indicator the notes seek to replicate. Structured notes may be considered hybrid instruments as they may exhibit features of both fixed income securities and derivatives. The return on a structured note that is linked to a particular underlying indicator that pays dividends generally is increased to the extent of any dividends paid in connection with the underlying indicator. However, the holder of a structured note typically does not receive voting rights and other rights as it would if it directly owned the underlying indicator. In addition, structured notes are subject to counterparty risk, which is the risk that the issuer of the structured note will not fulfill its contractual obligation to complete the transaction with the Fund. Structured notes constitute general unsecured contractual obligations of the issuer of the note and the Fund is relying on the creditworthiness of such issuer and has no rights under a structured note against the issuer of an underlying indicator. Structured notes involve transaction costs. Structured notes may be considered illiquid and, therefore, structured notes considered illiquid will be subject to the Fund’s percentage limitation on investments in illiquid securities.
CLNs are typically issued by a limited purpose trust or other vehicle (the “CLN trust”) that, in turn, invests in a derivative or basket of derivatives instruments, such as credit default swaps, interest rate swaps and/or other securities, in order to provide exposure to certain high yield, sovereign debt, emerging markets, or other fixed income markets. Generally, investments in CLNs represent the right to receive periodic income payments (in the form of distributions) and payment of principal at the end of the term of the CLN. However, these payments are conditioned on the CLN trust’s receipt of payments from, and the CLN trust’s potential obligations, to the counterparties to the derivative instruments and other securities in which the CLN trust invests. For example, the CLN trust may sell one or more credit default swaps, under which the CLN trust would receive a stream of payments over the term of the swap agreements provided that no event of default has occurred with respect to the referenced debt obligation upon which the swap is based. If a default were to occur, the stream of payments may stop and the CLN trust would be obligated to pay the counterparty the
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par (or other agreed upon value) of the referenced debt obligation. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of income and principal that the Fund would receive as an investor in the CLN trust.

The Fund may enter in CLNs to gain access to sovereign debt and securities in emerging markets, particularly in markets where the Fund is not able to purchase securities directly due to domicile restrictions or tax restrictions or tariffs. In such an instance, the issuer of the CLN may purchase the reference security directly and/or gain exposure through a credit default swap or other derivative.

The Fund’s investments in CLNs are subject to the risks associated with the underlying reference obligations and derivative instruments, including, among others, credit risk, default risk, counterparty risk, interest rate risk, leverage risk and management risk.

Structured notes may also include exchange-traded notes (“ETNs”), which are typically unsecured and unsubordinated like other structured notes. ETN returns are based upon the performance of one or more underlying indicators and typically, no periodic coupon payments are distributed and no principal protections exists, even at maturity.  ETNs are listed on an exchange and traded in the secondary market. An ETN can be held until maturity, at which time the issuer pays the investor a cash amount equal to the principal amount, subject to the day’s market benchmark or strategy factor. When the Fund invests in ETNs, it will bear its proportionate share of any fees and expenses borne by the ETN. Because fees reduce the amount of return at maturity or upon redemption, if the value of the underlying indicator decreases or does not increase significantly, the Fund may receive less than the principal amount of its investment at maturity or upon redemption. In addition, the value of an ETN also may be influenced by time to maturity, level of supply and demand for the ETN, volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying indicator, changes in the applicable interest rates, and economic, legal, political, or geographic events that affect the underlying indicator. Some ETNs that use leverage can, at times, be relatively illiquid, and thus they may be difficult to purchase or sell at a fair price. Leveraged ETNs are subject to the same risk as other instruments that use leverage in any form. There may be restrictions on the Fund’s right to redeem its investment in an ETN, which are generally meant to be held until maturity. A decision by the Fund to sell ETN holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market. In addition, although an ETN may be listed on an exchange, the issuer may not be required to maintain the listing, and there can be no assurance that a secondary market will exist for an ETN.
Sukuk. Sukuk are financial certificates which are structured to comply with Shariah law and its investment principles, which prohibit the charging or payment of interest. Sukuk represent undivided shares in the ownership of tangible assets relating to a specific investment activity. The sukuk issuer, often a special purpose vehicle established to issue the sukuk, holds title to an asset or pool of assets. The sukuk represent an interest in that asset, so the income to the investor comes from a share in revenues generated from the asset, not from interest on the investor’s money. The sukuk investor’s investment in the sukuk does not represent a debt by the issuer of the underlying asset to the entity that issued the sukuk. The issuer of the sukuk agrees in advance to repurchase the sukuk from the investor on a certain date at a certain price.
As unsecured investments, sukuk are backed only by the credit of the issuing entity, which may be a special purpose vehicle that holds no other assets. They are thus subject to the risk that the issuer may not be able to repurchase the instrument at the agreed upon date for the agreed upon price, if at all. Furthermore, since the purchasers of sukuk are investors in the underlying asset, they are subject to the risk that the asset may not perform as expected, and the flow of income from the investments may be slower than expected or may cease altogether. In the event of default, the process may take longer to resolve than conventional bonds. Evolving interpretations of Islamic law by courts or prominent scholars may affect the free transferability of
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sukuk in ways that cannot now be foreseen. In that event, the Fund may be required to hold its sukuk for longer than intended, even if their condition is deteriorating.

While the sukuk market has grown significantly in recent years, there may be times when the market is illiquid and it is difficult for the Fund to make an investment in or dispose of sukuk. Furthermore, the global sukuk market is significantly smaller than the conventional bond markets and restrictions imposed by the Shariah board of the issuing entity may limit the investable universe of the Fund. Although the Fund may invest in sukuk, other investments by the Fund, and the Fund as a whole, will not conform to Shariah law.
Terrorism Risks.  The terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, had a disruptive effect on the U.S. economy and financial markets. Terrorist attacks and other geopolitical events have led to, and may in the future lead to, increased short-term market volatility and may have long-term effects on U.S. and world economies and financial markets. Those events could also have an acute effect on individual issuers, related groups of issuers, or issuers concentrated in a single geographic area. A similar disruption of the financial markets or other terrorist attacks could adversely impact interest rates, auctions, secondary trading, ratings, credit risk, inflation and other factors relating to portfolio securities and adversely affect Fund service providers and the Fund’s operations.
Thermal Coal Policy. Investments by the Fund in securities issued by companies that have more than 25% of revenue derived from thermal coal mining or are expanding new thermal coal power generation are subject to formal review and approval by Neuberger Berman’s Environmental, Social and Governance Committee before the initiation of any new investment positions in the securities of those companies.
U.S. Government and Agency Securities. “U.S. Government Securities” are obligations of the U.S. Treasury backed by the full faith and credit of the United States.  During times of market turbulence, investors may turn to the safety of securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury, causing the prices of these securities to rise and their yields to decline.  As a result of this and other market influences, yields of short-term U.S. Treasury debt instruments are currently near historical lows.
“U.S. Government Agency Securities” are issued or guaranteed by U.S. Government agencies, or by instrumentalities of the U.S. Government, such as Ginnie Mae (also known as the Government National Mortgage Association), Fannie Mae (also known as the Federal National Mortgage Association), Freddie Mac (also known as the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation), SLM Corporation (formerly, the Student Loan Marketing Association) (commonly known as “Sallie Mae”), Federal Home Loan Banks (“FHLB”), and the Tennessee Valley Authority.  Some U.S. Government Agency Securities are supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, while others may be supported by the issuer’s ability to borrow from the U.S. Treasury, subject to the U.S. Treasury’s discretion in certain cases, or only by the credit of the issuer.  Accordingly, there is at least a possibility of default.  U.S. Government Agency Securities include U.S. Government agency mortgage-backed securities.  (See “Mortgage-Backed Securities,” above.)  The market prices of U.S. Government Agency Securities are not guaranteed by the U.S. Government and generally fluctuate inversely with changing interest rates.
U.S. Government Agency Securities are deemed to include (i) securities for which the payment of principal and interest is backed by an irrevocable letter of credit issued by the U.S. Government, its agencies, authorities or instrumentalities and (ii) participations in loans made to foreign governments or their agencies that are so guaranteed.  The secondary market for certain of these participations is extremely limited.  In the absence of a suitable secondary market, such participations may therefore be regarded as illiquid.
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The Fund may invest in separately traded principal and interest components of securities issued or guaranteed by the U.S. Treasury.  The principal and interest components of selected securities are traded independently under the Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”) program.  Under the STRIPS program, the principal and interest components are individually numbered and separately issued by the U.S. Treasury at the request of depository financial institutions, which then trade the component parts independently.  The market prices of STRIPS generally are more volatile than that of U.S. Treasury bills with comparable maturities.
Variable or Floating Rate Securities; Demand and Put Features. Variable rate and floating rate securities provide for automatic adjustment of the interest rate at fixed intervals (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, or semi-annually) or automatic adjustment of the interest rate whenever a specified interest rate or index changes. The interest rate on variable and floating rate securities (collectively, “Adjustable Rate Securities”) ordinarily is determined by reference to a particular bank’s prime rate, the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill rate, the rate of return on commercial paper or bank CDs, an index of short-term tax-exempt rates or some other objective measure.
Adjustable Rate Securities frequently permit the holder to demand payment of the obligations’ principal and accrued interest at any time or at specified intervals not exceeding one year. The demand feature usually is backed by a credit instrument (e.g., a bank letter of credit) from a creditworthy issuer and sometimes by insurance from a creditworthy insurer. Without these credit enhancements, some Adjustable Rate Securities might not meet a Fund’s quality standards.In purchasing these securities, the Fund relies primarily on the creditworthiness of the credit instrument issuer or the insurer. The Fund can also buy fixed rate securities accompanied by a demand feature or by a put option, which permits the Fund to sell the security to the issuer or third party at a specified price. The Fund may rely on the creditworthiness of issuers of the credit enhancements in purchasing these securities.
Warrants and Rights.  Warrants and rights may be acquired by the Fund in connection with other securities or separately.  Warrants are securities permitting, but not obligating, their holder to subscribe for other securities or commodities and provide the Fund with the right to purchase at a later date other securities of the issuer. Rights are similar to warrants but typically are issued by a company to existing holders of its stock and provide those holders the right to purchase additional shares of stock at a later date.  Rights also normally have a shorter duration than warrants.  Warrants and rights do not carry with them the right to dividends or voting rights with respect to the securities that they entitle their holder to purchase, and they do not represent any rights in the assets of the issuer. Warrants and rights may be more speculative than certain other types of investments and entail risks that are not associated with a similar investment in a traditional equity instrument. While warrants and rights are generally considered equity securities, because the value of a warrant or right is derived, at least in part, from the value of the underlying securities, they may be considered hybrid instruments that have features of both equity securities and derivative instruments. However, there are characteristics of warrants and rights that differ from derivatives, including that the value of a warrant or right does not necessarily change with the value of the underlying securities.  The purchase of warrants and rights involves the risk that the Fund could lose the purchase value of the warrants or rights if the right to subscribe to additional shares is not exercised prior to the warrants’ or rights’ expiration date because warrants and rights cease to have value if they are not exercised prior to their expiration date. Also, the purchase of warrants and rights involves the risk that the effective price paid for the warrants or rights added to the subscription price of the related security may exceed the value of the subscribed security’s market price such as when there is no movement in the price of the underlying security.  The market for warrants or rights may be very limited and it may be difficult to sell them promptly at an acceptable price.
When-Issued and Delayed-Delivery Securities and Forward Commitments.  The Fund may purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis and may purchase or sell securities on a
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forward commitment basis. These transactions involve a commitment by the Fund to purchase or sell securities at a future date (ordinarily within two months, although the Fund may agree to a longer settlement period). These transactions may involve mortgage-backed securities, such as GNMA, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac certificates. The price of the underlying securities (usually expressed in terms of yield) and the date when the securities will be delivered and paid for (the settlement date) are fixed at the time the transaction is negotiated. When-issued and delayed-delivery purchases and forward commitment transactions are negotiated directly with the other party, and such commitments are not traded on exchanges.

When-issued and delayed-delivery purchases and forward commitment transactions enable the Fund to “lock in” what the Manager believes to be an attractive price or yield on a particular security for a period of time, regardless of future changes in interest rates. For instance, in periods of rising interest rates and falling prices, the Fund might sell securities it owns on a forward commitment basis to limit its exposure to falling prices. In periods of falling interest rates and rising prices, the Fund might purchase a security on a when-issued, delayed-delivery or forward commitment basis and sell a similar security to settle such purchase, thereby obtaining the benefit of currently higher yields. When-issued, delayed-delivery and forward commitment transactions are subject to the risk that the counterparty may fail to complete the purchase or sale of the security. If this occurs, the Fund may lose the opportunity to purchase or sell the security at the agreed upon price. To reduce this risk, the Fund will enter into transactions with established counterparties and the Manager will monitor the creditworthiness of such counterparties.
The value of securities purchased on a when-issued, delayed-delivery or forward commitment basis and any subsequent fluctuations in their value are reflected in the computation of the Fund’s NAV starting on the date of the agreement to purchase the securities. Because the Fund has not yet paid for the securities, this produces an effect similar to leverage. The Fund does not earn interest on securities it has committed to purchase until the securities are paid for and delivered on the settlement date. Because the Fund is committed to buying them at a certain price, any change in the value of these securities, even prior to their issuance, affects the value of the Fund’s interests. The purchase of securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis also involves a risk of loss if the value of the security to be purchased declines before the settlement date. When the Fund makes a forward commitment to sell securities it owns, the proceeds to be received upon settlement are included in that Fund’s assets. Fluctuations in the market value of the underlying securities are not reflected in the Fund’s NAV as long as the commitment to sell remains in effect.
When-issued, delayed-delivery and forward commitment transactions may cause the Fund to liquidate positions when it may not be advantageous to do so in order to satisfy its purchase or sale obligations.
Policies and Limitations. The Fund will purchase securities on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis or purchase or sell securities on a forward commitment basis only with the intention of completing the transaction and actually purchasing or selling the securities. If deemed advisable as a matter of investment strategy, however, the Fund may dispose of or renegotiate a commitment after it has been entered into. The Fund also may sell securities it has committed to purchase before those securities are delivered to the Fund on the settlement date. The Fund may realize capital gains or losses in connection with these transactions.
The Fund may also enter into a TBA agreement and “roll over” such agreement prior to the settlement date by selling the obligation to purchase the pools set forth in the agreement and entering into a new TBA agreement for future delivery of pools of mortgage-backed securities. TBA mortgage-backed securities may increase prepayment risks because the underlying mortgages may be less favorable than anticipated by the Fund.
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When the Fund purchases securities on a when-issued, delayed-delivery or forward commitment basis, the Fund will deposit in a segregated account with its custodian, or designate on its records as segregated, until payment is made, appropriate liquid securities having a value (determined daily) at least equal to the amount of the Fund’s purchase commitments. In the case of a forward commitment to sell portfolio securities, the portfolio securities will be held in a segregated account, or the portfolio securities will be designated on the Fund’s records as segregated, while the commitment is outstanding. These procedures are designed to ensure that the Fund maintains sufficient assets at all times to cover its obligations under when-issued and delayed-delivery purchases and forward commitment transactions.
Wholly Owned Subsidiary. The Fund invests a portion of its assets in a wholly owned subsidiary organized as an exempted company with limited liability under the laws of the Cayman Islands (“Subsidiary”). The Fund invests in the Subsidiary in order to indirectly gain exposure to the commodities markets within the limitations of Subchapter M of Chapter 1 of Subtitle A of the Code applicable to RICs. The Fund must maintain no more than 25% of the value of its total assets in the Subsidiary at the end of every quarter of its taxable year. The Fund is the sole shareholder of the Subsidiary, and shares of the Subsidiary will not be sold or offered to other investors.  The Subsidiary’s commodity-linked investments (including commodity-linked futures contracts, structured notes, swaps and options) are expected to produce leveraged exposure to the performance of the commodities markets. The Subsidiary also may invest in money market funds, fixed income securities and other instruments that may serve as collateral for its commodity-linked positions and may hold cash or cash equivalents.
The Fund has received an opinion of counsel, which is not binding on the Service or the courts, that distributions of income it receives from the Subsidiary that satisfy certain requirements will constitute qualifying income. See “Additional Tax Information - Taxation of the Fund - The Subsidiary.”
If the Fund’s income from the Subsidiary was not qualifying income, the Fund could be unable to qualify as a RIC for one or more taxable years.  If the Fund failed to so qualify for any taxable year but was eligible to and did cure the failure, it would incur potentially significant federal income tax expense.  If, on the other hand, the Fund failed to so qualify for any taxable year and was ineligible to or otherwise did not cure the failure, it would be subject to federal income tax on its taxable income at corporate rates, with the consequence that its income available for distribution to shareholders would be reduced, and all such distributions from earnings and profits would be taxable to them as dividend income. In that event, the Trustees may authorize a significant change in investment strategy or a Fund’s liquidation.
The commodity-related investments of the Subsidiary will not generally be subject to U.S. laws (including securities laws) and their protections. Further, they will be subject to the laws of a foreign jurisdiction, which can be adversely affected by developments in that jurisdiction.
The Subsidiary is overseen by its own board of directors. While the Subsidiary may be considered similar to an investment company, it is not registered under the 1940 Act and, except as noted in the Fund’s prospectus or this SAI, is not subject to all of the investor protection requirements of the 1940 Act and other U.S. statutes and regulations.  Consequently, the Fund, as the sole shareholder of the Subsidiary, will not have all of the protections afforded to investors in registered mutual funds.  However, the Subsidiary is wholly owned and controlled by the Fund and the Fund Trustees maintain oversight responsibility for investment activities of the Subsidiary generally (with respect to compliance and investment policies and procedures) as if the Subsidiary’s investments were held directly by a Fund. Furthermore, NBIA is responsible for the Subsidiary’s day-to-day business pursuant to an Investment Management Agreement between the Subsidiary and NBIA. Therefore, the Fund’s ownership and control of the Subsidiary make it unlikely that the Subsidiary would take any action contrary to the interests of the Fund or its shareholders.
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Under the Investment Management Agreement with the Subsidiary, NBIA provides the Subsidiary with the same type of management services, under the same terms, as are provided to the Fund. The Subsidiary also has contracted with service providers to provide custody and other services to the Subsidiary.

In managing the Subsidiary’s investment portfolio, and in adhering to the Fund’s compliance policies and procedures, NBIA treats the assets of the Subsidiary as if the assets were held directly by the Fund. NBIA also treats the assets of the Subsidiary as if the assets were held directly by the Fund with respect to its adherence to the Fund’s investment policies and restrictions.
The Subsidiary pays NBIA for the investment management services it receives.  The Subsidiary also bears other fees and expenses it incurs in connection with its operations, such as those for services it receives from third party service providers.
The financial information of the Subsidiary is consolidated in the Fund’s financial statements, as contained within the Fund’s Annual and Semiannual Reports provided to shareholders.  Changes in U.S. laws (where the Fund is organized) and/or the Cayman Islands (where the Subsidiary is organized), could prevent the Fund and/or the Subsidiary from operating as described in the Fund’s prospectus and this SAI and could negatively affect the Fund and its shareholders. For example, the Cayman Islands has undertaken not to impose certain taxes on the Subsidiary, including any income, corporate, or capital gains tax, estate duty, inheritance tax, gift tax, or withholding tax. If the Subsidiary’s exemption from those taxes were revoked, thus requiring the Subsidiary to pay Cayman Islands taxes, the investment returns of the Fund would likely decrease.
By investing in the Subsidiary, the Fund is indirectly exposed to the risks associated with the Subsidiary’s investments.
Zero Coupon Securities, Step Coupon Securities, Pay-in-Kind Securities and Discount Obligations.  The Fund may invest in zero coupon securities, step coupon securities and pay-in-kind securities. These do not entitle the holder to any periodic payment of interest prior to maturity or that specify a future date when the securities begin to pay current interest. The Fund may also acquire certain debt securities at a discount. These discount obligations involve special risk considerations. Zero coupon securities and step coupon securities are debt obligations that are issued and traded at a discount from their face amount or par value (known as “original issue discount” or “OID”). OID varies depending on prevailing interest rates, the time remaining until cash payments begin, the liquidity of the security, and the perceived credit quality of the issuer.
Zero coupon securities and step coupon securities are redeemed at face value when they mature.  Accrued OID must be included in the Fund’s gross income for federal tax purposes ratably each taxable year prior to the receipt of any actual payments. Pay-in-kind securities pay “interest” through the issuance of additional securities.
Because the Fund must distribute substantially all of its net investment income (including non-cash income attributable to OID and “interest” on pay-in-kind securities) and net realized gains to its shareholders each taxable year to continue to qualify for treatment as a RIC and to minimize or avoid payment of federal income and excise taxes, the Fund may have to dispose of portfolio securities under disadvantageous circumstances to generate cash, or may be required to borrow, to satisfy the distribution requirements. See “Additional Tax Information – Taxation of the Fund.”
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The market prices of zero coupon securities, step coupon securities, pay-in-kind securities and discount obligations generally are more volatile than the prices of securities that pay cash interest periodically. Those securities and obligations are likely to respond to changes in interest rates to a greater degree than other types of debt securities having a similar maturity and credit quality.
PERFORMANCE INFORMATION
The Fund’s performance figures are or will be based on historical results and are not intended to indicate future performance. The share price and total return of the Fund will vary, and an investment in the Fund, when redeemed, may be worth more or less than an investor’s original cost.
TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS
The following tables set forth information concerning the Fund Trustees and Officers of the Trust. All persons named as Fund Trustees and Officers also serve in similar capacities for other funds administered or managed by NBIA. A Fund Trustee who is not an “interested person” of NBIA (including its affiliates) or the Trust is deemed to be an independent Fund Trustee (“Independent Fund Trustee”).

Information about the Board of Trustees

Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)

Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
Independent Fund Trustees
Michael J.
Cosgrove
(1949)
Trustee since 2021
President, Carragh Consulting USA, since 2014; formerly, Executive, General Electric Company, 1970 to 2014, including President, Mutual Funds and Global Investment Programs, GE Asset Management, 2011 to 2014, President and Chief Executive Officer, Mutual Funds and Intermediary Business, GE Asset Management, 2007 to 2011, President, Institutional Sales and Marketing, GE Asset Management, 1998 to 2007,
50
Director, America Press, Inc. (not-for-profit Jesuit publisher), 2015 to 2021; formerly, Director, Fordham University, 2001 to 2018; formerly, Director, The Gabelli Go Anywhere Trust, June 2015 to June 2016; formerly, Director, Skin Cancer Foundation (not-for-profit), 2006 to 2015; formerly, Director, GE Investments Funds, Inc., 1997 to 2014; formerly, Trustee, GE Institutional Funds, 1997 to 2014; formerly, Director, GE Asset Management, 1988

79

Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
   
and Chief Financial Officer, GE Asset
Management, and Deputy Treasurer, GE
Company, 1988 to 1993.
  to 2014; formerly, Director, Elfun Trusts, 1988 to 2014; formerly, Trustee, GE Pension & Benefit Plans, 1988 to 2014; formerly, Member of Board of Governors, Investment Company Institute.
Marc Gary
(1952)
Trustee since 2021
Executive Vice Chancellor Emeritus, The Jewish Theological Seminary, since 2020; formerly, Executive Vice Chancellor and Chief Operating Officer, Jewish Theological Seminary, 2012 to 2020; formerly, Executive Vice President and General Counsel, Fidelity Investments, 2007 to 2012; formerly, Executive Vice President and General Counsel, BellSouth Corporation, 2004 to 2007; formerly, Vice President and Associate General Counsel, BellSouth Corporation, 2000 to 2004; formerly, Associate, Partner, and National Litigation Practice Co-Chair, Mayer, Brown LLP, 1981 to 2000; formerly, Associate Independent Counsel, Office of Independent Counsel, 1990 to 1992.
50
Chair and Director, USCJ Supporting Foundation, since 2021; Director, UJA Federation of Greater New York, since 2019; Trustee, Jewish Theological Seminary, since 2015; formerly, Director, Legility, Inc. (privately held for-profit company), 2012 to 2021; Director, Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law (not-for-profit), since 2005; formerly, Director, Equal Justice Works (not-for-profit), 2005 to 2014; formerly, Director, Corporate Counsel Institute, Georgetown University Law Center, 2007 to 2012; formerly, Director, Greater Boston Legal Services (not-for-profit), 2007 to 2012.
Martha
Clarke 
Goss
(1949)
Trustee since 2021
President, Woodhill Enterprises Inc./Chase Hollow Associates LLC (personal investment
50
Director, American Water (water utility), since 2003; Director, Allianz Life of New York (insurance), since 2005;

80


Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
    vehicle), 2006 to 2020; formerly, Consultant, Resources Global Professionals (temporary staffing), 2002 to 2006; formerly, Chief Financial Officer, Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc., 1995 to 1999; formerly, Enterprise Risk Officer, Prudential Insurance, 1994 to1995; formerly, President, Prudential Asset Management Company, 1992 to 1994; formerly, President, Prudential Power Funding (investments in electric and gas utilities and alternative energy projects), 1989 to 1992; formerly, Treasurer, Prudential Insurance Company, 1983 to 1989.   formerly, Director, Berger Group Holdings, Inc. (engineering consulting firm), from 2013 to 2018; formerly, Director, Financial Women’s Association of New York (not-for-profit association), from 1987 to 2996, 2003 to 2019; ; Trustee Emerita, Brown University, since 1998; Director, Museum of American Finance (not-for-profit), since 2013; formerly, Non-Executive Chair and Director, Channel Reinsurance (financial guaranty reinsurance), 2006 to 2010; formerly, Director, Ocwen Financial Corporation (mortgage servicing), 2005 to 2010; formerly, Director, Claire’s Stores, Inc. (retailer), 2005 to 2007; formerly, Director, Parsons Brinckerhoff Inc. (engineering consulting firm), 2007 to 2010; formerly, Director, Bank Leumi (commercial bank), 2005 to 2007; formerly, Advisory Board Member, Attensity (software developer), 2005 to 2007; formerly, Director of Foster Wheeler Manufacturing, 1994 to 2004; formerly Director Dexter Corp., Manufacturer of Non-Wovens, Plastics, and

81


Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
        Medical Supplies, 1992 to 2001.
Michael
M. Knetter
(1960)
Trustee since 2021
President and Chief Executive Officer, University of Wisconsin Foundation, since 2010; formerly, Dean, School of Business, University of Wisconsin - Madison; formerly, Professor of International Economics and Associate Dean, Amos Tuck School of Business - Dartmouth College, 1998 to 2002.
50
Director, 1 William Street Credit Income Fund, since 2018; Board Member, American Family Insurance (a mutual company, not publicly traded), since March 2009; formerly, Trustee, Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc., 2007 to 2011; formerly, Director, Wausau Paper, 2005 to 2011; formerly, Director, Great Wolf Resorts, 2004 to 2009.
Deborah
C.
McLean
(1954)
Trustee since 2021
Member, Circle Financial Group (private wealth management membership practice), since 2011; Managing Director, Golden Seeds LLC (an angel investing group), since 2009; Adjunct Professor (Corporate Finance), Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, since 2008; formerly, Visiting Assistant Professor, Fairfield University, Dolan School of Business, Fall 2007; formerly, Adjunct Associate Professor of Finance, Richmond, The American International University in London, 1999 to 2007.
50
Board member, The Maritime Aquarium at Norwalk, since 2020; Board member, Norwalk Community College Foundation, since 2014; Dean’s Advisory Council, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, since 2014; formerly, Director and Treasurer, At Home in Darien (not-for-profit), 2012 to 2014; formerly, Director, National Executive Service Corps (not-for-profit), 2012 to 2013; formerly, Trustee, Richmond, The American International University in London, 1999 to 2013.

82


Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
George W.
Morriss
(1947)
Trustee since 2021
Adjunct Professor, Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, since 2012; formerly, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, People’s United Bank, Connecticut (a financial services company), 1991 to 2001.
50
Director, 1 WS Credit Income Fund; Chair, Audit Committee, since 2018; Director and Chair, Thrivent Church Loan and Income Fund, since 2018; formerly, Trustee, Steben Alternative Investment Funds, Steben Select Multi-Strategy Fund, and Steben Select Multi-Strategy Master Fund, 2013 to 2017; formerly, Treasurer, National Association of Corporate Directors, Connecticut Chapter, 2011 to 2015; formerly, Manager, Larch Lane Multi-Strategy Fund complex (which consisted of three funds), 2006 to 2011; formerly, Member, NASDAQ Issuers’ Affairs Committee, 1995 to 2003.
Tom D.
Seip
(1950)
Trustee since 2000; Chairman of the Board since 2008; formerly Lead Independent Trustee from 2006 to 2008
Formerly, Managing Member, Ridgefield Farm LLC (a private investment vehicle), 2004 to 2016; formerly, President and CEO, Westaff, Inc. (temporary staffing), May 2001 to January 2002; formerly, Senior Executive, The Charles Schwab Corporation, 1983 to 1998, including Chief Executive Officer, Charles Schwab Investment Management, Inc.; Trustee, Schwab Family of Funds and
50
Formerly, Director, H&R Block, Inc. (tax services company), 2001 to 2018; formerly, Director, Talbot Hospice Inc., 2013 to 2016; formerly, Chairman, Governance and Nominating Committee, H&R Block, Inc., 2011 to 2015; formerly, Chairman, Compensation Committee, H&R Block, Inc., 2006 to 2010; formerly, Director, Forward Management, Inc. (asset


83


Name,
(Year of
Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s)
and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Number
of Funds
in Fund
Complex
Overseen
by Fund
Trustee
Other Directorships Held
Outside Fund Complex by
Fund Trustee (3)
    Schwab Investments, 1997 to 1998; and Executive Vice President-Retail Brokerage, Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., 1994 to 1997.   management company), 1999 to 2006.
James G.
Stavridis
(1955)
Trustee since 2021
Operating Executive, The Carlyle Group, since 2018; Commentator, NBC News, since 2015; formerly, Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, 2013 to 2018; formerly, Admiral, United States Navy, 1976 to 2013, including Supreme Allied Commander, NATO and Commander, European Command, 2009 to 2013, and Commander, United States Southern Command, 2006 to 2009.
50
Director, American Water (water utility), since 2018; Director, NFP Corp. (insurance broker and consultant), since 2017; Director, U.S. Naval Institute, since 2014; Director, Onassis Foundation, since 2014; Director, BMC Software Federal, LLC, since 2014; Director, Vertical Knowledge, LLC, since 2013; formerly, Director, Navy Federal Credit Union, 2000-2002.

84


Fund Trustees who are “Interested Persons”
Joseph V.
Amato*
(1962)
Chief Executive Officer and President   since 2021 and Trustee since 2021
President and Director, Neuberger Berman Group LLC, since 2009; President and Chief Executive Officer, Neuberger Berman BD LLC and Neuberger Berman Holdings LLC (including its predecessor, Neuberger Berman Inc.), since 2007; Chief Investment Officer (Equities) and President (Equities), NBIA (formerly, Neuberger Berman Fixed Income LLC and including predecessor entities), since 2007, and Board Member of NBIA since 2006; formerly, Global Head of Asset Management of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.’s (“LBHI”) Investment Management Division, 2006 to 2009; formerly, member of LBHI’s Investment Management Division’s Executive Management Committee, 2006 to 2009; formerly, Managing Director, Lehman Brothers Inc. (“LBI”), 2006 to 2008; formerly, Chief Recruiting and Development Officer, LBI, 2005 to 2006; formerly, Global Head of LBI’s Equity Sales and a Member of its Equities Division Executive Committee, 2003 to 2005; President and Chief Executive Officer, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
50
Member of Board of Advisors, McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University, since 2001; Member of New York City Board of Advisors, Teach for America, since 2005; Trustee, Montclair Kimberley Academy (private school), since 2007; Member of Board of Regents, Georgetown University, since 2013.


(1)
The business address of each listed person is 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104.
(2)
Pursuant to the Trust’s Amended and Restated Trust Instrument (“Trust Instrument”), subject to any limitations on the term of service imposed by the By-Laws or any retirement policy adopted by the Fund Trustees, each Fund Trustee shall hold office for life or until his or her successor is elected or the Trust terminates; except that (a) any Fund Trustee may resign by delivering a written

85


  resignation; (b) any Fund Trustee may be removed with or without cause at any time by a written instrument signed by at least two-thirds of the other Fund Trustees; (c) any Fund Trustee who requests to be retired, or who has become unable to serve, may be retired by a written instrument signed by a majority of the other Fund Trustees; and (d) any Fund Trustee may be removed at any shareholder meeting by a vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares.
(3)
Except as otherwise indicated, each individual has held the positions shown during at least the last five years.
*
Indicates a Fund Trustee who is an “interested person” within the meaning of the 1940 Act. Mr. Amato is an interested person of the Trust by virtue of the fact that he is an officer of NBIA and/or its affiliates.
Information about the Officers of the Trust
Name, (Year of Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s) and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Claudia A. Brandon (1956)
Executive Vice President since 2021 and Secretary since 2021
Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2007 and Employee since 1999; Senior Vice President, NBIA, since 2008 and Assistant Secretary since 2004; formerly, Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2002 to 2006; formerly, Vice President — Mutual Fund Board Relations, NBIA, 2000 to 2008; formerly, Vice President, NBIA, 1986 to 1999 and Employee, 1984 to 1999; Executive Vice President and Secretary, thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Agnes Diaz (1971) Vice President since 2021 Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2012; Senior Vice President, NBIA, since 2012 and Employee since 1996; formerly, Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2007 to 2012; Vice President, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.

86


Name, (Year of Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s) and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
 
Anthony DiBernardo (1979)
Assistant Treasurer since 2021
Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2014; Senior Vice President, NBIA, since 2014, and Employee since 2003; formerly, Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2009 to 2014; Assistant Treasurer, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
 
Savonne L. Ferguson (1973)
Chief Compliance Officer since 2021
Senior Vice President, Chief Compliance Officer (Mutual Funds) and Associate General Counsel, NBIA, since November 2018; formerly, Vice President T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. (2018), Vice President and Senior Legal Counsel, T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (2014-2018), Vice President and Director of Regulatory Fund Administration, PNC Capital Advisors, LLC (2009-2014), Secretary, PNC Funds and PNC Advantage Funds (2010-2014); Chief Compliance Officer, thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
 
Corey A. Issing (1978) Chief Legal Officer since 2021 (only for purposes of sections 307 and 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002) General Counsel— Mutual Funds since 2016 and Managing Director, NBIA, since 2017; formerly, Associate General Counsel (2015 to 2016), Counsel (2007 to 2015), Senior Vice President (2013-2016), Vice President (2009 — 2013); Chief Legal Officer (only for purposes of sections 307 and 406 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002), thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.  


87


Name, (Year of Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s) and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Sheila R. James (1965)
Assistant Secretary since 2021
Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2008 and Employee since 1999; Vice President, NBIA, since 2008; formerly, Assistant Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2007; Employee, NBIA, 1991 to 1999; Assistant Secretary, thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Brian Kerrane (1969)
Chief Operating Officer since 2021 and Vice President since 2021
Managing Director, Neuberger Berman, since 2013; Chief Operating Officer — Mutual Funds and Managing Director, NBIA, since 2015; formerly, Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2006 to 2014; Vice President, NBIA, 2008 to 2015 and Employee since 1991; Chief Operating Officer, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator; Vice President, thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Anthony Maltese (1959)
Vice President since 2021
Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2014 and Employee since 2000; Senior Vice President, NBIA, since 2014; Vice President, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Josephine Marone (1963)
Assistant Secretary since 2021
Senior Paralegal, Neuberger Berman, since 2007 and Employee since 2007; Assistant Secretary, thirty-three registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.

88


Name, (Year of Birth), and
Address (1)
Position(s) and Length of
Time Served (2)
Principal Occupation(s) (3)
Owen F. McEntee, Jr. (1961)
Vice President since 2021
Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2006; Vice President, NBIA, since 2006 and Employee since 1992; Vice President, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
John M. McGovern (1970)
Treasurer and Principal Financial and Accounting Officer since 2021
Senior Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2007; Senior Vice President, NBIA, since 2007 and Employee since 1993; formerly, Vice President, Neuberger Berman, 2004 to 2006; formerly, Assistant Treasurer, 2002 to 2005; Treasurer and Principal Financial and Accounting Officer, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Frank Rosato (1971)
Assistant Treasurer since 2021
Vice President, Neuberger Berman, since 2006; Vice President, NBIA, since 2006 and Employee since 1995; Assistant Treasurer, twelve registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or administrator.
Niketh Velamoor
(1979)
Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer since 2021
Senior Vice President and Associate General Counsel, Neuberger Berman, since July 2018; Assistant United States Attorney, Southern District of New York, 2009 to 2018; Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Officer, five registered investment companies for which NBIA acts as investment manager and/or
administrator.

(1)
The business address of each listed person is 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104.
(2)
Pursuant to the By‑Laws of the Trust, each officer elected by the Fund Trustees shall hold office until his or her successor shall have been elected and qualified or until his or

89


  her earlier death, inability to serve, or resignation. Officers serve at the pleasure of the Fund Trustees and may be removed at any time with or without cause.
(3)
Except as otherwise indicated, each individual has held the positions shown during at least the last five years.

The Board of Trustees
The Board of Trustees (“Board”) is responsible for managing the business and affairs of the Trust. Among other things, the Board generally oversees the portfolio management of the Fund and reviews and approves the Fund’s investment advisory and sub-advisory contracts and other principal contracts.
The Board has appointed an Independent Fund Trustee to serve in the role of Chairman of the Board.  The Chair’s primary responsibilities are (i) to participate in the preparation of the agenda for meetings of the Board and in the identification of information to be presented to the Board; (ii) to preside at all meetings of the Board; (iii) to act as the Board’s liaison with management between meetings of the Board; and (iv) to act as the primary contact for board communications.  The Chair may perform such other functions as may be requested by the Board from time to time.  Except for any duties specified herein or pursuant to the Trust’s Declaration of Trust or By-laws, the designation as Chair does not impose on such Independent Fund Trustee any duties, obligations or liability that is greater than the duties, obligations or liability imposed on such person as a member of the Board, generally.
As described below, the Board has an established committee structure through which the Board considers and addresses important matters involving the Fund, including those identified as presenting conflicts or potential conflicts of interest for management.  The Independent Fund Trustees also regularly meet outside the presence of management and are advised by experienced independent legal counsel knowledgeable in matters of investment company regulation.  The Board periodically evaluates its structure and composition as well as various aspects of its operations.  The Board believes that its leadership structure, including its Independent Chair and its committee structure, is appropriate in light of, among other factors, the asset size of the fund complex overseen by the Board, the nature and number of funds overseen by the Board, the number of Fund Trustees, the range of experience represented on the Board, and the Board’s responsibilities.
Additional Information About Fund Trustees
In choosing each Fund Trustee to serve, the Board was generally aware of each Fund Trustee’s skills, experience, judgment, analytical ability, intelligence, common sense, previous profit and not-for-profit board membership and, for each Independent Fund Trustee, his or her demonstrated willingness to take an independent and questioning stance toward management.  Each Fund Trustee also has considerable familiarity with the funds in the Neuberger Berman fund complex, the Manager, the distributor, and their operations, as well as the special regulatory requirements governing regulated investment companies and the special responsibilities of investment company directors, and has substantial prior service serving as a trustee of the trusts comprising the Neuberger Berman fund complex over multiple years.  No particular qualification, experience or background establishes the basis for any Fund Trustee’s position on the Board and the Governance and Nominating Committee and individual Board members may have attributed different weights to the various factors.
In addition to the information set forth in the table above and other relevant qualifications, experience, attributes or skills applicable to a particular Fund Trustee, the following provides further information about the qualifications and experience of each Fund Trustee.
90

Independent Fund Trustees
Michael J. Cosgrove:  Mr. Cosgrove is President of an asset management consulting firm.  He has experience as President, Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Financial Officer of the asset management division of a major multinational corporation. He also has experience as a President of institutional sales and marketing for the asset management division of the same corporation, where he was responsible for all distribution, marketing, and development of mutual fund products. He also has served as a member of the boards of various not-for-profit organizations. He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Marc Gary: Mr. Gary has legal and investment management experience as executive vice president and general counsel of a major asset management firm. He also has experience as executive vice president and general counsel at a large corporation, and as national litigation practice chair at a large law firm.  He has served as a member of the boards of various profit and not-for-profit organizations. He currently is a trustee and the executive vice chancellor and COO of a religious seminary where he oversees the seminary’s institutional budget. He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Martha Clark Goss:  Ms. Goss has experience as chief operating and financial officer of an insurance holding company.  She has experience as an investment professional, head of an investment unit and treasurer for a major insurance company, experience as the Chief Financial Officer of two consulting firms, and experience as a lending officer and credit analyst at a major bank.  She has experience managing a personal investment vehicle.  She has served as a member of the boards of various profit and not-for-profit organizations, including  five NYSE listed companies, and a university.  She has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Michael M. Knetter:  Dr. Knetter has organizational management experience as a dean of a major university business school and as President and CEO of a university supporting foundation.  He also has responsibility for overseeing management of the university’s endowment.  He has academic experience as a professor of international economics.  He has served as a member of the boards of various public companies and another mutual fund.  He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Deborah C. McLean: Ms. McLean has experience in the financial services industry. She is currently involved with a high net worth private wealth management membership practice and an angel investing group, where she is active in investment screening and deal leadership and execution. For many years she has been engaged in numerous roles with a variety of not-for-profit and private company boards and has taught corporate finance at the graduate and undergraduate levels. She commenced her professional training at a major financial services corporation, where she was employed for multiple years. She has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
George W. Morriss:  Mr. Morriss has experience in senior management and as chief financial officer of a financial services company.  He has investment management experience as a portfolio manager managing personal and institutional funds.  He has served as a member of a committee of representatives from companies listed on NASDAQ.  He has served on the board of another mutual fund complex.   He has served as a member of the board of funds of hedge funds.  He has an advanced degree in finance.  He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Tom D. Seip:  Mr. Seip has experience in senior management and as chief executive officer and director of a financial services company overseeing other mutual funds and brokerage.  He has experience as director of an asset management company.  He has experience in management of a private investment partnership.  He has
91

served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years and as Independent Chair and/or Lead Independent Trustee of the Board.

James G. Stavridis: Admiral Stavridis has organizational management experience as a dean of a major university school of law and diplomacy.  He also held many leadership roles with the United States Navy over the span of nearly four decades, including serving as NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Europe and serving at the Pentagon at different periods of time as a strategic and long range planner on the staffs of the chief of Naval Operations, as the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and as Commander, U.S. Southern Command.  He has also served as an advisor to private and public companies on geopolitical and cybersecurity matters. He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Fund Trustees who are “Interested Persons”
Joseph V. Amato:  Mr. Amato has investment management experience as an executive with Neuberger Berman and another financial services firm.  Effective July 1, 2018, Mr. Amato serves as Managing Director of Neuberger Berman and President–Mutual Funds of NBIA. He also serves as Neuberger Berman’s Chief Investment Officer for equity investments.  He has experience in leadership roles within Neuberger Berman and its affiliated entities.  He has served as a member of the board of a major university business school.  He has served as a trustee for the Neuberger Berman fund complex for multiple years.
Information About Committees

The Board has established several standing committees to oversee particular aspects of the Fund’s management. None of these committee met for the Trust during the prior fiscal year as the Trust’s funds had not commenced operations during the prior fiscal year. The standing committees of the Board are described below.
Audit Committee. The Audit Committee’s purposes are: (a) in accordance with exchange requirements and Rule 32a-4 under the 1940 Act, to oversee the accounting and financial reporting processes of the Fund and, as the Committee deems appropriate, to inquire into the internal control over financial reporting of service providers; (b) in accordance with exchange requirements and Rule 32a-4 under the 1940 Act, to oversee the quality and integrity of the Fund’s financial statements and the independent audit thereof; (c) in accordance with exchange requirements and Rule 32a-4 under the 1940 Act, to oversee, or, as appropriate, assist Board oversight of, the Funds’ compliance with legal and regulatory requirements that relate to the Fund’s accounting and financial reporting, internal control over financial reporting and independent audits; (d) to approve prior to appointment by the Board, the engagement of the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm and, in connection therewith, to review and evaluate the qualifications, independence and performance of the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm; (e) to act as a liaison between the Fund’s independent registered public accounting firm and the full Board; (f) to monitor the operation of policies and procedures reasonably designed to ensure that each portfolio holding is valued in an appropriate and timely manner, reflecting information known to management about the issuer, current market conditions, and other material factors (“Pricing Procedures”); (g) to consider and evaluate, and recommend to the Board when the Committee deems it appropriate, amendments to the Pricing Procedures proposed by management, counsel, the auditors and others; and (h) from time to time, as required or permitted by the Pricing Procedures, to establish or ratify a method of determining the fair value of portfolio securities for which market prices are not readily available. Its members are Michael J. Cosgrove (Chair), Martha C. Goss (Vice Chair), and Deborah C. McLean. All members are Independent Fund Trustees.
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Contract Review Committee. The Contract Review Committee is responsible for reviewing and making recommendations to the Board regarding whether  to approve or renew the Trust’s principal contractual arrangements, Rule 12b-1 plans, and such other agreements or plans involving the Trust as the Board determines from time to time. The Contract Review Committee oversees and guides the process by which the Independent Trustees annually consider whether to approve or renew such contracts and plans. Its members are Marc Gary, Deborah C. McLean (Chair), George W. Morriss (Vice Chair) and Michael J. Cosgrove.  All members are Independent Fund Trustees.
Ethics and Compliance Committee. The Ethics and Compliance Committee generally: (a) coordinates the Board’s oversight of the Trust's Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”) in connection with the implementation of the Trust’s program for compliance with Rule 38a-1 and the Trust’s implementation and enforcement of its compliance policies and procedures; (b) oversees the compliance with the Trust’s Code of Ethics, which restricts the personal securities transactions, including transactions in Fund shares, of employees, officers, and trustees; (c) considers and evaluates management’s framework for identifying, prioritizing, and managing compliance risks; (d) oversees the adequacy and fairness of the arrangements for securities lending, if any, in a manner consistent with applicable regulatory requirements, with special emphasis on any arrangements in which the Fund deals with the manager or any affiliate of the manager as principal or agent; (e) oversees the program by which the manager seeks to monitor and improve the quality of execution for portfolio transactions; and (f) considers and evaluates other quarterly and annual reports from management including contractual arrangements with third-party intermediaries. The Committee shall not assume oversight duties to the extent that such duties have been assigned by the Board expressly to another Committee of the Board (such as oversight of internal controls over financial reporting, which has been assigned to the Audit Committee.)  The Committee’s primary function is oversight. Each investment adviser, subadviser, principal underwriter, administrator, custodian and transfer agent, as applicable, (collectively, “Service Providers”) is responsible for its own compliance with the federal securities laws and for devising, implementing, maintaining and updating appropriate policies, procedures and codes of ethics to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations and their contracts with the Fund.  The CCO is responsible for administering the Fund’s compliance program, including devising and implementing appropriate methods of testing compliance by the Fund and its Service Providers.  Its members are Marc Gary (Chair), James G. Stavridis  (Vice Chair), Michael M. Knetter, and Tom D. Seip. All members are Independent Fund Trustees. The entire Board will receive at least annually a report on the compliance programs of the Trust and service providers and the required annual reports on the administration of the Code of Ethics and the required annual certifications from the Trust and NBIA.

Executive Committee. The Executive Committee is responsible for acting in an emergency when a quorum of the Board is not available; the Committee has all the powers of the Board when the Board is not in session to the extent permitted by Delaware law.  Its members are Joseph V. Amato (Vice Chair), Michael J. Cosgrove, Marc Gary, Martha C. Goss, Michael M. Knetter, Deborah C. McLean, George W. Morriss, and Tom D. Seip (Chair). All members, except for Mr. Amato, are Independent Fund Trustees. Governance and Nominating Committee. The Governance and Nominating Committee is responsible for: (a) considering and evaluating the structure, composition and operation of the Board and each committee thereof, including the operation of the annual self-evaluation by the Board; (b) evaluating and nominating individuals to serve as Fund Trustees including as Independent Fund Trustees, as members of committees, as Chair of the Board and as officers of the Trust; (c) recommending for Board approval any proposed changes to Committee membership and recommending for Board and Committee approval any proposed changes to the Chair and Vice Chair appointments of any Committee following consultation with members of each such Committee; and (d) considering and making recommendations relating to the compensation of Independent Fund Trustees. Its members are Martha C. Goss (Chair), Michael M. Knetter, Tom D. Seip, and James G. Stavridis
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(Vice Chair). All members are Independent Fund Trustees. The selection and nomination of candidates to serve as independent trustees is committed to the discretion of the current Independent Fund Trustees. The Committee will consider nominees recommended by shareholders; shareholders may send resumes of recommended persons to the attention of Claudia A. Brandon, Secretary, Neuberger Berman ETF Trust, 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10104.

Investment Performance Committee. The Investment Performance Committee is responsible for overseeing and guiding the process by which the Board reviews Fund performance and interfacing with management personnel responsible for investment risk management. The Fund Trustee is a member of the Committee. Michael M. Knetter and Deborah C. McLean are the Chair and the Vice Chair, respectively, of the Committee. All members, except for Mr. Amato, are Independent Fund Trustees.
Risk Management Oversight
As an integral part of its responsibility for oversight of the Fund in the interests of shareholders, the Board oversees risk management of the Fund’s administration and operations.  The Board views risk management as an important responsibility of management.
The Fund faces a number of risks, such as investment risk, counterparty risk, valuation risk, liquidity risk, reputational risk, risk of operational failure or lack of business continuity, cybersecurity risk, and legal, compliance and regulatory risk.  Risk management seeks to identify and address risks, i.e., events or circumstances that could have material adverse effects on the business, operations, shareholder services, investment performance or reputation of the Fund.  Under the overall supervision of the Board, the Fund, the Fund’s investment manager, and the affiliates of the investment manager, or other service providers to the Fund, employ a variety of processes, procedures and controls to identify various of those possible events or circumstances, to lessen the probability of their occurrence and/or to mitigate the effects of such events or circumstances if they do occur.  Different processes, procedures and controls are employed with respect to different types of risks.
The Board exercises oversight of the investment manager’s risk management processes primarily through the Board’s committee structure.  The various committees, as appropriate, and/or, at times, the Board, meet periodically with the Chief Risk Officer, head of operational risk, the Chief Information Security Officer, the Chief Compliance Officer, the Treasurer, the Chief Investment Officers for equity, alternative and fixed income, the heads of Internal Audit, and the Fund’s independent auditor.  The committees or the Board, as appropriate, review with these individuals, among other things, the design and implementation of risk management strategies in their respective areas, and events and circumstances that have arisen and responses thereto.
The Board recognizes that not all risks that may affect the Fund can be identified, that it may not be practical or cost-effective to eliminate or mitigate certain risks, that it may be necessary to bear certain risks (such as investment-related risks) to achieve the Fund’s goals, and that the processes, procedures and controls employed to address certain risks may be limited in their effectiveness.  Moreover, reports received by the Fund Trustees as to risk management matters are typically summaries of the relevant information.  Furthermore, it is in the very nature of certain risks that they can be evaluated only as probabilities, and not as certainties.  As a result of the foregoing and other factors, the Board’s risk management oversight is subject to substantial limitations, and no risk management program can predict the likelihood or seriousness of, or mitigate the effects of, all potential risks. 
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Compensation and Indemnification
The Trust’s Trust Instrument provides that the Trust will indemnify its Fund Trustees and officers against liabilities and expenses reasonably incurred in connection with litigation in which they may be involved because of their offices with the Trust, unless it is adjudicated that they (a) engaged in bad faith, willful misfeasance, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of their offices, or (b) did not act in good faith in the reasonable belief that their action was in the best interest of the Trust. In the case of settlement, such indemnification will not be provided unless it has been determined (by a court or other body approving the settlement or other disposition, by a majority of disinterested trustees based upon a review of readily available facts, or in a written opinion of independent counsel) that such officers or Fund Trustees have not engaged in willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence, or reckless disregard of their duties.
Officers and Fund Trustees who are interested persons of the Trust, as defined in the 1940 Act, receive no salary or fees from the Trust.
Effective January 1, 2022, for serving as a trustee of the Neuberger Berman fund complex,  each Independent Fund Trustee and any Fund Trustee who is an “interested person” of the Trust but who is not an employee of NBIA or its affiliates receives an annual retainer of $180,000, paid quarterly, and a fee of $15,000 for each of the regularly scheduled meetings he or she attends in-person or by telephone. For any additional special in-person or telephonic meeting of the Board, the Governance and Nominating Committee will determine whether a fee is warranted. To compensate for the additional time commitment, the Chair of the Audit Committee receives $20,000 per year, the Chair of the Contract Review Committee receives $25,000 per year and each Chair of the other Committees receives $15,000 per year, with the exception of the Chair of the Executive Committee who receives no additional compensation for this role. No additional compensation is provided for service on a Board committee. The Chair of the Board who is also an Independent Fund Trustee receives an additional $70,000 per year.

The Neuberger Berman fund complex reimburses Independent Fund Trustees for their travel and other out-of-pocket expenses related to attendance at Board meetings.  The Independent Fund Trustee compensation is allocated to each fund in the fund family based on a method the Board of Trustees finds reasonable.
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The following table sets forth information concerning the compensation of the Fund Trustees. The Trust does not have any retirement plan for the Fund Trustees.
TABLE OF COMPENSATION
FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED* 8/31/2023
Name and Position with the Trust
 
Aggregate
Compensation
from the Trust
 
Total Compensation from Investment
Companies in the Neuberger Berman
Fund Complex Paid to Fund Trustees
 
Independent Fund Trustees
Michael J. Cosgrove
Trustee
$15,600
$260,000
Marc Gary
Trustee
$15,300
$255,000
Martha C. Goss
Trustee
$15,300
$255,000
Michael M. Knetter
Trustee
$15,300
$255,000
Deborah C. McLean
Trustee
$15,900
$265,000
George W. Morriss
Trustee
$15,600
$260,000
Tom D. Seip
Chairman of the Board and Trustee
$18,600
$310,000
James G. Stavridis
Trustee
$14,400
$240,000
Fund Trustees who are “Interested Persons”
Joseph V. Amato
President, Chief Executive Officer and Trustee
$0
$0

*As of the date of this SAI, the Trust had not yet completed its first full fiscal year and therefore the amounts shown are estimates for the Trust's first full fiscal year ended August 31, 2023.

      As the Fund was not operational prior to the date of this SAI, the Trustees and officers of the Trust, as a group, did not own any of the outstanding shares of the Fund.
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Ownership of Equity Securities by the Fund Trustees
  As of the date of this SAI, the Fund was new and had not yet issued any shares. [The Trustees also did not own any shares of the Predecessor Fund as of December 31, 2021.]
The following table sets forth the aggregate dollar range of securities owned by the Fund Trustee in all the funds in the fund family overseen by the Fund Trustee, valued as of December 31, 2021.
Name of Fund Trustee
Aggregate Dollar Range of Equity Securities Held in all
Registered Investment Companies Overseen by Fund Trustee in
Family of Investment Companies
Independent Fund Trustees
Michael J. Cosgrove
E
Marc Gary
E
Martha C. Goss
E
Michael M. Knetter
E
Deborah C. McLean
E
George W. Morriss
E
Tom D. Seip
E
James G. Stavridis
E
Fund Trustees who are “Interested Persons”
Joseph V. Amato
E
A = None; B = $1-$10,000;  C = $10,001 - $50,000;  D = $50,001-$100,000;  E = over $100,000

As of the date of this SAI, the Fund Trustees and officers of the Trust, as a group, did not own beneficially or of record any of the outstanding shares of the Fund since the Fund had not commenced operations as of the date of this SAI.

Independent Fund Trustees’ Ownership of Securities

No Independent Fund Trustee (including his/her immediate family members) owns any securities (not including shares of registered investment companies) in any Neuberger Berman entity.
INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SERVICES
Investment Manager and Administrator
NBIA serves as the investment manager to the Fund pursuant to a management agreement with the Trust, dated [_________], 2022 (“Management Agreement”).  NBIA is also responsible for a Subsidiary’s day-to-day business pursuant to a separate management agreement between a Subsidiary and NBIA. A Subsidiary will pay NBIA for the investment management services it receives.
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The Management Agreement provides, in substance, that NBIA will make and implement investment decisions for the Fund in its discretion and will continuously develop an investment program for the Fund’s assets. The Management Agreement permits NBIA to effect securities transactions on behalf of the Fund through associated persons of NBIA. The Management Agreement also specifically permits NBIA to compensate, through higher commissions, brokers and dealers who provide investment research and analysis to the Fund. NBIA will also provide facilities, services, and personnel as well as accounting, record keeping and other services to the Fund pursuant to the Management Agreement.